WorldWideScience

Sample records for drug-induced compulsive behaviors

  1. Schedule-induced polydipsia: a rat model of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

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    Platt, Brian; Beyer, Chad E; Schechter, Lee E; Rosenzweig-Lipson, Sharon

    2008-04-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is difficult to model in animals due to the involvement of both mental (obsessions) and physical (compulsions) symptoms. Due to limitations of using animals to evaluate obsessions, OCD models are limited to evaluation of the compulsive and repetitive behaviors of animals. Of these, models of adjunctive behaviors offer the most value in regard to predicting efficacy of anti-OCD drugs in the clinic. Adjunctive behaviors are those that are maintained indirectly by the variables that control another behavior, rather than directly by their own typical controlling variables. Schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) is an adjunctive model in which rats exhibit exaggerated drinking behavior (polydipsia) when presented with food pellets under a fixed-time schedule. The polydipsic response is an excessive manifestation of a normal behavior (drinking), providing face validity to the model. Furthermore, clinically effective drugs for the treatment of OCD decrease SIP. This protocol describes a rat SIP model of OCD and provides preclinical data for drugs that decrease polydipsia and are clinically effective in the treatment of OCD.

  2. Compulsive Addiction-like Aggressive Behavior in Mice.

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    Golden, Sam A; Heins, Conor; Venniro, Marco; Caprioli, Daniele; Zhang, Michelle; Epstein, David H; Shaham, Yavin

    2017-08-15

    Some people are highly motivated to seek aggressive encounters, and among those who have been incarcerated for such behavior, recidivism rates are high. These observations echo two core features of drug addiction: high motivation to seek addictive substances, despite adverse consequences, and high relapse rates. Here we used established rodent models of drug addiction to determine whether they would be sensitive to "addiction-like" features of aggression in CD-1 mice. In experiments 1 and 2, we trained older CD-1 mice to lever press for opportunities to attack younger C57BL6/J mice. We then tested them for relapse to aggression seeking after forced abstinence or punishment-induced suppression of aggression self-administration. In experiment 3, we trained a large cohort of CD-1 mice and tested them for choice-based voluntary suppression of aggression seeking, relapse to aggression seeking, progressive ratio responding, and punishment-induced suppression of aggression self-administration. We then used cluster analysis to identify patterns of individual differences in compulsive "addiction-like" aggressive behavior. In experiments 1 and 2, we observed strong motivation to acquire operant self-administration of opportunities to aggress and relapse vulnerability during abstinence. In experiment 3, cluster analysis of the aggression-related measures identified a subset of "addicted" mice (∼19%) that exhibited intense operant-reinforced attack behavior, decreased likelihood to select an alternative reinforcer over aggression, heightened relapse vulnerability and progressive ratio responding, and resilience to punishment-induced suppression of aggressive behavior. Using procedures established to model drug addiction, we showed that a subpopulation of CD-1 mice demonstrate "addiction-like" aggressive behavior, suggesting an evolutionary origin for compulsive aggression. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Vasopressin-dependent flank marking in golden hamsters is suppressed by drugs used in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder

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    Messenger Tara

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations in arginine vasopressin regulation and secretion have been proposed as one possible biochemical abnormality in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. In golden hamsters, arginine vasopressin microinjections into the anterior hypothalamus trigger robust grooming and flank marking, a stereotyped scent marking behaviors. The intensity and repetition of the behaviors induced by arginine vasopressin is somewhat reminiscent of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in humans. The present experiments were carried out to test whether pharmacological agents used to alleviate obsessive compulsive disorder could inhibit arginine vasopressin-induced flank marking and grooming. Results Male golden hamsters were treated daily for two weeks with either vehicle, fluoxetine, clomipramine, or desipramine (an ineffective drug, before being tested for arginine vasopressin-induced flank marking and grooming. Flank marking was significantly inhibited in animals treated with fluoxetine or clomipramine but unaffected by treatment with desipramine. Grooming behavior was not affected by any treatment. Conclusion These data suggest that arginine vasopressin-induced flank marking may serve as an animal model for screening drugs used in the control of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

  4. Sex differences in impulsive and compulsive behaviors: a focus on drug addiction.

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    Fattore, Liana; Melis, Miriam

    2016-09-01

    Sex differences in inhibition and self-regulation at a behavioral level have been widely described. From an evolutionary point of view, the different selection pressures placed on male and female hominids led them to differ in their behavioral strategies that allowed our species to survive during natural selection processes. These differences reflect changes in neural and structural plasticity that might be the core of sex differences, and of the susceptibility towards one psychiatric condition rather than another. The goal of the present review is to summarize current evidence for such a dichotomy in impulsive and compulsive behavior with a focus on drug addiction. Sex-dependent differences in drug abuse and dependence will be examined in the context of pathophysiological regulation of impulse and motivation by neuromodulators (i.e. gonadal hormones) and neurotransmitters (i.e. dopamine). Advances in the understanding of the sex differences in the capability to control impulses and motivational states is key for the determination of efficacious biologically based intervention and prevention strategies for several neuropsychiatric disorders where loss of impulse control and compulsivity are the core symptoms. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Environmental Enrichment Prevents Methamphetamine-Induced Spatial Memory Deficits and Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior in Rats

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    Samira Hajheidari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was designed to examine the effect of environmental enrichment during methamphetamine (METH dependency and withdrawal on methamphetamine-induced spatial learning and memory deficits and obsessive-compulsive behavior.Method: Adult male Wistar rats (200 ± 10 g chronically received bi-daily doses of METH (2 mg/kg, sc, with 12 hours intervals for 14 days. Rats reared in standard (SE or enriched environment (EE during the development of dependence on METH and withdrawal. Then, they were tested for spatial learning and memory (the water maze, and obsessive-compulsive behavior as grooming behavior in METH-withdrawn rats.Results: The results revealed that the Sal/EE and METH/EE rats reared in EE spent more time in the target zone on the water maze and displayed significantly increased proximity to the platform compared to their control groups. METH withdrawn rats reared in EE displayed less grooming behavior than METH/SE group.Conclusion: Our findings revealed EE ameliorates METH-induced spatial memory deficits and obsessive-compulsive behavior in rats.

  6. Impulsive and compulsive behaviors in Parkinson's disease.

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    Evans, Andrew H; Strafella, Antonio P; Weintraub, Daniel; Stacy, Mark

    2009-08-15

    Antiparkinson therapy can be the primary cause of a range of nonmotor symptoms that include a set of complex disinhibitory psychomotor pathologies and are linked by their repetitive, reward or incentive-based natures. These behaviors relate to aberrant or excessive dopamine receptor stimulation and encompass impulse control disorders (ICDs), punding, and the dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS). Common ICDs include pathological gambling, hypersexuality, compulsive eating, and compulsive buying. This review focuses on the phenomenology, epidemiology, and methods to identify and rate these disorders. The management of dopaminergic drug-related compulsive behaviors is discussed in the light of the current understanding of the neurobiological substrate of these disorders. 2009 Movement Disorder Society.

  7. Individual-Based Compulsive Sexual Behavior Scale: Its Development and Importance in Examining Compulsive Sexual Behavior.

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    Efrati, Yaniv; Mikulincer, Mario

    2018-04-03

    Compulsive sexual behavior comprises individual-based (e.g., sexual fantasies, compulsive sexual thoughts, masturbation) and partnered (e.g., interpersonal sexual conquests, repeated infidelity) facets. Most instruments for assessing compulsive sexual behavior, however, focus less on the individual-based facet and specifically on fantasies and compulsive thoughts. In the current research, we developed and validated an individual-based compulsive sexual behavior scale (I-CSB). In Study 1 (N = 492), the factorial structure of the I-CSB was examined. In Study 2 (N = 406), we assessed I-CSB's convergent validity. In Study 3 (N = 112), we examined whether the I-CSB differentiates between individuals who suffer from compulsive sexual behavior and those who do not. Results revealed a four-factor structure for individual-based compulsive sexual behavior that is associated with an intense inner conflict regarding sexuality (high arousal contrasting with high sexual anxiety), and that accounts for approximately 75% of the differences between people with compulsive sexual behavior and controls. Results are discussed in light of the need for a broader understanding of compulsive sexual behavior.

  8. Molecular Mechanism: ERK Signaling, Drug Addiction, and Behavioral Effects.

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    Sun, Wei-Lun; Quizon, Pamela M; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Addiction to psychostimulants has been considered as a chronic psychiatric disorder characterized by craving and compulsive drug seeking and use. Over the past two decades, accumulating evidence has demonstrated that repeated drug exposure causes long-lasting neurochemical and cellular changes that result in enduring neuroadaptation in brain circuitry and underlie compulsive drug consumption and relapse. Through intercellular signaling cascades, drugs of abuse induce remodeling in the rewarding circuitry that contributes to the neuroplasticity of learning and memory associated with addiction. Here, we review the role of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase, and its related intracellular signaling pathways in drug-induced neuroadaptive changes that are associated with drug-mediated psychomotor activity, rewarding properties and relapse of drug seeking behaviors. We also discuss the neurobiological and behavioral effects of pharmacological and genetic interferences with ERK-associated molecular cascades in response to abused substances. Understanding the dynamic modulation of ERK signaling in response to drugs may provide novel molecular targets for therapeutic strategies to drug addiction. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Ovarian sex hormones modulate compulsive, affective and cognitive functions in a non-induced mouse model of obsessive-compulsive disorder

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    Swarup Mitra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There is currently a lack of understanding how surgical menopause can influence obsessions, compulsions and associated affective and cognitive functions in female OCD patients. Early menopause in women due to surgical removal of ovaries not only causes dramatic hormonal changes, but also may induce affective and cognitive disorders. Here, we tested if surgical removal of ovaries (ovariectomy, OVX, which mimics surgical menopause in humans, would result in exacerbation of compulsive, affective and cognitive behaviors in mice strains that exhibit a spontaneous compulsive-like phenotype. Female mice from compulsive-like BIG, non-compulsive SMALL and randomly-bred Control strains were subjected to OVX or sham-surgery. After seven days animals were tested for nest building and marble burying to measure compulsive-like behavior. The elevated plus maze and open field tests measured anxiety-like behaviors, while memory was assessed by the novel object recognition. Acute OVX resulted in exacerbation of compulsive-like and anxiety-like behaviors in compulsive-like BIG mice. No significant effects of OVX were observed for the non-compulsive SMALL and Control strains. Object recognition memory was impaired in compulsive-like BIG female mice compared to the Control mice, without an effect of OVX on the BIG mice. We also tested whether 17 β-estradiol (E2 or progesterone (P4 could reverse the effects of OVX. E2, but not P4, attenuated the compulsive-like behaviors in compulsive-like BIG OVX female mice. The actions of the sex steroids on anxiety-like behaviors in OVX females were strain and behavioral test dependent. Altogether, our results indicate that already existing compulsions can be worsened during acute ovarian deprivation concomitant with exacerbation of affective behaviors and responses to hormonal intervention in OVX female mice can be influenced by genetic background.

  10. Compulsivity in obsessive-compulsive disorder and addictions.

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    Figee, Martijn; Pattij, Tommy; Willuhn, Ingo; Luigjes, Judy; van den Brink, Wim; Goudriaan, Anneke; Potenza, Marc N; Robbins, Trevor W; Denys, Damiaan

    2016-05-01

    Compulsive behaviors are driven by repetitive urges and typically involve the experience of limited voluntary control over these urges, a diminished ability to delay or inhibit these behaviors, and a tendency to perform repetitive acts in a habitual or stereotyped manner. Compulsivity is not only a central characteristic of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but is also crucial to addiction. Based on this analogy, OCD has been proposed to be part of the concept of behavioral addiction along with other non-drug-related disorders that share compulsivity, such as pathological gambling, skin-picking, trichotillomania and compulsive eating. In this review, we investigate the neurobiological overlap between compulsivity in substance-use disorders, OCD and behavioral addictions as a validation for the construct of compulsivity that could be adopted in the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). The reviewed data suggest that compulsivity in OCD and addictions is related to impaired reward and punishment processing with attenuated dopamine release in the ventral striatum, negative reinforcement in limbic systems, cognitive and behavioral inflexibility with diminished serotonergic prefrontal control, and habitual responding with imbalances between ventral and dorsal frontostriatal recruitment. Frontostriatal abnormalities of compulsivity are promising targets for neuromodulation and other interventions for OCD and addictions. We conclude that compulsivity encompasses many of the RDoC constructs in a trans-diagnostic fashion with a common brain circuit dysfunction that can help identifying appropriate prevention and treatment targets. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. The relationship between mindfulness and compulsive sexual behavior in a sample of men in treatment for substance use disorders.

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    Shorey, Ryan C; Elmquist, Joanna; Gawrysiak, Michael J; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2016-08-01

    Substance use disorders (SUDs) are a serious worldwide problem. Despite years of research on the treatment of SUDs, relapse remains high. One factor that may complicate SUDs treatment for some patients is compulsive sexual behavior. Factors that are related to both SUDs and compulsive sexual behavior could be targeted in SUDs treatment. In the current study, we examined dispositional mindfulness, a protective factor for a range of mental health problems, and its relationship to compulsive sexual behavior in a SUDs treatment sample. This is the first study to examine this relationship in a SUDs sample. Medical records from men in residential SUDs treatment were reviewed for the current study ( N = 271). Upon admission to treatment, men completed self-report measures on alcohol and drug use, dispositional mindfulness, and compulsive sexual behavior. Bivariate correlations demonstrated dispositional mindfulness to be negatively associated with a variety of indicators of compulsive sexual behavior. After controlling for alcohol and drug use and problems in hierarchical regression analyses, which were both associated with compulsive sexual behaviors, dispositional mindfulness remained negatively associated with all of the compulsive sexual behavior indicators. Our results provide the first empirical association between dispositional mindfulness and compulsive sexual behavior in a SUDs sample. Although continued research is needed in this area, our findings suggest that it may be beneficial for SUDs treatment to incorporate mindfulness-based interventions for individuals with comorbid compulsive sexual behavior.

  12. Cognitive behavioral therapy for compulsive buying disorder.

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    Mitchell, James E; Burgard, Melissa; Faber, Ron; Crosby, Ross D; de Zwaan, Martina

    2006-12-01

    To our knowledge, no psychotherapy treatment studies for compulsive buying have been published. The authors conducted a pilot trial comparing the efficacy of a group cognitive behavioral intervention designed for the treatment of compulsive buying to a waiting list control. Twenty-eight subjects were assigned to receive active treatment and 11 to the waiting list control group. The results at the end of treatment showed significant advantages for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) over the waiting list in reductions in the number of compulsive buying episodes and time spent buying, as well as scores on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale--Shopping Version and the Compulsive Buying Scale. Improvement was well-maintained at 6-month follow-up. The pilot data suggests that a cognitive behavioral intervention can be quite effective in the treatment of compulsive buying disorder. This model requires further testing.

  13. Addiction: Choice or Compulsion?

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    Henden, Edmund; Melberg, Hans Olav; Røgeberg, Ole Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Normative thinking about addiction has traditionally been divided between, on the one hand, a medical model which sees addiction as a disease characterized by compulsive and relapsing drug use over which the addict has little or no control and, on the other, a moral model which sees addiction as a choice characterized by voluntary behavior under the control of the addict. Proponents of the former appeal to evidence showing that regular consumption of drugs causes persistent changes in the brain structures and functions known to be involved in the motivation of behavior. On this evidence, it is often concluded that becoming addicted involves a transition from voluntary, chosen drug use to non-voluntary compulsive drug use. Against this view, proponents of the moral model provide ample evidence that addictive drug use involves voluntary chosen behavior. In this article we argue that although they are right about something, both views are mistaken. We present a third model that neither rules out the view of addictive drug use as compulsive, nor that it involves voluntary chosen behavior. PMID:23966955

  14. Differential roles of nonsynaptic and synaptic plasticity in operant reward learning-induced compulsive behavior.

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    Sieling, Fred; Bédécarrats, Alexis; Simmers, John; Prinz, Astrid A; Nargeot, Romuald

    2014-05-05

    Rewarding stimuli in associative learning can transform the irregularly and infrequently generated motor patterns underlying motivated behaviors into output for accelerated and stereotyped repetitive action. This transition to compulsive behavioral expression is associated with modified synaptic and membrane properties of central neurons, but establishing the causal relationships between cellular plasticity and motor adaptation has remained a challenge. We found previously that changes in the intrinsic excitability and electrical synapses of identified neurons in Aplysia's central pattern-generating network for feeding are correlated with a switch to compulsive-like motor output expression induced by in vivo operant conditioning. Here, we used specific computer-simulated ionic currents in vitro to selectively replicate or suppress the membrane and synaptic plasticity resulting from this learning. In naive in vitro preparations, such experimental manipulation of neuronal membrane properties alone increased the frequency but not the regularity of feeding motor output found in preparations from operantly trained animals. On the other hand, changes in synaptic strength alone switched the regularity but not the frequency of feeding output from naive to trained states. However, simultaneously imposed changes in both membrane and synaptic properties reproduced both major aspects of the motor plasticity. Conversely, in preparations from trained animals, experimental suppression of the membrane and synaptic plasticity abolished the increase in frequency and regularity of the learned motor output expression. These data establish direct causality for the contributions of distinct synaptic and nonsynaptic adaptive processes to complementary facets of a compulsive behavior resulting from operant reward learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Compulsivity across the pathological misuse of drug and non-drug rewards

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    Paula Banca

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral adaptation is required for the successful navigation of a constantly changing environment. Impairments in behavioral flexibility are commonly observed in psychiatric disorders including those of addiction. This study investigates two distinct facets of compulsivity, namely reversal learning and attentional set shifting, implicating orbitofrontal and lateral prefrontal regions respectively, across disorders of primary and secondary rewards. Obese subjects with and without binge eating disorder (BED, individuals with compulsive sexual behaviors (CSB, alcohol use disorder (AUD and pathological video-gaming (VG were tested with two computerized tasks: the Probabilistic Reversal Task (trials to criterion and win-stay/lose-shift errors and the Intra/Extra-dimensional Set Shift Task (IED. Individuals with AUD and pathological video-gaming were slower at reversal learning irrespective of valence, with AUD subjects more likely to perseverate after losses. Compared to obese subjects without BED, BED subjects were worse at reversal learning to wins but better at losses highlighting valence effects as a function of binge eating. CSB subjects demonstrated enhanced sensitivity to reward outcomes with faster acquisition and greater perseveration with higher magnitude rewards. We further show an impairment in attentional set shifting in individuals with BED and AUD relative to healthy volunteers. This study provides evidence for commonalities and differences in two distinct dimensions of behavioral inflexibility across disorders of compulsivity. This study provides evidence for commonalities and differences in two distinct dimensions of behavioral inflexibility across disorders of compulsivity. We summarize studies on compulsivity subtypes within this same patient population. We emphasize commonalities in AUD and BED with impairments across a range of compulsivity indices, perhaps supporting pathological binge eating as a form of behavioral addiction

  16. Addiction: Choice or compulsion?

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    Edmund eHenden

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Normative thinking about addiction has traditionally been divided between, on the one hand, a medical model which sees addiction as a disease characterized by compulsive and relapsing drug use over which the addict has little or no control and, on the other, a moral model which sees addiction as a choice characterized by voluntary behaviour under the control of the addict. Proponents of the former appeal to evidence showing that regular consumption of drugs causes persistent changes in the brain structures and functions known to be involved in the motivation of behavior. On this evidence, it is often concluded that becoming addicted involves a transition from voluntary, chosen drug use to non-voluntary compulsive drug use. Against this view, proponents of the moral model provide ample evidence that addictive drug use involves voluntary chosen behaviour. In this article we argue that although they are right about something, both views are mistaken. We present a third model that neither rules out the view of addictive drug use as compulsive, nor that it involves voluntary chosen behavior.

  17. Sexually compulsive/addictive behaviors in women: a women's healthcare issue.

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    Roller, Cyndi Gale

    2007-01-01

    Sexually compulsive/addictive behavior is a pattern of sexual behaviors that cause distress and/or impairment of social functioning. It is marked by obsessive thoughts, compulsive behaviors, and the individual's inability to stop the behaviors despite negative consequences. Women experiencing sexually compulsive/addictive behavior are preoccupied with sex not as a response to desire but rather as a behavior that serves the purpose of anxiety reduction. Sexually compulsive/addictive behavior is associated with a number of health consequences, including sexually transmitted infections, unwanted pregnancies, abortions, and violence. It is important for providers to have an understanding of the addiction process, assessment, diagnosis, and interventions for these women.

  18. Compulsive buying behavior: Re‐evaluating its dimensions and screening

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    Maccarrone‐Eaglen, Agata; Schofield, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Despite the significant research in the consumer behavior literature on compulsive buying behavior (CBB), there is still no general agreement about the dimensionality or diagnostic screening of the disorder. Previous studies have identified two principal dimensions: compulsivity and impulsivity, although more recent strands of theory characterize CBB with reference to loss of self‐control and behavioral addiction. This study challenges the impulsive–compulsive paradigm by validating a new mod...

  19. Impulsive-compulsive behaviors in parkin-associated Parkinson disease.

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    Morgante, Francesca; Fasano, Alfonso; Ginevrino, Monia; Petrucci, Simona; Ricciardi, Lucia; Bove, Francesco; Criscuolo, Chiara; Moccia, Marcello; De Rosa, Anna; Sorbera, Chiara; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Barone, Paolo; De Michele, Giuseppe; Pellecchia, Maria Teresa; Valente, Enza Maria

    2016-10-04

    The aim of this multicenter, case-control study was to investigate the prevalence and severity of impulsive-compulsive behaviors (ICBs) in a cohort of patients with parkin-associated Parkinson disease (PD) compared to a group of patients without the mutation. We compared 22 patients with biallelic parkin mutations (parkin-PD) and 26 patients negative for parkin, PINK1, DJ-1, and GBA mutations (PD-NM), matched for age at onset, disease duration, levodopa, and dopamine agonist equivalent daily dose. A semistructured interview was used to diagnose each of the following ICBs: compulsive sexual behavior, compulsive buying, binge eating, punding, hobbyism, and compulsive medication use. The Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease-Rating Scale (QUIP-RS) was adopted to rate ICB severity. Frequency of patients with at least one ICB was comparable between parkin-PD and PD-NM. Nevertheless, when analyzing the distribution of specific ICBs, a higher frequency of compulsive shopping, binge eating, and punding/hobbyism was found in the parkin-PD group. Compared to PD-NM, parkin-PD patients with ICB had younger onset age and higher frequency of smokers; in 5 patients, ICB had predated PD onset. Total and partial (compulsive buying, compulsive sexual behavior, binge eating, hobbyism/punding) QUIP-RS scores were higher in patients with parkin-PD compared to patients with PD-NM. Logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of parkin mutations was associated with smoking status and higher QUIP-RS total score. Our data expand the parkin-associated phenotypic spectrum demonstrating higher frequency and severity of specific ICBs, and suggesting an association between the parkin genotype, smoking status, and ICB severity. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  20. Predictive validity of a non-induced mouse model of compulsive-like behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greene-Schloesser, D. M.; Van der Zee, E. A.; Sheppard, D. K.; Castillo, M. R.; Gregg, K. A.; Burrow, T.; Foltz, H.; Slater, M.; Bult-Ito, A.

    2011-01-01

    A key to advancing the understanding of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)-like symptoms is the development of spontaneous animal models. Over 55 generations of bidirectional selection for nest-building behavior in house mice, Mus musculus, resulted in a 40-fold difference in the amount of cotton

  1. Comparison of buying behavior in depressed patients presenting with or without compulsive buying.

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    Lejoyeux, M; Haberman, N; Solomon, J; Adès, J

    1999-01-01

    Compulsive buying is defined as repetitive impulsive and excessive buying leading to personal and familial distress. This study compares the buying behavior of depressed patients presenting with or without compulsive buying. The weight of promotional factors such as sales and advertising campaigns was systematically assessed. The impulsive nature of compulsive buying and the choice of items purchased were also investigated. For this purpose, we studied buying behavior among 52 inpatients diagnosed for major depressive episode with DSM-IV criteria. None of the patients presented mania or hypomania, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or alcohol or drug abuse or dependence disorder. We assessed the prevalence of compulsive buying and compared the "buying style" among patients with (CB+) and without (CB-) compulsive buying. The diagnosis of depression was assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The diagnosis of compulsive buying was made using standardized criteria and a specific rating scale. All patients answered a specific questionnaire assessing the phenomenology of the buying behavior. Twenty-one of 52 depressives presented with compulsive buying. The CB+ group was not more sensitive to promotional factors. They did not seek sales or use loans significantly more than others. Upon entering a shop, the CB+ subjects did not change their choice more often than others. CB+ subjects were significantly more often alone while shopping (85% of cases v61% of CB- group, p = .05). Most purchases from the CB+ group were self-gifts or gifts to others (50.4% v 23.5%, p = .003); 14.4% of purchases in the CB+ group (v 2.2% in CB- group, P = .045) were made because the patients believed their social status requires acquisition. Items to be bought were more often considered by CB+ subjects as occasions not to be missed (31.4% v15.1%, P = .03). Purchases were significantly (57% v 16%) less often used than expected by the CB+ group (P = .002). Most

  2. SUCCESSFUL TREATMENT OF OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER WITH ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY

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    Kishimoto, Toshifumi; Ikawa, Genro

    1995-01-01

    Two men with obsessive-compulsive disorder showed abnormal behaviors including agitation and aggression without evidence of depression. They responded to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) following failure of drug treatments. Further investigation of the utility of ECT in treating drug refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder is indicated.

  3. Exploring hypersexual behavior in men with Parkinson's disease: is it compulsive sexual behavior?

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    Bronner, Gila; Hassin-Baer, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    A range of impulse control disorders has been described in Parkinson's disease, including compulsive sexual behavior. Excessive sexual demands of parkinsonian men can lead to considerable tension within the couple. Thorough sexual interviews reveal that these cases may reflect various types of sexual dysfunctions that present as hypersexuality. This study aims to analyze cases of presumed and true compulsive male sexual behavior, and to propose a practical tool for clinicians, assisting them with the diagnosis and management of compulsive sexual behavior and other sexual dysfunctions in parkinsonian patients. We describe four male patients with Parkinson's disease from the movement disorders clinic, which were referred to the sex therapist as suspected hypersexuality. The sexual assessment revealed that only one of the cases involved true hypersexuality due to compulsive sexual behavior. The other three presented with erectile dysfunction, difficulties reaching orgasm (delayed ejaculation), and a gap in desire within the couple. Complaints about hypersexual behavior in patients with Parkinson's disease must be carefully evaluated, involving a multidisciplinary team. A comprehensive diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm is suggested.

  4. Dopamine D2 receptors in addiction-like reward dysfunction and compulsive eating in obese rats.

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    Johnson, Paul M; Kenny, Paul J

    2010-05-01

    We found that development of obesity was coupled with emergence of a progressively worsening deficit in neural reward responses. Similar changes in reward homeostasis induced by cocaine or heroin are considered to be crucial in triggering the transition from casual to compulsive drug-taking. Accordingly, we detected compulsive-like feeding behavior in obese but not lean rats, measured as palatable food consumption that was resistant to disruption by an aversive conditioned stimulus. Striatal dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) were downregulated in obese rats, as has been reported in humans addicted to drugs. Moreover, lentivirus-mediated knockdown of striatal D2Rs rapidly accelerated the development of addiction-like reward deficits and the onset of compulsive-like food seeking in rats with extended access to palatable high-fat food. These data demonstrate that overconsumption of palatable food triggers addiction-like neuroadaptive responses in brain reward circuits and drives the development of compulsive eating. Common hedonic mechanisms may therefore underlie obesity and drug addiction.

  5. A study investigating the association between compulsive buying with measures of anxiety and obsessive-compulsive behavior among internet shoppers.

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    Weinstein, A; Mezig, Hila; Mizrachi, S; Lejoyeux, M

    2015-02-01

    Compulsive buying is a chronic, repetitive behavior that becomes a primary response to negative events and feelings. Compulsive buyers are obsessed by buying and their behavior occurs in response to negative emotions and results in a decrease in the intensity of negative emotions. Euphoria or relief from negative emotions is the most common consequence of compulsive buying. A large number of studies have investigated the association between compulsive buying and anxiety, and some studies have used the Spielberger trait-state anxiety inventory. Compulsive buying, state and trait anxiety and general obsessive-compulsive measures were assessed among 120 habitual internet shoppers (2+ times a week, 70 men and 50 women). Results showed that Edwards Compulsive Buying scale measures were associated with Spielberger trait and not state anxiety measures. Spielberger Trait anxiety measures were also correlated with measures of Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive scale (Y-Bocs). Finally, there were no sex differences in this sample. The results of this study support existing evidence for an association between compulsive buying and anxiety and they will be discussed in view of current research on comorbidity of behavioural addiction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Drug Addiction: Updating Actions to Habits to Compulsions Ten Years On.

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    Everitt, Barry J; Robbins, Trevor W

    2016-01-01

    A decade ago, we hypothesized that drug addiction can be viewed as a transition from voluntary, recreational drug use to compulsive drug-seeking habits, neurally underpinned by a transition from prefrontal cortical to striatal control over drug seeking and taking as well as a progression from the ventral to the dorsal striatum. Here, in the light of burgeoning, supportive evidence, we reconsider and elaborate this hypothesis, in particular the refinements in our understanding of ventral and dorsal striatal mechanisms underlying goal-directed and habitual drug seeking, the influence of drug-associated Pavlovian-conditioned stimuli on drug seeking and relapse, and evidence for impairments in top-down prefrontal cortical inhibitory control over this behavior. We further review animal and human studies that have begun to define etiological factors and individual differences in the propensity to become addicted to drugs, leading to the description of addiction endophenotypes, especially for cocaine addiction. We consider the prospect of novel treatments for addiction that promote abstinence from and relapse to drug use.

  7. Are Borderline Personality Symptoms Associated With Compulsive Sexual Behaviors Among Women in Treatment for Substance Use Disorders? An Exploratory Study.

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    Elmquist, JoAnna; Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2016-10-01

    Extant literature has documented a significant relationship between borderline symptoms and substance use disorders. As supported in past work, there is a significant theoretical relationship between borderline symptoms and compulsive sexual behaviors because both disorders share common underlying behaviors and traits. There is no known research that has examined the empirical relationship between borderline symptoms and compulsive sexual behaviors in a population with substance use disorders. To fill this important gap in the literature, this relationship was examined in the current study. Medical records from 120 women admitted to a private, residential treatment program for substance use disorders were reviewed for the current study. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis demonstrated that borderline symptoms were significantly associated with compulsive sexual behaviors after controlling for alcohol use and problems, drug use and problems, age, and positive impression management. Results from this study provide potentially important research and clinical implications, which could ultimately aid treatment and reduce relapse. However, continued research is needed to further examine the relationship between symptoms and compulsive sexual behaviors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Influence of compulsivity of drug abuse on dopaminergic modulation of attentional bias in stimulant dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersche, Karen D; Bullmore, Edward T; Craig, Kevin J; Shabbir, Shaila S; Abbott, Sanja; Müller, Ulrich; Ooi, Cinly; Suckling, John; Barnes, Anna; Sahakian, Barbara J; Merlo-Pich, Emilio V; Robbins, Trevor W

    2010-06-01

    There are no effective pharmacotherapies for stimulant dependence but there are many plausible targets for development of novel therapeutics. We hypothesized that dopamine-related targets are relevant for treatment of stimulant dependence, and there will likely be individual differences in response to dopaminergic challenges. To measure behavioral and brain functional markers of drug-related attentional bias in stimulant-dependent individuals studied repeatedly after short-term dosing with dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptor antagonist and agonist challenges. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-groups, crossover design using pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging. Clinical research unit (GlaxoSmithKline) and local community in Cambridge, England. Stimulant-dependent individuals (n = 18) and healthy volunteers (n = 18). Amisulpride (400 mg), pramipexole dihydrochloride (0.5 mg), or placebo were administered in counterbalanced order at each of 3 repeated testing sessions. Attentional bias for stimulant-related words was measured during functional magnetic resonance imaging by a drug-word Stroop paradigm; trait impulsivity and compulsivity of dependence were assessed at baseline by questionnaire. Drug users demonstrated significant attentional bias for drug-related words, which was correlated with greater activation of the left prefrontal and right cerebellar cortex. Attentional bias was greater in people with highly compulsive patterns of stimulant abuse; the effects of dopaminergic challenges on attentional interference and related frontocerebellar activation were different between high- and low-compulsivity subgroups. Greater attentional bias for and greater prefrontal activation by stimulant-related words constitute a candidate neurocognitive marker for dependence. Individual differences in compulsivity of stimulant dependence had significant effects on attentional bias, its brain functional representation, and its short-term modulation

  9. When chocolate seeking becomes compulsion: gene-environment interplay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Patrono

    Full Text Available Eating disorders appear to be caused by a complex interaction between environmental and genetic factors, and compulsive eating in response to adverse circumstances characterizes many eating disorders.We compared compulsion-like eating in the form of conditioned suppression of palatable food-seeking in adverse situations in stressed C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice, two well-characterized inbred strains, to determine the influence of gene-environment interplay on this behavioral phenotype. Moreover, we tested the hypothesis that low accumbal D2 receptor (R availability is a genetic risk factor of food compulsion-like behavior and that environmental conditions that induce compulsive eating alter D2R expression in the striatum. To this end, we measured D1R and D2R expression in the striatum and D1R, D2R and α1R levels in the medial prefrontal cortex, respectively, by western blot.Exposure to environmental conditions induces compulsion-like eating behavior, depending on genetic background. This behavioral pattern is linked to decreased availability of accumbal D2R. Moreover, exposure to certain environmental conditions upregulates D2R and downregulates α1R in the striatum and medial prefrontal cortex, respectively, of compulsive animals. These findings confirm the function of gene-environment interplay in the manifestation of compulsive eating and support the hypothesis that low accumbal D2R availability is a "constitutive" genetic risk factor for compulsion-like eating behavior. Finally, D2R upregulation and α1R downregulation in the striatum and medial prefrontal cortex, respectively, are potential neuroadaptive responses that parallel the shift from motivated to compulsive eating.

  10. A phenotypic structure and neural correlates of compulsive behaviors in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montigny, Chantale; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Whelan, Robert; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Büchel, Christian; Gallinat, Jürgen; Flor, Herta; Mann, Karl; Paillère-Martinot, Marie-Laure; Nees, Frauke; Lathrop, Mark; Loth, Eva; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Schumann, Gunter; Smolka, Michael N; Struve, Maren; Robbins, Trevor W; Garavan, Hugh; Conrod, Patricia J

    2013-01-01

    A compulsivity spectrum has been hypothesized to exist across Obsessive-Compulsive disorder (OCD), Eating Disorders (ED), substance abuse (SA) and binge-drinking (BD). The objective was to examine the validity of this compulsivity spectrum, and differentiate it from an externalizing behaviors dimension, but also to look at hypothesized personality and neural correlates. A community-sample of adolescents (N=1938; mean age 14.5 years), and their parents were recruited via high-schools in 8 European study sites. Data on adolescents' psychiatric symptoms, DSM diagnoses (DAWBA) and substance use behaviors (AUDIT and ESPAD) were collected through adolescent- and parent-reported questionnaires and interviews. The phenotypic structure of compulsive behaviors was then tested using structural equation modeling. The model was validated using personality variables (NEO-FFI and TCI), and Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM) analysis. Compulsivity symptoms best fit a higher-order two factor model, with ED and OCD loading onto a compulsivity factor, and BD and SA loading onto an externalizing factor, composed also of ADHD and conduct disorder symptoms. The compulsivity construct correlated with neuroticism (r=0.638; p ≤ 0.001), conscientiousness (r=0.171; p ≤ 0.001), and brain gray matter volume in left and right orbitofrontal cortex, right ventral striatum and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The externalizing factor correlated with extraversion (r=0.201; p ≤ 0.001), novelty-seeking (r=0.451; p ≤ 0.001), and negatively with gray matter volume in the left inferior and middle frontal gyri. Results suggest that a compulsivity spectrum exists in an adolescent, preclinical sample and accounts for variance in both OCD and ED, but not substance-related behaviors, and can be differentiated from an externalizing spectrum.

  11. Persistent Complications of Child Sexual Abuse: Sexually Compulsive Behaviors, Attachment, and Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Dixie; Cohn, Aaron; Robinson, Brittany; Muse, Fatima; Hughes, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Child sexual abuse has the potential to cause distress for the victim across the lifespan. Romantic relationships may be particularly difficult for victims of child sexual abuse. This retrospective study examined differences in adult romantic attachment, sexually compulsive behaviors, and emotion regulation by history of child sexual abuse in a large, nonclinical sample. Those with a history of child sexual abuse reported more attachment anxiety in romantic relationships and engaged in more sexually compulsive behaviors. Overall, males displayed more sexually compulsive behaviors than females regardless of history of sexual abuse. Males with a history of sexual abuse displayed the greatest number of sexually compulsive behaviors. Surprisingly, no differences were observed in emotion regulation or attachment avoidant behaviors by history of child sexual abuse. Future research should seek to replicate current findings and examine emotion regulation difficulties experienced as a result of trauma.

  12. Cognitive behavioral therapy for compulsive buying behavior: Predictors of treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, R; Fernández-Aranda, F; Mestre-Bach, G; Steward, T; Baño, M; Agüera, Z; Mallorquí-Bagué, N; Aymamí, N; Gómez-Peña, M; Sancho, M; Sánchez, I; Menchón, J M; Martín-Romera, V; Jiménez-Murcia, S

    2017-01-01

    Compulsive buying behavior (CBB) is receiving increasing consideration in both consumer and psychiatric-epidemiological research, yet empirical evidence on treatment interventions is scarce and mostly from small homogeneous clinical samples. To estimate the short-term effectiveness of a standardized, individual cognitive behavioral therapy intervention (CBT) in a sample of n=97 treatment-seeking patients diagnosed with CBB, and to identify the most relevant predictors of therapy outcome. The intervention consisted of 12 individual CBT weekly sessions, lasting approximately 45minutes each. Data on patients' personality traits, psychopathology, sociodemographic factors, and compulsive buying behavior were used in our analysis. The risk (cumulative incidence) of poor adherence to the CBT program was 27.8%. The presence of relapses during the CBT program was 47.4% and the dropout rate was 46.4%. Significant predictors of poor therapy adherence were being male, high levels of depression and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, low anxiety levels, high persistence, high harm avoidance and low self-transcendence. Cognitive behavioral models show promise in treating CBB, however future interventions for CBB should be designed via a multidimensional approach in which patients' sex, comorbid symptom levels and the personality-trait profiles play a central role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. A phenotypic structure and neural correlates of compulsive behaviors in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantale Montigny

    Full Text Available A compulsivity spectrum has been hypothesized to exist across Obsessive-Compulsive disorder (OCD, Eating Disorders (ED, substance abuse (SA and binge-drinking (BD. The objective was to examine the validity of this compulsivity spectrum, and differentiate it from an externalizing behaviors dimension, but also to look at hypothesized personality and neural correlates.A community-sample of adolescents (N=1938; mean age 14.5 years, and their parents were recruited via high-schools in 8 European study sites. Data on adolescents' psychiatric symptoms, DSM diagnoses (DAWBA and substance use behaviors (AUDIT and ESPAD were collected through adolescent- and parent-reported questionnaires and interviews. The phenotypic structure of compulsive behaviors was then tested using structural equation modeling. The model was validated using personality variables (NEO-FFI and TCI, and Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM analysis.Compulsivity symptoms best fit a higher-order two factor model, with ED and OCD loading onto a compulsivity factor, and BD and SA loading onto an externalizing factor, composed also of ADHD and conduct disorder symptoms. The compulsivity construct correlated with neuroticism (r=0.638; p ≤ 0.001, conscientiousness (r=0.171; p ≤ 0.001, and brain gray matter volume in left and right orbitofrontal cortex, right ventral striatum and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The externalizing factor correlated with extraversion (r=0.201; p ≤ 0.001, novelty-seeking (r=0.451; p ≤ 0.001, and negatively with gray matter volume in the left inferior and middle frontal gyri.Results suggest that a compulsivity spectrum exists in an adolescent, preclinical sample and accounts for variance in both OCD and ED, but not substance-related behaviors, and can be differentiated from an externalizing spectrum.

  14. A Phenotypic Structure and Neural Correlates of Compulsive Behaviors in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montigny, Chantale; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Whelan, Robert; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J.; Büchel, Christian; Gallinat, Jürgen; Flor, Herta; Mann, Karl; Paillère-Martinot, Marie-Laure; Nees, Frauke; Lathrop, Mark; Loth, Eva; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Schumann, Gunter; Smolka, Michael N.; Struve, Maren; Robbins, Trevor W.; Garavan, Hugh; Conrod, Patricia J.

    2013-01-01

    Background A compulsivity spectrum has been hypothesized to exist across Obsessive-Compulsive disorder (OCD), Eating Disorders (ED), substance abuse (SA) and binge-drinking (BD). The objective was to examine the validity of this compulsivity spectrum, and differentiate it from an externalizing behaviors dimension, but also to look at hypothesized personality and neural correlates. Method A community-sample of adolescents (N=1938; mean age 14.5 years), and their parents were recruited via high-schools in 8 European study sites. Data on adolescents’ psychiatric symptoms, DSM diagnoses (DAWBA) and substance use behaviors (AUDIT and ESPAD) were collected through adolescent- and parent-reported questionnaires and interviews. The phenotypic structure of compulsive behaviors was then tested using structural equation modeling. The model was validated using personality variables (NEO-FFI and TCI), and Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM) analysis. Results Compulsivity symptoms best fit a higher-order two factor model, with ED and OCD loading onto a compulsivity factor, and BD and SA loading onto an externalizing factor, composed also of ADHD and conduct disorder symptoms. The compulsivity construct correlated with neuroticism (r=0.638; p≤0.001), conscientiousness (r=0.171; p≤0.001), and brain gray matter volume in left and right orbitofrontal cortex, right ventral striatum and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The externalizing factor correlated with extraversion (r=0.201; p≤0.001), novelty-seeking (r=0.451; p≤0.001), and negatively with gray matter volume in the left inferior and middle frontal gyri. Conclusions Results suggest that a compulsivity spectrum exists in an adolescent, preclinical sample and accounts for variance in both OCD and ED, but not substance-related behaviors, and can be differentiated from an externalizing spectrum. PMID:24244633

  15. Topiramate in the treatment of compulsive sexual behavior: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zullino Daniele

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the multiple mechanisms of action of topiramate, AMPA/kainate antagonism may be particularly interesting for the treatment of disorders characterized by conditioned cognitive and behavioral cue reactivity. Case presentation We report the case of a patient consulting primarily for obesity and cue triggered snacking, who responded well on topiramate at doses up to 50 mg. Coincidentally he reported on an improvement of compulsive nonparaphilic sexual behaviors (consumption of prostitution, which was also strongly triggered by environmental cues. Both addictive behaviors (snacking and consumption of prostitution reoccurred after discontinuation of topiramate and again responded reintroduction of the drug. Conclusion The present case report of topiramate's effect on comorbid obesity and nonparaphilic addiction could be interpreted as a further indication that topiramate acts on the common pathway underlying conditioned behaviors and seems to be a treatment of behavioral disorders associated with environmental cues.

  16. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and behavioral disinhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villemarette-Pittman, Nicole R; Stanford, Matthew S; Greve, Kevin W; Houston, Rebecca J; Mathias, Charles W

    2004-01-01

    Although obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is an Axis II diagnosis that is not commonly associated with behavioral disinhibition, the literature contains reports of occasional explosive aggressive outbursts. Existing explanations of OCPD etiology do not address the coexistence of compulsive and impulsive features witnessed in some subpopulations of patients. In this study, the authors present a compensatory theory of OCPD in an effort to explain clinical observations of an unexpectedly large number of OCPD diagnoses among patients clinic referred and self-referred for aggression problems.

  17. Can Allowance, Personal Budgeting and Self Control as Mediating Role Manage Compulsive Buying Behavior Among College Students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alce Mariani Labito

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Compulsive Buying Behavior seemed to be increasing, especially among college students. The aim of this study was to explain some factors that influence compulsive buying behavior. This study involved 189 undergraduate students and data collected by distributing questionnaires. The result showed that allowance, personal budgeting, were related to compulsive buying behavior. The other results indicated that self-control was able to weaken the influence of allowance on compulsive buying behavior. Also, the outcome empirically showed that college students are knowledgeable with some alternative methods for overcoming compulsive buying behavior.

  18. Sex Differences in Behavioral Dyscontrol: Role in Drug Addiction and Novel Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Marilyn E.; Smethells, John R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings related to sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol that lead to drug addiction, and clinical implications for humans are discussed. This review includes research conducted in animals and humans that reveals fundamental aspects of behavioral dyscontrol. The importance of sex differences in aspects of behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity and compulsivity, are discussed as major determinants of drug addiction. Behavioral dyscontro...

  19. Should compulsive sexual behavior be considered an addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Shane W; Voon, Valerie; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-12-01

    To review the evidence base for classifying compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) as a non-substance or 'behavioral' addiction. Data from multiple domains (e.g. epidemiological, phenomenological, clinical, biological) are reviewed and considered with respect to data from substance and gambling addictions. Overlapping features exist between CSB and substance use disorders. Common neurotransmitter systems may contribute to CSB and substance use disorders, and recent neuroimaging studies highlight similarities relating to craving and attentional biases. Similar pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments may be applicable to CSB and substance addictions, although considerable gaps in knowledge currently exist. Despite the growing body of research linking compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) to substance addictions, significant gaps in understanding continue to complicate classification of CSB as an addiction. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Compulsive buying behavior: clinical comparison with other behavioral addictions

    OpenAIRE

    Granero, Roser; Fernández Aranda, Fernando; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Steward, Trevor; Baño, Marta; Del Pino Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Aymamí, Maria Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Tárrega, Salomé; Menchón Magriñá, José Manuel; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying behavior (CBB) has been recognized as a prevalent mental health disorder, yet its categorization into classification systems remains unsettled. The objective of this study was to assess the sociodemographic and clinic variables related to the CBB phenotype compared to other behavioral addictions. Three thousand three hundred and twenty four treatment-seeking patients were classified in five groups: CBB, sexual addiction, Internet gaming disorder, Internet addiction, and gamb...

  1. Impulsive compulsive behaviors in Japanese Parkinson's disease patients and utility of the Japanese version of the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenichiro; Wada-Isoe, Kenji; Nakashita, Satoko; Yamamoto, Mikie; Nakashima, Kenji

    2013-08-15

    In order to evaluate impulsive compulsive behaviors (ICBs), such as pathological gambling, compulsive sexual behavior, compulsive buying, compulsive eating, punding, and dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) in Japanese Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, we constructed a Japanese version of the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's disease (J-QUIP) and evaluated the utility of the J-QUIP in Japanese PD patients. J-QUIP was administered to 121 PD patients. Diagnoses of ICBs were made via interview of patients or their caregivers. Subsequently, in order to evaluate risk factors related to these conditions, we evaluated demographic and clinical characteristics, clinical features, and medications utilized. We were able to administer the J-QUIP to 118 of 121 PD patients (97.5%). Sensitivity and specificity of J-QUIP were similar to that reported for the original version of QUIP. In our study, the actual prevalence of each disorder diagnosed via interview was as follows: pathological gambling (6.5%), compulsive sexual behavior (3.2%), compulsive buying (3.2%), compulsive eating (3.2%), punding (6.5%), and DDS (2.2%). Significantly risk factors for these conditions were younger age (p=0.047), earlier age of disease onset (p=0.015), longer PD duration (p=0.001), total levodopa equivalent dose (p=0.006), and dosage of levodopa (p=0.019). We evaluated the prevalence of ICBs in Japanese PD patients along with factors associated with these behaviors via J-QUIP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cognitive-behavioral group therapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordioli Aristides V

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop a cognitive-behavioral group therapy protocol and to verify its efficacy to reduce obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Methods: An open clinical trial with 32 obsessive-compulsive patients was performed, in which a cognitive-behavioral group therapy protocol of 12 weekly sessions of two hours, in 5 consecutive groups, was applied. The severity of symptoms was rated with the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive (Y-BOCS, Hamilton Anxiety (HAM A and Hamilton Depression (HAM D scales. The patients were followed up for 3 months after the end of the treatment. Results: There was a significant reduction in the scores of Y-BOCS, HAM A and HAM D scales with the treatment regardless the use of anti-obsessive medications. The rate of improved patients (decrease of > or = 35% in Y-BOCS was 78.1%. Two patients (6.25% dropped out from the study. The effect size calculated for the Y-BOCS scale was 1.75. Conclusions: This study suggests that cognitive-behavioral group therapy reduces obsessive-compulsive symptoms. In addition, patients presented good compliance.

  3. Abnormal Sexual Behavior in an Adult Male with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Raguraman, Janakiraman; Priyadharshini, Kothai R.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Vijaysagar, John

    2004-01-01

    A male patient with homosexual obsession in obsessive compulsive disorder shows a better outcome following a combination of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. This case report emphasizes the importance of combination therapy in obsessive compulsive disorder with abnormal sexual impulses and behavior.

  4. Impulsive and compulsive behaviors among Danish patients with Parkinson's disease: prevalence, depression, and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callesen, M B; Weintraub, D; Damholdt, M F; Møller, A

    2014-01-01

    Dopaminergic medication administered to ameliorate motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease is associated with impulse control disorders, such as pathological gambling, hypersexuality, compulsive buying, and binge eating. Studies indicate a prevalence of impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease of 6-16%. To estimate the prevalence of impulsive and compulsive behaviors among Danish patients with Parkinson's disease and to explore the relation of such behavioral disorders to depression and personality. 490 patients with Parkinson's disease (303 males), identified through the National Danish Patient Registry, were evaluated with: 1) the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease; 2) the Geriatric Depression Scale; and 3) the NEO-Personality Inventory. 176 (35.9%) patients reported impulsive and compulsive behaviors sometime during Parkinson's disease (current symptoms in 73, 14.9%). Hereof, 114 (23.3%) reported multiple behavioral symptoms. Patients with behavioral symptoms were significantly younger, were younger at PD onset, had longer disease duration, displayed more motor symptoms, and received higher doses of dopaminergic medication than patients without behavioral symptoms. Furthermore, they reported significantly more depressive symptoms and scored significantly higher on neuroticism and lower on both agreeableness and conscientiousness than patients without behavioral symptoms. A history of impulsive and compulsive behaviors are common in Danish patients with Parkinson's disease and have clinical correlates that may allow identification of patients at risk for developing these behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. COMPULSIVE BUYING TENDENCIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinella, Marcello; Lester, David; Yang, Bijou

    2015-12-01

    Compulsive buying behavior is typically viewed as pathological, but recent research has shown that compulsive buying tendencies are associated with attitudes toward money, personal financial behavior, and having materialistic values, suggesting that compulsive buyers are manifesting an extreme form of habits shown by people in general. In a study of 240 community residents, scores on the Compulsive Buying Scale were associated positively with scores on the Material Values Scale and the Canadian Problem Gambling Index, and negatively with scores on the Executive Personal Finance Scale and Ardelt's wisdom scale. These results suggest that, as is the case for many abnormal behaviors, tendencies toward compulsive buying may not be pathological, but are associated with attitudes toward money in general, financial management behavior, and materialistic values.

  6. Cue-induced striatal dopamine release in Parkinson's disease-associated impulsive-compulsive behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Sean S; Wu, Kit; Politis, Marios; Lawrence, Andrew D; Evans, Andrew H; Bose, Subrata K; Djamshidian, Atbin; Lees, Andrew J; Piccini, Paola

    2011-04-01

    Impulsive-compulsive behaviours are a significant source of morbidity for patients with Parkinson's disease receiving dopaminergic therapy. The development of these behaviours may reflect sensitization of the neural response to non-drug rewards, similar to that proposed for sensitization to drug rewards in addiction. Here, by using (11)C-raclopride positron emission tomography imaging, we investigated the effects of reward-related cues and L-dopa challenge in patients with Parkinson's disease with and without impulsive-compulsive behaviours on striatal levels of synaptic dopamine. Eighteen patients (11 with and seven without impulsive-compulsive behaviours) underwent three (11)C-raclopride positron emission tomography scans. The impulsive-compulsive behaviours included hypersexuality, binge eating, punding, compulsive use of dopamine replacement therapy, compulsive buying and pathological gambling, with eight patients exhibiting more than one impulsive-compulsive behaviour. There were no significant differences in baseline dopamine D2 receptor availability between the Parkinson's disease groups. No differences were found when comparing the percentage change of raclopride binding potential between the two Parkinson's disease groups following L-dopa challenge with neutral cues. The group with Parkinson's disease with impulsive-compulsive behaviours had a greater reduction of ventral striatum (11)C-raclopride binding potential following reward-related cue exposure, relative to neutral cue exposure, following L-dopa challenge (16.3% compared with 5.8% in Parkinson's disease controls, P = 0.016). The heightened response of striatal reward circuitry to heterogeneous reward-related visual cues among a group of patients with different impulsive-compulsive behaviours is consistent with a global sensitization to appetitive behaviours with dopaminergic therapy in vulnerable individuals. Our findings are relevant for the broader debate on the relation between impulsive-compulsive

  7. Compulsivity in obsessive-compulsive disorder and addictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figee, Martijn; Pattij, Tommy; Willuhn, Ingo; Luigjes, Judy; van den Brink, Wim; Goudriaan, Anneke; Potenza, Marc N; Robbins, Trevor W; Denys, D.

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive behaviors are driven by repetitive urges and typically involve the experience of limited voluntary control over these urges, a diminished ability to delay or inhibit these behaviors, and a tendency to perform repetitive acts in a habitual or stereotyped manner. Compulsivity is not only a

  8. Estimated prevalence of compulsive buying behavior in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koran, Lorrin M; Faber, Ronald J; Aboujaoude, Elias; Large, Michael D; Serpe, Richard T

    2006-10-01

    Compulsive buying (uncontrolled urges to buy, with resulting significant adverse consequences) has been estimated to affect from 1.8% to 16% of the adult U.S. population. To the authors' knowledge, no study has used a large general population sample to estimate its prevalence. The authors conducted a random sample, national household telephone survey in the spring and summer of 2004 and interviewed 2,513 adults. The interviews addressed buying attitudes and behaviors, their consequences, and the respondents' financial and demographic data. The authors used a clinically validated screening instrument, the Compulsive Buying Scale, to classify respondents as either compulsive buyers or not. The rate of response was 56.3%, which compares favorably with rates in federal national health surveys. The cooperation rate was 97.6%. Respondents included a higher percentage of women and people ages 55 and older than the U.S. adult population. The estimated point prevalence of compulsive buying among respondents was 5.8% (by gender: 6.0% for women, 5.5% for men). The gender-adjusted prevalence rate was 5.8%. Compared with other respondents, compulsive buyers were younger, and a greater proportion reported incomes under 50,000 US dollars. They exhibited more maladaptive responses on most consumer behavior measures and were more than four times less likely to pay off credit card balances in full. A study using clinically valid interviews is needed to evaluate these results. The emotional and functional toll of compulsive buying and the frequency of comorbid psychiatric disorders suggests that studies of treatments and social interventions are warranted.

  9. Parallel appearance of compulsive behaviors and artistic creativity in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joutsa, Juho; Martikainen, Kirsti; Kaasinen, Valtteri

    2012-01-01

    A 55-year-old male with idiopathic Parkinson's disease developed three behavioral changes under combination therapy with selegiline, cabergoline and levodopa. Co-existent behaviors included severe pathological gambling, punding and novel skills in writing poetry (published poetry books). Brain [(18)F]fluorodopa PET imaging showed decreased tracer uptake in the striatum contralateral to the predominant motor symptoms, consistent with the clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. Uptake in the ventral striatum was markedly high. Brain MRI before and after behavioral changes showed no pathological findings. The patient was diagnosed as having Parkinson's disease together with DSM-IV criteria-fulfilling pathological gambling and punding-like stereotyped behavior. There are no established criteria for the classification of emerged artistic creativity, although there are descriptions of the phenomenon in the literature. Inspired by the case, we conducted a preliminary survey - including 290 patients with Parkinson's disease - exploring the possible relationship between creativity and impulsive-compulsive behaviors. The case, supported by the results of the survey, adds to the cumulative evidence of the association between dopaminergic medication and enhanced creativity, and suggests a possible linkage between increased artistic creativity and impulsive-compulsive behaviors in Parkinson's disease. Furthermore, it could be speculated that the high mesolimbic dopamine function might relate to the behavioral changes observed in this patient, and is suggestive of the overlapping neurobiological mechanisms of compulsive behaviors and artistic creativity.

  10. Self-Injurious Behavior, Self-Restraint, and Compulsive Behaviors in Cornelia de Lange Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Philippa; Oliver, Chris; Hall, Scott

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of questionnaires completed by caregivers of 77 individuals with Cornelia de Lange syndrome in the United Kingdom found a significant association between self-injurious behaviors and self-restraint, and those displaying both behaviors displayed significantly more compulsions than did those not exhibiting them. Findings extend the…

  11. Compulsive buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejoyeux, Michel; Weinstein, Aviv

    2010-09-01

    Compulsive buying is a chronic, repetitive purchasing that becomes a primary response to negative events and feelings, and may include symptoms equivalent to craving and withdrawal. This article describes the addictive characteristics of compulsive buying, the psychiatric comorbidity, and the possibilities of treatment. Using PubMed and MedLine search engines, we performed a review of published literature over the period 1990-2010 using the keyword "compulsive buying". A key feature distinguishing compulsive buyers from normal consumers, collectors, and hoarders is that the former focuses on the buying process itself, rather than the items bought. In this instance, the purchased items are usually never used, but tend to be hidden or thrown away. A recent screening study found that up to 5% of adult Americans appear to be afflicted with this compulsion. Compulsive buying results in adverse consequences, including financial and legal problems, psychological distress (depression, guilt), and interpersonal conflict. The most commonly associated comorbidities are depression and eating disorders. Nothing is known about the neurobiology and genetics of compulsive buying and relatively little about its treatment. Cognitive behavioral therapy has some efficacy, but no medication has been effective in controlled trials. Compulsive buying can be described as a behavioral dependence. A great deal of future research is needed to improve our understanding of compulsive buying.

  12. Compulsive Buying Behavior: Clinical Comparison with Other Behavioral Addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Steward, Trevor; Baño, Marta; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Tárrega, Salomé; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying behavior (CBB) has been recognized as a prevalent mental health disorder, yet its categorization into classification systems remains unsettled. The objective of this study was to assess the sociodemographic and clinic variables related to the CBB phenotype compared to other behavioral addictions. Three thousand three hundred and twenty four treatment-seeking patients were classified in five groups: CBB, sexual addiction, Internet gaming disorder, Internet addiction, and gambling disorder. CBB was characterized by a higher proportion of women, higher levels of psychopathology, and higher levels in the personality traits of novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, persistence, and cooperativeness compared to other behavioral addictions. Results outline the heterogeneity in the clinical profiles of patients diagnosed with different behavioral addiction subtypes and shed new light on the primary mechanisms of CBB.

  13. Compulsive Buying Behavior: Clinical Comparison with Other Behavioral Addictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Steward, Trevor; Baño, Marta; del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Tárrega, Salomé; Menchón, José M.; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying behavior (CBB) has been recognized as a prevalent mental health disorder, yet its categorization into classification systems remains unsettled. The objective of this study was to assess the sociodemographic and clinic variables related to the CBB phenotype compared to other behavioral addictions. Three thousand three hundred and twenty four treatment-seeking patients were classified in five groups: CBB, sexual addiction, Internet gaming disorder, Internet addiction, and gambling disorder. CBB was characterized by a higher proportion of women, higher levels of psychopathology, and higher levels in the personality traits of novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, persistence, and cooperativeness compared to other behavioral addictions. Results outline the heterogeneity in the clinical profiles of patients diagnosed with different behavioral addiction subtypes and shed new light on the primary mechanisms of CBB. PMID:27378999

  14. Natural Rewards, Neuroplasticity, and Non-Drug Addictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    There is a high degree of overlap between brain regions involved in processing natural rewards and drugs of abuse. “Non-drug” or “behavioral” addictions have become increasingly documented in the clinic, and pathologies include compulsive activities such as shopping, eating, exercising, sexual behavior, and gambling. Like drug addiction, non-drug addictions manifest in symptoms including craving, impaired control over the behavior, tolerance, withdrawal, and high rates of relapse. These alterations in behavior suggest that plasticity may be occurring in brain regions associated with drug addiction. In this review, I summarize data demonstrating that exposure to non-drug rewards can alter neural plasticity in regions of the brain that are affected by drugs of abuse. Research suggests that there are several similarities between neuroplasticity induced by natural and drug rewards and that, depending on the reward, repeated exposure to natural rewards might induce neuroplasticity that either promotes or counteracts addictive behavior. PMID:21459101

  15. Nigrostriatal and Mesolimbic D2/3 Receptor Expression in Parkinson's Disease Patients with Compulsive Reward-Driven Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Adam J; Smith, Christopher T; Lin, Ya-Chen; Petersen, Kalen J; Trujillo, Paula; van Wouwe, Nelleke C; Kang, Hakmook; Donahue, Manus J; Kessler, Robert M; Zald, David H; Claassen, Daniel O

    2018-03-28

    The nigrostriatal and mesocorticolimbic dopamine networks regulate reward-driven behavior. Regional alterations to mesolimbic dopamine D 2/3 receptor expression are described in drug-seeking and addiction disorders. Parkinson's disease (PD) patients are frequently prescribed D 2 -like dopamine agonist (DAgonist) therapy for motor symptoms, yet a proportion develop clinically significant behavioral addictions characterized by impulsive and compulsive behaviors (ICBs). Until now, changes in D 2/3 receptor binding in both striatal and extrastriatal regions have not been concurrently quantified in this population. We identified 35 human PD patients (both male and female) receiving DAgonist therapy, with ( n = 17) and without ( n = 18) ICBs, matched for age, disease duration, disease severity, and dose of dopamine therapy. In the off-dopamine state, all completed PET imaging with [ 18 F]fallypride, a high affinity D 2 -like receptor ligand that can measure striatal and extrastriatal D 2/3 nondisplaceable binding potential (BP ND ). Striatal differences between ICB+/ICB- patients localized to the ventral striatum and putamen, where ICB+ subjects had reduced BP ND In this group, self-reported severity of ICB symptoms positively correlated with midbrain D 2/3 receptor BP ND Group differences in regional D 2/3 BP ND relationships were also notable: ICB+ (but not ICB-) patients expressed positive correlations between midbrain and caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, and amygdala BP ND s. These findings support the hypothesis that compulsive behaviors in PD are associated with reduced ventral and dorsal striatal D 2/3 expression, similar to changes in comparable behavioral disorders. The data also suggest that relatively preserved ventral midbrain dopaminergic projections throughout nigrostriatal and mesolimbic networks are characteristic of ICB+ patients, and may account for differential DAgonist therapeutic response. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The biologic determinants of

  16. Targeting extinction and reconsolidation mechanisms to combat the impact of drug cues on addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Jane R.; Olausson, Peter; Quinn, Jennifer J.; Torregrossa, Mary M.

    2008-01-01

    Drug addiction is a progressive and compulsive disorder, where recurrent craving and relapse to drug seeking occur even after long periods of abstinence. A major contributing factor to relapse is drug-associated cues. Here we review behavioral and pharmacological studies outlining novel methods of effective and persistent reductions in cue-induced relapse behavior in animal models. We focus on extinction and reconsolidation of cue-drug associations as the memory processes that are the most li...

