WorldWideScience

Sample records for drug smuggling

  1. "Up yours": smuggling illicit drugs into prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sanju; Clayton, Steve; Namboodiri, Vasudevan; Boulay, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    A significant proportion of patients who are heroin-dependant and receiving treatment in the community serve prison sentences at some point in their lives, meaning their treatment continues "on the inside". Although prison inmates are promised the same quality of care as they would get "on the outside", this is not always the case. Some drawbacks of the drug treatments offered in prisons can lead to people smuggling drugs into prisons. The present work describes how a patient, who is heroin dependant and attending a community drug and alcohol team for methadone maintenance treatment, smuggled methadone and heroin into prison, his reasons for doing that, his personal description of the extent of drug use in prisons and finally what can be done to stop it from treatment and policy perspectives. Drug misuse is common in prisons. Much more can be done at treatment and policy levels to prevent people smuggling drugs into prison.

  2. [Smuggling of illegal drugs by body suffers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksnes, Tonje Amb; Jacobsen, Dag

    2004-07-01

    Body packers are persons who smuggle illegal drugs by swallowing condoms or plastic cylinders containing such substances. Body stuffers are drug dealers or drug abusers who swallow illegal drugs in an effort to conceal evidence during an arrest or in fear of being arrested. We report four cases and discuss management. Asymptomatic body packers may be managed conservatively with laxatives and water-soluble contrast medium. This method allows an accurate follow-up with abdominal radiography. If patients develop abdominal pain or signs and symptoms of intoxication, surgical intervention should be considered. Both types of patients should be monitored carefully.

  3. Bioresorbable polyelectrolytes for smuggling drugs into cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, Sripriya

    2016-06-01

    There is ample evidence that biodegradable polyelectrolyte nanocapsules are multifunctional vehicles which can smuggle drugs into cells, and release them upon endogenous activation. A large number of endogenous stimuli have already been tested in vitro, and in vivo research is escalating. Thus, the interest in the design of intelligent polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) drug delivery systems is clear. The need of the hour is a systematic translation of PEM-based drug delivery systems from the lab to clinical studies. Reviews on multifarious stimuli that can trigger the release of drugs from such systems already exist. This review summarizes the available literature, with emphasis on the recent progress in PEM-based drug delivery systems that are receptive in the presence of endogenous stimuli, including enzymes, glucose, glutathione, pH, and temperature, and addresses different active and passive drug targeting strategies. Insights into the current knowledge on the diversified endogenous approaches and methodological challenges may bring inspiration to resolve issues that currently bottleneck the successful implementation of polyelectrolytes into the catalog of third-generation drug delivery systems.

  4. Maritime security report. November 2000 [Commercial maritime drug smuggling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-01

    Port and security programs being implemented in Colombia's port facilities, maritime jurisdictions, and the marine intermodal shipping cycle are producing successful results against commercial maritime drug smuggling. This security reports examines t...

  5. “Up yours”: smuggling illicit drugs into prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sanju; Clayton, Steve; Namboodiri, Vasudevan; Boulay, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    A significant proportion of patients who are heroin-dependant and receiving treatment in the community serve prison sentences at some point in their lives, meaning their treatment continues “on the inside”. Although prison inmates are promised the same quality of care as they would get “on the outside”, this is not always the case. Some drawbacks of the drug treatments offered in prisons can lead to people smuggling drugs into prisons. The present work describes how a patient, who is heroin dependant and attending a community drug and alcohol team for methadone maintenance treatment, smuggled methadone and heroin into prison, his reasons for doing that, his personal description of the extent of drug use in prisons and finally what can be done to stop it from treatment and policy perspectives. Drug misuse is common in prisons. Much more can be done at treatment and policy levels to prevent people smuggling drugs into prison. PMID:21954402

  6. Accidental Overdose Intoxication: A Hazard of Drug Smuggling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Sudhir; Tafreshi, Michael; Sobo, Steven; Krochmal, Paul; Alexander, Leslie L.

    1982-01-01

    Three patients involved in illicit drug smuggling via the swallowing of high dose, high purity drugs packed in multiple condoms are reported. Two of these patients experienced drug overdose symptoms due to leakage or rupture of the condoms in the GI tract. They were treated successfully. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:7120497

  7. The gastrointestinal tract as a vehicle for drug smuggling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinner, W.N.

    1981-01-01

    Four cases of attempts to smuggle narcotics (marijuana, heroin, and cocaine) by swallowing a large number of drug-filled foreign bodies (condoms and capsules) and hiding them from customs authorities in the gastrointestinal canal during transit are described. This is compared with a psychiatric patient who swallowed 48 Vicks Inhalers. Drug smuggling by swallowing condoms or capsules containing narcotics is now a worldwide ethical-legal problem. It also is of therapeutic and prognostic importance as this may lead to such emergencies as mechanical obstruction, rupture of the drug-containing foreign bodies, and life-threatening intoxication of the carrier. (orig.)

  8. Gastrointestinal tract as a vehicle for drug smuggling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinner, W.N.

    1981-10-15

    Four cases of attempts to smuggle narcotics (marijuana, heroin, and cocaine) by swallowing a large number of drug-filled foreign bodies (condoms and capsules) and hiding them from customs authorities in the gastrointestinal canal during transit are described. This is compared with a psychiatric patient who swallowed 48 Vicks Inhalers. Drug smuggling by swallowing condoms or capsules containing narcotics is now a worldwide ethical-legal problem. It also is of therapeutic and prognostic importance as this may lead to such emergencies as mechanical obstruction, rupture of the drug-containing foreign bodies, and life-threatening intoxication of the carrier.

  9. Role of radiology in a national initiative to interdict drug smuggling: the Dutch experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algra, Paul R; Brogdon, Byron G; Marugg, Roque C

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this pictorial essay is to describe the role of radiology in a national initiative to intercept illegal narcotics concealed within the bodies of human transporters. Radiologic examination is increasingly important in identifying intracorporeal drug smuggling as improved wrapping techniques undermine the usefulness of blood and urine testing and clinical observation. Detection rates of high accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity are achieved by experienced radiologists.

  10. The outcome of drug smuggling by 'body packers'--the British experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulstrode, N; Banks, F; Shrotria, S

    2002-01-01

    Body packing or internal concealment used by drug dealers to smuggle illicit substances, puts the body packer at risk of both imprisonment and death. We report our experience over a 4 year period from January 1996 to December 1999 of suspects presenting to our hospital (the largest series in Europe). A total of 572 cases were assessed radiographically and 180 were shown to be carrying foreign bodies. The commonest reasons for admission were suspected overdose or gastrointestinal obstruction. Thirty-six cases were admitted, of whom 7 required surgical intervention. No deaths occurred. Of all people detained for smuggling by internal concealment into Britain during this period, 27% were seen in our hospital. These cases may present alone or escorted by Her Majesty's Customs and Excise personnel, and one must be aware of this possibility even when situated away from a port of entry.

  11. Abdominal X-ray signs of intra-intestinal drug smuggling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewiarowski, Sylwia; Gogbashian, Andrew; Afaq, Asim; Kantor, Robin; Win, Zarni

    2010-05-01

    "Body packers" either swallow or insert drug filled packets rectally or vaginally in order to smuggle illicit drugs. AXR is used routinely to screen suspects for the presence of intra-intestinal drug packages. AXR diagnosis can be difficult as stool or gas within the intestine may resemble ingested foreign bodies. We identify the frequency and co-existence of several signs; tic-tac sign, rosette sign, double condom sign, dense surrounding material, density and discover a new sign; parallelism, which will aid in increasing the radiological accuracy. We retrospectively reviewed 285 AXRs performed for suspicion of drug smuggling during the period of March 2006-March 2009 to identify the frequency of these signs. Of the 285 AXRs performed 59 were positive, 221 negative and five were indeterminate. The tic-tac sign was present in 93%, double condom sign in 73%, dense surrounding wrapping material in 36% and parallelism in 27%. Sixty one percentage of drug packages were iso-dense to faeces and 39% hyperdense. Twenty percentage of the positive abdominal radiographs demonstrated one of the radiographic signs, 39% demonstrated two signs, 32% demonstrated three and 7% four. The most common radiographic sign combination was the tic-tac sign with either dense surrounding material or double condom sign. The most commonly encountered radiographic sign is the tic-tac sign, followed by the double condom sign and dense surrounding material. We also discover a new sign, "parallelism" which although uncommon is highly specific. Accuracy is further increased by comparing the density of packages to faeces and looking for the co-existence of multiple signs. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  12. Human Smuggling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel - Rozenblit, Dina; Zaitch, Damian

    2014-01-01

    Human smuggling is based on a consensus between smuggler, smuggled, and his/her family (which usually guarantees or effectuates payment). However, unauthorized immigrants are violating immigration laws and human smugglers are profiting from enabling illegal immigration. Both human smuggling and its

  13. Drug smuggling by body packing: what radiologists should know about it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergan, Klaus; Kofler, Karl; Oser, Wolfgang

    2004-04-01

    Body packing is a distinct method for smuggling drugs. What radiologists need to know is discussed in this pictorial review. Radiologists are confronted with diagnostic imaging of body packers because of two main reasons: complications of body packing and identifying drug packets within the gastrointestinal tract. The standard examination used is plain X-ray of the abdomen in an upright and a supine position. Computed tomography is occasionally used but nevertheless described as a very accurate diagnostic tool. Ultrasound and MR imaging do not play an important role in that field. Depending on the purity of the drug, three different forms of attenuation have been described: hashish is denser than stool; cocaine appears similar to stool; and heroin has a gaseous transparence. The packets are of a round to oval form, usually of a particular uniformity and rarely confused with scybala if arranged like a pearl chain; therefore, plain X-ray is the method of choice to detect drug-filled packets within the gastrointestinal tract of body packers.

  14. Towards a better understanding of human smuggling

    OpenAIRE

    Heckmann, Friedrich

    2007-01-01

    Contents: What is human smuggling?; How can we know about human smuggling?; Human smuggling as a migration phenomenon; Human smuggling as a business; The social organizing of human smuggling; Fighting against human smuggling.

  15. Smuggling special nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaroiu, Gheorghe

    1999-01-01

    Ever since the collapse of the former Soviet Union reports have circulated with increasing frequency concerning attempts to smuggle materials from that country's civil and military nuclear programs. Such an increase obviously raises a number of concerns (outlined in the author's introduction), chief among which is the possibility that these materials might eventually fall into the hands of proliferant states or terrorist groups. The following issues are presented: significance of materials being smuggled; sources and smuggling routes; potential customers; international efforts to reduce nuclear smuggling; long-term disposition of fissile materials. (author)

  16. Smuggled or trafficked?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Bhabha

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime (TNC and its two Protocols on Trafficking and Smuggling, adopted in 2000, seek to distinguish between trafficking and smuggling. In reality these distinctions are often blurred. A more nuanced approach is needed to ensure protection for all those at risk.

  17. Smuggling Drugs into the Brain: An Overview of Ligands Targeting Transcytosis for Drug Delivery across the Blood-Brain Barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, Julia V; Hoekstra, Dick; Zuhorn, Inge S

    2014-11-17

    The blood-brain barrier acts as a physical barrier that prevents free entry of blood-derived substances, including those intended for therapeutic applications. The development of molecular Trojan horses is a promising drug targeting technology that allows for non-invasive delivery of therapeutics into the brain. This concept relies on the application of natural or genetically engineered proteins or small peptides, capable of specifically ferrying a drug-payload that is either directly coupled or encapsulated in an appropriate nanocarrier, across the blood-brain barrier via receptor-mediated transcytosis. Specifically, in this process the nanocarrier-drug system ("Trojan horse complex") is transported transcellularly across the brain endothelium, from the blood to the brain interface, essentially trailed by a native receptor. Naturally, only certain properties would favor a receptor to serve as a transporter for nanocarriers, coated with appropriate ligands. Here we briefly discuss brain microvascular endothelial receptors that have been explored until now, highlighting molecular features that govern the efficiency of nanocarrier-mediated drug delivery into the brain.

  18. Smuggling Drugs into the Brain : An Overview of Ligands Targeting Transcytosis for Drug Delivery across the Blood-Brain Barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuhorn, Inge; Georgieva, Julia V.; Hoekstra, Dick

    2015-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier acts as a physical barrier that prevents free entry of blood-derived substances, including those intended for therapeutic applications. The development of molecular Trojan horses is a promising drug targeting technology that allows for non-invasive delivery of therapeutics

  19. Smuggling Drugs into the Brain: An Overview of Ligands Targeting Transcytosis for Drug Delivery across the Blood–Brain Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia V. Georgieva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The blood–brain barrier acts as a physical barrier that prevents free entry of blood-derived substances, including those intended for therapeutic applications. The development of molecular Trojan horses is a promising drug targeting technology that allows for non-invasive delivery of therapeutics into the brain. This concept relies on the application of natural or genetically engineered proteins or small peptides, capable of specifically ferrying a drug-payload that is either directly coupled or encapsulated in an appropriate nanocarrier, across the blood–brain barrier via receptor-mediated transcytosis. Specifically, in this process the nanocarrier–drug system (“Trojan horse complex” is transported transcellularly across the brain endothelium, from the blood to the brain interface, essentially trailed by a native receptor. Naturally, only certain properties would favor a receptor to serve as a transporter for nanocarriers, coated with appropriate ligands. Here we briefly discuss brain microvascular endothelial receptors that have been explored until now, highlighting molecular features that govern the efficiency of nanocarrier-mediated drug delivery into the brain.

  20. Defeating Leishmania resistance to miltefosine (hexadecylphosphocholine) by peptide-mediated drug smuggling: a proof of mechanism for trypanosomatid chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Ortega, Juan Román; de la Torre, Beatriz G; Hornillos, Valentín; Bart, Jean-Mathieu; Rueda, Cristina; Navarro, Miguel; Amat-Guerri, Francisco; Acuña, A Ulises; Andreu, David; Rivas, Luis

    2012-08-10

    Miltefosine (hexadecylphosphocholine, HePC), the first orally active drug successful against leishmaniasis, is especially active on the visceral form of the disease. Resistance mechanisms are almost exclusively associated to dysfunction in HePC uptake systems. In order to evade the requirements of its cognate receptor/translocator, HePC-resistant Leishmania donovani parasites (R40 strain) were challenged with constructs consisting of an ω-thiol-functionalized HePC analogue conjugated to the cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) Tat(48-60), either through a disulfide or a thioether bond. The conjugates enter and kill both promastigote and intracellular amastigote forms of the R40 strain. Intracellular release of HePC by reduction of the disulfide-based conjugate was confirmed by means of double tagging at both the CPP (Quasar 670) and HePC (BODIPY) moieties. Scission of the conjugate, however, is not mandatory, as the metabolically more stable thioether conjugate retained substantial activity. The disulfide conjugate is highly active on the bloodstream form of Trypanosoma b. brucei, naturally resistant to HePC. Our results provide proof-of-mechanism for the use of CPP conjugates to avert drug resistance by faulty drug accumulation in parasites, as well as the possibility to extend chemotherapy into other parasites intrinsically devoid of membrane translocation systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Maritime security report. April 1997 [Maritime smuggling of drugs and contraband goods through Haiti adversely impacting legitimate commerce and development; Partnering : a key to growing challenges confronting maritime security

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Haiti is a significant transshipment conduit for South American cocaine destined for the United States. This smuggling is facilitated by Haitis system of seaports which remain largely unmonitored. Smuggling and trafficking contraband merchandise aver...

  2. Plutonium again (smuggling and movements)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    A link is discounted between nuclear proliferation and the recently discovered smuggled plutonium from the former Soviet Union at Munich airport and other places in Germany. It is argued that governments wishing to obtain nuclear materials to develop a weapons programme would not arrange to have it smuggled in a suitcase. Instead, it is speculated that a link exists between the plutonium smuggling incidents and the desire to promote the production of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. Such incidents, by further raising public anxiety, may be intended to turn public opinion in favour of MOX fuel production as a sensible way of getting rid of surplus plutonium. (UK)

  3. 19 CFR 122.167 - Aviation smuggling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aviation smuggling. 122.167 Section 122.167... TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.167 Aviation smuggling. (a) Civil penalties. Any aircraft.... More severe penalties are provided in 19 U.S.C. 1590 if the smuggled merchandise is a controlled...

  4. Real threat of nuclear smuggling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.; Woessner, P.N.

    1996-01-01

    Trade in uranium and plutonium during the past five years has given smuggling unprecedented relevance to international security. Yet there is considerable controversy over the threat nuclear smuggling poses. Even though serious efforts are being made to attack the problem at the source, the international community has been slow to respond to the dangers that nuclear smuggling presents. We suggest that systematic multinational measures be taken as soon as possible to inhibit theft at the source, to disrupt trafficking and to deter buyers. The U.S., Germany, Russia and other nations with an interest in the nuclear problem should set up a 'flying squad' with an investigative arm, facilities for counter terrorist and counter extortion actions and a disaster management team. This paper discusses these issues. 3 refs

  5. Smuggling of migrants in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Albulena Hajdari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Smuggling of migrants, as a serious type of criminality, takes an important place in legal science and criminal legislation. This is due to the fact that actions creating the image of these criminal offences also cause numerous individual, family and societal consequences. Smuggling migrants, with all its consequences, attracts the attention not only of the state authorities, but also the wider public, and numerous researchers and scholars. Nevertheless, despite this fact, this phenomenon has not been studied thoroughly. There is a dire lack of such research in recent years, specifically because of the presence of such crimes in a relatively higher number. This circumstance, specifically the fact that in Kosovo, smuggling migrants is a frequent occurrence, made me engage in studying this type of criminality. The aim of this paper is to research on criminal offences of migrant smuggling in Kosovo, and especially their causes. The causes of these criminal offences may be of numerous natures, but the main causes may be sought in social and economic circumstances, and other conditions related to the unstable political setting, weaknesses in operations of justice authorities, lack of implementation of criminal legislation, etc. In researching the criminal offences of smuggling migrants, I have used the method of historical materialism, legal-dogmatic method, statistical method, complaint method and interviews, and the method of studying individual cases. In the case of addressing criminal offences of smuggling migrants, I have concluded that these offences represent a serious type of crime, thereby resulting in dire individual, family and societal consequences. They are found in all modern societies, including Kosovo.

  6. By land, sea, or air? A comparative analysis of cartel smuggling strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Harney, Sean M.

    2017-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Cartels are known for their innovative smuggling techniques, across land, sea, or air, which allow them to clandestinely transport drugs across any point of entry into the United States. With this in mind, it is worth asking: why do cartels choose a certain drug smuggling technique over another, which domain is more commonly used and potentially more successful, and what sorts of structural changes would it take to shift from one metho...

  7. Chinese human smuggling in transit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soudijn, Melvin Roan Jasper

    2006-01-01

    Kleinschalige mensensmokkelaars beheersen de gehele smokkelroute van China naar de eindbestemming, grootschalige smokkelaars beheersen paradoxaal genoeg slechts een gedeelte van het traject. Dat is een van de conclusies uit de dissertatie “Chinese Smuggling in Transit” van Melvin Soudijn. Het

  8. Roentgenographical detection of cocaine smuggling in the alimentary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kersschot, E.A.J.; Beaucourt, L.E.A.; Degryse, H.R.M.; Schepper, A.M.A.P. de; Academisch Ziekenhuis Antwerpen, Edegem

    1985-01-01

    We report five cases of cocaine smuggling, by hiding multiple drug-filled foreign bodies in the colon, either after oral ingestion or by placing them in the colon per rectum. Several smuggling methods in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and their radiological findings on abdominal plain film are presented. Computed tomography (CT) is found to be a more accurate method in the detection of the drug-filled bags, because of its improved contrast resolution and the absence of projections of overlapping structures on the transversal sections. Subsequently, CT is highly recommended in cases of negative or doubtful findings on conventional abdominal radiographs. In all cases conservative management was used and the drug-filled capsules and condoms passed spontaneously. No complications, such as intestinal obstruction by the bags of cocaine or intoxication by rupture of their wall were observed. (orig.) [de

  9. The Migrant Smuggling Crime in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta-Elena Buzatu

    2018-01-01

    The study below is meant to focus on the migrant smuggling crime in Romania, especially analysis of the migrant smuggling infraction provided in the Romanian Criminal Code. Being a component of the human trafficking activity, the illegal migration is a phenomenon that is continuously extending and harder to stop due to the involvement of the organized crime networks and also due the ingenuousness and maliciousness of the people and the criminals. Therewith, the migrant smuggling is highly con...

  10. Alien smuggling: East to West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J H

    1987-01-01

    This year untold millions of illegal aliens will enter Western Europe, Canada, and the US; in 1986, the US alone made 1.7 million apprehensions. Because of the numbers involved and the hard currency exchanged, alien smuggling has become big business--a lucrative track in desparate human beings. West Germany's open door asylum policy has been a boon to the smugglers, and West Berlin is currently a favored port of entry. The government provides social benefits--apartments, food, a stipend, and clothing--for asylum seekers. Smuggling operations appear to fit 3 categories: 1) state-sponsored alien smugglers, with a sub-category of terrorists; 2) ethnic smugglers with a history of terrorist spinoffs; and 3) independent smugglers, who are profit oriented, and willing to handle ethnic aliens and terrorists. In West Germany, immigration investigations begin at the border. West German officials often know that as they cause the Eastern border to be tightened, the flow will gravitate south toward Austria. Redirecting the trasit of Third Worlders from East Berlin away from West Germany, Sweden, and Denmark will be a stop-gap measure at best. Part of West Germany's immigration problem can be traced to the Basic Law that provides asylum for those who claim persecution (political, racial, ethnic, or religious). Yet, any attempt to change asylum would result in an admission of defeat in the quest for a unified Germany. Should Austria move to tighten its immigration laws, agreements similar to those between East and West Germany will likely follow.

  11. Cigarette smuggling in Europe: who really benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, L; Raw, M

    1998-01-01

    Cigarette smuggling, now on the increase, is so widespread and well organised that it poses a serious threat to public health. This threat comes from two principal directions. First, smuggling makes cigarettes available cheaply, thereby increasing consumption. A third of annual global exports go to the contraband market, representing an enormous impact on consumption, and thus causing an increase in the burden of disease, especially in poorer countries. It is also costing government treasuries thousands of millions of dollars in lost tax revenue. Second, the tobacco industry uses smuggling politically, lobbying governments to lower tax, arguing that smuggling is caused by price differences. This paper shows that the claimed correlation between high prices and high levels of smuggling does not exist in western Europe. In fact, countries such as Norway and Sweden, with expensive cigarettes, do not have a large smuggling problem, whereas countries in the south of Europe do. Cigarette smuggling is not caused principally by "market forces". It is mainly caused by fraud, by the illegal evasion of import duty. The cigarettes involved are not the cheap brands from southern European countries, for which there is no international market. It is the well-known international brands such as Marlboro and Winston. We propose much tighter regulation of cigarette trade, including an international transport convention, and a total ban on transit trade-sale by the manufacturers to dealers, who sell on to smugglers.