  17. Accounting for the social triggers of sexual compulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Jeffrey T; Kelly, Brian C; Bimbi, David S; Muench, Frederick; Morgenstern, Jon

    2007-01-01

    To examine the social triggers of sexual compulsivity amongst a diverse sample of gay and bisexual men. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 180 gay and bisexual men in the United States who self-identified that their sex lives were spinning out of control. The data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach to explore the range of social triggers that were driving sexual compulsions. An open-ended interview and a structured clinical interview were conducted with each participant. The interviews examined their experiences with sexual compulsivity over time and the impact of their problematic sexual behaviors on their lives. Two types of social triggers emerged from the data: event-centered triggers and contextual triggers. Event-centered triggers arise from sudden, unforeseen events. Two major event-centered triggers were identified: relationship turmoil and catastrophes. Contextual triggers, on the other hand, have a certain element of predictability, and included such things as location, people, the use of drugs, and pornography. This framework of triggers has clinical implications for the prevention and treatment of sexual compulsivity. Clinicians can utilize the framework of social triggers in the therapeutic process to provide insight into ways to effectively work through symptoms of sexual compulsivity. Awareness of the contextual aspects of sexual compulsivity may be critical to understanding the behaviors of sexually compulsive clients. Thus, therapeutic assessments should focus upon the social context in addition to the psychological components of the disorder.

  18. Behavioral inhibition and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Meredith E; Schofield, Casey A; Pietrefesa, Ashley S

    2006-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition is frequently cited as a vulnerability factor for development of anxiety. However, few studies have examined the unique relationship between behavioral inhibition and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Therefore, the current study addressed the relationship between behavioral inhibition and OCD in a number of ways. In a large unselected student sample, frequency of current OC symptoms was significantly correlated with retrospective self-reports of total levels of childhood behavioral inhibition. In addition, frequency of current OC symptoms was also significantly correlated with both social and nonsocial components of behavioral inhibition. Further, there was evidence for a unique relationship between behavioral inhibition and OC symptoms beyond the relationship of behavioral inhibition and social anxiety. In addition, results showed that reports of childhood levels of behavioral inhibition significantly predicted levels of OCD symptoms in adulthood. Finally, preliminary evidence suggested that behavioral inhibition may be more strongly associated with some types of OC symptoms than others, and that overprotective parenting may moderate the impact of behavioral inhibition on OC symptoms. The current findings suggest the utility of additional research examining the role of behavioral inhibition in the etiology of OCD.

  19. [Development of sexuality and motivational aspects of sexual behavior in men with obsessive-compulsive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Sexual behavior and formation of sexuality in men with obsessive-compulsive disorder is one of the pressing issues in contemporary medicine. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by the development of intrusive thoughts, memories, movements and actions, as well as a variety of pathological fears (phobias). Increase in the number of patients with this pathology in modern clinical practice of neurotic disorders, the young age of the patients and as a result violation of interpersonal, communicational and sexual nature is quite apparent. The study involved 35 men aged 23 to 47 years with clinical signs of OCD. We determined the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms using the Yale-Brown scale. We established the presence of a mild degree of disorder in 34,3% of cases; in 48,6% of cases disorder of moderate severity was diagnosed; remaining 17.1% were assessed subclinical condition of OCD at the applicable scale. The system of motivational maintenance of sexual behavior in men with obsessive-compulsive disorders is investigated. Motives of sexual behavior of the investigated men with the pathology are determined. The presented research in men with OCD have established multidimensionality and complexity of motivational ensuring of sexual behavior.

  20. Ritualistic chewing behavior induced by mCPP in the rat is an animal model of obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiss, Deborah S; Coffman, Catherine F; Fiacco, Nicholas R; Granger, Jason C; Helton, Bernadette M; Jackson, Jennifer C; Kim, Leonid V; Mistry, Rishi S; Mizer, Tammie M; Palmer, Lolita V; Vacca, Jay A; Winkler, Stuart S; Zimmer, Benjamin A

    2013-03-01

    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is characterized by recurrent, anxiety-producing thoughts accompanied by unwanted, overwhelming urges to perform ritualistic behaviors. Pharmacological treatments for this disorder (serotonin uptake inhibitors) are problematic because there is a 6-8 week delayed onset and half of the patients do not adequately respond. The present study evaluated whether Ritualistic Chewing Behaviors (RCBs) induced by the serotonin agonist mCPP in the rat is a behavioral model for OCD. The effects upon the RCBs induced by mCPP (1 mg/kg) were evaluated following treatments with either the serotonin antagonist mianserin (3 mg/kg), the dopamine antagonist haloperidol (1 mg/kg), the GABA modulator diazepam (10 mg/kg), or the serotonin uptake inhibitors clomipramine and fluvoxamine (15 mg/kg). The response to mCPP was blocked by acute treatment with mianserin, but not with acute haloperidol or diazepam. Further experiments revealed that the effects of mCPP were blocked by chronic, but not acute, treatment with clomipramine and fluvoxamine. A time-course demonstrated that 14 days of chronic treatment were required for blockade of the mCPP-evoked response. The current study demonstrates that mCPP-evoked RCBs may be a rodent model for OCD that can be used to predict the clinical efficacy and time course of novel OCD treatment. Future investigations may be able to use the current model as a tool for bench-marking corresponding changes in other measures of neurological activity that may provide insight into the mechanisms underlying OCD. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. [Kleptomania and compulsive buying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masayuki

    2015-09-01

    Kleptomania and compulsive buying are important clinical problems. However there is no established treatment for these problems in Japan yet. In this article, we review the available clinical treatments for kleptomania and compulsive buying in Japan. Kleptomania and compulsive buying can be explained by the conditioning theory. These behaviors are reinforced by positive consequences. In particular, the problem behaviors of kleptomania arise because of arousal and tension and are reinforced by the relaxed feeling that follows. Therefore, kleptomania is treated by systematic desensitization. However, it is important that interventions such as cognitive behavioral therapy, which increase subjective adaptation. be used in combination to treat and control such behaviors.

  2. Palmitoylethanolamide attenuates cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization and conditioned place preference in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrana-Infantes, Emma; Rosell Del Valle, Cristina; Ladrón de Guevara-Miranda, David; Galeano, Pablo; Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Rodríguez De Fonseca, Fernando; Blanco, Eduardo; Santín, Luis Javier

    2018-03-01

    Cocaine addiction is a chronically relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors. Previous studies have demonstrated that cocaine, as well as other drugs of abuse, alters the levels of lipid-based signaling molecules, such as N-acylethanolamines (NAEs). Moreover, brain levels of NAEs have shown sensitivity to cocaine self-administration and extinction training in rodents. Given this background, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of repeated or acute administration of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), an endogenous NAE, on psychomotor sensitization and cocaine-induced contextual conditioning. To this end, the potential ability of repeated PEA administration (1 or 10 mg/kg, i.p.) to modulate the acquisition of cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization (BS) and conditioned place preference (CPP) was assessed in male C57BL/6J mice. In addition, the expression of cocaine-induced BS and CPP following acute PEA administration were also studied. Results showed that repeated administration of both doses of PEA were able to block the acquisition of cocaine-induced BS. Furthermore, acute administration of both doses of PEA was able to abolish the expression of BS, while the highest dose also abolished the expression of cocaine-induced CPP. Taken together, these results indicate that exogenous administration of PEA attenuated psychomotor sensitization, while the effect of PEA in cocaine-induced CPP depended on whether PEA was administered repeatedly or acutely. These findings could be relevant to understand the role that NAEs play in processes underlying the development and maintenance of cocaine addiction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reversal learning as a measure of impulsive and compulsive behavior in addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Alicia; Jentsch, J David

    2012-01-01

    Our ability to measure the cognitive components of complex decision-making across species has greatly facilitated our understanding of its neurobiological mechanisms. One task in particular, reversal learning, has proven valuable in assessing the inhibitory processes that are central to executive control. Reversal learning measures the ability to actively suppress reward-related responding and to disengage from ongoing behavior, phenomena that are biologically and descriptively related to impulsivity and compulsivity. Consequently, reversal learning could index vulnerability for disorders characterized by impulsivity such as proclivity for initial substance abuse as well as the compulsive aspects of dependence. Though we describe common variants and similar tasks, we pay particular attention to discrimination reversal learning, its supporting neural circuitry, neuropharmacology and genetic determinants. We also review the utility of this task in measuring impulsivity and compulsivity in addictions. We restrict our review to instrumental, reward-related reversal learning studies as they are most germane to addiction. The research reviewed here suggests that discrimination reversal learning may be used as a diagnostic tool for investigating the neural mechanisms that mediate impulsive and compulsive aspects of pathological reward-seeking and -taking behaviors. Two interrelated mechanisms are posited for the neuroadaptations in addiction that often translate to poor reversal learning: frontocorticostriatal circuitry dysregulation and poor dopamine (D2 receptor) modulation of this circuitry. These data suggest new approaches to targeting inhibitory control mechanisms in addictions.

  4. Compulsive exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Hinze, Cecilie Juul; Emborg Jannsen, Bolette

    2017-01-01

    found that compulsive exercise is associated with eating disorder pathology, perfectionism, neuroticism, narcissism, and obsessive compulsive traits. The most prominent negative consequences were injuries, social impairment, and depression, but more research is needed to uncover the potential......Compulsive exercise is a condition described since 1970s. It is characterized by a craving for physical training, resulting in uncontrollable excessive exercise behavior with harmful consequences, such as injuries and impaired social relations. It has not been accepted as a mental disorder...... dysfunction resulting from compulsive exercise. As the condition is not recognized as a psychiatric disorder, studies on treatment interventions are sparse. Problems with compliance have been reported; therefore, motivational interviewing has been proposed as a treatment approach, in combination...

  5. Repeated intermittent administration of psychomotor stimulant drugs alters the acquisition of Pavlovian approach behavior in rats: differential effects of cocaine, d-amphetamine and 3,4- methylenedioxymethamphetamine ("Ecstasy").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J R; Jentsch, J D

    2001-07-15

    Psychomotor stimulant drugs can produce long-lasting changes in neurochemistry and behavior after multiple doses. In particular, neuroadaptations within corticolimbic brain structures that mediate incentive learning and motivated behavior have been demonstrated after chronic exposure to cocaine, d-amphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). As stimulus-reward learning is likely relevant to addictive behavior (i.e., augmented conditioned reward and stimulus control of behavior), we have investigated whether prior repeated administration of psychomotor stimulant drugs (of abuse, including cocaine, d-amphetamine, or MDMA, would affect the acquisition of Pavlovian approach behavior. Water-deprived rats were tested for the acquisition of Pavlovian approach behavior after 5 days treatment with cocaine (15-20 mg/kg once or twice daily), d-amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg once or twice daily), or MDMA (2.5 mg/kg twice daily) followed by a 7-day, drug-free period. Prior repeated treatment with cocaine or d-amphetamine produced a significant enhancement of acquisition of Pavlovian approach behavior, indicating accelerated stimulus-reward learning, whereas MDMA administration produced increased inappropriate responding, indicating impulsivity. Abnormal drug-induced approach behavior was found to persist throughout the testing period. These studies demonstrate that psychomotor stimulant-induced sensitization can produce long-term alterations in stimulus-reward learning and impulse control that may contribute to the compulsive drug taking that typifies addiction.

  6. Imbalanced decision hierarchy in addicts emerging from drug-hijacked dopamine spiraling circuit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Keramati

    Full Text Available Despite explicitly wanting to quit, long-term addicts find themselves powerless to resist drugs, despite knowing that drug-taking may be a harmful course of action. Such inconsistency between the explicit knowledge of negative consequences and the compulsive behavioral patterns represents a cognitive/behavioral conflict that is a central characteristic of addiction. Neurobiologically, differential cue-induced activity in distinct striatal subregions, as well as the dopamine connectivity spiraling from ventral striatal regions to the dorsal regions, play critical roles in compulsive drug seeking. However, the functional mechanism that integrates these neuropharmacological observations with the above-mentioned cognitive/behavioral conflict is unknown. Here we provide a formal computational explanation for the drug-induced cognitive inconsistency that is apparent in the addicts' "self-described mistake". We show that addictive drugs gradually produce a motivational bias toward drug-seeking at low-level habitual decision processes, despite the low abstract cognitive valuation of this behavior. This pathology emerges within the hierarchical reinforcement learning framework when chronic exposure to the drug pharmacologically produces pathologicaly persistent phasic dopamine signals. Thereby the drug hijacks the dopaminergic spirals that cascade the reinforcement signals down the ventro-dorsal cortico-striatal hierarchy. Neurobiologically, our theory accounts for rapid development of drug cue-elicited dopamine efflux in the ventral striatum and a delayed response in the dorsal striatum. Our theory also shows how this response pattern depends critically on the dopamine spiraling circuitry. Behaviorally, our framework explains gradual insensitivity of drug-seeking to drug-associated punishments, the blocking phenomenon for drug outcomes, and the persistent preference for drugs over natural rewards by addicts. The model suggests testable predictions and

  7. Sex Differences in Behavioral Dyscontrol: Role in Drug Addiction and Novel Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Marilyn E; Smethells, John R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings related to sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol that lead to drug addiction, and clinical implications for humans are discussed. This review includes research conducted in animals and humans that reveals fundamental aspects of behavioral dyscontrol. The importance of sex differences in aspects of behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity and compulsivity, is discussed as major determinants of drug addiction. Behavioral dyscontrol during adolescence is also an important consideration, as this is the time of onset for drug addiction. These vulnerability factors additively increase drug-abuse vulnerability, and they are integral aspects of addiction that covary and interact with sex differences. Sex differences in treatments for drug addiction are also reviewed in terms of their ability to modify the behavioral dyscontrol that underlies addictive behavior. Customized treatments to reduce behavioral dyscontrol are discussed, such as (1) using natural consequences such as non-drug rewards (e.g., exercise) to maintain abstinence, or using punishment as a consequence for drug use, (2) targeting factors that underlie behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity or anxiety, by repurposing medications to relieve these underlying conditions, and (3) combining two or more novel behavioral or pharmacological treatments to produce additive reductions in drug seeking. Recent published work has indicated that factors contributing to behavioral dyscontrol are an important target for advancing our knowledge on the etiology of drug abuse, intervening with the drug addiction process and developing novel treatments.

  8. Sex Differences in Behavioral Dyscontrol: Role in Drug Addiction and Novel Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Marilyn E.; Smethells, John R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings related to sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol that lead to drug addiction, and clinical implications for humans are discussed. This review includes research conducted in animals and humans that reveals fundamental aspects of behavioral dyscontrol. The importance of sex differences in aspects of behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity and compulsivity, is discussed as major determinants of drug addiction. Behavioral dyscontrol during adolescence is also an important consideration, as this is the time of onset for drug addiction. These vulnerability factors additively increase drug-abuse vulnerability, and they are integral aspects of addiction that covary and interact with sex differences. Sex differences in treatments for drug addiction are also reviewed in terms of their ability to modify the behavioral dyscontrol that underlies addictive behavior. Customized treatments to reduce behavioral dyscontrol are discussed, such as (1) using natural consequences such as non-drug rewards (e.g., exercise) to maintain abstinence, or using punishment as a consequence for drug use, (2) targeting factors that underlie behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity or anxiety, by repurposing medications to relieve these underlying conditions, and (3) combining two or more novel behavioral or pharmacological treatments to produce additive reductions in drug seeking. Recent published work has indicated that factors contributing to behavioral dyscontrol are an important target for advancing our knowledge on the etiology of drug abuse, intervening with the drug addiction process and developing novel treatments. PMID:26903885

  9. IMPULSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDERS IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE. CLINICAL CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Fedorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective – a description of clinical cases of impulsive­compulsive disorders in Parkinson,s disease. The first clinical case. Patient N., 75 years old, suffering for 15 years from Parkinson,s disease, akinetic­rigid form of the disease, stage 4 by Hyun–Yar. Since 2009, he received levodopa/carbidopa 250/25 mg 5 times/day (daily dose of 1250 mg of levodopa; pramipexole 3.5 mg per day (daily dose 3.5 mg, amantadine sulfate 100 mg 5 times/day (daily dose 500 mg. While taking antiparkinsonian drugs the patient developed behavioral disorders such as dopamine disregulatory syndrome combined with punding, hypersexuality and compulsive shopping accompanied by visual hallucinations. The total equivalent dose of levodopa was 1600 mg per day. The second clinical case. Patient R., 52 years old, suffers from Parkinson,s disease about 5 years, a mixed form. She complained of slowness of movement, tremor in her left hand, sleep disturbances, poor mood. The clinic was appointed piribedil 50 mg 3 times per day. Despite the fact that the patient took only one of dopaminergic drugs in a therapeutic daily dose, she developed impulsive­compulsive disorder as hyper­ sexuality, compulsive shopping and binge eating. Results. In the first clinical case for correction of behavioral disorders in patients with Parkinson,s disease levodopa/carbidopa dose was reduced to 750 mg per day (3/4 Tab. 4 times a day; added to levodopa/benserazide dispersible 100 mg morning and levodopa/benserazide 100 mg before sleep (total dose of levodopa of 950 mg per day. Amantadine sulfate and pramipexole were canceled. It was added to the therapy of atypical neuroleptic clozapine dose 6,25 mg overnight. After 3 months marked improvement, regressed visual hallucina­ tions, improved family relationships, background mood became more stable. The patient continue to sing karaoke, but this hobby has be­ come less intrusive. In the second clinical event correction impulsive­compulsive

  10. Brain functional connectivity in stimulant drug dependence and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, David; Ersche, Karen D; Craig, Kevin J; Fornito, Alex; Merlo-Pich, Emilio; Fineberg, Naomi A; Shabbir, Shaila S; Robbins, Trevor W; Bullmore, Edward T

    2012-01-16

    There are reasons for thinking that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and drug dependence, although conventionally distinct diagnostic categories, might share important cognitive and neurobiological substrates. We tested this hypothesis directly by comparing brain functional connectivity measures between patients with OCD, stimulant dependent individuals (SDIs; many of whom were non-dependent users of other recreational drugs) and healthy volunteers. We measured functional connectivity between each possible pair of 506 brain regional functional MRI time series representing low frequency (0.03-0.06 Hz) spontaneous brain hemodynamics in healthy volunteers (N=18), patients with OCD (N=18) and SDIs (N=18). We used permutation tests to identify i) brain regions where strength of connectivity was significantly different in both patient groups compared to healthy volunteers; and ii) brain regions and connections which had significantly different functional connectivity between patient groups. We found that functional connectivity of right inferior and superior orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) was abnormally reduced in both disorders. Whether diagnosed as OCD or SDI, patients with higher scores on measures of compulsive symptom severity showed greater reductions of right orbitofrontal connectivity. Functional connections specifically between OFC and dorsal medial pre-motor and cingulate cortex were attenuated in both patient groups. However, patients with OCD demonstrated more severe and extensive reductions of functional connectivity compared to SDIs. OCD and stimulant dependence are not identical at the level of brain functional systems but they have some important abnormalities in common compared with healthy volunteers. Orbitofrontal connectivity may serve as a human brain systems biomarker for compulsivity across diagnostic categories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol: Role in drug addiction and novel treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn E. Carroll

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings related to sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol that lead to drug addiction, and clinical implications for humans are discussed. This review includes research conducted in animals and humans that reveals fundamental aspects of behavioral dyscontrol. The importance of sex differences in aspects of behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity and compulsivity, are discussed as major determinants of drug addiction. Behavioral dyscontrol during adolescence is also an important consideration, as this is the time of onset for drug addiction. These vulnerability factors additively increase drug abuse vulnerability, and they are integral aspects of addiction that covary and interact with sex differences. Sex differences in treatments for drug addiction are also reviewed in terms of their ability to modify the behavioral dyscontrol that underlies addictive behavior. Customized treatments to reduce behavioral dyscontrol are discussed, such as: 1 using natural consequences such as nondrug rewards (e.g., exercise to maintain abstinence, or using punishment as a consequence for drug use, 2 targeting factors that underlie behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity or anxiety, by repurposing medications to relieve these underlying conditions, and 3 combining two or more novel behavioral or pharmacological treatments to produce additive reductions in drug seeking. Recent published work has indicated that factors contributing to behavioral dyscontrol are an important target for advancing our knowledge on the etiology of drug abuse, intervening with the drug addiction process and developing novel treatments.

  12. Psychopharmacology of compulsive buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Kim; Koran, Lorrin

    2003-09-01

    No standard treatment exists for the DSM-IV Impulse Control Disorders, Not Elsewhere Classified, including Compulsive Buying Disorder. This paper reviews the suggested pharmacotherapies for this disorder and their theoretical basis. McElroy et al. first reported benefit from antidepressant therapy in three cases of Compulsive Buying Disorder with comorbid depression and anxiety. In a retrospective chart review, McElroy's group reported on 20 patients that benefited from antidepressants, often in combination with mood stabilizers. Lejoyeux reported on two patients in whom treatment of a comorbid mood disorder led to remission of compulsive buying behavior. Black reported fluvoxamine to be effective in patients without comorbid major depression, suggesting that improvement was independent of the treatment of mood symptoms. Kim reported improvement with naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, in a case series. Two double-blind placebo-controlled trials found fluvoxamine no better than placebo; however, in both studies patients kept shopping logs, which may have confounded the results. An open-label trial of citalopram and a double-blind crossover trial which excluded shopping logs both reported positive results. Twelve-month follow-up data for the open-label group found that remission rates at quarterly time points were independent of continuing drug therapy. The data reviewed above suggest that pharmacologic interventions may be effective for compulsive buying disorder. Whether pharmacological treatment is superior to placebo and whether it is more, less or equally effective compared to psychotherapeutic interventions remains to be established. (c) 2003 Prous Science. All rights reserved.

  13. Using Social Network Analysis to Better Understand Compulsive Exercise Behavior Among a Sample of Sorority Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Megan S; Goodson, Patricia

    2017-05-01

    Compulsive exercise, a form of unhealthy exercise often associated with prioritizing exercise and feeling guilty when exercise is missed, is a common precursor to and symptom of eating disorders. College-aged women are at high risk of exercising compulsively compared with other groups. Social network analysis (SNA) is a theoretical perspective and methodology allowing researchers to observe the effects of relational dynamics on the behaviors of people. SNA was used to assess the relationship between compulsive exercise and body dissatisfaction, physical activity, and network variables. Descriptive statistics were conducted using SPSS, and quadratic assignment procedure (QAP) analyses were conducted using UCINET. QAP regression analysis revealed a statistically significant model (R 2 = .375, P exercise behavior. Physical activity, body dissatisfaction, and network variables were statistically significant predictor variables in the QAP regression model. In our sample, women who are connected to "important" or "powerful" people in their network are likely to have higher compulsive exercise scores. This result provides healthcare practitioners key target points for intervention within similar groups of women. For scholars researching eating disorders and associated behaviors, this study supports looking into group dynamics and network structure in conjunction with body dissatisfaction and exercise frequency.

  14. Antireward, compulsivity, and addiction: seminal contributions of Dr. Athina Markou to motivational dysregulation in addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koob, George F

    2017-05-01

    Addiction is defined as a chronically relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive drug seeking that is hypothesized to derive from multiple sources of motivational dysregulation. Dr. Athina Markou made seminal contributions to our understanding of the neurobiology of addiction with her studies on the dysregulation of reward function using animal models with construct validity. Repeated overstimulation of the reward systems with drugs of abuse decreases reward function, characterized by brain stimulation reward and presumbably reflecting dysphoria-like states. The construct of negative reinforcement, defined as drug taking that alleviates a negative emotional state that is created by drug abstinence, is particularly relevant as a driving force in both the withdrawal/negative affect and preoccupation/anticipation stages of the addiction cycle. The negative emotional state that drives such negative reinforcement is hypothesized to derive from the dysregulation of key neurochemical circuits that drive incentive-salience/reward systems (dopamine, opioid peptides) in the ventral striatum and from the recruitment of brain stress systems (corticotropin-releasing factor, dynorphin) within the extended amygdala. As drug taking becomes compulsive-like, the factors that motivate behavior are hypothesized to shift to drug-seeking behavior that is driven not only by positive reinforcement but also by negative reinforcement. This shift in motivation is hypothesized to reflect the allostatic misregulation of hedonic tone such that drug taking makes the hedonic negative emotional state worse during the process of seeking temporary relief with compulsive drug taking.

  15. A controlled study of Tourette syndrome. IV. Obsessions, compulsions, and schizoid behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comings, D E; Comings, B G

    1987-01-01

    To determine the frequency of obsessive, compulsive, and schizoid behaviors in Tourette syndrome (TS), we prospectively questioned 246 patients with TS, 17 with attention-deficit disorder (ADD), 15 with ADD due to a TS gene, and 47 random controls. The comparative frequency of obsessive, compulsive, and repetitive behaviors--such as obsessive unpleasant thoughts, obsessive silly thoughts, echolalia, palilalia, touching things excessively, touching things a specific number of times, touching others excessively, sexual touching, biting or hurting oneself, head banging, rocking, mimicking others, counting things, and occasional or frequent public exhibitionism--were significantly more common in TS patients than in controls. The frequency of each of these was much higher for grade 3 (severe) TS. Most of these behaviors also occurred significantly more often in individuals with ADD or in individuals with ADD secondary to TS (ADD 2(0) TS). When these features were combined into an obsessive-compulsive score, 45.4% of TS patients had a score of 4-15, whereas 8.5% of controls had a score of 4 or 5. These results indicate that obsessive-compulsive behaviors are an integral part of the expression of the TS gene and can be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Schizoid symptoms, such as thinking that people were watching them or plotting against them, were significantly more common in TS patients than in controls. Auditory hallucinations of hearing voices were present in 14.6% of TS patients, compared with 2.1% of controls (P = .02). These symptoms were absent in ADD patients but present in ADD 2(0) TS patients. These voices were often blamed for telling them to do bad things and were frequently identified with the devil. None of the controls had a total schizoid behavior score greater than 3, whereas 10.9% of the TS patients had scores of 4-10 (P = .02). This frequency increased to 20.6% in the grade 3 TS patients. These quantitative results confirm our clinical

  16. Brief Report: Avoidance Extinction as Treatment for Compulsive and Ritual Behavior in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Jason J.; Hupp, Susan C.; Symons, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    Treatment options for maladaptive repetitive behaviors associated with autism are limited. This is particularly so for ritual and compulsive forms of repetitive behavior, which commonly interfere with adaptive activities and may cause distress to individuals with autism and their families. The present study assessed an avoidance extinction…

  17. Treatment of sexually compulsive adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, James

    2008-12-01

    We clarified the nature of sexual compulsivity in adolescence, addressed who is labeled as "sexually compulsive youth," conceptualized the underlying factors of sexual compulsivity, and outlined a treatment format. We focused on trauma, dissociation, attachment, and self-concept. We questioned the conventional perceptions of who is included in this group. We reiterated that the belief that sexually compulsive adolescents are abusive males is no longer considered accurate. The evolution and accessibility of the Internet only raises greater concerns about compulsive sexual behavior, as more adolescents are brought into therapy because of Internet use to seek sexual interaction or stimulation. The sexually compulsive youth is as likely to be the clean-cut, high-achieving, intelligent student as is the economically deprived, juvenile delinquent on the street. This article began with the observation that adolescents rarely receive any direct, accurate information about sexuality and intimacy. The messages taken in through music, television, movies, politicians, popular press, clergy, and school are polarizing and contradictory. Beyond this are the implications as to how we, as a society, treat the youths that do present with sexual behavior problems. We have tended to treat these youth (as well as adults) with disdain and to designate sexually abusive youth the same as adult offenders with harsher, more punitive treatment interventions. Research and clinical experience now strongly question this type of response. This article is consistent with this leaning. Early psychological injury, from sexual abuse, physical abuse, exposure to violence, attachment trauma, or early sexualization, is at the root of sexually compulsive behavior. While it is necessary to reign in out-of-control and destructive behaviors, if we acknowledge that the source of the behavior is psychological injury, then it is cruel and inconsistent to treat the individual with disdain or as a pariah. The

  18. Initial validation of two opiate craving questionnaires the obsessive compulsive drug use scale and the desires for drug questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Ingmar H A; Hendriksa, Vincent M; van den Brink, Wim

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, the factor structure, internal consistency, and the concurrent validity of two heroin craving questionnaires are examined. The Desires for Drug Questionnaire (DDQ) measures three factors: desire and intention, negative reinforcement, and control. The Obsessive Compulsive Drug Use Scale (OCDUS) also measures three factors: thoughts about heroin and interference, desire and control, and resistance to thoughts and intention. Subjects were 102 Dutch patients who were currently in treatment for drug dependency. All proposed scales have good reliability and concurrent validity. Implementation of these instruments in both clinical and research field is advocated.

  19. Neuropsychological Functioning in Obsessive-Compulsive Washers: Drug-Naive Without Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, Ali Akbar; Shariat, Seyed Vahid; Nazari, Mohammad Ali; Dolatshahi, Behrooz

    2017-01-01

    Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a complex and heterogeneous neuropsychiatric syndrome. Contamination obsessions and washing/cleaning compulsions are the most frequent clinical OCD subtypes. The current study aimed at examining the neuropsychological impairments in drug-naive obsessive-compulsive (OC) washers without depressive symptoms and their association with the severity of symptoms. In the current causal-comparative study, 35 patients with diagnostic and statistical mental disorders class (DSM)-IV diagnosed with washing-subtype OCD and 35 healthy subjects were selected by the convenience sampling method and evaluated by computerized neuropsychology battery and clinical tests as Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Go/No-Go Test, Digits Forward (DF), Digits Backward (DB), Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-28. The patients were matched to the comparison group with regard to age, gender, intelligence quotient (IQ), education, and handedness. All the tests were standardized in Iran. SPSS version 20.00 was used for descriptive and analytical data analysis. There was no statistically significant different between the OCD washing and the control groups regarding socio-demographic variables or IQ. There were significant differences between the OC washer and the healthy control groups on the neuropsychological functioning. The obtained results suggested that OC washers performed significantly worse on neuropsychological measures than the controls. There was no significant association between the severity of OC symptoms and the neuropsychological functions in the OCD washing group. It was concluded that executive function impairment, which is a core feature in OC washers was trait-like in nature.

  20. Pathological Overeating: Emerging Evidence for a Compulsivity Construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Catherine F; Sabino, Valentina; Koob, George F; Cottone, Pietro

    2017-06-01

    Compulsive eating behavior is a transdiagnostic construct that is characteristic of medical and psychiatric conditions such as forms of obesity and eating disorders. Although feeding research is moving toward a better understanding of the proposed addictive properties of food, the components and the mechanisms contributing to compulsive eating are not yet clearly defined or understood. Current understanding highlights three elements of compulsive behavior as it applies to pathological overeating: (1) habitual overeating; (2) overeating to relieve a negative emotional state; and (3) overeating despite aversive consequences. These elements emerge through mechanisms involving pathological habit formation through an aberrant learning process, the emergence of a negative emotional state, and dysfunctions in behavioral control. Dysfunctions in systems within neurocircuitries that comprise the basal ganglia, the extended amygdala, and the prefrontal cortex result in compulsive eating behaviors. Here, we present evidence to relate compulsive eating behavior and addiction and to characterize their underlying neurobiological mechanisms. A major need to improve understanding of compulsive eating through the integration of complex motivational, emotional, and cognitive constructs is warranted.

  1. Adverse childhood experiences and gender influence treatment seeking behaviors in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Francesco; Poletti, Sara; Radaelli, Daniele; Pozzi, Elena; Giacosa, Chiara; Smeraldi, Enrico

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACE) increases the risk of adult physical and mental health disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and influences adult brain structure and function. ACE could influence the use of psychotropic drugs in adulthood, and treatment seeking behaviors. We assessed the severity of ACE in a sample of 31 healthy controls and 66 patients with OCD who were consecutively referred for hospitalization and were either drug-naïve or drug-treated. In addition, we explored the possible clinical relevance of ACE with two additional analyses: (a) a discriminant function analysis with sex and ACE as factors, and (b) a logistic regression with use of medication as dependent variable and ACE as factor. Despite comparable age, years at school, age at onset of illness, duration of illness, and severity of illness (Y-BOCS), adult drug-naïve patients reported lower exposure to ACE and later contacts with mental health professionals than drug-treated. This effect was particularly evident in female patients compared to males. The interaction of gender with factors linked with the early familial environment biased access to psychiatric care and use of medication, independent of OCD-associated factors such as severity of symptoms or duration of illness. The need for medications of patients could be higher in families where OCD symptomatology is associated with ACE. © 2014.

  2. Childhood trauma and compulsive buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Chang, Joy; Jewell, Bryan; Rock, Rachel

    2013-02-01

    Childhood trauma has been empirically associated with various types of self-regulatory difficulties in adulthood. However, according to the extant literature, no study has examined relationships between various types of childhood trauma and compulsive buying behavior in adulthood. Using a self-report survey methodology in a cross-sectional consecutive sample of 370 obstetrics/gynecology patients, we examined five types of childhood trauma before the age of 12 years (i.e. witnessing violence, physical neglect, emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse) in relationship to compulsive buying as assessed by the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS). All forms of trauma demonstrated statistically significant correlations with the CBS. Using a linear regression analysis, both witnessing violence and emotional abuse significantly contributed to CBS scores. Further analyses indicated that race did not moderate the relationship between childhood trauma and compulsive buying. Findings indicate that various forms of childhood trauma are correlated with compulsive buying behavior, particularly witnessing violence and emotional abuse.

  3. Hoarding behavior among young children with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Hannah; Stewart, Elyse; Walther, Michael; Benito, Kristen; Freeman, Jennifer; Conelea, Christ; Garci, Abbe

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that among the various subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), adults (e.g. Frost, Krause & Steketee, 1996) and older children and adolescents (Bloch et al., 2009; Storch et al., 2007) with problematic hoarding have distinct features and a poor treatment prognosis. However, there is limited information on the phenomenology and prevalence of hoarding behaviors in young children. The present study characterizes children ages 10 and under who present with OCD...

  4. Group behavioral therapy for adolescents with tic-related and non-tic-related obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himle, Joseph A; Fischer, Daniel J; Van Etten, Michelle L; Janeck, Amy S; Hanna, Gregory L

    2003-01-01

    Prior research supports the distinction between tic-related and non-tic-related obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) based on phenomenologic, etiologic, and neurobehavioral data. The present study examines whether response to psychosocial treatment differs in adolescents, depending on the presence of comorbid tics. Nineteen adolescents, 12-17 years of age, participated in 7-week, uncontrolled trial of group cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for OCD. Eight of the patients had tic-related and eleven had non-tic-related OCD. The group CBT program included psycho-education, exposure and response prevention, cognitive strategies, and family involvement. Significant improvement was observed for all subjects on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale ratings of obsessions, compulsions, and total OCD symptoms. Outcomes were similar for subjects with tic-related and non-tic-related OCD. These preliminary results suggest that the presence of comorbid tic disorders may not attenuate response to behavioral group treatment among adolescents. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. The correlates of obsessive-compulsive, schizotypal, and borderline personality disorders in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melca, Isabela A; Yücel, Murat; Mendlowicz, Mauro V; de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo; Fontenelle, Leonardo F

    2015-06-01

    We assessed correlates of obsessive-compulsive (OCPD), schizotypal (SPD) and borderline (BPD) personality disorders in 110 obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients. We found OCD patients with OCPD (20.9%) to exhibit higher rates of hoarding and bipolar disorders, increased severity of hoarding and symmetry, lower prevalence of unacceptable thoughts involving sex and religion and less non-planning impulsivity. Conversely, OCD patients with SPD (13.6%) displayed more frequently bipolar disorder, increased severity of depression and OCD neutralization, greater prevalence of "low-order" behaviors (i.e., touching), lower low-planning impulsivity and greater "behavioral" compulsivity. Finally, in exploratory analyses, OCD patients with BPD (21.8%) exhibited lower education, higher rates of several comorbid psychiatric disorders, greater frequency of compulsions involving interpersonal domains (e.g. reassurance seeking), increased severity of depression, anxiety and OCD dimensions other than symmetry and hoarding, more motor and non-planning impulsivity, and greater "cognitive" compulsivity. These findings highlight the importance of assessing personality disorders in OCD samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. THE STUDY OF COMPULSIVE BEHAVIOR IN ONLINE SHOPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Cristache

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the prevalence of Internet in our everyday life, little is known about consumer buying behavior in on-line purchases. Moreover, consumer buying disorder (CBD, one of the new addictions of the era, is poorly researched in the Romanian literature. This study aimed at identifying whether this disorder is present among Romanian students that purchase on-line through a questionnaire applied to 100 students attending the University „Dunarea de Jos” of Galati. An analysis of the responses yields that a 13% of the studied sample indeed presents characteristics of this disorder and confirms previous global studies that the compulsive buyers are majoritarian women. This work increases our understanding of on-line consumer buying behavior and will contribute to future research on similar topics.

  7. Drug-induced impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiff, J; Jost, W H

    2011-05-01

    Dopamine replacement treatment with excessive or aberrant dopamine receptor stimulation can cause behavioral disturbances in Parkinson's disease, comprising dopamine dysregulation syndrome, punding, and impulse control disorders. Common impulse control disorders are compulsive buying, pathological gambling, binge eating, hypersexuality, and compulsive reckless driving.

  8. Better super safe than slightly sorry? : Reciprocal relationships between checking behavior and cognitive symptoms in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toffolo, M.B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder(OCD) is characterized by intrusive frightening thoughts, images or impulses (obsessions; e.g., “did I stab my partner while doing the dishes?”) to which patients respond with repetitive behavior (compulsions; e.g., checking the knives and scissors in the house or

  9. A randomized, controlled trial of group cognitive-behavioral therapy for compulsive buying disorder: posttreatment and 6-month follow-up results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Astrid; Mueller, Ulrike; Silbermann, Andrea; Reinecker, Hans; Bleich, Stefan; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a randomized trial comparing the efficacy of a group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention designed for the treatment of compulsive buying disorder to a waiting list control (WLC) group. Thirty-one patients with compulsive buying problems according to the criteria developed by McElroy et al. were assigned to receive active treatment (12 weekly sessions and 6-month follow-up) and 29 to the WLC group. The treatment was specifically aimed at interrupting and controlling the problematic buying behavior, establishing healthy purchasing patterns, restructuring maladaptive thoughts and negative feelings associated with shopping and buying, and developing healthy coping skills. Primary outcome measures were the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS), the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Shopping Version (YBOCS-SV), and the German Compulsive Buying Scale (G-CBS). Secondary outcome measures were the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and the Saving Inventory-Revised (SI-R). The study was completed between November 2003 and May 2007 at the University Hospital of Erlangen, Bavaria, Germany. Multivariate analysis revealed significant differences between the CBT and the WLC groups on the primary outcome variables (outcome-by-time-by-group effect, Pillai's trace, F = 6.960, df = 1, p = .002). The improvement was maintained during the 6-month follow-up. The treatment did not affect other psychopathology, e.g., compulsive hoarding, impulsivity, or SCL-90-R scores. We found that lower numbers of visited group therapy sessions and higher pretreatment hoarding traits as measured with the SI-R total score were significant predictors for nonresponse. The results suggest that a disorder-specific cognitive-behavioral intervention can significantly impact compulsive buying behavior.

  10. Contribution of a mesocorticolimbic subcircuit to drug context-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasseter, Heather C; Xie, Xiaohu; Arguello, Amy A; Wells, Audrey M; Hodges, Matthew A; Fuchs, Rita A

    2014-02-01

    Cocaine-seeking behavior triggered by drug-paired environmental context exposure is dependent on orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)-basolateral amygdala (BLA) interactions. Here, we present evidence supporting the hypothesis that dopaminergic input from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the OFC critically regulates these interactions. In experiment 1, we employed site-specific pharmacological manipulations to show that dopamine D1-like receptor stimulation in the OFC is required for drug context-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior following extinction training in an alternate context. Intra-OFC pretreatment with the dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist, SCH23390, dose-dependently attenuated cocaine-seeking behavior in an anatomically selective manner, without altering motor performance. Furthermore, the effects of SCH23390 could be surmounted by co-administration of a sub-threshold dose of the D1-like receptor agonist, SKF81297. In experiment 2, we examined effects of D1-like receptor antagonism in the OFC on OFC-BLA interactions using a functional disconnection manipulation. Unilateral SCH23390 administration into the OFC plus GABA agonist-induced neural inactivation of the contralateral or ipsilateral BLA disrupted drug context-induced cocaine-seeking behavior relative to vehicle, while independent unilateral manipulations of these brain regions were without effect. Finally, in experiment 3, we used fluorescent retrograde tracers to demonstrate that the VTA, but not the substantia nigra, sends dense intra- and interhemispheric projections to the OFC, which in turn has reciprocal bi-hemispheric connections with the BLA. These findings support that dopaminergic input from the VTA, via dopamine D1-like receptor stimulation in the OFC, is required for OFC-BLA functional interactions. Thus, a VTA-OFC-BLA neural circuit promotes drug context-induced motivated behavior.

  11. The relationship between types and severity of repetitive behaviors in Gilles de la Tourette's disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cath, D.C.; Spinhoven, P.; Wetering, B.J.M. van de; Hoogduin, C.A.L.; Landman, A.D.; Woerkom, T.C.A.M. van; Roos, R.A.C.; Rooijmans, H.G.M.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study investigated which categories of obsessive-compulsive and Tourette-related behaviors in Gilles de la Tourette's disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) without tics are experienced as most severe across the study groups and what the differences are in symptom

  12. Increased Default Mode Network Connectivity in Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder During Reward Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Koch

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is characterized by anxiety-provoking, obsessive thoughts (i.e., obsessions which patients react to with compulsive behaviors (i.e., compulsions. Due to the transient feeling of relief following the reduction of obsession-induced anxiety, compulsions are often described as relieving or even rewarding. Several studies investigated functional activation during reward processing in OCD, but findings are heterogeneous up to now and little is known about potential alterations in functional connectivity.Method: Against this background we studied OCD patients (n = 44 and healthy controls (n = 37 during the receipt of monetary reward by assessing both activation and functional connectivity.Results: Patients showed a decreased activation in several frontal regions and the posterior cingulate (PCC, BA31 together with a stronger connectivity between the PCC and the vmPFC (BA10.Conclusion: Present findings demonstrate an increased connectivity in patients within major nodes of the default mode network (DMN—a network known to be involved in the evaluation of internal mental states. These results may indicate an increased activity of internal, self-related processing at the expense of a normal responsiveness toward external rewards and incentives. This, in turn, may explain the constant urge for additional reinforcement and patients' inability to inhibit their compulsive behaviors.

  13. Compulsive masturbation and chronic penile lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; Galì, Alessandro; Marino, Silvia; Bramanti, Placido

    2012-06-01

    Chronic penile lymphedema arises from the abnormal retention of lymphatic fluid in the subcutaneous tissues and may be secondary to local and systemic medical conditions such as sexually transmitted diseases, filariasis, malignancy, local radiotherapy, and surgery. This case report aims to consider compulsive masturbation as a possible cause of chronic penile edema. A 40-year-old man was referred to our institute for behavioral disturbance, including compulsive masturbation. Neuropsychiatric evaluation showed moderate mental retardation, mild dysarthria and limb incoordination, anxiety, depressed mood, and impulse dyscontrol. Brain MRI pointed out diffuse white matter lesions. Urogenital examination revealed an uncircumcised penis with non-tender edema of the shaft and prepuce with areas of lichenification. Since the most common local and systemic causes of edema were excluded, chronic penile edema due to compulsive masturbation was diagnosed and the compulsive behavior treated with an antidepressant and low-dose neuroleptics. Compulsive masturbation should be taken into account when counselling patients with penile edema.

  14. Association of Rigid-Compulsive Behavior with Functional Constipation in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marler, Sarah; Ferguson, Bradley J.; Lee, Evon Batey; Peters, Brittany; Williams, Kent C.; McDonnell, Erin; Macklin, Eric A.; Levitt, Pat; Margolis, Kara Gross; Beversdorf, David Q.; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Based upon checklist data from the Autism Speaks Autism Treatment Network, we hypothesized that functional constipation (FC) would be associated with rigid-compulsive behavior in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We used the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III to assess FC symptoms in 108 children with ASD. As…

  15. [Compulsive buying and psychiatric comorbidity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Astrid; Mühlhans, Barbara; Silbermann, Andrea; Müller, Ulrike; Mertens, Christian; Horbach, Thomas; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina

    2009-08-01

    Compulsive buying is an excessive behavior that has begun to receive attention from researchers in recent years. The current study provides an overview of research on compulsive buying and examines the psychiatric co-morbidity in a German female treatment seeking compulsive buying sample in comparison with age and gender-matched normal buying control groups. Thirty women suffering from compulsive buying disorder, 30 community controls, and 30 bariatric surgery candidates were assessed with the German versions of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV diagnoses (SCID). Women with compulsive buying disorder showed significantly higher prevalence rates of affective, anxiety, and eating disorders compared to community controls, and suffered significantly more often from affective and anxiety disorders compared to bariatric surgery candidates. The compulsive buying group presented with the highest rates of personality disorders, most commonly avoidant, depressive, obsessive-compulsive, and borderline personality disorder, and reported the highest prevalence rates of other impulse control disorders, especially for intermittent explosive disorder. The findings suggest an elevated psychiatric co-morbidity in patients with compulsive buying disorder.

  16. Orbito-frontal cortex and thalamus volumes in the patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder before and after cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Murad; Yildirim, Hanefi; Yilmaz, Seda; Caglar, Neslihan; Mermi, Osman; Korkmaz, Sevda; Akaslan, Unsal; Gurok, M Gurkan; Kekilli, Yasemin; Turkcapar, Hakan

    2018-07-01

    Background The effect of a variety of treatment modalities including psychopharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy on the brain volumes and neurochemicals have not been investigated enough in the patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy on the volumes of the orbito-frontal cortex and thalamus regions which seem to be abnormal in the patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. We hypothesized that there would be change in the volumes of the orbito-frontal cortex and thalamus. Methods Twelve patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and same number of healthy controls were included into the study. At the beginning of the study, the volumes of the orbito-frontal cortex and thalamus were compared by using magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, volumes of these regions were measured before and after the cognitive behavioral therapy treatment in the patient group. Results The patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder had greater left and right thalamus volumes and smaller left and right orbito-frontal cortex volumes compared to those of healthy control subjects at the beginning of the study. When we compared baseline volumes of the patients with posttreatment ones, we detected that thalamus volumes significantly decreased throughout the period for both sides and that the orbito-frontal cortex volumes significantly increased throughout the period for only left side. Conclusions In summary, we found that cognitive behavioral therapy might volumetrically affect the key brain regions involved in the neuroanatomy of obsessive-compulsive disorder. However, future studies with larger sample are required.

  17. [Treatment of compulsive buying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, A; de Zwaan, M

    2008-08-01

    Although compulsive buying is receiving increasing attention in research, it is largely ignored in clinical practice. Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) is defined as excessive and mostly senseless spending or excessive shopping impulses that cause marked distress, interfere with social or occupational functioning, and often results in financial problems. It is currently conceptualized as an "impulse control disorder not otherwise specified" (ICD-10 F63.9). CBD is associated with significant psychiatric co-morbidity particularly mood and anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, binge eating disorder, substance use disorders, personality disorders, and other impulse control disorders. Previous research indicates that many compulsive buyers also suffer from compulsive hoarding. There is no evidence-based treatment approach for CBD and treatment research on this topic is limited. Open label trials suggest that antidepressants could improve compulsive buying. However, small randomized controlled trials failed to demonstrate significant improvement over Placebo and the high placebo-response rate prevents any definitive statement on the efficacy of antidepressants. Two controlled cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) trials reported that group CBT is significantly more effective compared to waiting list control groups in the treatment of compulsive buying. Clinical and therapeutic implications are discussed.

  18. Obsessive-compulsive aspects of craving: development of the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, R F

    2000-08-01

    "Craving" for alcohol needs improved definition and measurement. This review provides a rationale for considering at least certain aspects of craving as having obsessive and compulsive features. As such, there may be phenomenological, but not necessarily etiological, overlap with obsessive-compulsive disorder. There are increasing data that suggest a neuroanatomical overlap between addiction/craving and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The self-rated Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS), based on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for heavy drinking interview (YBOCS-hd), was developed to assist in the examination of certain aspects of "craving" in alcoholics. The development, reliability, face validity, congruent validity and predictive validity of the OCDS are presented and discussed in this paper. The utility of the OCDS as a measurement tool in cognitive-behavioral and pharmacological alcoholism treatment research is highlighted. The potential of this instrument as a research and clinical tool for the understanding and evaluation of alcohol dependence needs further evaluation.

  19. Human compulsivity: A perspective from evolutionary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J; Hermesh, Haggai; Eilam, David; Segalas, Cosi; Zohar, Joseph; Menchon, Jose; Nesse, Randolph M

    2016-05-01

    Biological explanations address not only proximal mechanisms (for example, the underlying neurobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder), but also distal mechanisms (that is, a consideration of how particular neurobiological mechanisms evolved). Evolutionary medicine has emphasized a series of explanations for vulnerability to disease, including constraints, mismatch, and tradeoffs. The current paper will consider compulsive symptoms in obsessive-compulsive and related disorders and behavioral addictions from this evolutionary perspective. It will argue that while obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is typically best conceptualized as a dysfunction, it is theoretically and clinically valuable to understand some symptoms of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders in terms of useful defenses. The symptoms of behavioral addictions can also be conceptualized in evolutionary terms (for example, mismatch), which in turn provides a sound foundation for approaching assessment and intervention. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Cognitive-behavioral high parental involvement treatments for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniesta-Sepúlveda, Marina; Rosa-Alcázar, Ana I; Sánchez-Meca, Julio; Parada-Navas, José L; Rosa-Alcázar, Ángel

    2017-06-01

    A meta-analysis on the efficacy of cognitive-behavior-family treatment (CBFT) on children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was accomplished. The purposes of the study were: (a) to estimate the effect magnitude of CBFT in ameliorating obsessive-compulsive symptoms and reducing family accommodation on pediatric OCD and (b) to identify potential moderator variables of the effect sizes. A literature search enabled us to identify 27 studies that fulfilled our selection criteria. The effect size index was the standardized pretest-postest mean change index. For obsessive-compulsive symptoms, the adjusted mean effect size for CBFT was clinically relevant and statistically significant in the posttest (d adj =1.464). For family accommodation the adjusted mean effect size was also positive and statistically significant, but in a lesser extent than for obsessive-compulsive symptoms (d adj =0.511). Publication bias was discarded as a threat against the validity of the meta-analytic results. Large heterogeneity among effect sizes was found. Better results were found when CBFT was individually applied than in group (d + =2.429 and 1.409, respectively). CBFT is effective to reduce obsessive-compulsive symptoms, but offers a limited effect for family accommodation. Additional modules must be included in CBFT to improve its effectiveness on family accommodation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Psychiatric and socioeconomic aspects as possible predictors of compulsive buying behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Priscilla Lourenço; Silva, Adriana Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying can be characterized as an almost irresistible urge to buy various items. Compulsive buying disorder is a subject of growing interest to health professionals. It is a current issue and the prevalence rate in the global population is around 5 to 8%. The main objective of this study was to identify predictors of compulsive buying in the Brazilian population, assessing possible relationships between compulsive buying, depression and anxiety. The Richmond Compulsive Buying Scale was administered to screen for compulsive buying and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to assess anxiety and depression in a sample of 359 participants. Pearson coefficients were used to test for correlations. Our study identified an interaction between female gender and compulsion to purchase. Furthermore, people's occupations also appear to have an influence on the problem. We found a correlation between depressive symptoms and oniomania. Our study has certain limitations, such as the difficulty in recruiting individuals with compulsive buying disorder. Since compulsive buying is a phenomenon that is seldom investigated, it therefore remains unidentified. However, this is nevertheless a pioneering paper on the Brazilian population.

  2. Psychiatric and socioeconomic aspects as possible predictors of compulsive buying behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Lourenço Leite

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Compulsive buying can be characterized as an almost irresistible urge to buy various items. Compulsive buying disorder is a subject of growing interest to health professionals. It is a current issue and the prevalence rate in the global population is around 5 to 8%. Objectives: The main objective of this study was to identify predictors of compulsive buying in the Brazilian population, assessing possible relationships between compulsive buying, depression and anxiety. Methods: The Richmond Compulsive Buying Scale was administered to screen for compulsive buying and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to assess anxiety and depression in a sample of 359 participants. Pearson coefficients were used to test for correlations. Results: Our study identified an interaction between female gender and compulsion to purchase. Furthermore, people's occupations also appear to have an influence on the problem. We found a correlation between depressive symptoms and oniomania. Conclusion: Our study has certain limitations, such as the difficulty in recruiting individuals with compulsive buying disorder. Since compulsive buying is a phenomenon that is seldom investigated, it therefore remains unidentified. However, this is nevertheless a pioneering paper on the Brazilian population.

  3. Sexual Compulsivity Scale, Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory, and Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory: Translation, Adaptation, and Validation for Use in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanavino, Marco de T; Ventuneac, Ana; Rendina, H Jonathon; Abdo, Carmita H N; Tavares, Hermano; Amaral, Maria L S do; Messina, Bruna; Reis, Sirlene C dos; Martins, João P L B; Gordon, Marina C; Vieira, Julie C; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological, behavioral, and clinical data on sexual compulsivity in Brazil are very limited. This study sought to adapt and validate the Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS), the 22-item version of the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI-22), and the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory (HDSI) for use in Brazil. A total of 153 participants underwent psychiatric assessment and completed self-reported measures. The adaptation process of the instruments from English to Portuguese followed the guidelines of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research. The reliability and validity of the HDSI criteria were evaluated and the construct validity of all measures was examined. For the SCS and HDSI, factor analysis revealed one factor for each measure. For the CSBI-22, four factors were retained although we only calculated the scores of two factors (control and violence). All scores had good internal consistency (alpha >.75), presented high temporal stability (>.76), discriminated between patients and controls, and presented strong (ρ > .81) correlations with the Sexual Addiction Screening Test (except for the violence domain = .40) and moderate correlations with the Impulsive Sensation Seeking domain of the Zuckerman Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ρ between .43 and .55). The sensitivity of the HDSI was 71.93 % and the specificity was 100 %. All measures showed very good psychometric properties. The SCS, the HDSI, and the control domain of the CSBI-22 seemed to measure theoretically similar constructs, as they were highly correlated (ρ > .85). The findings support the conceptualization of hypersexuality as a cluster of problematic symptoms that are highly consistent across a variety of measures.

  4. Rigid-Compulsive Behaviors Are Associated with Mixed Bowel Symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Brittany; Williams, Kent C.; Gorrindo, Phillip; Rosenberg, Daniel; Lee, Evon Batey; Levitt, Pat; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Based on clinical experience, we hypothesized that rigid-compulsive behaviors are associated with severe constipation and co-occurring diarrhea or underwear staining in children with autism spectrum disorder. Using data from the Autism Treatment Network, we evaluated the association between these gastrointestinal symptoms and measures of rigid…

  5. Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome with and without obsessive-compulsive disorder compared with obsessive-compulsive disorder without tics: Which symptoms discriminate?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cath, D.C.; Spinhoven, P.; Woerkom, T.C.A.M. van; Wetering, B.J.M. van de; Hoogduin, C.A.L.; Landman, A.D.; Roos, R.A.C.; Rooijmans, H.G.M.

    2001-01-01

    Stereotyped repetitive behaviors occur in Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome (GTS) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present study was undertaken to compare the distribution of obsessive-compulsive and Tourette-related impulsive behaviors in GTS with (+) OCD, GTS without (-) OCD, tic-free

  6. Age-Dependent Cellular and Behavioral Deficits Induced by Molecularly Targeted Drugs Are Reversible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafidi, Joseph; Ritter, Jonathan; Talbot, Brooke M; Edwards, Jorge; Chew, Li-Jin; Gallo, Vittorio

    2018-04-15

    Newly developed targeted anticancer drugs inhibit signaling pathways commonly altered in adult and pediatric cancers. However, as these pathways are also essential for normal brain development, concerns have emerged of neurologic sequelae resulting specifically from their application in pediatric cancers. The neural substrates and age dependency of these drug-induced effects in vivo are unknown, and their long-term behavioral consequences have not been characterized. This study defines the age-dependent cellular and behavioral effects of these drugs on normally developing brains and determines their reversibility with post-drug intervention. Mice at different postnatal ages received short courses of molecularly targeted drugs in regimens analagous to clinical treatment. Analysis of rapidly developing brain structures important for sensorimotor and cognitive function showed that, while adult administration was without effect, earlier neonatal administration of targeted therapies attenuated white matter oligodendroglia and hippocampal neuronal development more profoundly than later administration, leading to long-lasting behavioral deficits. This functional impairment was reversed by rehabilitation with physical and cognitive enrichment. Our findings demonstrate age-dependent, reversible effects of these drugs on brain development, which are important considerations as treatment options expand for pediatric cancers. Significance: Targeted therapeutics elicit age-dependent long-term consequences on the developing brain that can be ameliorated with environmental enrichment. Cancer Res; 78(8); 2081-95. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Comparison of Child Behavior Checklist subscales in screening for obsessive-compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Pia Aaron Skovby; Bilenberg, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a prevalent psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents associated with significant functional impairment. Early and correct diagnosis is essential for an optimal treatment outcome. The purpose of this study was to determine which of four subscales...... derived from the Child Behavior Checklist best discriminates OCD patients from clinical and population-based controls....

  8. Psychiatric and socioeconomic aspects as possible predictors of compulsive buying behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Leite, Priscilla Lourenço; Silva, Adriana Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Compulsive buying can be characterized as an almost irresistible urge to buy various items. Compulsive buying disorder is a subject of growing interest to health professionals. It is a current issue and the prevalence rate in the global population is around 5 to 8%. Objectives: The main objective of this study was to identify predictors of compulsive buying in the Brazilian population, assessing possible relationships between compulsive buying, depression and anxiety....

  9. Normal, Problematic and Compulsive Consumption of Sexually Explicit Media: Clinical Findings using the Compulsive Pornography Consumption (CPC) Scale among Men who have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, B. R. Simon; Noor, Syed WB; Iantaffi, Alex

    2015-01-01

    To assess problematic sexually explicit media (SEM) consumption, and to identify clinically meaningful cut-off points, we examined clinical correlates using the new Compulsive Pornography Consumption (CPC) scale among 1165 participating MSM. Building on scale practices in measuring compulsive sexual behavior, two cut-off points were identified. While most (76-80%) MSM do not report compulsive symptoms, about 16-20% report levels of problematic SEM consumption, including 7% with extreme scores consistent with DSM criteria for compulsive disorders. Demographic, sexual, and HIV risk differences were identified between the three groups. Researchers and clinicians are encouraged to consider using the CPC scale for comprehensive assessment of compulsive sexual behavior. PMID:26167109

  10. Nucleus accumbens inflammation mediates anxiodepressive behavior and compulsive sucrose seeking elicited by saturated dietary fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Décarie-Spain

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The incidence of depression is significantly compounded by obesity. Obesity arising from excessive intake of high-fat food provokes anxiodepressive behavior and elicits molecular adaptations in the nucleus accumbens (NAc, a region well-implicated in the hedonic deficits associated with depression and in the control of food-motivated behavior. To determine the etiology of diet-induced depression, we studied the impact of different dietary lipids on anxiodepressive behavior and metabolic and immune outcomes and the contribution of NAc immune activity. Methods: Adult C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to isocaloric high-fat/high-sucrose diets (HFD, enriched in either saturated or monounsaturated fat, or a control low-fat diet (LFD. Metabolic responses, anxiodepressive behavior, and plasma and NAc inflammatory markers were assessed after 12 weeks. In separate experiments, an adenoviral construct inhibiting IKKβ, an upstream component of the nuclear factor kappa-b (NFkB pathway, was a priori injected into the NAc. Results: Both HFDs resulted in obesity and hyperleptinemia; however, the saturated HFD uniquely triggered anxiety-like behavior, behavioral despair, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, peripheral inflammation, and multiple pro-inflammatory signs in the NAc, including reactive gliosis, increased expression of cytokines, antigen-presenting markers and NFкB transcriptional activity. Selective NAc IKKβ inhibition reversed the upregulated expression of inflammatory markers, prevented anxiodepressive behavior and blunted compulsive sucrose-seeking in mice fed the saturated HFD. Conclusions: Metabolic inflammation and NFкB-mediated neuroinflammatory responses in the NAc contribute to the expression of anxiodepressive behavior and heightened food cravings caused by a diet high in saturated fat and sugar. Keywords: Diet-induced obesity, Dietary fatty acids, Nuclear factor kappa-b, Neuroinflammation, Depression, Anxiety, Food reward

  11. Economic demand predicts addiction-like behavior and therapeutic efficacy of oxytocin in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentzley, Brandon S.; Jhou, Thomas C.; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Development of new treatments for drug addiction will depend on high-throughput screening in animal models. However, an addiction biomarker fit for rapid testing, and useful in both humans and animals, is not currently available. Economic models are promising candidates. They offer a structured quantitative approach to modeling behavior that is mathematically identical across species, and accruing evidence indicates economic-based descriptors of human behavior may be particularly useful biomarkers of addiction severity. However, economic demand has not yet been established as a biomarker of addiction-like behavior in animals, an essential final step in linking animal and human studies of addiction through economic models. We recently developed a mathematical approach for rapidly modeling economic demand in rats trained to self-administer cocaine. We show here that economic demand, as both a spontaneous trait and induced state, predicts addiction-like behavior, including relapse propensity, drug seeking in abstinence, and compulsive (punished) drug taking. These findings confirm economic demand as a biomarker of addiction-like behavior in rats. They also support the view that excessive motivation plays an important role in addiction while extending the idea that drug dependence represents a shift from initially recreational to compulsive drug use. Finally, we found that economic demand for cocaine predicted the efficacy of a promising pharmacotherapy (oxytocin) in attenuating cocaine-seeking behaviors across individuals, demonstrating that economic measures may be used to rapidly identify the clinical utility of prospective addiction treatments. PMID:25071176

  12. Behavioral Phenotyping of Dopamine Transporter Knockout Rats: Compulsive Traits, Motor Stereotypies, and Anhedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Cinque

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in dopamine neurotransmission are generally associated with diseases such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Such diseases typically feature poor decision making and lack of control on executive functions and have been studied through the years using many animal models. Dopamine transporter (DAT knockout (KO and heterozygous (HET mice, in particular, have been widely used to study ADHD. Recently, a strain of DAT KO rats has been developed (1. Here, we provide a phenotypic characterization of reward sensitivity and compulsive choice by adult rats born from DAT–HET dams bred with DAT–HET males, in order to further validate DAT KO rats as an animal model for preclinical research. We first tested DAT KO rats’ sensitivity to rewarding stimuli, provided by highly appetitive food or sweet water; then, we tested their choice behavior with an Intolerance-to-Delay Task (IDT. During these tests, DAT KO rats appeared less sensitive to rewarding stimuli than wild-type (WT and HET rats: they also showed a prominent hyperactive behavior with a rigid choice pattern and a wide number of compulsive stereotypies. Moreover, during the IDT, we tested the effects of amphetamine (AMPH and RO-5203648, a trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1 partial agonist. AMPH accentuated impulsive behaviors in WT and HET rats, while it had no effect in DAT KO rats. Finally, we measured the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine receptor 2 (D2, serotonin transporter, and TAAR1 mRNA transcripts in samples of ventral striatum, finding no significant differences between WT and KO genotypes. Throughout this study, DAT KO rats showed alterations in decision-making processes and in motivational states, as well as prominent motor and oral stereotypies: more studies are warranted to fully characterize and efficiently use them in preclinical research.

  13. Neurocognitive functioning in compulsive buying disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derbyshire, Katherine L; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Compulsive buying (CB) is a fairly common behavioral problem estimated to affect 5.8% of the population. Although previous research has examined the clinical characteristics of CB, little research has examined whether people with CB manifest cognitive deficits.......Compulsive buying (CB) is a fairly common behavioral problem estimated to affect 5.8% of the population. Although previous research has examined the clinical characteristics of CB, little research has examined whether people with CB manifest cognitive deficits....