  12. Principles of protection against nuclear smuggling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, S.A.; Martin, D.D.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The smuggling of nuclear materials is a matter of grave consequence, and if allowed to occur in sufficient amount, could lead to nuclear terrorism or nuclear proliferation. This paper describes a framework created for the Department of Energy's contribution to national and international efforts to prevent and detect nuclear smuggling. With such a framework, opportunities for rapid gains in smuggling prevention can be found as well as funding gaps. It is useful first to define the threat, which is then used to drive specifications and planning for technology and tactics. The exact numbers involved in the threat are not important here. It is enough to understand that the goal is to prevent the smuggling of sufficient quantities of weapon-usable material from a protected site to anywhere where it could be used for proliferation or terrorism. However, this should not be interpreted as a definition of some minimum amount of nuclear material that would be useful to detect and interdict. The useful amount can be smuggled in two, three or many individual smuggling trips, and so the quantity searched for may be considerably less. Next, a range of possible actions can be listed. One category involves promoting deterrence of nuclear smuggling by portraying the likely consequences of nuclear smuggling as mostly negative for smugglers. Another category involves detecting nuclear materials, by anyone at anytime. Increasing the probability of detection is not the same thing as enhancing deterrence. What deters is perception. If the perception that nuclear smuggling is unlikely to succeed is spread to potential smugglers, deterrence will be achieved. The cost of such a campaign is likely less than actually enhancing the probability of detection. There are major pitfalls in such a campaign, however. These include the release of information that might enhance the capability of smugglers and the chance that the campaign will be unconvincing. Another mode of deterrence

  13. Combating Smuggling in Persons: A Malaysia Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Rahim Rohani Abdul; Ahmad Tajuddin Muhammad Afiq bin; Abu Bakar Kamaruddin bin Hj.; Abdul Rahim Mohammad Nizamuddin Bin

    2015-01-01

    Malaysia continues to face various challenges derived from the widespread of international migratory movement because of various economic reasons. Malaysia strategic geographical location, in the center of the South East Asian region made the country an attractive destination for human smuggling and trafficking in persons activities. Some of the smuggled persons may end up being trafficked victims base on the definition adopted by Malaysian laws on “trafficked victims”. Malaysia Anti-Traffick...

  14. 76 FR 42674 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; Smuggling, Interdiction, and Trade...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ...; Smuggling, Interdiction, and Trade Compliance Program; Smuggling Form AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... intention to initiate an information collection to support our smuggling, interdiction, and trade compliance... coming. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on the smuggling, interdiction, and trade...

  15. Imaging of drug smuggling by body packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Giacomo; Guida, Franco; Bocchini, Giorgio; Iaselli, Francesco; Iadevito, Isabella; Scaglione, Mariano

    2015-02-01

    Body packing, pushing, and stuffing are hazardous practices with complex medicolegal and social implications. A radiologist plays both a social and a medicolegal role in their assessment, and it should not be limited only to the identification of the packages but must also provide accurate information about their number and their exact location so as to prevent any package remains in the body packer. Radiologists must also be able to recognize the complications associated with these risky practices. Imaging assessment of body packing is performed essentially through plain abdominal X-ray and computed tomography scans. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, although with some advantages, actually have a limited use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Drug smuggling using clothing impregnated with cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Seán D; Power, John D

    2005-11-01

    A case study is presented where a woman travelling from South America to the Republic of Ireland was detained at Dublin Airport and articles of clothing she had in her luggage were found to be impregnated with cocaine. The study shows that the amount of powder recovered from the garments was approximately 14% of the total weight of the garments. The cocaine was in the form of cocaine hydrochloride and the purity was approximately 80%. An examination of the garments under filtered light highlighted the areas exposed to cocaine and indicated that the method of impregnation was by pouring liquid containing cocaine onto the clothing.

  17. Nuclear Smuggling and Threats to Lithuanian Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murauskaitė Eglė

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores threats related to illicit trafficking of radioactive materials and dual-use goods applicable in state level nuclear programs, actualizing the global trends for the Baltic region. The article points to Eastern Europe’s changing risk profile in this respect, as increasing penetration of Russian criminal groups inside Ukraine and the destabilized situations in neighboring countries create an environment where the risk of nuclear smuggling is on the rise. Criminal entities can be seen forming new bonds, with trafficking routes intersecting and zones of influence shifting - consequently, an unusual level of criminal involvement in nuclear smuggling is observed, alongside a geographic shift of smuggling patterns. In addition, states seeking materials and technologies for their military programs have taken a notable interest in this region as a way of circumventing international transit regulations. The article looks at the likely implications of these new nuclear smuggling trends for the security of the Baltic states. It suggests that Lithuania may soon be facing a relatively new threat, and one that it is ill-prepared to counter. The article discusses the risk factors and indicators to watch before that risk becomes reality, and offers ways for Lithuania to contribute to addressing these increasingly acute problems on a regional level.

  18. Training options for countering nuclear smuggling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, D Y; Erickson, S A

    1999-01-01

    The burden of stopping a nuclear smuggling attempt at the border rests most heavily on the front-line customs inspector. He needs to know how to use the technological tools at his disposal, how to discern tell-tale anomalies in export documents and manifests, how to notice psychological signs of a smuggler's tension, and how to search anything that might hide nuclear material. This means that assistance in the counter-nuclear smuggling training of customs officers is one of the most critical areas of help that the United States can provide. This paper discusses the various modes of specialized training, both in the field and in courses, as well as the types of assistance that can be provided. Training for nuclear customs specialists, and supervisors and managers of nuclear smuggling detection systems is also important, and differs from front-line inspector training in several aspects. The limitations of training and technological tools such as expert centers that will overcome these limitations are also discussed. Training assistance planned by DOE/NN-43 to Russia within the Second Line of Defense program is discussed in the light of these options, and future possibilities for such training are projected

  19. Human smuggling in Austria: a comparative analysis of data on smuggled migrants from former Yugoslavia and the Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterka-Benton, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the author’s research on human smuggling in Austria comparing migrants from Former Yugoslavia and the Russian Federation. The project’s primary intent was to collect more detailed information on migrants seeking asylum in Austria and their use of smuggling services to leave their home countries, including detailed information on demographics, force or threat of force by smugglers, routes and methods of transportation, costs of smuggling, payment methods, and deeper perceptual questions regarding the flight. Another central premise of the article discusses how current distinctions between human smuggling and human trafficking are arbitrary in many regards.

  20. Migrant's agency in the smuggling process : the perspectives of smuggled migrants in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Liempt, I.; Doomernik, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on migrants who have been smuggled to the Netherlands from three regions: Iraq, Horn of Africa, and the former Soviet Union. The central questions are: to what extent do smugglers give direction to migration; and how much autonomy do migrants themselves have in deciding where they

  1. Tobacco smuggling estimates based on pack examination in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana I Andreeva

    2017-05-01

    Cigarette pack examination as a part of tobacco surveillance allows estimating the proportion of cigarettes brought from other countries, part of which could be smuggled. This information can be used for counterbalancing the industry's statements, which usually overestimate the level of cigarette smuggling.

  2. Validation of a BOTDR-based system for the detection of smuggling tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkayam, Itai; Klar, Assaf; Linker, Raphael; Marshall, Alec M.

    2010-04-01

    Cross-border smuggling tunnels enable unmonitored movement of people, drugs and weapons and pose a very serious threat to homeland security. Recently, Klar and Linker (2009) [SPIE paper No. 731603] presented an analytical study of the feasibility of a Brillouin Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (BOTDR) based system for the detection of small sized smuggling tunnels. The current study extends this work by validating the analytical models against real strain measurements in soil obtained from small scale experiments in a geotechnical centrifuge. The soil strains were obtained using an image analysis method that tracked the displacement of discrete patches of soil through a sequence of digital images of the soil around the tunnel during the centrifuge test. The results of the present study are in agreement with those of a previous study which was based on synthetic signals generated using empirical and analytical models from the literature.

  3. Detector Requirements to Curb Nuclear Smuggling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, S A

    2001-01-01

    The problem of stopping nuclear smuggling of terrorist nuclear devices is a complex one, owing to the variety of pathways by which such a device can be transported. To fashion new detection systems that improve the chances of detecting such a device, it is important to know the various requirements and conditions that would be imposed on them by both the types of devices that might be smuggled and by the requirement that it not overly interfere with the transportation of legitimate goods. Requirements vary greatly from low-volume border crossings to high-volume industrial container ports, and the design of systems for them is likely to be quite different. There is also a further need to detect these devices if they are brought into a country via illicit routes, i.e., those which do not pass through customs posts, but travel overland though open space or to a smaller, unguarded airport or seaport. This paper describes some generic uses of detectors, how they need to be integrated into customs or other law enforcement systems, and what the specifications for such detectors might be

  4. Turning off the tap: the real solution to cigarette smuggling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, L; Raw, M

    2003-03-01

    The tobacco industry has argued that tobacco smuggling is caused by market forces, i.e., by the price differences between countries, which create an incentive to smuggle cigarettes from 'cheaper' to 'more expensive' countries, and so urged governments to solve the problem by reducing taxes to remove this differential, which will also, they say, restore revenue. Although such market forces have some effect, smuggling is in fact more prevalent in 'cheaper' countries, and reducing tax is not the solution. Where taxes have been reduced tobacco consumption has risen and revenue has fallen, with disastrous consequences for public health. The key to understanding cigarette smuggling is understanding the role of the tobacco industry. At the heart of cigarette smuggling is large scale fraud: container loads of cigarettes are exported, legally and duty unpaid, to countries where they have no market, and where they disappear into the contraband market. They are often smuggled back into the country of origin, where they are sold at a third to half price. It is therefore profitable because duty has been illegally evaded. The key to controlling cigarette smuggling is not lowering taxes, it is controlling the tobacco manufacturing industry and its exporting practices.

  5. The Archaeology of Smuggling and the Falmouth King's Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Sam

    2009-06-01

    This article demonstrates the potential of an historical archaeology of smuggling and the value of an interdisciplinary approach to the study of smuggling and its prevention. By exploring the previously unstudied history of the King’s Pipe in Falmouth, a large chimney used for the destruction of tobacco, a rare survivor of many that once existed in England’s port cities, it demonstrates that archaeology could transform our understanding of smuggling and its prevention, and more broadly the history of crime and punishment in eighteenth century England.

  6. The behaviour of purchasing smuggled cigarettes in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Y-W; Sung, H-Y; Yang, C-L; Shih, S-F

    2003-03-01

    Since market liberalization in 1987, the Taiwan Tobacco and Wine Monopoly Bureau (TTWMB) annual statistics indicate that both the demand for imported cigarettes as well as the number of seized smuggled packs have increased with an average revenue loss of NT dollars 4942 million over the past 15 years. The NT dollars 10 average increase in cigarette prices after Taiwan entered the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the implementation of the Tobacco and Alcohol Tax Law in 2002 are forcing policy makers to examine smuggling even more closely. This study evaluates factors that affect an individual smoker's decision to purchase smuggled cigarettes, particularly when faced with higher prices. 437 male smokers of imported cigarettes were drawn from a national interview survey on cigarette consumption, which the Division of Health Policy Research at the National Health Research Institutes conducted during the year 2000. Multiple logistic regression models were used to analyse the behaviour of purchasing smuggled cigarettes with respect to demographic factors, economic factors, smoking behaviour, and other variables. Cigarette price was the driving factor most closely linked to the purchase of smuggled cigarettes--a 1% increase in cigarette price raised the likelihood of purchasing smuggled cigarettes at least 2.60 times (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08 to 6.26). Smokers who spent more than NT 1000/month dollars on cigarettes were twice as likely to purchase smuggled cigarettes as those who spent less than NT 1000 dollars (odds ratio (OR) 2.34, 95% CI 1.48 to 3.70). Betel nut chewers were more likely to purchase smuggled cigarettes (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.90). Smokers who opposed cigarette taxation policy were 1.69 times more likely to buy smuggled cigarettes. Personal income was not significantly associated with smuggled cigarettes purchases. This study evaluates what causes smokers to purchase smuggled cigarettes. We have determined that cigarette price is the most

  7. State and Smuggling in Modern China: The Case of Guangzhouwan/Zhanjiang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Pieragastini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Leizhou Peninsula in western Guangdong (concurrent with the present-day municipality of Zhanjiang has at several points in history been an important site of exchange, both licit and illicit in the eyes of central authorities. The French gained control of the area from the weakened Qing government in 1898–1899 and established their “leased territory” of Guangzhouwan. Administered as part of French Indochina, Guangzhouwan became a fiefdom of smugglers, pimps, and pirates, never developing into the rival to Hong Kong that the French hoped it would become. After a brief Japanese occupation, the French returned the leased territory to the government of Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi after World War II, but their colonial presence left a legacy of trafficking, violence, and anti-imperialism that emboldened Communist guerrillas in the area. Once the Communists came into power in 1949, they subjected Zhanjiang and other liminal spaces along the Chinese coast to vigorous anti-smuggling and anti-drug campaigns. But a return to smuggling in the Reform Era (1978–present suggests that the successful repression of smuggling in the Mao era may have been a temporary exception to the historical rule in this region.

  8. Agony of the ecstasy: report of five cases of MDMA smuggling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, V H S; Dillon, E K

    2005-10-01

    The international smuggling of illicit drugs by the ingestion or rectal insertion of drug-filled packages is recognized in the trafficking of heroin and cocaine. Customs authorities, with suspicion of such activities, presented five subjects. The legally allowed radiological examination comprising one supine abdominal radiograph was performed. Radiographic findings demonstrated the presence of multiple enteric oval, capsule-shaped packages of soft tissue density. This was confirmed following supervised evacuation of bowel contents induced by the administration of laxatives. Analysis of the concealed material identified ecstasy (methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)), a substance not previously reported as transported by this route.

  9. From cigarette smuggling to illicit tobacco trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, Luk; Raw, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Tax policy is considered the most effective strategy to reduce tobacco consumption and prevalence. Tax avoidance and tax evasion therefore undermine the effectiveness of tax policies and result in less revenue for governments, cheaper prices for smokers and increased tobacco use. Tobacco smuggling and illicit tobacco trade have probably always existed, since tobacco's introduction as a valuable product from the New World, but the nature of the trade has changed. This article clarifies definitions, reviews the key issues related to illicit trade, describes the different ways taxes are circumvented and looks at the size of the problem, its changing nature and its causes. The difficulties of data collection and research are discussed. Finally, we look at the policy options to combat illicit trade and the negotiations for a WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) protocol on illicit tobacco trade. Twenty years ago the main type of illicit trade was large-scale cigarette smuggling of well known cigarette brands. A change occurred as some major international tobacco companies in Europe and the Americas reviewed their export practices due to tax regulations, investigations and lawsuits by the authorities. Other types of illicit trade emerged such as illegal manufacturing, including counterfeiting and the emergence of new cigarette brands, produced in a rather open manner at well known locations, which are only or mainly intended for the illegal market of another country. The global scope and multifaceted nature of the illicit tobacco trade requires a coordinated international response, so a strong protocol to the FCTC is essential. The illicit tobacco trade is a global problem which needs a global solution.

  10. Smuggling and cross border shopping of tobacco in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, L; Raw, M

    1995-05-27

    Governments have recently become concerned about cross border shopping and smuggling because it can decrease tax revenue. The tobacco industry predicted that, with the removal of border controls in the European Union, price differences between neighbouring countries would lead to a diversion of tobacco trade, legally and illegally, to countries with cheaper cigarettes. According to them this diversion would be through increased cross border shopping for personal consumption or through increased smuggling of cheap cigarettes from countries with low tax to countries with high tax, where cigarettes are more expensive. These arguments have been used to urge governments not to increase tax on tobacco products. The evidence suggests, however, that cross border shopping is not yet a problem in Europe and that smuggling is not of cheap cigarettes to expensive countries. Instead, more expensive "international" brands are smuggled into northern Europe and sold illegally on the streets of the cheaper countries of southern Europe.

  11. NUCLEAR NONPROLIFERATION: U.S. Efforts to Combat Nuclear Smuggling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ...) information about efforts to combat nuclear smuggling at U.S. borders. My statement today is based on the results of our May 16, 2002, report on this subject1 and information we obtained from the U.S...

  12. Tobacco Taxation, Smuggling, and Street Tobacco Vendors in Eritrea

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The bulk of the smuggled cigarettes are sold by street vendors, many of them women and children, ... and its implications for government revenue;; identify the reasons why people sell on the streets; and, ... Agent(e) responsable du CRDI.

  13. Nuclear smuggling in Europe real dangers and enigmatic deceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaper, A.

    1998-01-01

    During the last years, alarming news has accumulated on smuggled nuclear material, migrating experts, stolen bombs and new miracle substances that render obsolete all nonproliferation efforts. Together with a look at the economic difficulties, sinking living standards, and rising unemployment in the CIS countries, a pessimistic impression evolves of how to control the huge Russian nuclear complex and how to stem further proliferation of nuclear weapons. This paper tries to assess the dangers of nuclear smuggling and to discuss some possibilities for remedies

  14. Cigarette smuggling finds a home in the west.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Square, D

    1998-01-13

    Four years ago the tobacco-smuggling situation was so bad that the federal government reduced its tobacco taxes. All provinces in the East save Newfoundland followed suit by lowering provincial taxes as well. The western provinces adamantly refused to do this. Today, cartons of cigarettes that sell for $26 in Ontario cost roughly $45 west of the Ontario border. The result, says David Square, is that tobacco smuggling is now a thriving industry in western Canada.

  15. By Land, Sea, or Air A Comparative Analysis of Cartel Smuggling Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    affected by the United States’ actions to counter drug smuggling. According to Watt and Zepeda, “By 1914 counternarcotic legislation in the United...Colombia’s interior, $5,500 to $7,000 at Colombian ports, and $24,000 to $27,000 wholesale on the street in the United States depending on the...http://www.overview.uscg.mil/ Missions/. 182 Ibid. 183 Ibid. 48 environmental protection; and [I]ce operations.”184 In order for USCG personnel

  16. A.Q. Khan Nuclear Smuggling Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly MacCalman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abdul Qadeer Khan, widely viewed as the father of Pakistan’s nuclear weapons program, was arrested on January 31, 2004 for his key role in the black market sale of nuclear technology and equipment to Iran, North Korea, Libya, and possibly others. A.Q. Khan’s nuclear smuggling network prospered throughout the 1980s and 1990s and was linked to middlemen and businesses in over 20 countries. The network offered buyers a menu of both technical expertise and materials with prices ranging from millions to hundreds of millions of dollars. The Khan network was ultimately exposed largely due to years of intelligence gathering by the United States and the United Kingdom. However, very few of the network’s members have been successfully prosecuted and the demand for nuclear material by both state and non-state actors continues. The exposure of Khan’s network confirmed that a non-state actor could procure and sell a turnkey nuclear weapons program to willing buyers.

  17. Prevalence of smuggled and foreign cigarette use in Tehran, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Gholamreza; Tafti, Saeid Fallah; Telischi, Firouzeh; Joossens, Luk; Hosseini, Mostafa; Ghafari, Mostafa

    2010-01-01

    Background Iran is one of two main target markets for tobacco smuggling in the WHO's Eastern Mediterranean Region. The Iranian government has a local tobacco monopoly but there is high demand for international brands. Informal reports show about 20% of cigarette consumption is smuggled brands. This pack survey study is the first in Iran to gather validated information on use of smuggled cigarettes. Methods A randomized cross-sectional household survey in Tehran in 2008–2009 of 1540 smokers aged 16–90 (83% men) was performed, including interviewer checking of cigarette packs. Results In all, 20.9% of cigarettes and 6.7% of domestic branded cigarettes were smuggled. A total of 60.1% of smokers preferred foreign cigarettes. There was no significant difference between consumption of illegal cigarettes by sex. (Fisher exact test p=0.61) Use of smuggled cigarettes was higher among younger smokers (p=0.01) Conclusions Use of illegal cigarettes is high. Tobacco control laws outlawing their sale are not being enforced. PMID:20876076

  18. Maritime security report : cocaine smuggling from South America to Europe and the United States increased in 2000 via commercial maritime and other modes of transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    An increase in the detected and estimated transatlantic flow of cocaine smuggled from South America to the United States and Europe in 2000 has been reported by the U.S. Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP). According to the ONDCP "Annual A...

  19. A Critical Insight into Europe´s Criminalisation of Human Smuggling : SIEPS Policy Paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Liempt, I.C.

    Despite being framed as a recent phenomenon, human smuggling practices have existed for a long time and have historically been tied to border crossing regulations and controls. What is relatively new however is the criminalisation of human smuggling. Since the 1990s human smuggling is increasingly

  20. Alcohol Consumption and Harm among Adolescents in Sweden: Is Smuggled Alcohol More Harmful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Johan

    2012-01-01

    As a consequence of Sweden joining the European Union, privately imported alcohol is increasingly sold within illegal contexts (i.e., smuggled alcohol). One implication of the smuggled alcohol is that alcohol becomes more available to underage drinkers. In the Swedish debate, smuggled alcohol has been formulated as a youth problem. The aim of this…

  1. [Cocaine smuggling in the gastrointestinal tract--the case report with the review of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszowski, Krzysztof; Hydzik, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2005-01-01

    Body-packing is the way of psychoactive substances smuggling by swallowing of carefully prepared packages with drugs into the gastrointestinal tract or by insertion them into the vagina or the rectum, especially in order to avoid finding them by the custom service. Cocaine, as well as opiates, is the one of the most often smuggled drugs by so called body-packers. In the present study the first case of the body-packer from Malopolska region in Poland, who was observed in the Toxicology Department of the Collegium Medicum UJ, was described. The 29-year-old man swallowed 60 packages containing cocaine with a total net weight of about 500 grams. The plain abdominal radiography revealed multiple shadows of foreign bodies in the gastrointestinal tract, but the results of blood and urine cocaine measurements were negative. During the 37-hours stay in our department the patient was monitored (blood pressure, heart rate, temperature), laxatives and oral fluids were administered. All the packages were evacuated through the natural way and it was followed up by the control abdominal radiography. No symptoms of acute cocaine intoxication or any other complications were observed. According to the case there is also the thorough review of literature presented including the kinds of body-packing, the diagnostic methods used in recognizing of body-packers and the ways of their treatment taking into consideration the conservative management as well as surgical methods.

  2. How Tobacco Control Measures and Smuggling Influence Demand ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    How Tobacco Control Measures and Smuggling Influence Demand in Panama. Panama's tobacco epidemic demonstrates ... Their goal: establish a new threshold for increasing the luxury tax on tobacco products, including cigarettes, based on the monthly evolution of cigarette sales. The researchers will survey brands in ...

  3. Oil Smuggling As A Variable In The Greek Crisis' Equation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karakasis, V.P.

    2014-01-01

    Fuel smuggling is embedded into the economic fabric of Greece. A draft internal report written by the IMF officials and published in Wall Street Journal one year ago, clearly conveys that a “thicket of bureaucratic red tape and lapses in law enforcement” enables “big players to dominate the markets

  4. Managing Migration: Is border control fundamental to anti-trafficking and anti- smuggling interventions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Miller

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last several decades, globalisation and a growing concern over security issues, including transnational crime and terrorism, has shaped migration policies and the priorities of states. As migration rose to the top of many government agendas, a rapid tightening and regularisation of borders ensued in an attempt to keep undesirable, high-risk migrants out of potential destination countries. Concomitantly, transnational crimes, such as trafficking in persons and the smuggling of migrants, have been increasingly defined as border security problems. This article examines the extent to which border control is fundamental to anti-trafficking and anti-smuggling interventions, situating the debate within the wider nexus of globalisation and the securitisation of migration. Based upon their work with the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC Regional Centre for Southeast Asia and the Pacific, the authors take the standpoint that given it is the sovereign right of each state to control its border and regulate migration, the human rights of migrants must be considered within this realpolitik. Clearly, though, this claim is highly political and contentious. In the article, we explore some of the tensions and contradictions that have emerged in this debate, and then develop an argument to suggest that it is possible for states to combine managed migration and strict border controls with the protection of human rights in the current context of globalisation.

  5. Progress in combating cigarette smuggling: controlling the supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, L; Raw, M

    2008-12-01

    The illicit tobacco trade results in huge losses of revenue to governments, estimated at $US40-50 billion in 2006, and in increased consumption and thus health problems because it makes tobacco available more cheaply. On 20 October 2008 the second meeting of the International Negotiating Body (INB2) on the illicit trade protocol of WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) will discuss measures to tackle the illicit trade in tobacco products. This paper presents the experience over the last decade of three countries, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom, which shows that tobacco smuggling can be successfully tackled. The evidence strongly suggests that the key to controlling smuggling is controlling the supply chain, and that the supply chain is controlled to a great extent by the tobacco industry.