  14. Compulsive Buying: Earlier Illicit Drug Use, Impulse Buying, Depression, and Adult ADHD Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W.; Leukefeld, Carl G.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the association between psychosocial antecedents, including illicit drug use, and adult compulsive buying (CB) across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Participants originally came from a community-based random sample of residents in two upstate New York counties. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant’s earlier psychosocial antecedents and adult CB in the fifth decade of life. The results of the multivariate linear regression analyses showed that gender (female), earlier adult impulse buying (IB), depressive mood, illicit drug use, and concurrent ADHD symptoms were all significantly associated with adult CB at mean age 43. It is important that clinicians treating CB in adults should consider the role of drug use, symptoms of ADHD, IB, depression, and family factors in CB. PMID:26165963

  15. Alterations in Striatal Circuits Underlying Addiction-Like Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Lee, Joo Han; Yun, Kyunghwa; Kim, Joung-Hun

    2017-06-30

    Drug addiction is a severe psychiatric disorder characterized by the compulsive pursuit of drugs of abuse despite potential adverse consequences. Although several decades of studies have revealed that psychostimulant use can result in extensive alterations of neural circuits and physiology, no effective therapeutic strategies or medicines for drug addiction currently exist. Changes in neuronal connectivity and regulation occurring after repeated drug exposure contribute to addiction-like behaviors in animal models. Among the involved brain areas, including those of the reward system, the striatum is the major area of convergence for glutamate, GABA, and dopamine transmission, and this brain region potentially determines stereotyped behaviors. Although the physiological consequences of striatal neurons after drug exposure have been relatively well documented, it remains to be clarified how changes in striatal connectivity underlie and modulate the expression of addiction-like behaviors. Understanding how striatal circuits contribute to addiction-like behaviors may lead to the development of strategies that successfully attenuate drug-induced behavioral changes. In this review, we summarize the results of recent studies that have examined striatal circuitry and pathway-specific alterations leading to addiction-like behaviors to provide an updated framework for future investigations.

  16. Clinical Considerations when Tailoring Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Young Children with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate-Summers, Molly L.; Freeman, Jennifer B.; Garcia, Abbe M.; Coyne, Lisa; Przeworski, Amy; Leonard, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    Research on the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy, and in particular, exposure with response prevention for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), has only been systematically evaluated in children and adolescents ages 7-17. These treatments do not address the unique characteristics of young children with OCD. This paper discusses…

  17. The role of brands in the behavior and purchase decisions of compulsive versus noncompulsive buyers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horváth, C.; Birgelen, M.J.H. van

    2015-01-01

    - Purpose – This article investigates the role that brands play in influencing the behavior and purchase decisions of compulsive buyers and whether this role differs for noncompulsive buyers, resulting in four research propositions. - Design/methodology/approach – In-depth interviews, conducted with

  18. Role of Dopamine Signaling in Drug Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wan; Nong, Zhihuan; Li, Yaoxuan; Huang, Jianping; Chen, Chunxia; Huang, Luying

    2017-01-01

    Addiction is a chronic, relapsing disease of the brain that includes drug-induced compulsive seeking behavior and consumption of drugs. Dopamine (DA) is considered to be critical in drug addiction due to reward mechanisms in the midbrain. In this article, we review the major animal models in addictive drug experiments in vivo and in vitro. We discuss the relevance of the structure and pharmacological function of DA receptors. To improve the understanding of the role of DA receptors in reward pathways, specific brain regions, including the Ventral tegmental area, Nucleus accumbens, Prefrontal cortex, and Habenula, are highlighted. These factors contribute to the development of novel therapeutic targets that act at DA receptors. In addiction, the development of neuroimaging method will increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying drug addiction. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Study of compulsive buying in depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejoyeux, M; Tassain, V; Solomon, J; Adès, J

    1997-04-01

    Compulsive buying is defined by the presence of repetitive impulsive and excessive buying leading to personal and familial distress. Patients with this disorder also suffer from mood disorder in 50% to 100% of the cases studied, and antidepressants help to decrease the frequency and the severity of uncontrolled buying. To define the correlation between compulsive buying and depression, we assessed this behavior among 119 inpatients answering to DSM-III-R criteria for major depressive episode. Additionally, we evaluated for comorbidity in the patients suffering from compulsive buying and in those free from this disorder. Impulsivity and sensation seeking were also compared in the two groups. Diagnosis of compulsive buying was made using standardized criteria and a specific rating scale. Diagnosis of depression and assessment of comorbidity were investigated using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and a modified version of the Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview. All patients answered the Zuckerman Sensation-Seeking Scale and the Barrat Impulsivity Rating Scale. The prevalence of the disorder was 31.9%; 38 of the 119 depressed patients were diagnosed as compulsive buyers. Patients from the compulsive buying group were younger in age, more often women than men, and more frequently unmarried. They presented more often than others with recurrent depression (relative risk = 1.4), disorders associated with deficits in impulse control such as kleptomania (relative risk = 8.5) or bulimia (relative risk = 2.8), benzodiazepine abuse or dependence disorder (relative risk = 4.7), and two or more dependence disorders (relative risk = 1.99). Subscores for experience seeking using the Zuckerman Sensation-Seeking Scale were significantly higher (p = .04) and scores of impulsivity were much higher (p buying behavior. Compulsive buying is frequent among depressed patients. In most cases, the behavior is associated with other impulse control disorders or dependence

  20. [Obsessive-compulsive disorder. A hidden disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldsson, Magnús

    2015-02-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a common and often chronic psychiatric illness that significantly interferes with the patient´s functioning and quality of life. The disorder is characterized by excessive intrusive and inappropriate anxiety evoking thoughts as well as time consuming compulsions that cause significant impairment and distress. The symptoms are often accompanied by shame and guilt and the knowledge of the general public and professional community about the disorder is limited. Hence it is frequently misdiagnosed or diagnosed late. There are indications that the disorder is hereditary and that neurobiological processes are involved in its pathophysiology. Several psychological theories about the causes of obsessive-compulsive disorder are supported by empirical evidence. Evidence based treatment is either with serotoninergic medications or cognitive behavioral therapy, particularly a form of behavioral therapy called exposure response prevention. Better treatment options are needed because almost a third of people with obsessive-compulsive disorder respond inadequatly to treatment. In this review article two cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder are presented. The former case is a young man with typical symptoms that respond well to treatment and the latter is a middle aged lady with severe treatment resistant symptoms. She underwent stereotactic implantation of electrodes and received deep brain stimulation, which is an experimental treatment for severe obsessive-compulsive disorder that does not respond to any conventional treatment. Landspitali University Hospital, Division of Psychiatry. Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland.

  1. Dysfunctional beliefs in group and individual cognitive behavioral therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Hjalti; Hougaard, Esben; Bennedsen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of the study was to investigate dysfunctional beliefs in the form of inflated responsibility (IR) and thought action fusion (TAF) as predictive and mediating variables in Individual (n = 33) and Group (n = 37) Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD...... of the study with pre-and post-therapy measurements only does not allow for a causal mediator analysis...

  2. Reports of pathological gambling, hypersexuality, and compulsive shopping associated with dopamine receptor agonist drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas J; Glenmullen, Joseph; Mattison, Donald R

    2014-12-01

    Severe impulse control disorders involving pathological gambling, hypersexuality, and compulsive shopping have been reported in association with the use of dopamine receptor agonist drugs in case series and retrospective patient surveys. These agents are used to treat Parkinson disease, restless leg syndrome, and hyperprolactinemia. To analyze serious adverse drug event reports about these impulse control disorders received by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and to assess the relationship of these case reports with the 6 FDA-approved dopamine receptor agonist drugs. We conducted a retrospective disproportionality analysis based on the 2.7 million serious domestic and foreign adverse drug event reports from 2003 to 2012 extracted from the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System. Cases were selected if they contained any of 10 preferred terms in the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) that described the abnormal behaviors. We used the proportional reporting ratio (PRR) to compare the proportion of target events to all serious events for the study drugs with a similar proportion for all other drugs. We identified 1580 events indicating impulse control disorders from the United States and 21 other countries:710 fordopamine receptor agonist drugs and 870 for other drugs. The dopamine receptor agonist drugs had a strong signal associated with these impulse control disorders (n = 710; PRR = 277.6, P < .001). The association was strongest for the dopamine agonists pramipexole (n = 410; PRR = 455.9, P < .001) and ropinirole (n = 188; PRR = 152.5, P < .001), with preferential affinity for the dopamine D3 receptor. A signal was also seen for aripiprazole, an antipsychotic classified as a partial agonist of the D3 receptor (n = 37; PRR = 8.6, P < .001). Our findings confirm and extend the evidence that dopamine receptor agonist drugs are associated with these specific impulse control disorders. At present

  3. Heritability of compulsive Internet use in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Vink, Jacqueline M.; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C. E. M.; Huppertz, Charlotte; Bartels, Meike; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Over the past decades, Internet use has grown substantially, and it now serves people as a supportive tool that is used regularly and?in large parts of the world?inevitably. Some people develop problematic Internet use, which may lead to addictive behavior and it is becoming important to explore the risk factors for compulsive Internet use. Data were analyzed on compulsive Internet use [with the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS)] from 5247 monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) adole...

  4. Heritability of compulsive Internet use in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Vink, J.M.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Huppertz, C.; Bartels, M.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, Internet use has grown substantially, and it now serves people as a supportive tool that is used regularly and - in large parts of the world - inevitably. Some people develop problematic Internet use, which may lead to addictive behavior and it is becoming important to explore the risk factors for compulsive Internet use. Data were analyzed on compulsive Internet use [with the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS)] from 5247 monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) adolescent...

  5. Obsessive-compulsive disorder, impulse control disorders and drug addiction: common features and potential treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Oostermeijer, Sanne; Harrison, Ben J; Pantelis, Christos; Yücel, Murat

    2011-05-07

    The basic concepts underlying compulsive, impulsive and addictive behaviours overlap, which may help explain why laymen use these expressions interchangeably. Although there has been a large research effort to better characterize and disentangle these behaviours, clinicians and scientists are still unable to clearly differentiate them. Accordingly, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), impulse control disorders (ICD) and substance-related disorders (SUD) overlap on different levels, including phenomenology, co-morbidity, neurocircuitry, neurocognition, neurochemistry and family history. In this review we summarize these issues with particular emphasis on the role of the opioid system in the pathophysiology and treatment of OCD, ICD and SUD. We postulate that with progression and chronicity of OCD, the proportion of the OCD-related behaviours (e.g. checking, washing, ordering and hoarding, among others) that are driven by impulsive 'rash' processes increase as involvement of more ventral striatal circuits becomes prominent. In contrast, as SUD and ICD progress, the proportion of the SUD- and ICD-related behaviours that are driven by compulsive 'habitual' processes increase as involvement of more dorsal striatal circuits become prominent. We are not arguing that, with time, ICD becomes OCD or vice versa. Instead, we are proposing that these disorders may acquire qualities of the other with time. In other words, while patients with ICD/SUD may develop 'compulsive impulsions', patients with OCD may exhibit 'impulsive compulsions'. There are many potential implications of our model. Theoretically, OCD patients exhibiting impulsive or addictive features could be managed with drugs that address the quality of the underlying drives and the involvement of neural systems. For example, agents for the reduction or prevention of relapse of addiction (e.g. heavy drinking), which modulate the cortico-mesolimbic dopamine system through the opioid (e.g. buprenorphine and naltrexone

  6. Compulsive carnival song whistling following cardiac arrest: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polak, A. Rosaura; van der Paardt, Jasper W.; Figee, Martijn; Vulink, Nienke; de Koning, Pelle; Olff, Miranda; Denys, Damiaan

    2012-01-01

    Compulsivity is the repetitive, irresistible urge to perform a behavior, the experience of loss of voluntary control over this intense urge and the tendency to perform repetitive acts in a habitual or stereotyped manner. Compulsivity is part of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but may

  7. Compulsive buying: Earlier illicit drug use, impulse buying, depression, and adult ADHD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Judith S; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W; Leukefeld, Carl G

    2015-08-30

    This longitudinal study examined the association between psychosocial antecedents, including illicit drug use, and adult compulsive buying (CB) across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Participants originally came from a community-based random sample of residents in two upstate New York counties. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant's earlier psychosocial antecedents and adult CB in the fifth decade of life. The results of the multivariate linear regression analyses showed that gender (female), earlier adult impulse buying (IB), depressive mood, illicit drug use, and concurrent ADHD symptoms were all significantly associated with adult CB at mean age 43. It is important that clinicians treating CB in adults should consider the role of drug use, symptoms of ADHD, IB, depression, and family factors in CB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Compulsive buying and branding phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung-hee; Workman, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this paper was to explore the impact of brand variables such as brand awareness, brand loyalty, brand attachment, and perceived brand quality on compulsive buying behavior. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire, containing demographic items and items related to compulsive buying, brand awareness, brand loyalty, brand attachment and perceived quality, was used to collect data. Results: Participants were 269 US university students at a large mid-western universit...

  9. Sexual Compulsivity Comorbidity With Depression, Anxiety, and Substance Use in Students From Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzanan Berberovic

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to examine relationships between sexual compulsivity, depression (including level of self-esteem anxiety, and the use of tobacco, alcohol and drugs in a sample of 1,711 students from Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Sexual compulsivity, depression, and anxiety were measured with standardized scales and inventories (the Sexual Compulsivity Scale – SCS, the Beck Depression Inventory – BDI, and the Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait, STAI-T, respectively, whereas specific questions about tobacco, alcohol, and drug use were modified for the purpose of this study. Results indicated positive, significant but low correlations between sexual compulsivity and depression; sexual compulsivity and anxiety; and sexual compulsivity and substance use; whereas a low, negative but significant correlation was obtained between sexual compulsivity and self-esteem. The strongest predictor of sexual compulsivity was drug use; two other significant predictors were alcohol and depression. Limitations of the study are discussed in the end.

  10. Bupropion Augmentation in a Case of Compulsive Buying Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepede, Gianna; Di Iorio, Giuseppe; Sarchione, Fabiola; Fiori, Federica; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) is a condition characterized by excessive preoccupations, impulses, and behaviors regarding buying, resulting in serious psychological, social, and financial problems. Even though it has not been included in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, "behavioral addictions" section, CBD is a hot topic in current clinical psychiatry, because of its relevant prevalence (at least 5% in adult populations) and severe effect on quality of life.The CBD shares some clinical features with substance-related and behavioral addictions, impulse control disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorder, and it is often comorbid with other psychiatric illnesses (especially depressive and anxiety disorders). The treatment of CBD is therefore difficult, and clear therapeutic guidelines are not yet available. Treating the comorbid disorders as the first-line approach, or combining drugs with different pharmacodynamic profiles, has been suggested to address this challenging condition. A 60-year-old woman affected by a severe form of CBD with comorbid major depressive disorder, resistant/intolerant to previous selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatments and only partially responder to mirtazapine, achieved a good clinical improvement adding bupropion. Combining 2 agents with different pharmacological profiles and mechanisms of action, such as bupropion and mirtazapine, could be a useful strategy in the management of complex CBD cases.

  11. Executive Functioning of Sexually Compulsive and Non-Sexually Compulsive Men Before and After Watching an Erotic Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Bruna; Fuentes, Daniel; Tavares, Hermano; Abdo, Carmita H N; Scanavino, Marco de T

    2017-03-01

    Despite the serious behavioral consequences faced by individuals with sexual compulsivity, related neuropsychological studies are sparse. To compare decision making and cognitive flexibility at baseline and after exposure to an erotic video in sexually compulsive participants and non-sexually compulsive controls. The sample consisted of 30 sexually compulsive men and 30 controls. Cognitive flexibility was investigated through the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and decision making was examined through the Iowa Gambling Task. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test categories, correct responses, and perseverative errors and Iowa Gambling Task general trends and blocks. Sexually compulsive subjects and controls performed similarly at baseline. After watching an erotic video, controls performed better in block 1 of the Iowa Gambling Task (P = .01) and had more correct responses on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (P = .01). The controls presented fewer impulsive initial choices and better cognitive flexibility after exposure to erotic stimuli. Messina B, Fuentes D, Tavares H, et al. Executive Functioning of Sexually Compulsive and Non-Sexually Compulsive Men Before and After Watching an Erotic Video. J Sex Med 2017;14:347-354. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Compulsive buying disorder: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald W

    2007-02-01

    Compulsive buying disorder is characterized by excessive or poorly controlled preoccupations, urges, or behaviors regarding shopping and spending that lead to subjective distress or impaired functioning. Compulsive buying disorder is estimated to have a lifetime prevalence of 5.8% in the United States general adult population. In clinical settings, most individuals with compulsive buying disorder are women (approximately 80%). This gender difference may be artifactual. Compulsive buying disorder is typically chronic or intermittent, with an age of onset in the late teens or early 20s. Comorbid mood and anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, eating disorders, and other disorders of impulse control are common, as are Axis II disorders. The disorder occurs worldwide, mainly in developed countries with market-based economies, and it tends to run in families with mood disorders and substance abuse. There is no standard treatment for compulsive buying disorder, but group cognitive-behavioral models seem promising, and psychopharmacologic treatments are being actively studied. Other treatment options include simplicity circles, 12-step programs, financial counseling, bibliotherapy, marital therapy, and financial counseling. Directions for future research are discussed.

  13. Novelty Seeking and Drug Addiction in Humans and Animals: From Behavior to Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Taylor; Nesil, Tanseli; Choi, Jung-Seok; Li, Ming D

    2016-09-01

    Global treatment of drug addiction costs society billions of dollars annually, but current psychopharmacological therapies have not been successful at desired rates. The increasing number of individuals suffering from substance abuse has turned attention to what makes some people more vulnerable to drug addiction than others. One personality trait that stands out as a contributing factor is novelty seeking. Novelty seeking, affected by both genetic and environmental factors, is defined as the tendency to desire novel stimuli and environments. It can be measured in humans through questionnaires and in rodents using behavioral tasks. On the behavioral level, both human and rodent studies demonstrate that high novelty seeking can predict the initiation of drug use and a transition to compulsive drug use and create a propensity to relapse. These predictions are valid for several drugs of abuse, such as alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, amphetamine, and opiates. On the molecular level, both novelty seeking and addiction are modulated by the central reward system in the brain. Dopamine is the primary neurotransmitter involved in the overlapping neural substrates of both parameters. In sum, the novelty-seeking trait can be valuable for predicting individual vulnerability to drug addiction and for generating successful treatment for patients with substance abuse disorders.

  14. The relation among perfectionism, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder in individuals with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmi, Katherine A; Tozzi, Federica; Thornton, Laura M; Crow, Scott; Fichter, Manfred M; Kaplan, Allan S; Keel, Pamela; Klump, Kelly L; Lilenfeld, Lisa R; Mitchell, James E; Plotnicov, Katherine H; Pollice, Christine; Rotondo, Alessandro; Strober, Michael; Woodside, D Blake; Berrettini, Wade H; Kaye, Walter H; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2005-12-01

    Perfectionism and obsessionality are core features of eating disorders (ED), yet the nature of their relation remains unknown. Understanding the relation between these traits may enhance our ability to identify relevant behavioral endophenotypes for ED. Six-hundred seven individuals with anorexia and bulimia nervosa from the International Price Foundation Genetic Study were assessed for perfectionism, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). No differences were found across ED subtypes in the prevalence of OCPD and OCD, nor with the association between OCD and OCPD. Perfectionism scores were highest in individuals with OCPD whether alone or in combination with OCD. Perfectionism appears to be more closely associated with obsessive-compulsive personality symptoms rather than OCD. The pairing of perfectionism with OCPD may be a relevant core behavioral feature underlying vulnerability to ED. Copyright 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Behavioral Effects of a Novel Benzofuranyl-Piperazine Serotonin-2C Receptor Agonist Suggest a Potential Therapeutic Application in the Treatment of Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M. Rodriguez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs are the only effective pharmacological treatments for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD. Nonetheless, their generally limited efficacy, side-effects, and delayed onset of action require improved medications for this highly prevalent disorder. Preclinical and clinical findings have suggested serotonin2C (5-HT2C receptors as a potential drug target. Data in rats and mice are presented here on the effects of a novel 5-HT2C receptor agonist ((3S-3-Methyl-1-[4-(trifluoromethyl-7-benzofuranyl]-piperazine (CPD 1 with high potency and full efficacy at 5-HT2C receptors and less potency and partial agonism at 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors. Effects of CPD 1 on consummatory (schedule-induced polydipsia in rats and non-consummatory behaviors (marble-burying and nestlet-shredding in mice that are repetitive and non-habituating were studied. We also evaluated the effects of CPD 1 in rats with isoproterenol- and deprivation-induced drinking in rats to compare with the polydipsia studies. The SSRIs, fluoxetine, and chlomipramine decreased the high rates of drinking in rats engendered by a schedule of intermittent food delivery (schedule-induced polydipsia. The effects of fluoxetine, but not of d-amphetamine, were prevented by the selective 5-HT2C receptor antagonist SB242084. The 5-HT2C receptor agonists Ro 60-0175 and CPD 1 also decreased drinking, but unlike the SSRIs and Ro 60-0175, CPD 1 dose-dependently decreased excessive drinking without affecting lever press responses that produced food. The effects of CPD 1 were prevented by SB242084. CPD 1 also suppressed drinking induced by isoproterenol and by water deprivation without affecting normative drinking behavior. CPD 1, like fluoxetine, also suppressed marble-burying and nestlet-shredding in mice at doses that did not affect rotarod performance or locomotor activity. The behavioral specificity of effects of CPD 1 against repetitive and excessive behaviors

  16. Dimensions of Compulsive Exercise across Eating Disorder Diagnostic Subtypes and the Validation of the Spanish Version of the Compulsive Exercise Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauchelli, Sarah; Arcelus, Jon; Granero, Roser; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Agüera, Zaida; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Compulsive exercise in eating disorders has been traditionally considered as a behavior that serves the purpose of weight/shape control. More recently, it has been postulated that there may be other factors that drive the compulsive need to exercise. This has led to the development of the Compulsive Exercise Test (CET); a self-reported questionnaire that aims to explore the cognitive-behavioral underpinnings of compulsive exercise from a multi-faceted perspective. The objectives of this study were threefold: (1) to validate the Spanish version of the CET; (2) to compare eating disorder diagnostic subtypes and a healthy control group in terms of the factors that drive compulsive exercise as defined by the CET; (3) to explore how the dimensions evaluated in the CET are associated with eating disorder symptoms and general psychopathology. Methods: The CET was administered to a total of 157 patients with an eating disorder [40 anorexia nervosa, 56 bulimia nervosa (BN), and 61 eating disorder not-otherwise-specified (EDNOS)] and 128 healthy weight/eating controls. Patients were assessed via a semi-structured interview to reach a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis. Additionally, all participants completed the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90R) and the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2). Results: Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated adequate goodness-of-fit to the original five-factor model of the CET. BN and EDNOS patients scored higher in the avoidance and rule-driven behavior, weight control, and total CET scales in comparison to the healthy controls, and higher across all scales apart from the exercise rigidity scale compared to the anorexia nervosa patients. Mean scores of the anorexia nervosa patients did not differ to those of the control participants, except for the mood improvement scale where the anorexia nervosa patients obtained a lower mean score. Mean scores between the BN and EDNOS patients were equivalent. The CET scales avoidance and rule

  17. Capacity to Delay Reward Differentiates Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Anthony; Steinglass, Joanna E.; Greene, Ashley L.; Weber, Elke U.; Simpson, H. Blair

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the relationship between obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has long been debated, clinical samples of OCD (without OCPD) and OCPD (without OCD) have never been systematically compared. We studied whether individuals with OCD, OCPD, or both conditions differ on symptomatology, functioning, and a measure of self-control: the capacity to delay reward. Methods 25 OCD, 25 OCPD, 25 comorbid OCD+OCPD, and 25 healthy controls (HC) completed clinical assessments and a validated intertemporal choice task that measures capacity to forego small immediate rewards for larger delayed rewards. Results OCD and OCPD subjects both showed impairment in psychosocial functioning and quality of life, as well as compulsive behavior, but only subjects with OCD reported obsessions. Individuals with OCPD, with or without comorbid OCD, discounted the value of delayed monetary rewards significantly less than OCD and HC. This excessive capacity to delay reward discriminates OCPD from OCD, and is associated with perfectionism and rigidity. Conclusions OCD and OCPD are both impairing disorders marked by compulsive behaviors, but they can be differentiated by the presence of obsessions in OCD and by excessive capacity to delay reward in OCPD. That individuals with OCPD show less temporal discounting (suggestive of excessive self-control) whereas prior studies have shown that individuals with substance use disorders show greater discounting (suggestive of impulsivity) supports the premise that this component of self-control lies on a continuum in which both extremes (impulsivity and overcontrol) contribute to psychopathology. PMID:24199665

  18. High fat diet and food restriction differentially modify the behavioral effects of quinpirole and raclopride in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baladi, Michelle G; France, Charles P

    2009-05-21

    Nutritional status can impact dopamine systems in a manner that might be important to understanding possible common neurobiological mechanisms that mediate abnormal compulsive food (e.g., obesity) and drug taking. Limiting food intake, for example, can increase sensitivity to the behavioral effects of indirect-acting dopamine receptor agonists. Much less is known regarding possible diet-induced changes in sensitivity to direct-acting dopamine receptor drugs. The present study investigated the effects of a high fat diet and of food restriction on sensitivity of rats to the behavioral effects of a direct-acting dopamine receptor agonist and a dopamine receptor antagonist. Free access to high fat chow increased sensitivity to quinpirole-induced yawning without changing sensitivity to raclopride-induced catalepsy or quinpirole-induced hypothermia. Food restriction (10 g/day) decreased sensitivity to quinpirole-induced yawning and raclopride-induced catalepsy without affecting sensitivity to quinpirole-induced hypothermia. Free access to a standard chow restored sensitivity to the behavioral effects of both drugs in rats that were previously food-restricted but not in rats that previously ate a high fat diet. These data confirm that food restriction can decrease sensitivity to behavioral effects of direct-acting dopamine receptor drugs, they provide evidence (i.e., no change in hypothermic effects) indicating that these changes are not due to pharmacokinetic mechanisms, and they provide initial evidence showing enhanced sensitivity to behavioral effects of dopamine receptor drugs in rats eating a high fat diet. These changes in sensitivity of dopamine systems could be relevant to understanding the impact of nutrition on therapeutic and recreational drug use.

  19. Different facets of compulsive buying among Chinese students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Unger, Alexander; Bi, Chongzeng

    2014-12-01

    Compulsive buying is a severe phenomenon, especially among younger consumers. It is well documented in Western industrial societies like the USA and Germany, and nowadays an increasing interest in compulsive buying in non-Western countries is on the rise. In the current study, we measured the prevalence of compulsive buying tendencies among Chinese female and male students by using a Chinese translation of the German Compulsive Buying Scale (Raab, Neuner, Reisch & Scherhorn, 2005). We examined the influence of gender, location and age using ANCOVA, and binary logistic regression. Factor analysis identified three factorial dimensions of compulsive buying tendencies which are impairment of impulse control and reactive or compensatory aspects, reduced rationality according to money spending, and post-purchase guilt. Our results indicated that about 6.7% of the sample shows a compulsive buying pattern, and that females are more affected. For location, a geographic difference between Chongqing and Fuzhou was found for the overall compulsive tendencies, but not for the percentages of compulsive buyers. In sum, the existing study provides evidence that Chinese consumers have a factorial structure which differs somewhat in compulsive buying from Western samples. Observations about gender and location were considered. These findings give a deeper understanding of China’s compulsive buying behavior.

  20. The Role of Self-esteem and Fear of Negative Evaluation in Compulsive Buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biolcati, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    Compulsive buying is a relatively new addictive disorder that interferes with everyday functioning and may result in serious psychological and financial problems (1). A very few data are currently available regarding this behavioral addiction. This study investigated gender differences in the relationships between contingent self-esteem (CSE), fear of negative evaluation (FNE), and compulsive buying. Participants included 240 Italian adults (170 females, M age = 33.80) who responded to self-report questionnaires. The results showed that women scored higher on CSE and FNE scales than men. No gender differences were found in compulsive buying tendencies. CSE and FNE were positively related to CB. Furthermore, structural equation modeling confirmed the evidence on CSE as a strong predictor of CB for both genders. Interestingly, FNE seems to play a mediating role between CSE and compulsive buying behaviors only for women. These findings highlight the importance of studying self-esteem in compulsive buying tendencies to inquire more deeply into the underlying mechanisms of some compulsive behaviors.

  1. The Role of Self-esteem and Fear of Negative Evaluation in Compulsive Buying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Biolcati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Compulsive buying is a relatively new addictive disorder that interferes with everyday functioning and may result in serious psychological and financial problems (1. A very few data are currently available regarding this behavioral addiction. This study investigated gender differences in the relationships between contingent self-esteem (CSE, fear of negative evaluation (FNE, and compulsive buying. Participants included 240 Italian adults (170 females, M age = 33.80 who responded to self-report questionnaires. The results showed that women scored higher on CSE and FNE scales than men. No gender differences were found in compulsive buying tendencies. CSE and FNE were positively related to CB. Furthermore, structural equation modeling confirmed the evidence on CSE as a strong predictor of CB for both genders. Interestingly, FNE seems to play a mediating role between CSE and compulsive buying behaviors only for women. These findings highlight the importance of studying self-esteem in compulsive buying tendencies to inquire more deeply into the underlying mechanisms of some compulsive behaviors.

  2. A Study on the Factors Affecting Compulsive Purchasing Behavior of Y Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Kaderli, Yusuf; Aksu Armağan, Ece; Küçükkambak, Selçuk Efe

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine thefactors that affect the compulsive buying behaviors of the Y generations, whichtoday constitute a large part of Turkey’s population. The data collected by 390people in the study were subjected to various analyzes in the SPSS packageprogram and it was found that the attitudes of the individuals in the Ydirection to the money, the attitude towards the credit card and the attitudeof materialism differ according to the socio-demographic variables and theus...

  3. Response to Cognitive impulsivity and the behavioral addiction model of obsessive-compulsive disorder: Abramovitch and McKay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grassi, Giacomo; Figee, Martjin; Stratta, Paolo; Rossi, Alessandro; Pallanti, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    In our recently published article, we investigated the behavioral addiction model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), by assessing three core dimensions of addiction in patients with OCD healthy participants. Similar to the common findings in addiction, OCD patients demonstrated increased

  4. Sexual Compulsivity in Gay Men: Controversy and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincu, Lester

    1989-01-01

    Discusses addictive model of compulsive sex among some homosexual men. Describes commonalities between two most prevalent and successful approaches used to treat this disorder: group treatment and self-help Twelve Step addictive model. Contends that, whether compulsive sexual behavior is accepted as an addiction, the addictive model itself seems…

  5. Executive function predicts cognitive-behavioral therapy response in childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybel, Katja Anna; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lambek, Rikke

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is considered first-line treatment for childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Despite CBT's efficacy, too many children and adolescents do not fully respond to treatment, making the identification of predictors of treatment response highly relevant...... in CBT for childhood OCD and denotes a possible need for development of enhanced treatments for children and adolescents with OCD and superior EF performance........ Daily life EF behavior in OCD probands improved after treatment relative to controls. The findings suggest that EF performance impacts CBT outcome, and that exposure-based CBT is well-suited for children and adolescents with OCD and poorer EF test performance. This study supports the relevance of EF...

  6. Compulsive buying disorder: an untreated patient for 20 years

    OpenAIRE

    Gonca Karakus; Lut Tamam

    2017-01-01

    Compulsive buying disorder is characterized by impulsive drives and compulsive behaviors (buying unneeded things), personal distress, impaired social and vocational functioning and financial problems. In this case report, we presented diagnostic and treatment process of 49 year old, female patient who had complaints amnesia, weight loss and insomnia. In her medical history, she had compulsive buying disorder for nearly twenty years but untreated until her current evaluation. Comorbid psychi...

  7. Forgetting what you have checked: a link between working memory impairment and checking behaviors in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafari, N; Frasca, M; Rigalleau, F; Rachid, F; Gil, R; Olié, J-P; Guehl, D; Burbaud, P; Aouizerate, B; Rotgé, J-Y; Vibert, N

    2013-02-01

    Compulsive checking behaviors are common in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Several authors have suggested that these checking rituals could be related to memory deficits. Our aim was to test whether patients with OCD show working memory impairment in relation to their checking behavior. We evaluated the verbal and visuospatial components of patients' and controls' working memory using the reading span and backward location span tests. Checking behaviors were measured by recording participants' eye movements during an image comparison task using a non-invasive, infra-red TOBII 1750 eyetracker. Participants were seated, head-free, in a natural position in front of the eyetracker screen where the images were displayed. Patients with OCD made more gaze moves to compare images than controls. Both patients' working memory spans were reduced, and the patients' deficit in the comparison task was negatively related to their working memory spans. This work demonstrates that checking behavior in OCD is linked to a general reduction of the patients' verbal and visuospatial working memory span. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Capacity to delay reward differentiates obsessive-compulsive disorder and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Anthony; Steinglass, Joanna E; Greene, Ashley L; Weber, Elke U; Simpson, H Blair

    2014-04-15

    Although the relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has long been debated, clinical samples of OCD (without OCPD) and OCPD (without OCD) have never been systematically compared. We studied whether individuals with OCD, OCPD, or both conditions differ on symptomatology, functioning, and a measure of self-control: the capacity to delay reward. Twenty-five OCD, 25 OCPD, 25 comorbid OCD + OCPD, and 25 healthy control subjects completed clinical assessments and a validated intertemporal choice task that measures capacity to forego small immediate rewards for larger delayed rewards. OCD and OCPD subjects both showed impairment in psychosocial functioning and quality of life, as well as compulsive behavior, but only subjects with OCD reported obsessions. Individuals with OCPD, with or without comorbid OCD, discounted the value of delayed monetary rewards significantly less than OCD and healthy control subjects. This excessive capacity to delay reward discriminates OCPD from OCD and is associated with perfectionism and rigidity. OCD and OCPD are both impairing disorders marked by compulsive behaviors, but they can be differentiated by the presence of obsessions in OCD and by excessive capacity to delay reward in OCPD. That individuals with OCPD show less temporal discounting (suggestive of excessive self-control), whereas prior studies have shown that individuals with substance use disorders show greater discounting (suggestive of impulsivity), supports the premise that this component of self-control lies on a continuum in which both extremes (impulsivity and overcontrol) contribute to psychopathology. © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry Published by Society of Biological Psychiatry All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental evidence for the influence of cognitions on compulsive buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Paul; Moulding, Richard; Kyrios, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Compulsive buying is a disabling condition, where individuals are unable to resist or control their buying behavior, leading to substantial social and financial problems. Cognitive models implicate the role of beliefs as one factor in buying behavior, for example, "this item is unique and will help me improve my life". This study experimentally examined the contribution of such beliefs to the disorder, in individuals who compulsively buy (N = 18) and in non-clinical controls (N = 17). Participants were presented with photographs of idiosyncratically appealing and unappealing items, in the context of imagined scenarios that either minimized or maximized aspects relevant to hypothesized "compulsive buying beliefs" (i.e., beliefs that acquisition can compensate for negative feelings, beliefs regarding uniqueness and lost opportunities, and emotional reasons for buying). It was found that individuals who compulsively buy demonstrated stronger urges to purchase than control participants, regardless of context, but the overall strength of these urges was responsive to manipulations of beliefs about consumer items said to be associated with compulsive buying. The main limitation of the study was a small sample size, potentially reducing power. Nonetheless, these findings provide insights into the processes underlying compulsive phenomena, in particular supporting the role of cognitions in compulsive buying. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Neuroimaging of psychotherapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorsen, A.L.; van den Heuvel, O.A.; Hansen, B.; Kvale, G.

    2015-01-01

    The symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) include intrusive thoughts, compulsive behavior, anxiety, and cognitive inflexibility, which are associated with dysfunction in dorsal and ventral corticostriato-thalamocortical (CSTC) circuits. Psychotherapy involving exposure and response

  11. Neural and psychological mechanisms underlying compulsive drug seeking habits and drug memories--indications for novel treatments of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everitt, Barry J

    2014-07-01

    This review discusses the evidence for the hypothesis that the development of drug addiction can be understood in terms of interactions between Pavlovian and instrumental learning and memory mechanisms in the brain that underlie the seeking and taking of drugs. It is argued that these behaviours initially are goal-directed, but increasingly become elicited as stimulus-response habits by drug-associated conditioned stimuli that are established by Pavlovian conditioning. It is further argued that compulsive drug use emerges as the result of a loss of prefrontal cortical inhibitory control over drug seeking habits. Data are reviewed that indicate these transitions from use to abuse to addiction depend upon shifts from ventral to dorsal striatal control over behaviour, mediated in part by serial connectivity between the striatum and midbrain dopamine systems. Only some individuals lose control over their drug use, and the importance of behavioural impulsivity as a vulnerability trait predicting stimulant abuse and addiction in animals and humans, together with consideration of an emerging neuroendophenotype for addiction are discussed. Finally, the potential for developing treatments for addiction is considered in light of the neuropsychological advances that are reviewed, including the possibility of targeting drug memory reconsolidation and extinction to reduce Pavlovian influences on drug seeking as a means of promoting abstinence and preventing relapse. © 2014 The Author. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. DIMENSIONS OF COMPULSIVE EXERCISE ACROSS EATING DISORDER DIAGNOSTIC SUBTYPES AND THE VALIDATION OF THE SPANISH VERSION OF THE COMPULSIVE EXERCISE TEST.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Sauchelli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Compulsive exercise in eating disorders has been traditionally considered as a behavior that serves the purpose of weight/shape control. More recently, it has been postulated that there may be other factors that drive the compulsive need to exercise. This has led to the development of the Compulsive Exercise Test (CET; a self-reported questionnaire that aims to explore the cognitive-behavioral underpinnings of compulsive exercise from a multi-faceted perspective. The objectives of this study were threefold: 1 To validate the Spanish version of the CET; 2 To compare eating disorder diagnostic subtypes and a healthy control group in terms of the factors that drive compulsive exercise as defined by the CET; 3 To explore how the dimensions evaluated in the CET are associated with eating disorder symptoms and general psychopathology. Methods: The CET was administered to a total of 157 patients with an eating disorder (40 anorexia nervosa, 56 bulimia nervosa, 61 eating disorder not-otherwise-specified (EDNOS and 128 healthy weight/eating controls. Patients were assessed via a semi-structured interview to reach a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis. Additionally, all participants completed the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90R and the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated adequate goodness-of-fit to the original five-factor model of the CET. Bulimia nervosa and EDNOS patients scored higher in the avoidance and rule-driven behavior, weight control and total CET scales in comparison to the healthy controls, and higher across all scales apart from the exercise rigidity scale compared to the anorexia nervosa patients. Mean scores of the anorexia nervosa patients did not differ to those of the control participants, except for the mood improvement scale where the anorexia nervosa patients obtained a lower mean score. Mean scores between the bulimia nervosa and EDNOS patients were equivalent. The CET scales

  13. Investigating Clinically and Scientifically Useful Cut Points on the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Michael H; Raymond, Nancy; Coleman, Eli; Swinburne Romine, Rebecca

    2017-05-01

    One of the major obstacles to conducting epidemiologic research and determining the incidence and prevalence of compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) has been the lack of relevant empirically derived cut points on the various instruments that have been used to measure the concept. To further develop the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI) through exploring predictive validity and developing an empirically determined and clinically useful cut point for defining CSB. A sample of 242 men who have sex with men was recruited from various sites in a moderate-size Midwestern city. Participants were assigned to a CSB group or a control group using an interview for the diagnosis that was patterned after the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. The 22-item CSBI was administered as part of a larger battery of self-report inventories. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were used to compute area-under-the-curve measurements to ascertain the predictive validity of the total scale, the control subscale, and the violence subscale. Cut points were determined through consensus of experts balancing sensitivity and specificity as determined by receiver operating characteristic curves. Analyses indicated that the 22-item CSBI was a good predictor of group membership, as was the 13-item control subscale. The violence subscale added little to the predictive accuracy of the instrument; thus, it likely measures something other than CSB. Two relevant cut points were found, one that minimized false negatives and another, more conservative cut point that minimized false positives. The CSBI as currently configured measures two different constructions and only the control subscale is helpful in diagnosing CSB. Therefore, we decided to eliminate the violence subscale and move forward with a 13-item scale that we have named the CSBI-13. Two cut points were developed from this revised scale, one that is useful as a

  14. Compulsive buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Astrid; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina

    2015-03-01

    Although compulsive buying (CB) seems to be not only prevalent but even increasing in prevalence, it often remains neglected or minimized in clinical settings. There is a need for a greater understanding and recognition of this problem. The aim of this article is to summarize the current knowledge regarding CB and to offer thoughts regarding classification. Review of published literature over the period 1994-2013 through Pubmed/Medline, PsychINFO, and Google Scholar using the key words 'compulsive buying', 'impulsive buying' and 'addictive buying'. CB is defined by a preoccupation with buying and shopping, by frequent buying episodes, or overpowering urges to buy that are experienced as irresistible and senseless. The maladaptive spending behavior is associated with serious psychological, social, occupational, and financial problems. Treatment-seeking patients with CB suffer from substantial psychiatric comorbidity (eg, anxiety and depressive mood disorders, compulsive hoarding, binge eating disorder). Representative surveys revealed prevalence estimates of CB between 6% and 7% and indicate that younger people are more prone to develop CB. Moreover, European data suggest an increase of CB in the adult population over the last 20 years. While there is no evidence for the efficacy of psychopharmacological treatment, group cognitive behavioral therapy has been shown to be effective. The relevance of recognition of CB as mental disorder is undeniable in the face of its estimated prevalence and associated burden. As our understanding of contributing neurobiological and etiological factors is limited, further research should focus on these topics, taking into account the heterogeneity of individuals with CB. There is also a need for specific treatment options and for the development of prevention strategies. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  15. Compulsive masturbation in infantile autism treated by mirtazapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertini, Giorgio; Polito, Emilena; Sarà, Marco; Di Gennaro, Giancarlo; Onorati, Paolo

    2006-05-01

    This case report describes a child with a severe autistic syndrome worsened by hypersexual behavior consisting of compulsive masturbatory activity. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been reported to be beneficial in reducing hypersexual behaviors. A treatment with mirtazapine improved the entire clinical autistic picture with the disappearance of masturbation. This result suggests that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors could be useful and promising tools in the treatment of hypersexual behaviors in children with autistic disorders. Moreover, the general, and in some ways unexpected, improvement of the social interaction, communication, and imagination, the dramatic reduction of aloof mannerisms, stereotypes, aggressiveness, and inappropriate emotional response to frustrations, as well as the first appearance of the pragmatic use of language and a strong impetus to emotional development disclosed a new spectrum of possible applications of these drugs, and mirtazapine in particular, suggesting the need for new and more extensive studies on the pharmacotherapy of autism.

  16. Augmentation with naltrexone to treat compulsive sexual behavior: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Nancy C; Grant, Jon E; Coleman, Eli

    2010-02-01

    Compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) is generally characterized by recurrent and intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, and behaviors, which cause individuals distress or impair daily functioning. Descriptive studies of individuals with paraphilic and nonparaphilic CSB indicate that they experience urges to engage in problematic sexual behavior. The opiate antagonist naltrexone has been successfully used to treat a number of disorders in which urges to engage in problematic behavior are a central feature, such as alcoholism. We hypothesized that naltrexone would reduce the urges and behaviors associated with CSB. Records of 19 male patients with CSB who were treated with naltrexone at an outpatient adult sexual health clinic were retrospectively reviewed. Nearly all patients were already taking other psychotropic medications when naltrexone was initiated. Seventeen (89%) of the 19 patients reported a reduction in CSB symptoms when taking naltrexone for a period ranging from 2 months to 2.3 years, as judged by Clinical Global Impression scores of 1 or 2, indicating "very much improved" or "much improved." Five (26%) of the 19 patients chose to discontinue the medication. Naltrexone may be a useful adjunctive treatment for CSB.

  17. The relationship among compulsive buying, compulsive internet use and temperament in a sample of female patients with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Laurence; Müller, Astrid; Norré, Jan; Van Assche, Leen; Wonderlich, Steve; Mitchell, James E

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association among compulsive buying (CB), compulsive internet use (CIU) and reactive/regulative temperament in a sample of 60 female patients with eating disorders. All patients were assessed by means of the Compulsive Buying Scale, the CIU scale, the Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System scales, the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology and the effortful control scale of the Adult Temperament Questionnaire. The results showed a positive association between CB and CIU, both categorized as impulse control disorders, not otherwise specified. Both CB and CIU showed significantly positive correlations with emotional lability, excitement seeking and lack of effortful control (more specifically lack of inhibitory and lack of activation control). The implication of these findings for the treatment of both disorders will be discussed. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  18. Response Inhibition Function of Obsessive-Compulsive Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Lei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of comorbid obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD on response inhibition functions in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Methods: Forty-five obsessive-compulsive patients with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCD + OCPD, 42 obsessive-compulsive patients without obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCD - OCPD and 54 healthy volunteers were selected for the stop-signal task. Results: Obsessive-compulsive patients with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder had a higher score of depression and anxiety and more severe obsessive-compulsive symptoms than that of obsessive-compulsive patients without obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. The two groups of obsessive-compulsive patients of had a greater stop-signal reaction time (SSRT during the inhibition process than the healthy volunteers of the control group (OCD + OCPD: 221.45 ± 31.78; OCD - OCPD: 218.36 ± 31.78; Controls: 199.29 ± 22.80; p < 0.05. However, no significant difference was found between the two groups of obsessive-compulsive patients. Conclusion: The findings show that the comorbid obsessive-compulsive personality disorder has no effect on response inhibition function of obsessive-compulsive patients.

  19. Hoarding behavior among young children with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Hannah; Stewart, Elyse; Walther, Michael; Benito, Kristen; Freeman, Jennifer; Conelea, Christ; Garci, Abbe

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that among the various subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), adults (e.g. Frost, Krause & Steketee, 1996) and older children and adolescents (Bloch et al., 2009; Storch et al., 2007) with problematic hoarding have distinct features and a poor treatment prognosis. However, there is limited information on the phenomenology and prevalence of hoarding behaviors in young children. The present study characterizes children ages 10 and under who present with OCD and hoarding behaviors. Sixty-eight children received a structured interview-determined diagnosis of OCD. Clinician administered, parent-report, and child-report measures on demographic, symptomatic, and diagnostic variables were completed. Clinician ratings of hoarding symptoms and parent and child endorsement of the hoarding item on the CY-BOCS checklist (Scahill, Riddle, McSwiggin-Hardin, & Ort, 1997) determined inclusion in the hoarding group ( n =33). Compared to children without hoarding symptoms ( n =35), the presence of hoarding symptoms was associated with an earlier age of primary diagnosis onset and a higher proportion of ADHD and provisional anxiety diagnoses. These results are partially consistent with the adult literature and with findings in older children (Storch et al., 2007). Additional data on clinical presentation and phenomenology of hoarding are needed to form a developmentally appropriate definition of the behavior.

  20. Compulsive masturbation in a patient with delusional disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sagar Karia; Avinash De Sousa; Nilesh Shah; Sushma Sonavane

    2015-01-01

    Compulsive masturbation is a type of paraphilia related disorder in which a person engages in masturbatory behavior to such an extent that it causes socio-occupational dysfunction. The psychiatric co-morbidities associated with it include mood and anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, etc. Here, we report a case of a patient with the delusional disorder having compulsive masturbation.

  1. Compulsive sexual behavior and psychopathology among treatment-seeking men in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanavino, Marco de Tubino; Ventuneac, Ana; Abdo, Carmita Helena Najjar; Tavares, Hermano; do Amaral, Maria Luiza Sant'ana; Messina, Bruna; dos Reis, Sirlene Caramello; Martins, João Paulo Lian Branco; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2013-10-30

    This study examined compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) and psychopathology in a treatment-seeking sample of men in São Paulo, Brazil. Eighty-six men (26% gay, 17% bisexual, 57% heterosexual) who met diagnostic criteria for excessive sexual drive and sexual addiction completed assessments consisting of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders-Clinical Version (segment for Impulse Control Disorder), Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS), and questions about problematic CSB. The average SCS score for our sample was above the cut-off score reported in other studies, and 72% of the sample presented at least one Axis I psychiatric diagnosis. There were no differences among gay, bisexual, and heterosexual men on SCS scores and psychiatric conditions, but gay and bisexual men were more likely than heterosexual men to report casual sex and sex with multiple casual partners as problematic behaviors. SCS scores were associated with psychiatric co-morbidities, mood disorder, and suicide risk, but diagnosis of a mood disorder predicted higher SCS scores in a regression analysis. The study provides important data on the mental health needs of men with CSB in São Paulo, Brazil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychiatric, behavioral, and attitudinal correlates of avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality pathology in patients with binge-eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Daniel F; Masheb, Robin M; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2010-01-01

    We examined correlates of avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality pathology--with respect to psychiatric comorbidity, eating disorder psychopathology, and associated psychologic factors--in patients with binge-eating disorder (BED). Three hundred forty-seven treatment-seeking patients who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), research criteria for BED were reliably assessed with semistructured interviews to evaluate DSM-IV Axis I disorders, personality disorders, and behavioral and attitudinal features of eating disorder psychopathology. Fifteen percent of subjects had avoidant personality disorder features, 12% had obsessive-compulsive personality disorder features, 8% had features of both disorders, and 66% had features of neither. These groups differed significantly in the frequencies of depressive and anxiety disorders, as well as on measures of psychologic functioning (negative/depressive affect and self-esteem) and eating disorder attitudes (shape and weight concerns). There were no group differences on measures of eating behaviors. The avoidant and obsessive-compulsive groups had more psychiatric comorbidity than the group without these personality features but less than the combined group. The group without these features scored significantly lower than all other groups on negative/depressive affect and significantly higher than the avoidant and combined groups on self-esteem. The combined group had the greatest severity on shape and weight concerns. Avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality features are common in patients with BED. Among BED patients, these forms of personality psychopathology--separately and in combination--are associated with clinically meaningful diagnostic, psychologic, and attitudinal differences. These findings have implications for the psychopathologic relationship between BED and personality psychopathology and may also have implications for assessment and treatment. Copyright

  3. Obsessive-Compulsive-Bipolar Disorder Comorbidity: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Pedro Ribeiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders have been described as features of Bipolar Disorder (BD, and Obsessive-compulsive-bipolar disorder (OCBD may occur in as many as 56% of obsessive-compulsive patients. Mania in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD can occur either as an independent comorbidity or as a result of an antidepressant-induced switch. We report the case of a 38-year-old male with a 3 year diagnosis of OCD treated with antidepressants, admitted due to a manic episode, and describe diagnostic and treatment challenges of this comorbidity.

  4. Prevalence and construct validity of compulsive buying disorder in shopping mall visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraz, Aniko; van den Brink, Wim; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2015-08-30

    Compulsive buying is a relatively new psychopathological concept and very few data are currently available regarding the prevalence and validity of compulsive buying disorder. In this cross-sectional study, we establish the prevalence of compulsive buying disorder in shopping mall visitors and explore the construct validity of the concept using the revised version of the Edwards Compulsive Buying Scale in 1441 shopping mall visitors looking at shopping habits, current substance use (smoking, alcohol and illicit drug) and various psychological characteristics. Overall, 8.7% (95% CI: 7.3-10.3) of our sample was classified as having a compulsive buying disorder. Compulsive buyers were younger, less educated and more likely to be female than non-compulsive buyers. They were also more likely to have used licit and illicit substances. Compulsive buyers also reported higher levels of impulsivity and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, lower levels of well-being and self-esteem and more psychological distress. Finally, compulsive buyers were five times more likely to meet criteria for borderline personality disorder than non-compulsive buyers. Compulsive buying is a frequent disorder in shopping mall visitors and is associated with important and robust indicators of psychopathology thus supporting the validity of the construct. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Validation of the questionnaire for impulsive-compulsive disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Daniel; Hoops, Staci; Shea, Judy A; Lyons, Kelly E; Pahwa, Rajesh; Driver-Dunckley, Erika D; Adler, Charles H; Potenza, Marc N; Miyasaki, Janis; Siderowf, Andrew D; Duda, John E; Hurtig, Howard I; Colcher, Amy; Horn, Stacy S; Stern, Matthew B; Voon, Valerie

    2009-07-30

    As no comprehensive assessment instrument for impulse control disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson's disease (PD) exists, the aim of this study was to design and assess the psychometric properties of a self-administered screening questionnaire for ICDs and other compulsive behaviors in PD. The Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease (QUIP) has 3 sections: Section 1 assesses four ICDs (involving gambling, sexual, buying, and eating behaviors), Section 2 other compulsive behaviors (punding, hobbyism, and walkabout), and Section 3 compulsive medication use. For validation, a convenience sample of 157 PD patients at 4 movement disorders centers first completed the QUIP, and then was administered a diagnostic interview by a trained rater blinded to the QUIP results. A shortened instrument (QUIP-S) was then explored. The discriminant validity of the QUIP was high for each disorder or behavior (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve [ROC AUC]: gambling = 0.95, sexual behavior = 0.97, buying = 0.87, eating = 0.88, punding = 0.78, hobbyism = 0.93, walkabout = 0.79). On post hoc analysis, the QUIP-S ICD section had similar properties (ROC AUC: gambling = 0.95, sexual behavior = 0.96, buying = 0.87, eating = 0.88). When disorders/behaviors were combined, the sensitivity of the QUIP and QUIP-S to detect an individual with any disorder was 96 and 94%, respectively. Scores on the QUIP appear to be valid as a self-assessment screening instrument for a range of ICDs and other compulsive behaviors that occur in PD, and a shortened version may perform as well as the full version. A positive screen should be followed by a comprehensive, clinical interview to determine the range and severity of symptoms, as well as need for clinical management. Copyright 2009 Movement Disorder Society.

  6. Compulsive masturbation in a patient with delusional disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Karia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Compulsive masturbation is a type of paraphilia related disorder in which a person engages in masturbatory behavior to such an extent that it causes socio-occupational dysfunction. The psychiatric co-morbidities associated with it include mood and anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, etc. Here, we report a case of a patient with the delusional disorder having compulsive masturbation.

  7. Treatment outcome of schizophrenia co-morbid with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.N.S.; Arshad, N.; Naeem Ullah

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the pharmacological treatment outcome of schizophrenia, co-morbid with obsessive-compulsive disorder by comparing the effects of typical neuroleptic, atypical neuroleptic and a combination of typical with anti-obsessional drugs on positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and obsessional symptoms. Subjects and Methods: The sample consisted of 39 patients suffering from schizophrenia co-morbid with obsessive- compulsive disorder. They were divided in three groups according to the pharmacological treatment given by the treating psychiatrists. Sample was assessed at the start of treatment and twelve weeks later. Results: Patients receiving typical neuroleptics and anti-obsessional drugs showed better outcome (p < .05) both in psychotic (pre-intervention mean scores of positive scale of PANSS 26.90 as compared to postinterventional mean scores 19.00) and obsessional symptoms (pre-intervention mean scores on Padua Inventory 165.00 compared to 84.00 postinterventional mean scores) than those receiving typical and atypical neuroleptics alone. Conclusion: Treatment outcome of schizophrenia co-morbid with obsessive-compulsive disorder shows better results if anti-obsessional drugs are added to the neuroleptics. (author)

  8. The Effectiveness of Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Treating Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Women with Multiple Sclerosis (MS): A randomized double-blind controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyah, Mehdi; Bagheri, Parisa; Karimi, Negar; Ghasemzadeh, Azizreza

    2016-04-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders and can cause problems for individuals in all aspects of life, including social and personal dimensions. To study the effect of group cognitive-behavioral therapy on the reduction of OCD symptoms in female participants with multiple sclerosis (MS). This double-blind randomized control trial was conducted from May 2012 to December 2014. The participants included 75 patients with MS who suffered from OCD and were referred to the Loghman Hakim and Imam Khomeini hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Thirty participants had been diagnosed through Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms (Y-BOCS). The participants were randomly divided into an experimental group (n=15) and a control group (n=15). Eleven sessions of cognitive-behavioral therapy were provided for the experimental group. Patients in the control group continued with their normal living. Hypotheses were tested using an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). A significant reduction was found in the experimental group's obsessive-compulsive symptoms after cognitive-behavioral therapy (pcognitive-behavioral therapy could considerably reduce OCD symptoms in women with MS. The application of this method by therapists, especially Iranian clinicians, is recommended.

  9. Pharmacology of sexually compulsive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codispoti, Victoria L

    2008-12-01

    was 37%, which included psychological and medical modes of treatment. Which treatments will reduce recidivism rates in sex offenders is extremely difficult to conclude. Some treatment effects are determined from small studies; however, recidivism rates may be based on different criteria. Larger studies tend to be published more frequently than small studies, negative results may be less likely to be reported in published studies, and differences in mandatory versus voluntary treatment may occur. Clearly more high-quality outcome studies are needed to determine which treatments work best for which individuals. One size is unlikely to fit all. However, pharmacologic intervention, although not always the perfect choice, has improved and will continue to advance the treatment of paraphilic, nonparaphilic, and compulsive sexual behaviors.

  10. Thought-Action Fusion in Childhood: Measurement, Development, and Association with Anxiety, Rituals and Other Compulsive-Like Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David W.; Hersperger, Chelsea; Capaldi, Philip A.

    2011-01-01

    A new inventory assessing thought-action fusion (TAF) in children is presented. We explore the psychometric properties of this instrument and examine the associations between TAF, ritualistic and compulsive-like behavior (CLB) and anxiety. Three hundred thirteen children ages 7-14 (M = 10.16, SD = 1.92) representing six grades (grouped into three…

  11. Cortical and brainstem plasticity in Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppa, Antonio; Marsili, Luca; Di Stasio, Flavio; Berardelli, Isabella; Roselli, Valentina; Pasquini, Massimo; Cardona, Francesco; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2014-10-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is characterized by motor/vocal tics commonly associated with psychiatric disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder. We investigated primary motor cortex and brainstem plasticity in Tourette patients, exposed and unexposed to chronic drug treatment, with and without psychiatric disturbances. We also investigated primary motor cortex and brainstem plasticity in obsessive-compulsive disorder. We studied 20 Tourette patients with and without psychiatric disturbances, 15 with obsessive-compulsive disorder, and 20 healthy subjects. All groups included drug-naïve patients. We conditioned the left primary motor cortex with intermittent/continuous theta-burst stimulation and recorded motor evoked potentials. We conditioned the supraorbital nerve with facilitatory/inhibitory high-frequency stimulation and recorded the blink reflex late response area. In healthy subjects, intermittent theta-burst increased and continuous theta-burst stimulation decreased motor evoked potentials. Differently, intermittent theta-burst failed to increase and continuous theta-burst stimulation failed to decrease motor evoked potentials in Tourette patients, with and without psychiatric disturbances. In obsessive-compulsive disorder, intermittent/continuous theta-burst stimulation elicited normal responses. In healthy subjects and in subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder, the blink reflex late response area increased after facilitatory high-frequency and decreased after inhibitory high-frequency stimulation. Conversely, in Tourette patients, with and without psychiatric disturbances, facilitatory/inhibitory high-frequency stimulation left the blink reflex late response area unchanged. Theta-burst and high-frequency stimulation elicited similar responses in drug-naïve and chronically treated patients. Tourette patients have reduced plasticity regardless of psychiatric disturbances. These findings suggest that abnormal plasticity contributes to the

  12. Implication of Dopaminergic Modulation in Operant Reward Learning and the Induction of Compulsive-Like Feeding Behavior in "Aplysia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedecarrats, Alexis; Cornet, Charles; Simmers, John; Nargeot, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Feeding in "Aplysia" provides an amenable model system for analyzing the neuronal substrates of motivated behavior and its adaptability by associative reward learning and neuromodulation. Among such learning processes, appetitive operant conditioning that leads to a compulsive-like expression of feeding actions is known to be associated…

  13. Compulsive buying disorder: an untreated patient for 20 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Karakus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Compulsive buying disorder is characterized by impulsive drives and compulsive behaviors (buying unneeded things, personal distress, impaired social and vocational functioning and financial problems. In this case report, we presented diagnostic and treatment process of 49 year old, female patient who had complaints amnesia, weight loss and insomnia. In her medical history, she had compulsive buying disorder for nearly twenty years but untreated until her current evaluation. Comorbid psychiatric disorders started in the last two months which expedited her current referral. [Cukurova Med J 2017; 42(1.000: 172-175

  14. Quality of life and psychiatric work impairment in compulsive buying: increased symptom severity as a function of acquisition behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alishia D

    2012-08-01

    The aims of the current study were to determine if compulsive acquisition behaviors are meaningfully related to quality of life and psychiatric work impairment and to determine if compulsive buyers who engage in 2 forms of acquisition (buying and excessive acquisition of free items) are more impaired than individuals who only engage in 1 form of acquisition. In a community-recruited sample, analysis of covariance conducted between groups identified as noncompulsive buyers (NCB) (n = 30), compulsive buyers who did not acquire free items (CBB) (n = 30), and compulsive buyers who also acquired free items (CBF) (n = 35) revealed that both acquisition groups reported higher levels of depression and stress and lower quality of psychological well-being than the NCB group, despite a comparable number of individuals self-reporting a current mental health disorder in each group. The CBF group reported higher levels of anxiety and general distress as well as greater work inefficiency days compared with the NCB and CBB groups. Furthermore, regression analyses supported the unique contribution of acquisition of free items to the prediction of psychiatric work impairment. Taken together, the findings highlight the serious impact of compulsive buying on work functioning, general quality of life, and psychological well-being and provide avenues for future research to investigate the role of acquisition of free items in symptom severity. Limitations and future directions are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Compulsivity-related neurocognitive performance deficits in gambling disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Timmeren, Tim; Daams, Joost G; van Holst, Ruth J; Goudriaan, Anna E

    2018-01-01

    Compulsivity is a core feature of addictive disorders, including gambling disorder. However, it is unclear to what extent this compulsive behavior in gambling disorder is associated with abnormal compulsivity-related neurocognitive functioning. Here, we summarize and synthesize the evidence for compulsive behavior, as assessed by compulsivity-related neurocognitive tasks, in individuals with gambling disorder compared to healthy controls (HCs). A total of 29 studies, comprising 41 task-results, were included in the systematic review; 32 datasets (n=1072 individuals with gambling disorder; n=1312 HCs) were also included in the meta-analyses, conducted for each cognitive task separately. Our meta-analyses indicate significant deficits in individuals with gambling disorder in cognitive flexibility, attentional set-shifting, and attentional bias. Overall, these findings support the idea that compulsivity-related performance deficits characterize gambling disorder. This association may provide a possible link between impairments in executive functions related to compulsive action. We discuss the practical relevance of these results, their implications for our understanding of gambling disorder and how they relate to neurobiological factors and other 'disorders of compulsivity'. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Characteristics of online compulsive buying in Parisian students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duroy, David; Gorse, Pauline; Lejoyeux, Michel

    2014-12-01

    Online compulsive buying is a little-studied behavioral disorder. To better understand its clinical aspects by focusing on (i) prevalence rate, (ii) correlation with other addictions, (iii) influence of means of access, (iv) motivations to shop to the internet and (v) financial and time-consuming consequences. Cross-sectional study. 200 students in two different centers of Paris Diderot University - Paris VII. Brief self-questionnaires, to screen online compulsive buying, internet addiction, alcohol and tobacco use disorders, to rate frequency of online purchase by private-sale websites, by advertising banners, by mobile phone or to avoid stores, to rate motivations like "more discreet", "lonelier", "larger variety of products", "more immediate positive feelings", and "cheaper" and to assess the largest amount of online purchasing and the average proportion of monthly earnings, and time spent, both day and night. Prevalence of online compulsive buying was 16.0%, while prevalence of internet addiction was 26.0%. We found no significant relationship with cyberdependence, alcohol or tobacco use disorders. Online compulsive buyers accessed more often shopping online by private-sale websites (56.2% vs 30.5%, pmobile phone (22.5% vs 7.9%, p=0.005) and preferred online shopping because of exhaustive offer (p<0.0001) and immediate positive feelings (p<0.0001). Online compulsive buyers spent significantly more money and more time in online shopping. Online compulsive buying seems to be a distinctive behavioral disorder with specific factors of loss of control and motivations, and overall financial and time-consuming impacts. More research is needed to better characterize it. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Reward deficiency syndrome: a biogenetic model for the diagnosis and treatment of impulsive, addictive, and compulsive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, K; Braverman, E R; Holder, J M; Lubar, J F; Monastra, V J; Miller, D; Lubar, J O; Chen, T J; Comings, D E

    2000-11-01

    The dopaminergic system, and in particular the dopamine D2 receptor, has been implicated in reward mechanisms. The net effect of neurotransmitter interaction at the mesolimbic brain region induces "reward" when dopamine (DA) is released from the neuron at the nucleus accumbens and interacts with a dopamine D2 receptor. "The reward cascade" involves the release of serotonin, which in turn at the hypothalmus stimulates enkephalin, which in turn inhibits GABA at the substania nigra, which in turn fine tunes the amount of DA released at the nucleus accumbens or "reward site." It is well known that under normal conditions in the reward site DA works to maintain our normal drives. In fact, DA has become to be known as the "pleasure molecule" and/or the "antistress molecule." When DA is released into the synapse, it stimulates a number a DA receptors (D1-D5) which results in increased feelings of well-being and stress reduction. A consensus of the literature suggests that when there is a dysfunction in the brain reward cascade, which could be caused by certain genetic variants (polygenic), especially in the DA system causing a hypodopaminergic trait, the brain of that person requires a DA fix to feel good. This trait leads to multiple drug-seeking behavior. This is so because alcohol, cocaine, heroin, marijuana, nicotine, and glucose all cause activation and neuronal release of brain DA, which could heal the abnormal cravings. Certainly after ten years of study we could say with confidence that carriers of the DAD2 receptor A1 allele have compromised D2 receptors. Therefore lack of D2 receptors causes individuals to have a high risk for multiple addictive, impulsive and compulsive behavioral propensities, such as severe alcoholism, cocaine, heroin, marijuana and nicotine use, glucose bingeing, pathological gambling, sex addiction, ADHD, Tourette's Syndrome, autism, chronic violence, posttraumatic stress disorder, schizoid/avoidant cluster, conduct disorder and antisocial

  18. Venlafaxine augmentation with agomelatine in a patient with obsessive-compulsive disorder and suicidal behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S Signorelli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a chronic and disabling condition that often proves to be treatment resistant. Of the patients suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder, 10%–27% may attempt suicide at least once in their life. We report the case of a patient who presented severe obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms and attempted suicide ingesting 25 tablets of fluoxetine (20 mg. The patient was treated with venlafaxine and agomelatine and showed improvement of obsessive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Future studies are needed to investigate this treatment regime in large cohorts of obsessive-compulsive disorder patients with suicidal ideation.