  6. Pediatric body packing: drug smuggling reaches a new low.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beno, Suzanne; Calello, Diane; Baluffi, Andrew; Henretig, Fred M

    2005-11-01

    The case of a 6-year-old boy presenting with severe clinical manifestations of an opioid intoxication and who is discovered to be an international "body packer" is presented and discussed. This article is the first to report on the phenomenon of body packing in young children. It also highlights the use of prescription opioids as cargo, which has not previously been addressed in the literature.

  7. Narcotic smuggling and radiography of the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamilo, M.; Suoranta, H.; Suramo, I.

    1986-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is being used to an increasing extent as a route for smuggling narcotics. Small, swallowed packages overwrapped with condoms or other materials are usually not detected by the customs authorities. Conventional abdominal radiography may indicate foreign bodies surrounded by a characteristic thin layer of gas and located in the gastrointestinal tract. Some short case histories, and the radiologic findings in four heroin 'body packers' are presented. (orig.)

  8. Detecting nuclear materials smuggling: performance evaluation of container inspection policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaukler, Gary M; Li, Chenhua; Ding, Yu; Chirayath, Sunil S

    2012-03-01

    In recent years, the United States, along with many other countries, has significantly increased its detection and defense mechanisms against terrorist attacks. A potential attack with a nuclear weapon, using nuclear materials smuggled into the country, has been identified as a particularly grave threat. The system for detecting illicit nuclear materials that is currently in place at U.S. ports of entry relies heavily on passive radiation detectors and a risk-scoring approach using the automated targeting system (ATS). In this article we analyze this existing inspection system and demonstrate its performance for several smuggling scenarios. We provide evidence that the current inspection system is inherently incapable of reliably detecting sophisticated smuggling attempts that use small quantities of well-shielded nuclear material. To counter the weaknesses of the current ATS-based inspection system, we propose two new inspection systems: the hardness control system (HCS) and the hybrid inspection system (HYB). The HCS uses radiography information to classify incoming containers based on their cargo content into "hard" or "soft" containers, which then go through different inspection treatment. The HYB combines the radiography information with the intelligence information from the ATS. We compare and contrast the relative performance of these two new inspection systems with the existing ATS-based system. Our studies indicate that the HCS and HYB policies outperform the ATS-based policy for a wide range of realistic smuggling scenarios. We also examine the impact of changes in adversary behavior on the new inspection systems and find that they effectively preclude strategic gaming behavior of the adversary. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Oil Smuggling As A Variable In The Greek Crisis' Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Karakasis, V.P.

    2014-01-01

    Fuel smuggling is embedded into the economic fabric of Greece. A draft internal report written by the IMF officials and published in Wall Street Journal one year ago, clearly conveys that a “thicket of bureaucratic red tape and lapses in law enforcement” enables “big players to dominate the markets for gas, diesel and heating oil” exercising a negative influence on the real economy.

  10. Trafficking and Syrian Refugee Smuggling: Evidence from the Balkan Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Mandic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As of March 2016, 4.8 million Syrian refugees were scattered in two dozen countries by the civil war. Refugee smuggling has been a major catalyst of human trafficking in the Middle East and Europe migrant crises. Data on the extent to which smuggling devolved into trafficking in this refugee wave is, however, scarce. This article investigates how Syrian refugees interact with smugglers, shedding light on how human smuggling and human trafficking interrelated on the Balkan Route. I rely on original evidence from in-depth interviews (n = 123 and surveys (n = 100 with Syrian refugees in Jordan, Turkey, Greece, Serbia, and Germany; as well as ethnographic observations in thirty-five refugee camps or other sites in these countries. I argue that most smugglers functioned as guides, informants, and allies in understudied ways—thus refugee perceptions diverge dramatically from government policy assumptions. I conclude with a recommendation for a targeted advice policy that would acknowledge the reality of migrant-smuggler relations, and more effectively curb trafficking instead of endangering refugees.

  11. Methodology for evaluating port vulnerability to nuclear smuggling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ek, D.; Gronager, J.R.; Blankenship, J.A.; Martin, D.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Background: Fueled by an increase in intercepted nuclear smuggling events, the threat of nuclear smuggling has received increased attention in recent years. This attention has resulted in a focused effort to improve the ability to deter or detect smuggling attempts through border crossings, including seaports, airports, and rail and road crossings. These efforts have primarily been focused on installing SNM detectors across vehicle and pedestrian gates entering these ports. However, the effectiveness of this application in deterring or detecting events has not been carefully evaluated. A recent effort was undertaken to evaluate in detail the susceptibility of an international seaport and airport to nuclear smuggling. The evaluation considered a range of adversary profiles to match these against existing and proposed port security measures and equipment. The evaluation was pursued using path analysis methodologies, which were adapted to the port environment. As a result of limited data concerning the effectiveness of patrol, search, and access control procedures at the port, an assessment methodology was developed to estimate these in a standardized fashion. The methodology considers a detailed list of tasks each type of adversary must successfully accomplish for any particular smuggling scenario and path through the port. Within these tasks, locations or times of potential detection are identified. From a look-up table, a detection level (Low, Medium, or High) is assigned to each detection potential based upon the type of detection possible and considering the possible access or authority of each adversary. The overall detection potential in determined as a sum of these individual detection potentials according to the equation: P t ={1-Σ(1-P n ). Where: P t is the total detection potential for an adversary path, and P n is the individual detection at a particular location or time. The evaluation revealed that the current process of installing portals at

  12. Scrutinising the double disadvantage: knowledge production in the messy field of migrant smuggling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baird, Ted; van Liempt, I.C.

    2016-01-01

    Human smuggling is a global phenomenon which has been difficult to research. Even though there is a large and growing literature on human smuggling, it lacks a systematic review of the major theoretical and conceptual approaches. Besides the lack of conceptual cohesion, there is fundamental lack of

  13. Scrutinising the Double Disadvantage: Knowledge Production in the Messy Field of Migrant Smuggling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baird, T.E.

    2016-01-01

    Human smuggling is a global phenomenon which has been difficult to research. Even though there is a large and growing literature on human smuggling, it lacks a systematic review of the major theoretical and conceptual approaches. Besides the lack of conceptual cohesion, there is fundamental lack of

  14. Identifying Victims of Human Trafficking at Hotspots by Focusing on People Smuggled to Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Ventrella

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that smuggling of migrants is associated with human trafficking. Hence, victims of human trafficking amongst smuggled migrants should be identified by EU Member States at hotspots established by the European Commission, to overcome the migrant and refugee crisis. Identified victims should be given a visa and a programme of protection to escape their traffickers. In order to achieve these objectives, research suggests that EU law on migrant smuggling should be amended and the Temporary Protection Directive should be applied to smuggled persons when there is an indication that they may be victims of human trafficking. This approach should be adopted by the EASO in cooperation with police forces investigating smuggling and trafficking at hotspots.

  15. The Relationship between Criminal and Terrorist Organizations and Human Smuggling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    franchise . There can be smaller cells that are quasi independent from the larger cartel but pay tribute to that cartel for the ability or the right...to move product into and out of the U.S. Thus if you go outside the rules of the franchise you either pay some penalty or you lose the right to...date of arrival at his restaurant of his smuggling clients. In another notebook, he had the names and numbers of his restaurant customers and their

  16. Case studies in international tobacco surveillance: cigarette smuggling in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafey, O; Cokkinides, V; Cavalcante, T M; Teixeira, M; Vianna, C; Thun, M

    2002-09-01

    This article is the first in a series of international case studies developed by the American Cancer Society to illustrate use of publicly available surveillance data for regional tobacco control. A descriptive analysis of Brazil and Paraguay cigarette production and trade data from official sources. Per capita cigarette consumption for Brazil and its neighbour was calculated from 1970 to 1998 using data on production, imports, and exports from NATIONS, the National Tobacco Information Online System. A 63% decrease was observed in the estimate of per capita consumption of cigarettes in Brazil between 1986 and 1998 (from 1913 cigarettes per person in 1986 to 714 cigarettes per person in 1998) and a 16-fold increase in Paraguay was observed during the same period (from 678 cigarettes per person in 1986 to 10 929 cigarettes per person in 1998). Following Brazil's 1999 passage of a 150% cigarette export tax, cigarette exports fell 89% and Brazil's estimated per capita consumption rose to 1990 levels (based on preliminary data). Per capita consumption in Paraguay also fell to 1990 levels. These trends coincide with local evidence that large volumes of cigarettes manufactured in Brazil for export to Paraguay are smuggled back and consumed as tax-free contraband in Brazil. It is hoped that this case study will draw wider public attention to the problems that smuggling presents for tobacco control, help identify other countries confronting similar issues, and stimulate effective interventions.

  17. Graph-Based Analysis of Nuclear Smuggling Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, Diane; Holder, Larry; Thompson, Sandra E.; Whitney, Paul D.; Chilton, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Much of the data that is collected and analyzed today is structural, consisting not only of entities but also of relationships between the entities. As a result, analysis applications rely upon automated structural data mining approaches to find patterns and concepts of interest. This ability to analyze structural data has become a particular challenge in many security-related domains. In these domains, focusing on the relationships between entities in the data is critical to detect important underlying patterns. In this study we apply structural data mining techniques to automate analysis of nuclear smuggling data. In particular, we choose to model the data as a graph and use graph-based relational learning to identify patterns and concepts of interest in the data. In this paper, we identify the analysis questions that are of importance to security analysts and describe the knowledge representation and data mining approach that we adopt for this challenge. We analyze the results using the Russian nuclear smuggling event database.

  18. Blood cigarettes: cigarette smuggling and war economies in central and eastern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titeca, Kristof; Joossens, Luk; Raw, Martin

    2011-05-01

    To analyse cigarette smuggling practices in central and eastern Africa. Primary data were gathered during long-term qualitative field research in which about 400 interviews were conducted. Analysis of secondary sources included academic literature and reports from non-government organisations, multilateral organisations and the press. Our research suggests that the following factors play an important role in cigarette smuggling in eastern and central Africa: (1) government officials encounter difficulties monitoring the long and porous borders; (2) there is a general problem of corrupt government officials and particularly those who allow large-scale smugglers to operate; (3) criminal elements also play an important role in smuggling--cigarette smuggling has helped rebel groups to finance their activities, something illustrated through examples from the war economy in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Our research suggests that cigarette smuggling in this region is not primarily the result of different taxation levels in neighbouring states, but rather the outcome of weak state capacity, high levels of corruption and the activities of rebel groups. Under these conditions smuggling cigarettes becomes an attractive option as taxation is so easily avoided. This explains why in the low-income countries in this study there are high levels of smuggling in spite of low cigarette prices. Comprehensive supply control and enforcement legislation, and cooperation at national, regional and global level are needed to tackle fraudulent practices facilitated by corruption at state level, and to effectively punish interaction between cigarette traders and rebel groups.

  19. Smuggling of radioactive substances. Swedish capacity to detect and analyze; Smuggling av radioaktivt material. Sveriges foermaaga till detektion och analys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringbom, A.; Spjuth, L. [Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-04-01

    This report is the result of a survey of the existing Swedish national capability to detect an attempt to smuggle nuclear material or other radioactive substances. The capacity to perform a more thorough analysis of a seized sample has also been investigated. The study shows that Sweden today has a small capacity to disclose a smuggling attempt of such materials. The limited detection capacity that exists is not sensitive enough for this purpose, and is not used in an optimal way. Furthermore, relevant education of the custom officers is needed. Today, a national capability for an initial analysis of seized material exists, but action plans describing the handling of the material should be resolved. The high number of seizures of radioactive material in countries having a better detection capability indicates that illicit trafficking of radioactive materials is still a problem. In Sweden, we so far do not have many reported incidents of illicit trafficking - partly due to our limited capacity to detect radioactive material - however, we do not know how many incidents that really have occurred. Fixed installations for detection at the border controls are the most efficient way to improve our capacity for detecting nuclear material. An initial pilot study is suggested to be able to estimate the need. Increased education of the custom officers, establishment of formal routines for handling and analysis of seized materials, and to formalise the contacts with international analysis laboratories are also identified as important factors to be improved.

  20. The study of suspicious cases to body smuggling in Loghman Hospital 1999-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoseinian Moghadam H

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available One method of drug smuggling is body packing or body stuffing, placement of narcotics (opium, heroin, hashish, … inside intestinal tract for transfer from city to city or country to country. Estimating of the methods for transferring, content of packets, packaging, cause of death and results of diagnostic and therapeutic methods can effectively decrease the number of body packer and law execution. This study is case series by randomized sampling. Several parameters such as sex, age, marital status, addiction, job, level of education, type of opioids and their weight and number of packets, result of abdominal X-ray, surgery needs, were collected from April 1999 to December 2000. Through this period of time, 32 male smuggler who had swallowed drug packets were detained. The average age was 41 years (max=62, min=20. The minimum weight of the opium carried by this smugglers was below 20 gram and maximum weight was 1000 grams (median=360 grams. The minimum number of packets were one packet and maximum number of packets were 54 (median=10 packets. In 84 percent of body smugglers the content of packets was opium, 13 percent was heroin and 3 percent was hashish. From the cases, 81 percent of smugglers were addicts themselves. Death occurred in 7 cases from which 3 were after surgery.

  1. Dancing on coke: smuggling cocaine dispersed in polyvinyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Maudens, Kristof E; Lambert, Willy E; Van Calenbergh, Serge; Risseeuw, Martijn D P; Van hee, Paul; Covaci, Adrian; Neels, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Recent trends suggest that cocaine smugglers have become more and more inventive to avoid seizures of large amounts of cocaine transported between countries. We report a case of a mail parcel containing a dance pad which was seized at the Customs Department of Brussels Airport, Belgium. After investigation, the inside of the dance pad was found to contain a thick polymer, which tested positive for cocaine. Analysis was performed using a routine colorimetric swipe test, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The polymer was identified as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and contained 18% cocaine, corresponding to a street value of € 20,000. Laboratory experiments showed that cocaine could be easily extracted from the PVA matrix. This case report reveals a new smuggling technique for the transportation of large amounts of cocaine from one country to another. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. [Cigarette smuggling: a wide scope phenomenon only there to serve the interests of big tobacco manufacturers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvin, Louis

    2005-01-01

    "Cigarette smuggling: a wide scope phenomenon only there to serve the interests of big tobacco manuafacturers" uses industry officials' quotes and documents to describe how tobacco manufacturers are involved in the organisation of smuggling and how manufacturers use smuggling in two ways: on one hand, to flood markets with cheap cigarettes and defeat governements' efforts to reduce tobacco consumption by adopting one of the most efficient public health measures (ie: high taxation of tobacco products) and on the other hand, by using the false threat of increased contraband to scare politicians and prevent them from adopting strong fiscal policies. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) with a protocol on smuggling and the collaboration between international agencies is a means to counter and defeat the tobacco industry attemps at sabotaging efficient public health measures.

  3. In search of a missing link: Nuclear terrorism and nuclear smuggling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gere, F.

    1998-01-01

    There is a common assumption that because of the development of a nuclear smuggling (NS) generated by the disintegration of the Soviet Union, nuclear terrorism (NT) becomes a clear and present danger. But the analysis of the trends in smuggling as well as the current and foreseeable strategies of terrorist organizations suggest that the two phenomena have little chance to connect. Nevertheless it is necessary to understand why there is so much concern about such a possibility. (author)

  4. Application of micro-Raman spectroscopy for fight against terrorism and smuggling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaviva, Salvatore; Botti, Sabina; Palucci, Antonio; Puiu, Adriana; Schnürer, Frank; Schweikert, Wenka; Romolo, Francesco Saverio

    2014-04-01

    We report the results of Raman measurements on some common military explosives and explosives precursors deposited on clothing fabrics, both synthetic and natural, in concentration comparable to those obtained from a single fingerprint or mixed with similar harmless substances to detect illegal compounds for smuggling activities. Raman spectra were obtained using an integrated portable Raman system equipped with an optical microscope and a 785-nm laser in an analysis of smuggling purposes or for counterfeiting activities.

  5. Change in tobacco excise policy in Bulgaria: the role of tobacco industry lobbying and smuggling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skafida, Valeria; Silver, Karin E; Rechel, Boika P D; Gilmore, Anna B

    2014-05-01

    To examine how transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) tried to penetrate the Bulgarian cigarette market and influence tobacco excise tax policy after the fall of communism and during Bulgaria's accession to the European Union (EU). Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents supplemented by analysis of press coverage, tobacco industry journals, market reports and key informant interviews. TTCs have been involved in cigarette smuggling to and through Bulgaria since at least 1975 and used smuggling as a market-entry strategy. National tobacco company Bulgartabac appears to have been involved in smuggling its own cigarettes from and reimporting them to Bulgaria. Since Bulgaria's accession to the EU opened the market to the TTCs, TTCs have exaggerated the scale of the illicit trade to successfully convince politicians and public health experts that tax increases lead to cigarette smuggling. Yet, sources point to TTCs' continued complicity in cigarette smuggling to and through Bulgaria between 2000 and 2010. TTCs aimed to influence the Bulgarian tobacco excise tax regime, import duties and pricing mechanism, but appear to have been less successful than in other former communist countries in part due to the co-existence of a state-owned tobacco company. Undisclosed meetings between the tobacco industry and government ministers and officials are ongoing despite Bulgaria being a party to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). The TTCs continued involvement in smuggling suggests that deals in 2004, 2007 and 2010 which the European Commission has reached with TTCs to address cigarette smuggling are inadequate. The TTCs' continued access to policymakers suggests that the FCTC is not being properly implemented. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. “Key to the Future”: British American Tobacco and Cigarette Smuggling in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley; Collin, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    Background Cigarette smuggling is a major public health issue, stimulating increased tobacco consumption and undermining tobacco control measures. China is the ultimate prize among tobacco's emerging markets, and is also believed to have the world's largest cigarette smuggling problem. Previous work has demonstrated the complicity of British American Tobacco (BAT) in this illicit trade within Asia and the former Soviet Union. Methods and Findings This paper analyses internal documents of BAT available on site from the Guildford Depository and online from the BAT Document Archive. Documents dating from the early 1900s to 2003 were searched and indexed on a specially designed project database to enable the construction of an historical narrative. Document analysis incorporated several validation techniques within a hermeneutic process. This paper describes the huge scale of this illicit trade in China, amounting to billions of (United States) dollars in sales, and the key supply routes by which it has been conducted. It examines BAT's efforts to optimise earnings by restructuring operations, and controlling the supply chain and pricing of smuggled cigarettes. Conclusions Our research shows that smuggling has been strategically critical to BAT's ongoing efforts to penetrate the Chinese market, and to its overall goal to become the leading company within an increasingly global industry. These findings support the need for concerted efforts to strengthen global collaboration to combat cigarette smuggling. PMID:16834455

  7. "Key to the future": British American tobacco and cigarette smuggling in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley; Collin, Jeff

    2006-07-01

    Cigarette smuggling is a major public health issue, stimulating increased tobacco consumption and undermining tobacco control measures. China is the ultimate prize among tobacco's emerging markets, and is also believed to have the world's largest cigarette smuggling problem. Previous work has demonstrated the complicity of British American Tobacco (BAT) in this illicit trade within Asia and the former Soviet Union. This paper analyses internal documents of BAT available on site from the Guildford Depository and online from the BAT Document Archive. Documents dating from the early 1900s to 2003 were searched and indexed on a specially designed project database to enable the construction of an historical narrative. Document analysis incorporated several validation techniques within a hermeneutic process. This paper describes the huge scale of this illicit trade in China, amounting to billions of (United States) dollars in sales, and the key supply routes by which it has been conducted. It examines BAT's efforts to optimise earnings by restructuring operations, and controlling the supply chain and pricing of smuggled cigarettes. Our research shows that smuggling has been strategically critical to BAT's ongoing efforts to penetrate the Chinese market, and to its overall goal to become the leading company within an increasingly global industry. These findings support the need for concerted efforts to strengthen global collaboration to combat cigarette smuggling.

  8. "Key to the future": British American tobacco and cigarette smuggling in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley Lee

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smuggling is a major public health issue, stimulating increased tobacco consumption and undermining tobacco control measures. China is the ultimate prize among tobacco's emerging markets, and is also believed to have the world's largest cigarette smuggling problem. Previous work has demonstrated the complicity of British American Tobacco (BAT in this illicit trade within Asia and the former Soviet Union.This paper analyses internal documents of BAT available on site from the Guildford Depository and online from the BAT Document Archive. Documents dating from the early 1900s to 2003 were searched and indexed on a specially designed project database to enable the construction of an historical narrative. Document analysis incorporated several validation techniques within a hermeneutic process. This paper describes the huge scale of this illicit trade in China, amounting to billions of (United States dollars in sales, and the key supply routes by which it has been conducted. It examines BAT's efforts to optimise earnings by restructuring operations, and controlling the supply chain and pricing of smuggled cigarettes.Our research shows that smuggling has been strategically critical to BAT's ongoing efforts to penetrate the Chinese market, and to its overall goal to become the leading company within an increasingly global industry. These findings support the need for concerted efforts to strengthen global collaboration to combat cigarette smuggling.

  9. Complicity in contraband: British American Tobacco and cigarette smuggling in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, J; Legresley, E; MacKenzie, R; Lawrence, S; Lee, K

    2004-12-01

    To examine the complicity of British American Tobacco (BAT) in cigarette smuggling in Asia, and to assess the centrality of illicit trade to regional corporate strategy. Analysis of previously confidential documents from BAT's Guildford depository. An iterative strategy combined searches based on geography, organisational structure, and key personnel, while corporate euphemisms for contraband were identified by triangulation. BAT documents demonstrate the strategic importance of smuggling across global, regional, national, and local levels. Particularly important in Asia, contraband enabled access to closed markets, created pressure for market opening, and was highly profitable. Documents demonstrate BAT's detailed oversight of illicit trade, seeking to reconcile the conflicting demands of control and deniability. BAT documents demonstrate that smuggling has been driven by corporate objectives, indicate national measures by which the problem can be addressed, and highlight the importance of a coordinated global response via WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  10. Decision-based model development for nuclear material theft, smuggling, and illicit use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear material is vulnerable to a range of theft, sabotage, smuggling and illicit use scenarios. These scenarios are dependent on the choices of individuals and organizations involved in these activities. These choices, in turn; are dependent on the perceived payoff vectors of the involved players. These payoff vectors can include monetary gain, ability to avoid detection, penalties for detection, difficulty of accomplishment, resource constraints, infrastructure support, etc. Threat scenarios can be developed from these individual choices, and the set of worst-case threat scenarios can be compiled into a threat definition. The implementation of physical protection controls is dependent on the developed threat scenarios. The analysis of the composition of the postulated threat can be based on the analysis of the postulated decisions of the individuals and organizations involved on theft, smuggling, and illicit use. This paper proposes a model to systematically analyze the significant decision points that an individual or organization addresses as result of its goals. The model's dependence on assumptions is discussed. Using these assumptions, a model is developed that assigns probabilities to a set of decisions performed by the individuals involved in theft/smuggling. The individual and organisation's decisions are based on the perceived cost/benefit of the decisions and the resource constraints. Methods for functionally obtaining decision probabilities from perceived cost/benefit are proposed. The treatment of high-consequence/low-probability events is discussed in terms of analysis of precursor events, and the use of sensitivity analysis is discussed. An example of a simplified model for nuclear material theft, smuggling, and illicit use is presented, and the results of this simplified model are evaluated. By attempting to model the potential distribution of nuclear material theft/smuggling events, this model increases the analytical tools available

  11. Development of design of a radioisotope switchable neutron source and new portable detector of smuggling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meskhi, L.; Kurdadze, L.

    2010-01-01

    Development of simple and cheap radioisotope switchable neutron source for application in the portable device of detecting of smuggling is presented. Detailed calculations (Monte-Carlo modeling) for the purpose of optimization of a design of the source and the detector module are carried out. The sufficient an yield of neutrons, about 2 o 105 n/s provides the source with the sizes of approx 25 x 25 x 60 mm 3. Results of simulation of scanning smuggling areas (polyethylene 10 x 10 x 5 cm 3) behind the thick steel wall (1.2 cm) gave the relation of signal/ background 7-8

  12. Conducting research among smuggled migrants in the Netherlands and Austria: methodological reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Bilger

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative research among smuggled migrants raises methodological as well as ethical questions. In this article the implications of field work among this specific group of people are thoroughly discussed. Also migrants who have been smuggled have a past, a travel experience and some have a confrontation with immigration officers which can have a concrete impact on the story provided to the researcher and as such on the data collection. Besides, once the story is told, the researcher is responsable for how best to deal with this often secret information.

  13. State responses and migrant experiences with human smuggling: A reality check

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liempt, I.C. van; Sersli, S.

    2013-01-01

    Using Bigo’s (2002) notion of “the governmentality of unease” this article reveals a shift in popular discourse around human smuggling in Western Europe and Canada since the 1990s towards increasing criminalization. To analyze this process of criminalization we have identified three recurring

  14. Estimating price elasticities when there is smuggling: the sensitivity of smoking to price in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Jonathan; Sen, Anindya; Stabile, Mark

    2003-09-01

    A central parameter for evaluating tax policies is the price elasticity of demand for cigarettes. But in many countries this parameter is difficult to estimate reliably due to widespread smuggling, which significantly biases estimates using legal sales data. An excellent example is Canada, where widespread smuggling in the early 1990s, in response to large tax increases, biases upwards the response of legal cigarette sales to price. We surmount this problem through two approaches: excluding the provinces and years where smuggling was greatest; and using household level expenditure data on smoking. These two approaches yield a tightly estimated elasticity in the range of -0.45 to -0.47. We also show that the sensitivity of smoking to price is much larger among lower income Canadians. In the context of recent behavioral models of smoking, whereby higher taxes reduce unwanted smoking among price sensitive populations, this finding suggests that cigarette taxes may not be as regressive as previously suggested. Finally, we show that price increases on cigarettes do not increase, and may actually decrease, consumption of alcohol; as a result, smuggling of cigarettes may have raised consumption of alcohol as well.

  15. Forensic analysis of a smuggled HEU sample interdicted in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, S.; Hutcheon, I.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A sample of HEU was seized in Rousse, Bulgaria on May 29, 1999, at a border crossing between Bulgaria and Romania. A search of the suspect's vehicle uncovered a lead canister hidden in the car trunk. The initial examination of the contents by Bulgarian scientists indicated that the sample was indeed HEU, and subsequently arrangements were made for a U.S. team of nuclear forensics scientists from several national laboratories to conduct a thorough examination. This report gives a summary of the results. The HEU sample was contained in a glass ampoule that was embedded in a yellow wax, and in turn the wax filled the inside of the cylindrical lead container. A broad set of techniques was used to examine both nuclear and non-nuclear materials. Our general experimental approach has been previously described at meetings of the Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG), but this case represents the application of the most diverse set of nuclear forensic measurements for an actual seized sample. Analysis of the HEU itself included particle characterization, stoichiometry, impurity elements, residual nuclides, age-dating, and U and Pu isotopics. Measurements by XRD, SEM, and TEM show that sample is mostly U3O8, with minor amounts of two other phases. The powder is extremely fine-grained (160 nm mean) and quite uniform in size. Most grains (95%) are equidimensional, with the remainder rod-or plate-shaped. The U is 72.7% U-235 with a high U-236 abundance of 12.1%. The sample is reprocessed, reactor-irradiated material. The original U enrichment was 90% and the irradiation burned up about 50% of the initial U-235. Pu is present at a very low-level (3 ppb); the Pu-239 abundance is 82% with 240/239=0.12. Three fission products were detected at low levels, giving unambiguous evidence of fuel recycling. The total impurity content is about 600 ppmw (mostly S, Cl, Fe, and Br), which we interpret as indicating a batch processing operation because the

  16. [The scale of border trade, tax-free import and tobacco smuggling to Norway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Karl Erik

    2004-01-08

    There are no studies of the relative significance in Norway of registered sales, tax-free import, border trade or smuggling of tobacco. The estimated registered sales of tobacco are based on data from the Norwegian customs and excise authorities. The border trade and tax-free import estimates were based on nation-wide, representative surveys of daily smokers aged 16-74 carried out by Statistics Norway for the years 1990-1993 and 1997-2001. There are no detailed data on the scale of smuggling other than confiscation statistics compiled by the customs and excise authorities. It is assumed that confiscations amount to about a tenth of the total amount smuggled into the country. The unregistered consumption of cigarettes and tobacco has been on the rise since the early 1990s; in the years 1997-2001 it accounted for about a quarter of total consumption. Broken down, the figures are as follows: 11% was purchased in Sweden, 5% in Denmark, 9% in other foreign countries; 1% was smuggled into the country. The rise in unregistered tobacco consumption is putting further pressure on the high Norwegian taxes on tobacco. But if taxes were cut, domestic demand would rise, and hence have little or even negative impact on revenue flowing to the government from the legal tobacco market and probably little impact on the levels of imported tobacco through tax-free arrangements or cross-border trade. Hence, although the price gap between Norway and neighbouring countries narrows, we must assume that the motivation to acquire tobacco will remain unaffected while Norwegians continue to travel to Sweden to stock up on inexpensive meat produce.

  17. Smuggling, non-fundamental uncertainty, and parallel market exchange rate volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Clay Barnett

    2003-01-01

    We explore a model where smuggling and a parallel currency market arise, owing to government restrictions that prevent agents from legally holding foreign exchange. Despite such restrictions, agents are able to diversify their savings, holding both domestic and parallel foreign cash, basing their portfolio allocation on current and prospective parallel exchange rates. We attribute movements in parallel rates to non-fundamental uncertainty. The model generates equilibria with both positive and...

  18. [Smuggling of the cocaine in the gastrointestinal tract ended in sudden death--the first case report from the Upper Silesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celiński, Rafał; Jabłoński, Christian; Skowronek, Rafał; Korczyńska, Małgorzata; Kulikowska, Joanna; Nowicka, Joanna; Chowaniec, Czesław; Uttecht-Pudełko, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Fifty-year old man was found dead in the bathroom of his apartment. Forensic autopsy was ordered to determine the cause and manner of death. Autopsy revealed the presence of 55 latex "balls" in the stomach and foregut. In the past the victim was suspected of drug's dealing and smuggling. The content of "balls" and biological material (blood, urine, bloody fluid from internal organs) were analysed with LC MS/MS in the Chair and Department of Forensic Medicine and Forensic Toxicology, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice. The range of cocaine' concentration in the "balls" was 91.2-96.1%, whereas concentration in blood - 107.50 microg/ml, in urine - 284.60 microg/ml and in bloody fluid - 192.30 microg/ml. The cause of death was acute cocaine intoxication.

  19. Analisa Kejahatan Penyelundupan Manusia Berdasarkan Smuggling of Migrants Protocol Ditinjau dari Perspektif Perlindungan Pencari Suaka: Studi Kasus Pengungsi Rohingnya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diajeng Wulan Christianti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Eksodus besar-besaran etnis muslim Rohingya keluar Myanmar kembali terjadi sebagai akibat dilakukannya pembakaran desa, eksekusi, hingga pemerkosaan oleh militer Myanmar di Rakhine. Meskipun mereka harus rela membayar mahal, cara penyelundupan manusia kerap mereka gunakan karena cara formal untuk bisa masuk ke negara lain tidak dimungkinkan. Tindakan penyelundupan manusia adalah tindak pidana dalam Smuggling Protocol di mana negara-negara yang disinggahi pengungsi Rohingya seperti Thailand, Bangladesh, bahkan Indonesia telah menjadi negara pihak. Akibatnya, Pemerintah Thailand dan Bangladesh kerap menangkap pengungsi Rohingya yang masuk ke negaranya bahkan mengusir mereka untuk kembali ke Myanmar. Padahal, sebagai pencari suaka yang terancam persekusi, etnis Rohingya dilindungi oleh hukum Hak Asasi Manusia khususnya prinsip non-refoulement. Artikel ini menganalisa dilema antara aturan Smuggling Protokol yang bertujuan mencegah dan menegakan hukum atas terjadinya kejahatan penyelundupan manusia dengan kewajiban memberikan pengaman untuk melindungi hak-hak para pengungsi yang terancam persekusi. Artikel ini berkesimpulan bahwa meskipun Smuggling Protocol mampu untuk memberikan keseimbangan antara penegakan hukum kejahatan perlindungan manusia dan perlindungan pencari suaka, akan tetapi pada akhirnya semua tergantung dari keinginan negara untuk menerapkan Smuggling Protocol tersebut melalui aturan implementasi yang jelas namun proporsional. Abstract Again, thousands of Rohingya flee Myanmar to escape persecution after they saw their homes burned down, their family executed, and also suffered rape and torture by the Myanmar’s Military. In order to flee to Thailand or Bangladesh, Rohingyas often resort to using people smugglers and have to pay large amount of money. It is the only option left for desperate Rohingyas trying to save their lives. Smuggling of Migrants is criminal act under Smuggling Protocol. Thai and Bangladesh authorities

  20. An Analysis of Some Highly-Structured Networks of Human Smuggling and Trafficking from Albania and Bulgaria to Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Leman

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors examine the logistic ecology of 30 large-scale networks that were active in human smuggling and trafficking from Albania and Bulgaria to Belgium (1995–2003. Ten networks were studied in greater detail in order to determine three final profiles of networks, based on their use of structural and operational intermediary structures. They are called the “individual infiltration” and the “structural infiltration” human smuggling patterns, and the “violent-control prostitution” trafficking pattern. It should be noted that the business is organized in such a way that the organizers of the logistical support are never inculpated.

  1. Smuggling as the “key to a combined market”: British American Tobacco in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakkash, R; Lee, K

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To understand the strategy of British American Tobacco (BAT) and other transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) to gain access to the Lebanese market, which has remained relatively closed under monopoly ownership and political instability. Methods: Analysis of internal industry documents, local language secondary sources and industry publications. Results: TTCs have relied on legal and illegal channels to supply the Lebanese market since at least the 1970s. Available documents suggest smuggling has been an important component of BAT’s market entry strategy, transported in substantial quantities via middlemen for sale in Lebanon and neighbouring countries. TTCs took advantage of weak and unstable governance, resulting in uncertainty over the Regie’s legal status, and continued to supply the contraband trade despite appeals by the government to cease undermining its revenues. Since the end of the civil war in the early 1990s, continued uncertainty about the tobacco monopoly amid political instability has encouraged TTCs to seek a legal presence in the country, while continuing to achieve substantial sales through contraband. Conclusion: Evidence of the complicity of TTCs in cigarette smuggling extends to Lebanon and the Middle East where this trade has especially benefited from weak governance and chronic political instability. The regional nature of TTC strategy supports strong international cooperation under the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to tackle the problem. PMID:18818226

  2. Smuggling as the "key to a combined market": British American Tobacco in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakkash, R; Lee, K

    2008-10-01

    To understand the strategy of British American Tobacco (BAT) and other transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) to gain access to the Lebanese market, which has remained relatively closed under monopoly ownership and political instability. Analysis of internal industry documents, local language secondary sources and industry publications. TTCs have relied on legal and illegal channels to supply the Lebanese market since at least the 1970s. Available documents suggest smuggling has been an important component of BAT's market entry strategy, transported in substantial quantities via middlemen for sale in Lebanon and neighbouring countries. TTCs took advantage of weak and unstable governance, resulting in uncertainty over the Regie's legal status, and continued to supply the contraband trade despite appeals by the government to cease undermining its revenues. Since the end of the civil war in the early 1990s, continued uncertainty about the tobacco monopoly amid political instability has encouraged TTCs to seek a legal presence in the country, while continuing to achieve substantial sales through contraband. Evidence of the complicity of TTCs in cigarette smuggling extends to Lebanon and the Middle East where this trade has especially benefited from weak governance and chronic political instability. The regional nature of TTC strategy supports strong international cooperation under the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to tackle the problem.

  3. "They're doing people a service"-qualitative study of smoking, smuggling, and social deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, S; Bancroft, A; Amos, A; Parry, O

    2001-07-28

    To examine the behaviour and attitudes related to smoking and contraband tobacco products among smokers in two socially deprived areas. Cross sectional study with qualitative semistructured interviews, augmented by smokers' day grid. Two areas of socioeconomic deprivation in Edinburgh. 50 male and 50 female smokers aged 25-40 years randomly selected from general practitioners' lists from two health centres, each located in an area of deprivation. Most smokers wanted to quit but felt unable to because of the importance of smoking in their daily routine and their addiction to nicotine. Strategies for maintaining consumption levels in the face of increasing cigarette prices and low income included purchasing contraband cigarettes and tobacco. Vendors were contacted through social networks, family, and friends as well as common knowledge of people and places, particularly pubs where contraband was available. Most users of contraband considered that smugglers were providing a valuable service. Purchasing contraband tobacco was viewed as rational in the face of material hardship. Many smokers criticised the government for its high tobacco taxation and the lack of local services to help them to stop smoking. Smokers in deprived areas perceive a lack of support to help them to stop smoking. Cigarette and tobacco smuggling is therefore viewed positively by low income smokers as a way of dealing with the increasing cost of cigarettes. Smokers in areas of deprivation may thus show little support for tackling smuggling until more action is taken to deal with the material and personal factors that make it difficult for them to quit.

  4. The WCO/IAEA joint training programmes for customs services on radioactive material smuggling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saka, E.; Duftschmid, K.

    1998-01-01

    One of the milestones of the WCO Enforcement Programme on Combating nuclear and other radioactive materials smuggling is to raise awareness among Customs services and reinforce their enforcement programmes by providing them training materials and training courses. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is recognized as a unique international organization in nuclear field to assist the WCO Secretariat by providing technical input in developing awareness/training materials and conducting training courses. In line with their policies for the effective combating of nuclear and other radioactive materials smuggling, both international organizations have agreed to co-operate by regular attendance each other's technical meetings. This approach was formalized with the signing of Memorandum of Understanding on 13 May 1997. The WCO and IAEA training strategy has been to give priority to the Eastern and Central Europe region and the first joint training course was held in Vienna for Customs Trainers on 2-6 June 1997 and the second course is scheduled for Customs and Police officers of the same region in September 1998. (author)

  5. An Analysis of Mathematical Models to Improve Counter-Drug Smuggling Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    map that specifies the likely location of the targets. Environmental factors may influence how the heat map blobs move across the map. Currently...commercial fishing vessels, recreation vessels, and go-fast boats (Seelke, 2010). Traffickers also have increasingly used self-propelled semisubmersibles...12. Illustration of the Search Plan. The blue blob represents the likely location of the target and the red dot represents the location of the

  6. Smuggling Networks in the Gulf of Honduras and their Prosecution through the Captaincy General of Guatemala during the Eighteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Reichert

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This work demonstrates the existence of smuggling within the Captaincy General of Guatemala during the eighteenth century, explaining its local origins and development. The author analyzes illegal commerce not only as an economic event, but also as a social phenomenon grounded in networks of individuals from different social classes, both Hispanic and foreign.

  7. Detection of smuggling of nuclear material covered by a legal transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safar, J.; Zsigrai, J.; Tam, N.C.; Lakosi, L.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: One of the worst scenarios for detection of illicit trafficking of nuclear material is when a legal transport of radioactive material is used to cover the radiation of the smuggled uranium. Feasibility study was performed in the Institute of Isotopes and Surface Chemistry of the Chemical Research Centre of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (hereinafter: Institute) in order to study the possible on site measurement techniques and approaches applicable in such cases. As the type A and type B packages always incorporate a feature such as a seal, in a realistic scenario the confiscated nuclear material is expected to be placed outside the package. The passive neutron emission of the uranium is negligible for a reasonable isotopic abundance therefore the feasibility study was concentrating on non-destructive, passive gamma- spectrometric methods. Possible application of Nal (diameter 40x40 mm 3 , large planar (15x15x3 mm 3 ) and a hemispheric CdZnTe (500 mm 3 , and high purity Germanium detectors was investigated. During the on site measurements portable electronics, mini multichannel analyzer, palmtop and/or notebook computer were used. The shielding material of the packages was lead or depleted uranium. The smuggled material was simulated by a package of reactor fuel pellets containing low enriched or natural uranium (materials confiscated in earlier cases) and standards containing low enriched uranium. During the supposed scenario the portal monitor provides an indication of an elevated level of the environmental radioactivity. Then the responsible (e.g. customs) officer investigate the vehicle by a hand-held survey meter in order to search for peaks in dose rates. If a peak was localized, which is different from the position of the legally transported package(s) the officer requests for the expertise of the designated institutes. The following model cases provided the basic conclusion: 1. The legal transport of the radioactive material was simulated by a

  8. Quantitative and qualitative estimates of cross-border tobacco shopping and tobacco smuggling in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhdar, C Ben

    2008-02-01

    In France, cigarette sales have fallen sharply, especially in border areas, since the price increases of 2003 and 2004. It was proposed that these falls were not due to people quitting smoking but rather to increased cross-border sales of tobacco and/or smuggling. This paper aims to test this proposition. Three approaches have been used. First, cigarette sales data from French sources for the period 1999-2006 were collected, and a simulation of the changes seen within these sales was carried out in order to estimate what the sales situation would have looked like without the presence of foreign tobacco. Second, the statements regarding tobacco consumed reported by the French population with registered tobacco sales were compared. Finally, in order to identify the countries of origin of foreign tobacco entering France, we collected a random sample of cigarette packs from a waste collection centre. According to the first method, cross-border shopping and smuggling of tobacco accounted for 8635 tones of tobacco in 2004, 9934 in 2005, and 9930 in 2006, ie, between 14% and 17% of total sales. The second method gave larger results: the difference between registered cigarette sales and cigarettes declared as being smoked was around 12,000 to 13,000 tones in 2005, equivalent to 20% of legal sales. The collection of cigarette packs at a waste collection centre showed that foreign cigarettes accounted for 18.6% of our sample in 2005 and 15.5% in 2006. France seems mainly to be a victim of cross-border purchasing of tobacco products, with the contraband market for tobacco remaining modest. in order to avoid cross-border purchases, an increased harmonization of national policies on the taxation of tobacco products needs to be envisaged by the European Union.

  9. lllicit Radiological and Nuclear Trafficking, Smuggling and Security Incidents in the Black Sea Region since the Fall of the Iron Curtain – an Open Source Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex P. Schmid

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear and radiological smuggling and trafficking incidents, events, and threats from the wider Black Sea area, 1990 – 2011  An Open Source Compilation prepared by Alex P. Schmid & Charlotte Spencer-Smith

  10. Feasibility of abdominal plain film images in evaluation suspected drug smuggler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sormaala, Markus J., E-mail: markus.sormaala@welho.com [Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Salonen, Hanna-Mari, E-mail: hanna-mari.salonen@hus.fi [Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Mattila, Ville M., E-mail: ville.mattila@uta.fi [Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Trauma, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere (Finland); Kivisaari, Arto, E-mail: arto.kivisaari@hus.fi [Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Autti, Taina, E-mail: taina.autti@hus.fi [Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-09-15

    Objective: Drug smuggling in the gastrointestinal tract has soared within the last 20 years. Though illegal substances in the gastrointestinal tract can be visualized with ultrasound, MRI and CT, the abdominal radiograph has by far remained the most frequently used way of detecting smuggled drugs. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the inter-radiologist interpretation error and the reliability of the abdominal radiograph in detecting smuggled drugs. Materials and methods: A total of 279 abdominal radiographs of suspected smugglers were classified by three radiologists as clearly positive or negative for drug smuggling. All available information about the cases was collected from the customs officers and police. Results: Out of these cases 203 (73%) were interpreted as negative and 35 (13%) as positive by all three radiologists. In 86% of the cases there was, therefore, an inter-radiological agreement in interpreting the images. In 41 (14%) cases, however, there was an inter-radiologist disagreement. Kappa-value for inter-observer variability was 0.70. Conclusions: In up to a seventh of the abdominal radiographs the interpretation can be challenging even for an experienced radiologist. False positive interpretation can lead to innocent passengers being detained in vain. As negatively interpreted images usually result in releasing of the suspect, there is no way of knowing how many false negative occur. This makes the abdominal radiograph a suboptimal examination, and low dose CT should be considered as the screening modality for gastrointestinal drug smugglers.

  11. Feasibility of abdominal plain film images in evaluation suspected drug smuggler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sormaala, Markus J.; Salonen, Hanna-Mari; Mattila, Ville M.; Kivisaari, Arto; Autti, Taina

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Drug smuggling in the gastrointestinal tract has soared within the last 20 years. Though illegal substances in the gastrointestinal tract can be visualized with ultrasound, MRI and CT, the abdominal radiograph has by far remained the most frequently used way of detecting smuggled drugs. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the inter-radiologist interpretation error and the reliability of the abdominal radiograph in detecting smuggled drugs. Materials and methods: A total of 279 abdominal radiographs of suspected smugglers were classified by three radiologists as clearly positive or negative for drug smuggling. All available information about the cases was collected from the customs officers and police. Results: Out of these cases 203 (73%) were interpreted as negative and 35 (13%) as positive by all three radiologists. In 86% of the cases there was, therefore, an inter-radiological agreement in interpreting the images. In 41 (14%) cases, however, there was an inter-radiologist disagreement. Kappa-value for inter-observer variability was 0.70. Conclusions: In up to a seventh of the abdominal radiographs the interpretation can be challenging even for an experienced radiologist. False positive interpretation can lead to innocent passengers being detained in vain. As negatively interpreted images usually result in releasing of the suspect, there is no way of knowing how many false negative occur. This makes the abdominal radiograph a suboptimal examination, and low dose CT should be considered as the screening modality for gastrointestinal drug smugglers

  12. The long postwar and the politics of penicillin: early circulation and smuggling in Spain, 1944-1954.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santesmases, María Jesús

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I explore the early circulation of penicillin. I review the early distribution in Spain of a scarce product, reflect on the available sources about the illegal penicillin trade and discuss some cases of smuggling. I argue the early distribution of penicillin involved time and geography, a particular chronology of post Second World War geopolitics. Penicillin practices and experiences belong to this period, in a dictatorship that tolerated smuggling and illegal trade of other products, some, like penicillin, produced in neighbouring countries. As a commodity that crossed borders, penicillin, transiting between the law and hidden trade, between countries and social domains--between war fronts and from a war front to an urban site to be sold--reveals practices of the early years of prosperity in the 1950s. These transits were permanent tests of a society based on taxes and exchanges, law and bureaucracy, control, discipline and the creation of standards.

  13. Analisa Kejahatan Penyelundupan Manusia Berdasarkan Smuggling of Migrants Protocol Ditinjau dari Perspektif Perlindungan Pencari Suaka: Studi Kasus Pengungsi Rohingnya

    OpenAIRE

    Diajeng Wulan Christianti

    2016-01-01

    Abstrak Eksodus besar-besaran etnis muslim Rohingya keluar Myanmar kembali terjadi sebagai akibat dilakukannya pembakaran desa, eksekusi, hingga pemerkosaan oleh militer Myanmar di Rakhine. Meskipun mereka harus rela membayar mahal, cara penyelundupan manusia kerap mereka gunakan karena cara formal untuk bisa masuk ke negara lain tidak dimungkinkan. Tindakan penyelundupan manusia adalah tindak pidana dalam Smuggling Protocol di mana negara-negara yang disinggahi pengungsi Rohingya seperti...