  19. Stress, habits, and drug addiction: a psychoneuroendocrinological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Lars; Dickinson, Anthony; Wolf, Oliver T

    2011-02-01

    It is well known that stress is a significant risk factor for the development of drug addiction and addiction relapse. Remarkably, the cognitive processes involved in the effects of stress on addictive behavior remain poorly understood. Here it is proposed that stress-induced changes in the neural circuits controlling instrumental action provide a potential mechanism by which stress affects the development of addiction and relapse vulnerability. Instrumental action can be controlled by two anatomically distinct systems: a goal-directed system that involves learning of action-outcome associations, and a habit system that learns stimulus-response associations. The transition from initial voluntary drug use to subsequent involuntary, compulsive drug use represents a switch from goal-directed to habitual control of action. Recent evidence indicates that this switch from goal-directed to habit action can be prompted by stress and stress hormones. We argue (i) that acute stressors reinstate habitual responding to drug-related cues and thus trigger relapse to addictive behavior, and (ii) that prolonged or repeated stress may accelerate the transition from voluntary to involuntary drug use and thus promote the development of addiction. The suggested mechanism encompasses cognitive processes that may contribute to the effects of stress on addictive behavior and could have important implications for the treatment of addiction and the prevention of relapse. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  20. Brain Regions and Neuropsychological Deficits in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Erdem

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurobiological factors had been shown to play an important role in the emergence of obsessive-compulsive disorder by the information obtained from the methods developed over the years. According to the neuropsychological perspective, the defects had been detected mainly in executive functions, in attention, memory, visual-spatial functions; and abnormalities had been described in the frontal lobe, cingulate cortex, basal ganglia, and thalamus regions of the patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. The main and the most repeated abnormalities in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder are dysfunctions in executive function and visual memory. Dysfunctions of the inhibitory processes associated with the dominant frontal area lead to an insufficiency on the inhibition of verbal functions. Excessive activation of the orbitofrontal cortex that mediate the behavioral response suppression function in obsessive-compulsive disorder demonstrated by functional imaging techniques. Repeated-resistant behaviors (eg: compulsions are composed by the deteriorations of the inhibitions of motor or cognitive programs in basal ganglions provided through cycles of frontal lobe. The findings of clinical observations in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder could be considered as a reflection of excessive work in 'error detection system' which is the cause of the thoughts that something goes wrong and efforts to achieve perfection. As neurobiological, this finding is observed as excessive activity in orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex representing the ability of humans to provide and detect errors. It is is expected to develop the vehicles that are more sensitive to the characteristics of cognitive deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder. In addition to the neuropsychological tests, using electrophysiological and advanced functional imaging techniques will put forward a better underlying the physiopathology of this disorder in order to

  1. Anger attacks in obsessive compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitesh Prakash Painuly

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research on anger attacks has been mostly limited to depression, and only a few studies have focused on anger attacks in obsessive compulsive disorder. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study all new obsessive compulsive disorder patients aged 20-60 years attending an outpatient clinic were assessed using the anger attack questionnaire, irritability, depression and anxiety scale (for the direction of the aggressive behavior and quality of life (QOL. Results: The sample consisted of 42 consecutive subjects with obsessive compulsive disorder, out of which 21 (50% had anger attacks. The obsessive compulsive disorder subjects with and without anger attacks did not show significant differences in terms of sociodemographic variables, duration of illness, treatment, and family history. However, subjects with anger attacks had significantly higher prevalence of panic attacks and comorbid depression. Significantly more subjects with anger attacks exhibited aggressive acts toward spouse, parents, children, and other relatives in the form of yelling and threatening to hurt, trying to hurt, and threatening to leave. However, the two groups did not differ significantly in terms of QOL, except for the psychological domain being worse in the subjects with anger attacks. Conclusion: Anger attacks are present in half of the patients with obsessive compulsive disorder, and they correlate with the presence of comorbid depression.

  2. Pharmacological inactivation of the prelimbic cortex emulates compulsive reward seeking in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpens, Jules H W; Damsteegt, Ruth; Broekhoven, Mark H; Voorn, Pieter; Vanderschuren, L.J.M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic, relapsing brain disorder characterized by compulsive drug use. Contemporary addiction theories state that loss of control over drug use is mediated by a combination of several processes, including a transition from goal-directed to habitual forms of drug seeking and

  3. Family accommodation in adult obsessive–compulsive disorder: clinical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert U

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Umberto Albert, Alessandra Baffa, Giuseppe Maina Rita Levi Montalcini Department of Neuroscience, A.O.U. San Luigi Gonzaga, University of Turin, Turino, Italy Abstract: The term accommodation has been used to refer to family responses specifically related to obsessive–compulsive (OC symptoms: it encompasses behaviors such as directly participating in compulsions, assisting a relative with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD when he/she is performing a ritual, or helping him/her to avoid triggers that may precipitate obsessions and compulsions. At the opposite side, family responses to OCD may also include interfering with the rituals or actively opposing them; stopping accommodating OC symptoms or actively interfering with their performance is usually associated with greater distress and sometimes even with aggressive behaviors from the patients. This article summarizes progress of the recent research concerning family accommodation in relatives of patients with OCD. Family accommodation is a prevalent phenomenon both among parents of children/adolescents with OCD and relatives/caregivers of adult patients. It can be measured with a specific instrument, the Family Accommodation Scale, of which there are several versions available for use in clinical practice. The vast majority of both parents of children/adolescents with OCD and family members of adult patients show at least some accommodation; providing reassurances to obsessive doubts, participating in rituals and assisting the patient in avoidance are the most frequent accommodating behaviors displayed by family members. Modification of routine and modification of activities specifically due to OC symptoms have been found to be equally prevalent. Specific characteristics of patients (such as contamination/washing symptoms and of relatives (the presence of anxiety or depressive symptoms or a family history positive for another anxiety disorder are associated with a higher degree of family

  4. [Compulsive buying disorder: a review and a case vignette].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Hermano; Lobo, Daniela Sabbatini S; Fuentes, Daniel; Black, Donald W

    2008-05-01

    Compulsive buying disorder was first described as a psychiatric syndrome in the early twentieth century. Its classification remains elusive, and investigators have debated its potential relationship to mood, substance use, obsessive-compulsive, and impulse control disorders. The objective of this study is to present a review of compulsive buying disorder and present a case vignette. Two databases were reviewed (Medline and PsycINFO) in search for articles published in the last 40 years. Selected terms included oniomania, compulsive buying, and compulsive shopping. Other relevant articles were also identified through reference lists. Compulsive buying disorder is a prevalent and chronic condition that is found worldwide, sharing commonalities with impulse control disorders. In clinical samples, women make up more than 80% of subjects. Its etiology is unknown, but neurobiologic and genetic mechanisms have been proposed. The disorder is highly comorbid with mood, substance use, eating and impulse control disorders. Treatment recommendations derived from the literature and clinical experience suggest that problem shoppers can benefit from psychosocial interventions. Cognitive-behavioral group models appear promising. Medication trials have reported mixed results. The identification and treatment of psychiatric comorbidity is also a key aspect of treatment. In order to determine the validity of compulsive buying disorder, future work should focus on psychopathology and neurobiological findings unique to the syndrome.

  5. Placebo-controlled study of fluvoxamine in the treatment of patients with compulsive buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninan, P T; McElroy, S L; Kane, C P; Knight, B T; Casuto, L S; Rose, S E; Marsteller, F A; Nemeroff, C B

    2000-06-01

    Compulsive buying is a syndrome characterized by the impulsive and/or compulsive buying of unneeded objects that results in personal distress, impairment in vocational or social functioning, and/or financial problems. Results from a two-site, double-blind, placebo-controlled 13-week trial of fluvoxamine are presented. Subjects had problematic buying behavior that they could not control for the previous 6 months or longer and met DSM-IV criteria for impulse control disorder-not otherwise specified (ICD-NOS) and the University of Cincinnati criteria for compulsive buying. Assessments included clinician-rated scales-the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for compulsive buying, the Clinical Global Impression Scale, the Global Assessment of Functioning, and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-and patient self-reports using daily diaries, which measured episodes of compulsive buying. Forty-two subjects gave informed consent, with 37 subjects providing evaluable information and 23 completing the study. Current or past psychiatric comorbidity was present in 74% of subjects. Intent-to-treat and completer analyses failed to show a significant difference between treatments on any measures of outcome. A high placebo-response rate, possibly from the behavioral benefits of maintaining a daily diary, prevents any definitive statement on the efficacy of fluvoxamine in treating compulsive buying.

  6. [A case of compulsive buying--impulse control disorder or dependence disorder?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croissant, Bernhard; Klein, Oliver; Löber, Sabine; Mann, Karl

    2009-05-01

    It is unclear what disease entity causes compulsive buying. In ICD-10 and DSM-IV, compulsive buying is classified as "Impulse control disorder--not otherwise classified". Some publications interpret compulsive buying rather as a dependence disorder. We present the case of a male patient with compulsive buying syndrome. We discuss the close relationship to dependence disorders. The patient showed symptoms which would normally be associated with a dependence disorder. On the basis of a wider understanding of the dependency concept, as it is currently being discussed, we believe that the patient has shown a typical buying behavior that has presumably activated a reward loop similar to that of a substance dependency.

  7. Obsessive compulsive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia on clozapine and with obsessive compulsive disorder: a comparison study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Doyle, Mairead

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive compulsive symptoms are commonly reported in those with schizophrenia. Clozapine has previously been reported to induce, aggravate and alleviate these symptoms. It is unclear if these are similar to the symptoms experienced by those with obsessive compulsive disorder. This study describes the obsessive compulsive symptom profile of a population of patients with schizophrenia treated with clozapine (n = 62) and compares this with patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (n = 35). All participants were attending an outpatient community mental health service. The Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (which measures the frequency and associated distress of a range of "behavioural" and "cognitive" symptoms), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and a demographic questionnaire were completed. In addition the schizophrenia group treated with clozapine completed the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. The OCD group reported significantly more symptoms for all OCI subscales compared to the clozapine group. Overall fourteen (22%) of the schizophrenia treated with clozapine group had clinically significant total OCI scores. Two (3%) had documented OCS pre clozapine. De novo OCS was reported in twelve (19%) cases. Nine (11%) had documented OC symptoms pre-clozapine while only two (3%) had symptoms after clozapine was initiated. In terms of OC symptom profile, the clozapine group scored highest on the Doubting scale, a cognitive symptom whereas the OCD group scored highest on Washing, a behavioural symptom. Both groups reported greater distress with cognitive rather than behavioural symptoms. Medication including clozapine dose was not correlated with symptom severity. Anxiety correlated highly with obsessive compulsive symptoms in the Clozapine group but not the OCD group. Within the Clozapine group, Obsessing correlated highly with Unusual Thought Content. Findings suggest that obsessive compulsive symptoms in the Clozapine group may reflect a subtype of \\'schizo

  8. Validation of the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson’s Disease (QUIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Daniel; Stewart, Staci; Shea, Judy A.; Lyons, Kelly E.; Pahwa, Rajesh; Driver-Dunckley, Erika D.; Adler, Charles H.; Potenza, Marc N.; Miyasaki, Janis; Siderowf, Andrew D.; Duda, John E.; Hurtig, Howard I.; Colcher, Amy; Horn, Stacy S.; Stern, Matthew B.; Voon, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Objective As no comprehensive assessment instrument for impulse control disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) exists, the aim of this study was to design and assess the psychometric properties of a self-administered screening questionnaire for ICDs and other compulsive behaviors in PD. Methods The Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson’s Disease (QUIP) has 3 sections: Section 1 assesses four ICDs (involving gambling, sexual, buying, and eating behaviors), Section 2 other compulsive behaviors (punding, hobbyism and walkabout), and Section 3 compulsive medication use. For validation, a convenience sample of 157 PD patients at 4 movement disorders centers first completed the QUIP, and then was administered a diagnostic interview by a trained rater blinded to the QUIP results. A shortened instrument (QUIP-S) was then explored. Results The discriminant validity of the QUIP was high for each disorder or behavior (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve [ROC AUC]: gambling=0.95, sexual behavior=0.97, buying=0.87, eating=0.88, punding=0.78, hobbyism=0.93, walkabout=0.79). On post hoc analysis, the QUIP-S ICD section had similar properties (ROC AUC: gambling=0.95, sexual behavior=0.96, buying=0.87, eating=0.88). When disorders/behaviors were combined, the sensitivity of the QUIP and QUIP-S to detect an individual with any disorder was 96% and 94%, respectively. Conclusions Scores on the QUIP appear to be valid as a self-assessment screening instrument for a range of ICDs and other compulsive behaviors that occur in PD, and a shortened version may perform as well as the full version. A positive screen should be followed by a comprehensive, clinical interview to determine the range and severity of symptoms, as well as need for clinical management. PMID:19452562

  9. Compulsive buying. Demography, phenomenology, and comorbidity in 46 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, S; Black, D W; Repertinger, S; Freet, D

    1994-05-01

    Compulsive buying has been generally ignored in the psychiatric literature, although it is apparently frequent, underrecognized, and can lead to severe financial and legal consequences for its sufferers. The current investigation was designed to assess the overall life-style and problems of subjects identified as compulsive shoppers. Forty-six compulsive buyers were assessed for comorbid psychiatric disorders with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, the Structured Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders, and a semistructured interview to assess buying behavior. The typical shopper was a 31-year-old female who had developed compulsive buying at age 18 years. Subjects spent their money on clothing, shoes, and records/compact discs. The average debt load accrued was $5,422 out of an average yearly income of $23,443. More than two-thirds met lifetime criteria for a major (Axis I) mental disorder, most commonly anxiety, substance abuse, and mood disorders. Nearly 60% were found to meet criteria for a DSM-III-R personality disorder, most commonly the obsessive-compulsive, borderline, and avoidant types. The authors conclude that compulsive buying is a definable clinical syndrome which can cause its sufferers significant distress and is associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity.

  10. Aripiprazole augmentation in poor insight obsessive-compulsive disorder: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinciguerra Valentina

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder is associated with a relevant impairment in social and interpersonal functioning and severe disability. This seems to be particularly true for the poor insight subtype, characterised by a lack of consciousness of illness and, consequently, compliance with treatment. Poor responsiveness to serotonergic drugs in poor insight obsessive-compulsive patients may also require an augmentation therapy with atypical antipsychotics. Methods We reviewed a case in which a patient with a long history of poor insight obsessive-compulsive disorder was treated with a high dosage of serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Results The treatment resulted in a poor outcome. This patient was therefore augmentated with aripiprazole. Conclusion Doctors should consider aripiprazole as a possible augmentation strategy for serotonergic poor responder obsessive-compulsive patients, but further research on these subjects is needed.

  11. The paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus is recruited by both natural rewards and drugs of abuse: recent evidence of a pivotal role for orexin/hypocretin signaling in this thalamic nucleus in drug-seeking behavior

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    Alessandra eMatzeu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge for the successful treatment of drug addiction is the long-lasting susceptibility to relapse and multiple processes that have been implicated in the compulsion to resume drug intake during abstinence. Recently, the orexin/hypocretin (Orx/Hcrt system has been shown to play a role in drug-seeking behavior. The Orx/Hcrt system regulates a wide range of physiological processes, including feeding, energy metabolism, and arousal. It has also been shown to be recruited by drugs of abuse. Orx/Hcrt neurons are predominantly located in the lateral hypothalamus that projects to the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT, a region that has been identified as a way-station that processes information and then modulates the mesolimbic reward and extrahypothalamic stress systems. Although not thought to be part of the drug addiction circuitry, recent evidence indicates that the PVT is involved in the modulation of reward function in general and drug-directed behavior in particular. Evidence indicates a role for Orx/Hcrt transmission in the PVT in the modulation of reward function in general and drug-directed behavior in particular. One hypothesis is that following repeated drug exposure, the Orx/Hcrt system acquires a preferential role in mediating the effects of drugs vs. natural rewards. The present review discusses recent findings that suggest maladaptive recruitment of the PVT by drugs of abuse, specifically Orx/Hcrt-PVT neurotransmission.

  12. Compulsive Buying Behavior: Characteristics of Comorbidity with Gambling Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Steward, Trevor; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Baño, Marta; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Tárrega, Salomé; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying behavior (CBB) has begun to be recognized as a condition worthy of attention by clinicians and researchers. Studies on the commonalities between CBB and other behavioral addictions such as gambling disorder (GD) exist in the literature, but additional research is needed to assess the frequency and clinical relevance of the comorbidity of CBB and GD. The aim of the study was to estimate the point-prevalence of CBB+GD in a clinical setting. Data corresponded to n = 3221 treatment-seeking patients who met criteria for CBB or GD at a public hospital unit specialized in treating behavioral addictions. Three groups were compared: only-CBB (n = 127), only-GD (n = 3118) and comorbid CBB+GD (n = 24). Prevalence for the co-occurrence of CBB+GD was 0.75%. In the stratum of patients with GD, GD+CBB comorbidity obtained relatively low point prevalence (0.77%), while in the subsample of CBB patients the estimated prevalence of comorbid GD was relatively high (18.9%). CBB+GD comorbidity was characterized by lower prevalence of single patients, higher risk of other behavioral addictions (sex, gaming or internet), older age and age of onset. CBB+GD registered a higher proportion of women compared to only-GD (37.5 vs. 10.0%) but a higher proportion of men compared to only-CBB (62.5 vs. 24.4%). Compared to only-GD patients, the simultaneous presence of CBB+GD was associated with increased psychopathology and dysfunctional levels of harm avoidance. This study provides empirical evidence to better understand CBB, GD and their co-occurrence. Future research should help delineate the processes through which people acquire and develop this comorbidity.

  13. Compulsive Buying Behavior: Characteristics of Comorbidity with Gambling Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roser eGranero

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Compulsive buying behavior (CBB has begun to be recognized as a condition worthy of attention by clinicians and researchers. Studies on the commonalities between CBB and other behavioral addictions such as gambling disorder (GD exist in the literature, but additional research is needed to assess the frequency and clinical relevance of the comorbidity of CBB and GD. The aim of the study was to estimate the point-prevalence of CBB+GD in a clinical setting. Data corresponded to n=3,221 treatment-seeking patients who met criteria for CBB or GD at a public hospital unit specialized in treating behavioral addictions. Three groups were compared: only-CBB (n=127, only-GD (n=3,118 and comorbid CBB+GD (n=24. Prevalence for the co-occurrence of CBB+GD was 0.75%. In the stratum of patients with GD, GD+CBB comorbidity obtained relatively low point prevalence (0.77%, while in the subsample of CBB patients the estimated prevalence of comorbid GD was relatively high (18.9%. CBB+GD comorbidity was characterized by lower prevalence of single patients, higher risk of other behavioral addictions (sex, gaming or internet, older age and age of onset. CBB+GD registered a higher proportion of women compared to only-GD (37.5% vs. 10.0% but a higher proportion of men compared to only-CBB (62.5% vs. 24.4%. Compared to only-GD patients, the simultaneous presence of CBB+GD was associated with increased psychopathology and dysfunctional levels of harm avoidance. This study provides empirical evidence to better understand CBB, GD and their co-occurrence. Future research should help delineate the processes through which people acquire and develop this comorbidity.

  14. Compulsive exercise: links, risks and challenges faced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichtenstein MB

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mia Beck Lichtenstein,1 Cecilie Juul Hinze,2 Bolette Emborg,3 Freja Thomsen,2 Simone Daugaard Hemmingsen4 1Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, 2Research Unit for Telepsychiatry and E-mental Health, Mental Health Services in the Region of Southern Denmark, Odense, 3Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, 4Research Unit, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Mental Health Services in the Region of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark Abstract: Compulsive exercise is a condition described since 1970s. It is characterized by a craving for physical training, resulting in uncontrollable excessive exercise behavior with harmful consequences, such as injuries and impaired social relations. It has not been accepted as a mental disorder in either International Classification of Diseases or Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The aim of this literature review was to critically examine the research on links (comorbidity, risks (negative consequences, and challenges faced (problems in a treatment context. This review found that compulsive exercise is associated with eating disorder pathology, perfectionism, neuroticism, narcissism, and obsessive compulsive traits. The most prominent negative consequences were injuries, social impairment, and depression, but more research is needed to uncover the potential dysfunction resulting from compulsive exercise. As the condition is not recognized as a psychiatric disorder, studies on treatment interventions are sparse. Problems with compliance have been reported; therefore, motivational interviewing has been proposed as a treatment approach, in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy. This review summarizes and discusses findings on links/comorbidity, risks/negative consequences, and treatment challenges. We suggest that future studies should pay attention to both prevention and counseling in sports settings, where compulsive exercise

  15. Compulsive buying in outline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadka, Łukasz; Olajossy, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    In spite of a hundred year long history of scientific research compulsive buying has been a hardly known phenomenon until today. Ambiguous scientific information makes it impossible to classify compulsive buying as a separate mental disorder. Recently many researchers have noticed phenomenological compatibility of compulsive buying with behavioural addictions. Nowadays, there is reasonable grounds that compulsive buying disorder can be defined as an addiction. There are many similarities occurring between a consumer type behaviours in compulsive buyers and a pathologic consumption of psychoactive substances which included the obsessive need to consumer or a compulsion to consume, personal dependence and loss of control over self-behaviour, as well as tendencies to the consumption increase. Compulsive buying disorder differs in its course from the compulsive behaviours. A strong compulsion to make a given activity, often impossible to restrain is associated with overwhelming but acceptable desire to purchase a specific item. Due to the latest information about the described phenomenon, it has been decided to present current knowledge of adequate classifications, epidemiology and therapy of compulsive buyers. In the article authors' own standpoint as regards pathogenesis and potential risk factors was described.

  16. Relationship between severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and schizotypy in obsessive-compulsive disorder

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    Yamamoto H

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Haruka Yamamoto,1 Hideto Tsuchida,1 Takashi Nakamae,1 Seiji Nishida,1 Yuki Sakai,1 Akihito Fujimori,1 Jin Narumoto,1 Yoshihisa Wada,1 Takafumi Yoshida,2 Chiaki Taga,3 Kenji Fukui11Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 2Kyoto Cognitive Behavior Therapy Counseling Room, Kyoto, Japan; 3Department of Psychiatry, Kyoto Second Red Cross Hospital, Kyoto, JapanPurpose: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD patients exhibit a noninhibition response pattern very similar to that observed in schizotypy patients in cognitive tasks. It has been suggested that the reduced cognitive inhibition observed in both schizotypy and OCD may result in the frequent entry into awareness of unacceptable urges and intrusive thoughts. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the severity of obsession or compulsion and schizotypy in OCD.Patients and methods: Sixty subjects (25 males and 35 females who were OCD outpatients in the University Hospital at the Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine during the period 2008–2010 were enrolled in the study. Assessments of these patients were made using the Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS, the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D, and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A. The Pearson correlation coefficients between Y-BOCS and SPQ scores were calculated. Furthermore, hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to assess whether schizotypy predicted the severity of obsession and compulsion.Results: By calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient, it was found that the Y-BOCS obsession score, not the Y-BOCS compulsion score, was correlated with the SPQ total score. Results of the hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis showed that SPQ total score was a significant predictor of the Y-BOCS obsession score, after accounting for control

  17. Pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder: a necessary link between phenomenology, neuropsychology, imagery and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouizerate, Bruno; Guehl, Dominique; Cuny, Emmanuel; Rougier, Alain; Bioulac, Bernard; Tignol, Jean; Burbaud, Pierre

    2004-02-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by repetitive intrusive thoughts and compulsive time-consuming behaviors classified into three to five distinct symptom dimensions including: (1) aggressive/somatic obsessions with checking compulsions; (2) contamination concerns with washing compulsions; (3) symmetry obsessions with counting/ordering compulsions; (4) hoarding obsessions with collecting compulsions; and (5) sexual/religious concerns. Phenomenologically, OCD could be thought of as the irruption of internal signals centered on the erroneous perception that "something is wrong" in a specific situation. This generates severe anxiety, leading to recurrent behaviors aimed at reducing the emotional tension. In this paper, we examine how the abnormalities in brain activity reported in OCD can be interpreted in the light of physiology after consideration of various approaches (phenomenology, neuropsychology, neuroimmunology and neuroimagery) that contribute to proposing the central role of several cortical and subcortical regions, especially the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPC), the head of the caudate nucleus and the thalamus. The OFC is involved in the significance attributed to the consequences of action, thereby subserving decision-making, whereas the ACC is particularly activated in situations in which there are conflicting options and a high likelihood of making an error. The DLPC plays a critical part in the cognitive processing of relevant information. This cortical information is then integrated by the caudate nucleus, which controls behavioral programs. A dysfunction of these networks at one or several stages will result in the emergence and maintenance of repetitive thoughts and characteristic OCD behavior. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Induction of compulsive-like washing by blocking the feeling of knowing: an experimental test of the security-motivation hypothesis of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamath Markad

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background H. Szechtman and E. Woody (2004 hypothesized that obsessive-compulsive disorder results from a deficit in the feeling of knowing that normally terminates thoughts or actions elicited by security motivation. To test the plausibility of this proposed mechanism, an experiment was conducted to produce an analog of washing in obsessive-compulsive disorder by eliciting a scenario of potential harm and using hypnosis to block changes in internally generated feelings that would normally occur during washing. Results Participants reacted with increased disgust, anxiety, and heart rate to their mental images of contamination and potential danger. As predicted, high but not low hypnotizable participants showed a significant prolongation of washing when change in feelings during washing was blocked hypnotically. Conclusion Results show that blocking the affective signal that is normally generated during security-related behaviors, such as washing, leads to prolonged performance of these behaviors. This finding lends support to the plausibility of the proposed model of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  19. Cultural Aspects of Compulsive Buying in Emerging and Developed Economies: A Cross Cultural Study in Compulsive Buying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horvath, C.; Adiguzel, F.; van Herk, H.

    2013-01-01

    Although several studies focused on understanding of compulsive buying in developed countries, this phenomenon remains understudied in other parts of the world. This is rather surprising since there is an increasing interest in understanding shopping behavior of consumers in emergent markets due to

  20. Goal-directed learning and obsessive–compulsive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Claire M.; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) has become a paradigmatic case of goal-directed dysfunction in psychiatry. In this article, we review the neurobiological evidence, historical and recent, that originally led to this supposition and continues to support a habit hypothesis of OCD. We will then discuss a number of recent studies that have directly tested this hypothesis, using behavioural experiments in patient populations. Based on this research evidence, which suggests that rather than goal-directed avoidance behaviours, compulsions in OCD may derive from manifestations of excessive habit formation, we present the details of a novel account of the functional relationship between these habits and the full symptom profile of the disorder. Borrowing from a cognitive dissonance framework, we propose that the irrational threat beliefs (obsessions) characteristic of OCD may be a consequence, rather than an instigator, of compulsive behaviour in these patients. This lays the foundation for a potential shift in both clinical and neuropsychological conceptualization of OCD and related disorders. This model may also prove relevant to other putative disorders of compulsivity, such as substance dependence, where the experience of ‘wanting’ drugs may be better understood as post hoc rationalizations of otherwise goal-insensitive, stimulus-driven behaviour. PMID:25267818

  1. The role of emotional and behavioral disorders in the development of drug dependence in patients with medication-induced headache (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Shagbazyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Medication-induced headache (MIH is a variety of chronic daily headache (HA. MIH belongs to secondary (symptomatic HA, develops as a complication of pre-existing primary cephalgia, and is caused by the overuse of drugs to relieve HA. The role of drug dependence syndrome and behavioral and emotional disorders in the development of MIH, which may be associated with dysfunction of certain brain systems that control these functions, has been recently discussed. The paper reviews the literature dealing with studies of the role of behavioral and emotional disorders and orbitofrontal cortical dysfunction in the development of drug dependence syndrome in patients with MIH. The importance of analyzing these aspects of MIH is determined by the prospects for applying alternative approaches to managing these patients.

  2. [Development and family environment in compulsive neurotic children and adolescents: a retrospective and comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, H; Klosinski, G

    1989-09-01

    In a retrospective study the patient histories of 113 children and adolescents who received outpatient (89 cases) or inpatient (24 cases) treatment from 1973 to 1984 in the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Tübingen with the diagnosis "compulsive neurosis" were examined in terms of the criteria personality development, family structure, frequency of certain forms and contents of compulsory behavior, significance and symbolism of the compulsive behavior within the family dynamics. In addition, a comparison was made with the other patients (n = 8,774) receiving child and adolescent psychiatric treatment during this period. The ratio of boys to girls was 7.3. The average age was 13.8 years in the boys and 12.6 years in the girls. The youngest patient was four years old. Compulsive washing was the predominant compulsive behavior in all age groups. Compulsive fears were most frequently manifested in fears about the mother, followed by poisoning and hypochondriac fears. Compulsive impulses were only found from prepuberty. In the girls they were always directed to killing the mother. The analysis of personality development revealed that there were indications of special features in the anal phase in only three cases. On the other hand, special events of pathoplastic significance were found in half of the patients. In about 33%, anancastic characteristics were present in the parents (eight parents were manifestly subject to compulsive neurosis). Conflict avoidance and ambitious demands on the children concerned were typical in the families. In contrast to the reference population, the compulsively neurotic children and adolescents were of average intelligence, frequently attended higher schools and belonged to a higher social class.

  3. The relationship between the FFM personality traits, state psychopathology, and sexual compulsivity in a sample of male college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Joana; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2013-07-01

    Several studies have advocated a relationship between psychopathological features and sexual compulsivity. Such relationship is often found among individuals seeking help for out of control sexual behavior, suggesting that the association between psychological adjustment and sexual compulsivity may have a significant clinical value. However, a more complete approach to the topic of sexual compulsivity would also include the analysis of nonclinical samples as healthy individuals may be at risk of developing some features of hypersexuality in the future. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between stable traits of personality, state psychopathology, and sexual compulsivity in a sample of male college students. Furthermore, the potential mediating role of state psychopathology in the relationship between personality traits and sexual compulsivity was tested. Participants completed the following measures: the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory-22. The sample included 152 male college students recruited in a Portuguese university using nonrandom methods. The measures were completed individually and anonymously. Findings on state psychopathology suggested that psychoticism may be one of the key dimensions associated with sexual compulsivity in male students. The personality traits of Neuroticism and Agreeableness were also significant predictors of sexual compulsivity. Findings on the mediating effects suggested that state psychopathology mediated the relationship between Neuroticism and sexual compulsivity but not between Agreeableness and sexual compulsivity. A psychopathological path (encompassing Neuroticism and state psychopathology) and a behavioral path (encompassing Agreeableness features) may be involved in sexual compulsivity as reported by a nonclinical sample of male students. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  4. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Treatment in Patients with Down Syndrome: A Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutor, Bruce; Hansen, Mark R.; Black, John L.

    2006-01-01

    In this case series we report four cases of patients with Down syndrome with symptoms consistent with obsessive compulsive disorder. Each patient experienced substantial reduction in compulsive behaviors with pharmacotherapy of an SSRI alone or with the addition of risperidone to SSRI therapy. None of the patients experienced significant side…

  5. Dopamine Agonists and Pathologic Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan J. Kelley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The dopamine agonists ropinirole and pramipexole exhibit highly specific affinity for the cerebral dopamine D3 receptor. Use of these medications in Parkinson’s disease has been complicated by the emergence of pathologic behavioral patterns such as hypersexuality, pathologic gambling, excessive hobbying, and other circumscribed obsessive-compulsive disorders of impulse control in people having no history of such disorders. These behavioral changes typically remit following discontinuation of the medication, further demonstrating a causal relationship. Expression of the D3 receptor is particularly rich within the limbic system, where it plays an important role in modulating the physiologic and emotional experience of novelty, reward, and risk assessment. Converging neuroanatomical, physiological, and behavioral science data suggest the high D3 affinity of these medications as the basis for these behavioral changes. These observations suggest the D3 receptor as a therapeutic target for obsessive-compulsive disorder and substance abuse, and improved understanding of D3 receptor function may aid drug design of future atypical antipsychotics.

  6. Hoarding in a compulsive buying sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Astrid; Mueller, Ulrike; Albert, Patricia; Mertens, Christian; Silbermann, Andrea; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina

    2007-11-01

    Previous research has indicated that many compulsive buyers also suffer from compulsive hoarding. The present work specifically examined hoarding in a compulsive buying sample. Sixty-six treatment-seeking compulsive buyers were assessed prior to entering a group therapy for compulsive buying using the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS), the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS)-Shopping Version, the Compulsive Acquisition Scale (CAS), the German-CBS, the Saving Inventory-Revised (SI-R), the Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (MOCI), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I (SCID). Inclusion criteria were current problems with compulsive buying according to the proposed diagnostic criteria for compulsive buying by McElroy, Keck, Pope, Smith, and Strakowski [(1994). Compulsive buying: A report of 20 cases. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 55, 242-248]. Our results support the assumption that many but not all compulsive buyers suffer from compulsive hoarding. A significant association between the SI-R and the compulsive buying measures CBS, Y-BOCS-SV, German-CBS, and the CAS-Buy subscale was found, which is mostly caused by the SI-R subscale acquisition. The SI-R subscales clutter and difficulty discarding were more closely associated with the CAS-Free subscale and with obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Hoarding compulsive buyers reported more severe buying symptoms and obsessive-compulsive symptoms and presented with a higher psychiatric co-morbidity, especially any current affective, anxiety and eating disorder. Specific therapeutic interventions for compulsive buyers who also report compulsive hoarding appear indicated.

  7. A psycho-behavioral perspective on modelling obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in animals: The role of context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolmarans, De Wet; Stein, Dan J; Harvey, Brian H

    2017-05-23

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a heterogeneous and debilitating condition, characterized by intrusive thoughts and compulsive repetition. Animal models of OCD are important tools that have the potential to contribute significantly to our understanding of the condition. Although there is consensus that pre-clinical models are valuable in elucidating the underlying neurobiology in psychiatric disorders, the current paper attempts to prompt ideas on how interpretation of animal behavior can be expanded upon to more effectively converge with the human disorder. Successful outcomes in psychopharmacology involves rational design and synthesis of novel compounds and their testing in well-designed animal models. As part of a special journal issue on OCD, this paper will 1) review the psycho-behavioral aspects of OCD that are of importance on how the above ideas can be articulated, 2) briefly elaborate on general issues that are important for the development of animal models of OCD, with a particular focus on the role and importance of context, 3) propose why translational progress may often be less than ideal, 4) highlight some of the significant contributions afforded by animal models to advance understanding, and 5) conclude by identifying novel behavioral constructs for future investigations that may contribute to the face, predictive and construct validity of OCD animal models. We base these targets on an integrative approach to face and construct validity, and note that the issue of treatment-resistance in the clinical context should receive attention in current animal models of OCD. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Compulsive Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who gamble compulsively often have substance abuse problems, personality disorders, depression or anxiety. Compulsive gambling may also be ... gambling problem, educational programs that target individuals and groups at increased risk may be helpful. If you ...

  9. Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson Gerhard

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT is widely regarded as an effective treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD, but access to CBT therapists is limited. Internet-based CBT (ICBT with therapist support is a way to increase access to CBT but has not been developed or tested for OCD. The aim of this study was to evaluate ICBT for OCD. Method An open trial where patients (N = 23 received a 15-week ICBT program with therapist support consisting of psychoeducation, cognitive restructuring and exposure with response prevention. The primary outcome was the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS, which was assessed by a psychiatrist before and immediately after treatment. Secondary outcomes were self-rated measures of OCD symptoms, depressive symptoms, general functioning, anxiety and quality of life. All assessments were made at baseline and post-treatment. Results All participants completed the primary outcome measure at all assessment points. There were reductions in OCD symptoms with a large within-group effect size (Cohen's d = 1.56. At post-treatment, 61% of participants had a clinically significant improvement and 43% no longer fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of OCD. The treatment also resulted in statistically significant improvements in self-rated OCD symptoms, general functioning and depression. Conclusions ICBT with therapist support reduces OCD symptoms, depressive symptoms and improves general functioning. Randomized trials are needed to confirm the effectiveness of this new treatment format. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01348529

  10. Credit Card Misuse, Money Attitudes, and Compulsive Buying Behaviors: A Comparison of Internal and External Locus of Control (LOC) Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Stevie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined attitudinal and behavioral differences between internal and external locus of control (LOC) consumers on credit card misuse, the importance of money, and compulsive buying. Using multiple analysis of variance and separate analyses of variance, internal LOC consumers were found to have lower scores on credit card misuse and…

  11. A Substance Called Food: Long-Term Psychodynamic Group Treatment for Compulsive Overeating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Deborah C; Nickow, Marcia S; Arseneau, Ric; Gisslow, Mary T

    2015-07-01

    Obesity has proven difficult to treat. Many approaches neglect to address the deep-rooted underlying psychological issues. This paper describes a psychodynamically oriented approach to treating compulsive overeating as an addiction. Common to all addictions is a compulsion to consume a substance or engage in a behavior, a preoccupation with using behavior and rituals, and a lifestyle marked by an inability to manage the behavior and its harmful consequences. The approach represents a shift away from primarily medical models of intervention to integrated models focusing on the psychological underpinnings of obesity. Long-term psychodynamic group psychotherapy is recommended as a primary treatment.

  12. Self-injurious behavior in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, A; Santonastaso, P

    2000-08-01

    Recent reports have postulated the existence of two different types of self-injurious behavior: impulsive and compulsive. The aim of the present study is to analyze the dimensionality of self-injurious behavior and to study the link between self-injurious behavior and clinical features in anorexia nervosa. The study involved 236 consecutive patients with anorexia nervosa, diagnosed by DSM-IV criteria. Subjects were evaluated by means of a semistructured interview and self-reported questionnaires, such as the Eating Disorders Inventory and Hopkins Symptom Checklist. A principal component analysis was used to study the dimensionality of different types of self-injurious behavior, including purging. Our findings confirm the distinction between impulsive and compulsive self-injurious behavior. The dimensions appear to be represented as a continuum in both the anorexia nervosa diagnostic subgroups. A third distinct dimension emerged that included self-induced vomiting and laxative/diuretics abuse. Childhood sexual abuse and anxiety significantly predict the presence of impulsive self-injury, whereas obsessionality and age predict compulsive self-injury. The coexistence of a positive score on both dimensions of self-injurious behavior was the strongest predictor of treatment dropout. The present study highlights the importance of self-injurious behavior; it should be given due consideration in future outcome studies on anorexia nervosa

  13. Relationships that compulsive buying has with addiction, obsessive-compulsiveness, hoarding, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Lee Matthew; Ciorciari, Joseph; Kyrios, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Compulsive buying has been associated with addiction, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder, as well as hoarding. The present study investigated the relationship that compulsive buying (CB) has with 'addictive' (i.e., sensitivity to reward), obsessive-compulsive, and depressive phenomena, after controlling for hoarding, substance dependence, manic, and Borderline Personality Disorder symptoms. 87 participants from a community population completed the online questionnaires for the study, however 70 participants (M=29.19, SD=10.45; 70% were female) were used in the analyses because of exclusion criteria. As expected, CB measures correlated with hoarding, depression, sensitivity to reward, and, but less so, obsessive-compulsive measures. Sensitivity to reward was the most important predictor of CB severity, compared to obsessive-compulsive and depression symptoms. Hoarding was also an important predictor of CB severity. Small sample size meant gender comparisons could not be made, and the use of a novel, communicated questionnaire meant that interpretation should be considered conservatively. Overall, findings suggest that CB may be most closely related to the phenomena associated with addiction (an increased sensitivity to reward), rather than obsessive-compulsive or depression symptoms. Hoarding and reward sensitivity perhaps might separate compulsive buying from ordinary and recreational shopping. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cross-talk between the epigenome and neural circuits in drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mews, Philipp; Calipari, Erin S

    2017-01-01

    Drug addiction is a behavioral disorder characterized by dysregulated learning about drugs and associated cues that result in compulsive drug seeking and relapse. Learning about drug rewards and predictive cues is a complex process controlled by a computational network of neural connections interacting with transcriptional and molecular mechanisms within each cell to precisely guide behavior. The interplay between rapid, temporally specific neuronal activation, and longer-term changes in transcription is of critical importance in the expression of appropriate, or in the case of drug addiction, inappropriate behaviors. Thus, these factors and their interactions must be considered together, especially in the context of treatment. Understanding the complex interplay between epigenetic gene regulation and circuit connectivity will allow us to formulate novel therapies to normalize maladaptive reward behaviors, with a goal of modulating addictive behaviors, while leaving natural reward-associated behavior unaffected. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A cross-sectional examination of non-suicidal self-injury, disordered eating, impulsivity, and compulsivity in a sample of adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Emma B; Mildred, Helen

    2014-12-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury has been classed as having both impulsive and compulsive characteristics (Simeon & Favazza, 2001). These constructs have been related to disordered eating behaviors such as vomiting (Favaro & Santonastaso, 1998). Utilizing an international sample of adult females, this paper further explored this model, aiming to identify whether all types of disordered eating could be classified as impulsive or compulsive, and whether the impulsive and compulsive groupings reflect underlying trait impulsivity and compulsivity. The hypothesized impulsive and compulsive dimensions did not emerge from the data. Notably however, all self-injurious and disordered eating behaviors were linked to Urgency (an impulsivity facet) to varying degrees; no relationship with trait compulsivity was found. These findings are discussed, study limitations are noted, and relevance for clinical practice is outlined.

  16. Conditioned Place Preference Induced by Licit Drugs: Establishment, Extinction, and Reinstatement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The conditioned place preference (CPP model has been widely used to evaluate the rewarding effects of abused drugs, and recently, the extinction and reinstatement phases of this paradigm have been used to assess relapse to drug seeking. The vast majority of studies have focused on CPP induced by illicit drugs, such as psychostimulants and opioids. Although legal psychoactive drugs, such as ethanol, nicotine, and caffeine, are more widely used than illegal drugs, the establishment, extinction, and reinstatement of CPP produced by these licit drugs are less well understood. The present review discusses the extant research on CPP induced by legal drugs. We first describe the CPP model and discuss the behavioral procedures used to induce CPP for ethanol, nicotine, and caffeine. We then summarize the neuronal substrates that underlie CPP induced by these drugs from a genetic perspective. Finally, we draw on findings from pharmacological studies and discuss the neurotransmitters and neurohormones underlying CPP produced by ethanol, nicotine, and caffeine.

  17. Relative contribution of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and tic severity to social and behavioral problems in tic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, PJ; Steenhuis, MP; Troost, PW; Korf, J; Kallenberg, CGM; Minderaa, RB

    The aim of this study was to investigate social and behavioral problems related to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessions and compulsions, and tic severity in children with a tic disorder. Parents of 58 children with a tic disorder with and without different forms of ADHD

  18. The impact of attentional and emotional demands on memory performance in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Jakob; Hendrikx, Friederike; Stierle, Christian; Stengler, Katarina; Jahn, Ina; Exner, Cornelia

    2017-08-01

    Lower performance on memory tests in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been repeatedly observed. However, the origins of these performance deficits are not sufficiently explained. In this study we tested if OCD-related extensive focus of attention on thoughts (heightened self-consciousness) could be an explanatory mechanism for lower memory performance. Heightened situational self-consciousness was manipulated by instructing participants to either monitor neutral thoughts or to monitor OCD-related thoughts. We included a Behavioral Avoidance Task based on individual obsessions and compulsions to induce OCD-related thoughts. Participants were asked to perform these monitoring tasks in parallel to a taxing verbal memory task, resulting in learning under divided attention. The two conditions of learning under divided attention were compared to a single-task condition. Twenty-four participants with OCD and 24 healthy controls took part in these three learning conditions. The results indicate that in both groups memory performance deteriorated in the two conditions with divided attention compared to the single task condition. In the OCD-related thought monitoring condition (OTM) self-consciousness and Behavioral Avoidance Task-induced stress and fear were particularly increased and memory performance further deteriorated in the OCD group. This finding highlights an important and underestimated mechanism (personal involvement) which might serve to better understand lower memory performance in OCD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Incidence of obsessive–compulsive disorder in children with nonmonosymptomatic primary nocturnal enuresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Khosrobeigi, Ali; Salehi, Bahman; Taherahmadi, Hassan; Shariatmadari, Fakhreddin; Ghandi, Yazdan; Alinejad, Saeed; Farhadiruzbahani, Fateme

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Enuresis is defined as the repeated voiding of urine into clothes or bed at least twice a week for at least 3 consecutive months in a child who is at least 5 years of age. The behavior is not due exclusively to the direct physiologic effect of a substance or a general medical condition. Diurnal enuresis defines wetting, whereas awake and nocturnal enuresis refers to voiding during sleep. Primary enuresis occurs in children who have never been consistently dry through the night, whereas secondary enuresis refers the resumption of wetting after at least 6 months of dryness. Monosymptomatic enuresis has no associated daytime symptoms, and nonmonosymptomatic enuresis, which is more common, often has at least one subtle daytime symptom. Monosymptomatic enuresis is rarely associated with significant organic underlying abnormalities. Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic disabling illness characterized by repetitive, ritualistic behaviors over which the patients have little or no control. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between OCD and nonmonosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (NMNE). Materials and Methods: In this case–control study, we evaluated 186 children aged 6–17 years old who were visited in the pediatric clinics of Amir Kabir Hospital, Arak, Iran. The control group included 93 healthy children, and the case group included 93 age- and sex-matched children with stage 1–3 chronic kidney disease (CKD). Then, the children's behavioral status was evaluated using the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale. Results: The difference in compulsion was significant (P = 0.021), whereas the difference in obsession was significant between the two groups (P = 0.013). The most common symptom in CKD children with compulsion was silent repetition of words. Conclusion: Compulsive and obsessive are more common in NMNE versus healthy children. The observed correlation between compulsive-obsessive and NMNE makes

  20. Incidence of obsessive-compulsive disorder in children with nonmonosymptomatic primary nocturnal enuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Khosrobeigi, Ali; Salehi, Bahman; Taherahmadi, Hassan; Shariatmadari, Fakhreddin; Ghandi, Yazdan; Alinejad, Saeed; Farhadiruzbahani, Fateme

    2016-01-01

    Enuresis is defined as the repeated voiding of urine into clothes or bed at least twice a week for at least 3 consecutive months in a child who is at least 5 years of age. The behavior is not due exclusively to the direct physiologic effect of a substance or a general medical condition. Diurnal enuresis defines wetting, whereas awake and nocturnal enuresis refers to voiding during sleep. Primary enuresis occurs in children who have never been consistently dry through the night, whereas secondary enuresis refers the resumption of wetting after at least 6 months of dryness. Monosymptomatic enuresis has no associated daytime symptoms, and nonmonosymptomatic enuresis, which is more common, often has at least one subtle daytime symptom. Monosymptomatic enuresis is rarely associated with significant organic underlying abnormalities. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic disabling illness characterized by repetitive, ritualistic behaviors over which the patients have little or no control. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between OCD and nonmonosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (NMNE). In this case-control study, we evaluated 186 children aged 6-17 years old who were visited in the pediatric clinics of Amir Kabir Hospital, Arak, Iran. The control group included 93 healthy children, and the case group included 93 age- and sex-matched children with stage 1-3 chronic kidney disease (CKD). Then, the children's behavioral status was evaluated using the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. The difference in compulsion was significant ( P = 0.021), whereas the difference in obsession was significant between the two groups ( P = 0.013). The most common symptom in CKD children with compulsion was silent repetition of words. Compulsive and obsessive are more common in NMNE versus healthy children. The observed correlation between compulsive-obsessive and NMNE makes psychological counseling mandatory in children with NMNE.

  1. [Drug induced diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morard, Isabelle; Hadengue, Antoine

    2008-09-03

    Diarrhea is a frequent adverse event involving the most frequently antibiotics, laxatives and NSAI. Drug induced diarrhea may be acute or chronic. It may be due to expected, dose dependant properties of the drug, to immuno-allergic or bio-genomic mechanisms. Several pathophysiological mechanisms have been described resulting in osmotic, secretory or inflammatory diarrhea, shortened transit time, or malabsorption. Histopathological lesions sometimes associated with drug induced diarrhea are usually non specific and include ulcerations, inflammatory or ischemic lesions, fibrous diaphragms, microscopic colitis and apoptosis. The diagnosis of drug induced diarrhea, sometimes difficult to assess, relies on the absence of other obvious causes and on the rapid disappearance of the symptoms after withdrawal of the suspected drug.

  2. Does obsessive-compulsive personality disorder belong within the obsessive-compulsive spectrum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineberg, Naomi A; Sharma, Punita; Sivakumaran, Thanusha; Sahakian, Barbara; Chamberlain, Sam R; Chamberlain, Sam

    2007-06-01

    It has been proposed that certain Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Axis I disorders share overlapping clinical features, genetic contributions, and treatment response and fall within an "obsessive-compulsive" spectrum. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) resembles obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and other spectrum disorders in terms of phenomenology, comorbidity, neurocognition, and treatment response. This article critically examines the nosological profile of OCPD with special reference to OCD and related disorders. By viewing OCPD as a candidate member of the obsessive-compulsive spectrum, we gain a fresh approach to understanding its neurobiology, etiology, and potential treatments.

  3. Compulsive Internet use: the role of online gaming and other internet applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, Antonius J; Schoenmakers, Tim M; van de Eijnden, Regina J J M; van de Mheen, Dike

    2010-07-01

    Increasing research on Internet addiction makes it necessary to distinguish between the medium of Internet and its specific applications. This study explores the relationship between time spent on various Internet applications (including online gaming) and Compulsive Internet Use in a large sample of adolescents. The 2007 (N=4,920) and 2008 (N=4,753) samples of a longitudinal survey study among adolescents were used, as well as the 2007-2008 cohort subsample (N=1421). Compulsive Internet Use was predicted from the time spent on the various Internet applications in two cross-sectional multiple linear regression models and one longitudinal regression model in which changes in behavior were related to changes in Compulsive Internet Use. In both samples, downloading, social networking, MSN use, Habbo Hotel, chatting, blogging, online games, and casual games were shown to be associated with Compulsive Internet Use. Off these, online gaming was shown to have the strongest association with Compulsive Internet Use. Moreover, changes in online gaming were most strongly associated with changes in Compulsive Internet Use over time for the longitudinal cohort. A clear relationship was shown between online gaming and Compulsive Internet Use. It is further argued that a subgroup of compulsive Internet users should be classified as compulsive online gamers. Copyright (c) 2010 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Compulsive buying in outline

    OpenAIRE

    Łukasz Zadka; Marcin Olajossy

    2016-01-01

    In spite of a hundred year long history of scientific research compulsive buying has been a hardly known phenomenon until today. Ambiguous scientific information makes it impossible to classify compulsive buying as a separate mental disorder. Recently many researchers have noticed phenomenological compatibility of compulsive buying with behavioural addictions. Nowadays, there is reasonable grounds that compulsive buying disorder can be defined as an addiction. There are many similarities occu...

  5. Successful treatment of dopamine dysregulation syndrome with dopamine D2 partial agonist antipsychotic drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizushima Jin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS consists of a series of complications such as compulsive use of dopaminergic medications, aggressive or hypomanic behaviors during excessive use, and withdrawal states characterized by dysphoria and anxiety, caused by long-term dopaminergic treatment in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD. Although several ways to manage DDS have been suggested, there has been no established treatment that can manage DDS without deterioration of motor symptoms. In this article, we present a case of PD in whom the administration of the dopamine D2 partial agonistic antipsychotic drug aripiprazole improved DDS symptoms such as craving and compulsive behavior without worsening of motor symptoms. Considering the profile of this drug as a partial agonist at D2 receptors, it is possible that it exerts its therapeutic effect on DDS by modulating the dysfunctional dopamine system.

  6. Tic Severity and Treatment in Children: The Effect of Comorbid Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringsheim, Tamara

    2017-12-01

    While attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive compulsive disorder have been shown to have major impacts on quality of life in individuals with Tourette syndrome, there is comparatively little data on how the presence of these comorbidities influence tic severity and treatment. 114 children (mean age 10.25 years) were extensively clinically phenotyped at a single specialty clinic. While there was no difference in Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) scores in children with versus without ADHD, children with obsessive compulsive behaviors had significantly higher YGTSS scores (p = 0.008). There was a significant correlation between YGTSS scores and age (r = 0.344, p tics within the first two years of diagnosis (OR 3.51, p = 0.009). As tic severity does not appear to be greater in children with ADHD, this association may relate to greater overall psychosocial impairment in children with this comorbidity.

  7. Effectiveness of a Selective Advising Program in Reducing the Degree of Compulsive Buying Behavior among Umm Al-Qura Female Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyouni, Sawzan S.

    2018-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to investigate the effectiveness of a selective advising program in reducing the degree of Compulsive Buying Behavior among female students, Faculty of Education at Umm al-Qura University. The sample consisted of (200) female students to verify the validity and reliability of the tool. The quasi-experimental method…

  8. Prevalence of compulsive buying among customers of a Parisian general store.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejoyeux, Michel; Mathieu, Karine; Embouazza, Houcine; Huet, Françoise; Lequen, Valérie

    2007-01-01

    Compulsive buying is defined by the presence of repetitive impulsive and excessive buying, leading to personal and family distress. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of compulsive buying among "normal consumers" and to describe the specificities in the buying style of compulsive buyers. We tried to answer several questions. (1) Does compulsive buying occur more often during sales or periods of sales campaigns? (2) Is compulsive buying more impulsive and unplanned than normal buying? (3) Are compulsive buyers more "affectively" involved in their purchases (preference for specific brands they have a narcissistic relationship with, tendency to consider purchases as exceptional special occasions)? (4)Do women who buy compulsively use shopping Web sites and the Internet in general more than controls? We interviewed 200 women successively entering Les Galeries Lafayette, a famous Parisian department store. We diagnosed compulsive buying with standardized criteria and a specific rating scale. All subjects answered an additional questionnaire assessing their buying behavior. We also rated their duration of connection to the Web, the number of e-mails sent and received, and the time spent speaking on a cellular phone. Prevalence of compulsive buying was 32.5%. The proportion of married women was lower among compulsive buyers (66%) than in controls (85%). Compulsive buyers do not seek sales more than controls. Their decision to buy is more often made during their stay in the shop (48% vs 24%, chi(2) = 117, P vs 23.1%, P = .006). They have a higher tendency to use items less than expected (23.4% vs 14.4% in the control group, P vs 2.5%, P = .04) and consider more often their purchases as personally gratifying (44% vs 23%, P online shopping sites are longer and more frequent. They spend significantly more time than controls speaking on their cellular phones.

  9. Targeting extinction and reconsolidation mechanisms to combat the impact of drug cues on addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jane R; Olausson, Peter; Quinn, Jennifer J; Torregrossa, Mary M

    2009-01-01

    Drug addiction is a progressive and compulsive disorder, where recurrent craving and relapse to drug-seeking occur even after long periods of abstinence. A major contributing factor to relapse is drug-associated cues. Here we review behavioral and pharmacological studies outlining novel methods of effective and persistent reductions in cue-induced relapse behavior in animal models. We focus on extinction and reconsolidation of cue-drug associations as the memory processes that are the most likely targets for interventions. Extinction involves the formation of new inhibitory memories rather than memory erasure; thus, it should be possible to facilitate the extinction of cue-drug memories to reduce relapse. We propose that context-dependency of extinction might be altered by mnemonic agents, thereby enhancing the efficacy of cue-exposure therapy as treatment strategy. In contrast, interfering with memory reconsolidation processes can disrupt the integrity or strength of specific cue-drug memories. Reconsolidation is argued to be a distinct process that occurs over a brief time period after memory is reactivated/retrieved - when the memory becomes labile and vulnerable to disruption. Reconsolidation is thought to be an independent, perhaps opposing, process to extinction and disruption of reconsolidation has recently been shown to directly affect subsequent cue-drug memory retrieval in an animal model of relapse. We hypothesize that a combined approach aimed at both enhancing the consolidation of cue-drug extinction and interfering with the reconsolidation of cue-drug memories will have a greater potential for persistently inhibiting cue-induced relapse than either treatment alone.

  10. Purposeless oral activity induced by meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP): Undefined tic-like behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiss, Deborah S; De Deurwaerdère, Philippe

    2017-12-01

    The pathophysiological hypothesis underlying tic disorders in Tourette syndrome (TS) is that basal ganglia are not capable of properly filtering cortical information, leading patients with difficulties in inhibiting unwanted behaviors or impulses. One of the main challenges for furthering such a hypothesis is to find appropriate animal models summarizing some aspects of the disease. It has been established for more than 25 years in rodents that the prototypical serotonin (5-HT) agonist meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP) elicits purposeless oral movements including chewing behavior. These bouts of oral movements, originally thought to mimic human oral dyskinesia consequent to long-term administration of antipsychotic drugs or parkinsonian tremor, could correspond to an undefined form of tics. Here, we describe the nature of the purposeless oral movements triggered by m-CPP and other agonists which could be associated with obsessive compulsive disorders. We report the pharmacology of this response with a focus on the 5-HT 2C receptor subtype and the degree to which the dopaminergic and cholinergic systems are involved. The orofacial dyskinetic effects are related to the action of these compounds in associative/limbic territories of the basal ganglia, rather than sensorimotor ones, as expected from the human disease. In spite of the low translational value of these oral movements, the neurobiological analysis of these oral movements could help to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of tics and compulsive disorders often cormorbid with TS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Metacognition, specific obsessive-compulsive beliefs and obsessive-compulsive behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Aardema, A

    Cognitive distortions and beliefs have been found to be associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Most of these cognitive distortions are supposed to be non-specifically related to obsessive-compulsive behaviour in general, rather than specific domains of beliefs being related to specific forms

  12. Exploring the Role of Child Sexual Abuse and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Gay and Bisexual Men Reporting Compulsive Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Leah M.; Muench, Fred; Morgenstern, Jon; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) is an impairing yet understudied clinical phenomenon. The experience of child sexual abuse (CSA) has been implicated as an etiological factor in the development of some cases of CSB (Kuzma & Black, 2008); however, research regarding the role of CSA and related psychopathology in CSB symptomatology has…

  13. Addiction-like synaptic impairments in diet-induced obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Sade; Garcia-Keller, Constanza; Spanswick, David C; Lawrence, Andrew John; Simonds, Stephanie Elise; Schwartz, Danielle Joy; Jordan, Kelsey Ann; Jhou, Thomas Clayton; Kalivas, Peter William

    2016-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence that the pathological overeating underlying some forms of obesity is compulsive in nature, and therefore contains elements of an addictive disorder. However, direct physiological evidence linking obesity to synaptic plasticity akin to that occurring in addiction is lacking. We sought to establish whether the propensity to diet-induced obesity (DIO) is associated with addictive-like behavior, as well as synaptic impairments in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcore) considered hallmarks of addiction. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were allowed free access to a palatable diet for 8 weeks then separated by weight gain into DIO prone (OP) and resistant (OR) subgroups. Access to palatable food was then restricted to daily operant self-administration sessions using fixed (FR1, 3 and 5) and progressive ratio (PR) schedules. Subsequently, NAcore brain slices were prepared and we tested for changes in the ratio between AMPA and NMDA currents (AMPA/NMDA) and the ability to exhibit long-term depression (LTD). Results We found that propensity to develop DIO is linked to deficits in the ability to induce LTD in the NAcore, as well as increased potentiation at these synapses as measured by AMPA/NMDA currents. Consistent with these impairments, we observed addictive-like behavior in OP rats, including i) heightened motivation for palatable food (ii) excessive intake and (iii) increased food-seeking when food was unavailable. Conclusions Our results show overlap between the propensity for DIO and the synaptic changes associated with facets of addictive behavior, supporting partial coincident neurological underpinnings for compulsive overeating and drug addiction. PMID:26826876

  14. The drive to eat: comparisons and distinctions between mechanisms of food reward and drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLeone, Ralph J; Taylor, Jane R; Picciotto, Marina R

    2012-10-01

    The growing rates of obesity have prompted comparisons between the uncontrolled intake of food and drugs; however, an evaluation of the equivalence of food- and drug-related behaviors requires a thorough understanding of the underlying neural circuits driving each behavior. Although it has been attractive to borrow neurobiological concepts from addiction to explore compulsive food seeking, a more integrated model is needed to understand how food and drugs differ in their ability to drive behavior. In this Review, we will examine the commonalities and differences in the systems-level and behavioral responses to food and to drugs of abuse, with the goal of identifying areas of research that would address gaps in our understanding and ultimately identify new treatments for obesity or drug addiction.

  15. New pharmacotherapeutic approaches to obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figee, Martijn; Denys, Damiaan

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes results of all pharmacotherapy trials for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) published from 2006 to 2008 as well as studies on markers for predicting response to treatment and neurobiological changes induced by pharmacotherapy. Results show that recent developments in the

  16. Drug-induced thrombocytopenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, U; Andersen, M; Hansen, P B

    1997-01-01

    induced by non-cytotoxic drugs is characterised by heterogeneous clinical picture and recovery is generally rapid. Although corticosteroids seem inefficient, we still recommend that severe symptomatic cases of drug-induced thrombocytopenia are treated as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura due...

  17. The Effect of Central Amygdala Nitric Oxide in Expression Of Drug Seeking Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Rahimpour

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Previous studies shows L-arginin (nitric oxide precursor increases conditioned place preference and drug seeking behaviors whereas LG-nitro-arginine methyl ester L-NAME( as nitric oxide synthase inhibitor decreases this process. In this project, effects of intra-central amygdale bilateral injection of nitric oxide agents on drug-seeking behaviors including rearing, sniffing and compartment entrance were investigated. Method: animals were wistar male rats (200-250 g which allowed to be recovered after they’re being suffered from a surgery by strereotaxis apparatus to be cannulated in coordination of central amygdale nucleus (CeA. CPP was conducted using a five-day schedule of unbiased procedure. Findings: morphine (2.5-10 mg/kg s.c induced significant drug-seeking behaviors. Naloxone (0.1-0.4 mg/kg i.p injection pretesting (after conditioning by morphine 7.5 mg/kg decreased the expression of behaviors. When L-arginine (0.3-3 µgr/rat injected intra–CeA prior to naloxone (0.4 mg/kg, increased behaviors but L-NAME (0.3-3 µgr/rat intra–CeA injections prior to L-arginine (0.3 µgr/rat pretesting, caused significant decreasement of L-arginine response. Conclusion: NO in the CeA may play an important role in the drug seeking behaviors induced of morphine.