  14. Cutting the Link Between Drugs and Terrorists: Countering Major Terrorist-Financing Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Immunodeficiency Virus NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization OGD Observatoire Geopolitique Des Drugs PKK Kurdistan Workers’ Party SECI Southeast...Global and Regional Overview). Bucharest: By the SECI Center Anti- Terrorism Task Force Based on Anti-Smuggling and Organized Crime Department (KOM

  15. The nuclear smuggling international technical working group: Making a difference in combating illicit trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, S.; Koch, L.

    2001-01-01

    The ITWG was first formed in 1995 for the purpose of fostering international cooperation for combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The initial focus for the ITWG was on the development of nuclear forensics to help answer attribution questions regarding nuclear materials of unknown origin. More recently, the ITWG has also expanded its focus to include detection of nuclear materials during transit. This paper presents some of the key developments by this group and their potential impact for combating nuclear smuggling. The initial focus of the ITWG was to write a status report on international cooperation on nuclear smuggling forensic analysis. This report was submitted to the G-8 countries, and shortly thereafter, nuclear forensics was endorsed at the Moscow Summit in April, 1996, as part of an illicit trafficking program. The ITWG's primary goal is to develop a preferred approach to nuclear forensic investigations that is widely understood and accepted as credible. The technical elements include: 1) development of protocols for a) collection and preservation of evidence and b) for laboratory investigation; 2) prioritizing of techniques for forensic analysis; 3) development of forensic databanks to assist in interpretation; 4) executing inter-laboratory exercises; and 5) facilitating technical assistance to countries upon request. The development of protocols has been conducted jointly by law enforcement officials and laboratory scientists. A major focus during much of the past five years has been the development of a model action plan for nuclear forensics of seized nuclear materials. This action plan lays out the elements that are needed in the instance that illicit nuclear material is uncovered, e.g. incident response, crime scene analysis, collection of evidence (both radioactive and 'traditional' forensics, transportation to a nuclear facility, subsequent laboratory analysis, and then development of the case. At the most recent meeting (ITWG-6

  16. “They're doing people a service”—qualitative study of smoking, smuggling, and social deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, Susan; Bancroft, Angus; Amos, Amanda; Parry, Odette

    2001-01-01

    Objectives To examine the behaviour and attitudes related to smoking and contraband tobacco products among smokers in two socially deprived areas. Design Cross sectional study with qualitative semistructured interviews, augmented by smokers' day grid. Setting Two areas of socioeconomic deprivation in Edinburgh. Participants 50 male and 50 female smokers aged 25-40 years randomly selected from general practitioners' lists from two health centres, each located in an area of deprivation. Results Most smokers wanted to quit but felt unable to because of the importance of smoking in their daily routine and their addiction to nicotine. Strategies for maintaining consumption levels in the face of increasing cigarette prices and low income included purchasing contraband cigarettes and tobacco. Vendors were contacted through social networks, family, and friends as well as common knowledge of people and places, particularly pubs where contraband was available. Most users of contraband considered that smugglers were providing a valuable service. Purchasing contraband tobacco was viewed as rational in the face of material hardship. Many smokers criticised the government for its high tobacco taxation and the lack of local services to help them to stop smoking. Conclusions Smokers in deprived areas perceive a lack of support to help them to stop smoking. Cigarette and tobacco smuggling is therefore viewed positively by low income smokers as a way of dealing with the increasing cost of cigarettes. Smokers in areas of deprivation may thus show little support for tackling smuggling until more action is taken to deal with the material and personal factors that make it difficult for them to quit. What is already known on this topicAreas of deprivation have the highest rates of smoking and lowest levels of cessationAround 25-30% of cigarettes consumed in the United Kingdom are contrabandWe know little about the attitudes of smokers in these areas to smuggled cigarettes or whether and

  17. Determination of Smuggled Cigarette Characteristics in Brazil and Their Potential Risk to the Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Pinto da Silva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the different characteristics of tobacco found in thirty brands of smuggled cigarettes in Brazil. Determination of arsenic through atomic absorption spectrometry in graphite oven was carried out and classical methodologies were employed to determine dirtiness, total ash, insoluble ash, humidity, tobacco pH and sidestream smoke pH. The methodology used to quantify arsenic presented quantification limit of 15.0 ng g-1 and detection limit of 4.0 ng g-1 in dry tobacco mass. The recovery of arsenic for the method purpose was 98.2% and relative standard deviation 6.0%. About 56% of the brands were observed to have arsenic concentrations above 20.0 ng g-1, which means nearly twice as much as the arsenic found in cigarettes sold legally in Brazil. Levels above the recommended value for humidity were found in 53% of brands. About 96% of the brands presented total ash content above that indicated by the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia. About 53% of the samples contained levels of insoluble ash above the limit. In 90% of the samples, the smoke was alkaline. In dirtiness tests, 81.2% of the brands presented some kind of contaminant, such as fungi, insect fragments, grass or mites. The characteristics revealed that the consumption of this kind of cigarette can increase risks to consumer health. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v8i3.832 

  18. Preliminary evaluation of a fluorescence and radioisotope nuclear smuggling deterrence tag - final report (IL500E)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartenstein, S.D.; Aryaeinejad, R.; Delmastro, J.R.

    1997-04-01

    This report summarizes the efforts completed in identifying candidate fluorescence compounds and radioisotopes for a developing tagging system. The tagging system is being developed as a deterrent to nuclear smuggling, by providing a means of: (1) tracing materials and pilferers to the facility of origin for any recovered special nuclear materials, (2) inventory control of long-term stored items containing special nuclear materials, and (3) tracking materials transferred between facilities. The system uses three types of materials to cover a range of applications intended to prevent the pilfering of special nuclear materials. One material, fluorescent compounds which are invisible without ultraviolet or near-infrared detection systems, is marked on controlled items with a tracking pattern that corresponds to a specified item in a specified location in the data control system. The tagging system uses an invisible, fluorescent dusting powder to mark equipment and personnel who inappropriately handle the tagged material. The tagging system also uses unique combinations of radionuclides to identify the facility of origin for any special nuclear material. This report also summarizes the efforts completed in identifying hardware that will be used for the tagging system. This hardware includes the devices for applying the tagging materials, the commercially available fluorescence detection systems, and gamma ray detection systems assembled from existing, commercially available technologies

  19. Preliminary evaluation of a fluorescence and radioisotope nuclear smuggling deterrence tag - final report (IL500E)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartenstein, S.D.; Aryaeinejad, R.; Delmastro, J.R. [and others

    1997-04-01

    This report summarizes the efforts completed in identifying candidate fluorescence compounds and radioisotopes for a developing tagging system. The tagging system is being developed as a deterrent to nuclear smuggling, by providing a means of: (1) tracing materials and pilferers to the facility of origin for any recovered special nuclear materials, (2) inventory control of long-term stored items containing special nuclear materials, and (3) tracking materials transferred between facilities. The system uses three types of materials to cover a range of applications intended to prevent the pilfering of special nuclear materials. One material, fluorescent compounds which are invisible without ultraviolet or near-infrared detection systems, is marked on controlled items with a tracking pattern that corresponds to a specified item in a specified location in the data control system. The tagging system uses an invisible, fluorescent dusting powder to mark equipment and personnel who inappropriately handle the tagged material. The tagging system also uses unique combinations of radionuclides to identify the facility of origin for any special nuclear material. This report also summarizes the efforts completed in identifying hardware that will be used for the tagging system. This hardware includes the devices for applying the tagging materials, the commercially available fluorescence detection systems, and gamma ray detection systems assembled from existing, commercially available technologies.

  20. Body pushing, prescription drugs and hospital admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W; Kenneally, Michaela

    2017-09-01

    A 39-year-old man died of multi-organ failure complicating mixed drug toxicity that included methadone, oxazepam, oxycodone and nitrazepam. His past medical history involved alcohol and poly-substance abuse with chronic self-harm and suicidal ideation. There had been multiple hospital admissions for drug overdoses. At autopsy the most unusual finding was of two packages of 10 tablets each, wrapped in thin plastic film within the rectum. The insertion of drugs into body orifices and cavities has been termed body pushing to distinguish it from body packing where illicit drugs are wrapped and swallowed for transport and smuggling, and body stuffing where small amounts of loosely wrapped or unwrapped drugs are swallowed to conceal evidence from police. This case demonstrates that body pushing may not always involve illicit drugs or attempted concealment from police or customs officials. It appears that the drugs had been hidden to ensure an additional supply during the time of residence in hospital. The extent to which body pushing is currently being used by patients to smuggle drugs into secure medical facilities is yet to be determined.

  1. Trafficking Golden Crescent Drugs into Western China: An Analysis and Translation of a Recent Chinese Police Research Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    illegal drug exchanges and consumption markets in Xinjiang, and soon this heroin even exceeded the market position of traditional Golden Triangle heroin...tons of the precursor chemical acetic anhydride {cusucmgan; WiW. iff) being smuggled out of the border. • 800,000 tabs of the psychoactive drug ...Trafficking Golden Crescent Drugs into Western China: An Analysis and Translation of a Recent Chinese Police Research Article Dr. Murray Scot

  2. Drug problem in southeast and southwest Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulsudjarit, Kongpetch

    2004-10-01

    In 2002, the drug problem in Southeast and Southwest Asia was serious, particularly in the production of opium and heroin in Afghanistan, Myanmar, and Laos, the three largest producers of illicit opium in the world. The increasing illicit manufacture of ATS, particularly methamphetamine, in Southeast Asia, mainly in China and Myanmar, was also a major concern. Some reports indicated that ephedrine, used for illicitly producing methamphetamine in Southeast Asia, is diverted and smuggled out of China and India, whereas caffeine, the adulterant used for producing methamphetamine tablets, is mainly smuggled into Myanmar through its border with Thailand. Seizure data showed a dramatic increase in trafficking in MDMA through Southeast Asia. In terms of the drug epidemic, in 2002, cannabis remained overall the main drug of abuse in all of the countries of Southeast and Southwest Asia. Opiates, mainly opium and heroin, were also the drugs of choice except in Thailand, where opiate abuse declined, but ATS was the main drug of abuse due to its low cost and availability. A significant increase in ATS abuse, amphetamine, methamphetamine, and MDMA among the youth who smoked, sniffed, and inhaled them was reported in Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, the Philippines, and Thailand. Injecting drug use among opiate abusers has been identified as the prime cause of the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS in Southeast and Southwest Asia.

  3. U.S. second line of defense: preventing nuclear smuggling across Russia's borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, D. Y.

    1998-01-01

    Preventing the theft of weapons-usable highly enriched uranium and plutonium in Russia is one of the central security concerns facing the US today. The dissolution of the highly centralized USSR and the resulting societal crisis has endangered Russia's ability to protect its more than 200 metric tons of plutonium and 1000 tons of highly enriched uranium (roughly 8 kg Pu or 25 kg HEU is sufficient to make a bomb). Producing this fissile material is the most difficult and expensive part of nuclear weapons production and the US must make every effort to ensure that fissile material (and nuclear-related technologies) does not reach the hands of terrorist groups, rogue states or other potential proliferators. In response to this concern, the US has undertaken a number of initiatives in partnership with Russia and other FSU states to prevent the theft of fissile material. The Material Protection, Control and Accounting Program (MPC and A) was begun in 1993 to prevent the theft of nuclear materials from Russian civilian complexes, that is facilities not under control of the Ministry of Defense, which is largely responsible for possession and oversight of nuclear weapons. The MPC and A program is considered the first line of defense against theft of nuclear material because its goal is to prevent theft of material at production and storage facilities. This year the Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a new program called the Second Line of Defense (SLD), the goal of which is to assist Russia in preventing the smuggling of nuclear material and weapons at its borders, either by land, sea or air. The SLD program represents an important phase in the overall effort to ensure the security of nuclear material and weapons in Russia. However, as the US engages Russian customs officials in this important project, Americans should keep in mind that providing equipment--even indigenous equipment--is insufficient by itself; material aid must be accompanied by rigorous inspection and

  4. Nuclear Smuggling Detection and Deterrence FY 2016 Data Analysis Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enders, Alexander L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harris, Tyrone C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pope, Thomas C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Patterson, Jeremy B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration’s Office of Nuclear Smuggling Detection and Deterrence (NSDD) has facilitated the installation of more than 3,500 radiation portal monitors (RPMs) at 606 sites in 56 countries worldwide. This collection of RPMs represents the world’s largest network of radiation detectors and provides one element in the defense-in-depth approach that supports the Global Nuclear Detection Architecture. These systems support NSDD’s mission to build partner country capability to deter, detect, and interdict the illicit transport of radiological and fissile material through strategic points of entry and exit at seaports, airports, and border crossings. NSDD works collaboratively with partner countries and international organizations to optimize the operation of these RPMs. The large amount of data provided by NSDD partner countries highlights the close cooperation and partnerships NSDD has built with 56 countries around the world. Thirty-seven of these countries shared at least some RPM-related data with NSDD in fiscal year 2016. This significant level of data sharing is a key element that distinguishes the NSDD office as unique among nuclear nonproliferation programs and initiatives: NSDD can provide specific, objective, data-driven decisions and support for sustaining the radiation detection systems it helped deploy. This data analysis report summarizes and aggregates the RPM data provided to the NSDD office for analysis and review in fiscal year 2016. The data can be used to describe RPM performance and characterize the wide diversity of NSDD deployment sites. For example, NSDD deploys detector systems across sites with natural background radiation levels that can vary by a factor of approximately six from site to site. Some lanes have few occupancies, whereas others have approximately 8,000 occupancies per day and the different types of cargo that travel through a site can result in site-wide alarm rates that range from near 0% at

  5. The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group: Making a difference in combating illicit trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, S.; Koch, L.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The ITWG was first formed in 1995 for the purpose of fostering international cooperation for combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The initial focus for the ITWG was on the development of nuclear forensics to help answer attribution questions regarding nuclear materials of unknown origin. More recently, the ITWG has also expanded its focus to include detection of nuclear materials during transit. This paper presents some of the key developments by this group and their potential impact for combating nuclear smuggling. The initial focus of the ITWG was to write a status report on international cooperation on nuclear smuggling forensic analysis. This 26-page report summarized previous work on nuclear forensics and gave an initial analysis on prioritizing techniques and methods for forensic analysis regarding source and route attribution. This report was submitted to the G-8 countries, and shortly thereafter, nuclear forensics was endorsed at the Moscow Summit in April, 1996, as part of an illicit trafficking program. The work of the ITWG has also been noted at subsequent summit declarations, e.g. Cologne. The ITWG's primary goal is to develop a preferred approach to nuclear forensic investigations that is widely understood and accepted as credible. The technical elements include: 1) development of protocols for a) collection and preservation of evidence and b) for laboratory investigation, 2) prioritizing of techniques for forensic analysis, 3) development of forensic databanks to assist in interpretation, 4) executing inter-laboratory exercises, and 5) facilitating technical assistance to countries upon request. The development of protocols has been conducted jointly by law enforcement officials and laboratory scientists. A major focus during much of the past six years has been the development of a model action plan for nuclear forensics. This action plan lays out the elements that are needed in the instance that illicit nuclear material is

  6. Modeling most likely pathways for smuggling radioactive and special nuclear materials on a worldwide multimodal transportation network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeger, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cuellar, Leticia [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear weapons proliferation is an existing and growing worldwide problem. To help with devising strategies and supporting decisions to interdict the transport of nuclear material, we developed the Pathway Analysis, Threat Response and Interdiction Options Tool (PATRIOT) that provides an analytical approach for evaluating the probability that an adversary smuggling radioactive or special nuclear material will be detected during transit. We incorporate a global, multi-modal transportation network, explicit representation of designed and serendipitous detection opportunities, and multiple threat devices, material types, and shielding levels. This paper presents the general structure of PATRIOT, and focuses on the theoretical framework used to model the reliabilities of all network components that are used to predict the most likely pathways to the target.

  7. Modeling most likely pathways for smuggling radioactive and special nuclear materials on a worldwide multi-modal transportation network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeger, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cuellar, Leticia [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-10-28

    Nuclear weapons proliferation is an existing and growing worldwide problem. To help with devising strategies and supporting decisions to interdict the transport of nuclear material, we developed the Pathway Analysis, Threat Response and Interdiction Options Tool (PATRIOT) that provides an analytical approach for evaluating the probability that an adversary smuggling radioactive or special nuclear material will be detected during transit. We incorporate a global, multi-modal transportation network, explicit representation of designed and serendipitous detection opportunities, and multiple threat devices, material types, and shielding levels. This paper presents the general structure of PATRIOT, all focuses on the theoretical framework used to model the reliabilities of all network components that are used to predict the most likely pathways to the target.

  8. Assessing Detecting and Deterring the Threat of Maritime Nuclear and Radiological Smuggling in the Western Indian Ocean Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, M. Umer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Cooperative Monitoring Center

    2017-03-01

    This paper proposes that current maritime smuggling routes in the western Indian Ocean region are similar to those in the past and that the motivations of terrorist groups and the presence of radioactive sources in the Indian Ocean littoral and other states present a significant security threat. The majority of regional terrorist groups have a hybrid structure, piggybacking on criminal activity to fund their terror activities. Additionally, states have used maritime routes in the Indian Ocean region to transport nuclear materials and missiles. Thus, the maritime dimension of such threats remains, and may be increasing. This paper focuses on issues, motivations, pathways, and methods to detect and interdict nuclear and radiological trafficking. It analyzes the potential use of maritime technology applications for radiation detection and presents recommendations for states and multinational nonproliferation advocacy organizations to address the threat in the Indian Ocean region.

  9. Locating sensors for detecting source-to-target patterns of special nuclear material smuggling: a spatial information theoretic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyla, Jay; Taylor, Jeffrey; Zhou, Xuesong

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a spatial information-theoretic model is proposed to locate sensors for detecting source-to-target patterns of special nuclear material (SNM) smuggling. In order to ship the nuclear materials from a source location with SNM production to a target city, the smugglers must employ global and domestic logistics systems. This paper focuses on locating a limited set of fixed and mobile radiation sensors in a transportation network, with the intent to maximize the expected information gain and minimize the estimation error for the subsequent nuclear material detection stage. A Kalman filtering-based framework is adapted to assist the decision-maker in quantifying the network-wide information gain and SNM flow estimation accuracy.

  10. Locating Sensors for Detecting Source-to-Target Patterns of Special Nuclear Material Smuggling: A Spatial Information Theoretic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong Zhou

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a spatial information-theoretic model is proposed to locate sensors for detecting source-to-target patterns of special nuclear material (SNM smuggling. In order to ship the nuclear materials from a source location with SNM production to a target city, the smugglers must employ global and domestic logistics systems. This paper focuses on locating a limited set of fixed and mobile radiation sensors in a transportation network, with the intent to maximize the expected information gain and minimize the estimation error for the subsequent nuclear material detection stage. A Kalman filtering-based framework is adapted to assist the decision-maker in quantifying the network-wide information gain and SNM flow estimation accuracy.

  11. Tracing mobilities regimes: The regulation of drug smuggling and labour migration at two airports in the Netherlands and Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloppenburg, S.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis argues that we can no longer understand the regulation of international mobility by focusing exclusively on state borders. In our contemporary mobile world, movement is regulated by spatiotemporally extended mobilities regimes in which both state and non-state actors play a role. In

  12. Mission: Impossible; It’s Time to Pull the Military Out of Drug Interdiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    greatly complicated the mmjuana law enforcement problem Domestlc production has reduced prices and de&ntrahzed Qstnbutlon, while indoor agronomic...techmques have greatly increased potency Annual seizures of marijuana now total less than 50,000 pounds - an amount we were seizing every five to SIX days...relative bulkiness, a constramt that does not apply to cocame, heroin, or any of the other drugs likely to be smuggled m the future I As marijuana

  13. HUMAN SMUGGLING AND TRAFFICKING IN CROATIAN CRIMINAL LEGISLATION AND JURISPRUDENCE (analysis of the situation de lege lata with proposals de lege ferenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanda Božić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The author of the paper provides an overview and analysis of Croatian criminal legislation with regard to criminal activities of human smuggling and trafficking. She points out to the similarities and differences between the criminal acts of illegal transfer of persons across the state border or illegal entering, movement and residence in the Republic of Croatia, other EU Member States or signatories of the Schengen Agreement and human trafficking, comparing and analyzing the legal norms of the old and the new Criminal Code of the Republic of Croatia, international instruments and jurisprudence. Emphasized is the importance of early recognition of the criminal act, especially for the victims. Attention is drawn to the disparity of case law on matters of personal gain as an essential element of this criminal activity, but also to the absence of clearly defining the act of attempting illegal entering, movement and residence in the Republic of Croatia, other EU Member States or signatories of the Schengen Agreement. This paper investigates and analyzes the current situation regarding illegal crossing of state borders of the Republic of Croatia on the basis of available statistical data. Conducted was the analysis of the situation de lege lata in case law in relation to persons registered, accused and convicted of human smuggling and, also, especially for human trafficking. In conclusion, given are the proposals and measures de lege ferenda that need to be implemented in order to combat human smuggling and trafficking, and to successfully fight this type of organized crime.

  14. Technical description of candidate fluorescence compounds and radioisotopes for a nuclear smuggling deterrence tag (IL500E)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartenstein, S.D.; Aryaeinejad, R.

    1996-03-01

    This report summarizes the efforts completed in identifying candidate fluorescence compounds and radioisotopes for a developing tagging system. The tagging system is being developed as a deterrent to nuclear smuggling, by providing a means of: (1) tracing materials and pilferers to the facility of origin for any recovered special nuclear materials; (2) inventory control of long-term stored items containing special nuclear materials; and (3) tracking materials transferred between facilities. The tagging system uses four types of tagging materials to cover a range of applications intended to prevent the pilfering of special nuclear materials. One material, fluorescent compounds which are invisible without ultraviolet or near-infrared detection systems, is marked on controlled items with a tracking pattern that corresponds to a specified item in a specified location in the data control system. The tagging system uses an invisible, fluorescent dusting powder to mark equipment and personnel who inappropriately handle the tagged material. The tagging system also uses unique combinations of radionuclides to identify the facility of origin for any special nuclear material. Currently, 18 long-lived radioisotopes, 38 short-live radioisotopes and 10 fluorescent compounds have been selected as candidate materials for the tagging system

  15. Technical description of candidate fluorescence compounds and radioisotopes for a nuclear smuggling deterrence tag (IL500E)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartenstein, S.D.; Aryaeinejad, R.

    1996-03-01

    This report summarizes the efforts completed in identifying candidate fluorescence compounds and radioisotopes for a developing tagging system. The tagging system is being developed as a deterrent to nuclear smuggling, by providing a means of: (1) tracing materials and pilferers to the facility of origin for any recovered special nuclear materials; (2) inventory control of long-term stored items containing special nuclear materials; and (3) tracking materials transferred between facilities. The tagging system uses four types of tagging materials to cover a range of applications intended to prevent the pilfering of special nuclear materials. One material, fluorescent compounds which are invisible without ultraviolet or near-infrared detection systems, is marked on controlled items with a tracking pattern that corresponds to a specified item in a specified location in the data control system. The tagging system uses an invisible, fluorescent dusting powder to mark equipment and personnel who inappropriately handle the tagged material. The tagging system also uses unique combinations of radionuclides to identify the facility of origin for any special nuclear material. Currently, 18 long-lived radioisotopes, 38 short-live radioisotopes and 10 fluorescent compounds have been selected as candidate materials for the tagging system.

  16. Drugs and discretionary power in prisons: The officer's perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolind, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    Background Drugs play an increasing role in contemporary prison life. Prisoners’ drug use, drug smuggling and drug selling have also had a growing impact on the work routines and practices of prison officers. This has led to critiques that prison staff have become ‘too lenient’ regarding drug use....... Methods Based on observational data, qualitative interviews and survey data, this study examines the role of drugs in the way Danish prison officers exercise power. Results Two forms of power are analysed: institutional power, by which the officers can sanction or reward inmates in everyday prison life......, and personal power, by which the officers’ personal authority and skills can reduce the more intrusive aspects of prison control. These forms of power are applied by officers’ use of discretion in order to maintain what they consider to be adequate levels of peace and order in the prison wings. It is shown...

  17. Prevention of the use of legal trafficking for nuclear material and radioactive sources smuggling. Keynote address/session 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravchenko, N.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Countries like Russia, which have a large nuclear industry, export a significant number of radioactive sources and substances. Some of them are nuclear material. In general, it is the task of the customs inspectors to verify that the content of the shipment is in agreement with the declaration (as safeguards inspectors verify operators declarations). In case of other goods, this is easy. The consignment can be opened and the content can be seen and compared with the declaration. In the case of radioactive shipments this cannot be done. The radioactive substance is in a shielded container and opening is often only possible in a hot cell. Opening of the package and measurement of the removed source in presence of the customs inspector is impossible because the customs control begins only after the declaration has been registered. Therefore, the Russian customs authorities have contracted a company to develop a gamma spectrometer, which can be used to verify the source, even if inside the shielded shipping container. Throughout the country - where many shipments or receivables take place - there are 18 customs offices, equipped with gamma spectrometers and special software. If a container arrives for customs inspection, its design is called from a database. Then the gamma spectrum outside the container is measured and the measured gamma peak energy and intensity is compared with the expected, which is calculated by software based on the design information of the container. This approach works well. Several cases were already discovered in Russia, where there were attempts to use legal shipments for smuggling radioactive sources. I would like to mention some technical problems concerning control of legal export and import of radioactive sources: a) There are not enough commercial suppliers which offer the needed equipment; because of lack of competition prices for the equipment are too high. b) Presently available equipment is mainly based on HPGE cooled

  18. Social capital, the miniaturisation of community and consumption of homemade liquor and smuggled liquor during the past year. A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Martin

    2005-12-01

    To study the impact of social participation, trust and the miniaturisation of community, i.e. high social participation/low trust, on consumption of homemade liquor and smuggled liquor during the past year. The Scania 2000 public health survey is a cross-sectional, postal questionnaire study. A total of 13,604 persons aged 18-80 years were included. A logistic regression model was used to investigate the association between the social capital variables and illegal alcohol consumption. The multivariate analyses analysed the importance of confounders (age, country of origin, education and economic stress) on the differences in consumption of homemade and smuggled liquor according to the social capital variables. A 28.2% proportion of all men and 14.9% of all women had consumed homemade liquor during the past year. The proportions who had consumed smuggled liquor during the past year were even higher, 40.1% among men and 21.4% among women. Both forms of illegal alcohol consumption were significantly positively associated with social participation and negatively associated with trust. The miniaturisation of community category, i.e. high social participation/low trust, had significantly higher risks of consumption during the past year of the consumption of both forms of illegally provided alcohol compared to the high social capital (high social participation/high trust) category, while the low social participation/high trust category had significantly lower risks. High social participation combined with low trust is positively associated with consumption of illegally provided alcohol. The results have implications for alcohol prevention programs, because structural/social factors that may hinder information and norms concerning illegal alcohol have been identified in this study.

  19. Antigen smuggling in tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudrisier, Denis; Neyrolles, Olivier

    2014-06-11

    The importance of CD4 T lymphocytes in immunity to M. tuberculosis is well established; however, how dendritic cells activate T cells in vivo remains obscure. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Srivastava and Ernst (2014) report a mechanism of antigen transfer for efficient activation of antimycobacterial T cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Excise taxes on tobacco and the problem of smuggling - concerning the credibility of the tobacco industry's "Discarded-Cigarette-Packages-Study"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M; Effertz, T

    2011-10-01

    The consumption of tobacco products is one of the main causes of illnesses. An often neglected but highly effective instrument for fiscal and preventive purposes is higher taxes on tobacco products. The tobacco industry however claims that higher taxes have tremendous effects on smuggling activity with additional costs with regard to law enforcement. The claim appears to be substantiated by a study which collects and documents the amounts of discarded empty cigarette packs, and which is used to estimate the fraction of illegally imported cigarettes. We show that this study makes use of systematic misspecifications and impreciseness and thus seems to pursue the aim of showing an exaggerated high amount of illegally imported cigarettes. The industry's claim that two thirds of non-taxed cigarettes in Germany are imported illegally, thus lacks any sound, well-grounded empirical corroboration. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Expansión de la industria tabacalera y contrabando: retos para la salud pública en los países en desarrollo Expansion of the tobacco industry and smuggling: challenges for public health in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Enrique Armendares

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La industria tabacalera multinacional, siempre en busca de nuevos mercados, ha realizado una agresiva expansión hacia naciones de ingreso medio y bajo. Al mismo tiempo se ha producido un marcado incremento en el contrabando de tabaco, especialmente de cigarrillos. Ese contrabando provoca graves pérdidas fiscales a los gobiernos de todo el mundo, erosiona las políticas de control del tabaco e incentiva a la delincuencia organizada internacional. Por otro lado, el contrabando provoca incrementos en el consumo y la demanda de tabaco, los cuales benefician a las tabacaleras. Más aún, existe evidencia de que la industria tabacalera internacional ha propiciado el contrabando de cigarrillos e incluso ha participado directamente en el mismo. Al mismo tiempo, realiza costosas campañas de cabildeo entre los gobiernos para combatir los impuestos y favorecer sus intereses. Los estudios académicos y la evidencia empírica demuestran que es posible avanzar en el control del tabaquismo mediante el incremento de las tasas fiscales sin provocar incrementos significativos en el contrabando. Para ello es necesario combatir este delito mediante acciones y controles multilaterales como los que fueron establecidos en el Convenio Marco para el Control del Tabaco (CMCT, el cual presenta las bases para enfrentar el contrabando mediante un enfoque internacional y global. También es necesario aumentar radicalmente las penas judiciales al contrabando y hacer responsable a la industria tabacalera, incluyendo fabricantes y distribuidores, por el destino final de sus exportaciones.The international tobacco industry, in its constant quest for new markets, has expanded aggressively to middle- and low-income nations. At the same time there has been a marked increase in tobacco smuggling, especially of cigarettes. Smuggling produces serious fiscal losses to governments the world over, erodes tobacco control policies and is an incentive to international organized crime. In

  2. Beyond the drug-terror nexus: drug trafficking and state-crime relations in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Danieli, Filippo

    2014-11-01

    In the wake of collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asia has transformed into a key hub along the Afghan opiates trafficking routes. Around 30 percent of the heroin manufactured in Afghanistan is estimated to be smuggled through Central Asian republics in its way to booming drug markets in Russia and Eastern Europe. Building upon available evidence and extensive fieldwork research, the article seeks to confute mainstream analyses which emphasize connections between criminal and terrorist networks. The focus is on conducive factors for the establishment of drug routes in Central Asia, the characteristics of drug related networks, and the nature of political-criminal relations across the region. It is argued that in all five Central Asia republics strategic partnerships have formed between drug traffickers and state actors around the exploitation of drug rents and that mafias' influence on politics is stronger in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, the region's poorest countries. By moving the focus from narco-terror to the state-crime connections, the article provides a critical insight into political economy issues surrounding a complex and multifaceted phenomenon such as the drug trade. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. The role of customs services and World Customs Organization (WCO)'s enforcement programme to combat nuclear and other radioactive materials smuggling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saka, E.

    1999-01-01

    The World Customs Organization (established as the Customs Co-operation Council in 1952) is an independent inter-governmental body with world-wide membership (150) whose enforcement mission could be summarized as 'to assist its Members in strengthening their enforcement measures through training and technical programmes designed to combat Customs offences', which also include nuclear and other radioactive materials smuggling. One of the best strategies for an effective fight against illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials is to stop their illegal movement at the national border before entering or leaving the country. From this point, Customs services are unique governmental cross-border control agencies, which are mostly located at national cross-border checking points. In addition to this local advantage, Customs expertise and authority in checking documents, goods, vehicles and passengers deserve special mentioning. It should also be noted that Customs services have great experience on how to combat and respond to transnational crime and criminals. On the other hand, in order to maximize on their experience, they should be furnished with sufficient authority for investigation, detection equipment and supported through relevant training programmes. In line with the request made by Member States, the World Customs Organization (WCO) Secretariat has recently developed an enforcement programme on combating nuclear and other radioactive materials smuggling. This programme is based on awareness raising, development of training materials, designing training programmes, promoting exchange of information and improving co-operation at all levels. The WCO Database, the WCO Regional Intelligence Liaison (RILO) project and WCO bilateral and multilateral co-operative initiatives are three key tools which enable Customs administrations to develop accurate, timely and rapid exchange of information and intelligence. Within the concept of international co

  4. Maritime security report. January 1997 [increased drug smuggling via Lesser Antilles ; business and government cooperation increasing to stem maritime cargo crimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This report consists of three parts. The first part deals the growing cocaine traffic through the eastern Caribbean using legitimate commercial maritime freight containers, implication for nations in the area and the Caribbean Community and Common Ma...

  5. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? Effects of Drugs Drug Use and Other People Drug ... Unborn Children Drug Use and Your Health Other Effects on the Body Drug Use Hurts Brains Drug ...

  6. A qualitative examination of the effects of international counter-drug interdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Alexander G; Mitchell, Ojmarrh

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to utilize unique qualitative data to determine the effects of sporadic international drug interdictions on drug trafficking, and to assess whether the responses of drug traffickers align with rational choice theory. Qualitative data obtained from 23 high-level United States Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) informants, who are embedded in international drug trafficking groups, are examined to identify common responses to drug interdiction operations. The findings indicate that sporadic counter-drug interdictions do not a have permanent deterrent effect on transnational drug smuggling operations. However, these types of law enforcement operations produce temporary alterations in drug trafficking, as traffickers adopted a variety of methods to thwart the efforts of law enforcement-often by relying on information acquired from corrupt local law enforcement. The results also indicate that while interdiction operations displaced trafficking activities (temporally, spatially, and methodological), there is little evidence that drug traffickers responded to such operations by moving into new areas (i.e., malign spatial displacement). Sporadic international drug interdiction programs do little to deter drug trafficking organizations (DTOs) from engaging in their illicit trade. Instead, DTOs adjust in a calculating manner to these operations to ensure that their illegal products reach consumer marketplaces, which is congruent with the rational choice theoretical perspective. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Get Addicted to Drugs? Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? ... Drug Use and Other People Drug Use and Families Drug Use and Kids Drug Use and Unborn ...

  8. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Facts Search form Search Menu Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, ... Drugs? Effects of Drugs Drug Use and Other People Drug Use and Families Drug Use and Kids ...

  9. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... People Drug Use and Families Drug Use and Kids Drug Use and Unborn Children Drug Use and ... Children and Teens Stay Drug-Free Talking to Kids About Drugs: What to Say if You Used ...

  10. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Treatment and Recovery Resources? Prevention Help Children and Teens Stay Drug-Free Talking to Kids About Drugs: What to Say if You Used Drugs in the Past Drug Use ... Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol ...

  11. Drug Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss of consciousness Other conditions resulting from drug allergy Less common drug allergy reactions occur days or ... you take the drug. Drugs commonly linked to allergies Although any drug can cause an allergic reaction, ...

  12. The phenomenology and etiology of criminal acts involving immigrant smuggling in Kosovo/La fenomenología y etiología criminal en los actos que impliquen inmigrantes de contrabando en Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azem Hajdari (Kosovo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La situación globalizada de la migración afecta a muchos países pobres, la República de Kosovo no ha escapado a esta realidad. Otra tendencia general por la cual atraviesan los migrantes es el tráfico de personas, condición de la cual también han sufrido, y es un hecho que aunado a las diversas circunstancias de crisis políticas y de guerra, implica un gran reto el castigo o la prevención a este delito. Este es el objetivo del presente artículo, hacer una presentación y un análisis de diferentes elementos relacionando etiológica y fenomenológicamente el tratado de los crímenes involucrando el tráfico de migrantes. The globalized situation of the immigration affects a lot of poor countries; the Republic of Kosovo has not escape to this reality. Another general trend throughout immigration is the smuggling, condition they have also been suffering, fact that due to diverse circumstances such as political crisis and wars make a great challenge to punish or prevent this crime. This is the aim of this article, to make a presentation and an analysis of several elements relating to the phenomenological and etiological treatment of crimes involving smuggling of immigrants.

  13. Drug Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over-the-counter drug. The FDA evaluates the safety of a drug by looking at Side effects ... clinical trials The FDA also monitors a drug's safety after approval. For you, drug safety means buying ...

  14. Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cocaine Heroin Inhalants Marijuana Prescription drugs, including opioids Drug abuse also plays a role in many major social problems, such as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to ...

  15. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Use and Unborn Children Drug Use and Your Health Other Effects on the Body Drug Use Hurts Brains Drug Use and Mental Health Problems Often Happen Together The Link Between Drug ...

  16. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Drug Use and Kids Drug Use and Unborn Children Drug Use and Your Health Other Effects on ... Someone Find Treatment and Recovery Resources? Prevention Help Children and Teens Stay Drug-Free Talking to Kids ...

  17. Club Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uses. Other uses of these drugs are abuse. Club drugs are also sometimes used as "date rape" drugs, to make someone unable to say no to or fight back against sexual assault. Abusing these drugs can ...

  18. Drug allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allergic reaction - drug (medication); Drug hypersensitivity; Medication hypersensitivity ... A drug allergy involves an immune response in the body that produces an allergic reaction to a medicine. The first time ...

  19. Study Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to quit, they may have withdrawal symptoms like depression, thoughts of suicide, intense drug cravings, sleep problems, and fatigue. The health risks aren't the only downside to study drugs. Students caught with illegal prescription drugs may get suspended ...

  20. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... symptoms of someone with a drug use problem? How Does Drug Use Become an Addiction? What Makes Someone More Likely to Get Addicted to Drugs? Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard to ...

  1. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Other Effects on the Body Drug Use Hurts Brains Drug Use and Mental Health Problems Often Happen ... to prescription drugs. The addiction slowly took over his life. I need different people around me. To ...

  2. Drug Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problem is interactions, which may occur between Two drugs, such as aspirin and blood thinners Drugs and food, such as statins and grapefruit Drugs and supplements, such as ginkgo and blood thinners ...

  3. Drug Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Makes Someone More Likely to Get Addicted to Drugs? Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard ... the text to you. This website talks about drug abuse, addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol ...

  4. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drug Use Hurts Brains Drug Use and Mental Health Problems Often Happen Together The Link Between Drug Use and HIV/AIDS Treatment & Recovery Why Does a Person Need Treatment? Does Drug Treatment Work? What Are the Treatment Options? What Is Recovery? ...

  5. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 4357) at any time to find drug treatment centers near you. I want my daughter to avoid drugs. "Debbie" has been drug-free for years. She wants her daughter to stay away from drugs. But she's afraid ...

  6. Substance use - prescription drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance use disorder - prescription drugs; Substance abuse - prescription drugs; Drug abuse - prescription drugs; Drug use - prescription drugs; Narcotics - substance use; Opioid - substance use; Sedative - substance ...

  7. The concept and tasks of the basic method of investigation of crimes related to illegal trafficking narcotic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chistova L.E.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available the article substantiates the need to develop a basic methodology for investigating crimes related to illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs due to the fact that these crimes are inextricably linked, interdependent and can not be carried out separately from each other in principle. The existing separate private methods develop recommendations for the investigation of specific types of crimes, for example, only smuggling of these funds or their sale and they are not connected with each other. In this regard, it is not possible to trace the whole cycle of criminal activity from the introduction of controlled means to illicit trafficking prior to their sale. Therefore, the basic methodology for investigating such crimes will allow us to trace the whole chain of criminal acts and to reveal all the circumstances that affect the full and objective investigation of such crimes.

  8. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... abuse, addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You can ...

  9. Prescription Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... different competition is going on: the National Football League (NFL) vs. drug use. Read More » 92 Comments ... Future survey highlights drug use trends among the Nation’s youth for marijuana, alcohol, cigarettes, e-cigarettes (e- ...

  10. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abuse, addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth ... 662-HELP (4357) at any time to find drug treatment centers near you. I want my daughter ...

  11. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... form Search Menu Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts ... addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain ...

  12. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Ice) Facts Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts Spice (K2) Facts Tobacco and Nicotine Facts Other Drugs of ... Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You can call 1- ...

  13. Drug Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviton, Harvey S.

    1975-01-01

    This article attempts to assemble pertinent information about the drug problem, particularily marihuana. It also focuses on the need for an educational program for drug control with the public schools as the main arena. (Author/HMV)

  14. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Crank, Ice) Facts Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts Spice (K2) Facts Tobacco and Nicotine Facts Other Drugs ... Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You can call ...

  15. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Nicotine Facts Other Drugs of Abuse What is Addiction? What are some signs and symptoms of someone ... use problem? How Does Drug Use Become an Addiction? What Makes Someone More Likely to Get Addicted ...

  16. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Numbers and Websites Search Share Listen English Español Information about this page Click on the button that ... about drug abuse, addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana ...

  17. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) ... treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice ( ...

  18. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... call 1-800-662-HELP (4357) at any time to find drug treatment centers near you. I ... The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) , the ...

  19. Orphan drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Goločorbin-Kon, Svetlana; Vojinović, Aleksandra; Lalić-Popović, Mladena; Pavlović, Nebojša; Mikov, Momir

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Drugs used for treatment of rare diseases are known worldwide under the term of orphan drugs because pharmaceutical companies have not been interested in ”adopting” them, that is in investing in research, developing and producing these drugs. This kind of policy has been justified by the fact that these drugs are targeted for small markets, that only a small number of patients is available for clinical trials, and that large investments are required for the development of ...

  20. Drug Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... testing, substance abuse testing, toxicology screen, tox screen, sports doping tests What is it used for? Drug screening is used to find out whether or not a person has taken a certain drug or drugs. It ... Sports organizations. Professional and collegiate athletes usually need to ...

  1. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... to main content Easy-to-Read Drug Facts Search form Search Menu Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts ... Past Drug Use Prevention Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share Listen English Español Information about this page ...

  2. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... can call 1-800-662-HELP (4357) at any time to find drug treatment centers near you. I want my daughter to avoid drugs. "Debbie" has been drug-free for years. She wants her daughter to stay away from ...

  3. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... the computer will read the text to you. This website talks about drug abuse, addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos ... I want my daughter to avoid drugs. "Debbie" has been drug-free for years. She wants her daughter to stay away from ...

  4. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... the text to you. This website talks about drug abuse, addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs ... adicción. English Español About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | About This Website Tools and Resources | Contact ...

  5. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Drug Use and Mental Health Problems Often Happen Together The Link Between Drug Use and HIV/AIDS Treatment & Recovery Why Does a Person Need Treatment? Does Drug Treatment Work? What Are the Treatment Options? What Is Recovery? ...

  6. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Makes Someone More Likely to Get Addicted to Drugs? Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard ... the text to you. This website talks about drug abuse, addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol ...

  7. WAr on DrugS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-04-12

    Apr 12, 2009 ... ABStrAct. Since drugs became both a public and social issue in Nigeria, fear about both the real and .... drugs as being morally reprehensible, and ..... tice system (see for instance, Shaw, 1995; ..... A cut throat business:.

  8. COPD - control drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - control drugs; Bronchodilators - COPD - control drugs; Beta agonist inhaler - COPD - control drugs; Anticholinergic inhaler - COPD - control drugs; Long-acting inhaler - COPD - control drugs; ...

  9. [Orphan drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golocorbin Kon, Svetlana; Vojinović, Aleksandra; Lalić-Popović, Mladena; Pavlović, Nebojsa; Mikov, Momir

    2013-01-01

    Drugs used for treatment of rare diseases are known worldwide under the term of orphan drugs because pharmaceutical companies have not been interested in "adopting" them, that is in investing in research, developing and producing these drugs. This kind of policy has been justified by the fact that these drugs are targeted for small markets, that only a small number of patients is available for clinical trials, and that large investments are required for the development of drugs meant to treat diseases whose pathogenesis has not yet been clarified in majority of cases. The aim of this paper is to present previous and present status of orphan drugs in Serbia and other countries. THE BEGINNING OF ORPHAN DRUGS DEVELOPMENT: This problem was first recognized by Congress of the United States of America in January 1983, and when the "Orphan Drug Act" was passed, it was a turning point in the development of orphan drugs. This law provides pharmaceutical companies with a series of reliefs, both financial ones that allow them to regain funds invested into the research and development and regulatory ones. Seven years of marketing exclusivity, as a type of patent monopoly, is the most important relief that enables companies to make large profits. There are no sufficient funds and institutions to give financial support to the patients. It is therefore necessary to make health professionals much more aware of rare diseases in order to avoid time loss in making the right diagnosis and thus to gain more time to treat rare diseases. The importance of discovery, development and production of orphan drugs lies in the number of patients whose life quality can be improved significantly by administration of these drugs as well as in the number of potential survivals resulting from the treatment with these drugs.

  10. AIDSinfo Drug Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content Drugs Home Drugs Find information on FDA-approved HIV/ ... infection drugs and investigational HIV/AIDS drugs. Search Drugs Search drug Search Icon What's this? Close Popup ...

  11. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts Spice (K2) Facts Tobacco and Nicotine Facts Other Drugs of Abuse What ... Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You can call 1-800- ...

  12. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oxy, Vike) Facts Spice (K2) Facts Tobacco and Nicotine Facts Other Drugs of Abuse What is Addiction? ... Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You can call 1-800-662- ...

  13. Antineoplastic Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadée, Wolfgang; El Sayed, Yousry Mahmoud

    The limited scope of therapeutic drug-level monitoring in cancer chemotherapy results from the often complex biochemical mechanisms that contribute to antineoplastic activity and obscure the relationships among drug serum levels and therapeutic benefits. Moreover, new agents for cancer chemotherapy are being introduced at a more rapid rate than for the treatment of other diseases, although the successful application of therapeutic drug-level monitoring may require several years of intensive study of the significance of serum drug levels. However, drug level monitoring can be of considerable value during phase I clinical trials of new antineoplastic agents in order to assess drug metabolism, bioavailability, and intersubject variability; these are important parameters in the interpretation of clinical studies, but have no immediate benefit to the patient. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) probably represents the most versatile and easily adaptable analytical technique for drug metabolite screening (1). HPLC may therefore now be the method of choice during phase I clinical trials of antineoplastic drugs. For example, within a single week we developed an HPLC assay—using a C18 reverse-phase column, UV detection, and direct serum injection after protein precipitation—for the new radiosensitizer, misonidazole (2).

  14. Drugged Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Survey Results Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Unpredictable Danger Drug and Alcohol Use in College-Age Adults in 2016 Monitoring the Future 2016 Survey Results Drug and Alcohol Use in College-Age Adults in 2015 View All NIDA Home ...