  18. Heterogeneity of compulsive buyers based on impulsivity and compulsivity dimensions: a latent profile analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sunghwan

    2013-07-30

    Despite the recognition that compulsive buyers are not one homogenous group, there is a dearth of theory-guided empirical investigation. Furthermore, although compulsivity and impulsivity are used as major psychiatric criteria for diagnosing compulsive buyers, these dimensions have rarely been considered in assessing the heterogeneity issue. We fill this gap by applying the motivation shift model of addiction to compulsive buying and empirically assessing the heterogeneity issue in the bi-dimensional space represented by the buying impulsivity and compulsivity dimensions. These hypotheses were tested with latent profile analysis based on survey data (N=445). Consistent with the hypothesis, we identified the cluster of buyers with high buying compulsivity and impulsivity ("compulsive-impulsive buyers"), the cluster of buyers with low buying compulsivity and high impulsivity ("impulsive excessive buyers"), and the cluster of ordinary buyers. Furthermore, it was found that disparate clusters of buyers exhibit unique dispositional tendencies. Theoretical contributions and policy implications of the findings are discussed as well. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Association between Protestant religiosity and obsessive-compulsive symptoms and cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowitz, Jonathan S; Deacon, Brett J; Woods, Carol M; Tolin, David F

    2004-01-01

    There is evidence that religion and other cultural influences are associated with the presentation of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, as well as beliefs and assumptions presumed to underlie the development and maintenance of these symptoms. We sought to further examine the relationship between Protestant religiosity and (1) various symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (e.g., checking, washing) and (2) OCD-related cognitions. Using self-report questionnaires, we compared differences in these OCD-related phenomena between highly religious Protestants, moderately religious Protestants, and atheist/agnostic participants drawn from an undergraduate sample. Highly religious versus moderately religious Protestants reported greater obsessional symptoms, compulsive washing, and beliefs about the importance of thoughts. Additionally, the highly religious evinced more obsessional symptoms, compulsive washing, intolerance for uncertainty, need to control thoughts, beliefs about the importance of thoughts, and inflated responsibility, compared to atheists/agnostics. Results are discussed in terms of the relationship between religion and OCD symptoms in the context of the cognitive-behavioral conceptualization of OCD. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Animal models of drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Pardo, María Pilar; Roger Sánchez, Concepción; De la Rubia Ortí, José Enrique; Aguilar Calpe, María Asunción

    2017-09-29

    The development of animal models of drug reward and addiction is an essential factor for progress in understanding the biological basis of this disorder and for the identification of new therapeutic targets. Depending on the component of reward to be studied, one type of animal model or another may be used. There are models of reinforcement based on the primary hedonic effect produced by the consumption of the addictive substance, such as the self-administration (SA) and intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) paradigms, and there are models based on the component of reward related to associative learning and cognitive ability to make predictions about obtaining reward in the future, such as the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. In recent years these models have incorporated methodological modifications to study extinction, reinstatement and reconsolidation processes, or to model specific aspects of addictive behavior such as motivation to consume drugs, compulsive consumption or drug seeking under punishment situations. There are also models that link different reinforcement components or model voluntary motivation to consume (two-bottle choice, or drinking in the dark tests). In short, innovations in these models allow progress in scientific knowledge regarding the different aspects that lead individuals to consume a drug and develop compulsive consumption, providing a target for future treatments of addiction.

  1. Arousal, Executive Control and Decision Making in Compulsive Buying Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsøy, Thomas Zöega; Zuraigat, Farah Qureshi; Jacobsen, Catrine

    2013-01-01

    Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) is noted by an obsession with shopping and a chronic, repetitive purchasing behavior with adverse consequences for the sufferer and their social surroundings. While CBD is often classified as an impulse control disorder (ICD), little is still known about the actua......, products of interest (e.g. fashion items) produce bottom-up emotional responses that skews the decision-making process, leading CBD sufferers to make bad purchase decisions.......Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) is noted by an obsession with shopping and a chronic, repetitive purchasing behavior with adverse consequences for the sufferer and their social surroundings. While CBD is often classified as an impulse control disorder (ICD), little is still known about the actual...

  2. A review of compulsive buying disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald W

    2007-02-01

    Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) is characterized by excessive shopping cognitions and buying behavior that leads to distress or impairment. Found worldwide, the disorder has a lifetime prevalence of 5.8% in the US general population. Most subjects studied clinically are women (~80%), though this gender difference may be artifactual. Subjects with CBD report a preoccupation with shopping, prepurchase tension or anxiety, and a sense of relief following the purchase. CBD is associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity, particularly mood and anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, eating disorders, and other disorders of impulse control. The majority of persons with CBD appear to meet criteria for an Axis II disorder, although there is no special "shopping" personality. Compulsive shopping tends to run in families, and these families are filled with mood and substance use disorders. There are no standard treatments. Psychopharmacologic treatment studies are being actively pursued, and group cognitive-behavioral models have been developed and are promising. Debtors Anonymous, simplicity circles, bibliotherapy, financial counseling, and marital therapy may also play a role in the management of CBD.

  3. Influence of specific obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions on strategic planning in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Paula Sanders Pereira; Iego, Sandro; Nunes, Samantha; Menezes, Hemanny; Mastrorosa, Rosana Sávio; Oliveira, Irismar Reis de; Rosário, Maria Conceição do

    2011-03-01

    This study investigates obsessive-compulsive disorder patients in terms of strategic planning and its association with specific obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions. We evaluated 32 obsessive-compulsive disorder patients. Strategic planning was assessed by the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, and the obsessive-compulsive dimensions were assessed by the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. In the statistical analyses, the level of significance was set at 5%. We employed linear regression, including age, intelligence quotient, number of comorbidities, the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale score, and the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. The Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale "worst-ever" score correlated significantly with the planning score on the copy portion of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (r = 0.4, p = 0.04) and was the only variable to show a significant association after linear regression (β = 0.55, t = 2.1, p = 0.04). Compulsive hoarding correlated positively with strategic planning (r = 0.44, p = 0.03). None of the remaining symptom dimensions presented any significant correlations with strategic planning. We found the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms to be associated with strategic planning. In addition, there was a significant positive association between the planning score on the copy portion of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test copy score and the hoarding dimension score on the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. Our results underscore the idea that obsessive-compulsive disorder is a heterogeneous disorder and suggest that the hoarding dimension has a specific neuropsychological profile. Therefore, it is important to assess the peculiarities of each obsessive-compulsive symptom dimension.

  4. Interpersonal Functioning in Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Nicole M.; Ansell, Emily B.; Simpson, H. Blair; Pinto, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The core symptoms of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) often lead to interpersonal difficulties. However, little research has explored interpersonal functioning in OCPD. The current study examined interpersonal problems, interpersonal sensitivities, empathy, and systemizing, the drive to analyze and derive underlying rules for systems, in a sample of 25 OCPD individuals, 25 individuals with comorbid OCPD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and 25 healthy controls. We found that OCPD individuals reported hostile-dominant interpersonal problems and sensitivities with warm-dominant behavior by others while OCPD+OCD individuals reported submissive interpersonal problems and sensitivities with warm-submissive behavior by others. Individuals with OCPD, with and without OCD, reported less empathic perspective taking relative to healthy controls. Finally, we found that OCPD males reported a higher drive to analyze and derive rules for systems than OCPD females. Overall, results suggest that there are interpersonal deficits associated with OCPD and the clinical implications of these deficits are discussed. PMID:25046040

  5. Interpersonal functioning in obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Nicole M; Ansell, Emily B; Simpson, H Blair; Pinto, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The core symptoms of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) often lead to interpersonal difficulties. However, little research has explored interpersonal functioning in OCPD. This study examined interpersonal problems, interpersonal sensitivities, empathy, and systemizing, the drive to analyze and derive underlying rules for systems, in a sample of 25 OCPD individuals, 25 individuals with comorbid OCPD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and 25 healthy controls. We found that OCPD individuals reported hostile-dominant interpersonal problems and sensitivities with warm-dominant behavior by others, whereas OCPD+OCD individuals reported submissive interpersonal problems and sensitivities with warm-submissive behavior by others. Individuals with OCPD, with and without OCD, reported less empathic perspective taking relative to healthy controls. Finally, we found that OCPD males reported a higher drive to analyze and derive rules for systems than OCPD females. Overall, results suggest that there are interpersonal deficits associated with OCPD and the clinical implications of these deficits are discussed.

  6. Validity and reliability of the Brazilian version of Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale-shopping version (YBOCS-SV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Priscilla Lourenço; Filomensky, Tatiana Zambrano; Black, Donald W; Silva, Adriana Cardoso

    2014-08-01

    The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Shopping Version (YBOCS-SV) is considered the gold standard in the assessment of shopping severity. It is designed to assess cognitions and behaviors relating to compulsive buying behavior. The present study aims to assess the validity of the Brazilian version of this scale. For the study, composed the sample 610 participants: 588 subjects of a general population and 22 compulsive buyers. Factorial analysis was performed to assess the relations and the correlation between the YBOCS-SV, the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS), and Richmond Compulsive Buying Scale (RCBS), was assessed using Pearson coefficient, for study of convergent and divergent validity. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were used to assess internal consistency. The results show good to excellent psychometric parameters for the YBOCS-SV in its Brazilian version. With regard to correlations, the YBOCS-SV is inversely and proportionally correlated with CBS and the RCBS, indicating that the YBOCS-SV is an excellent instrument for screening compulsive buying. The YBOCS-SV presented high alpha coefficient of Cronbach's alpha (0.92), demonstrating good reliability. The Brazilian version of the YBOCS-SV is indicated to diagnose compulsive buying disorder, and likely use for the purposes intended in the Brazilian population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and suicidal behavior: evidence for a positive association in a sample of depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconu, Gabriel; Turecki, Gustavo

    2009-11-01

    To explore the association between obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) and suicidal behavior. Subjects referred for a psychiatric consultation were evaluated with structured interviews for mood and personality disorders (the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Axis II Disorders), a history of suicidal behavior, and levels of coping. A total of 311 subjects were investigated using a 3-group design to test the association between OCPD and suicidal behavior, controlling for the presence of depression. Subjects with OCPD and a history of depression were compared to depressed subjects without any Axis II diagnosis and to subjects without depression or personality disorders. The study was conducted at Verdun Community Psychiatric Clinic, Douglas Hospital, McGill University, in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, and subjects were recruited from 2003 until 2005. Subjects in the comorbid OCPD-depression group presented increased current and lifetime suicide ideation compared to the groups with depression alone or without depression or personality disorders (P = .004); they also had increased history of suicide attempts (P = .04), which were often multiple attempts (P = .01). They also scored lower on the Reasons for Living Inventory (RFL) and the Death Anxiety Questionnaire. Interestingly, comorbid OCPD-depression patients differed from patients with depression alone on the Moral Objections items of the RFL, on which individuals with OCPD-depression scored lowest. Limitations of this study were its cross-sectional design, retrospective sample, and limited generalizability to the population at large. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is a factor increasing risk for nonfatal suicidal behavior independently of risk conferred by depressive disorders. Copyright 2009 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  8. Impulsivity and compulsive buying are associated in a non-clinical sample: an evidence for the compulsivity-impulsivity continuum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Jonas J de; Costa, Danielle de S; Oliveira, Flavianne; Alves, Joana O; Passos, Lídia R; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F

    2015-01-01

    Compulsive buying is controversial in clinical psychiatry. Although it is defined as an obsessive-compulsive disorder, other personality aspects besides compulsivity are related to compulsive buying. Recent studies suggest that compulsivity and impulsivity might represent a continuum, with several psychiatric disorders lying between these two extremes. In this sense, and following the perspective of dimensional psychiatry, symptoms of impulsivity and compulsivity should correlate even in a non-clinical sample. The present study aims to investigate whether these two traits are associated in a healthy adult sample. We evaluated 100 adults, with no self-reported psychiatric disorders, using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 and two scales of compulsive buying. Using multiple linear regressions, we found that impulsivity accounted for about 15% of variance in the compulsive-buying measure. Our results suggest that an association between impulsivity and compulsive buying occurs even in non-clinical samples, evidence that compulsivity and impulsivity might form a continuum and that compulsive buying might be an intermediate condition between these two personality traits.

  9. Stable and biocompatible genipin-inducing interlayer-crosslinked micelles for sustained drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Yu; Zhang, Xiaojin, E-mail: zhangxj@cug.edu.cn [China University of Geosciences, Faculty of Materials Science and Chemistry (China)

    2017-05-15

    To develop the sustained drug release system, here we describe genipin-inducing interlayer-crosslinked micelles crosslinked via Schiff bases between the amines of amphiphilic linear-hyperbranched polymer poly(ethylene glycol)-branched polyethylenimine-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEG-PEI-PCL) and genipin. The generation of Schiff bases was confirmed by the color changes and UV-Vis absorption spectra of polymeric micelles after adding genipin. The particle size, morphology, stability, in vitro cytotoxicity, drug loading capacity, and in vitro drug release behavior of crosslinked micelles as well as non-crosslinked micelles were characterized. The results indicated that genipin-inducing interlayer-crosslinked micelles had better stability and biocompatibility than non-crosslinked micelles and glutaraldehyde-inducing interlayer-crosslinked micelles. In addition, genipin-inducing interlayer-crosslinked micelles were able to improve drug loading capacity, reduce the initial burst release, and achieve sustained drug release.

  10. Prevention of drug priming- and cue-induced reinstatement of MDMA-seeking behaviors by the CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist AM251.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawata, Yoko; Kitaichi, Kiyoyuki; Yamamoto, Tsuneyuki

    2016-03-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), a methamphetamine (METH) derivative, exhibits METH-like actions at monoamine transporters and positive reinforcing effects in rodents and primates. The purposes of the present study were to determine whether cross-reinstatement would be observed between MDMA and METH and if the cannabinoid receptor, a receptor known to play critical roles in the brain reward system, could modulate MDMA craving. Rats were trained to press a lever for intravenous MDMA (0.3mg/infusion) or METH (0.02mg/infusion) infusions under a fixed ratio 1 schedule paired with drug-associated cues (light and tone). Following drug self-administration acquisition training, rats underwent extinction training (an infusion of saline). Reinstatement tests were performed once the extinction criteria were achieved. In MDMA-trained rats, the MDMA-priming injection (3.2mg/kg, i.p.) or re-exposure to MDMA-associated cues reinstated MDMA-seeking behavior. Additionally, a priming injection of METH (1.0mg/kg, i.p.) also reinstated MDMA-seeking behavior. In contrast, none of the MDMA doses reinstated METH-seeking behavior in the METH-trained rats. The CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist AM251 markedly attenuated the MDMA-seeking behaviors induced by MDMA-priming injection or re-exposure to MDMA-associated cues in a dose-dependent manner. These findings show that MDMA has obvious addictive potential for reinstating drug-seeking behavior and that METH can be an effective stimulus for reinstating MDMA-seeking behaviors. Furthermore, based on the attenuating effect of AM251 in the reinstatement of MDMA-seeking behaviors, drugs that suppress CB1 receptors may be used in treatment of MDMA dependence. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. Determinants of compulsive buying behavior among young adults: The mediating role of materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Tahir; Wei, Jiuchang; Sheikh, Zaryab; Hameed, Zahid; Azam, Rauf I

    2017-12-01

    This research seeks to determine what makes young adults materialistic. The study examines the mediating role of materialism between the contextual factors and compulsive buying. Data was gathered from 219 Pakistani undergraduate university students. Partial Least Square (PLS) technique was used to analyze the data. The study confirms the intuition that more materialistic young adults are more likely to be involved in compulsive buying than are less materialistic young adults. The results were similar with the previous literature conducted in the western culture, indicating that also applies in a modern Islamic society. The findings of the study reveal that materialism mediated the relationship between certain sociological factors (i.e., group, media Celebrity endorsement, and TV advertisement) and compulsive buying. The study highlights the importance of understanding young adults' materialistic attitudes and consumption decisions and provides key knowledge for researchers, policymakers, and managers of leading brands. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Tabernaemontana divaricata leaves extract exacerbate burying behavior in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Chanchal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Tabernaemontana divaricata (TD from Apocynaceae family offers the traditional folklore medicinal benefits such as an anti-epileptic, anti-mania, brain tonic, and anti-oxidant. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of TD leaves on burying behavior in mice. Materials and Methods:Mice were treated with oral administration (p.o. of ethanolic extract of TD (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg. Fluoxetine (FLX, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor was used as a reference drug. Obsessive-compulsive behavior was evaluated using marble-burying apparatus. Results:TD at doses of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg dose-dependently inhibited the obsessive and compulsive behavior. The similar results were obtained from 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg of FLX. TD and FLX did not affect motor activity. Conclusion: The results indicated that TD and FLX produced similar inhibitory effects on marble-burying behavior.

  13. [Current and emerging features of obsessive-compulsive disorder--trends for the revision of DSM-5].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Hisato

    2012-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized as significant impairment of cognitive-behavioral inhibition, which is causally associated with cognitive processes evoking anxiety, along with increased desire for perfect control over the possible harm, at least in typical OCD patients who have compulsions in response to obsessions. However, OCD has been well conceptualized as a multidimensional and heterogeneous disorder apparently comprising a number of potentially valid subtypes. For example, OCD can be diagnosed by either obsessions or compulsions, and a certain type of OCD patient has only compulsions in response to rules that must be applied rigidly. They often become stuck as a result of rigid rules in every step of their daily working and social life. This type of compulsive behavior is often triggered by specific sensory phenomena such as sight, touch, or personal expression (e. g. need to express himself precisely in written or spoken words). Thus, such OCD patients usually perform their compulsions in order to relieve sensory phenomena such as feelings of incompleteness and urges to reach a specific sensation of feeling "just right", and are less likely to have obsessions or cognitive processes preceding the repetitive behaviors. This type of OCD has also been characterized as "tic-related" and tends to have comorbid conditions such as tic disorders, ADHD or skin picking. Indeed, there are some crucial and significant differences in the psychopathology, phenomenology, and putative biological bases between OCD patients with obsession-related compulsions (cognitive type) and those with compulsions repeated according to rigid rules (motoric type). Because of the substantial heterogeneity of OCD, it seems to be beyond the traditional learning model in which anxiety-driven obsessions entrain neutralizing compulsions and also beyond the essential features of anxiety disorders commonly characterized by psychopathological characteristics such as marked and

  14. Neuro-Genetics of Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) as the Root Cause of “Addiction Transfer”: A New Phenomenon Common after Bariatric Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kenneth; Bailey, John; Gonzalez, Anthony M; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Liu, Yijun; Giordano, John; Braverman, Eric; Gold, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Now after many years of successful bariatric (weight-loss) surgeries directed at the obesity epidemic clinicians are reporting that some patients are replacing compulsive overeating with newly acquired compulsive disorders such as alcoholism, gambling, drugs, and other addictions like compulsive shopping and exercise. This review article explores evidence from psychiatric genetic animal and human studies that link compulsive overeating and other compulsive disorders to explain the phenomenon of addiction transfer. Possibly due to neurochemical similarities, overeating and obesity may act as protective factors reducing drug reward and addictive behaviors. In animal models of addiction withdrawal from sugar induces imbalances in the neurotransmitters, acetylcholine and dopamine, similar to opiate withdrawal. Many human neuroimaging studies have supported the concept of linking food craving to drug craving behavior. Previously our laboratory coined the term Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) for common genetic determinants in predicting addictive disorders and reported that the predictive value for future RDS behaviors in subjects carrying the DRD2 Taq A1 allele was 74%. While poly genes play a role in RDS, we have also inferred that disruptions in dopamine function may predispose certain individuals to addictive behaviors and obesity. It is now known that family history of alcoholism is a significant obesity risk factor. Therefore, we hypothesize here that RDS is the root cause of substituting food addiction for other dependencies and potentially explains this recently described Phenomenon (addiction transfer) common after bariatric surgery. PMID:23483116

  15. Impulsivity and compulsive buying are associated in a non-clinical sample: an evidence for the compulsivity-impulsivity continuum?

    OpenAIRE

    Paula, Jonas J. de; Costa, Danielle de S.; Oliveira, Flavianne; Alves, Joana O.; Passos, Lídia R.; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective:Compulsive buying is controversial in clinical psychiatry. Although it is defined as an obsessive-compulsive disorder, other personality aspects besides compulsivity are related to compulsive buying. Recent studies suggest that compulsivity and impulsivity might represent a continuum, with several psychiatric disorders lying between these two extremes. In this sense, and following the perspective of dimensional psychiatry, symptoms of impulsivity and compulsivity should correlate ev...

  16. Impulsivity and compulsive buying are associated in a non-clinical sample: an evidence for the compulsivity-impulsivity continuum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas J. de Paula

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Compulsive buying is controversial in clinical psychiatry. Although it is defined as an obsessive-compulsive disorder, other personality aspects besides compulsivity are related to compulsive buying. Recent studies suggest that compulsivity and impulsivity might represent a continuum, with several psychiatric disorders lying between these two extremes. In this sense, and following the perspective of dimensional psychiatry, symptoms of impulsivity and compulsivity should correlate even in a non-clinical sample. The present study aims to investigate whether these two traits are associated in a healthy adult sample.Methods:We evaluated 100 adults, with no self-reported psychiatric disorders, using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 and two scales of compulsive buying.Results:Using multiple linear regressions, we found that impulsivity accounted for about 15% of variance in the compulsive-buying measure.Conclusions:Our results suggest that an association between impulsivity and compulsive buying occurs even in non-clinical samples, evidence that compulsivity and impulsivity might form a continuum and that compulsive buying might be an intermediate condition between these two personality traits.

  17. Heritability of compulsive Internet use in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Jacqueline M; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Huppertz, Charlotte; Bartels, Meike; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2016-03-01

    Over the past decades, Internet use has grown substantially, and it now serves people as a supportive tool that is used regularly and-in large parts of the world-inevitably. Some people develop problematic Internet use, which may lead to addictive behavior and it is becoming important to explore the risk factors for compulsive Internet use. Data were analyzed on compulsive Internet use [with the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS)] from 5247 monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) adolescent twins registered with the Netherlands Twin Register. The participants form a sample that is informative for genetic analyses, allowing the investigation of the causes of individual differences in compulsive Internet use. The internal consistency of the instrument was high and the 1.6-year test-retest correlation in a subsample (n = 902) was 0.55. CIUS scores increased slightly with age. Remarkably, gender did not explain variation in CIUS scores, as mean scores on the CIUS were the same in boys and girls. However, the time spent on specific Internet activities differed: boys spent more time on gaming, whereas girls spent more time on social network sites and chatting. The heritability estimates were the same for boys and girls: 48 percent of the individual differences in CIUS score were influenced by genetic factors. The remaining variance (52 percent) was due to environmental influences that were not shared between family members. Because a life without Internet is almost impossible nowadays, it is important to further explore the determinants of compulsive Internet use, including genetic risk factors. © 2015 The Authors. Addiction Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Counterfactual Processing of Economic Action-Outcome Alternatives in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Further Evidence of Impaired Goal-Directed Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Claire M.; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Kaser, Muzaffer; Fineberg, Naomi A.; Sule, Akeem; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Cardinal, Rudolf N.; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disorder of automatic, uncontrollable behaviors and obsessive rumination. There is evidence that OCD patients have difficulties performing goal-directed actions, instead exhibiting repetitive stimulus-response habit behaviors. This might result from the excessive formation of stimulus-response habit associations or from an impairment in the ability to use outcome value to guide behavior. We investigated the latter by examining counterfactual decision making, which is the ability to use comparisons of prospective action-outcome scenarios to guide economic choice. Methods We tested decision making (forward counterfactual) and affective responses (backward counterfactual) in 20 OCD patients and 20 matched healthy control subjects using an economic choice paradigm that previously revealed attenuation of both the experience and avoidance of counterfactual emotion in schizophrenia patients and patients with orbitofrontal cortex lesions. Results The use of counterfactual comparison to guide decision making was diminished in OCD patients, who relied primarily on expected value. Unlike the apathetic affective responses previously shown to accompany this decision style, OCD patients reported increased emotional responsivity to the outcomes of their choices and to the counterfactual comparisons that typify regret and relief. Conclusions Obsessive-compulsive disorder patients exhibit a pattern of decision making consistent with a disruption in goal-directed forward modeling, basing decisions instead on the temporally present (and more rational) calculation of expected value. In contrast to this style of decision making, emotional responses in OCD were more extreme and reactive than control subjects. These results are in line with an account of disrupted goal-directed cognitive control in OCD. PMID:23452663

  19. New Developments in Human Neurocognition: Clinical, Genetic and Brain Imaging Correlates of Impulsivity and Compulsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineberg, Naomi A.; Chamberlain, Samuel R.; Goudriaan, Anna E.; Stein, Dan J.; Vanderschuren, Louk J.M.J.; Gillan, Claire M.; Shekar, Sameer; Gorwood, Philip A.P.M.; Voon, Valerie; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Denys, Damiaan; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Moeller, F. Gerard; Robbins, Trevor W.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity and compulsivity represent useful conceptualizations that involve dissociable cognitive functions, mediated by neuroanatomically and neurochemically distinct components of cortico-subcortical circuitry. The constructs were historically viewed as diametrically opposed, with impulsivity being associated with risk-seeking and compulsivity with harm-avoidance. However, they are increasingly recognized to be linked by shared neuropsychological mechanisms involving dysfunctional inhibition of thoughts and behaviors. In this paper, we selectively review new developments in the investigation of the neurocognition of impulsivity and compulsivity in humans, in order to advance our understanding of the pathophysiology of impulsive, compulsive and addictive disorders and indicate new directions for research. PMID:24512640

  20. Data-driven prediction of adverse drug reactions induced by drug-drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruifeng; AbdulHameed, Mohamed Diwan M; Kumar, Kamal; Yu, Xueping; Wallqvist, Anders; Reifman, Jaques

    2017-06-08

    The expanded use of multiple drugs has increased the occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) induced by drug-drug interactions (DDIs). However, such reactions are typically not observed in clinical drug-development studies because most of them focus on single-drug therapies. ADR reporting systems collect information on adverse health effects caused by both single drugs and DDIs. A major challenge is to unambiguously identify the effects caused by DDIs and to attribute them to specific drug interactions. A computational method that provides prospective predictions of potential DDI-induced ADRs will help to identify and mitigate these adverse health effects. We hypothesize that drug-protein interactions can be used as independent variables in predicting ADRs. We constructed drug pair-protein interaction profiles for ~800 drugs using drug-protein interaction information in the public domain. We then constructed statistical models to score drug pairs for their potential to induce ADRs based on drug pair-protein interaction profiles. We used extensive clinical database information to construct categorical prediction models for drug pairs that are likely to induce ADRs via synergistic DDIs and showed that model performance deteriorated only slightly, with a moderate amount of false positives and false negatives in the training samples, as evaluated by our cross-validation analysis. The cross validation calculations showed an average prediction accuracy of 89% across 1,096 ADR models that captured the deleterious effects of synergistic DDIs. Because the models rely on drug-protein interactions, we made predictions for pairwise combinations of 764 drugs that are currently on the market and for which drug-protein interaction information is available. These predictions are publicly accessible at http://avoid-db.bhsai.org . We used the predictive models to analyze broader aspects of DDI-induced ADRs, showing that ~10% of all combinations have the potential to induce ADRs

  1. Controlled comparison of family cognitive behavioral therapy and psychoeducation/relaxation training for child obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, John; Bergman, R Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Langley, Audra; Peris, Tara; Wood, Jeffrey J; McCracken, James

    2011-11-01

    To examine the efficacy of exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus a structured family intervention (FCBT) versus psychoeducation plus relaxation training (PRT) for reducing symptom severity, functional impairment, and family accommodation in youths with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). A total of 71 youngsters 8 to 17 years of age (mean 12.2 years; range, 8-17 years, 37% male, 78% Caucasian) with primary OCD were randomized (70:30) to 12 sessions over 14 weeks of FCBT or PRT. Blind raters assessed outcomes with responders followed for 6 months to assess treatment durability. FCBT led to significantly higher response rates than PRT in ITT (57.1% vs 27.3%) and completer analyses (68.3% vs. 35.3%). Using HLM, FCBT was associated with significantly greater change in OCD severity and child-reported functional impairment than PRT and marginally greater change in parent-reported accommodation of symptoms. These findings were confirmed in some, but not all, secondary analyses. Clinical remission rates were 42.5% for FCBT versus 17.6% for PRT. Reduction in family accommodation temporally preceded improvement in OCD for both groups and child functional status for FCBT only. Treatment gains were maintained at 6 months. FCBT is effective for reducing OCD severity and impairment. Importantly, treatment also reduced parent-reported involvement in symptoms with reduced accommodation preceding reduced symptom severity and functional impairment. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRY INFORMATION: Behavior Therapy for Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD); http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00000386. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Brief Scale to Measure Problematic Sexually Explicit Media Consumption: Psychometric Properties of the Compulsive Pornography Consumption (CPC) Scale among Men who have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Syed WB; Simon Rosser, B. R.; Erickson, Darin J.

    2015-01-01

    Although the phenomenon of hypersexuality has been described in the literature, and scales of compulsive sexual behavior have been published, the existing measures do not assess compulsive sexually explicit media (SEM) consumption. This study tested the psychometric properties of a new scale, the Compulsive Pornography Consumption (CPC). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses results showed good psychometric performance of a five item two factor preoccupation-compulsivity solution. As hypothesized, the scale correlates positively with compulsive sexual behavior, internalized homonegativity, and negatively with sexual self-esteem. The scale will enable researchers to investigate the etiologic factors of compulsive SEM use, and enable clinicians to assess problematic consumption. PMID:25838755

  3. Efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Dean; Sookman, Debbie; Neziroglu, Fugen; Wilhelm, Sabine; Stein, Dan J; Kyrios, Michael; Matthews, Keith; Veale, David

    2015-05-30

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which encompasses exposure with response prevention (ERP) and cognitive therapy (CT), has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the samples studied (reflecting the heterogeneity of OCD), the interventions examined (reflecting the heterogeneity of CBT), and the definitions of treatment response vary considerably across studies. This review examined the meta-analyses conducted on ERP and cognitive therapy (CT) for OCD. Also examined was the available research on long-term outcome associated with ERP and CT. The available research indicates that ERP is the first line evidence based psychotherapeutic treatment for OCD and that concurrent administration of cognitive therapy that targets specific symptom-related difficulties characteristic of OCD may improve tolerance of distress, symptom-related dysfunctional beliefs, adherence to treatment, and reduce drop out. Recommendations are provided for treatment delivery for OCD in general practice and other service delivery settings. The literature suggests that ERP and CT may be delivered in a wide range of clinical settings. Although the data are not extensive, the available research suggests that treatment gains following ERP are durable. Suggestions for future research to refine therapeutic outcome are also considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Unbalanced Neuronal Circuits in Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Volkow, Nora D.; Wang, Gen-Jack; Tomasi, Dardo; Baler, Ruben D.

    2013-01-01

    Through sequential waves of drug-induced neurochemical stimulation, addiction co-opts the brain's neuronal circuits that mediate reward, motivation, , to behavioral inflexibility and a severe disruption of self-control and compulsive drug intake. Brain imaging technologies have allowed neuroscientists to map out the neural landscape of addiction in the human brain and to understand how drugs modify it.

  5. Addiction-like Synaptic Impairments in Diet-Induced Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robyn Mary; Kupchik, Yonatan Michael; Spencer, Sade; Garcia-Keller, Constanza; Spanswick, David C; Lawrence, Andrew John; Simonds, Stephanie Elise; Schwartz, Danielle Joy; Jordan, Kelsey Ann; Jhou, Thomas Clayton; Kalivas, Peter William

    2017-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that the pathological overeating underlying some forms of obesity is compulsive in nature and therefore contains elements of an addictive disorder. However, direct physiological evidence linking obesity to synaptic plasticity akin to that occurring in addiction is lacking. We sought to establish whether the propensity to diet-induced obesity (DIO) is associated with addictive-like behavior, as well as synaptic impairments in the nucleus accumbens core considered hallmarks of addiction. Sprague Dawley rats were allowed free access to a palatable diet for 8 weeks then separated by weight gain into DIO-prone and DIO-resistant subgroups. Access to palatable food was then restricted to daily operant self-administration sessions using fixed ratio 1, 3, and 5 and progressive ratio schedules. Subsequently, nucleus accumbens brain slices were prepared, and we tested for changes in the ratio between α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate currents and the ability to exhibit long-term depression. We found that propensity to develop DIO is linked to deficits in the ability to induce long-term depression in the nucleus accumbens, as well as increased potentiation at these synapses as measured by AMPA/N-methyl-D-aspartate currents. Consistent with these impairments, we observed addictive-like behavior in DIO-prone rats, including 1) heightened motivation for palatable food; 2) excessive intake; and 3) increased food seeking when food was unavailable. Our results show overlap between the propensity for DIO and the synaptic changes associated with facets of addictive behavior, supporting partial coincident neurological underpinnings for compulsive overeating and drug addiction. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  6. Neurobiology of dysregulated motivational systems in drug addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Scott; Koob, George F

    2010-01-01

    The progression from recreational drug use to drug addiction impacts multiple neurobiological processes and can be conceptualized as a transition from positive to negative reinforcement mechanisms driving both drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors. Neurobiological mechanisms for negative reinforcement, defined as drug taking that alleviates a negative emotional state, involve changes in the brain reward system and recruitment of brain stress (or antireward) systems within forebrain structures, including the extended amygdala. These systems are hypothesized to be dysregulated by excessive drug intake and to contribute to allostatic changes in reinforcement mechanisms associated with addiction. Points of intersection between positive and negative motivational circuitry may further drive the compulsivity of drug addiction but also provide a rich neurobiological substrate for therapeutic intervention. PMID:20563312

  7. Neuropharmacology of compulsive eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Catherine F; Panciera, Julia I; Sabino, Valentina; Cottone, Pietro

    2018-03-19

    Compulsive eating behaviour is a transdiagnostic construct observed in certain forms of obesity and eating disorders, as well as in the proposed construct of 'food addiction'. Compulsive eating can be conceptualized as comprising three elements: (i) habitual overeating, (ii) overeating to relieve a negative emotional state, and (iii) overeating despite adverse consequences. Neurobiological processes that include maladaptive habit formation, the emergence of a negative affect, and dysfunctions in inhibitory control are thought to drive the development and persistence of compulsive eating behaviour. These complex psychobehavioural processes are under the control of various neuropharmacological systems. Here, we describe the current evidence implicating these systems in compulsive eating behaviour, and contextualize them within the three elements. A better understanding of the neuropharmacological substrates of compulsive eating behaviour has the potential to significantly advance the pharmacotherapy for feeding-related pathologies.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Of mice and mental health: facilitating dialogue between basic and clinical neuroscientists'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  8. Differences between Drug-Induced and Contrast Media-Induced Adverse Reactions Based on Spontaneously Reported Adverse Drug Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, JiHyeon; Lee, HeeYoung; Suh, JinUk; Yang, MyungSuk; Kang, WonKu; Kim, EunYoung

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed differences between spontaneously reported drug-induced (not including contrast media) and contrast media-induced adverse reactions. Adverse drug reactions reported by an in-hospital pharmacovigilance center (St. Mary's teaching hospital, Daejeon, Korea) from 2010-2012 were classified as drug-induced or contrast media-induced. Clinical patterns, frequency, causality, severity, Schumock and Thornton's preventability, and type A/B reactions were recorded. The trends among causality tools measuring drug and contrast-induced adverse reactions were analyzed. Of 1,335 reports, 636 drug-induced and contrast media-induced adverse reactions were identified. The prevalence of spontaneously reported adverse drug reaction-related admissions revealed a suspected adverse drug reaction-reporting rate of 20.9/100,000 (inpatient, 0.021%) and 3.9/100,000 (outpatients, 0.004%). The most common adverse drug reaction-associated drug classes included nervous system agents and anti-infectives. Dermatological and gastrointestinal adverse drug reactions were most frequently and similarly reported between drug and contrast media-induced adverse reactions. Compared to contrast media-induced adverse reactions, drug-induced adverse reactions were milder, more likely to be preventable (9.8% vs. 1.1%, p contrast media-induced adverse reactions (56.6%, p = 0.066). Causality patterns differed between the two adverse reaction classes. The World Health Organization-Uppsala Monitoring Centre causality evaluation and Naranjo algorithm results significantly differed from those of the Korean algorithm version II (p contrast media-induced adverse reactions. The World Health Organization-Uppsala Monitoring Centre and Naranjo algorithm causality evaluation afforded similar results.

  9. Telephone cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized controlled non-inferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Cynthia M; Mataix-Cols, David; Lovell, Karina; Krebs, Georgina; Lang, Katie; Byford, Sarah; Heyman, Isobel

    2014-12-01

    Many adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) do not have access to evidence-based treatment. A randomized controlled non-inferiority trial was conducted in a specialist OCD clinic to evaluate the effectiveness of telephone cognitive-behavioral therapy (TCBT) for adolescents with OCD compared to standard clinic-based, face-to-face CBT. Seventy-two adolescents, aged 11 through 18 years with primary OCD, and their parents were randomized to receive specialist TCBT or CBT. The intervention provided differed only in the method of treatment delivery. All participants received up to 14 sessions of CBT, incorporating exposure with response prevention (E/RP), provided by experienced therapists. The primary outcome measure was the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS). Blind assessor ratings were obtained at midtreatment, posttreatment, 3-month, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up. Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that TCBT was not inferior to face-to-face CBT at posttreatment, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up. At 12-month follow-up, there were no significant between-group differences on the CY-BOCS, but the confidence intervals exceeded the non-inferiority threshold. All secondary measures confirmed non-inferiority at all assessment points. Improvements made during treatment were maintained through to 12-month follow-up. Participants in each condition reported high levels of satisfaction with the intervention received. TCBT is an effective treatment and is not inferior to standard clinic-based CBT, at least in the midterm. This approach provides a means of making a specialized treatment more accessible to many adolescents with OCD. Clinical trial registration information-Evaluation of telephone-administered cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) for young people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); http://www.controlled-trials.com; ISRCTN27070832. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Telephone Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Non-inferiority Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Cynthia M.; Mataix-Cols, David; Lovell, Karina; Krebs, Georgina; Lang, Katie; Byford, Sarah; Heyman, Isobel

    2014-01-01

    Objective Many adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) do not have access to evidence-based treatment. A randomized controlled non-inferiority trial was conducted in a specialist OCD clinic to evaluate the effectiveness of telephone cognitive-behavioral therapy (TCBT) for adolescents with OCD compared to standard clinic-based, face-to-face CBT. Method Seventy-two adolescents, aged 11 through 18 years with primary OCD, and their parents were randomized to receive specialist TCBT or CBT. The intervention provided differed only in the method of treatment delivery. All participants received up to 14 sessions of CBT, incorporating exposure with response prevention (E/RP), provided by experienced therapists. The primary outcome measure was the Children’s Yale–Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS). Blind assessor ratings were obtained at midtreatment, posttreatment, 3-month, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up. Results Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that TCBT was not inferior to face-to-face CBT at posttreatment, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up. At 12-month follow-up, there were no significant between-group differences on the CY-BOCS, but the confidence intervals exceeded the non-inferiority threshold. All secondary measures confirmed non-inferiority at all assessment points. Improvements made during treatment were maintained through to 12-month follow-up. Participants in each condition reported high levels of satisfaction with the intervention received. Conclusion TCBT is an effective treatment and is not inferior to standard clinic-based CBT, at least in the midterm. This approach provides a means of making a specialized treatment more accessible to many adolescents with OCD. Clinical trial registration information–Evaluation of telephone-administered cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) for young people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); http://www.controlled-trials.com; ISRCTN27070832. PMID:25457928

  11. Consumer hypnotic-like suggestibility: possible mechanism in compulsive purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prete, M Irene; Guido, Gianluigi; Pichierri, Marco

    2013-08-01

    The authors hypothesize a concept, Consumer Hypnotic-Like Suggestibility (CHLS), defined as an altered state of consciousness, as a state causing a tendency to respond positively to messages aimed at inducing consumers to make unplanned purchases. This study aims to investigate the associations of CHLS with interpersonal variables and compulsive purchasing--a frequent and uncontrollable preoccupation with buying or impulses to buy. A study was conducted on a sample of 232 subjects (n = 111 men; M age = 41 yr.), through the administration of a questionnaire, which measured: CHLS, compulsive purchasing, consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence (the necessity to enhance one's image in the opinion of others through the consumption of products), and consumer atmospherics, i.e., environmental stimuli known to influence purchasing decisions. Modeling and mediation analyses suggested that internal and external drivers--Consumer Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence and atmospherics--are positively related to CHLS which affects compulsive purchasing.

  12. Drug addiction: An affective-cognitive disorder in need of a cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattore, Liana; Diana, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Drug addiction is a compulsive behavioral abnormality. In spite of pharmacological treatments and psychosocial support to reduce or eliminate drug intake, addiction tends to persist over time. Preclinical and human observations have converged on the hypothesis that addiction represents the pathological deterioration of neural processes that normally serve affective and cognitive functioning. The major elements of persistent compulsive drug use are hypothesized to be structural, cellular and molecular that underlie enduring changes in several forebrain circuits that receive input from midbrain dopamine neurons and are involved in affective (e.g. ventral striatum) and cognitive (e.g. prefrontal cortex) mechanisms. Here we review recent progress in identifying crucial elements useful to understand the pathophysiology of the disease and its treatments. Manipulation of neuropeptides brain systems and pharmacological targeting of κ-opioid receptors and/or drug metabolism may hold beneficial effects at affective and cognitive level. Non-pharmacological, highly innovative approaches such as Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation may reveal unsuspected potential and promise to be the first neurobiology-based therapeutics in addiction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Negative and positive urgency may both be risk factors for compulsive buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Paul; Segrist, Daniel J

    2014-06-01

    Descriptions of compulsive buying often emphasize the roles of negative moods and trait impulsivity in the development of problematic buying habits. Trait impulsivity is sometimes treated as a unidimensional trait in compulsive buying research, but recent factor analyses suggest that impulsivity consists of multiple components that are probably best treated as independent predictors of problem behavior. In order to draw greater attention to the role of positive moods in compulsive buying, in this study we tested whether negative urgency (the tendency to act rashly while in negative moods) and positive urgency (the tendency to act rashly while in positive moods) account for similar amounts of variance in compulsive buying. North American adults (N = 514) completed an online survey containing the Richmond Compulsive Buying Scale (Ridgway, Kukar-Kinney & Monroe, 2008), established measures of positive and negative urgency (Cyders et al., 2007), ad hoc measures of buying-specific positive and negative urgency, measures of extraversion and neuroticism obtained from the International Personality Item Pool (http://ipip.ori.org/), and demographic questions. In several multiple regression analyses, when demographic variables, neuroticism, and extraversion were controlled, positive urgency and negative urgency both emerged as significant predictors of compulsive buying. Whether the two urgency variables were domain-general or buying-specific, they accounted for similar amounts of variance in compulsive buying. Preventing and reducing compulsive buying may require attention not only to the purchasing decisions people make while in negative states, but also to the purchasing decisions they make while in positive states.

  14. [Aripiprazole, gambling disorder and compulsive sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mété, D; Dafreville, C; Paitel, V; Wind, P

    2016-06-01

    Aripiprazole, an atypical or second-generation antipsychotic, is usually well tolerated. It is an approved treatment for schizophrenia and mania in bipolar disorder type 1. Unlike the other antipsychotics, it has high affinity agonist properties for dopamine D2 and D3 receptors. It has also 5-HT1A partial agonist and 5-HT2A antagonist properties. Aripiprazole is a first or second line treatment frequently used because it has reduced side effects such as weight gain, sleepiness, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hyperprolactinemia and extrapyramidal symptoms. We report the case of a 28-year-old male patient diagnosed with schizoid personality disorder. He was a moderate smoker with occasional social gambling habits. After several psychotic episodes, he was first treated with risperidone, but he experienced excessive sedation, decreased libido, erectile dysfunction and was switched to 15 mg aripiprazole. He developed an addiction habit for gambling at casino slot machines. Due to large gambling debts, he requested placement on a voluntary self-exclusion list. Thereafter, he turned his attention towards scratch card gambling. The patient described his experience of gambling as a "hypnotic state". He got several personal loans to obtain money to continue gambling. He was then referred to an addiction unit. Before being treated with aripiprazole, he was an exclusive heterosexual with a poor sexual activity. Under treatment, he switched to a homosexual behavior with hypersexuality, unprotected sex and sadomasochistic practices. The craving for gambling and compulsive sexual behavior ceased two weeks after aripiprazole was discontinued and he was switched to amisulpride. Thereafter, he reported a return to a heterosexual orientation. Compulsive behaviors such as gambling, hypersexuality and new sexual orientation are common in patients with Parkinson's disease treated with dopaminergic agonists. These behaviors involve the reward system, with an enhanced dopaminergic

  15. N-acetylcysteine prevents stress-induced anxiety behavior in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocelin, Ricieri; Herrmann, Ana P; Marcon, Matheus; Rambo, Cassiano L; Rohden, Aline; Bevilaqua, Fernanda; de Abreu, Murilo Sander; Zanatta, Leila; Elisabetsky, Elaine; Barcellos, Leonardo J G; Lara, Diogo R; Piato, Angelo L

    2015-12-01

    Despite the recent advances in understanding the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders, the pharmacological treatments currently available are limited in efficacy and induce serious side effects. A possible strategy to achieve clinical benefits is drug repurposing, i.e., discovery of novel applications for old drugs, bringing new treatment options to the market and to the patients who need them. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a commonly used mucolytic and paracetamol antidote, has emerged as a promising molecule for the treatment of several neuropsychiatric disorders. The mechanism of action of this drug is complex, and involves modulation of antioxidant, inflammatory, neurotrophic and glutamate pathways. Here we evaluated the effects of NAC on behavioral parameters relevant to anxiety in zebrafish. NAC did not alter behavioral parameters in the novel tank test, prevented the anxiety-like behaviors induced by an acute stressor (net chasing), and increased the time zebrafish spent in the lit side in the light/dark test. These data may indicate that NAC presents an anti-stress effect, with the potential to prevent stress-induced psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. The considerable homology between mammalian and zebrafish genomes invests the current data with translational validity for the further clinical trials needed to substantiate the use of NAC in anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Stress- and glucocorticoid-induced priming of neuroinflammatory responses: potential mechanisms of stress-induced vulnerability to drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Matthew G; Watkins, Linda R; Maier, Steven F

    2011-06-01

    Stress and stress-induced glucocorticoids (GCs) sensitize drug abuse behavior as well as the neuroinflammatory response to a subsequent pro-inflammatory challenge. Stress also predisposes or sensitizes individuals to develop substance abuse. There is an emerging evidence that glia and glia-derived neuroinflammatory mediators play key roles in the development of drug abuse. Drugs of abuse such as opioids, psychostimulants, and alcohol induce neuroinflammatory mediators such as pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. interleukin (IL)-1β), which modulate drug reward, dependence, and tolerance as well as analgesic properties. Drugs of abuse may directly activate microglial and astroglial cells via ligation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which mediate the innate immune response to pathogens as well as xenobiotic agents (e.g. drugs of abuse). The present review focuses on understanding the immunologic mechanism(s) whereby stress primes or sensitizes the neuroinflammatory response to drugs of abuse and explores whether stress- and GC-induced sensitization of neuroimmune processes predisposes individuals to drug abuse liability and the role of neuroinflammatory mediators in the development of drug addiction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Drug-induced hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Hair loss can have major psychological consequences. It can be due to a wide variety of causes, including hormonal disorders, dietary factors, infections, inflammation, trauma, emotional factors, and cancer. Drugs can also induce hair loss, by interacting with the hair growth cycle. Drug-induced hair loss may be immediate or delayed, sudden or gradual, and diffuse or localised. It is usually reversible after drug discontinuation. The drugs most often implicated in hair loss are anticancer agents, interferon, azole antifungals, lithium, immunosuppressants, and many other drugs belonging to a variety of pharmacological classes.

  18. Drug-induced apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutroy, M J

    1994-01-01

    Drugs have been in the past and will in the future still be liable to induce apnea in neonates, infants and older children. At these different stages of development, the child may be abnormally vulnerable to respiratory disorders and apnea, and doses of drugs, without any abnormal side effects in adult patients, can be harmful in younger subjects. Drugs responsible for apnea during development are numerous, but more than half of the problems are induced by sedatives and hypnotics, among which phenothiazines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines (included transplacentally acquired) and general anesthetics are a few. Other pharmacological families are apnea inducers in the neonatal period and childhood: analgesics and opioid narcotics, agents acting at the levels of neuromuscular function and autonomic ganglia, and cardiovascular agents. The pathogenesis of these apneas depends on the disturbance of any mechanism responsible for the respiratory activity: medullary centers and brain stem structures, afferent influx to CNS, sleep stages, upper airways, lungs and respiratory muscles. At key stages such as birth and infancy, drugs may emphasize the particular sensitivity of the mechanisms responsible for inducing apnea. This might explain unexpected respiratory disorders during development.

  19. Obsessionality & compulsivity: a phenomenology of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys, Damiaan

    2011-02-01

    Progress in psychiatry depends on accurate definitions of disorders. As long as there are no known biologic markers available that are highly specific for a particular psychiatric disorder, clinical practice as well as scientific research is forced to appeal to clinical symptoms. Currently, the nosology of obsessive-compulsive disorder is being reconsidered in view of the publication of DSM-V. Since our diagnostic entities are often simplifications of the complicated clinical profile of patients, definitions of psychiatric disorders are imprecise and always indeterminate. This urges researchers and clinicians to constantly think and rethink well-established definitions that in psychiatry are at risk of being fossilised. In this paper, we offer an alternative view to the current definition of obsessive-compulsive disorder from a phenomenological perspective. TRANSLATION: This article is translated from Dutch, originally published in [Handbook Obsessive-compulsive disorders, Damiaan Denys, Femke de Geus (Eds.), (2007). De Tijdstroom uitgeverij BV, Utrecht. ISBN13: 9789058980878.].

  20. Obsessionality & compulsivity: a phenomenology of obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Damiaan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Progress in psychiatry depends on accurate definitions of disorders. As long as there are no known biologic markers available that are highly specific for a particular psychiatric disorder, clinical practice as well as scientific research is forced to appeal to clinical symptoms. Currently, the nosology of obsessive-compulsive disorder is being reconsidered in view of the publication of DSM-V. Since our diagnostic entities are often simplifications of the complicated clinical profile of patients, definitions of psychiatric disorders are imprecise and always indeterminate. This urges researchers and clinicians to constantly think and rethink well-established definitions that in psychiatry are at risk of being fossilised. In this paper, we offer an alternative view to the current definition of obsessive-compulsive disorder from a phenomenological perspective. Translation This article is translated from Dutch, originally published in [Handbook Obsessive-compulsive disorders, Damiaan Denys, Femke de Geus (Eds., (2007. De Tijdstroom uitgeverij BV, Utrecht. ISBN13: 9789058980878.

  1. Terbinafine-induced lichenoid drug eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yue; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Haiyan; Lai, Wei; Maibach, Howard I

    2017-03-01

    Drug-induced lichen planus has been induced by antibiotics, anticonvulsants, antidiabetics, antimalarials, antitubercular drugs, antihypertensives, psychiatric drugs, chemotherapeutic agents, diuretic, heavy metals, NSAIDs, etc. Terbinafine, an antifungal agent, is widely used for dermatophyte infections and onychomycosis. Cutaneous adverse effects of terbinafine are rarely reported. Here, we report a case of terbinafine-induced lichenoid drug eruption in a 22-year-old who presented with generalized lichenoid eruption 2 weeks after terbinafine initiation of. The body and lip cleared completely after 8 weeks of drug withdrawal; nail change cleared after 12 weeks.

  2. Counterfactual processing of economic action-outcome alternatives in obsessive-compulsive disorder: further evidence of impaired goal-directed behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Claire M; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Kaser, Muzaffer; Fineberg, Naomi A; Sule, Akeem; Sahakian, Barbara J; Cardinal, Rudolf N; Robbins, Trevor W

    2014-04-15

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disorder of automatic, uncontrollable behaviors and obsessive rumination. There is evidence that OCD patients have difficulties performing goal-directed actions, instead exhibiting repetitive stimulus-response habit behaviors. This might result from the excessive formation of stimulus-response habit associations or from an impairment in the ability to use outcome value to guide behavior. We investigated the latter by examining counterfactual decision making, which is the ability to use comparisons of prospective action-outcome scenarios to guide economic choice. We tested decision making (forward counterfactual) and affective responses (backward counterfactual) in 20 OCD patients and 20 matched healthy control subjects using an economic choice paradigm that previously revealed attenuation of both the experience and avoidance of counterfactual emotion in schizophrenia patients and patients with orbitofrontal cortex lesions. The use of counterfactual comparison to guide decision making was diminished in OCD patients, who relied primarily on expected value. Unlike the apathetic affective responses previously shown to accompany this decision style, OCD patients reported increased emotional responsivity to the outcomes of their choices and to the counterfactual comparisons that typify regret and relief. Obsessive-compulsive disorder patients exhibit a pattern of decision making consistent with a disruption in goal-directed forward modeling, basing decisions instead on the temporally present (and more rational) calculation of expected value. In contrast to this style of decision making, emotional responses in OCD were more extreme and reactive than control subjects. These results are in line with an account of disrupted goal-directed cognitive control in OCD. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Compulsive buying disorder: a review and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboujaoude, Elias

    2014-01-01

    Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) refers to the chronic purchasing of unneeded or unwanted items, causing significant negative consequences. There are no established criteria for CBD, and operational definitions have relied on similarities with OCD, substance use disorders, and impulse control disorders. Compulsive buying disorder is common, affecting 5.8% of the general population, according to one study. Typically, CBD has early onset, frequent comorbidities, and a chronic course. The etiology of CBD is unknown, with biological, psychological and sociocultural factors proposed as likely contributors. Treatment data are limited and suggest addressing comorbid conditions and considering cognitive behavioral therapy, financial and family counseling, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and naltrexone, among other possible interventions, to target CBD. Beyond treatment, educational, legislative and family-based public policy initiatives can likely help individuals with CBD and other excessive spenders.

  4. Animal behavior as a conceptual framework for the study of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilam, David; Zor, Rama; Fineberg, Naomi; Hermesh, Haggai

    2012-06-01

    Research on affective disorders may benefit from the methodology of studying animal behavior, in which tools are available for qualitatively and quantitatively measuring and assessing behavior with as much sophistication and attention to detail as in the analysis of the brain. To illustrate this, we first briefly review the characteristics of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and then demonstrate how the quinpirole rat model is used as a conceptual model in studying human OCD patients. Like the rat model, the study of OCD in humans is based on video-telemetry, whereby observable, measurable, and relatively objective characteristics of OCD behavior may be extracted. In this process, OCD rituals are defined in terms of the space in which they are executed and the movements (acts) that are performed at each location or object in this space. Accordingly, OCD behavior is conceived of as comprising three hierarchical components: (i) rituals (as defined by the patients); (ii) visits to objects/locations in the environment at which the patient stops during the ritual; and (iii) acts performed at each object/location during visits. Scoring these structural components (behavioral units) is conveniently possible with readily available tools for behavioral description and analysis, providing quantitative and qualitative measures of the OCD hallmarks of repetition and addition, as well as the reduced functionality in OCD behavior. Altogether, the concept that was developed in the context of an animal model provides a useful tool that may facilitate OCD diagnosis, assessment and treatment, and may be similarly applied for other psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and its related disorders: a reappraisal of obsessive-compulsive spectrum concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Dennis L; Timpano, Kiara R; Wheaton, Michael G; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Miguel, Euripedes C

    2010-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a clinical syndrome whose hallmarks are excessive, anxiety-evoking thoughts and compulsive behaviors that are generally recognized as unreasonable, but which cause significant distress and impairment. When these are the exclusive symptoms, they constitute uncomplicated OCD. OCD may also occur in the context of other neuropsychiatric disorders, most commonly other anxiety and mood disorders. The question remains as to whether these combinations of disorders should be regarded as independent, cooccurring disorders or as different manifestations of an incompletely understood constellation of OCD spectrum disorders with a common etiology. Additional considerations are given here to two potential etiology-based subgroups: (i) an environmentally based group in which OCD occurs following apparent causal events such as streptococcal infections, brain injury, or atypical neuroleptic treatment; and (ii) a genomically based group in which OCD is related to chromosomal anomalies or specific genes. Considering the status of current research, the concept of OCD and OCD-related spectrum conditions seems fluid in 2010, and in need of ongoing reappraisal.

  6. ODD irritability is associated with obsessive-compulsive behavior and not ADHD in chronic tic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thériault, Marie-Claude G; Lespérance, Paul; Achim, André; Tellier, Geneviève; Diab, Sabrina; Rouleau, Guy A; Chouinard, Sylvain; Richer, Francois

    2014-12-15

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS) and chronic tic disorder (CT) are often associated with a variety of behavioral comorbidities including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive behavior (OCB), oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) and temper outbursts. ODD is often associated with ADHD but its links to other symptoms of TS/CT is not as clear. This study examined whether the various symptoms of ODD were differentially linked to the various comorbidities in TS. A clinical sample of 135 children diagnosed with TS was evaluated through parent questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Regressions and structural equation modeling confirmed that ODD is multidimensional in a TS/CT sample and showed that OCB was associated with the irritability symptoms of ODD whereas ADHD was associated with the Headstrong symptoms of ODD. Results suggest that increased attention to the different facets of ODD may help improve our understanding of emotional symptoms in TS/CT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Compulsive buying: an overlooked entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Bishnupriya; Basu, Saikat; Basu, Jharna

    2011-08-01

    Compulsive buying is an under-recognised entity among Indian psychiatrists. A Medline search, hand searching of journals and direct communications with lead investigators in compulsive buying have generated numerous studies. Overseas data indicate a community prevalence between 1% and 8% . The phenomenon can be an independent entity or appears as a comorbidity with another axis I or axis II disorder. A degree of suspicion on part of clinician regarding its possible presence is the key to its detection. A few rating instruments are available to quantify the morbidity and screening for compulsive buying. Management involves pharmacotherapy with SSRIs, psychotherapy, self-help groups and self-help books. Epidemiological and clinical studies on compulsive buying should be undertaken by Indian psychiatrists to provide better services for people suffering from compulsive buying.

  8. Obsessive-compulsive skin disorders: a novel classification based on degree of insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tian Hao; Nakamura, Mio; Farahnik, Benjamin; Abrouk, Michael; Reichenberg, Jason; Bhutani, Tina; Koo, John

    2017-06-01

    Individuals with obsessive-compulsive features frequently visit dermatologists for complaints of the skin, hair or nails, and often progress towards a chronic relapsing course due to the challenge associated with accurate diagnosis and management of their psychiatric symptoms. The current DSM-5 formally recognizes body dysmorphic disorder, trichotillomania, neurotic excoriation and body focused repetitive behavior disorder as psychodermatological disorders belonging to the category of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders. However there is evidence that other relevant skin diseases such as delusions of parasitosis, dermatitis artefacta, contamination dermatitis, AIDS phobia, trichotemnomania and even lichen simplex chronicus possess prominent obsessive-compulsive characteristics that do not necessarily fit the full diagnostic criteria of the DSM-5. Therefore, to increase dermatologists' awareness of this unique group of skin disorders with OCD features, we propose a novel classification system called Obsessive-Compulsive Insight Continuum. Under this new classification system, obsessive-compulsive skin manifestations are categorized along a continuum based on degree of insight, from minimal insight with delusional obsessions to good insight with minimal obsessions. Understanding the level of insight is thus an important first step for clinicians who routinely interact with these patients.

  9. Mechanistic review of drug-induced steatohepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, Justin D.; Guo, Grace L.

    2015-01-01

    Drug-induced steatohepatitis is a rare form of liver injury known to be caused by only a handful of compounds. These compounds stimulate the development of steatohepatitis through their toxicity to hepatocyte mitochondria; inhibition of beta-oxidation, mitochondrial respiration, and/or oxidative phosphorylation. Other mechanisms discussed include the disruption of phospholipid metabolism in lysosomes, prevention of lipid egress from hepatocytes, targeting mitochondrial DNA and topoisomerase, decreasing intestinal barrier function, activation of the adenosine pathway, increasing fatty acid synthesis, and sequestration of coenzyme A. It has been found that the majority of compounds that induce steatohepatitis have cationic amphiphilic structures; a lipophilic ring structure with a side chain containing a cationic secondary or tertiary amine. Within the last decade, the ability of many chemotherapeutics to cause steatohepatitis has become more evident coining the term chemotherapy-associated steatohepatitis (CASH). The mechanisms behind drug-induced steatohepatitis are discussed with a focus on cationic amphiphilic drugs and chemotherapeutic agents. - Highlights: • Reviewed the mechanisms underlying drug-induced steatohepatitis for many compounds • Mitochondrial dysfunction is critical in the development of drug-induced steatohepatitis. • Majority of drugs that induce steatohepatitis are cationic amphiphilic drugs. • Chemotherapeutics that induce CASH are cationic amphiphilic drugs. • Majority of drugs that induce steatohepatitis are carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I inhibitors.

  10. Mechanistic review of drug-induced steatohepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Justin D., E-mail: Justin.d.schumacher@rutgers.edu; Guo, Grace L.

    2015-11-15

    Drug-induced steatohepatitis is a rare form of liver injury known to be caused by only a handful of compounds. These compounds stimulate the development of steatohepatitis through their toxicity to hepatocyte mitochondria; inhibition of beta-oxidation, mitochondrial respiration, and/or oxidative phosphorylation. Other mechanisms discussed include the disruption of phospholipid metabolism in lysosomes, prevention of lipid egress from hepatocytes, targeting mitochondrial DNA and topoisomerase, decreasing intestinal barrier function, activation of the adenosine pathway, increasing fatty acid synthesis, and sequestration of coenzyme A. It has been found that the majority of compounds that induce steatohepatitis have cationic amphiphilic structures; a lipophilic ring structure with a side chain containing a cationic secondary or tertiary amine. Within the last decade, the ability of many chemotherapeutics to cause steatohepatitis has become more evident coining the term chemotherapy-associated steatohepatitis (CASH). The mechanisms behind drug-induced steatohepatitis are discussed with a focus on cationic amphiphilic drugs and chemotherapeutic agents. - Highlights: • Reviewed the mechanisms underlying drug-induced steatohepatitis for many compounds • Mitochondrial dysfunction is critical in the development of drug-induced steatohepatitis. • Majority of drugs that induce steatohepatitis are cationic amphiphilic drugs. • Chemotherapeutics that induce CASH are cationic amphiphilic drugs. • Majority of drugs that induce steatohepatitis are carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I inhibitors.

  11. Unbalanced neuronal circuits in addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gen-Jack; Tomasi, Dardo; Baler, Ruben D

    2013-08-01

    Through sequential waves of drug-induced neurochemical stimulation, addiction co-opts the brain's neuronal circuits that mediate reward, motivation to behavioral inflexibility and a severe disruption of self-control and compulsive drug intake. Brain imaging technologies have allowed neuroscientists to map out the neural landscape of addiction in the human brain and to understand how drugs modify it. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Relieved by Compulsive Bathing

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Yoon Hee; Windish, Donna M.