  15. Drug repurposing based on drug-drug interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Wang, Rong; Wu, Ping; Kong, De-Xin

    2015-02-01

    Given the high risk and lengthy procedure of traditional drug development, drug repurposing is gaining more and more attention. Although many types of drug information have been used to repurpose drugs, drug-drug interaction data, which imply possible physiological effects or targets of drugs, remain unexploited. In this work, similarity of drug interaction was employed to infer similarity of the physiological effects or targets for the drugs. We collected 10,835 drug-drug interactions concerning 1074 drugs, and for 700 of them, drug similarity scores based on drug interaction profiles were computed and rendered using a drug association network with 589 nodes (drugs) and 2375 edges (drug similarity scores). The 589 drugs were clustered into 98 groups with Markov Clustering Algorithm, most of which were significantly correlated with certain drug functions. This indicates that the network can be used to infer the physiological effects of drugs. Furthermore, we evaluated the ability of this drug association network to predict drug targets. The results show that the method is effective for 317 of 561 drugs that have known targets. Comparison of this method with the structure-based approach shows that they are complementary. In summary, this study demonstrates the feasibility of drug repurposing based on drug-drug interaction data. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. [Club drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Diogo Frasquilho; Carmo, Ana Lisa; da Silva, Joaquim Alves; Navarro, Rita; Góis, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Club drugs are the following substances: Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA); Methamphetamine; Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD); Ketamine; Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and Flunitrazepam. These substances are mainly used by adolescents and young adults, mostly in recreational settings like dance clubs and rave parties. These drugs have diverse psychotropic effects, are associated with several degrees of toxicity, dependence and long term adverse effects. Some have been used for several decades, while others are relatively recent substances of abuse. They have distinct pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, are not easy to detect and, many times, the use of club drugs is under diagnosed. Although the use of these drugs is increasingly common, few health professionals feel comfortable with the diagnosis and treatment. The authors performed a systematic literature review, with the goal of synthesising the existing knowledge about club drugs, namely epidemiology, mechanism of action, detection, adverse reactions and treatment. The purpose of this article is creating in Portuguese language a knowledge data base on club drugs, that health professionals of various specialties can use as a reference when dealing with individual with this kind of drug abuse.

  17. Situational crime prevention and cross-border crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleemans, Edward R.; Soudijn, Melvin R J; Weenink, Anton W.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the consequences of cross-border crime for situational crime prevention. Many types of organised crime involve international smuggling activities – such as drug trafficking, money laundering, smuggling illegal immigrants, and other transnational illegal activities. Based on

  18. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MDMA (Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts Spice (K2) Facts Tobacco ... Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You ...

  19. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts MDMA ( ... Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/ ...

  20. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts MDMA (Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth ( ... Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine ...

  1. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts MDMA (Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Pain ... About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other ...

  2. Drug Metabolism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 3. Drug Metabolism: A Fascinating Link Between Chemistry and Biology. Nikhil Taxak Prasad V Bharatam. General Article Volume 19 Issue 3 March 2014 pp 259-282 ...

  3. Drugged Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  4. Club Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  5. Drug Metabolism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    behind metabolic reactions, importance, and consequences with several ... required for drug action. ... lism, which is catalyzed by enzymes present in the above-men- ... catalyze the transfer of one atom of oxygen to a substrate produc-.

  6. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts Spice (K2) Facts Tobacco and ... Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You can ...

  7. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 800-662-HELP (4357) at any time to find drug treatment centers near you. I want my ... is making positive changes in her life. She finds support from family and friends who don't ...

  8. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, ... Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) ...

  9. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Together The Link Between Drug Use and HIV/AIDS Treatment & Recovery Why Does a Person Need Treatment? ... of Health (NIH) , the principal biomedical and behavioral research agency of the United States Government. NIH is ...

  10. Drug Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life Issues Insurance & Bills Self Care Working With Your Doctor Drugs, Procedures & Devices Over-the- ...

  11. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prescription drugs. The addiction slowly took over his life. I need different people around me. To stop ... marijuana, "Cristina" is making positive changes in her life. She finds support from family and friends who ...

  12. Drug Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drug-resistance testing is also recommended for all pregnant women with HIV before starting HIV medicines and also in some pregnant women already taking HIV medicines. Pregnant women will work with their health ...

  13. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts MDMA (Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth (Crank, ... Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine ...

  14. Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as hearing colors Impulsive behavior Rapid shifts in emotions Permanent mental changes in perception Rapid heart rate ... Drug use can negatively affect academic performance and motivation to excel in school. Legal issues. Legal problems ...

  15. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana ( ... Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) ...

  16. Legal Drugs Are Good Drugs and Illegal Drugs Are Bad Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Indrati, Dina; Prasetyo, Herry

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT : Labelling drugs are important issue nowadays in a modern society. Although it is generally believed that legal drugs are good drugs and illegal drugs are bad drugs, it is evident that some people do not aware about the side effects of drugs used. Therefore, a key contention of this philosophical essay is that explores harms minimisation policy, discuss whether legal drugs are good drugs and illegal drugs are bad drugs and explores relation of drugs misuse in a psychiatric nursing s...

  17. Drugs@FDA: FDA Approved Drug Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cosmetics Tobacco Products Home Drug Databases Drugs@FDA Drugs@FDA: FDA Approved Drug Products Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Download Drugs@FDA Express for free Search by Drug Name, Active Ingredient, or Application Number Enter at ...

  18. Study Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Stephanie Phuong; Roosta, Natalie; Nielsen, Mikkel Fuhr; Meyer, Maria Holmgaard; Friis, Katrine Birk

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, students around the world, started to use preparations as Ritalin and Modafinil,also known as study drugs, to improve their cognitive abilities1. It is a common use among thestudents in United States of America, but it is a new tendency in Denmark. Our main focus is tolocate whether study drugs needs to be legalized in Denmark or not. To investigate this ourstarting point is to understand central ethical arguments in the debate. We have chosen twoarguments from Nick Bostrom a...

  19. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share Listen English Español Information about this page Click on the button ... sobre el abuso de drogas, y adicción. English Español About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | ...

  20. Drugs reviews

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angel_D

    tests (LFTs) to monitor hepatotoxicity (liver [hepatic] damage) is uncommon in many resource-poor ... cholesterol ester storage disease. ... The problem with many patients is that they are taking several drugs often ... Urine, saliva and other body fluids may be coloured orange-red: this can be very alarming to patients.

  1. Drug resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, J.A.; Potschka, H.; Noebels, J.L.; Avoli, M.; Rogawski, M.A.; Olsen, R.W.; Delgado-Escueta, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    Drug resistance remains to be one of the major challenges in epilepsy therapy. Identification of factors that contribute to therapeutic failure is crucial for future development of novel therapeutic strategies for difficult-to-treat epilepsies. Several clinical studies have shown that high seizure

  2. Capping Drugs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    preventing disease in human beings or in animals. In the process ... of requirement. In the process, they may cause toxic side effects. .... the liver to release the physiologically active drug. Similarly ... patients addicted to alcohol. However, it is a ...

  3. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Prevention Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share Listen English Español Information about this page Click on the ... información sobre el abuso de drogas, y adicción. English Español About the National Institute on Drug Abuse ( ...

  4. Drug abuse first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use of these drugs is a form of drug abuse. Medicines that are for treating a health problem ... about local resources. Alternative Names Overdose from drugs; Drug abuse first aid References Myck MB. Hallucinogens and drugs ...

  5. Drugs in the Brazilian print media: an exploratory survey of newspaper and magazine stories in the year 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noto, Ana Regina; Pinsky, Ilana; Mastroianni, Fábio de Carvalho

    2006-01-01

    Print media is one of the key factors for defining public opinion and setting public policies regarding drugs. Therefore, surveying its content should provide us with a better understanding of the situation. The few existing surveys on this issue in Brazil point out discrepancies between print media and public health. The objective of the present survey is to enhance the analysis of drug-related stories in the Brazilian print media, based on a new time frame, in the year 2000. Major newspapers and magazines of all Brazilian state capitals have been surveyed throughout year 2000, with 4,669 stories presenting drugs as their main topic. A random sample of 964 stories underwent content analysis. Approximately half the stories (49.6%) dealt with smuggling- and repression-related issues. The remainder of the stories (50.4%) approached health, legislation, and public policy issues. Tobacco was the most widely discussed drug, with stories focusing mainly on damage caused by use and on measures for reducing consumption rates among the population. Articles about cocaine, also featured frequently in the print media, dealt mainly with the issues of drug dealing and of damage caused by cocaine use. Regarding marijuana, in addition to the law enforcement repressive approach, some articles dealt with decriminalization and therapeutic use. Articles about alcoholic beverages, featured less frequently in the print media, approached the subject matter from various angles. The number of stories on solvents and psychotropic medication was negligible. The results confirm discrepancies between print media coverage and epidemiology. They also indicate that each drug is approached differently, allowing for a better understanding of the "social climate" in Brazil regarding each drug. Of all possible social interventions for dealing with the issue repression stands out, whereas stories about treatment and damage reduction are relatively scarce. These findings suggest the need for improved

  6. Drug Safety: Managing Multiple Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This series is produced by Consumers Union and Consumer Reports Best Buy Drugs , a public information project sup- ported by grants from the Engelberg Foundation and the National Library of Medicine of ... Consumer and Prescriber Education Grant Program which is funded ...

  7. Legal Drugs Are Good Drugs And Illegal Drugs Are Bad Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Indrati

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : Labelling drugs are important issue nowadays in a modern society. Although it is generally believed that legal drugs are good drugs and illegal drugs are bad drugs, it is evident that some people do not aware about the side effects of drugs used. Therefore, a key contention of this philosophical essay is that explores harms minimisation policy, discuss whether legal drugs are good drugs and illegal drugs are bad drugs and explores relation of drugs misuse in a psychiatric nursing setting and dual diagnosis.Key words: Legal, good drugs, illegal, bad drugs.

  8. Call for action on puppy smuggling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Georgina

    2015-03-14

    Georgina Mills reports from a breakfast briefing organised by the Dogs Trust at the House of Commons last month. The charity convened the briefing to discuss its recently published report into the illegal importation of puppies into the UK. British Veterinary Association.

  9. Smuggling Language into the Teaching of Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, Arthur W.; Holmes, Elizabeth Ann

    Techniques and procedures for teaching reading as a meaning-making, language-oriented process are the focus of this book. The underlying premise is that children are taught to read so that they have an important tool for developing and expanding concepts. In order to accomplish this aim, children must be exposed to the precision and ambiguities of…

  10. Characterization of cigarrete smuggling distribution in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Llorente

    2018-03-01

    Changes along the distribution chain are bringing new risks and opportunities for an effective control of illicit trade flows. It is necessary to explore interventions that address institutional weaknesses, and the circumstances of vulnerable actors to develop sustainable policies to eliminate illicit trade in Colombia.

  11. Drugs Approved for Neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for neuroblastoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  12. Drugs Approved for Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the FDA for use in leukemia. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  13. Drugs Approved for Retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for retinoblastoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  14. National Drug Code Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Listing Act of 1972 requires registered drug establishments to provide the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with a current list of all drugs manufactured,...

  15. Other Drugs of Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People Abuse » Other Drugs of Abuse Other Drugs of Abuse Listen There are many other drugs of abuse, ... and Rehab Resources About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | About This Website Tools and Resources | Contact ...

  16. Urine drug screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug screen - urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence may indicate that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  17. Understanding drugs and behaviour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parrott, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix xi Part I Drugs and Their Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Psychoactive drugs: introduction and overview . . . . . . . . 2 The brain...

  18. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drug abuse. And it's illegal, just like taking street drugs. Why Do People Abuse Prescription Drugs? Some people abuse prescription drugs ... common risk of prescription drug abuse is addiction . People who abuse ... as if they were taking street drugs. That's one reason most doctors won't ...

  19. Drug abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, T.R.; Seastrunk, J.W.; Malone, G.; Knesevich, M.A.; Hickey, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that this study used SPECT to examine patients who have abused drugs to determine whether SPECT could identify abnormalities and whether these findings have clinical importance. Fifteen patients with a history of substance abuse (eight with cocaine, six with amphetamine, and one with organic solvent) underwent SPECT performed with a triple-headed camera and Tc-99m HMPAO both early for blood flow and later for functional information. These images were then processed into a 3D videotaped display used in group therapy. All 15 patients had multiple areas of decreased tracer uptake peppered throughout the cortex but mainly affecting the parietal lobes, expect for the organic solvent abuser who had a large parietal defect. The videotapes were subjectively described by a therapist as an exceptional tool that countered patient denial of physical damage from substance abuse. Statistical studies of recidivism between groups is under way

  20. Personality, Drug Preference, Drug Use, and Drug Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Marc; Boyer, Bret; Kumar, V. K.; Prout, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between drug preference, drug use, drug availability, and personality among individuals (n = 100) in treatment for substance abuse in an effort to replicate the results of an earlier study (Feldman, Kumar, Angelini, Pekala, & Porter, 2007) designed to test prediction derived from Eysenck's (1957, 1967)…

  1. Drugs Approved for Rhabdomyosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for rhabdomyosarcoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries. There may be drugs used in rhabdomyosarcoma that are not listed here.

  2. Information for Consumers (Drugs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... approved drugs Drugs@FDA Information on FDA-approved brand name and generic drugs including labeling and regulatory history Drugs with Approved Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS) REMS is a risk management plan required by FDA for certain prescription drugs, ...

  3. Drugs and lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelssering, G.; Aguiar, L.F.; Ribeiro, R.M.; Souza, A.Z. de

    1988-01-01

    Different kinds of drugs who can be transferred through the mother's milk to the lactant and its effects are showed in this work. A list of them as below: cardiotonics, diuretics, anti-hypertensives, beta-blockings, anti-arrythmics, drugs with gastrintestinal tract action, hormones, antibiotics and chemotherapeutics, citostatic drugs, central nervous system action drugs and anticoagulants drugs. (L.M.J.) [pt

  4. Drug Retention Times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user.

  5. Drug Reactions - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF Drug Interactions - HIV medicines, part 6 - English MP3 Drug Interactions - HIV medicines, part 6 - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) MP3 Drug Interactions - HIV medicines, part 6 - English MP4 ...

  6. Teenagers and drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teenagers and drugs; Symptoms of drug use in teenagers; Drug abuse - teenagers; Substance abuse - teenagers ... for a specialist who has experience working with teenagers. Do not hesitate, get help right away. The ...

  7. Drug Interaction API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Interaction API is a web service for accessing drug-drug interactions. No license is needed to use the Interaction API. Currently, the API uses DrugBank for its...

  8. Effects of Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Used Drugs in the Past Drug Use Prevention Phone Numbers and Websites Search ... who aren't yet born. Drug use can hurt the body and the brain, sometimes forever. Drug use can also lead to addiction, a long-lasting brain disease in which people ...

  9. Drugs and Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug abuse is a serious public health problem. It affects almost every community and family in some way. Drug abuse in children and teenagers may pose a ... of young people may be more susceptible to drug abuse and addiction than adult brains. Abused drugs ...

  10. DRUG POLICY AND DRUG ADDICTION IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    İLHAN, Mustafa Necmi

    2018-01-01

    The NationalStrategy Document on Drugs and Emergency Action Plan started with thecontributions of all the relevant institutions within the year of 2014 wasprepared and after that in accordance with the Prime Ministry Notice entitledFight Against Drugs published within this scope, the committees for FightAgainst Drugs were established (under the presidency of Deputy Prime Ministerand with the help of Ministry of Health, Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Laborand Social Security, Ministry of Fam...

  11. Drug interactions with oral sulphonylurea hypoglycaemic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J M; Christensen, L K

    1977-01-01

    The effect of the oral sulphonylurea hypoglycaemic drugs may be influenced by a large number of other drugs. Some of these combinations (e.g. phenylbutazone, sulphaphenazole) may result in cases of severe hypoglycaemic collapse. Tolbutamide and chlorpropamide should never be given to a patient without a prior careful check of which medicaments are already being given. Similarly, no drug should be given to a diabetic treated with tolbutamide and chlorpropamide without consideration of the possibility of interaction phenomena.

  12. International Drug Control Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-24

    Common illegal drugs include cannabis, cocaine, opiates, and synthetic drugs. International trade in these drugs represents a lucrative and what...into effect, decriminalizing “personal use” amounts of marijuana , heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other internationally sanctioned drugs.15 While...President Calls for Legalizing Marijuana ,”CNN.com, May 13, 2009. 15 “Mexico Legalizes Drug Possession,” Associated Press, August 21, 2009. 16 In support

  13. Drug Products in the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Active drugs that have been reported by participating drug manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program. All drugs are identified by National Drug Code...

  14. Drug-Target Kinetics in Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonge, Peter J

    2018-01-17

    The development of therapies for the treatment of neurological cancer faces a number of major challenges including the synthesis of small molecule agents that can penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Given the likelihood that in many cases drug exposure will be lower in the CNS than in systemic circulation, it follows that strategies should be employed that can sustain target engagement at low drug concentration. Time dependent target occupancy is a function of both the drug and target concentration as well as the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters that describe the binding reaction coordinate, and sustained target occupancy can be achieved through structural modifications that increase target (re)binding and/or that decrease the rate of drug dissociation. The discovery and deployment of compounds with optimized kinetic effects requires information on the structure-kinetic relationships that modulate the kinetics of binding, and the molecular factors that control the translation of drug-target kinetics to time-dependent drug activity in the disease state. This Review first introduces the potential benefits of drug-target kinetics, such as the ability to delineate both thermodynamic and kinetic selectivity, and then describes factors, such as target vulnerability, that impact the utility of kinetic selectivity. The Review concludes with a description of a mechanistic PK/PD model that integrates drug-target kinetics into predictions of drug activity.

  15. [Designer drugs in Jutland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, K W; Kaa, E

    2001-04-16

    The aim of this investigation was to examine illegal tablets and capsules seized in Jutland, the western part of Denmark, during the period 1995-1999. The drugs are described according to technical appearance (colour, logo, score, diameter) and content of synthetic drugs. All illegal tablets and capsules received during the period 1995-1999 (109 cases containing 192 different samples) were examined. MDMA was the most common drug and was seen during the entire period. Amphetamine was the second most common drug and has been frequently detected during the the last two years. Drugs like MDE, MBDB, BDB, and 2-CB were rarely seen and they disappeared quickly from the illegal market. MDA appeared on the market at the end of 1999. Only 53% of the tablets contained MDMA as the sole drug. Eighty-one percent of the tablets/capsules contained only one synthetic drug, whereas 13% contained a mixture of two or more synthetic drugs. Six per cent of the samples did not contain a euphoric drug/designer drug. The content of MDMA, MDE, and amphetamine in the tablets varied greatly. MDMA is apparently the drug preferred by the users, but still only half of the tablets contained MDMA as the only drug. The rest of the tablets contained either another synthetic drug or a mixture of drugs. In conclusion, the increasing supply of various drugs with different and unpredictable effects and of miscellaneous quality brings about the risk of serious and complicated intoxications.

  16. Medicaid Drug Rebate Program Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Product Data for Drugs in the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program. The rebate drug product data file contains the active drugs that have been reported by participating drug...

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cigs Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Health Consequences of Drug Misuse ...

  18. Food-drug interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars E; Dalhoff, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Interactions between food and drugs may inadvertently reduce or increase the drug effect. The majority of clinically relevant food-drug interactions are caused by food-induced changes in the bioavailability of the drug. Since the bioavailability and clinical effect of most drugs are correlated......, the bioavailability is an important pharmacokinetic effect parameter. However, in order to evaluate the clinical relevance of a food-drug interaction, the impact of food intake on the clinical effect of the drug has to be quantified as well. As a result of quality review in healthcare systems, healthcare providers...... are increasingly required to develop methods for identifying and preventing adverse food-drug interactions. In this review of original literature, we have tried to provide both pharmacokinetic and clinical effect parameters of clinically relevant food-drug interactions. The most important interactions are those...

  19. Drugs and drug policy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuw, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    The Dutch parliament enacted the revised Opium Act in 1976. This penal law is part of the Dutch drug policy framework that includes tolerance for nonconforming lifestyles, risk reduction in regard to the harmful health and social consequences of drug taking, and penal measures directed against

  20. Food-Drug Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Yar Khan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of drug on a person may be different than expected because that drug interacts with another drug the person is taking (drug-drug interaction, food, beverages, dietary supplements the person is consuming (drug-nutrient/food interaction or another disease the person has (drug-disease interaction. A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance affects the activity of a drug, i.e. the effects are increased or decreased, or they produce a new effect that neither produces on its own. These interactions may occur out of accidental misuse or due to lack of knowledge about the active ingredients involved in the relevant substances. Regarding food-drug interactions physicians and pharmacists recognize that some foods and drugs, when taken simultaneously, can alter the body's ability to utilize a particular food or drug, or cause serious side effects. Clinically significant drug interactions, which pose potential harm to the patient, may result from changes in pharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, or pharmacodynamic properties. Some may be taken advantage of, to the benefit of patients, but more commonly drug interactions result in adverse drug events. Therefore it is advisable for patients to follow the physician and doctors instructions to obtain maximum benefits with least fooddrug interactions. The literature survey was conducted by extracting data from different review and original articles on general or specific drug interactions with food. This review gives information about various interactions between different foods and drugs and will help physicians and pharmacists prescribe drugs cautiously with only suitable food supplement to get maximum benefit for the patient.

  1. IMPROVING ACCESS TO DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Joseph Herman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although essentially not all therapies need drug intervention, drugs is still an important components in health sector, either in preventive, curative, rehabilitative or promotion efforts. Hence the access to drugs is a main problem, either in international or national scale even to the smallest unit. The problem on access to drugs is very complicated and cannot be separated especially from pharmacy management problems; moreover in general from the overall lack of policy development and effective of health policy, and also the implementation process. With the policy development and effective health policy, rational drug uses, sufficient health service budget so a country can overcome the health problems. Besides infrastructures, regulations, distribution and cultural influences; the main obstacles for drug access is drugs affordability if the price of drugs is an important part and determined by many factors, especially the drug status whether is still patent orgenerics that significantly decrease cost of health cares and enhance the drugs affordability. The determination of essential drug prices in developing countries should based on equity principal so that poor people pay cheaper and could afford the essential drugs. WHO predicts two third of world population can not afford the essential drugs in which in developing countries, some are because of in efficient budget allocation in consequence of drug distribution management, including incorrect selection and allocation and also irrational uses. In part these could be overcome by enhancing performances on the allocation pharmacy needs, including the management of information system, inventory management, stock management and the distribution. Key words: access, drugs, essential drugs, generic drugs

  2. The Latin American Drug Trade: Scope, Dimensions, Impact, and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    the forefront of the trade: the Gulf cartel, La Familia, Los Zetas, the Beltrán Leyva orga- nization, the Sinaloa cartel, the Carrillo Fuentes...blocs that essentially pitch the Sinaloa cartel, the Gulf cartel, and La Familia—which collectively formed the New Federation in February 2010...interacted with other trans- border concerns, such as weapon trafficking, people smuggling, and the migration of Central American gang violence. It is in

  3. Drug-induced thrombocytopenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, U; Andersen, M; Hansen, P B

    1997-01-01

    induced by non-cytotoxic drugs is characterised by heterogeneous clinical picture and recovery is generally rapid. Although corticosteroids seem inefficient, we still recommend that severe symptomatic cases of drug-induced thrombocytopenia are treated as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura due...

  4. Drugs@FDA Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Information about FDA-approved brand name and generic prescription and over-the-counter human drugs and biological therapeutic products. Drugs@FDA includes most of...

  5. Inflammatory Drug (NSAID)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inflammatory Drug (NSAID)-Induced Seizures in a Patient with HIV Infection ... interaction not supported by existing literature, and it is possible that the background HIV infection may have a role to .... Foods and Drug Administration and Control.

  6. CMS Drug Spending

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS has released several information products that provide spending information for prescription drugs in the Medicare and Medicaid programs. The CMS Drug Spending...

  7. Drug Enforcement Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... de informacin confidencial --> DEA NEWS The Drug Enforcement Administration and Discovery Education name grand winner of Operation ... JUN 15 (Washington) The United States Drug Enforcement Administration, DEA Educational Foundation and Discovery Education awarded Porter ...

  8. Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance Go to Information for Researchers ► Credit: ... and infectious diseases. Why Is the Study of Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance a Priority for NIAID? Over time, ...

  9. Drugs to be Discontinued

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Companies are required under Section 506C of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) (as amended by the Food and Drug Administration Safety and...