    2009-01-01

    Cannabinoid hyperemesis is a clinical syndrome characterized by repeated vomiting and associated learned compulsive hot water bathing behavior due to long-term marijuana use. Research has indentified type 1 cannabinoid receptors in the intestinal nerve plexus that have an inhibitory effect on gastrointestinal motility. This inhibitory effect may lead to hyperemesis in marijuana users. The thermoregulatory role of endocannabinoids may be responsible for the patient's need to take hot showers. ...

  13. Relationship of self-esteem, manifest anxiety, and obsessive-compulsiveness to personal habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, C E

    1993-10-01

    75 women and 64 men responded to the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory, the Manifest Anxiety Scale, and the Maudsley Obsessional-compulsive Inventory in addition to responding to a questionnaire on personal habits. The results indicated that more frequent hair-pullers and nervous twitchers scored lower on self-esteem and higher on anxiety. People who giggled and those who bit their fingernails more often scored higher on obsessive-compulsiveness. Self-reported gigglers were higher on manifest anxiety. If the criterion of self-assessed seriousness of the behavior problem was used, people who bit their nails, picked their noses, pulled their hair, chewed on objects, giggled, ground their teeth, twitched nervously, and picked at scabs scored lower on self-esteem. Higher manifest-anxiety scores were found among the people who regarded their nail-biting, hair-pulling, object-chewing, nervous twitching, or giggling as serious problems. Finally, people who regarded their nail-biting as more serious tended to have higher obsessive-compulsive scores. The results in general suggest that the frequency of several of these behaviors is anxiety-related and that it is the person's assessments of these behaviors as problems rather than simply their frequency that is related to higher anxiety and lower self-esteem.

  14. The Role of Self-esteem and Fear of Negative Evaluation in Compulsive Buying

    OpenAIRE

    Biolcati, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    Compulsive buying is a relatively new addictive disorder that interferes with everyday functioning and may result in serious psychological and financial problems (1). A very few data are currently available regarding this behavioral addiction. This study investigated gender differences in the relationships between contingent self-esteem (CSE), fear of negative evaluation (FNE), and compulsive buying. Participants included 240 Italian adults (170 females, M age = 33.80) who responded to self-r...

  15. A CASE OF SELF-INDUCED ACUTE HYDROPS IN A PATIENT WITH IMPULSE CONTROL DISORDER ASSOCIATED WITH COMPULSIVE EYE TRAUMA

    OpenAIRE

    Bindu Madhavi; Soumya

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To describe acute hydrops in a patient with impulse control disorder (not otherwise specified) secondary to self-induced repetitive eye trauma. METHODS A 22-year-old male patient was referred from a psychiatrist with a diagnosis of impulse control disorder not otherwise specified (compulsive impulse self-mutilating behaviour) for opacity and watering of both eyes (left eye more than right eye). Left eye showed features of acute hydrops with Descemet’s tear and rig...

  16. Latent profile analysis and comorbidity in a sample of individuals with compulsive buying disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Astrid; Mitchell, James E; Black, Donald W; Crosby, Ross D; Berg, Kelly; de Zwaan, Martina

    2010-07-30

    The aims of this study were to perform a latent profile analysis in a sample of individuals with compulsive buying, to explore the psychiatric comorbidity, and to examine whether or not more severe compulsive buying is associated with greater comorbidity. Compulsive buying measures and SCID data obtained from 171 patients with compulsive buying behavior who had participated in treatment trials at different clinical centers in the U.S. and Germany were analyzed. Latent profile analysis produced two clusters. Overall, cluster 2, included subjects with more severe compulsive buying, and was characterized by higher lifetime as well as current prevalence rates for Axis I and impulse control disorders. Nearly 90% of the total sample reported at least one lifetime Axis I diagnosis, particularly mood (74%) and anxiety (57%) disorders. Twenty-one percent had a comorbid impulse control disorder, most commonly intermittent explosive disorder (11%). Half of the sample presented with at least one current Axis I disorder, most commonly anxiety disorders (44%). Given the substantial psychiatric comorbidity, it is reasonable to question whether or not compulsive buying represents a distinct psychiatric entity vs. an epiphenomenon of other psychiatric disorders. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 'Impulsive compulsivity' in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a phenotypic marker of patients with poor clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Himani; Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Miguel, Euripedes C; Ferrão, Ygor A; Torres, Albina R; Shavitt, Roseli G; Ferreira-Garcia, Rafael; do Rosário, Maria C; Yücel, Murat

    2012-09-01

    Although traditionally obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and impulse control disorders (ICD) have represented opposing ends of a continuum, recent research has demonstrated a frequent co-occurrence of impulsive and compulsive behaviours, which may contribute to a worse clinical picture of some psychiatric disorders. We hypothesize that individuals with 'impulsive' OCD as characterized by poor insight, low resistance, and reduced control towards their compulsions will have a deteriorative course, greater severity of hoarding and/or symmetry/ordering symptoms, and comorbid ICD and/or substance use disorders (SUD). The sample consisted of 869 individuals with a minimum score of 16 on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). Of these, 65 had poor insight, low resistance, and reduced control towards compulsions ('poor IRC') and 444 had preserved insight, greater resistance and better control over compulsions ('good IRC'). These two groups were compared on a number of clinical and demographic variables. Individuals with poor IRC were significantly more likely to have a deteriorative course (p disorder (p = 0.026), trichotillomania (p = 0.014) and compulsive buying (p = 0.040). Regression analysis revealed that duration of obsessions (p = 0.037) and hoarding severity (p = 0.005) were significant predictors of poor IRC. In the absence of specific measures for impulsivity in OCD, the study highlights the utility of simple measures such as insight, resistance and control over compulsions as a phenotypic marker of a subgroup of OCD with impulsive features demonstrating poor clinical outcome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Guide in the Process of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nergis LAPSEKİLİ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The implementation of effective treatment depends on thorough understanding of disorder and its presentation. Treatment strategies must depend on the individual formulation of the patient. In this paper an Obsessive Compulsive Disorder(OCD patient treated with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT methods is presented. It is discussed that in the therapy, formulation is an ongoing dynamic process and necessarily required for the effectiveness of therapy. Case: Y.B. was 32 years old, single male patient graduated from university. He applied because of his obsessions and compulsions. He was diagnosed OCD after the psychiatric evaluation according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV(DSM-IV. In treatment following strategies were applied: 1 Cognitive restructuring of the thoughtaction- fusion, anxiety intolerance, overestimated threat appraisals, 2 exposure and response prevention techniques aimed to test if catastrophic expectations would occur. Discussion: When planning CBT for the treatment of OCD, the first and most important step is a good formulation created with the data obtained from a good evaluation process. Treatment planning in our case was planned on using cognitive restructing techniques for thought-action-fusion, anxiety intolerance and overestimated threat appraisals but the formulation was completed in the course of treatment when the patient could talk about his early experiences. As a result, the formulation is a roadmap that should be taken into consideration at every stage of therapy. Its presence is essential to reach the correct destination and it is a dynamic process needed to be updated according to the information from the patient

  19. Neurocognitive functioning in compulsive buying disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbyshire, Katherine L; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Odlaug, Brian L; Schreiber, Liana R N; Grant, Jon E

    2014-02-01

    Compulsive buying (CB) is a fairly common behavioral problem estimated to affect 5.8% of the population. Although previous research has examined the clinical characteristics of CB, little research has examined whether people with CB manifest cognitive deficits. Twenty-three non-treatment-seeking compulsive buyers (mean age, 22.3±3.5; 60.9% female) and 23 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (mean age, 21.1±3.4, 60.9% female) underwent neurocognitive assessment. We predicted that the following cognitive domains would be impaired in CB: spatial working memory (Spatial Working Memory test), response inhibition (Stop-Signal Task), cognitive flexibility (Intra-Extra Dimensional Set Shift task), and decision making (Cambridge Gambling Task). Compared with controls, individuals with CB exhibited significant impairments in response inhibition (P=.043), risk adjustment during decision making (P=.010), and spatial working memory (P=.041 total errors; P=.044 strategy scores). Deficits were of large effect size (Cohen's d, 0.6 to 1.05). These pilot data suggest that individuals with CB experience problems in several distinct cognitive domains, supporting a likely neurobiological overlap between CB and other putative behavioral and substance addictions. These findings may have implications for shared treatment approaches as well as how we currently classify and understand CB.

  20. Paradoxical effects of compulsive perseveration : Sentence repetition causes semantic uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giele, Catharina L.; van den Hout, Marcel A.; Engelhard, Iris M.; Dek, Eliane C P

    2014-01-01

    Many patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) perform perseverative checking behavior to reduce uncertainty, but studies have shown that this ironically increases uncertainty. Some patients also tend to perseveratively repeat sentences. The aim of this study was to examine whether sentence

  1. [Drug-induced oral ulcerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madinier, I; Berry, N; Chichmanian, R M

    2000-06-01

    Different side effects of drugs have been described in the oral cavity, including oral ulcerations. Direct contact between drugs and oral mucosa may induce chemical burn or local hypersensitivity. Less frequently, these drug-induced oral ulcerations are part of a complex reaction with cutaneous or systemic manifestations. Sometimes, one or more oral ulcerations appear as the main side-effect of a drug, or exceptionally as solitary lesions. Solitary oral ulcerations usually appear after few weeks of treatment. In most of cases, these lesions resist to conventional treatments, with a rapid healing following the suppression of the responsible drug. This diagnosis is usually difficult, particularly with patients receiving multiple drug therapy. Besides, special attention must be paid to new drugs. Oral ulcerations following symptoms of burning mouth, metallic taste, dysgueusia or agueusia are strongly suggestive of a pharmacological origin. Most of the molecules able to induce solitary oral ulcerations are commonly prescribed in a) rheumatology: NSAI (diclofenac, flurbiprofen, indomethacin, naproxen), long-term rheumatoid arthritis therapy (azathioprine, methotrexate, penicillamine, gold compounds, tiopronin); b) cardiology: angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (captopril, enalapril), angiotensin 2-receptor antagonist (losartan), anti-angorous (nicorandil), c) psychiatry: antidepressants (fluoxetine, lithium), d) AIDS therapy (foscarnet, zalcitabine).

  2. Potential drug–drug interactions in Alzheimer patients with behavioral symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasqualetti G

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Pasqualetti, Sara Tognini, Valeria Calsolaro, Antonio Polini, Fabio Monzani Geriatrics Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy Abstract: The use of multi drug regimens among the elderly population has increased tremendously over the last decade although the benefits of medications are always accompanied by potential harm, even when prescribed at recommended doses. The elderly populations are particularly at an increased risk of adverse drug reactions considering comorbidity, poly-therapy, physiological changes affecting the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of many drugs and, in some cases, poor compliance due to cognitive impairment and/or depression. In this setting, drug–drug interaction may represent a serious and even life-threatening clinical condition. Moreover, the inability to distinguish drug-induced symptoms from a definitive medical diagnosis often results in addition of yet another drug to treat the symptoms, which in turn increases drug–drug interactions. Cognitive enhancers, including acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, are the most widely prescribed agents for Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, including psychotic symptoms and behavioral disorders, represent noncognitive disturbances frequently observed in AD patients. Antipsychotic drugs are at high risk of adverse events, even at modest doses, and may interfere with the progression of cognitive impairment and interact with several drugs including anti-arrhythmics and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Other medications often used in AD patients are represented by anxiolytic, like benzodiazepine, or antidepressant agents. These agents also might interfere with other concomitant drugs through both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms. In this review we focus on the most frequent drug–drug interactions, potentially harmful, in AD patients with

  3. Neither bipolar nor obsessive-compulsive disorder: compulsive buyers are impulsive acquirers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filomensky, Tatiana Zambrano; Almeida, Karla Mathias; Castro Nogueira, Marcelo Campos; Diniz, Juliana Belo; Lafer, Beny; Borcato, Sonia; Tavares, Hermano

    2012-07-01

    Compulsive buying (CB) is currently classified as an impulse control disorder (ICD) not otherwise classified. Compulsive buying prevalence is estimated at around 5% of the general population. There is controversy about whether CB should be classified as an ICD, a subsyndromal bipolar disorder (BD), or an obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) akin to a hoarding syndrome. To further investigate the appropriate classification of CB, we compared patients with CB, BD, and OCD for impulsivity, affective instability, hoarding, and other OCD symptoms. Eighty outpatients (24 CB, 21 BD, and 35 OCD) who were neither manic nor hypomanic were asked to fill out self-report questionnaires. Compulsive buying patients scored significantly higher on all impulsivity measures and on acquisition but not on the hoarding subdimensions of clutter and "difficulty discarding." Patients with BD scored higher on the mania dimension from the Structured Clinical Interview for Mood Spectrum scale. Patients with OCD scored higher on obsessive-compulsive symptoms and, particularly, higher on the contamination/washing and checking dimensions from the Padua Inventory; however, they did not score higher on any hoarding dimension. A discriminant model built with these variables correctly classified patients with CB (79%), BD (71%), and OCD (77%). Patients with CB came out as impulsive acquirers, resembling ICD- rather than BD- or OCD-related disorders. Manic symptoms were distinctive of patients with BD. Hoarding symptoms other than acquisition were not particularly associated with any diagnostic group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Drug Use and Criminal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Ludwig; Hyatt, Murray P.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of addiction and crime is presented. Crimes of violence and sex crimes are contrasted with non-violent criminal behavior when drug-connected. It is suggested that alternative methods of dealing with drug abuse and criminal behavior be explored, and that several previously discarded methods be re-examined. (Author)

  5. Compulsivity in Anorexia Nervosa: a transdiagnostic concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Rose Godier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The compulsive nature of weight loss behaviours central to Anorexia Nervosa (AN, such as relentless self-starvation and over-exercise, has led to the suggestion of parallels between AN and other compulsive disorders such as Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD and addictions. There is a huge unmet need for effective treatments in AN, which has high rates of morbidity and the highest mortality rate of any psychiatric disorder, yet a grave paucity of effective treatments. Viewing compulsivity as a transdiagnostic concept, seen in various manifestations across disorders, may help delineate the mechanisms responsible for the persistence of AN, and aid treatment development. We explore models of compulsivity that suggest dysfunction in cortico-striatal circuitry underpins compulsive behaviour, and consider evidence of aberrances in this circuitry across disorders. Excessive habit formation is considered as a mechanism by which initially rewarding weight loss behaviour in AN may become compulsive over time, and the complex balance between positive and negative reinforcement in this process is considered. The physiological effects of starvation in promoting compulsivity, positive reinforcement and habit formation are also discussed. Further research in AN may benefit from a focus on processes potentially underlying the development of compulsivity, such as aberrant reward processing and habit formation. We discuss the implications of a transdiagnostic perspective on compulsivity, and how it may contribute to the development of novel treatments for AN.

  6. Neurochemical and behavioral characterization of neuronal glutamate transporter EAAT3 heterozygous mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. González

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD is a severe neuropsychiatric condition affecting 1–3% of the worldwide population. OCD has a strong genetic component, and the SLC1A1 gene that encodes neuronal glutamate transporter EAAT3 is a strong candidate for this disorder. To evaluate the impact of reduced EAAT3 expression in vivo, we studied male EAAT3 heterozygous and wild-type littermate mice using a battery of behavioral paradigms relevant to anxiety (open field test, elevated plus maze and compulsivity (marble burying, as well as locomotor activity induced by amphetamine. Using high-performance liquid chromatography, we also determined tissue neurotransmitter levels in cortex, striatum and thalamus—brain areas that are relevant to OCD. Results Compared to wild-type littermates, EAAT3 heterozygous male mice have unaltered baseline anxiety-like, compulsive-like behavior and locomotor activity. Administration of acute amphetamine (5 mg/kg intraperitoneally increased locomotion with no differences across genotypes. Tissue levels of glutamate, GABA, dopamine and serotonin did not vary between EAAT3 heterozygous and wild-type mice. Conclusions Our results indicate that reduced EAAT3 expression does not impact neurotransmitter content in the corticostriatal circuit nor alter anxiety or compulsive-like behaviors.

  7. Chocolate: food or drug?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinsma, K; Taren, D L

    1999-10-01

    Although addictive behavior is generally associated with drug and alcohol abuse or compulsive sexual activity, chocolate may evoke similar psychopharmacologic and behavioral reactions in susceptible persons. A review of the literature on chocolate cravings indicates that the hedonic appeal of chocolate (fat, sugar, texture, and aroma) is likely to be a predominant factor in such cravings. Other characteristics of chocolate, however, may be equally as important contributors to the phenomena of chocolate cravings. Chocolate may be used by some as a form of self-medication for dietary deficiencies (eg, magnesium) or to balance low levels of neurotransmitters involved in the regulation of mood, food intake, and compulsive behaviors (eg, serotonin and dopamine). Chocolate cravings are often episodic and fluctuate with hormonal changes just before and during the menses, which suggests a hormonal link and confirms the assumed gender-specific nature of chocolate cravings. Chocolate contains several biologically active constituents (methylxanthines, biogenic amines, and cannabinoid-like fatty acids), all of which potentially cause abnormal behaviors and psychological sensations that parallel those of other addictive substances. Most likely, a combination of chocolate's sensory characteristics, nutrient composition, and psychoactive ingredients, compounded with monthly hormonal fluctuations and mood swings among women, will ultimately form the model of chocolate cravings. Dietetics professionals must be aware that chocolate cravings are real. The psychopharmacologic and chemosensory effects of chocolate must be considered when formulating recommendations for overall healthful eating and for treatment of nutritionally related health issues.

  8. Differential diagnosis between obsessive compulsive disorder and restrictive and repetitive behavioural patterns, activities and interests in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula-Pérez, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    The obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and the restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior, interests and activities inherent to autism spectrum disorders (ASD) share a number of features that can make the differential diagnosis between them extremely difficult and lead to erroneous overdiagnosis of OCD in people with autism. In both cases there may appear to have a fixation on routine, ritualized patterns of verbal and nonverbal behavior, resistance to change, and highly restrictive interests, which becomes a real challenge for differentiating rituals, stereotypes and adherence to routines in ASD from obsessions and compulsions in OCD. This article provides key points to clarify this differential diagnosis through the analysis of emotional valence, content, function and psychological theories that explain the obsessions and compulsions in OCD, and the desire for sameness, stereotyped movements and limited interest in autism. The terms "obsession" and "compulsion" should no longer be used when referring to patterns of behavior, interests or restricted and repetitive activities in autism due to syntonic characteristics, low perception of personal responsibility and low neutralizing efforts. Treatment focuses on changing the environment, the use of socio-communicative compensatory strategies and behavioral modification techniques to improve cognitive and behavioral flexibility. When there is comorbidity between, exposure behavioral and response prevention techniques are then used, followed by others of more cognitive orientation if necessary. Copyright © 2012 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Think twice: Impulsivity and decision making in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grassi, Giacomo; Pallanti, Stefano; Righi, Lorenzo; Figee, Martijn; Mantione, Mariska; Denys, Damiaan; Piccagliani, Daniele; Rossi, Alessandro; Stratta, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have challenged the anxiety-avoidance model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), linking OCD to impulsivity, risky-decision-making and reward-system dysfunction, which can also be found in addiction and might support the conceptualization of OCD as a behavioral addiction. Here, we

  10. Neuropsychotoxicity of abused drugs: involvement of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in methamphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization and reward in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Nabeshima, Toshitaka

    2008-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (TIMPs) function to remodel the pericellular environment. We have investigated the role of the MMP/TIMP system in methamphetamine (METH) dependence in rodents, in which the remodeling of neural circuits may be crucial. Repeated METH treatment induced behavioral sensitization, which was accompanied by an increase in MMP-2/-9/TIMP-2 activity in the brain. An antisense TIMP-2 oligonucleotide enhanced the sensitization, which was associated with a potentiation of the METH-induced release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). MMP-2/-9 inhibitors blocked the METH-induced behavioral sensitization and conditioned place preference (CPP), a measure of the rewarding effect of a drug, and reduced the METH-increased dopamine release in the NAc. In MMP-2- and MMP-9-deficient mice, METH-induced behavioral sensitization and CPP as well as dopamine release were attenuated. The MMP/TIMP system may be involved in METH-induced sensitization and reward by regulating extracellular dopamine levels.

  11. Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorder comorbidity in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, Hasan; Ural, Cenk; Vardar, Melek Kanarya; Yesılyurt, Sema; Oncu, Fatıh

    2012-10-01

    The present study attempted to assess the dissociative symptoms and overall dissociative disorder comorbidity in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In addition, we examined the relationship between the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and dissociative symptoms. All patients admitted for the first time to the psychiatric outpatient unit were included in the study. Seventy-eight patients had been diagnosed as having OCD during the 2-year study period. Patients had to meet the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for OCD. Most (76.9%; n = 60) of the patients were female, and 23.1% (n = 18) of the patients were male. Dissociation Questionnaire was used to measure dissociative symptoms. The Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Dissociative Disorders interviews and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Checklist and Severity Scale were used. Eleven (14%) of the patients with OCD had comorbid dissociative disorder. The most prevalent disorder in our study was dissociative depersonalization disorder. Dissociative amnesia and dissociative identity disorder were common as well. The mean Yale-Brown score was 23.37 ± 7.27 points. Dissociation Questionnaire scores were between 0.40 and 3.87 points, and the mean was 2.23 ± 0.76 points. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between Yale-Brown points and Dissociation Questionnaire points. We conclude that dissociative symptoms among patients with OCD should alert clinicians for the presence of a chronic and complex dissociative disorder. Clinicians may overlook an underlying dissociative process in patients who have severe symptoms of OCD. However, a lack of adequate response to cognitive-behavioral and drug therapy may be a consequence of dissociative process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dysfunctional beliefs in group and individual cognitive behavioral therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jónsson, Hjalti; Hougaard, Esben; Bennedsen, Birgit E

    2011-05-01

    The primary aim of the study was to investigate dysfunctional beliefs in the form of inflated responsibility (IR) and thought action fusion (TAF) as predictive and mediating variables in individual (n=33) and group (n=37) cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). IR and TAF declined significantly during CBT, and the decline was positively associated with change in OCD symptoms. However, when controlling for change in depressive symptoms, only change in IR remained significantly associated with OCD symptom change. The moral subtype of TAF predicted poorer treatment outcome, but only in group CBT. Both treatments produced a similar amount of change in the dysfunctional beliefs. The results provide some, preliminary evidence that IR, but not TAF, may be specifically involved in the change mechanisms of both individual and group CBT for OCD, although the design of the study with pre- and post-therapy measurements only does not allow for a causal mediator analysis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder: an open trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Lenhard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: International guidelines recommend Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT as the first line treatment for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. However, a substantial proportion of patients do not have access to such treatment. We developed and tested the feasibility, efficacy and acceptability of a novel therapist-guided, Internet-delivered CBT (ICBT platform for adolescents with OCD. METHODS: An interactive, age-appropriate ICBT platform ("BiP OCD" was developed. Twenty-one adolescents (12-17 years with a DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD and their parents were enrolled in the study. All participants received 12 weeks of ICBT with therapist support. The primary outcome measure was the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS. Acceptability was assessed at post-treatment. RESULTS: Participants completed on average 8.29 (SD = 3.0 of the 12 treatment chapters. Treatment yielded significant improvements on all clinician-, parent- and most self-administered outcome measures, with a large effect size of d = 2.29 (95% CI 1.5-3.07 on the CY-BOCS. Patients continued to improve at follow-up. At 6-month follow-up, 71% were classified as responders (≥35% decrease on the CY-BOCS and 76% as being in remission (CY-BOCS score ≤12. Average clinician support time was less than 20 minutes per patient per week. The majority of participants felt that BiP OCD was age-appropriate and rated the treatment as good or very good. CONCLUSIONS: ICBT could be efficacious, acceptable, and cost-effective for adolescents with OCD. More rigorously controlled studies are needed to further evaluate the treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT01809990.

  14. Factors affecting drug-induced liver injury: antithyroid drugs as instances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Heidari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Methimazole and propylthiouracil have been used in the management of hyperthyroidism for more than half a century. However, hepatotoxicity is one of the most deleterious side effects associated with these medications. The mechanism(s of hepatic injury induced by antithyroid agents is not fully recognized yet. Furthermore, there are no specific tools for predicting the occurrence of hepatotoxicity induced by these drugs. The purpose of this article is to give an overview on possible susceptibility factors in liver injury induced by antithyroid agents. Age, gender, metabolism characteristics, alcohol consumption, underlying diseases, immunologic mechanisms, and drug interactions are involved in enhancing antithyroid drugs-induced hepatic damage. An outline on the clinically used treatments for antithyroid drugs-induced hepatotoxicity and the potential therapeutic strategies found to be effective against this complication are also discussed.

  15. Drug use as consumer behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon Robert; Sigurdsson, Valdimar

    2011-12-01

    Seeking integration of drug consumption research by a theory of memory function and emphasizing drug consumption rather than addiction, Müller & Schumann (M&S) treat drug self-administration as part of a general pattern of consumption. This insight is located within a more comprehensive framework for understanding drug use as consumer behavior that explicates the reinforcement contingencies associated with modes of drug consumption.

  16. Basolateral amygdala and stress-induced hyperexcitability affect motivated behaviors and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, B M

    2017-08-08

    The amygdala integrates and processes incoming information pertinent to reward and to emotions such as fear and anxiety that promote survival by warning of potential danger. Basolateral amygdala (BLA) communicates bi-directionally with brain regions affecting cognition, motivation and stress responses including prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens and hindbrain regions that trigger norepinephrine-mediated stress responses. Disruption of intrinsic amygdala and BLA regulatory neurocircuits is often caused by dysfunctional neuroplasticity frequently due to molecular alterations in local GABAergic circuits and principal glutamatergic output neurons. Changes in local regulation of BLA excitability underlie behavioral disturbances characteristic of disorders including post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSD), autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and stress-induced relapse to drug use. In this Review, we discuss molecular mechanisms and neural circuits that regulate physiological and stress-induced dysfunction of BLA/amygdala and its principal output neurons. We consider effects of stress on motivated behaviors that depend on BLA; these include drug taking and drug seeking, with emphasis on nicotine-dependent behaviors. Throughout, we take a translational approach by integrating decades of addiction research on animal models and human trials. We show that changes in BLA function identified in animal addiction models illuminate human brain imaging and behavioral studies by more precisely delineating BLA mechanisms. In summary, BLA is required to promote responding for natural reward and respond to second-order drug-conditioned cues; reinstate cue-dependent drug seeking; express stress-enhanced reacquisition of nicotine intake; and drive anxiety and fear. Converging evidence indicates that chronic stress causes BLA principal output neurons to become hyperexcitable.

  17. Drug-induced cholestasis: mechanisms, models, and markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sagnik; Annaert, Pieter

    2018-04-27

    Drug-induced cholestasis is a risk factor in progression of drug candidates, and poses serious health hazard if not detected before going into human. Intrahepatic accumulation of bile acids (BAs) represents a characteristic phenomenon associated with drug-induced cholestasis. The major challenges in obtaining a complete understanding of drug-induced cholestasis lies in the complexity of BA-mediated toxicity mechanisms and the impact of bile acids at different 'targets' such as transporters, enzymes and nuclear receptors. At the same time, it is not trivial to have a relevant in vitro system that recapitulates these features. In addition, lack of sensitive and early preclinical biomarkers, relevant to the clinical situation, complicates proper detection of drug-induced cholestasis. Significant overlap in biomarker signatures between different mechanisms of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) precludes identification of specific mechanisms. Over the last decade the knowledge gaps in drug-induced cholestasis are closing due to growing mechanistic understanding of BA-mediated toxicity at (patho)physiologically relevant BA concentrations. Significant progress has been made in the mechanistic understanding of drug-induced cholestasis and associated toxicity, biomarkers and susceptibility factors. In addition, novel in vitro models are evolving which provide a holistic understanding of processes underlying drug-induced cholestasis. This review summarizes the challenges and recent understandings about drug-induced cholestasis with a potential path forward. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Genetic Similarities between Compulsive Overeating and Addiction Phenotypes: A Case for "Food Addiction"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, Nina; Marshe, Victoria S; Cmorejova, Jana; Davis, Caroline; Müller, Daniel J

    2015-12-01

    There exists a continuous spectrum of overeating, where at the extremes there are casual overindulgences and at the other a 'pathological' drive to consume palatable foods. It has been proposed that pathological eating behaviors may be the result of addictive appetitive behavior and loss of ability to regulate the consumption of highly processed foods containing refined carbohydrates, fats, salt, and caffeine. In this review, we highlight the genetic similarities underlying substance addiction phenotypes and overeating compulsions seen in individuals with binge eating disorder. We relate these similarities to findings from neuroimaging studies on reward processing and clinical diagnostic criteria based on addiction phenotypes. The abundance of similarities between compulsive overeating and substance addictions puts forth a case for a 'food addiction' phenotype as a valid, diagnosable disorder.

  19. A model-based analysis of decision making under risk in obsessive-compulsive and hoarding disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranovich, Gabriel J; Cavagnaro, Daniel R; Pitt, Mark A; Myung, Jay I; Mathews, Carol A

    2017-07-01

    Attitudes towards risk are highly consequential in clinical disorders thought to be prone to "risky behavior", such as substance dependence, as well as those commonly associated with excessive risk aversion, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and hoarding disorder (HD). Moreover, it has recently been suggested that attitudes towards risk may serve as a behavioral biomarker for OCD. We investigated the risk preferences of participants with OCD and HD using a novel adaptive task and a quantitative model from behavioral economics that decomposes risk preferences into outcome sensitivity and probability sensitivity. Contrary to expectation, compared to healthy controls, participants with OCD and HD exhibited less outcome sensitivity, implying less risk aversion in the standard economic framework. In addition, risk attitudes were strongly correlated with depression, hoarding, and compulsion scores, while compulsion (hoarding) scores were associated with more (less) "rational" risk preferences. These results demonstrate how fundamental attitudes towards risk relate to specific psychopathology and thereby contribute to our understanding of the cognitive manifestations of mental disorders. In addition, our findings indicate that the conclusion made in recent work that decision making under risk is unaltered in OCD is premature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. When too much is not enough: obsessive-compulsive disorder as a pathology of stopping, rather than starting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L Hinds

    Full Text Available In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, individuals feel compelled to repeatedly perform security-related behaviors, even though these behaviours seem excessive and unwarranted to them. The present research investigated two alternative ways of explaining such behavior: (1 a dysfunction of activation--a starting problem--in which the level of excitation in response to stimuli suggesting potential danger is abnormally strong; versus (2 a dysfunction of termination--a stopping problem--in which the satiety-like process for shutting down security-related thoughts and actions is abnormally weak.In two experiments, 70 patients with OCD (57 with washing compulsions, 13 with checking compulsions and 72 controls were exposed to contamination cues--immersing a hand in wet diapers--and later allowed to wash their hands, first limited to 30 s and then for as long as desired. The intensity of activation of security motivation was measured objectively by change in respiratory sinus arrythmia. Subjective ratings (e.g., contamination and behavioral measures (e.g., duration of hand washing were also collected.Compared to controls, OCD patients with washing compulsions did not differ significantly in their levels of initial activation to the threat of contamination; however, they were significantly less able to reduce this activation by engaging in the corrective behavior of hand-washing. Further, the deactivating effect of hand-washing in OCD patients with checking compulsions was similar to that for controls, indicating that the dysfunction of termination in OCD is specific to the patient's symptom profile.These results are the first to show that OCD is characterized by a reduced ability of security-related behavior to terminate motivation evoked by potential danger, rather than a heightened initial sensitivity to potential threat. They lend support to the security-motivation theory of OCD (Szechtman & Woody, 2004 and have important implications both for

  1. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adults Data Sources Share Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Definition Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is often a long- ... MSC 9663 Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS ...

  2. Impaired functional connectivity within and between frontostriatal circuits and its association with compulsive drug use and trait impulsivity in cocaine addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuzheng; Salmeron, Betty Jo; Gu, Hong; Stein, Elliot A; Yang, Yihong

    2015-06-01

    Converging evidence has long identified both impulsivity and compulsivity as key psychological constructs in drug addiction. Although dysregulated striatal-cortical network interactions have been identified in cocaine addiction, the association between these brain networks and addiction is poorly understood. To test the hypothesis that cocaine addiction is associated with disturbances in striatal-cortical communication as captured by resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC), measured from coherent spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging signal, and to explore the relationships between striatal rsFC, trait impulsivity, and uncontrolled drug use in cocaine addiction. A case-control, cross-sectional study was conducted at the National Institute on Drug Abuse Intramural Research Program outpatient magnetic resonance imaging facility. Data used in the present study were collected between December 8, 2005, and September 30, 2011. Participants included 56 non-treatment-seeking cocaine users (CUs) (52 with cocaine dependence and 3 with cocaine abuse) and 56 healthy individuals serving as controls (HCs) matched on age, sex, years of education, race, estimated intelligence, and smoking status. Voxelwise statistical parametric analysis testing the rsFC strength differences between CUs and HCs in brain regions functionally connected to 6 striatal subregions defined a priori. Increased rsFC strength was observed predominantly in striatal-frontal circuits; decreased rsFC was found between the striatum and cingulate, striatal, temporal, hippocampal/amygdalar, and insular regions in the CU group compared with the HCs. Increased striatal-dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex connectivity strength was positively correlated with the amount of recent cocaine use (uncorrected P addiction is associated with disturbed rsFC in several specific striatal-cortical circuits. Specifically, compulsive cocaine use, a defining

  3. Beyond the Big Five: the role of extrinsic life aspirations in compulsive buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-López, José M; Villardefrancos Pol, Estíbaliz; Castro Bolaño, Cristina

    2017-11-01

    The integration of units of differing natures which are found in different parts of some multilevel personality models is one of the most thought-provoking paths in contemporary research. In the field of compulsive buying, little is known about the interrelationships between the comparative and stable units such as personality traits (basic tendencies or Level I units) and goals (a kind of middle-level unit) which are more related to motivational processes and intentions governing people’s behavior. Self-reporting measures of compulsive buying, Big Five personality traits, and extrinsic life aspirations were administered to a general population sample consisting of 2,159 participants aged 15 to 65 (48.1% males; Mage= 35.4, SD= 13.24). Our results confirmed statistically significant associations with compulsive buying for the traits as well as the extrinsic goals. Furthermore, an important relationship between both levels in personality – traits vs . extrinsic life aspirations – was found. Finally, extrinsic life aspirations (specially, image, popularity, and conformity) contribute to the potentiation of the prediction of compulsive buying beyond the Five Factor Model. Current findings emphasize the advisability of considering both levels in personality, traits and middle-level units like life aspirations, not only in the prediction of compulsive buying, but also as potential targets for preventive and treatment programs.

  4. [Effect of parental feeding behavior on eating behavior of children aged 1-3 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Hua; Chen, Jin-Jin

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between the eating behavior of children aged 1-3 years and parental feeding behavior and the effect of family status on feeding behavior. With stratified random sampling, 2 324 children aged 1-3 years were selected from Shanghai. Questionnaires were filled out by their parents or feeders to investigate the basic family information, parental feeding behavior, the eating behavior of children, and the basic information on children. The eating behavior of children was positively correlated with eating environment (r=0.223) and parental monitoring behavior (r=0.245) but negatively correlated with parental compulsive behavior (r=-0.264) (Pparental compulsive behavior (r=-0.569) but positively correlated with parental monitoring behavior (r=0.615) and eating environment (r=0.621). The emotional undereating of children was positively correlated with parental emotional feeding (r=0.259) and parental compulsive behavior (r=0.279). Parental monitoring behavior showed significant differences between different families (PParental feeding behavior is closely related to the eating behavior of children. Parental feeding behavior may vary across different family status.

  5. Effect of Religious Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Religious Obsessive-compulsive Disorder (3 and 6 months Follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Aouchekian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is a chronic disorder that strongly affects one's life and social, emotional, and occupational functioning. Due to the effect of religious beliefs on phenomenology of OCD, in this paper, we assess the effectiveness of religious cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT within 3 and 6 months follow-up. Materials and Methods: This study is a clinical trial with follow-ups which last 2 months consisting eight sessions of 1.5 h of religious CBT. The research is conducted in a group of 40, with pre- and post-test after 3 and 6 months. Used Yale-Brown OCD symptom scale, before, the end, after 3 months and after 6 months of intervention. Treatment is carried out by a psychiatrist and a clergyman through religious CBT. The trial is held in OCD clinic affiliated with Noor Hospital. Results are analyzed by ANOVA repeated measure with SPSS18. Results: The results showed a considerable decrease in OCD symptoms which remained almost persistent after 3 and 6 months (F = 3/54. P = 0/024. It also shows that religious CBT can leave substantial effect on OCD symptoms; permanency of this intervention after 3 and 6 months is noticeable (P < 0/001. In Conclusion this therapy could be helpful for OCD patients with religious content. Conclusion: RCBT have a positive effect on people with religious obsessive -compulsive.

  6. Psychotherapy for compulsive buying disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço Leite, Priscilla; Pereira, Valeska Martinho; Nardi, Antônio Egidio; Silva, Adriana Cardoso

    2014-11-30

    Based on a literature review, the purpose is to identify the main therapeutic approaches for the compulsive buying disorder, a present time disorder characterized by excessive and uncontrollable concerns or behaviors related to buying or expenses, which may lead to adverse consequences. The systematic review was carried out by searching the electronic scientific bases Medline/Pubmed, ISI, PsycInfo. The search was comprised of full-text articles, written in Portuguese and English, with no time limit or restrictions on the type of study and sample. A total of 1659 references were found and, by the end, 23 articles were selected for this review. From the articles found, it was determined that, although there are case studies and clinical trials underlining the effectiveness of the treatment for compulsive buying, only those studies with a focus on the cognitive-behavioral therapy approach make evident the successful response to the treatment. The publication of new studies on the etiology and epidemiology of the disorder is necessary, in order to establish new forms of treatment and to verify the effectiveness and response of the Brazilian population to the existing protocols. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Revisiting the destiny compulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potamianou, Anna

    2017-02-01

    This paper is an attempt to deal with some questions raised by the so-called 'compulsion of destiny' constellation. In presenting the standpoints of Freud and of psychoanalysts who after him were concerned with this problematic, the author takes the view that several aspects of the configuration merit further discussion. Accordingly, the dynamics of repetition compulsion, the complexity of the projective strategy, the coexistence of passive and omnipotent trends are considered. Concerning compulsive repetitions the dimension of drive intrication is underlined, thus moderating the understanding of this clinical entity as mainly related to death drive trends. Projection is understood as serving complex psychic demands. The coexistence of passive and omnipotent trends is envisaged, as manifested in phantasies of submission / participation of patients to a force that exceeds human limitations. For certain cases the consonance of somatic and psychic experiences is noted. Finally, elements from the material of two cases are presented which pertain to the problematic of the compulsion of destiny in which random events are submitted to heavy psychic necessities. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  8. Environmental novelty and illumination modify ethanol-induced open-field behavioral effects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushiro, Daniela F; Benetti, Liliane F; Josino, Fabiana S; Oliveira, Gabriela P; Fernandes, Maiara deM; Saito, Luis P; Uehara, Regina A; Wuo-Silva, Raphael; Oliveira, Camila S; Frussa-Filho, Roberto

    2010-03-01

    Both spontaneous and drug-induced animal behaviors can be modified by exposure to novel stimuli or different levels of environmental illumination. However, research into how these factors specifically impact ethanol (ETH)-induced behavioral effects is currently lacking. We aimed to investigate the effects of these two factors, considered separately or in conjunction, on ETH-induced acute hyperlocomotor effect and its sensitization in adult male Swiss mice. Mice were placed in a novel or familiar open-field under normal light (200 lx) or low light (9 lx) immediately after receiving an ip injection of either 1.8 g/kg ETH or saline (SAL). After 7 days, all animals received an ip challenge injection of 1.8 g/kg ETH, and were placed in the open-field under the same light conditions described above. Novelty increased central locomotion and decreased grooming, while low light increased grooming. Acute ETH administration increased both total and peripheral locomotion and these effects were potentiated by low light. Both low light and novelty were able to facilitate ETH-induced locomotor sensitization, which was detected by the central locomotion parameter. However, there was no synergism between the effects of these two modulating factors on ETH-induced behavioral sensitization. We conclude that both the acute behavioral effects of ETH and behavioral sensitization induced by previous administration of this drug can be critically modified by environmental factors. In addition, our study stresses the importance of using different behavioral parameters to evaluate the interaction between environmental factors and ETH effects. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Drug-induced hepatic injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Andreasen, P B

    1992-01-01

    The Danish Committee on Adverse Drug Reactions received 1100 reports of suspected drug-induced hepatic injury during the decade 1978-1987. The causal relationship between drug and hepatic injury was classified as definite in 57 (5.2%) reports, probable in 989 (89.9%) reports, possible in 50 (4.......5%) reports and unclassifiable in four (0.4%) reports. Hepatic injuries accounted for 5.9% of all adverse drug reactions reported, and 14.7% of the lethal adverse drug reactions. A total of 47.2% were classified as acute cytotoxic, 16.2% as acute cholestatic and 26.9% as abnormal hepatic function. In 52 (4.......7%) cases the hepatic injury was lethal; only 14 (1.3%) cases were chronic. Halothane accounted for 25% of the cases. The incidence of halothane-induced hepatic injury is decreasing, and only one lethal case has been reported since 1981. Next to halothane, sulfasalazine was the drug most often suspected...

  10. Should an obsessive-compulsive spectrum grouping of disorders be included in DSM-V?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katharine A; Stein, Dan J; Rauch, Scott L; Hollander, Eric; Fallon, Brian A; Barsky, Arthur; Fineberg, Naomi; Mataix-Cols, David; Ferrão, Ygor Arzeno; Saxena, Sanjaya; Wilhelm, Sabine; Kelly, Megan M; Clark, Lee Anna; Pinto, Anthony; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Farrow, Joanne; Leckman, James

    2010-06-01

    The obsessive-compulsive (OC) spectrum has been discussed in the literature for two decades. Proponents of this concept propose that certain disorders characterized by repetitive thoughts and/or behaviors are related to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and suggest that such disorders be grouped together in the same category (i.e. grouping, or "chapter") in DSM. This article addresses this topic and presents options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V. The article builds upon and extends prior reviews of this topic that were prepared for and discussed at a DSM-V Research Planning Conference on Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders held in 2006. Our preliminary recommendation is that an OC-spectrum grouping of disorders be included in DSM-V. Furthermore, we preliminarily recommend that consideration be given to including this group of disorders within a larger supraordinate category of "Anxiety and Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders." These preliminary recommendations must be evaluated in light of recommendations for, and constraints upon, the overall structure of DSM-V. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Personality traits and appearance-ideal internalization: Differential associations with body dissatisfaction and compulsive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Shelby J; Racine, Sarah E

    2017-12-01

    Thin-ideal internalization is a robust risk factor for body dissatisfaction and eating pathology. Conversely, athletic-ideal internalization is often unrelated to body dissatisfaction, but predicts compulsive exercise (i.e., rigid, rule-driven exercise that is continued despite adverse consequences). Distinct personality traits could relate to internalization of different appearance ideals, which may be associated with divergent eating disorder outcomes. Past research has shown that neuroticism is related to body dissatisfaction, whereas extraversion and conscientiousness have been associated with regular and problematic exercise. The current study examined associations among personality traits (i.e., neuroticism, extraversion, conscientiousness), appearance-ideal internalization (i.e., thin- and athletic-ideal), and eating disorder cognitions/behaviors (i.e., body dissatisfaction, compulsive exercise) among 531 college men and women. Moreover, we tested whether appearance-ideal internalization mediated the relationships between personality traits with body dissatisfaction and compulsive exercise. As expected, body dissatisfaction was positively related to neuroticism, and compulsive exercise was positively associated with extraversion. Thin-ideal internalization positively correlated with neuroticism, athletic-ideal internalization positively correlated with conscientiousness, and both thin- and athletic-ideal internalization were positively related to extraversion. After controlling for gender, body mass index, the other appearance-ideal internalization, and the remaining personality traits, the indirect effects of both neuroticism and extraversion on body dissatisfaction through thin-ideal internalization were significant. Extraversion and conscientiousness were indirectly related to compulsive exercise through athletic-ideal internalization, whereas the indirect effect of neuroticism was dependent on covariates. As such, personality traits may be related to

  12. Testing environment shape differentially modulates baseline and nicotine-induced changes in behavior: Sex differences, hypoactivity, and behavioral sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illenberger, J M; Mactutus, C F; Booze, R M; Harrod, S B

    2018-02-01

    In those who use nicotine, the likelihood of dependence, negative health consequences, and failed treatment outcomes differ as a function of gender. Women may be more sensitive to learning processes driven by repeated nicotine exposure that influence conditioned approach and craving. Sex differences in nicotine's influence over overt behaviors (i.e. hypoactivity or behavioral sensitization) can be examined using passive drug administration models in male and female rats. Following repeated intravenous (IV) nicotine injections, behavioral sensitization is enhanced in female rats compared to males. Nonetheless, characteristics of the testing environment also mediate rodent behavior following drug administration. The current experiment used a within-subjects design to determine if nicotine-induced changes in horizontal activity, center entries, and rearing displayed by male and female rats is detected when behavior was recorded in round vs. square chambers. Behaviors were recorded from each group (males-round: n=19; males-square: n=18; females-square: n=19; and females-round: n=19) immediately following IV injection of saline, acute nicotine, and repeated nicotine (0.05mg/kg/injection). Prior to nicotine treatment, sex differences were apparent only in round chambers. Following nicotine administration, the order of magnitude for the chamber that provided enhanced detection of hypoactivity or sensitization was contingent upon both the dependent measure under examination and the animal's biological sex. As such, round and square testing chambers provide different, and sometimes contradictory, accounts of how male and female rats respond to nicotine treatment. It is possible that a central mechanism such as stress or cue sensitivity is impacted by both drug exposure and environment to drive the sex differences observed in the current experiment. Until these complex relations are better understood, experiments considering sex differences in drug responses should balance

  13. Electroconvulsive therapy for manic state with mixed and psychotic features in a teenager with bipolar disorder and comorbid episodic obsessive-compulsive disorder: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rask, Olof; Suneson, Klara; Holmström, Eva; Bäckström, Beata; Johansson, Björn Axel

    2017-12-12

    Comorbidity of bipolar disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder is common in adolescence. Obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms may be episodic and secondary to alterations in mood, and display specific features. Management of pediatric bipolar disorder-obsessive-compulsive disorder is challenging, as pharmacotherapy of obsessive-compulsive disorder may induce or exacerbate manic episodes and there is limited evidence of treatment efficacy. Electroconvulsive therapy is sparsely used in children and adolescents, but is documented to be a safe and efficacious intervention in adults with bipolar disorder. In view of the severity of symptoms in juvenile mania, studies on treatment strategies are warranted. We report a case of an adolescent with bipolar disorder-obsessive-compulsive disorder who was successfully treated with electroconvulsive therapy during an episode of severe mania. A 16-year-old girl of Middle East origin first presented to us with depressed mood, irritability, and increased obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms, which were initially interpreted in the context of acute stress secondary to migration. She had been diagnosed with bipolar disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder in her previous home country, but had difficulties in accounting for earlier psychiatric history. During hospitalization her mood switched to a manic state with mixed and psychotic features, at times showing aggression toward others. Interruption in her lithium treatment for a short period and possibly the introduction of an atypical antipsychotic could in part have been triggering factors. After 8 weeks of in-patient care and psychotropic drug trials, electroconvulsive therapy was initiated and administered every second or third day for 4 weeks, with marked positive response. No apparent side effects were reported. This case demonstrates the need for a detailed medical history, taking special note of periodicity and character of obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms, in

  14. Patient Adherence Predicts Outcome from Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Helen Blair; Maher, Michael J.; Wang, Yuanjia; Bao, Yuanyuan; Foa, Edna B.; Franklin, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of patient adherence on outcome from exposure and response prevention (EX/RP) therapy in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Thirty adults with OCD were randomized to EX/RP (n = 15) or EX/RP augmented by motivational interviewing strategies (n = 15). Both treatments included 3 introductory…

  15. Dissecting the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale severity scale to understand the routes for symptomatic improvement in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Daniel L da Conceição; Barbosa, Veronica S; Requena, Guaraci; Shavitt, Roseli G; Pereira, Carlos A de Bragança; Diniz, Juliana B

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to investigate which items of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Severity Scale best discriminate the reduction in total scores in obsessive-compulsive disorder patients after 4 and 12 weeks of pharmacological treatment. Data from 112 obsessive-compulsive disorder patients who received fluoxetine (⩽80 mg/day) for 12 weeks were included. Improvement indices were built for each Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Severity Scale item at two timeframes: from baseline to week 4 and from baseline to week 12. Indices for each item were correlated with the total scores for obsessions and compulsions and then ranked by correlation coefficient. A correlation coefficient ⩾0.7 was used to identify items that contributed significantly to reducing obsessive-compulsive disorder severity. At week 4, the distress items reached the threshold of 0.7 for improvement on the obsession and compulsion subscales although, contrary to our expectations, there was greater improvement in the control items than in the distress items. At week 12, there was greater improvement in the time, interference, and control items than in the distress items. The use of fluoxetine led first to reductions in distress and increases in control over symptoms before affecting the time spent on, and interference from, obsessions and compulsions. Resistance did not correlate with overall improvement. Understanding the pathway of improvement with pharmacological treatment in obsessive-compulsive disorder may provide clues about how to optimize the effects of medication.

  16. Drug-induced cutaneous lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurinaviciene, Rasa; Holm Sandholdt, Linda; Bygum, Anette

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An increasing number of drugs have been linked to drug-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (DI-SCLE). The recognition and management of DI-SCLE can be challenging, as the condition may be triggered by different classes of drugs after variable lengths of time. OBJECTIVES......: To determine the proportion of patients with cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) whose drugs are an inducing or aggravating factor. MATERIALS & METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients diagnosed with CLE at a dermatological department over a 21-year period. We registered clinical......, serological, and histological data with a focus on drug intake. RESULTS: Of 775 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of lupus erythematosus (LE) or suspected LE, a diagnosis of CLE could be confirmed in 448 patients. A total of 130 patients had a drug intake that could suggest DI-SCLE. In 88 cases, a drug...

  17. Adverse drug reactions induced by cardiovascular drugs in outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Kheirollah; Ziaie, Shadi; Shalviri, Gloria

    2008-01-01

    Considering increased use of cardiovascular drugs and limitations in pre-marketing trials for drug safety evaluation, post marketing evaluation of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) induced by this class of medicinal products seems necessary. To determine the rate and seriousness of adverse reactions induced by cardiovascular drugs in outpatients. To compare sex and different age groups in developing ADRs with cardiovascular agents. To assess the relationship between frequencies of ADRs and the number of drugs used. This cross-sectional study was done in cardiovascular clinic at a teaching hospital. All patients during an eight months period were evaluated for cardiovascular drugs induced ADRs. Patient and reaction factors were analyzed in detected ADRs. Patients with or without ADRs were compared in sex and age by using chi-square test. Assessing the relationship between frequencies of ADRs and the number of drugs used was done by using Pearson analysis. The total number of 518 patients was visited at the clinic. ADRs were detected in 105 (20.3%) patients. The most frequent ADRs were occurred in the age group of 51-60. The highest rate of ADRs was recorded to be induced by Diltiazem (23.5%) and the lowest rate with Atenolol (3%). Headache was the most frequent detected ADR (23%). Assessing the severity and preventability of ADRs revealed that 1.1% of ADRs were detected as severe and 1.9% as preventable reactions. Women significantly developed more ADRs in this study (chi square = 3.978, PPearson=0.259, P<0.05). Monitoring ADRs in patients using cardiovascular drugs is a matter of importance since this class of medicines is usually used by elderly patients with critical conditions and underlying diseases.

  18. Acculturative Stress and Risky Sexual Behavior: The Roles of Sexual Compulsivity and Negative Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, Charles; Garey, Lorra; Sharp, Carla; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Recent syndemic models of sexual health disparities affecting racial/ethnic minorities have highlighted the role of discrimination. Yet no previous work has examined how acculturative stress (distress at the transition from one's original culture toward a new culture) associates with sexual HIV-risk behavior (SHRB). Work among other minority populations suggests sexual compulsivity (SC) may contribute to syndemic sexual health disparities as a means of coping with distress. With this in mind, the present study examined whether SC explained the relation between acculturative stress and SHRB. Separate analyses were conducted for males and females within a sample of 758 sexually initiated racial/ethnic minority college students. Among males and females, acculturative stress had an indirect effect on SHRB via SC. As the first study to examine SHRB in relation to acculturative stress, findings provide preliminary evidence that targeting SC among racial/ethnic minorities may help reduce sexual health disparities. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Self-Regulation of Anterior Insula with Real-Time fMRI and Its Behavioral Effects in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Feasibility Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhan Buyukturkoglu

    Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is a common and chronic condition that can have disabling effects throughout the patient's lifespan. Frequent symptoms among OCD patients include fear of contamination and washing compulsions. Several studies have shown a link between contamination fears, disgust over-reactivity, and insula activation in OCD. In concordance with the role of insula in disgust processing, new neural models based on neuroimaging studies suggest that abnormally high activations of insula could be implicated in OCD psychopathology, at least in the subgroup of patients with contamination fears and washing compulsions.In the current study, we used a Brain Computer Interface (BCI based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI to aid OCD patients to achieve down-regulation of the Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD signal in anterior insula. Our first aim was to investigate whether patients with contamination obsessions and washing compulsions can learn to volitionally decrease (down-regulate activity in the insula in the presence of disgust/anxiety provoking stimuli. Our second aim was to evaluate the effect of down-regulation on clinical, behavioural and physiological changes pertaining to OCD symptoms. Hence, several pre- and post-training measures were performed, i.e., confronting the patient with a disgust/anxiety inducing real-world object (Ecological Disgust Test, and subjective rating and physiological responses (heart rate, skin conductance level of disgust towards provoking pictures.Results of this pilot study, performed in 3 patients (2 females, show that OCD patients can gain self-control of the BOLD activity of insula, albeit to different degrees. In two patients positive changes in behaviour in the EDT were observed following the rtfMRI trainings. Behavioural changes were also confirmed by reductions in the negative valence and in the subjective perception of disgust towards symptom provoking images

  20. Social behavior in deer mice as a novel interactive paradigm of relevance for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolmarans, De Wet; Stein, Dan J; Harvey, Brian H

    2017-04-01

    Greater obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom severity may be associated with poor social adjustment. Rather than possessing deficits in social skill per se, OCD patients may be more socially isolative in the presence of normal controls. We aimed to apply a novel social interaction challenge (SIC) to an established animal model of OCD, viz., the deer mouse, to assess complex social behavior in animals by investigating group sociability and its response to chronic escitalopram treatment (50 mg/kg/day × 28 days), both within and between non (N)- (viz., normal) and high (H)- (viz., OCD-like) stereotypical cohorts. Using automated screening, we scored approach behavior, episodes of proximity, duration of proximity, and relative net weighted movement. H animals socialized more with one another within cohort in all of the above parameters compared to the within-cohort behavior of N animals. Furthermore, the social behavior of H animals toward one another, both within and between cohort demonstrated significant improvements following chronic escitalopram treatment. However, the study also demonstrates that the social interaction between H and N animals remain poor even after chronic escitalopram treatment. To conclude, findings from the current investigation support clinical data demonstrating altered sociability in patients with OCD.

  1. Degree connectivity in body dysmorphic disorder and relationships with obsessive and compulsive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beucke, Jan C; Sepulcre, Jorge; Buhlmann, Ulrike; Kathmann, Norbert; Moody, Teena; Feusner, Jamie D

    2016-10-01

    Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are categorized within the same major diagnostic group and both show regional brain hyperactivity in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and the basal ganglia during symptom provocation. While recent studies revealed that degree connectivity of these areas is abnormally high in OCD and positively correlates with symptom severity, no study has investigated degree connectivity in BDD. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare the local and distant degree of functional connectivity in all brain areas between 28 unmedicated BDD participants and 28 demographically matched healthy controls during a face-processing task. Correlational analyses tested for associations between degree connectivity and symptom severity assessed by the BDD version of the Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale (BDD-Y-BOCS). Reduced local amygdalar connectivity was found in participants with BDD. No differences in distant connectivity were found. BDD-Y-BOCS scores significantly correlated with the local connectivity of the posterior-lateral OFC, and distant connectivity of the posterior-lateral and post-central OFC, respectively. These findings represent preliminary evidence that individuals with BDD exhibit brain-behavioral associations related to obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviors that are highly similar to correlations previously found in OCD, further underscoring their related pathophysiology. This relationship could be further elucidated through investigation of resting-state functional connectivity in BDD, ideally in direct comparison with OCD and other obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  2. Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder as a Predictor of Exposure and Ritual Prevention Outcome for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Anthony; Liebowitz, Michael R.; Foa, Edna B.; Simpson, H. Blair

    2011-01-01

    Despite elevated rates of obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), no study has specifically examined comorbid OCPD as a predictor of exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP) outcome. Participants were adult outpatients (n = 49) with primary OCD and a Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) total score ≥ 16 despite a therapeutic serotonin reuptake inhibitor dose for at least 12 weeks prior to entry. Participants received 17 ses...

  3. Compulsive buying and borderline personality symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Chang, Joy; Jewell, Bryan; Sellbom, Martin; Bidwell, Mark

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the relationship between compulsive buying and borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptomatology--two disorders possibly linked through impulsivity. Using a survey methodology in a cross-sectional consecutive sample of nonemergent female outpatients from an obstetrics/gynecology clinic, the authors assessed compulsive buying with the compulsive buying scale (CBS) and BPD symptomatology through the BPD scale of the personality diagnostic questionnaire-4 (PDQ-4) and the self-harm Inventory (SHI). In this sample, 8% of Caucasian women and 9% of African-American women scored positively for compulsive buying. The correlations between scores on the CBS and the PDQ-4 and SHI were 0.43 and 0.41, respectively-both statistically significant at the p buying and BPD, particularly among African-American women.

  4. Family Factors Predict Treatment Outcome for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, Tara S.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Langley, Audra; Piacentini, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine family conflict, parental blame, and poor family cohesion as predictors of treatment outcome for youths receiving family-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (FCBT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: We analyzed data from a sample of youths who were randomized to FCBT (n = 49; 59% male; M age = 12.43 years) as…

  5. Imbalanced functional link between reward circuits and the cognitive control system in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chunming; Ma, Lisha; Jiang, Nan; Huang, Ruyan; Li, Li; Gong, Liang; He, Cancan; Xiao, Chaoyong; Liu, Wen; Xu, Shu; Zhang, Zhijun

    2017-08-01

    Altered reward processing and cognitive deficits are often observed in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); however, whether the imbalance in activity between reward circuits and the cognitive control (CC) system is associated with compulsive behavior remains unknown. Sixty-eight OCD patients and 33 cognitively normal (CN) healthy subjects participated in this resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Alterations in the functional connectivity between reward circuits and the CC system were quantitatively assessed and compared between the groups. A Granger causality analysis was used to determine the causal informational influence between and within reward circuits and the CC system across all subjects. OCD patients showed a dichotomous pattern of enhanced functional coupling in their reward circuits and a weakened functional coupling in their CC system when compared to CN subjects. Neural correlates of compulsive behavior were primarily located in the reward circuits and CC system in OCD patients. Importantly, the CC system exerted a reduced interregional causal influence over the reward system in OCD patients relative to its effect in CN subjects. The limitations of this study are that it was a cross-sectional study and the potential effects of environmental and genetic factors were not explored. OCD patients showed an imbalance in the functional link between reward circuits and the CC system at rest. This bias toward a loss of control may define a pathological state in which subjects are more vulnerable to engaging in compulsive behaviors.

  6. Compelled to Risk: Does Sexual Compulsivity Explain the Connection Between Borderline Personality Disorder Features and Number of Sexual Partners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, Charles; Sharp, Carla; Garey, Lorra; Vanwoerden, Salome; Crist, Nic; Elhai, Jon D; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2017-12-01

    Having more sexual partners increases the likelihood of new HIV infections among women. Women with more borderline personality disorder (BPD) features have been known to have greater numbers of sexual partners. However, the mechanisms linking BPD features with more sexual partners remain to be clarified. Sexual compulsivity (lack of control, increased distress over sexual behavior) may be one such explanatory factor, as it overlaps with BPD features (e.g., impulsivity, negative affectivity). The present study examined whether sexual compulsivity explained the relation of BPD features with number of sexual partners among a diverse sample of college females (N = 1,326). Results demonstrated a significant indirect effect of BPD features via sexual compulsivity on number of sexual partners. These findings support the relation between BPD features and sexual compulsivity and suggest sexual compulsivity as a target in the promotion of the sexual health of women with BPD who demonstrate risky sexual practices.

  7. EFFECTS OF HOMEWORK COMPLIANCE ON COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL THERAPY WITH D-CYCLOSERINE AUGMENTATION FOR CHILDREN WITH OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Bunmi O; Rosenfield, David; Monzani, Benedetta; Krebs, Georgina; Heyman, Isobel; Turner, Cynthia; Isomura, Kayoko; Mataix-Cols, David

    2015-12-01

    The present study examined the effects of homework compliance on outcome from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and the extent to which these effects differ as a function of augmentation of CBT with D-cycloserine (DCS). Twenty-seven youth with OCD were randomized to either 50 mg DCS or placebo (PBO) administered immediately after each of 10 CBT sessions, primarily consisting of exposure and ritual prevention (ERP). Independent evaluators assessed OCD severity using the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) at the start of each session. Compliance with between-session ERP assignments was also assessed at the start of each session using the Patient ERP Adherence Scale (PEAS). Greater homework compliance between the previous session and the current session was related to lower CY-BOCS at the current session. However, the relation between homework compliance and CY-BOCS varied by treatment condition. Higher homework compliance was related to lower CY-BOCS for participants in the DCS condition, but not for participants in the PBO condition. Furthermore, participants receiving DCS were estimated to have significantly lower CY-BOCS than those given PBO among those with the highest levels of homework compliance. DCS may more effectively facilitate the effects of CBT for youth with OCD when patients are compliant with prescribed homework. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Disorders of compulsivity: a common bias towards learning habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, V; Derbyshire, K; Rück, C; Irvine, M A; Worbe, Y; Enander, J; Schreiber, L R N; Gillan, C; Fineberg, N A; Sahakian, B J; Robbins, T W; Harrison, N A; Wood, J; Daw, N D; Dayan, P; Grant, J E; Bullmore, E T

    2015-03-01

    Why do we repeat choices that we know are bad for us? Decision making is characterized by the parallel engagement of two distinct systems, goal-directed and habitual, thought to arise from two computational learning mechanisms, model-based and model-free. The habitual system is a candidate source of pathological fixedness. Using a decision task that measures the contribution to learning of either mechanism, we show a bias towards model-free (habit) acquisition in disorders involving both natural (binge eating) and artificial (methamphetamine) rewards, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. This favoring of model-free learning may underlie the repetitive behaviors that ultimately dominate in these disorders. Further, we show that the habit formation bias is associated with lower gray matter volumes in caudate and medial orbitofrontal cortex. Our findings suggest that the dysfunction in a common neurocomputational mechanism may underlie diverse disorders involving compulsion.

  9. Comparing two basic subtypes in OCD across three large community samples: a pure compulsive versus a mixed obsessive-compulsive subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Stephanie; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Kawohl, Wolfram; Müller, Mario; Rössler, Wulf; Hengartner, Michael P; Castelao, Enrique; Vandeleur, Caroline; Angst, Jules; Preisig, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Due to its heterogeneous phenomenology, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been subtyped. However, these subtypes are not mutually exclusive. This study presents an alternative subtyping approach by deriving non-overlapping OCD subtypes. A pure compulsive and a mixed obsessive-compulsive subtype (including subjects manifesting obsessions with/without compulsions) were analyzed with respect to a broad pattern of psychosocial risk factors and comorbid syndromes/diagnoses in three representative Swiss community samples: the Zurich Study (n = 591), the ZInEP sample (n = 1500), and the PsyCoLaus sample (n = 3720). A selection of comorbidities was examined in a pooled database. Odds ratios were derived from logistic regressions and, in the analysis of pooled data, multilevel models. The pure compulsive subtype showed a lower age of onset and was characterized by few associations with psychosocial risk factors. The higher social popularity of the pure compulsive subjects and their families was remarkable. Comorbidities within the pure compulsive subtype were mainly restricted to phobias. In contrast, the mixed obsessive-compulsive subtype had a higher prevalence and was associated with various childhood adversities, more familial burden, and numerous comorbid disorders, including disorders characterized by high impulsivity. The current comparison study across three representative community surveys presented two basic, distinct OCD subtypes associated with differing psychosocial impairment. Such highly specific subtypes offer the opportunity to learn about pathophysiological mechanisms specifically involved in OCD.

  10. Compulsator, a high power compensated pulsed alternator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weldon, W.F.; Bird, W.L.; Driga, M.D.; Rylander, H.G.; Tolk, K.M.; Woodson, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter describes a pulsed power supply utilizing inertial energy storage as a possible replacement for large capacitor banks. The compulsator overcomes many of the limitations of the pulsed homopolar generators previously developed by the Center for Electromechanics and elsewhere in that it offers high voltage (10's of kV) and consequently higher pulse rise times, is self commutating, and offers the possibility of generating repetitive pulses. The compulsator converts rotational inertial energy directly into electrical energy utilizing the principles of both magnetic induction and flux compression. The theory of operation, a prototype compulsator design, and advanced compulsator designs are discussed

  11. Addiction: from context-induced hedonia to appetite, based on transition of micro-behaviors in morphine abstinent tree shrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying eDuan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDrug addiction is viewed as a maladaptive memory induced by contextual cues even in the abstinent state. However, the variations of hedonia and appetite induced by the context during the abstinence have been neglected. To distinguish the representative behaviors between hedonia and appetite, micro-behaviors in abstinent animal such as psycho-activity and drug seeking behaviors were observed in morphine conditioned place preference (CPP. To confirm the different effects of reward between drug and natural reward, a palatable food CPP paradigm was compared in current work. After a 10-day training in CPP with morphine or food, the preference was tested on day 1, 14, 28, and the changes of micro-behaviors were analyzed further. Our data showed that tree shrews treated with morphine performed more jumps on day 1 and more visits to saline paired side on day 28, which indicated a featured behavioral transition from psycho-activity to seeking behavior during drug abstinence. Meanwhile, food-conditioned animals only displayed obvious seeking behaviors in the three tests. The results suggest that the variations of micro-behaviors could imply such a transition from hedonic response to appetitive behaviors during morphine abstinence, which provided a potential behavioral basis for further neural mechanism studies.

  12. Effects of Electroacupuncture on Methamphetamine-Induced Behavioral Changes in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Jung Ho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (METH is a major drug of abuse worldwide, and no efficient therapeutic strategies for treating METH addiction are currently available. Continuous METH use can cause behavioral upregulation or psychosis. The dopaminergic pathways, particularly the neural circuitry from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens (NAc, have a critical role in this behavioral stage. Acupuncture has been used for treating diseases in China for more than 2000 years. According to a World Health Organization report, acupuncture can be used to treat several functional disorders, including substance abuse. In addition, acupuncture is effective against opioids addiction. In this study, we used electroacupuncture (EA for treating METH-induced behavioral changes and investigated the possible therapeutic mechanism. Results showed that EA at the unilateral Zhubin (KI9–Taichong (LR3 significantly reduced METH-induced behavioral sensitization and conditioned place preference. In addition, both dopamine and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH levels decreased but monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A levels increased in the NAc of the METH-treated mice receiving EA compared with those not receiving EA. EA may be a useful nonpharmacological approach for treating METH-induced behavioral changes, probably because it reduces the METH-induced TH expression and dopamine levels and raises MAO-A expression in the NAc.

  13. CLARIFYING THE CONVERGENCE BETWEEN OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE PERSONALITY DISORDER CRITERIA AND OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Eisen, Jane L.; Coles, Meredith E.; Shea, M. Tracie; Pagano, Maria E.; Stout, Robert L.; Yen, Shirley; Grilo, Carlos M.; Rasmussen, Steven A.

    2006-01-01

    In this study we examined the convergence between obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) criteria and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Baseline assessments of 629 participants of the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study were used to examine the associations between OCPD criteria and diagnoses of OCD. Three of the eight OCPD criteria—hoarding, perfectionism, and preoccupation with details—were significantly more frequent in subjects with OCD (n = 89) than in sub...

  14. Should ovulation be induced in women recovering from an eating disorder or who are compulsive exercisers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, S; Mira, M; Llewellyn-Jones, D

    1990-03-01

    The eating and exercise history of women with secondary amenorrhea and failure of ovulation using CC was studied in 14 consecutive women on a GnRH-a program. All had a history of an eating or exercise disorder. At the time of the interview, 7 women continued to have an eating or exercise disorder. There were 15 pregnancies (12 women) with 12 live births, of which 4 weighed less than 2,500 g. Infertility specialists should inquire routinely about a woman's body weight and eating and exercise behaviors, and consider treatment for these before prescribing drugs to induce ovulation.

  15. The relationship between compulsive buying and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James E; Redlin, Jennifer; Wonderlich, Steve; Crosby, Ross; Faber, Ron; Miltenberger, Ray; Smyth, Joshua; Stickney, Marci; Gosnell, Blake; Burgard, Melissa; Lancaster, Kathy

    2002-07-01

    Compulsive buying has received increased research attention in the last decade. The disorder has high rates of comorbidity for other disorders, including eating disorders. This study explored the possible relationship between compulsive buying and eating disorders. Twenty women who scored in the pathological range on a measure of compulsive buying and 20 controls were recruited via the media. Various measures of psychopathology and eating disorder symptoms were administered to both groups. Compulsive buyers were significantly more likely to have a higher lifetime history of substance abuse or dependence. No differences existed between normal controls and compulsive buyers in prevalence of current or lifetime eating disorders, nor were there differences in scores of eating-related psychopathology. This work failed to demonstrate an increased risk for eating disorder in compulsive buyers, although a higher rate of substance dependence or abuse and higher scores on pathological personality dimension scales were seen.

  16. Neuroimaging for drug addiction and related behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvaz, M.A.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik, P.A.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2011-01-01

    In this review, we highlight the role of neuroimaging techniques in studying the emotional and cognitive-behavioral components of the addiction syndrome by focusing on the neural substrates subserving them. The phenomenology of drug addiction can be characterized by a recurrent pattern of subjective experiences that includes drug intoxication, craving, bingeing, and withdrawal with the cycle culminating in a persistent preoccupation with obtaining, consuming, and recovering from the drug. In the past two decades, imaging studies of drug addiction have demonstrated deficits in brain circuits related to reward and impulsivity. The current review focuses on studies employing positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate these behaviors in drug-addicted human populations. We begin with a brief account of drug addiction followed by a technical account of each of these imaging modalities. We then discuss how these techniques have uniquely contributed to a deeper understanding of addictive behaviors.

  17. Neuroimaging for drug addiction and related behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvaz M. A.; Parvaz, M.A.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik,P.A.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2011-10-01

    In this review, we highlight the role of neuroimaging techniques in studying the emotional and cognitive-behavioral components of the addiction syndrome by focusing on the neural substrates subserving them. The phenomenology of drug addiction can be characterized by a recurrent pattern of subjective experiences that includes drug intoxication, craving, bingeing, and withdrawal with the cycle culminating in a persistent preoccupation with obtaining, consuming, and recovering from the drug. In the past two decades, imaging studies of drug addiction have demonstrated deficits in brain circuits related to reward and impulsivity. The current review focuses on studies employing positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate these behaviors in drug-addicted human populations. We begin with a brief account of drug addiction followed by a technical account of each of these imaging modalities. We then discuss how these techniques have uniquely contributed to a deeper understanding of addictive behaviors.

  18. Reduced availability of serotonin transporters in obsessive-compulsive disorder correlates with symptom severity - a [11C]DASB PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimold, M.; Smolka, M.N.; Zimmer, A.

    2007-01-01

    Reduced availability of brainstem serotonin transporters (5-HTT) has been observed in vivo in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, results vary and may be influenced by competition with endogenous serotonin. Using positron emission tomography (PET) and [ 11 C]DASB, a specific 5-HTT ligand that showed no competition with serotonin for 5-HTT binding in vitro, we tested the hypothesis that 5-HTT availability is reduced in OCD patients and correlated with OCD severity. 5-HTT availability in the thalamus and the midbrain was measured in nine drug-free OCD patients and compared with 19 healthy controls, matched for the individual combination of 5-HTT genotype, gender and smoking status. OCD severity was assessed with the Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale (Y-BOCS). 5-HTT availability was significantly reduced in the thalamus and midbrain of OCD patients. Age and 5-HTT in the thalamus explained 83 % of OCD severity in patients that were drug-free for at least 1 year. This PET study confirms a central role of the serotonergic system, particularly the thalamus in the pathogenesis of obsessive compulsive disorder. (author)

  19. Adverse drug reactions induced by cardiovascular drugs in outpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholami K

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering increased use of cardiovascular drugs and limitations in pre-marketing trials for drug safety evaluation, post marketing evaluation of adverse drug reactions (ADRs induced by this class of medicinal products seems necessary.Objectives: To determine the rate and seriousness of adverse reactions induced by cardiovascular drugs in outpatients. To compare sex and different age groups in developing ADRs with cardiovascular agents. To assess the relationship between frequencies of ADRs and the number of drugs used. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done in cardiovascular clinic at a teaching hospital. All patients during an eight months period were evaluated for cardiovascular drugs induced ADRs. Patient and reaction factors were analyzed in detected ADRs. Patients with or without ADRs were compared in sex and age by using chi-square test. Assessing the relationship between frequencies of ADRs and the number of drugs used was done by using Pearson analysis. Results: The total number of 518 patients was visited at the clinic. ADRs were detected in 105 (20.3% patients. The most frequent ADRs were occurred in the age group of 51-60. The highest rate of ADRs was recorded to be induced by Diltiazem (23.5% and the lowest rate with Atenolol (3%. Headache was the most frequent detected ADR (23%. Assessing the severity and preventability of ADRs revealed that 1.1% of ADRs were detected as severe and 1.9% as preventable reactions. Women significantly developed more ADRs in this study (chi square = 3.978, P<0.05. ADRs more frequently occurred with increasing age in this study (chi square = 15.871, P<0.05. With increasing the number of drugs used, the frequency of ADRs increased (Pearson=0.259, P<0.05. Conclusion: Monitoring ADRs in patients using cardiovascular drugs is a matter of importance since this class of medicines is usually used by elderly patients with critical conditions and underlying diseases.

  20. Compulsive prayer and its management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonchek, Avigdor; Greenberg, David

    2009-04-01

    Religious symptoms have been recognized as a presentation of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) for centuries. The two main treatment strategies for OCD, cognitive behavior therapy (exposure and response prevention [ERP]), and SSRIs have been shown to be effective in religious OCD. The presentation of religious OCD within formal prayer, reported in Judaism and Islam, poses special challenges of inaccessibility of personal prayer, sanctity of the symptom, and the status of the therapist. A method of guided-prayer repetition, a variant of ERP, is described, and its successful application is reported in three cases of ultra-orthodox Jewish men with prayer as the main symptom of their religious OCD.

  1. Prevalence of obsessive compulsive symptoms among patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Hemrom

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obsessive compulsive symptoms in schizophrenia are well recognized but are a less-researched entity. These symptoms have important implications for management and prognosis. Aim: To find out the prevalence of obsessive compulsive symptoms among patients with schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 hospitalized patients with schizophrenia diagnosed according to DCR of ICD-10 criteria were selected for the study. Padua inventory and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale were applied to find out the prevalence and nature of obsessive compulsive symptoms . Results: It was found that 10% of schizophrenic patients had obsessive compulsive symptoms. Conclusion: Obsessive compulsive symptoms are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia. The presence of comorbidity should be explored for adequate management.

  2. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy and fluoxetine on sexual function of women with obsessive compulsive disorder: A double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabetnejad, Zahra; Assarian, Fatemeh; Omidi, Abdollah; Najarzadegan, Mohammad Reza

    2016-11-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental health concern due to its various negative consequences, especially in sexual function. Therefore, the treatment of sexual dysfunction in women with OCD is important in order to improve the patient's marital function and mental health. To compare the sexual behavior and sexual and marital satisfaction in women with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) before and after treatment with fluoxetine and cognitive behavior therapy. This randomized clinical trial was conducted at psychiatric and psychological counseling centers in Kashan (Iran) from January 2, 2014, to December 29, 2014. Fifty-eight women with OCD were included in the study. In order to compare the effectiveness of pharmacological treatment (fluoxetine) and psychological treatment, cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), 58 female patients with OCD (diagnosed based on DSM-IV-T criteria) were randomized equally to either fluoxetine (at a dose of 60-80 mg daily for 3 months) or CBT (10 45-minute sessions). OCD and sexual behavior status of the patients before and after the intervention was assessed with the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire, respectively. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 22. To compare changes between the two groups, an independent T-test was used. Finally, the effects of all potential factors on treatment outcome were analyzed using factorial ANCOVA. The mean score for OCD in the fluoxetine group was 25.6 ± 4.8 at the beginning of the experiment and 18.79 ± 4.26 at the end of the study, while in the CBT group it was 25.6 ± 4.8 and 18.79 ± 4.26, respectively. No significant differences were found between two groups regarding obsession score changes. These scores in fluoxetine group were 58.1 and 52.8, respectively (p=0.046). There was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of sexual performance (p=0.003). In this study, our findings demonstrate a

  3. [Compulsive buying or oniomania: an overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boermans, J A J; Egger, J I M

    2010-01-01

    Compulsive buyers feel a continual urge to buy things, irrespective of their financial means. Interest in compulsive buying has increased in the last 30 to 40 years. Since excessive buying is a regularly occurring feature of various illnesses encountered in clinical practice, one wonders whether it should be regarded as a sign of the times, as a symptom of a psychiatric illness or as a distinct psychiatric syndrome. To gain insight into the concept of compulsive buying. We searched the literature via Medline, PubMed and PsycInfo for the period from 1966 to August 2008. results Compulsive buying is a relatively unknown and poorly defined phenomenon, despite its high incidence and high comorbidity. It is characterised by chronic, repetetive behaviour; it occurs mainly among women and should be classified as an impulsive-control disorder nos. Current aetiological models lack explanatory power and, so far, the most successful treatment results seem to have been achieved with behavioural therapy. Compulsive buying should be considered from a neuroscientific perspective. Future research needs to have a neuropsychiatric focus and a contextual psychological and behavioural analytical approach in which inhibition, self-control and rule-governed behaviour play a central role.

  4. Historical evolution of the concept of anorexia nervosa and relationships with orthorexia nervosa, autism, and obsessive-compulsive spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell'Osso L

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Liliana Dell’Osso,1 Marianna Abelli,1 Barbara Carpita,1 Stefano Pini,1 Giovanni Castellini,2 Claudia Carmassi,1 Valdo Ricca2 1Psychiatry Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, 2Department of Neuroscience, Psychology, Drug Research and Child Health (NEUROFARBA, University of Florence, Florence, Italy Abstract: Eating disorders have been defined as “characterized by persistence disturbance of eating or eating-related behavior that results in the altered consumption or absorption of food and that significantly impairs health or psychosocial functioning”. The psychopathology of eating disorders changed across time under the influence of environmental factors, determining the emergence of new phenotypes. Some of these conditions are still under investigation and are not clearly identified as independent diagnostic entities. In this review, the historic evolution of the eating disorder concept up to the recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, has been evaluated. We also examined literature supporting the inclusion of new emergent eating behaviors within the eating disorder spectrum, and their relationship with anorexia, autism, and obsessive–compulsive disorder. In particular, we focused on what is known about the symptoms, epidemiology, assessment, and diagnostic boundaries of a new problematic eating pattern called orthorexia nervosa that could be accepted as a new psychological syndrome, as emphasized by an increasing number of scientific articles in the last few years. Keywords: anorexia nervosa, autism spectrum disorders, eating disorders spectrum, obsessive–compulsive spectrum, orthorexia nervosa, DSM-5

  5. Drug-induced Inhibition and Trafficking Disruption of ion Channels: Pathogenesis of QT Abnormalities and Drug-induced Fatal Arrhythmias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubeddu, Luigi X.

    2016-01-01

    Risk of severe and fatal ventricular arrhythmias, presenting as Torsade de Pointes (TdP), is increased in congenital and acquired forms of long QT syndromes (LQTS). Drug-induced inhibition of K+ currents, IKs, IKr, IK1, and/or Ito, delay repolarization, prolong QT, and increase the risk of TdP. Drug-induced interference with IKr is the most common cause of acquired LQTS/TdP. Multiple drugs bind to KNCH2-hERG-K+ channels affecting IKr, including antiarrythmics, antibiotics, antivirals, azole-antifungals, antimalarials, anticancer, antiemetics, prokinetics, antipsychotics, and antidepressants. Azithromycin has been recently added to this list. In addition to direct channel inhibition, some drugs interfere with the traffic of channels from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell membrane, decreasing mature channel membrane density; e.g., pentamidine, geldalamicin, arsenic trioxide, digoxin, and probucol. Other drugs, such as ketoconazole, fluoxetine, norfluoxetine, citalopram, escitalopram, donepezil, tamoxifen, endoxifen, atazanavir, and roxitromycin, induce both direct channel inhibition and impaired channel trafficking. Although many drugs prolong the QT interval, TdP is a rare event. The following conditions increase the risk of drug-induced TdP: a) Disease states/electrolyte levels (heart failure, structural cardiac disease, bradycardia, hypokalemia); b) Pharmacogenomic variables (presence of congenital LQTS, subclinical ion-channel mutations, history of or having a relative with history of drug-induced long QT/TdP); c) Pharmacodynamic and kinetic factors (high doses, women, elderly, metabolism inhibitors, combining two or more QT prolonging drugs, drugs that prolong the QT and increase QT dispersion, and drugs with multiple actions on ion channels). Because most of these conditions are preventable, careful evaluation of risk factors and increased knowledge of drug use associated with repolarization abnormalities are strongly recommended. PMID:26926294

  6. [The way to proceed in psychotherapy--focusing on the framework of phobias and obsessive-compulsive stories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Ryoji

    2012-01-01

    Compulsion becomes long-term when treatment is commenced with very severe resistance. Patients showing emotional changes are rare compared to those with conversion and phobic disorders. However, most people improve when careful treatment is carried out. Although there are those in whom drug treatment is effective, drug treatment and psychotherapy are concomitantly used in most cases. In this lecture, the characteristics of compulsion were psychodynamically investigated regarding: 1. Central conflict, 2. Defense mechanisms, 3. Condition of love life (including sex life), 4. Growth history, by comparing with phobias. When the life of the inner-self protrudes, obsessive-compulsive patients try to contradict and deny this. The symptoms sometimes directly represent the mental conflict of the person, and sometimes the symptom formation process may be understood to some extent. It is said that such cases are suitable for psychotherapy. Psychodynamic psychotherapy involves regaining the continuity of emotional life divided due to defenses such as negation, reaction formation, and isolation. Meanwhile, the real nature of phobias is avoidance and escape. Therefore, the trick in proceeding with interviews is to lead the phobia patient to areas which they avoid during interviews and areas which they avoid in daily life, and to have the patient enter these fields at times by encouraging them.

  7. Drug induced aseptic meningitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2013-09-29

    Sep 29, 2013 ... Abstract. Drug-induced aseptic meningitis (DIAM) is a rare but important and often challenging diagnosis for the physician. Intake of antimicrobials, steroids, anal- gesics amongst others has been implicated. Signs and symptoms generally develop within 24-48 hours of drug ingestion. The pa- tient often ...

  8. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for obsessive–compulsive disorder: access to treatment, prediction of long-term outcome with neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Neill J

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Joseph O'Neill,1 Jamie D Feusner,2 1Division of Child Psychiatry, 2Division of Adult Psychiatry, UCLA Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: This article reviews issues related to a major challenge to the field for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD: improving access to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT. Patient-related barriers to access include the stigma of OCD and reluctance to take on the demands of CBT. Patient-external factors include the shortage of trained CBT therapists and the high costs of CBT. The second half of the review focuses on one partial, yet plausible aid to improve access – prediction of long-term response to CBT, particularly using neuroimaging methods. Recent pilot data are presented revealing a potential for pretreatment resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain to forecast OCD symptom severity up to 1 year after completing CBT. Keywords: follow-up, access to treatment, relapse, resting-state fMRI, magnetic resonance spectroscopy

  9. Largely overlapping neuronal substrates of reactivity to drug, gambling, food and sexual cues: A comprehensive meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori, Hamid R; Cosa Linan, Alejandro; Spanagel, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Cue reactivity to natural and social rewards is essential for motivational behavior. However, cue reactivity to drug rewards can also elicit craving in addicted subjects. The degree to which drug and natural rewards share neural substrates is not known. The objective of this study is to conduct a comprehensive meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies on drug, gambling and natural stimuli (food and sex) to identify the common and distinct neural substrates of cue reactivity to drug and natural rewards. Neural cue reactivity studies were selected for the meta-analysis by means of activation likelihood estimations, followed by sensitivity and clustering analyses of averaged neuronal response patterns. Data from 176 studies (5573 individuals) suggests largely overlapping neural response patterns towards all tested reward modalities. Common cue reactivity to natural and drug rewards was expressed by bilateral neural responses within anterior cingulate gyrus, insula, caudate head, inferior frontal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus and cerebellum. However, drug cues also generated distinct activation patterns in medial frontal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, posterior cingulate gyrus, caudate body and putamen. Natural (sexual) reward cues induced unique activation of the pulvinar in thalamus. Neural substrates of cue reactivity to alcohol, drugs of abuse, food, sex and gambling are largely overlapping and comprise a network that processes reward, emotional responses and habit formation. This suggests that cue-mediated craving involves mechanisms that are not exclusive for addictive disorders but rather resemble the intersection of information pathways for processing reward, emotional responses, non-declarative memory and obsessive-compulsive behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  10. Compulsive Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... negative thinking and low self-esteem. Why Is Exercising Too Much a Bad Thing? We all know ... spent with friends. Warning Signs Someone may be exercising compulsively if he or she: won't skip ...

  11. The nature and measurement of compulsive indecisiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, R O; Shows, D L

    1993-09-01

    Indecisiveness is an often mentioned symptom of obsessive compulsive disorder and obsessive compulsive personality disorder, yet very little research has been done examining its nature and measurement. Three studies are presented here which examine the nature of compulsive indecisiveness using a newly developed scale. In study 1 the Indecisiveness Scale was correlated with measures of obsessionality and compulsive checking among normal S s. It was also correlated with the maladaptive evaluative concern dimensions of perfectionism and with compulsive hoarding. In study 2 indecisive S s (as measured by the Indecisiveness Scale) were found to score higher on measures of procrastination and general psychopathology. In addition, they reported problems in making decisions in a variety of life domains (social, academic, family and everyday). In study 3 S s who scored high on the Indecisiveness Scale were found to have longer latencies on an experimental decision-making task. The implications of these findings for the nature of indecisiveness were discussed.

  12. The relationship between compulsive buying, eating disorder symptoms, and temperament in a sample of female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Laurence; Bijttebier, Patricia; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina; Mueller, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between compulsive buying (CB), eating disorder symptoms, and temperament (controlling for depression) in a sample of female students. We assessed 211 female undergraduate students using the Compulsive Buying Scale, the Eating Disorder Inventory, the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System scales, the Adult Temperament Questionnaire, and the Physical Health Questionnaire-Depression. The results show a positive association between CB and the Eating Disorder Inventory-II drive for thinness and bulimia subscales. Both CB and eating disorder symptoms were related to low levels of effortful control. Finally, CB was also related to high levels of Behavioral Activation Scale reactivity (impulsivity), whereas eating disorder symptoms (especially drive for thinness) were more strongly related to high levels of Behavioral Inhibition Scale reactivity (anxiety). The implications of these findings for the treatment of CB and eating disorder symptoms will be discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Structural Equation Analysis of Family Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporino, Nicole E.; Morgan, Jessica; Beckstead, Jason; Phares, Vicky; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Family accommodation of symptoms is counter to the primary goals of cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and can pose an obstacle to positive treatment outcomes. Although increased attention has been given to family accommodation in pediatric OCD, relatively little is known about associated child and…

  14. HLA Association with Drug-Induced Adverse Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Lang Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse drug reactions (ADRs remain a common and major problem in healthcare. Severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (SCARs, such as Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS/toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN with mortality rate ranges from 10% to more than 30%, can be life threatening. A number of recent studies demonstrated that ADRs possess strong genetic predisposition. ADRs induced by several drugs have been shown to have significant associations with specific alleles of human leukocyte antigen (HLA genes. For example, hypersensitivity to abacavir, a drug used for treating of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, has been proposed to be associated with allele 57:01 of HLA-B gene (terms HLA-B∗57:01. The incidences of abacavir hypersensitivity are much higher in Caucasians compared to other populations due to various allele frequencies in different ethnic populations. The antithyroid drug- (ATDs- induced agranulocytosis are strongly associated with two alleles: HLA-B∗38:02 and HLA-DRB1∗08:03. In addition, HLA-B∗15:02 allele was reported to be related to carbamazepine-induced SJS/TEN, and HLA-B∗57:01 in abacavir hypersensitivity and flucloxacillin induced drug-induced liver injury (DILI. In this review, we summarized the alleles of HLA genes which have been proposed to have association with ADRs caused by different drugs.

  15. Similarity and Difference in Drug Addiction Process Between Heroin- and Methamphetamine-Dependent Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziyun; Li, Wei-Xiu; Zhi-Min, Liu

    2017-03-21

    This study aimed to compare the drug addiction process between Chinese heroin- and methamphetamine (MA)-dependent users via a modified 4-stage addiction model (experimentation, occasional use, regular use, and compulsive use). A descriptive study was conducted among 683 eligible participants. In the statistical analysis, we selected 340 heroin- and 295 MA-dependent users without illicit drug use prior to onset of heroin or MA use. The addiction process of heroin-dependent users was shorter than that of MA-dependent users, with shorter transitions from the onset of drug-use to the first drug craving (19.5 vs. 50.0 days), regular use (30.0 vs. 60.0 days), and compulsive use (50.0 vs. 85.0 days). However, no significant differences in the addiction process were observed in frequency of drug administration, except that heroin users reported more administrations of the drug (20.0 vs. 15.0) before progressing to the stage of compulsive drug use. A larger proportion of regular heroin users progressed to use illicit drugs recklessly than did MA users. Most heroin and MA users reported psychological dependence as their primary motivation for compulsive drug use, but more heroin users selected uncomfortable symptoms upon ceasing drug use as further reason to continue. Our results suggest that typical heroin and MA users may experience a similar four-stage addiction process, but MA users might undergo a longer addiction process (in days). More research is necessary to further explore factors influencing the drug addiction process.

  16. Common Dermatoses in Patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Tampa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a chronic, debilitating syndrome, consisting of intrusive thoughts- which are experienced as inappropriate by the patient and are producing anxiety- and compulsions, defined as repetitive behaviours produced to reduce anxiety. While patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder typically have xerosis, eczema or lichen simplex chronicus, as a result of frequent washing or rubbing their skin, several other disorders which are included in the group of factitious disorders have also been associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder. A close collaboration between the dermatologist and the psychiatrist is therefore mandatory in order to achieve favourable outcomes for these patients. The aim of the article is to present the most frequent dermatological disorders associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder and to look over some of the rare ones.

  17. The Rotter I-E scale as a predictor of relapse in a population of compulsive gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E E; Nora, R M; Bustos, N

    1992-06-01

    Profile surveys, completed Rotter I-E scales, and questionnaires on past relapse behavior were collected from 108 New Jersey compulsive gamblers who attended Gamblers Anonymous, and an attempt was made, based on the findings, to predict incidence of compulsive gamblers' relapse. Relationships between I-E scores and extent of relapse-free periods, and I-E scores and relapse, with the variables of religious background, age, marital status, education, type of work, and childhood physical abuse were investigated. In every instance the relationship found was statistically non-significant.

  18. THE STRUCTURE OF OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE SYMPTOMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANOPPEN, P; HOEKSTRA, RJ; EMMELKAMP, PMG

    In the present study, the structure of obsessive-compulsive symptoms was investigated by means of the Padua Inventory (PI). Simultaneous Components Analysis on data from obsessive-compulsives (n = 206), patients with other anxiety disorders (n = 222), and a non clinical sample (n = 430) revealed a

  19. Compulsive Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to hurt yourself or someone else, you report sexual abuse of a child, or you report abuse or neglect of someone in a vulnerable population. Seek treatment right away Seek immediate ... uncontrolled sexual behavior You have other problems with impulse control, ...

  20. The role of avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder traits in matching patients with major depression to cognitive behavioral and psychodynamic therapy: A replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikkert, Martijn J; Driessen, Ellen; Peen, Jaap; Barber, Jacques P; Bockting, Claudi; Schalkwijk, Frans; Dekker, Jeff; Dekker, Jack J M

    2016-11-15

    Barber and Muenz (1996) reported that cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) was more effective than interpersonal therapy (IPT) for depressed patients with elevated levels of avoidant personality disorder, while IPT was more effective than CBT in patients with elevated levels of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. These findings may have important clinical implications, but have not yet been replicated. We conducted a study using data from a randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of CBT and short-term psychodynamic supportive psychotherapy in the outpatient treatment of depression. We found no evidence indicating that avoidant patients may benefit more from CBT compared to short-term psychodynamic supportive therapy (SPSP). Our results indicate that treatment effect does not depend on the level of avoidance, or obsessive-compulsiveness personality disorders further examine the influence of personality disorders on the effectiveness of CBT or psychodynamic therapy in the treatment of depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Mediators of the association between narcissism and compulsive buying: the roles of materialism and impulse control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Paul

    2007-12-01

    Building upon past research about the guiding values and self-regulation difficulties of people with narcissistic personalities, this study tested a model of the association between narcissism and compulsive consumption. In data obtained from a sample of undergraduate consumers (N=238) with varying degrees of spending problems, positive associations emerged between narcissism, materialism, and compulsive buying. Impulse control was negatively correlated with each of these variables. Mediation tests revealed that both impulse control and materialism accounted for significant portions of the shared variance between narcissism and compulsive consumption. These findings highlight the importance of both personal values and impulse control as correlates of addictive buying. They also add to growing evidence that people who are relatively narcissistic are poor self-regulators who may be at risk of developing a variety of addictive behaviors.

  2. Impact of repeated intravenous cocaine administration on incentive motivation depends on mode of drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Kimberly H; Maidment, Nigel T; Ostlund, Sean B

    2014-11-01

    The incentive sensitization theory of addiction posits that repeated exposure to drugs of abuse, like cocaine, can lead to long-term adaptations in the neural circuits that support motivated behavior, providing an account of pathological drug-seeking behavior. Although pre-clinical findings provide strong support for this theory, much remains unknown about the conditions that support incentive sensitization. The current study examined whether the mode of cocaine administration is an important factor governing that drug's long-term impact on behavior. Separate groups of rats were allowed either to self-administer intravenous cocaine or were given an equivalent number and distribution of unsignaled cocaine or saline infusions. During the subsequent test of incentive motivation (Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer), we found that rats with a history of cocaine self-administration showed strong cue-evoked food seeking, in contrast to rats given unsignaled cocaine or saline. This finding indicates that the manner in which cocaine is administered can determine its lasting behavioral effects, suggesting that subjective experiences during drug use play a critical role in the addiction process. Our findings may therefore have important implications for the study and treatment of compulsive drug seeking. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Thymus function in drug-induced lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, R L; Salomon, D R; Guerrero, R S

    2001-01-01

    Autoimmunity develops when a lupus-inducing drug is introduced into the thymus of normal mice, but the relevance of this model to the human disorder is unclear in part because it is widely assumed that the thymus is non-functional in the adult. We compared thymus function in 10 patients with symptomatic procainamide-induced lupus to that in 13 asymptomatic patients who only developed drug-induced autoantibodies. T cell output from the thymus was quantified using a competitive polymerase chain reaction that detects T cell receptor DNA excision circles in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Despite the advanced age of the patient population under study, newly generated T cells were detected in all subjects. Although there was no overall quantitative difference between the symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, we found a positive correlation between the level of T cell receptor excision circles in peripheral lymphocytes and serum IgG anti-chromatin antibody activity in patients with drug-induced lupus. The association between autoantibodies and nascent peripheral T cells supports the requirement for T cells in autoantibody production. Our observations are consistent with findings in mice in which autoreactive T cells derived from drug-induced abnormalities in T cell development in the thymus.

  4. High-risk sexual behavior among drug-using men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, S N; Sterk-Elifson, C; Aral, S O

    1994-01-01

    Drug-using men are at high risk for acquisition and transmission of STD, presumably due to the risky behaviors practiced in environments of drug use. To study behaviors associated with STD transmission among drug-using men. Drug outreach workers distributed vouchers to self-identified drug-using men in urban Atlanta. Vouchers could be redeemed for cash at a storefront clinic where subjects provided urine for a urethritis screening test (leukocyte esterase test) and a drug screen, and were interviewed. Of 382 voucher recipients, 252 (66%) came to the clinic. Subjects were predominantly black (92%), homeless (70%), and aged 20 to 40 (88%). All used illicit drugs; none were currently receiving drug abuse treatment. Urine drug screen confirmed recent cocaine use in 63%, and recent opiate use in 4%. Three-fourths reported a history of STD, mostly gonorrhea. In the preceding 3 months, 14% had not had sex, 80% had sex exclusively with women, 4% had sex with both men and women, and 2% had sex exclusively with men. Of the heterosexually active men, 29% had 5 or more recent partners. Compared to other heterosexually active men, these men were more likely to always use alcohol or crack before having sex (prevalence ratio [PR] = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.3-2.5) and to drink alcohol every day (PR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.2-3.3). Daily crack use was associated with choosing partners at elevated STD risk; daily alcohol use with having more partners. Positive drug screen for cocaine was associated with self-reported crack use. Urethritis, detected in 16%, was not correlated with behavior. A substantial number of drug-using men practice high-risk sexual behavior and should be targeted for intervention. Monetary and other incentives should be considered for recruitment. Further study is needed to clarify the relationship between sexual behavior, cocaine use, and STD.

  5. Altered brain activity during reward anticipation in pathological gambling and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Seok Choi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pathological gambling (PG and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD are conceptualized as a behavioral addiction, with a dependency on repetitive gambling behavior and rewarding effects following compulsive behavior, respectively. However, no neuroimaging studies to date have examined reward circuitry during the anticipation phase of reward in PG compared with in OCD while considering repetitive gambling and compulsion as addictive behaviors. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To elucidate the neural activities specific to the anticipation phase of reward, we performed event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in young adults with PG and compared them with those in patients with OCD and healthy controls. Fifteen male patients with PG, 13 patients with OCD, and 15 healthy controls, group-matched for age, gender, and IQ, participated in a monetary incentive delay task during fMRI scanning. Neural activation in the ventromedial caudate nucleus during anticipation of both gain and loss decreased in patients with PG compared with that in patients with OCD and healthy controls. Additionally, reduced activation in the anterior insula during anticipation of loss was observed in patients with PG compared with that in patients with OCD which was intermediate between that in OCD and healthy controls (healthy controls < PG < OCD, and a significant positive correlation between activity in the anterior insula and South Oaks Gambling Screen score was found in patients with PG. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased neural activity in the ventromedial caudate nucleus during anticipation may be a specific neurobiological feature for the pathophysiology of PG, distinguishing it from OCD and healthy controls. Correlation of anterior insular activity during loss anticipation with PG symptoms suggests that patients with PG fit the features of OCD associated with harm avoidance as PG symptoms deteriorate. Our findings have identified functional disparities and

  6. [Pharmacology of a 1H-1, 2, 4-triazolyl benzophenone derivative (450191-S), a new sleep-inducer (III). Behavioral study on interactions of 450191-S and other drugs in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibii, N; Horiuchi, M; Yamamoto, K

    1984-08-01

    Interactions between 450191-S and other representative drugs which might be clinically used with 450191-S were behaviorally investigated in mice, and compared with the cases of nitrazepam, estazolam and triazolam. The potencies of 450191-S and nitrazepam in preventing pentetrazol convulsions were markedly decreased by aminopyrine, whereas that of estazolam was remarkably increased by phenytoin. Administration of nitrazepam with other drugs, except aminopyrine, or of estazolam together with haloperidol exhibited an anticonvulsive pattern different from the case of dosing with either drug alone. Only the effect of triazolam was not influenced by any drugs used. The potency of haloperidol against apomorphine-induced climbing behavior was significantly reduced by nitrazepam, and the pattern of the haloperidol effect was changed by treatment together with 450191-S or estazolam. However, triazolam had no influence on the effect of haloperidol. The antagonistic activity of imipramine to reserpine-induced hypothermia was slightly decreased by 450191-S, estazolam and triazolam, but little affected by nitrazepam. In the protection from maximal electroshock convulsions (MEC), the potency of phenytoin was significantly decreased by 450191-S and triazolam. Moreover, the anti-MES pattern of phenytoin was altered by nitrazepam. Estazolam exerted no significant influence on the effect of phenytoin. Analgesic activities of morphine and/or aminopyrine were potentiated by pretreatment with sleep-inducers, but not 450191-S. Thus, judging from the potency and stability of the anti-pentetrazol effect, 450191-S seems to be inferior to triazolam, but superior to nitrazepam and estazolam. Also, 450191-S may be differentiated from other sleep-inducers by the fact that only 450191-S did not potentiate the analgesic activities of morphine and aminopyrine.

  7. Cocaine Self-Administration Experience Induces Pathological Phasic Accumbens Dopamine Signals and Abnormal Incentive Behaviors in Drug-Abstinent Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddoris, Michael P; Wang, Xuefei; Sugam, Jonathan A; Carelli, Regina M

    2016-01-06

    Chronic exposure to drugs of abuse is linked to long-lasting alterations in the function of limbic system structures, including the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Although cocaine acts via dopaminergic mechanisms within the NAc, less is known about whether phasic dopamine (DA) signaling in the NAc is altered in animals with cocaine self-administration experience or if these animals learn and interact normally with stimuli in their environment. Here, separate groups of rats self-administered either intravenous cocaine or water to a receptacle (controls), followed by 30 d of enforced abstinence. Next, all rats learned an appetitive Pavlovian discrimination and voltammetric recordings of real-time DA release were taken in either the NAc core or shell of cocaine and control subjects. Cocaine experience differentially impaired DA signaling in the core and shell relative to controls. Although phasic DA signals in the shell were essentially abolished for all stimuli, in the core, DA did not distinguish between cues and was abnormally biased toward reward delivery. Further, cocaine rats were unable to learn higher-order associations and even altered simple conditioned approach behaviors, displaying enhanced preoccupation with cue-associated stimuli (sign-tracking; ST) but diminished time at the food cup awaiting reward delivery (goal-tracking). Critically, whereas control DA signaling correlated with ST behaviors, cocaine experience abolished this relationship. These findings show that cocaine has persistent, differential, and pathological effects on both DA signaling and DA-dependent behaviors and suggest that psychostimulant experience may remodel the very circuits that bias organisms toward repeated relapse. Relapsing to drug abuse despite periods of abstinence and sincere attempts to quit is one of the most pernicious facets of addiction. Unfortunately, little is known about how the dopamine (DA) system functions after periods of drug abstinence, particularly its role in

  8. Cocaine Self-Administration Experience Induces Pathological Phasic Accumbens Dopamine Signals and Abnormal Incentive Behaviors in Drug-Abstinent Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefei; Sugam, Jonathan A.; Carelli, Regina M.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to drugs of abuse is linked to long-lasting alterations in the function of limbic system structures, including the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Although cocaine acts via dopaminergic mechanisms within the NAc, less is known about whether phasic dopamine (DA) signaling in the NAc is altered in animals with cocaine self-administration experience or if these animals learn and interact normally with stimuli in their environment. Here, separate groups of rats self-administered either intravenous cocaine or water to a receptacle (controls), followed by 30 d of enforced abstinence. Next, all rats learned an appetitive Pavlovian discrimination and voltammetric recordings of real-time DA release were taken in either the NAc core or shell of cocaine and control subjects. Cocaine experience differentially impaired DA signaling in the core and shell relative to controls. Although phasic DA signals in the shell were essentially abolished for all stimuli, in the core, DA did not distinguish between cues and was abnormally biased toward reward delivery. Further, cocaine rats were unable to learn higher-order associations and even altered simple conditioned approach behaviors, displaying enhanced preoccupation with cue-associated stimuli (sign-tracking; ST) but diminished time at the food cup awaiting reward delivery (goal-tracking). Critically, whereas control DA signaling correlated with ST behaviors, cocaine experience abolished this relationship. These findings show that cocaine has persistent, differential, and pathological effects on both DA signaling and DA-dependent behaviors and suggest that psychostimulant experience may remodel the very circuits that bias organisms toward repeated relapse. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Relapsing to drug abuse despite periods of abstinence and sincere attempts to quit is one of the most pernicious facets of addiction. Unfortunately, little is known about how the dopamine (DA) system functions after periods of drug abstinence

  9. Behavioral addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, T W; Clark, L

    2015-02-01

    Behavioral addictions are slowly becoming recognized as a valid category of psychiatric disorder as shown by the recent allocation of pathological gambling to this category in DSM-5. However, several other types of psychiatric disorder proposed to be examples of behavioral addictions have yet to be accorded this formal acknowledgment and are dispersed across other sections of the DSM-5. This brief review marks this important point in the evolution of this concept and looks to future investigation of behavioral addictions with the theoretical frameworks currently being used successfully to investigate substance addiction and obsessive-compulsive disorder, in a potentially new spectrum of impulsive-compulsive disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Risk-assessment and risk-taking behavior predict potassium- and amphetamine-induced dopamine response in the dorsal striatum of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara ePalm

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Certain personality types and behavioral traits display high correlations to drug use and an increased level of dopamine in the reward system is a common denominator of all drugs of abuse. Dopamine response to drugs has been suggested to correlate with some of these personality types and to be a key factor influencing the predisposition to addiction. This study investigated if behavioral traits can be related to potassium- and amphetamine-induced dopamine response in the dorsal striatum, an area hypothesized to be involved in the shift from drug use to addiction. The open field and multivariate concentric square field™ tests were used to assess individual behavior in male Wistar rats. Chronoamperometric recordings were then made to study the potassium- and amphetamine-induced dopamine response in vivo. A classification based on risk-taking behavior in the open field was used for further comparisons. Risk-taking behavior was correlated between the behavioral tests and high risk takers displayed a more pronounced response to the dopamine uptake blocking effects of amphetamine. Behavioral parameters from both tests could also predict potassium- and amphetamine-induced dopamine responses showing a correlation between neurochemistry and behavior in risk-assessment and risk-taking parameters. In conclusion, the high risk-taking rats showed a more pronounced reduction of dopamine uptake in the dorsal striatum after amphetamine indicating that this area may contribute to the sensitivity of these animals to psychostimulants and proneness to addiction. Further, inherent dopamine activity was related to risk-assessment behavior, which may be of importance for decision-making and inhibitory control, key components in addiction.

  11. From the ventral to the dorsal striatum: devolving views of their roles in drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everitt, Barry J; Robbins, Trevor W

    2013-11-01

    We revisit our hypothesis that drug addiction can be viewed as the endpoint of a series of transitions from initial voluntarily drug use to habitual, and ultimately compulsive drug use. We especially focus on the transitions in striatal control over drug seeking behaviour that underlie these transitions since functional heterogeneity of the striatum was a key area of Ann Kelley's research interests and one in which she made enormous contributions. We also discuss the hypothesis in light of recent data that the emergence of a compulsive drug seeking habit both reflects a shift to dorsal striatal control over behaviour and impaired prefontal cortical inhibitory control mechanisms. We further discuss aspects of the vulnerability to compulsive drug use and in particular the impact of impulsivity. In writing this review we acknowledge the untimely death of an outstanding scientist and a dear personal friend. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Resveratrol ameliorates depressive-like behavior in repeated corticosterone-induced depression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed Hamid; Madhana, Rajaram Mohanrao; K V, Athira; Kasala, Eshvendar Reddy; Bodduluru, Lakshmi Narendra; Pitta, Sathish; Mahareddy, Jalandhar Reddy; Lahkar, Mangala

    2015-09-01

    A mouse model of depression has been recently developed by exogenous corticosterone (CORT) administration, which has shown to mimic HPA-axis induced depression-like state in animals. The present study aimed to examine the antidepressant-like effect and the possible mechanisms of resveratrol, a naturally occurring polyphenol of phytoalexin family, on depressive-like behavior induced by repeated corticosterone injections in mice. Mice were injected subcutaneously (s.c.) with 40mg/kg corticosterone (CORT) chronically for 21days. Resveratrol and fluoxetine were administered 30min prior to the CORT injection. After 21-days treatment with respective drugs, behavioral and biochemical parameters were estimated. Since brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in antidepressant activity of many drugs, we also evaluated the effect of resveratrol on BDNF in the hippocampus. Three weeks of CORT injections in mice resulted in depressive-like behavior, as indicated by the significant decrease in sucrose consumption and increase in immobility time in the forced swim test and tail suspension test. Further, there was a significant increase in serum corticosterone level and a significant decrease in hippocampus BDNF level in CORT-treated mice. Treatment of mice with resveratrol significantly ameliorated all the behavioral and biochemical changes induced by corticosterone. These results suggest that resveratrol produces an antidepressant-like effect in CORT-induced depression in mice, which is possibly mediated by rectifying the stress-based hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction paradigm and upregulation of hippocampal BDNF levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Latent class analysis of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale symptoms in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delucchi, Kevin L; Katerberg, Hilga; Stewart, S Evelyn; Denys, Damiaan A J P; Lochner, Christine; Stack, Denise E; den Boer, Johan A; van Balkom, Anton J L M; Jenike, Michael A; Stein, Dan J; Cath, Danielle C; Mathews, Carol A

    2011-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is phenomenologically heterogeneous, and findings of underlying structure classification based on symptom grouping have been ambiguous to date. Variable-centered approaches, primarily factor analysis, have been used to identify homogeneous groups of symptoms; but person-centered latent methods have seen little use. This study was designed to uncover sets of homogeneous groupings within 1611 individuals with OCD based on symptoms. Latent class analysis models using 61 obsessive-compulsive symptoms collected from the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale were fit. Relationships between latent class membership and treatment response, sex, symptom severity, and comorbid tic disorders were tested for relationship to class membership. Latent class analysis models of best fit yielded 3 classes. Classes differed only in frequency of symptom endorsement. Classes with higher symptom endorsement were associated with earlier age of onset, being male, higher Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale symptom severity scores, and comorbid tic disorders. There were no differences in treatment response between classes. These results provide support for the validity of a single underlying latent OCD construct, in addition to the distinct symptom factors identified previously via factor analyses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Direct and retrospective assessment of factors contributing to compulsive buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltenberger, Raymond G; Redlin, Jennifer; Crosby, Ross; Stickney, Marcella; Mitchell, Jim; Wonderlich, Stephen; Faber, Ronald; Smyth, Joshua

    2003-03-01

    Compulsive buying is a disorder that has begun to receive attention from researchers in recent years. The results of a handful of studies suggest that compulsive buying occurs in response to negative emotions and results in a decrease in the intensity of the negative emotions. In this investigation, we used interview and self-monitoring methods to evaluate the antecedents and consequences of compulsive buying in a sample of women who met criteria for compulsive buying on the compulsive buying scale (J. Consumer Res. 19 (1992) 459). As a group, the participants reported negative emotions as the most common antecedents to compulsive buying, and euphoria or relief from the negative emotions as the most common consequence of compulsive buying. These findings were consistent across the interview and self-monitoring assessment methods. The implications for assessment and treatment are discussed.

  15. Compulsive Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... compulsive habit when it is done for the wrong reasons. Some people start exercising with weight loss as their main ... developing normally. This is especially true if the person also has an eating disorder. Girls who overexercise and restrict their eating ...

  16. The validity and psychometric properties of the Japanese version of the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Roseline Kim Fong; Inoue, Akiomi; Kawakami, Norito

    2017-05-30

    Prolonged Internet use is often associated with reduced social involvement and comorbid psychopathologies, including depression, anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Asian countries where Internet access is widely available have high reported levels of Internet addiction. As Internet use has changed drastically since concerns about Internet addiction were first raised, the results of recent studies may be inaccurate because the scales they employed to measure Internet addiction were formulated for different Internet usage from the present. It is thus necessary to develop more-up-to-date scales to assess problematic private use of the Internet. The Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS) was translated into Japanese. An online sample whose ages and sexes reflected that of the national population of Internet users was recruited to test the scale's reliability and validity. Correlations between the scale and Internet-related parameters (such as time spent online, motivation for going online, and applications used) and psychosocial factors (such as psychological distress symptoms and loneliness) were examined. Psychometric properties were examined by the split-half method using both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Model fits were compared across gender. CIUS was found to have a high reliability and good concurrent, correlation and construct validity. Both exploratory and confirmatory factors revealed that the one-factor solution yielded a satisfactory result across gender. However, the three-factor structural model in which compulsiveness was gauged by "excessive absorption", "difficulty in setting priorities", and "mood regulation" gave the best fit of the model for the general population as well as across gender. Compulsive Internet behavior in Japan can be assessed in terms of absorption, priorities, and mood. CIUS is a valid scale for screening compulsive Internet behavior in the general Japanese

  17. Behavioral, Pharmacological, and Immunological Abnormalities after Streptococcal Exposure: A Novel Rat Model of Sydenham Chorea and Related Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimberg, Lior; Benhar, Itai; Mascaro-Blanco, Adita; Alvarez, Kathy; Lotan, Dafna; Winter, Christine; Klein, Julia; Moses, Allon E; Somnier, Finn E; Leckman, James F; Swedo, Susan E; Cunningham, Madeleine W; Joel, Daphna

    2012-01-01

    Group A streptococcal (GAS) infections and autoimmunity are associated with the onset of a spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders in children, with the prototypical disorder being Sydenham chorea (SC). Our aim was to develop an animal model that resembled the behavioral, pharmacological, and immunological abnormalities of SC and other streptococcal-related neuropsychiatric disorders. Male Lewis rats exposed to GAS antigen exhibited motor symptoms (impaired food manipulation and beam walking) and compulsive behavior (increased induced-grooming). These symptoms were alleviated by the D2 blocker haloperidol and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine, respectively, drugs that are used to treat motor symptoms and compulsions in streptococcal-related neuropsychiatric disorders. Streptococcal exposure resulted in antibody deposition in the striatum, thalamus, and frontal cortex, and concomitant alterations in dopamine and glutamate levels in cortex and basal ganglia, consistent with the known pathophysiology of SC and related neuropsychiatric disorders. Autoantibodies (IgG) of GAS rats reacted with tubulin and caused elevated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II signaling in SK-N-SH neuronal cells, as previously found with sera from SC and related neuropsychiatric disorders. Our new animal model translates directly to human disease and led us to discover autoantibodies targeted against dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the rat model as well as in SC and other streptococcal-related neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:22534626

  18. D-cycloserine augmentation in behavioral therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia J

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Jing Xia,1 Yanqiu Du,2 Jiyang Han,1 Guo Liu,1 Xumei Wang11Department of Psychiatry, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Heping District Shenyang, Liaoning, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Medicine, Shenyang Ninth People’s Hospital, Tiexi District, Shenyang, Liaoning, People’s Republic of ChinaObjective: To evaluate the overall effect of D-cycloserine (DCS augmentation on exposure and response prevention (ERP therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD.Methods: Clinical studies on the effect of DCS augmentation on ERP therapy for OCD compared to placebo were included for meta analysis. The primary outcome was the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS. Meta-analyses were performed with a random-effect model or a fixed-effect model using the Cochrane Review Manager (RevMan, version 5.2 to calculate the odds ratio and the mean difference, with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals.Results: A total of six studies was included in the current meta-analyses, and their data were extracted. Among them, four were for analyses of DCS and Y-BOCS at midtreatment, six for analysis at posttreatment, and four at 3-month follow-up. Besides, three of the six eligible studies were included in the meta-analysis of the DCS and Clinical Global Impression – Severity Scale at posttreatment, and three in the meta-analysis of DCS and proportions of treatment responders and of subjects attaining clinical remission status criteria at posttreatment. Our meta-analyses do not reveal a significant effect of DCS augmentation in ERP therapy for OCD patients, except when measured at midtreatment. Compared to the placebo group, DCS augmentation did show a trend toward significantly lower/decreased Y-BOCS; when measured at posttreatment and in the subpopulation of DCS taken before some of the ERP sessions, DCS augmentation showed a trend toward significantly lower/decreased Y-BOCS.Conclusion: Our result suggested that with the careful

  19. Pharmacogenetics of drug-induced arrhythmias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bruin, Marie L; van Puijenbroek, Eugene P; Bracke, Madelon

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: The bottleneck in pharmacogenetic research on rare adverse drug reactions (ADR) is retrieval of patients. Spontaneous reports of ADRs may form a useful source of patients. We investigated the feasibility of a pharmacogenetic study, in which cases were selected from the database...... of a spontaneous reporting system for ADRs, using drug-induced arrhythmias as an example. METHODS: Reports of drug-induced arrhythmias to proarrhythmic drugs were selected from the database of the Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre (1996-2003). Information on the patient's general practitioner (GP) was obtained...... be included in the study, giving an overall participation rate of 9% (4/45). The main reason for GPs not being willing to participate was lack of time. Variants were identified in KCNH2, SCN5A and KCNE1. CONCLUSIONS: Spontaneous reporting systems for ADRs may be used for pharmacogenetic research. The methods...

  20. Tryptophan depletion affects compulsive behaviour in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merchán, A; Navarro, S V; Klein, A B

    2017-01-01

    investigated whether 5-HT manipulation, through a tryptophan (TRP) depletion by diet in Wistar and Lister Hooded rats, modulates compulsive drinking in schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) and locomotor activity in the open-field test. The levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin and its metabolite were......-depleted HD Wistar rats, while the LD Wistar and the Lister Hooded rats did not exhibit differences in SIP. In contrast, the TRP-depleted Lister Hooded rats increased locomotor activity compared to the non-depleted rats, while no differences were found in the Wistar rats. Serotonin 2A receptor binding...

  1. Recent Advances in Drug-Induced Angioedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Inomata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Angioedema is the end result of deep dermal, subcutaneous and/or mucosal swelling, and is potentially a life- threatening condition in cases where the pharynx or larynx is involved. Drug-induced angioedema has been reported to occur in response to a wide range of drugs and vaccines. Drug-induced angioedema, like other cutaneous drug reactions, has been reported to be most frequently elicited by beta-lactam antibiotics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, although reliable data from epidemiologic studies are scarce. Recent reports suggested an increasing role of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs in the causation of life- threatening angioedema. ACEI-related angioedema is never accompanied by urticaria and occurs via a kinin- dependent mechanism. ACEI-related angioedema not only can start years after beginning the treatment, but it can then recur irregularly while under that treatment. Furthermore, allergy tests are unreliable for the diagnosis of ACEI-related angioedema, and so the relationship between angioedema and ACEIs is often missed and consequently quite underestimated. Accordingly, better understanding of the kinin-dependent mechanism, which is particular to angioedema, is necessary for the appropriate management of drug-induced angioedema.

  2. The treatment of compulsive gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, D

    1980-02-01

    The techniques used for treating compulsive gamblers are reviewed. They include psychoanalytic psychotherapy, aversion therapy, marital therapy, and self-help groups (Gamblers Anonymous). The problems especially important in treating compulsive gamblers include lack of motivation for change and the role of the significant others in maintaining the gambler as the scapegoat of the family. Although therapists report good success in treating gamblers, the sporadic nature of gambling probably inflates "success' rates.

  3. Heterogeneity within compulsive buyers: a Q-sort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, Kate; Kellett, Stephen; Davies, Jason

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated how compulsive buyers make sense of their excessive shopping behaviour to explore possible sources of heterogeneity between compulsive buyers. Twenty female participants met 'caseness' for compulsive buying (CB) on the CB Scale (CBS), prior to completing a Q-sort specifically related to their experiences of shopping. Participants provided details of occupation, income, and debt levels and completed two psychometric scales: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Shopping Version (YBOCS-SV). Principle component analysis (PCA) identified two groups within the compulsive buyers (labelled positive reinforcement and emotional distress) that explained 44% of the study variance. Ten women defined the positive reinforcement factor and tended to identify with pleasurable aspects of buying. Six women characterized the emotional distress factor and endorsed varied financial, emotional, and interpersonal difficulties associated with their CB. The emotional distress group carried significantly greater current debt levels and had significantly more severe CB. The study illustrates that compulsive buyers can relate to their 'symptoms' in dissimilar ways. The clinical implications of such heterogeneity are discussed, methodological shortcomings identified, and areas for future research indicated. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Off the beaten path: drug addiction and the pontine laterodorsal tegmentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmeier, Kristi A

    2013-01-01

    Drug addiction is a multileveled behavior controlled by interactions among many diverse neuronal groups involving several neurotransmitter systems. The involvement of brainstem-sourced, cholinergic neurotransmission in the development of addiction and in the persistent physiological processes that drive this maladaptive behavior has not been widely investigated. The major cholinergic input to neurons in the midbrain which are instrumental in assessment of reward and assignment of salience to stimuli, including drugs of abuse, sources from acetylcholine- (ACh-) containing pontine neurons of the laterodorsal tegmentum (LDT). Excitatory LDT input, likely cholinergic, is critical in allowing behaviorally relevant neuronal firing patterns within midbrain reward circuitry. Via this control, the LDT is positioned to be importantly involved in development of compulsive, addictive patterns of behavior. The goal of this review is to present the anatomical, physiological, and behavioral evidence suggesting a role of the LDT in the neurobiology underlying addiction to drugs of abuse. Although focus is directed on the evidence supporting a vital participation of the cholinergic neurons of the LDT, data indicating a contribution of noncholinergic LDT neurons to processes underlying addiction are also reviewed. While sparse, available information of actions of drugs of abuse on LDT cells and the output of these neurons as well as their influence on addiction-related behavior are also presented. Taken together, data from studies presented in this review strongly support the position that the LDT is a major player in the neurobiology of drug addiction. Accordingly, the LDT may serve as a future treatment target for efficacious pharmaceutical combat of drug addiction.

  5. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder co-occurring with obsessive-compulsive disorder: Conceptual and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcevic, Vladan; Berle, David; Brakoulias, Vlasios; Sammut, Peter; Moses, Karen; Milicevic, Denise; Hannan, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    There are ongoing uncertainties in the relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). This study aimed to test the proposition that OCPD may be a marker of severity of OCD by comparing groups of OCD individuals with and without OCPD on a number of variables. A total of 148 adults with a principal diagnosis of OCD were administered the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, Sheehan Disability Scale, Vancouver Obsessional Compulsive Inventory and Symptom Checklist 90-Revised. Participants with a DSM-IV diagnosis of OCPD were compared with those without OCPD. Some 70 (47.3%) participants were diagnosed with OCPD. The groups of participants with and without OCPD did not differ significantly with respect to any of the demographic variables, clinician-rated severity of OCD, levels of disability and mean age of onset of OCD. All self-rated OCD symptom dimensions except for contamination and checking were significantly more prominent in participants with OCPD, as were all self-rated dimensions of psychopathology. Participants with OCPD had significantly more frequent hoarding compulsions and obsessions involving a need to collect and keep objects. Of Axis I disorders, only panic disorder was significantly more frequent in participants with OCPD than in those without OCPD. A high frequency of OCPD among individuals with OCD suggests a strong, although not necessarily a unique, relationship between the two conditions. This finding may also be a consequence of the blurring of the boundary between OCD and OCPD by postulating that hoarding and hoarding-like behaviours characterise both disorders. Results of this study do not support the notion that OCD with OCPD is a marker of clinician-rated severity of OCD. However, individuals with OCPD had more prominent OCD symptoms, they were more distressed and exhibited various other psychopathological phenomena more intensely

  6. Behavioral and pharmacological characteristics of bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shota Yamamoto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bortezomib, an effective anticancer drug for multiple myeloma, often causes peripheral neuropathy which is mainly characterized by numbness and painful paresthesia. Nevertheless, there is no effective strategy to escape or treat bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy (BIPN, because we have understood few mechanism of this side effect. In this study, we evaluated behavioral and pathological characteristics of BIPN, and investigated pharmacological efficacy of various analgesic drugs and adjuvants on mechanical allodynia induced by bortezomib treatment in rats. The repeated administration of bortezomib induced mechanical and cold allodynia. There was axonal degeneration of sciatic nerve behind these neuropathic symptoms. Furthermore, the exposure to bortezomib shortened neurite length in PC12 cells. Finally, the result of evaluation of anti-allodynic potency, oral administration of tramadol (10 mg/kg, pregabalin (3 mg/kg, duloxetine (30 mg/kg or mexiletine (100 mg/kg, but not amitriptyline or diclofenac, transiently relieved the mechanical allodynia induced by bortezomib. These results suggest that axonal degeneration of the sciatic nerve is involved in BIPN and that some analgesic drugs and adjuvants are effective in the relief of painful neuropathy.

  7. Characteristics of Adolescents at Risk for Compulsive Overeating on a Brief Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Albert R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Surveyed addictive behavior, finding 26% of male and 57% of female high school students scored above cutoff point on the Overeaters Anonymous scale for assessing compulsive overeating. At-risk students perceived their life quality and relationship with person closest to them as significantly less positive, indicated overeating's defensive…

  8. Using Motivational Interviewing to Enhance Treatment Outcome in People with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Helen Blair; Zuckoff, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a leading cause of health-related disability. There are two evidence-based treatments for OCD, pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy consisting of exposure and response prevention (EX/RP). Although effective, outcome from both treatments is often limited by patient lack of adherence to the…

  9. Treatment of internet addiction in patient with panic disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Veruska; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; King, Anna Lucia Spear

    2015-01-01

    Problematic Internet use is a worldwide social issue and it can be found in any age, social, educational, or economic range. In some countries like China and South Korea internet addiction (IA) is considered a public health condition and this governments support research, education and treatment. Internet addiction has been associated with others psychiatric disorders. Panic disorder (PD) and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) are anxiety disorders that involve a lot of damages in patient's life. We report a treatment of a patient with Panic Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and internet addition involving pharmacotherapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). The Cognitive Behavioral Therapy was conducted 1 time per week during 10 weeks and results suggest that the treatment was an effective treatment for the anxiety and for the internet addiction.

  10. The role of serotonin in drug use and addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, C.P.; Homberg, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    The use of psychoactive drugs is a wide spread behaviour in human societies. The systematic use of a drug requires the establishment of different drug use-associated behaviours which need to be learned and controlled. However, controlled drug use may develop into compulsive drug use and addiction, a

  11. Open-label pilot study of memantine in the treatment of compulsive buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Mooney, Marc; O'Brien, Robert; Kim, Suck Won

    2012-05-01

    Although compulsive buying (CB) is relatively common, pharmacotherapy research for CB is limited. Memantine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, appears to reduce glutamate excitability and improve impulsive behaviors, suggesting it may help individuals with CB. Nine patients (8 females) with CB were enrolled in a 10-week open-label treatment study of memantine (dose ranging from 10 to 30 mg/d). Participants were enrolled from December 2008 until May 2010. The primary outcome measure was change from baseline to study endpoint on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Shopping Version (Y-BOCS-SV). Of the 9 participants, 8 (88.9%) completed the 10-week study. Y-BOCS-SV scores decreased from a mean of 22.0 ± 1.3 at baseline to 11.0 ± 5.3 at endpoint (P impulsive buying and improvements on cognitive tasks of impulsivity. In addition, the medication was well-tolerated. These findings suggest that pharmacologic manipulation of the glutamate system may target the impulsive behavior underlying CB. Placebo-controlled, double-blind studies are warranted in order to confirm these preliminary findings in a controlled design.

  12. Relationship between obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaferia, G; Bianchi, I; Bianchi, M L; Cavedini, P; Erzegovesi, S; Bellodi, L

    1997-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in a group of 277 patients (88 with obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD], 58 with major depressive disorder [MDD], and 131 with panic disorder [Panic]) to test the specificity of the relationship between OCPD and OCD. OCPD is statistically significantly more frequent in patients with OCD than in those with Panic and MDD. The distribution of single criteria of OCPD in the three groups does not differ significantly. Discriminant analysis selects a list of items that provide a correct classification rate of 66% based on OCPD criteria selected by canonical function. OCD patients with and without OCPD do not differ in sex, age of onset, duration of illness, positive family history for Tics disorder/Tourette syndrome (TS), or morbidity risk for OCD.

  13. The Relationship of DSM-IV Pathological Gambling to Compulsive Buying and other Possible Spectrum Disorders: Results from the Iowa PG Family Study

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Donald W.; Coryell, William; Crowe, Raymond; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the possible relationship between pathological gambling (PG) and potential spectrum disorders including the DSM-IV impulse control disorders (intermittent explosive disorder, kleptomania, pyromania, trichotillomania) and several non-DSM disorders (compulsive buying disorder, compulsive sexual behavior, Internet addiction). PG probands, controls, and their first-degree relatives were assessed with instruments of known reliability. Detailed family history information was...

  14. [Pathological buying. A review of the current knowledge regarding this condition of behavioral excess].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, A; de Zwaan, M

    2010-04-01

    Compulsive buying is characterized by frequent excessive purchasing of items that are primarily not needed or used. The compulsive buying behavior results in mental, social, financial and often legal problems. Although compulsive buying affects a significant percentage of the general population and has received increasing attention in research, it has largely been ignored in clinical practice. Compulsive buying disorder is currently conceptualized as an"impulse control disorder not otherwise specified". However, the appropriate classification continues to be debated. Compulsive buying is associated with significant psychiatric co-morbidity, especially with depressive, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, substance use, personality, and other impulse control disorders. Small controlled trials failed to confirm the efficacy of antidepressants in the treatment of compulsive buying disorder, whereas early evidence suggests that cognitive behavioral therapy is helpful in alleviating compulsive buying symptoms. Further research is needed to establish a better understanding of etiology, classification, and treatment strategies.

  15. Concomitant stress potentiates the preference for, and consumption of, ethanol induced by chronic pre-exposure to ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    G. Morais-Silva; J. Fernandes-Santos; D. Moreira-Silva; M.T. Marin

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol abuse is linked to several acute and chronic injuries that can lead to health problems. Ethanol addiction is one of the most severe diseases linked to the abuse of this drug. Symptoms of ethanol addiction include compulsive substance intake and withdrawal syndrome. Stress exposure has an important role in addictive behavior for many drugs of abuse (including ethanol), but the consequences of stress and ethanol in the organism when these factors are concomitant results in a complex int...

  16. Psychometric properties of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory - Revised (OCI-R Propriedades psicométricas da versão em português do Brasil da Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory - Revised (OCI-R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda P. Souza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory - Revised. METHOD: The Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory - Revised was administered to a total of 260 participants: a clinical sample of 130 patients with anxiety disorders (64 with a diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder patients, 33 diagnosed with social phobia, and 33 with panic disorder and a sample of 130 non-clinical subjects. RESULTS: The findings indicate that the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory - Revised is a valid measure for identifying and assessing the severity of the six symptom subtypes in obsessive-compulsive disorder. The original factor structure of the instrument was replicated in an exploratory factor analysis. Test-retest reliability was examined using data from 64 obsessive-compulsive disorder patients who completed the inventory on two different occasions. In each sample, the overall and subscale scores showed moderate to good internal consistency, good convergent and divergent validity, and sensitivity to changes resulting from cognitive-behavioral group therapy. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory - Revised retains the psychometric properties of its original version and the Spanish, German and Icelandic versions.OBJETIVO: O presente estudo foi delineado para avaliar as propriedades psicométricas da versão em português do Brasil do Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory - Revised. MÉTODO: O Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory - Revised foi aplicado em um total de 260 indivíduos: em uma amostra clínica de 130 pacientes (64 pacientes com transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo, 33 pacientes com fobia social e 33 pacientes com transtorno do pânico mais uma amostra não clínica de 130 sujeitos. RESULTADOS: Os resultados indicam que o Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory - Revised é uma medida válida para identificar

  17. Psychometric properties of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory: Revised (OCI-R Propriedades psicométricas da versão em português do Brasil da Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory: Revised (OCI-R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda P. Souza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory - Revised. METHOD: The Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory - Revised was administered toa total of 260 participants: a clinical sample of 130 patients with anxiety disorders (64 with a diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder patients, 33 diagnosed with social phobia, and 33 with panic disorder and a sample of 130 non-clinical subjects. RESULTS: The findings indicate that the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory - Revised is a valid measure for identifying and assessing the severity of the six symptom subtypes in obsessive-compulsive disorder.The original factor structure of the instrument was replicated in an exploratory factor analysis. Test-retest reliability was examined using data from 64 obsessive-compulsive disorder patients who completed the inventory on two different occasions. In each sample, the overall and subscale scores showed moderate to good internal consistency, good convergent and divergent validity, and sensitivity to changes resulting from cognitive-behavioral group therapy changes. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory - Revised retains the psychometric properties of its original version and the Spanish, German and Iceland versions.OBJETIVO: O presente estudo foi delineado para avaliar as propriedades psicométricas da versão em português do Brasil do Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory - Revised. MÉTODO: O Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory - Revised foi aplicado em um total de 260 indivíduos: em uma amostra clínica de 130 pacientes (64 pacientes com transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo, 33 pacientes com fobia social e 33 pacientes com transtorno do pânico mais uma amostra não clínica de 130 sujeitos. RESULTADOS: Os resultados indicam que o Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory - Revised é uma medida válida para

  18. Pathological gambling and compulsive buying: do they fall within an obsessive-compulsive spectrum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald W; Shaw, Martha; Blum, Nancee

    2010-01-01

    Both compulsive buying (CB) and pathological gambling (PG) have been proposed as members of a spectrum of disorders related to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The spectrum hypothesis originated in the early 1990s and has gained considerable support, despite the lack of empirical evidence. Interest in this hypothesis has become critical because some investigators have recommended the creation of a new category that includes these disorders in DSM-5, now under development. In this article, the authors describe the origin of the obsessive-compulsive (OC) spectrum and its theoretical underpinnings, review both CB and PG, and discuss the data both in support of and against an OC spectrum. Both disorders are described in terms of their history, definition, classification, phenomenology family history, pathophysiology, and clinical management. The authors conclude that: (i) CB and PG are probably not related to OCD, and there is insufficient evidence to place them within an OC spectrum in DSM-V; (ii) PG should stay with the impulse-control disorders (ICDs); and (iii) a new diagnosis of CB should be created and be classified as an ICD.

  19. Orthorexia nervosa: relationship with obsessive-compulsive symptoms, disordered eating patterns and body uneasiness among Italian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brytek-Matera, Anna; Fonte, Maria Luisa; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Donini, Lorenzo Maria; Cena, Hellas

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between ORTO-15 score and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, disordered eating patterns and body uneasiness among female and male university students and to examine the predictive model of ORTO-15 in both groups. One hundred and twenty students participated in the present study (mean age 22.74 years, SD 7.31). The ORTO-15 test, the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Questionnaire, the Eating Attitudes Test-26 and the Body Uneasiness Test were used for the present study. Our results revealed no gender differences in ORTO-15 score. Our results show, rather unexpectedly, that in female students lower scores, corresponding to greater severity, were related to less pathological body image discomfort and obsessive-compulsive signs, while in male students, lower ORTO-15 scores were related to less pathological eating patterns, as behaviors and symptoms. Further studies regarding the relationship between ON and anorexia nervosa, as well as obsessive-compulsive symptoms, are needed to better understand the causality. Level of Evidence Level V, descriptive study.

  20. PENGARUH MATERIALISM HAPPINESS, MATERIALISM CENTRALITY DAN MATERIALISM SUCCESS TERHADAP IMPULSIVE BUYING DAN EFEKNYA PADA COMPULSIVE BUYING BEHAVIOR (Studi empiris pada mahasiswa yang berbelanja pakaian di department store di Yogyakarta)

    OpenAIRE

    DITASARI, VALENTINA

    2014-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menguji pengaruh dimensi materialisme (materialism happiness, centrality, dan success) terhadap impulsive buying dan efeknya pada compulsive buying behavior. Penelitian ini menggunakan responden mahasiswa dan mahasiswi yang berada di beberapa Universitas di Yogyakarta sebagai obyek penelitian. Sampel pada penelitian ini adalah responden yang pernah dan cenderung sering melakukan pembelian atau berbelanja pakaian di Departement Store yang ada di Yogyakarta. ...

  1. Drug-induced gynecomastia in children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Ran D.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT QUESTION I frequently see adolescent boys in my practice with transient gynecomastia. My management includes reassuring the boys and their families; however, I also understand that specific medication, alcohol, and drugs can cause gynecomastia. How common is this phenomenon, and what medications can induce gynecomastia? ANSWER While gynecomastia is a physiologic phenomenon in most newborns and adolescents, it is important to consider pathologic conditions and medications that can cause breast enlargement. Antibiotics, antiulcer drugs, growth hormones, and chemotherapy have been reported to induce gynecomastia. Adolescents who use anabolic steroids, or who abuse alcohol, marijuana, heroin, or amphetamines, should be alerted to the fact that gynecomastia might develop. Treatment of drug-induced gynecomastia includes discontinuation of the offending drug. Very rarely is surgical intervention required. PMID:20393092

  2. Clinical aspects of impulsive compulsive behaviours in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djamshidian, Atbin; Averbeck, Bruno B; Lees, Andrew J; O'Sullivan, Sean S

    2011-11-15

    Impulsive-compulsive behaviours (ICBs) are an increasingly well-recognised adverse-effect of dopaminergic medications used to treat Parkinson's disease. ICBs include pathological gambling, compulsive sexual behaviour, compulsive buying, and binge eating, together with punding and the addiction-like compulsive use of dopamine replacement therapy, or dopamine dysregulation syndrome. The prevalence of ICBs was approximately 14% in a large study undertaken in specialist movement disorder clinics. Dopamine dysregulation syndrome is more associated with compulsive l-dopa use, whereas other ICBs are more linked with oral dopamine agonist use. Other mechanisms implicated in the development and perpetuation of ICBs in PD include aberrant learning from reward-related situations, including decreased learning from negative feedback, increased measures of impulsivity or sensation seeking, and strong preference for immediate over future rewards. Treatment options for impulsive-compulsive behaviours include pharmacological, surgical and psychological interventions. The early recognition and prevention of ICBs, coupled with awareness of clinical risk factors for the development of these behaviours is of paramount importance, given the lack of specific treatments for these sometimes debilitating behaviours. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Validation of three compulsive buying scales on an Italian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasi, Marco; Busonera, Alessandra

    2012-12-01

    Compulsive shopping is an impulse control disorder that produces psychological distress. Appropriate measurement scales of compulsive buying are important to identify compulsive buyers. Three compulsive buying scales (Faber and O'Guinn scale, Edwards scale, Yale and Brown scale) were tested in an Italian sample composed of 438 participants randomly selected from the general population. Self-report questionnaires measured psychiatric dysfunctions and personality traits. The data confirmed that high anxiety, obsessive-compulsive dysfunctions, depression, psychoticism, and low self-esteem were associated with inappropriate shopping. The Faber and O'Guinn scale and Edwards Scale are appropriate for surveys, while the Yale and Brown scale are more appropriate for clinical diagnosis of psychological dependences.

  4. Drug-induced psoriasis: clinical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balak DMW

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Deepak MW Balak, Enes Hajdarbegovic Department of Dermatology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands Abstract: Exposure to certain drugs can elicit an induction or exacerbation of psoriasis. Although well-conducted systematic studies on drug-related psoriasis are mostly lacking, traditionally strong associations have been documented for beta-blockers, lithium, antimalarial drugs such as (hydroxychloroquine, interferons, imiquimod, and terbinafine. More recently, new associations have been reported for monoclonal antibody- and small-molecule-based targeted therapies used for oncological and immunological indications, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonists and anti-programmed cell death protein 1 immune checkpoint inhibitors. Recognizing potential drug-related psoriasis is of clinical relevance to allow an optimal management of psoriasis. However, in clinical practice, identifying medication-related exacerbations and induction of psoriasis can be challenging. The clinical and histopathological features of drug-provoked psoriasis may differ little from that of “classical” nondrug-related forms of psoriasis. In addition, the latency period between start of the medication and onset of psoriasis can be significantly long for some drugs. Assessment of the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale could be used as a practical tool to better differentiate drug-related psoriasis. The first step in the management of drug-related psoriasis is cessation and replacement of the offending drug when deemed clinically possible. However, the induced psoriasis skin lesions may persist after treatment withdrawal. Additional skin-directed treatment options for drug-related psoriasis follows the conventional psoriasis treatment guidelines and includes topical steroids and vitamin D analogs, ultraviolet phototherapy, systemic treatments, such as acitretin, methotrexate, and fumaric acid esters, and biological treatments

  5. Diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder in the course of bipolar disorder

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    Maciej Żerdziński

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the coexistence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms with bipolar disorder (during the manic phase, depressive phase and remission. Method: The subjects were 70 patients previously diagnosed with and treated for bipolar disorder. For the purposes of this study, three subgroups were created: patients in the manic phase, depressive phase and in remission. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Young Mania Rating Scale and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale were diagnostic tools used for the evaluation of patients’ mental health. Results: The data indicate high likelihood of co-occurrence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (28.6% and obsessive-compulsive syndromes (32.8% with bipolar disorder. Obsessions and compulsions were observed irrespectively of the type of bipolar disorder (type 1 and 2 and phase of the illness (depression, mania, remission. The results in the three subgroups were similar. The severity of anankastic symptoms depended both on the severity of depression and mania. The subjects confirmed the presence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in the interview, although they were usually undiagnosed and untreated. Conclusions: Obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms often coexist with bipolar disorder, both in its two phases and in remission. The severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in the course of bipolar condition varies, ranging from mild to extremely severe forms. The obsessive-compulsive disorder presentation in the course of bipolar disorder increases with the severity of depressive and manic symptoms. Obsessive-compulsive disorder can be primary to bipolar disorder. Obsessive-compulsive disorder coexisting with bipolar disorder is not diagnosed or treated properly.

  6. Treatment of Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Utilizing Parent-Facilitated Acceptance and Commitment Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Jennifer Y.; Field, Clint E.; Morrison, Kate L.; Twohig, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is a modern form of cognitive behavior therapy that uses acceptance and mindfulness-based procedures to address clinical issues. A brief protocol of ACT was used with 3 children ages 10 and 11 years who were diagnosed with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Results showed notable and clinically significant…

  7. Bipolar Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Comorbidity

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    Necla Keskin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The comorbidity of bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders is a well known concept. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is the most commonly seen comorbid anxiety disorder in bipolar patients. Some genetic variants, neurotransmitters especially serotonergic systems and second-messenger systems are thought to be responsible for its etiology. Bipolar disorder alters the clinical aspects of obsessive compulsive disorder and is associated with poorer outcome. The determination of comorbidity between bipolar disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder is quite important for appropriate clinical management and treatment. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 429-437

  8. The Toronto Obsessive-Compulsive Scale: Psychometrics of a Dimensional Measure of Obsessive-Compulsive Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Laura S; Burton, Christie L; Dupuis, Annie; Shan, Janet; Storch, Eric A; Crosbie, Jennifer; Schachar, Russell J; Arnold, Paul D

    2016-04-01

    To describe the Toronto Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (TOCS), a novel 21-item parent- or self-report questionnaire that covers wide variation in obsessive-compulsive (OC) traits, and to evaluate its psychometric properties in a community-based pediatric sample. The TOCS was completed for 16,718 children and adolescents between the ages of 6 and 17 years in a community setting. Internal consistency, convergent validity with the Obsessive-Compulsive Scale of the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL-OCS), divergent validity with the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD (Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) Symptoms and Normal Behaviour Rating Scale (SWAN), interrater reliability, as well as sensitivity and specificity of the TOCS were assessed. The internal consistency of the 21 TOCS items was excellent (Cronbach's α = 0.94). TOCS was moderately correlated with the CBCL-OCS (Spearman correlation = 0.51) and poorly correlated with the SWAN (Pearson correlation = 0.02). Sensitivity and specificity analyses indicated that a TOCS total score of greater than 0 successfully discriminated community-reported obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) cases from noncases. OC traits were continuously distributed both at the total score and dimensional level in our pediatric community sample. TOCS is a multidimensional measure of OC traits in children and adolescents with sound psychometric properties. TOCS reveals that OC traits are common and continuously distributed in a community sample. TOCS may be a useful measure for studies of the characteristics and etiology of OC traits. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Modeling drug- and chemical- induced hepatotoxicity with systems biology approaches

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    Sudin eBhattacharya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We provide an overview of computational systems biology approaches as applied to the study of chemical- and drug-induced toxicity. The concept of ‘toxicity pathways’ is described in the context of the 2007 US National Academies of Science report, Toxicity testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and A Strategy. Pathway mapping and modeling based on network biology concepts are a key component of the vision laid out in this report for a more biologically-based analysis of dose-response behavior and the safety of chemicals and drugs. We focus on toxicity of the liver (hepatotoxicity – a complex phenotypic response with contributions from a number of different cell types and biological processes. We describe three case studies of complementary multi-scale computational modeling approaches to understand perturbation of toxicity pathways in the human liver as a result of exposure to environmental contaminants and specific drugs. One approach involves development of a spatial, multicellular virtual tissue model of the liver lobule that combines molecular circuits in individual hepatocytes with cell-cell interactions and blood-mediated transport of toxicants through hepatic sinusoids, to enable quantitative, mechanistic prediction of hepatic dose-response for activation of the AhR toxicity pathway. Simultaneously, methods are being developing to extract quantitative maps of intracellular signaling and transcriptional regulatory networks perturbed by environmental contaminants, using a combination of gene expression and genome-wide protein-DNA interaction data. A predictive physiological model (DILIsymTM to understand drug-induced liver injury (DILI, the most common adverse event leading to termination of clinical development programs and regulatory actions on drugs, is also described. The model initially focuses on reactive metabolite-induced DILI in response to administration of acetaminophen, and spans multiple biological scales.

  10. Effects of mood induction on consumers with vs. without compulsive buying propensity: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Sinje; Hunger, Antje; Türpe, Tina; Pietrowsky, Reinhard; Gerlach, Alexander L

    2014-12-15

    Compulsive buying (CB) is excessive and leads to impairment and distress. Several studies aimed to explore the phenomenology and antecedents of CB, especially affective states. However, these studies mostly used retrospective self-report and mostly focused on compulsive buyers only. Therefore, this study aims to directly compare consumers with CB propensity and controls on experimental proxies of buying behavior and to investigate 1) effects of neutral vs. negative mood inductions and 2) whether mood effects on buying behavior are specific to CB. Forty female consumers with CB propensity and 40 female controls were randomly assigned to a neutral or negative mood induction. Buying related behavior (likelihood to expose oneself to a shopping situation, urge and probability to buy, willingness to pay) was assessed. Consumers with CB propensity differed from controls in all buying behavior aspects except for willingness to pay. Neither main effects of mood nor group×mood interaction effects on buying behavior were found. However, consumers with CB propensity were emotionally more strongly affected by a negative mood induction. Although negative affect has previously been reported to precede buying episodes in CB, our findings do not indicate specific negative mood effects on buying, neither in CB nor in controls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comorbidity of obsessive-compulsive disorder with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder: Does it imply a specific subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garyfallos, George; Katsigiannopoulos, Konstantinos; Adamopoulou, Aravela; Papazisis, Georgios; Karastergiou, Anastasia; Bozikas, Vasilios P

    2010-05-15

    The present study examined whether the comorbidity of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) constitute a specific subtype of OCD. The study sample consisted of 146 consecutive outpatients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD. Diagnoses were established using MINI, IPDE, YBOCS and YBOCS-SC. OCD patients with comorbid OCPD were compared with OCD patients without OCPD on various sociodemographic and clinical variables. Almost one third of the OCD subjects met criteria for comorbid OCPD. OCD+OCPD patients had a significantly earlier age at onset of initial OC symptoms, earlier age at onset of OCD and more obsessions and compulsions than pure obsessions compared to the patients with OCDOCPD. OCD+OCPD patients also had a higher rate of comorbidity with avoidant personality disorder and showed more impairment in global functioning. There were not differences between the two sub-groups on severity of OCD symptoms and also on type of OCD onset. Our results indicate that the comorbidity of OCD with OCPD is associated with a number of specific clinical characteristics of OCD. These findings in conjunction with of current clinical, family and genetic studies provide some initial evidence that OCD comorbid with OCPD constitute a specific subtype of OCD. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Disordered Money Behaviors: Development of the Klontz Money Behavior Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad T Klontz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Much of the existing literature on financial behavior focuses on basic money management tasks (e.g., balancing a checkbook. However, it can be equally important to identify problematic financial behaviors that can sabotage one’s financial health. The purpose of this study was to create an assessment tool that can be used by mental health and financial professionals to identify disordered money behaviors that may impede on progress towards one’s financial goals. This study asked 422 respondents to indicate their agreement with disordered money behaviors, including compulsive buying, pathological gambling, compulsive hoarding, workaholism, financial enabling, financial dependence, financial denial, and financial enmeshment, which were correlated with demographic characteristics and financial outcomes. The results identified eight subscales derived from 68 disordered money behavior items. All eight subscales were found to have high reliability in measuring disordered behaviors, and six were associated with negative financial health indicators (e.g. less net worth, less income, and/or more revolving credit.

  13. Integrating play therapy in the treatment of children with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold-Steinberg, S; Logan, D

    1999-10-01

    While behavioral and psychopharmacological approaches are the most effective interventions for treating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), psychodynamically oriented play therapy can enhance the treatment of children with this disorder. Play therapy techniques are useful in addressing treatment resistance, feelings of shame around OCD symptoms, negative self-concept, and issues of psychosocial adjustment. A case study illustrates this integrated approach to treatment.

  14. A clinical profile of compulsive exercise in adolescent inpatients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noetel, Melissa; Miskovic-Wheatley, Jane; Crosby, Ross D; Hay, Phillipa; Madden, Sloane; Touyz, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to contribute to the development of a clinical profile of compulsive exercise in adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa (AN), by examining associations between compulsive exercise and eating and general psychopathology. A sample of 60 female adolescent inpatients with AN completed a self-report measure of compulsive exercise and a series of standardized self-report questionnaires assessing eating and general psychopathology. Higher levels of compulsive exercise were associated with increased levels of eating disorder psychopathology and anxiety. Specifically, the avoidance aspect (negatively reinforced) of compulsive exercise was associated with elevated scores on measures of eating disorder, anxiety, depression, and obsessive compulsiveness psychopathology, as well as lower self-esteem scores. The mood improvement value (positively reinforced) of compulsive exercise, however, did not reflect such trends. Compulsive exercise driven by avoidance of negative affect is associated with more severe psychological features in adolescent inpatients with AN. The current findings emphasize the need for research and clinical efforts in the development of treatments addressing avoidance of negative affect and compulsive exercise in adolescents with AN.

  15. Vitiligo, drug induced (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this person's face have resulted from drug-induced vitiligo. Loss of melanin, the primary skin pigment, occasionally ... is the case with this individual. The typical vitiligo lesion is flat and depigmented, but maintains the ...

  16. Tranexamic acid-induced fixed drug eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsuko Matsumura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 33-year-old male showed multiple pigmented patches on his trunk and extremities after he took tranexamic acid for common cold. He stated that similar eruptions appeared when he was treated with tranexamic acid for influenza 10 months before. Patch test showed positive results at 48 h and 72 h by 1% and 10% tranexamic acid at the lesional skin only. To our knowledge, nine cases of fixed drug eruption induced by tranexamic acid have been reported in Japan. Tranexamic acid is a safe drug and frequently used because of its anti-fibrinolytic and anti-inflammatory effects, but caution of inducing fixed drug eruption should be necessary.

  17. Disrupting the memory of places induced by drugs of abuse weakens motivational withdrawal in a context-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubenfeld, Stephen M; Muravieva, Elizaveta V; Garcia-Osta, Ana; Alberini, Cristina M

    2010-07-06

    Addicts repeatedly relapse to drug seeking even after years of abstinence, and this behavior is frequently induced by the recall of memories of the rewarding effects of the drug. Established memories, including those induced by drugs of abuse, can become transiently fragile if reactivated, and during this labile phase, known as reconsolidation, can be persistently disrupted. Here we show that, in rats, a morphine-induced place preference (mCPP) memory is linked to context-dependent withdrawal as disrupting the reconsolidation of the memory leads to a significant reduction of withdrawal evoked in the same context. Moreover, the hippocampus plays a critical role in linking the place preference memory with the context-conditioned withdrawal, as disrupting hippocampal protein synthesis and cAMP-dependent-protein kinase A after the reactivation of mCPP significantly weakens the withdrawal. Hence, targeting memories induced by drugs may represent an important strategy for attenuating context-conditioned withdrawal and therefore subsequent relapse in opiate addicts.

  18. THE SENSITIVITY TO CHANGE OF MEASURES FOR OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANOPPEN, P; EMMELKAMP, PMG; VANBALKOM, AJLM; VANDYCK, R

    1995-01-01

    This study presents data on the sensitivity to change of the Padua Inventory-Revised (PI-R), the Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), and the Anxiety Discomfort Scale (ADS) for obsessive-compulsive disorder. In a sample of obsessive-compulsives (n = 63) who received either behaviour

  19. Calotropis procera Latex-Induced Inflammatory Hyperalgesia—Effect of Antiinflammatory Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Sehgal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The milky white latex of plant Calotropis procera produces inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes on accidental exposure. It produces edema on local administration due to the release of histamine and prostaglandins and is associated with hyperalgesia. In the present study we have evaluated the antiedematous and analgesic activity of antiinflammatory drugs against inflammatory response induced by dried latex (DL of C procera in rat paw edema model. An aqueous extract of DL of C procera was injected into the subplantar surface of the rat paw and the paw volume was measured by a plethysmometer at 0, 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 hours. Concomitantly the hyperalgesic response was also evaluated by motility test, stair climbing ability test, dorsal flexion pain test, compression test, and observing the grooming behavior. The inhibitory effect of diclofenac and rofecoxib on edema formation and hyperalgesic response was compared with cyproheptadine (CPH. DL-induced edema formation was maximum at 2 hours that was associated with decreased pain threshold, functional impairment, and grooming. Treatment with antiinflammatory drugs and CPH significantly attenuated the edematous response and grooming, increased the pain threshold, and improved functional parameters. Both antiinflammatory and antiserotonergic drugs significantly inhibited the hyperalgesia associated with DL-induced paw edema. Rofecoxib was found to be superior than diclofenac and was as effective as CPH in ameliorating the hyperalgesia. However, it was found to be less effective than CPH in attenuating edema formation.

  20. The development of a preference for cocaine over food identifies individual rats with addiction-like behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Adam N; Westenbroek, Christel; Becker, Jill B

    2013-01-01

    Cocaine dependence is characterized by compulsive drug taking that supercedes other recreational, occupational or social pursuits. We hypothesized that rats vulnerable to addiction could be identified within the larger population based on their preference for cocaine over palatable food rewards. To validate the choice self-administration paradigm as a preclinical model of addiction, we examined changes in motivation for cocaine and recidivism to drug seeking in cocaine-preferring and pellet-preferring rats. We also examined behavior in males and females to identify sex differences in this "addicted" phenotype. Preferences were identified during self-administration on a fixed-ratio schedule with cocaine-only, pellet-only and choice sessions. Motivation for each reward was probed early and late during self-administration using a progressive-ratio schedule. Reinstatement of cocaine- and pellet-seeking was examined following exposure to their cues and non-contingent delivery of each reward. Cocaine preferring rats increased their drug intake at the expense of pellets, displayed increased motivation for cocaine, attenuated motivation for pellets and greater cocaine and cue-induced reinstatement of drug seeking. Females were more likely to develop cocaine preferences and recidivism of cocaine- and pellet-seeking was sexually dimorphic. The choice self-administration paradigm is a valid preclinical model of addiction. The unbiased selection criteria also revealed sex-specific vulnerability factors that could be differentiated from generalized sex differences in behavior, which has implications for the neurobiology of addiction and effective treatments in each sex.

  1. The development of a preference for cocaine over food identifies individual rats with addiction-like behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam N Perry

    Full Text Available Cocaine dependence is characterized by compulsive drug taking that supercedes other recreational, occupational or social pursuits. We hypothesized that rats vulnerable to addiction could be identified within the larger population based on their preference for cocaine over palatable food rewards.To validate the choice self-administration paradigm as a preclinical model of addiction, we examined changes in motivation for cocaine and recidivism to drug seeking in cocaine-preferring and pellet-preferring rats. We also examined behavior in males and females to identify sex differences in this "addicted" phenotype.Preferences were identified during self-administration on a fixed-ratio schedule with cocaine-only, pellet-only and choice sessions. Motivation for each reward was probed early and late during self-administration using a progressive-ratio schedule. Reinstatement of cocaine- and pellet-seeking was examined following exposure to their cues and non-contingent delivery of each reward.Cocaine preferring rats increased their drug intake at the expense of pellets, displayed increased motivation for cocaine, attenuated motivation for pellets and greater cocaine and cue-induced reinstatement of drug seeking. Females were more likely to develop cocaine preferences and recidivism of cocaine- and pellet-seeking was sexually dimorphic.The choice self-administration paradigm is a valid preclinical model of addiction. The unbiased selection criteria also revealed sex-specific vulnerability factors that could be differentiated from generalized sex differences in behavior, which has implications for the neurobiology of addiction and effective treatments in each sex.

  2. Glutamatergic synaptic plasticity in the mesocorticolimbic system in addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huijstee, Aile N.; Mansvelder, Huibert D.

    2015-01-01

    Addictive drugs remodel the brain’s reward circuitry, the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system, by inducing widespread adaptations of glutamatergic synapses. This drug-induced synaptic plasticity is thought to contribute to both the development and the persistence of addiction. This review highlights the synaptic modifications that are induced by in vivo exposure to addictive drugs and describes how these drug-induced synaptic changes may contribute to the different components of addictive behavior, such as compulsive drug use despite negative consequences and relapse. Initially, exposure to an addictive drug induces synaptic changes in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). This drug-induced synaptic potentiation in the VTA subsequently triggers synaptic changes in downstream areas of the mesocorticolimbic system, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC), with further drug exposure. These glutamatergic synaptic alterations are then thought to mediate many of the behavioral symptoms that characterize addiction. The later stages of glutamatergic synaptic plasticity in the NAc and in particular in the PFC play a role in maintaining addiction and drive relapse to drug-taking induced by drug-associated cues. Remodeling of PFC glutamatergic circuits can persist into adulthood, causing a lasting vulnerability to relapse. We will discuss how these neurobiological changes produced by drugs of abuse may provide novel targets for potential treatment strategies for addiction. PMID:25653591

  3. Check, check, double check: checking the autopilot causes distrust : Experimental studies on the effects of compulsive perseveration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dek, E.C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by persistent doubt. The majority of patients with OCD engage in repeated checking to reduce these feelings of uncertainty. However, numerous studies demonstrated that repetitive behavior ironically increases uncertainty: perseverative checking

  4. Compulsive sexual behavior among male military veterans: prevalence and associated clinical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip H; Potenza, Marc N; Mazure, Carolyn M; McKee, Sherry A; Park, Crystal L; Hoff, Rani A

    2014-12-01

    Compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) is highly prevalent among men, often co-occurring with psychiatric disorders and traumatic experiences. Psychiatric disorders and trauma are highly prevalent among military veterans, yet there is a paucity of research on CSB among military samples. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with CSB among male military veterans. Surveys were administered to veterans of Operations Iraqi Freedom, Enduring Freedom, or New Dawn at baseline (n = 258), 3 months(n = 194), and 6 months (n = 136). Bivariate analyses and Generalized Estimating Equations were utilized to estimate associations between CSB and the following variables: psychiatric co-morbidity, childhood physical or sexual trauma, pre- and post-deployment experiences, TV/ Internet usage, and sociodemographics. Associations between CSB and specific PTSD symptom clusters were also examined. CSB was reported by 16.7% of the sample at baseline. Several variables were associated with CSB in bivariate analyses; however, only PTSD severity, childhood sexual trauma, and age remained significant in multivariable GEE models. The PTSD symptom cluster re-experiencing was most strongly associated with CSB. This exploratory study suggests that CSB is prevalent amongst veterans returning from combat and is associated with childhood trauma and PTSD, particularly re-experiencing. Further study is needed to identify the mechanisms linking PTSD and CSB, define the context and severity of CSB in veterans, and examine the best ways to assess and treat CSB in VA clinical settings.

  5. Two-year prevalence and stability of individual DSM-IV criteria for schizotypal, borderline, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders: toward a hybrid model of axis II disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlashan, Thomas H; Grilo, Carlos M; Sanislow, Charles A; Ralevski, Elizabeth; Morey, Leslie C; Gunderson, John G; Skodol, Andrew E; Shea, M Tracie; Zanarini, Mary C; Bender, Donna; Stout, Robert L; Yen, Shirley; Pagano, Maria

    2005-05-01

    This study tracked the individual criteria of four DSM-IV personality disorders-borderline, schizotypal, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders-and how they change over 2 years. This clinical sample of patients with personality disorders was derived from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study and included all participants with borderline, schizotypal, avoidant, or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder for whom complete 24-month blind follow-up assessments were obtained (N=474). The authors identified and rank-ordered criteria for each of the four personality disorders by their variation in prevalence and changeability (remission) over time. The most prevalent and least changeable criteria over 2 years were paranoid ideation and unusual experiences for schizotypal personality disorder, affective instability and anger for borderline personality disorder, feeling inadequate and feeling socially inept for avoidant personality disorder, and rigidity and problems delegating for obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. The least prevalent and most changeable criteria were odd behavior and constricted affect for schizotypal personality disorder, self-injury and behaviors defending against abandonment for borderline personality disorder, avoiding jobs that are interpersonal and avoiding potentially embarrassing situations for avoidant personality disorder, and miserly behaviors and strict moral behaviors for obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. These patterns highlight that within personality disorders the relatively fixed criteria are more trait-like and attitudinal, whereas the relatively intermittent criteria are more behavioral and reactive. These patterns suggest that personality disorders are hybrids of traits and symptomatic behaviors and that the interaction of these elements over time helps determine diagnostic stability. These patterns may also inform criterion selection for DSM-V.

  6. Nonacetaminophen Drug-Induced Acute Liver Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Arul M; Lewis, James H

    2018-05-01

    Acute liver failure of all causes is diagnosed in between 2000 and 2500 patients annually in the United States. Drug-induced acute liver failure is the leading cause of acute liver failure, accounting for more than 50% of cases. Nonacetaminophen drug injury represents 11% of all cases in the latest registry from the US Acute Liver Failure Study Group. Although rare, acute liver failure is clinically dramatic when it occurs, and requires a multidisciplinary approach to management. In contrast with acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure, non-acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure has a more ominous prognosis with a lower liver transplant-free survival. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The presence of magical thinking in obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Danielle A; Menzies, Ross G

    2004-05-01

    Two research groups have raised the possibility that magical ideation may be a fundamental feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder. It has been proposed to underlie thought action fusion and superstitious beliefs. In this study, the Magical Ideation scale, the Lucky Behaviours and Lucky Beliefs scales, the Thought Action Fusion-Revised scale, the Padua Inventory, and the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Short Version were completed by 60 obsessive compulsive patients at a hospital clinic. Of all the measures, the Magical Ideation (MI) scale was found to be the most strongly related to obsessive compulsive symptoms. Large and significant relationships between MI scores and the measures of OCD were obtained even when alternative constructs (Lucky Behaviours, Lucky Beliefs, Thought Action Fusion-Revised scales) were held constant. No other variable remained significantly related to the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Short Version when magical ideation scores were held constant. The findings suggest that a general magical thinking tendency may underpin previous observed links between superstitiousness, thought action fusion and OCD severity.

  8. Behavioral Perspectives on the Neuroscience of Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winger, Gail; Woods, James H.; Galuska, Chad M.; Wade-Galuska, Tammy

    2005-01-01

    Neuroscientific approaches to drug addiction traditionally have been based on the premise that addiction is a process that results from brain changes that in turn result from chronic administration of drugs of abuse. An alternative approach views drug addiction as a behavioral disorder in which drugs function as preeminent reinforcers. Although…

  9. Development of optical neuroimaging to detect drug-induced brain functional changes in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Congwu; Pan, Yingtian

    2014-03-01

    Deficits in prefrontal function play a crucial role in compulsive cocaine use, which is a hallmark of addiction. Dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex might result from effects of cocaine on neurons as well as from disruption of cerebral blood vessels. However, the mechanisms underlying cocaine's neurotoxic effects are not fully understood, partially due to technical limitations of current imaging techniques (e.g., PET, fMRI) to differentiate vascular from neuronal effects at sufficiently high temporal and spatial resolutions. We have recently developed a multimodal imaging platform which can simultaneously characterize the changes in cerebrovascular hemodynamics, hemoglobin oxygenation and intracellular calcium fluorescence for monitoring the effects of cocaine on the brain. Such a multimodality imaging technique (OFI) provides several uniquely important merits, including: 1) a large field-of-view, 2) high spatiotemporal resolutions, 3) quantitative 3D imaging of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) networks, 4) label-free imaging of hemodynamic changes, 5) separation of vascular compartments (e.g., arterial and venous vessels) and monitoring of cortical brain metabolic changes, 6) discrimination of cellular (neuronal) from vascular responses. These imaging features have been further advanced in combination with microprobes to form micro-OFI that allows quantification of drug effects on subcortical brain. In addition, our ultrahigh-resolution ODT (μODT) enables 3D microangiography and quantitative imaging of capillary CBF networks. These optical strategies have been used to investigate the effects of cocaine on brain physiology to facilitate the studies of brain functional changes induced by addictive substance to provide new insights into neurobiological effects of the drug on the brain.

  10. Measuring compulsive buying behaviour: psychometric validity of three different scales and prevalence in the general population and in shopping centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraz, Aniko; Eisinger, Andrea; Hende, Borbála; Urbán, Róbert; Paksi, Borbála; Kun, Bernadette; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Griffiths, Mark D; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2015-02-28

    Due to the problems of measurement and the lack of nationally representative data, the extent of compulsive buying behaviour (CBB) is relatively unknown. The validity of three different instruments was tested: Edwards Compulsive Buying Scale (ECBS; Edwards, E.A., 1993. Development of a new scale for measuring compulsive buying behaviour. Financial Counseling and Planning. 4, 67-85), Questionnaire About Buying Behavior (QABB; Lejoyeux, M., Ades, J., 1994. Les achats pathologiques: une addiction comportementale. Neuro-Psy. 9, 25-32.) and Richmond Compulsive Buying Scale (RCBS; Ridgway, N.M., Kukar-Kinney, M., Monroe, K.B., 2008. An expanded conceptualization and a new measure of compulsive buying. Journal of Consumer Research. 35, 622-639.) using two independent samples. One was nationally representative of the Hungarian population (N=2710) while the other comprised shopping mall customers (N=1447). As a result, a new, four-factor solution for the ECBS was developed (Edwards Compulsive Buying Scale Revised (ECBS-R)), and confirmed the other two measures. Additionally, cut-off scores were defined for all measures. Results showed that the prevalence of CBB is 1.85% (with QABB) in the general population but significantly higher in shopping mall customers (8.7% with ECBS-R, 13.3% with QABB and 2.5% with RCBS-R). Conclusively, due to the diversity of content, each measure identifies a somewhat different CBB group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Facebook Role Play Addiction - A Comorbidity with Multiple Compulsive-Impulsive Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Deeepa; Shukla, Lekhansh; Kandasamy, Arun; Benegal, Vivek

    2016-06-01

    Background Problematic Internet use (PIU) is an emerging entity with varied contents. Behavioral addictions have high comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. Social networking site (SNS) addiction and role playing game (RPG) addiction are traditionally studied as separate entities. We present a case with excessive Internet use, with a particular focus on phenomenology and psychiatric comorbidities. Case presentation Fifteen-year-old girl with childhood onset attention deficit disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, adolescent onset trichotillomania, and disturbed family environment presented with excessive Facebook use. Main online activity was creating profiles in names of mainstream fictional characters and assuming their identity (background, linguistic attributes, etc.). This was a group activity with significant socialization in the virtual world. Craving, salience, withdrawal, mood modification, and conflict were clearly elucidated and significant social and occupational dysfunction was evident. Discussion This case highlights various vulnerability and sociofamilial factors contributing to behavioral addiction. It also highlights the presence of untreated comorbidities in such cases. The difference from contemporary RPGs and uniqueness of role playing on SNS is discussed. SNS role playing as a separate genre of PIU and its potential to reach epidemic proportions are discussed. Conclusions Individuals with temperamental vulnerability are likely to develop behavioral addictions. Identification and management of comorbid conditions are important. The content of PIU continues to evolve and needs further study.

  12. Attachment Style and Resiliency in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakiei, Ali; Alikhani, Mostafa; Farnia, Vahid; Khkian, Zinab; Shakeri, Jalal; Golshani, Sanobar

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine the relationships between attachment styles and resiliency in obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. A random sample of 260 subjects was obtained from the population of undergraduate students of the Nour Branch of Islamic Azad University, which is located in Mazandaran, and these subjects were enrolled in this descriptive and correlational study. The collected data included the subjects' responses to an adult attachment style questionnaire, resilience scale, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder questionnaire. The data were analyzed with Pearson correlation coefficient indices and multiple regressions. The results of the data analysis showed a positive correlation (relationship) between ambivalent/avoidant attachment styles and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and a negative correlation between resilience and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. Furthermore, these results demonstrated that attachment style and resiliency can predict obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. In addition, no significant relationships were found between the demographic variables (convertibles) and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. These results suggested that attachment style and resiliency contribute to the development of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

  13. From Thought to Action: How the Interplay Between Neuroscience and Phenomenology Changed Our Understanding of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo eBarahona-Correa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD has evolved with the knowledge of behavior, the brain, and their relationship. Modern views of OCD as a neuropsychiatric disorder originated from early lesion studies, with more recent models incorporating detailed neuropsychological findings, such as perseveration in set-shifting tasks, and findings of altered brain structure and function, namely of orbitofrontal corticostriatal circuits and their limbic connections. Interestingly, as neurobiological models of OCD evolved from cortical and cognitive to sub-cortical and behavioral, the focus of OCD phenomenology also moved from thought control and contents to new concepts rooted in animal models of action control. Most recently, the proposed analogy between habitual action control and compulsive behavior has led to the hypothesis that individuals suffering from OCD may be predisposed to rely excessively on habitual rather than on goal-directed behavioral strategies. Alternatively, compulsions have been proposed to result either from hyper-valuation of certain actions and/or their outcomes, or from excessive uncertainty in the monitoring of action performance, both leading to perseveration in prepotent actions such as washing or checking. In short, the last decades have witnessed a formidable renovation in the pathophysiology, phenomenology, and even semantics, of OCD. Nevertheless, such progress is challenged by several caveats, not least psychopathological oversimplification and overgeneralization of animal to human extrapolations. Here we present an historical overview of the understanding of OCD, highlighting converging studies and trends in neuroscience, psychiatry and neuropsychology, and how they influenced current perspectives on the nosology and phenomenology of this disorder.

  14. Personality traits in subclinical and non-obsessive-compulsive volunteers and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, R O; Steketee, G; Cohn, L; Griess, K

    1994-01-01

    Theorists from a variety of perspectives have asserted that obsessive compulsives are more risk-aversive, perfectionistic and guilt-ridden than non-obsessive compulsives, and that these characteristics are central features of the disorder. Furthermore, several have hypothesized that the parents of obsessive compulsives are characterized by risk-aversion, perfectionism, and high levels of criticism. Little research exists which corroborates these hypotheses, however. The present investigation examined these hypotheses among subclinical obsessive compulsives. In two different samples, subclinical obsessive compulsives were found to be more risk-aversive, perfectionistic, and guilt-ridden. Subclinical obsessive compulsives also perceived their parents to be more overprotective. The findings regarding other parental traits were less clear. There was some support for the hypothesis that the parents of subclinical obsessive compulsives are more risk-aversive, and that fathers are more critical and perfectionistic.

  15. A Review of Pharmacologic Treatment for Compulsive Buying Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Célia; Fernandes, Natália; Morgado, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    At present, no treatment recommendations can be made for compulsive buying disorder. Recent studies have found evidence for the efficacy of psychotherapeutic options, but less is known regarding the best pharmacologic treatment. The purpose of this review is to present and analyze the available published evidence on the pharmacological treatment of compulsive buying disorder. To achieve this, we conducted a review of studies focusing on the pharmacological treatment of compulsive buying by se...

  16. The link between ADHD-like inattention and obsessions and compulsions during treatment of youth with OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzick, Andrew G; McNamara, Joseph P H; Reid, Adam M; Balkhi, Amanda M; Storch, Eric A; Murphy, Tanya K; Goodman, Wayne K; Bussing, Regina; Geffken, Gary R

    2017-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been found to be highly comorbid in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Some have proposed, however, that obsessive anxiety may cause inattention and executive dysfunction, leading to inappropriate ADHD diagnoses in those with OCD. If this were the case, these symptoms would be expected to decrease following successful OCD treatment. The present study tested this hypothesis and evaluated whether ADHD symptoms at baseline predicted OCD treatment response. Obsessive-compulsive and ADHD symptoms were assessed in 50 youth enrolled in a randomized controlled trial investigating selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and cognitive behavioral treatment. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA) revealed that ADHD symptoms at baseline do not significantly predict treatment outcome. A multivariate RMANOVA found that OCD treatment response moderated change in inattention; participants who showed greater reduction in OCD severity experienced greater reduction in ADHD-inattentive symptoms, while those with less substantial reduction in obsessions and compulsions showed less change. These findings suggest that children and adolescents with OCD and inattention may experience meaningful improvements in attention problems following OCD treatment. Thus, in many youth with OCD, inattention may be inherently tied to obsessions and compulsions. Clinicians may consider addressing OCD in treatment before targeting inattentive-type ADHD.

  17. Toxic cocaine- and convulsant-induced modification of forced swimming behaviors and their interaction with ethanol: comparison with immobilization stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayase, Tamaki; Yamamoto, Yoshiko; Yamamoto, Keiichi

    2002-01-01

    Background Swimming behaviors in the forced swimming test have been reported to be depressed by stressors. Since toxic convulsion-inducing drugs related to dopamine [cocaine (COC)], benzodiazepine [methyl 6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-β-carboline-carboxylate (DMCM)], γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) [bicuculline (BIC)], and glutamate [N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)] receptors can function as stressors, the present study compared their effects on the forced swimming behaviors with the effects of immobilization stress (IM) in rats. Their interactions with ethanol (EtOH), the most frequently coabused drug with COC which also induces convulsions as withdrawal symptoms but interferes with the convulsions caused by other drugs, were also investigated. Results Similar to the IM (10 min) group, depressed swimming behaviors (attenuated time until immobility and activity counts) were observed in the BIC (5 mg/kg IP) and DMCM (10 mg/kg IP) groups at the 5 h time point, after which no toxic behavioral symptoms were observed. However, they were normalized to the control levels at the 12 h point, with or without EtOH (1.5 g/kg IP). In the COC (60 mg/kg IP) and NMDA (200 mg/kg IP) groups, the depression occurred late (12 h point), and was normalized by the EtOH cotreatment. At the 5 h point, the COC treatment enhanced the swimming behaviors above the control level. Conclusions Although the physiological stress (IM), BIC, and DMCM also depressed the swimming behaviors, a delayed occurrence and EtOH-induced recovery of depressed swimming were observed only in the COC and NMDA groups. This might be correlated with the previously-reported delayed responses of DA and NMDA neurons rather than direct effects of the drugs, which could be suppressed by EtOH. Furthermore, the characteristic psychostimulant effects of COC seemed to be correlated with an early enhancement of swimming behaviors. PMID:12425723

  18. Pressure ulcers induced by drug administration: A new concept and report of four cases in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizokami, Fumihiro; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Hasegawa, Keiko; Hattori, Hideyuki; Nishihara, Keiji; Endo, Hidetoshi; Furuta, Katsunori; Isogai, Zenzo

    2016-04-01

    Drug-induced akinesia is a potential cause of pressure ulcers. However, pressure ulcers that are caused by drug-induced akinesia are not considered an adverse drug reaction (ADR). We propose that drug-induced pressure ulcers (DIPU) are pressure ulcers that are caused by an external force that is experienced after drug administration, and we considered resolution of these ulcers after drug discontinuation to be a supportive finding. In this report, we reviewed the medical records of pressure ulcer cases from a 300-bed hospital. Among 148 patients, four patients with pressure ulcers met the criterion for DIPU. In these cases, the suspected DIPU were related to treatment with olanzapine, fluvoxamine, valproic acid, clotiazepam, triazolam and rilmazafone. These drugs were administrated to manage the patients' behavioral and psychological symptoms that accompanied dementia. The DIPU in these patients were categorized as stage IV according to the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel criteria. Discontinuation of the causal drugs led to significant improvements or complete healing of the pressure ulcers, and the patients subsequently recovered their mobility. Therefore, we propose that DIPU are potential ADR that have been overlooked in clinical practice. Thus, recognition of DIPU as an ADR may be important in preventing and appropriately managing pressure ulcers among elderly patients. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  19. The Relationship between Compulsive Behaviour and Internet Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosita Cecilia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A variety of behavioural and emotional problems among university students is due to Internet Addiction (Alavi et al. 2012, Rusconi et al. 2012. In 2013 a survey is conducted on a sample of 532 students of University of L’Aquila. The purpose is to investigate Internet use patterns and the correlation between Internet Addiction disorder and compulsive behaviour. Two self-administered questionnaires are used: the Internet Addiction Test and the Cognitive Behavioural Assessment 2.0. 517 students show signs of Internet Addiction, which is moderate for 31% of respondents and severe for 1% of them. 5% shows intrusive thoughts and compulsive behaviours. The symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder are statistically associated with Internet Addiction (chi² test=23.53, p=0.000. Among young people there is a relationship between compulsive behaviour and Internet Addiction. This relationship has significant effects on treatment of Internet Addiction.

  20. The influence of leptin on the dopamine system and implications for ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLeone, R J

    2009-06-01

    Food intake is regulated by many factors, including sensory information, metabolic hormones and the state of hunger. In modern humans, the drive to eat has proven to be incompatible with the excess food supply present in industrialized societies. A result of this imbalance is the dramatically increased rates of obesity during the last 20 years. The rise in obesity rates poses one of the most significant public health issues facing the United States and yet we do not understand the neural basis of ingestive behavior, and specifically, our motivation to eat. Understanding how the brain controls eating will lay the foundation for systematic dissection, understanding and treatment of obesity and related disorders. The lack of control over food intake bears resemblance to drug addiction, where loss of control over behavior leads to compulsive drug use. Work in laboratory animals has long suggested that there exist common neural substrates underlying both food and drug intake behaviors. Recent studies have shown direct leptin effects on dopamine neuron function and behavior. This provides a new mechanism by which peripheral hormones influence behavior and contribute to a more comprehensive model of neural control over food intake.

  1. Disordered gambling: the evolving concept of behavioral addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Luke

    2014-01-01

    The reclassification of gambling disorder within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) addictions category marks an important step for addiction science. The similarities between gambling disorder and the substance use disorders have been well documented. As gambling is unlikely to exert actively damaging effects on the brain, the cognitive sequelae of gambling disorder may provide insights into addictive vulnerabilities; this idea is critically evaluated in light of recent structural imaging data. The second part of the review analyzes a fundamental question of how a behavior can become addictive in the absence of exogenous drug stimulation. The relative potency of drug and nondrug rewards is considered, alongside evidence that cognitive distortions in the processing of chance (for example, the illusion of control and the gambler's fallacy) may constitute an important added ingredient in gambling. Further understanding of these mechanisms at neural and behavioral levels will be critical for the classification of future behavioral addictions, and I consider the current research data for obesity and binge eating, compulsive shopping, and internet gaming disorder. PMID:25336388

  2. Perseveration induces dissociative uncertainty in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giele, Catharina L; van den Hout, Marcel A; Engelhard, Iris M; Dek, Eliane C P; Toffolo, Marieke B J; Cath, Danielle C

    2016-09-01

    Obsessive compulsive (OC)-like perseveration paradoxically increases feelings of uncertainty. We studied whether the underlying mechanism between perseveration and uncertainty is a reduced accessibility of meaning ('semantic satiation'). OCD patients (n = 24) and matched non-clinical controls (n = 24) repeated words 2 (non-perseveration) or 20 times (perseveration). They decided whether this word was related to another target word. Speed of relatedness judgments and feelings of dissociative uncertainty were measured. The effects of real-life perseveration on dissociative uncertainty were tested in a smaller subsample of the OCD group (n = 9). Speed of relatedness judgments was not affected by perseveration. However, both groups reported more dissociative uncertainty after perseveration compared to non-perseveration, which was higher in OCD patients. Patients reported more dissociative uncertainty after 'clinical' perseveration compared to non-perseveration.. Both parts of this study are limited by some methodological issues and a small sample size. Although the mechanism behind 'perseveration → uncertainty' is still unclear, results suggest that the effects of perseveration are counterproductive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of ayahuasca on the development of ethanol-induced behavioral sensitization and on a post-sensitization treatment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Lima, A J; Santos, R; Hollais, A W; Gerardi-Junior, C A; Baldaia, M A; Wuo-Silva, R; Yokoyama, T S; Costa, J L; Malpezzi-Marinho, E L A; Ribeiro-Barbosa, P C; Berro, L F; Frussa-Filho, R; Marinho, E A V

    2015-04-01

    Hallucinogenic drugs were used to treat alcoholic patients in the past, and recent developments in the study of hallucinogens led to a renewal of interest regarding the application of these drugs in the treatment of addiction. In this scenario, accumulating evidence suggests that the hallucinogenic brew ayahuasca (Aya) may have therapeutic effects on substance abuse problems. We investigated the effects of Aya on spontaneous locomotor activity and ethanol(Eth)-induced hyperlocomotion and subsequent locomotor sensitization by a two-injection protocol. Additionally, we tested the effect of Aya on an 8-day counter-sensitization protocol to modify sensitized responses induced by a repeated treatment with Eth (1.8g/kg) for 8 alternate days. Aya showed high sensitivity in preventing the development of Eth-induced behavioral sensitization, attenuating it at all doses (30, 100, 200, 300 or 500 mg/kg) without modifying spontaneous locomotor activity. At the highest doses (300 and 500 mg/kg), Aya also showed selectivity to both acute and sensitized Eth responses. Finally, a counter-sensitization strategy with 100 or 300 mg/kg of Aya for 8 consecutive days after the establishment of Eth-induced behavioral sensitization was effective in blocking its subsequent expression on an Eth challenge. We demonstrated that Aya not only inhibits early behaviors associated with the initiation and development of Eth addiction, but also showed effectiveness in reversing long-term drug effects expression, inhibiting the reinstatement of Eth-induced behavioral sensitization when administered in the Eth-associated environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Experimental analysis of the relationship between depressed mood and compulsive buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrios, Michael; McQueen, Paul; Moulding, Richard

    2013-06-01

    Compulsive buying is a serious but understudied problem, where individuals are unable to resist or control their buying behaviour, leading to substantial social and financial problems. To date there has been a lack of experimental research into the disorder. The relationship between mood and compulsive buying was examined in compulsive buyers (N = 18) and non-clinical controls (N = 17), using experimental information-processing paradigms. In study 1, it was expected that, if buying behaviours function as a coping strategy for depressed mood, then an induction of depressed mood would lead to an enhanced memory for appealing consumer-objects in compulsive buyers, but not controls. In study 2, we examined the association between emotional and functional constructs and consumer items. It was expected that compulsive buyers would show stronger semantic relationships and thus better episodic memory for object-emotion pairs, relative to object-function pairs, for appealing items. Unexpectedly, in study 1 the memory-facilitating effect of depressed mood was evident among control participants and absent among compulsive buyers. In study 2, compulsive buyers showed a lesser association of undesirable objects with positive emotional concepts than did non-clinical controls, and compulsive buyers were found to more strongly associate all consumer items with emotional concepts than with concepts of function. Key limitations were low power and possible floor effects due to error frequency data. These findings provide insights into the processes underlying CB phenomena, in particular supporting the role of mood in compulsive buying. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Depression, Compulsive Sexual Behavior, and Sexual Risk-Taking Among Urban Young Gay and Bisexual Men: The P18 Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storholm, Erik David; Satre, Derek D.; Kapadia, Farzana; Halkitis, Perry N.

    2015-01-01

    Young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (YMSM) are at increased likelihood of experiencing depression and condomless sexual behaviors The goal of the current investigation was to examine the relationship between negative mood and compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) and to assess for their individual and combined influence on sexual risk-taking behavior among a diverse sample of YMSM in New York City (the P18 Cohort Study). We first analyzed sociodemographic, depressive symptoms, CSB, and sexual risk-taking from the cross-sectional data of 509, 18- or 19-year-old YMSM recruited using non-probability sampling. We found a significant positive correlation between CSB and depression and between CSB and frequency of condomless anal sex acts reported over the past 30 days. Multivariate results found that the presence of both depression and CSB contributed to elevated sexual risk-taking among these urban YMSM. Clinical implications include the importance of assessing for CSB when depression is present and vice versa in order to improve HIV prevention. Informed by Minority Stress Theory and Syndemic Theory, our results suggest that interventions focused on the health of YMSM recognize that mental health, CSB and social context all interact to increase physical health vulnerability vis-a-vis sexual behaviors, depression, and CSB. Thus, HIV prevention and intervention programs need to incorporate mental health components and services that address these needs. PMID:26310878

  6. Dream content and intrusive thoughts in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallotti, Simone; Casetta, Cecilia; Fanti, Valentina; Gambini, Orsola; Ostinelli, Edoardo G; Ranieri, Rebecca; Vanelli, Irene; D'Agostino, Armando

    2016-10-30

    Although central to any exhaustive theory of human subjectivity, the relationship between dream and waking consciousness remains uncertain. Some findings suggest that dream consciousness can be influenced by severe disorders of thought content. The suppression of unwanted thoughts has been shown to influence dream content in healthy individuals. In order to better define this phenomenon, we evaluated the persistence of obsessive/compulsive themes across the dream and waking cognition of OCD patients and in a control group of healthy subjects. Participants were administered a shortened version of the Thematic Apperception Test to produce a waking fantasy narration, and were trained to keep a dream diary. Dream and waking narrative contents were analyzed in order to recognize obsessive/compulsive themes, and to calculate Mean Dream Obsession/Compulsion (MDO, MDC) and Mean TAT Obsession/Compulsion (MTO, MTC) parameters. No differences were found between the two populations in terms of MDO, MDC, MTO, nor MTC. Density of obsessive and compulsive themes were significantly higher in dream reports than in waking narratives for both groups. No correlation was observed between MDO/MDC scores and Y-BOCS obsession/compulsion scores in the OCD group. These findings strengthen the discontinuity hypothesis, suggesting that ruminative aspects of cognition are somehow interrupted during dream activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. "Strong beats skinny every time": Disordered eating and compulsive exercise in women who post fitspiration on Instagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Grace; Tiggemann, Marika

    2017-01-01

    Fitspiration is a recent Internet trend designed to motivate people to eat healthily and to exercise. The aim of the study was to investigate disordered eating and exercise in women who post fitspiration on Instagram. Participants were 101 women who post fitspiration images on Instagram and a comparison group of 102 women who post travel images. Both groups completed measures of disordered eating and compulsive exercise. Women who post fitspiration images scored significantly higher on drive for thinness, bulimia, drive for muscularity, and compulsive exercise. Almost a fifth (17.5%) of these women were at risk for diagnosis of a clinical eating disorder, compared to 4.3% of the travel group. Compulsive exercise was related to disordered eating in both groups, but the relationship was significantly stronger for women who post fitspiration images. For some women, posting fitspiration images on Instagram may signify maladaptive eating and exercise behaviors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:76-79). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The Utility of Impulsive Bias and Altered Decision Making as Predictors of Drug Efficacy and Target Selection: Rethinking Behavioral Screening for Antidepressant Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Gerard J; Day, Mark; Hudzik, Thomas J

    2016-03-01

    Cognitive dysfunction may be a core feature of major depressive disorder, including affective processing bias, abnormal response to negative feedback, changes in decision making, and increased impulsivity. Accordingly, a translational medicine paradigm predicts clinical action of novel antidepressants by examining drug-induced changes in affective processing bias. With some exceptions, these concepts have not been systematically applied to preclinical models to test new chemical entities. The purpose of this review is to examine whether an empirically derived behavioral screen for antidepressant drugs may screen for compounds, at least in part, by modulating an impulsive biasing of responding and altered decision making. The differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate (DRL) 72-second schedule is an operant schedule with a documented fidelity for discriminating antidepressant drugs from nonantidepressant drugs. However, a theoretical basis for this empirical relationship has been lacking. Therefore, this review will discuss whether response bias toward impulsive behavior may be a critical screening characteristic of DRL behavior requiring long inter-response times to obtain rewards. This review will compare and contrast DRL behavior with the five-choice serial reaction time task, a test specifically designed for assessing motoric impulsivity, with respect to psychopharmacological testing and the neural basis of distributed macrocircuits underlying these tasks. This comparison suggests that the existing empirical basis for the DRL 72-second schedule as a pharmacological screen for antidepressant drugs is complemented by a novel hypothesis that altering impulsive response bias for rodents trained on this operant schedule is a previously unrecognized theoretical cornerstone for this screening paradigm. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  9. Relational consequences of compulsive Internet use: a longitudinal study among newlyweds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, P.; Finkenauer, C.; Muusses, L.D.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines how compulsive Internet use and marital well-being are related to each other. We suggest that they are negatively related and explore whether compulsive Internet use predicts marital well-being or vice versa. The relation between compulsive Internet use and marital well-being

  10. Incompleteness as a link between obsessive-compulsive personality traits and specific symptom dimensions of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Willi; Kupfer, Jochen; Gönner, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the contribution of incompleteness/'not just right experiences' (NJREs) to an understanding of the relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive personality traits (OCPTs). It investigates the association of specific OCD symptom dimensions with OCPTs, conceptualized as continuous phenomena that are also observable below the diagnostic threshold. As empirical findings and clinical observation suggest that incompleteness feelings/NJREs may play a significant affective and motivational role for certain OCD subtypes, but also for patients with accentuated OCPTs, we hypothesized that OCPTs are selectively linked with incompleteness-associated OCD symptom dimensions (ordering, checking, hoarding and counting). Moreover, we assumed that this selective relationship cannot be demonstrated any more after statistical control of incompleteness, whereas it is preserved after statistical control of anxiety, depression, pathological worry and harm avoidance. Results from a study with a large clinical sample (n = 185) partially support these hypotheses and suggest that NJREs may be an important connecting link between specific OCD symptom dimensions, in particular ordering and checking, and accentuated OCPTs. Obsessive-compulsive personality traits (OCPTs) are positively related to obsessive-compulsive disorder symptom dimensions (ordering, checking, hoarding and counting) hypothesized or found to be associated with incompleteness/'not just right experiences' (NJREs), but not to washing and obsessions. This positive relationship, which is strongest for ordering and checking, is eliminated when NJREs are statistically controlled. Ordering, checking and accentuated OCPTs may share NJREs as a common affective-motivational underpinning.Dysfunctional behaviour patterns of people with accentuated OCPTs or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) may be viewed as efforts to avoid or reduce subjectively intolerable NJREs

  11. Clinician impression versus prescription drug monitoring program criteria in the assessment of drug-seeking behavior in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Scott G; Griggs, Christopher A; Mitchell, Patricia M; Langlois, Breanne K; Friedman, Franklin D; Moore, Rebecca L; Lin, Shuo Cheng; Nelson, Kerrie P; Feldman, James A

    2013-10-01

    We compare emergency provider impression of drug-seeking behavior with objective criteria from a state prescription