  10. Prescription Drug Profiles PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Prescription Drug Profiles Public Use Files (PUFs) drawn from Medicare prescription drug claims for the year of the date on which the...

  11. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include opioids, sedatives, ...

  12. National Drug IQ Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Drug IQ Challenge 2017 Reto nacional del coeficiente intelectual (CI) sobre las drogas y el alcohol 2016 National Drug IQ Challenge 2016 Reto nacional del coeficiente intelectual (CI) sobre las drogas y el alcohol 2015 ...

  13. Medication/Drug Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Training Home Conditions Medication/Drug Allergy Medication/Drug Allergy Make an Appointment Find a Doctor Ask a ... risk for adverse reactions to medications. Facts about Allergies The tendency to develop allergies may be inherited. ...

  14. Drugs in sport

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, D

    2007-01-01

    This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i) actions of drugs and hormones, ii) medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii) the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv) the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v) an...

  15. Sociology of Drug Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    In this article which is a review of sociological ideas and studies of drug abusers in social situation, drug addiction steps (particularly alcohol, heroin and cocaine consumption) are revised and some explanations are made. Also, the role of some sociological ideas in drug addiction is considered in which Anomie Theory reads: "because of such duality, the individuals who are not satisfied with their role are in hurt." According to this theory, drug users choose seclusion and neglecting usual...

  16. Drug development in neuropsychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritze, Jürgen

    2008-03-01

    Personalized medicine is still in its infancy concerning drug development in neuropsychopharmacology. Adequate biomarkers with clinical relevance to drug response and/or tolerability and safety largely remain to be identified. Possibly, this kind of personalized medicine will first gain clinical relevance in the dementias. The clinical relevance of the genotyping of drug-metabolizing enzymes as suggested by drug licensing authorities for the pharmacokinetic evaluation of medicinal products needs to be proven in sound clinical trials.

  17. Drug interactions with radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesslewood, S.; Leung, E.

    1994-01-01

    Considerable information on documented drug and radiopharmaceutical interactions has been assembled in a tabular form, classified by the type of nuclear medicine study. The aim is to provide a rapid reference for nuclear medicine staff to look for such interactions. The initiation of drug chart monitoring or drug history taking of nuclear medicine patients and the reporting of such events are encouraged. (orig.)

  18. Drugs of Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Donald E., Ed.

    This Drug Enforcement Administration publication delivers clear, scientific information about drugs in a factual, straightforward way, combined with precise photographs shot to scale. The publication is intended to serve as an A to Z guide for drug history, effects, and identification information. Chapters are included on the Controlled Substances…

  19. Drug Enforcement Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet contains information relating to drug abuse and abusers; drug traffic legislation; law enforcement; and descriptions of commonly used narcotics, stimulants, depressants, and hallucinogens. Also included is a short but explicit listing of audiovisual aids, an annotated bibliography, and drug identification pictures. The booklet…

  20. Collegiate Drug Management Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janosik, Steven M.; Anderson, David S.

    A checklist to help colleges and universities reevaluate their policies and procedures regarding drug use among college students is presented. It is designed to supplement the "Collegiate Alcohol Risk Assessment Guide." In this guide drugs other than alcohol are of concern, although alcohol is viewed by many as the "drug of choice" among college…

  1. Writing Drug Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    The paper juxtaposes the cultural mediation of experience through drugs with that performed with text. As a sample of the currently radically changing relations between professional and lay knowledge in the field of drug interventions, the website of a Copenhagen institution for young drug users ...

  2. Dynamics of Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Joan H.; Holden, Raymond H.

    1977-01-01

    This paper analyzes data from interviews with 167 drug users in the community, including age, sex, birth order, education, family constellation, and circumstances of first drug use. The majority of subjects had tried to stop using drugs, but most had been unsuccessful at the time of the interview. (Author)

  3. Drugs in breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervada, A R; Feit, E; Sagraves, R

    1978-09-01

    The amount of drug excreted into breast milk is dependent upon the lipid solubility of the medication, the mechanism of transport, the degree of ionization, and change in plasma pH. The higher the lipid solubility, the greater the concentration in human milk. The majority of drugs are transported into mammary blood capillaries by passive diffusion. The rest are transported by reverse pinocytosis. Once the drug has entered the epithelial cells of breast tissue, the drug molecules are excreted into the human milk by active transport, passive diffusion, or apocrine secretion. The amount of free (active) drug available for transport depends on the degree of protein binding the plasma pH. Another factor affecting excretion of drugs is the time when breast feeding occurs. In the 1st few days of life, when colostrum is present, water-soluble drugs pass through the breast more easily than afterwards when milk is produced. Then lipid-soluble drugs cross in higher concentrations. The effect on nursing infants is dependent on the amount excreted into the milk, the total amount absorbed by the infant, and the toxicity of the drug. The use of the following drugs in breast feeding mothers is reviewed: anticoagulants, antihypertensives and diuretics, antimicrobials, drugs affecting the central nervous system (alcohol, chloral hydrate, meprobamate, lithium, and aspirin), marijuana, other drugs (antihistamines, atropine, ergot alkaloids, laxatives, nicotine, iodides, propylthiouracil, theophylline), hormones (insulin, thyroxine, and oral contraceptives), and radiopharmaceuticals.

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... RSS Menu Home Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/ ...

  5. Drug metabolism and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, Hilary

    2005-06-01

    Older people are major consumers of drugs and because of this, as well as co-morbidity and age-related changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, are at risk of associated adverse drug reactions. While age does not alter drug absorption in a clinically significant way, and age-related changes in volume of drug distribution and protein binding are not of concern in chronic therapy, reduction in hepatic drug clearance is clinically important. Liver blood flow falls by about 35% between young adulthood and old age, and liver size by about 24-35% over the same period. First-pass metabolism of oral drugs avidly cleared by the liver and clearance of capacity-limited hepatically metabolized drugs fall in parallel with the fall in liver size, and clearance of drugs with a high hepatic extraction ratio falls in parallel with the fall in hepatic blood flow. In normal ageing, in general, activity of the cytochrome P450 enzymes is preserved, although a decline in frail older people has been noted, as well as in association with liver disease, cancer, trauma, sepsis, critical illness and renal failure. As the contribution of age, co-morbidity and concurrent drug therapy to altered drug clearance is impossible to predict in an individual older patient, it is wise to start any drug at a low dose and increase this slowly, monitoring carefully for beneficial and adverse effects.

  6. Abuse of prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilford, B B

    1990-01-01

    An estimated 3% of the United States population deliberately misuse or abuse psychoactive medications, with severe consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than half of patients who sought treatment or died of drug-related medical problems in 1989 were abusing prescription drugs. Physicians who contribute to this problem have been described by the American Medical Association as dishonest--willfully misprescribing for purposes of abuse, usually for profit; disabled by personal problems with drugs or alcohol; dated in their knowledge of current pharmacology or therapeutics; or deceived by various patient-initiated fraudulent approaches. Even physicians who do not meet any of these descriptions must guard against contributing to prescription drug abuse through injudicious prescribing, inadequate safeguarding of prescription forms or drug supplies, or acquiescing to the demands or ruses used to obtain drugs for other than medical purposes. PMID:2349801

  7. Drug Retention Times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user. Based on anecdotal evidence, most people “party” during extended time away from the work environment. Therefore, the following scenarios were envisioned: (1) a person uses an illicit drug at a party on Saturday night (infrequent user); (2) a person uses a drug one time on Friday night and once again on Saturday night (infrequent user); and (3) a person uses a drug on Friday night, uses a drug twice on Saturday night, and once again on Sunday (frequent user).

  8. Rings in drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard D; MacCoss, Malcolm; Lawson, Alastair D G

    2014-07-24

    We have analyzed the rings, ring systems, and frameworks in drugs listed in the FDA Orange Book to understand the frequency, timelines, molecular property space, and the application of these rings in different therapeutic areas and target classes. This analysis shows that there are only 351 ring systems and 1197 frameworks in drugs that came onto the market before 2013. Furthermore, on average six new ring systems enter drug space each year and approximately 28% of new drugs contain a new ring system. Moreover, it is very unusual for a drug to contain more than one new ring system and the majority of the most frequently used ring systems (83%) were first used in drugs developed prior to 1983. These observations give insight into the chemical novelty of drugs and potentially efficient ways to assess compound libraries and develop compounds from hit identification to lead optimization and beyond.

  9. [Drugs in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchev, N; Astrug, A; Tsankova, V; Nikolova, I

    2006-01-01

    The use of drugs in pregnancy is being discussed. The influence of different factors, both physiological and drug related (physicochemical characteristics, dose, duration of pharmacotherapy) on the processes of absorption, distribution, protein binding, metabolism and excretion are reviewed. The up-to-date classification of the drugs in relation to their effects on the fetus is presented. Special emphasize is given to drugs (antibiotics, cardio-vascular, psychotropic etc.) used for the treatment of acute and chronic conditions in the course of pregnancy. Drugs used for symptoms like pain, high temperature and constipation are also reviewed. Recommendations for the use of safer drugs in pregnancy are given. Drugs with proven teratogenic effects are presented.

  10. Derrida and drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Gough, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Derrida, in the interview Rhetoric of Drugs (1993), following on from the explication of the notion of pharmakon (both poison and beneficial drug, at the same time), outlines a possible �theory� of drugs and addiction. It has several key features:\\ud � there are no drugs in nature: the definition of �drug� is an institutionalised one\\ud � the concept of drugs is non-scientific, non-positive\\ud � drugs are a parasitism �at once accidental and essential�; and are thus a topic ...

  11. Generic Drugs: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Information for Consumers (Drugs) Questions & Answers Generic Drugs: Questions & Answers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  12. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Health Consequences of Drug Misuse Hepatitis (Viral) ...

  13. Drugs Approved for Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for esophageal cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  14. Drugs Approved for Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for liver cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  15. Drugs Approved for Kaposi Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Kaposi sarcoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  16. Drugs Approved for Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to prevent vaginal cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  17. Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for skin cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  18. Drugs Approved for Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for vulvar cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  19. Drugs Approved for Wilms Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Wilms tumor and other childhood kidney cancers. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  20. Drugs Approved for Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bone cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  1. Drugs Approved for Malignant Mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for malignant mesothelioma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  2. Drugs Approved for Penile Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for penile cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  3. Drugs Approved for Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for endometrial cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Link - Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors ... GA: CDC, DHHS. Retrieved November 2017. How are Drug Misuse and HIV Related? Drug misuse and addiction ...

  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens ... Substance Use and SUDs in LGBT Populations Treatment Trends & Statistics Women and Drugs Publications Search Publications Orderable ...

  6. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and ... Link campaign. This campaign shows teens and young adults that non-injection drug use and alcohol use ...

  7. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing ... please visit: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/age/youth/index.html​ . Resources Publications Drug Facts: Drug ...

  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Health Consequences of Drug Misuse Hepatitis ( ... Party" "Text Message" NIDA Home Site Map Accessibility Privacy FOIA(NIH) Working at NIDA FAQs Contact Subscribe ...

  9. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with drug misuse are among the main ... lead people to engage in impulsive and unsafe behaviors. Injection drug use. People typically associate drug misuse ...

  10. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... are not listed here. Drugs Approved to Prevent Breast Cancer Evista (Raloxifene Hydrochloride) Raloxifene Hydrochloride Tamoxifen Citrate Drugs ...

  11. TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Vishvakarama Prabhakar; Agarwal Shivendra; Sharma Ritika; Saurabh Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Various new technologies have been developed for the transdermal delivery of some important drugs. Today about 74% of drugs are taken orally and are found not to be as effective as desired. To improve such characters transdermal drug delivery system was emerged. Drug delivery through the skin to achieve a systemic effect of a drug is commonly known as transdermal drug delivery and differs from traditional topical drug delivery. Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) are dosage forms involve...

  12. Supersaturating drug delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laitinen, Riikka; Löbmann, Korbinian; Grohganz, Holger

    2017-01-01

    of the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs by increasing the driving force for drug absorption. However, ASDs often require a high weight percentage of carrier (usually a hydrophilic polymer) to ensure molecular mixing of the drug in the carrier and stabilization of the supersaturated state, often leading......Amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) are probably the most common and important supersaturating drug delivery systems for the formulation of poorly water-soluble compounds. These delivery systems are able to achieve and maintain a sustained drug supersaturation which enables improvement...... strategy for poorly-soluble drugs. While the current research on co-amorphous formulations is focused on preparation and characterization of these systems, more detailed research on their supersaturation and precipitation behavior and the effect of co-formers on nucleation and crystal growth inhibition...

  13. Recreational drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Timothy E

    2014-02-01

    The use of recreational drugs of abuse continues to expand without limitations to national boundaries, social status, race, or education. Beyond the prevalence of illicit drug use and dependence, their contribution to the global burden of disease and death are large and troubling. All medical providers should be aware of the evolving drugs of abuse and their medical and social consequences. In addition to heroin and stimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine, new designer stimulants called "bath salts" and cannabinoids called "spice," along with the abuse of prescription drugs and volatile substances, are now widely recognized problems in many societies. The wide variety and continuingly expanding clinical manifestations of toxicity of recreational drugs of abuse is not widely appreciated by clinicians. This edition attempts to summarize six major classes of drugs of abuse and their clinical effects with special emphasis on their immunological and respiratory effects.

  14. Therapeutic drug monitoring of atypical antipsychotic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grundmann Milan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder often associated with cognitive impairment and affective, mainly depressive, symptoms. Antipsychotic medication is the primary intervention for stabilization of acute psychotic episodes and prevention of recurrences and relapses in patients with schizophrenia. Typical antipsychotics, the older class of antipsychotic agents, are currently used much less frequently than newer atypical antipsychotics. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM of antipsychotic drugs is the specific method of clinical pharmacology, which involves measurement of drug serum concentrations followed by interpretation and good cooperation with the clinician. TDM is a powerful tool that allows tailor-made treatment for the specific needs of individual patients. It can help in monitoring adherence, dose adjustment, minimizing the risk of toxicity and in cost-effectiveness in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. The review provides complex knowledge indispensable to clinical pharmacologists, pharmacists and clinicians for interpretation of TDM results.

  15. Discontinued drugs in 2012: cardiovascular drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-Ping; Jiang, Hong-Min; Xiang, Bing-Ren

    2013-11-01

    The continued high rate of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has attracted wide concern and great attention of pharmaceutical industry. In order to reduce the attrition of cardiovascular drug R&D, it might be helpful recapitulating previous failures and identifying the potential factors to success. This perspective mainly analyses the 30 cardiovascular drugs dropped from clinical development in 2012. Reasons causing the termination of the cardiovascular drugs in the past 5 years are also tabulated and analysed. The analysis shows that the attrition is highest in Phase II trials and financial and strategic factors and lack of clinical efficacy are the principal reasons for these disappointments. To solve the four problems (The 'better than the Beatles' problem, the 'cautious regulator' problem, the 'throw money at it' tendency and the 'basic researchbrute force' bias) is recommended as the main measure to increase the number and quality of approvable products.

  16. Abuse of prescription drugs.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilford, B B

    1990-01-01

    An estimated 3% of the United States population deliberately misuse or abuse psychoactive medications, with severe consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than half of patients who sought treatment or died of drug-related medical problems in 1989 were abusing prescription drugs. Physicians who contribute to this problem have been described by the American Medical Association as dishonest--willfully misprescribing for purposes of abuse, usually for profit; disable...

  17. Radiopharmaceutical drug review process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankel, R.

    1985-01-01

    To ensure proper radioactive drug use (such as quality, diagnostic improvement, and minimal radioactive exposure), the Food and Drug Administration evaluates new drugs with respect to safety, effectiveness, and accuracy and adequacy of the labeling. The IND or NDA process is used for this purpose. A brief description of the process, including the Chemical Classification System and the therapeutic potential classification, is presented as it applies to radiopharmaceuticals. Also, the status of the IND or NDA review of radiopharmaceuticals is given

  18. Drug procurement and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salhotra, V S

    2003-03-01

    A strong drug procurement and management system under the RNTCP is critical to programme success. Significant improvements in manufacturing, inspection, supply, storage and quality control practices and procedures have been achieved due to an intensive RNTCP network. Drugs used in RNTCP are rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, pyrazinamide and streptomycin. Patients of TB are categorised into I, II and III and each category has a different standarised treatment. Procurement, distribution system and quality assurance of drugs are narrated in brief in this article.

  19. Grapefruit and drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Since the late 1980s, grapefruit juice has been known to affect the metabolism of certain drugs. Several serious adverse effects involving drug interactions with grapefruit juice have been published in detail. The components of grapefruit juice vary considerably depending on the variety, maturity and origin of the fruit, local climatic conditions, and the manufacturing process. No single component accounts for all observed interactions. Other grapefruit products are also occasionally implicated, including preserves, lyophylised grapefruit juice, powdered whole grapefruit, grapefruit seed extract, and zest. Clinical reports of drug interactions with grapefruit juice are supported by pharmacokinetic studies, each usually involving about 10 healthy volunteers, in which the probable clinical consequences were extrapolated from the observed plasma concentrations. Grapefruit juice inhibits CYP3A4, the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme most often involved in drug metabolism. This increases plasma concentrations of the drugs concerned, creating a risk of overdose and dose-dependent adverse effects. Grapefruit juice also inhibits several other cytochrome P450 isoenzymes, but they are less frequently implicated in interactions with clinical consequences. Drugs interacting with grapefruit and inducing serious clinical consequences (confirmed or very probable) include: immunosuppressants, some statins, benzodiazepines, most calcium channel blockers, indinavir and carbamazepine. There are large inter-individual differences in enzyme efficiency. Along with the variable composition of grapefruit juice, this makes it difficult to predict the magnitude and clinical consequences of drug interactions with grapefruit juice in a given patient. There is increasing evidence that transporter proteins such as organic anion transporters and P-glycoprotein are involved in interactions between drugs and grapefruit juice. In practice, numerous drugs interact with grapefruit juice. Although only a few

  20. Drug Trafficking in Haiti

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burns, DeEtta

    2002-01-01

    .... The thesis argues that Haiti's geographic location, political culture, illegal immigrants, entrepreneurial class and weak institutions have made it a major transshipment point for drugs to the United...

  1. Drugs in East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, J; Müller, E

    1997-09-01

    Germany was divided into two parts after World War II. The closed border and a nonconvertible currency in the Eastern part were the factors that did not allow a drug market to develop. Alcohol and medicaments were used as substitute drugs. Since Germany was reunified 5 years ago, there are now the same conditions prevailing for the procurement and sale of drugs in East Germany as there are in the Western German states. This report describes the current state of drug traffic, especially in Saxony, under the new social conditions.

  2. Population and Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Feberová, Beata

    2008-01-01

    PEOPLE AND DRUGS II. Author: Križanová L. Tutor: Práznovcová L. Dept. of Social and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic Background: It is necessary to rationalize the system of funding of health service. One of the ways how to achieve this aim is monitoring of drug prescription and patient's financial participation on the therapy. Aim of study: Observation and analysis of drug prescription aimed at the prescription of the drug...

  3. Drug induced lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia; Eisenhuber, Edith

    2010-01-01

    There is an ever increasing number of drugs that can cause lung disease. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis, since the clinical symptoms are mostly nonspecific. Various HRCT patterns can be correlated - though with overlaps - to lung changes caused by certain groups of drugs. Alternative diagnosis such as infection, edema or underlying lung disease has to be excluded by clinical-radiological means. Herefore is profound knowledge of the correlations of drug effects and imaging findings essential. History of drug exposure, suitable radiological findings and response to treatment (corticosteroids and stop of medication) mostly provide the base for the diagnosis. (orig.)

  4. Microwave Assisted Drug Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónasson, Sævar Þór; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Johansen, Tom Keinicke

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the microwave radiation is adopted for remote activation of pharmaceutical drug capsules inside the human body in order to release drugs at a pre-determined time and location. An array of controllable transmitting sources is used to produce a constructive interference at a certain...... focus point inside the body, where the drugs are then released from the specially designed capsules. An experimental setup for microwave activation has been developed and tested on a body phantom that emulates the human torso. A design of sensitive receiving structures for integration with a drug...

  5. Projecting future drug expenditures--2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, James M; Shah, Nilay D; Vermeulen, Lee C; Doloresco, Fred; Martin, Patrick K; Blake, Sharon; Matusiak, Linda; Hunkler, Robert J; Schumock, Glen T

    2009-02-01

    Drug expenditure trends in 2007 and 2008, projected drug expenditures for 2009, and factors likely to influence drug expenditures are discussed. Various factors are likely to influence drug expenditures in 2009, including drugs in development, the diffusion of new drugs, drug safety concerns, generic drugs, Medicare Part D, and changes in the drug supply chain. The increasing availability of important generic drugs and drug safety concerns continue to moderate growth in drug expenditures. The drug supply chain remains dynamic and may influence drug expenditures, particularly in specialized therapeutic areas. Initial data suggest that the Medicare Part D benefit has influenced drug expenditures, but the ultimate impact of the benefit on drug expenditures remains unclear. From 2006 to 2007, total U.S. drug expenditures increased by 4.0%, with total spending rising from $276 billion to $287 billion. Drug expenditures in clinics continue to grow more rapidly than in other settings, with a 9.9% increase from 2006 to 2007. Hospital drug expenditures increased at a moderate rate of only 1.6% from 2006 to 2007; through the first nine months of 2008, hospital drug expenditures increased by only 2.8% compared with the same period in 2007. In 2009, we project a 0-2% increase in drug expenditures in outpatient settings, a 1-3% increase in expenditures for clinic-administered drugs, and a 1-3% increase in hospital drug expenditures.

  6. DRUGS IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Mottram

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i actions of drugs and hormones, ii medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v an assessment of the prevalence of drug taking in sport. FEATURES A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. This textbook is composed of twelve parts with sub-sections in all of them. The topics of the parts are: i An introduction to drugs and their use in sport, ii Drug use and abuse in sport, iii Central nervous system stimulants, iv WADA regulations in relation to drugs used in the treatment of respiratory tract disorders, v Androgenic anabolic steroids, vi Peptide and glycoprotein hormones and sport, vii Blood boosting and sport, viii Drug treatment of inflammation in sports injuries, ix Alcohol, anti-anxiety drugs and sport, x Creatine, xi Doping control and sport, xii Prevalence of drug misuse in sport. Each specific chapter has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective, retrospective, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables and figures are numerous, helpful and very useful. AUDIENCE The book provides a very useful resource for students on sports related courses, coaches and trainers, researchers, nutritionists, exercise physiologists, pharmacologists, healthcare professionals in the fields of sports medicine and those involved in the management and administration side of sport. The readers are going to discover that this is an excellent reference book. Extensively revised new edition of this book is also a first-rate resource for

  7. Drugs and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Victor F.

    1978-01-01

    Millions of people in this country take medications, and millions drink alcohol. Both are drugs and have effects on the organs and systems with which they or their metabolites come in contact. This short article discusses some of the combined effects of prescribed drugs and alcohol on some systems, with special emphasis on the liver. PMID:712865

  8. [Drugs and light].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tønnesen, H H

    1997-06-30

    The number of drugs that are found to be photochemically unstable or able to induce phototoxic side-effects is steadily increasing. It can be difficult, however, to obtain relevant information on the photoreactivity of drugs or drug products from the commonly used handbooks. This is because of lack of standard methods of evaluation or a requirement for official specifications for a given product. The author points to the main problems connected with interactions between drugs and light in vitro and in vivo. The most obvious result of exposure to light is reduced potency of the drug because of photodecomposition. Adverse effects due to the formation of photodegradation products during storage and use have also been reported. The drug substance can further cause light-induced side-effects after administration to the patient, e.g. phototoxicity and photoallergy. More data on photoreactivity are needed in order to minimize the side-effects of frequently used drugs. The article includes a list of potential photosensitizing drug substances on the Norwegian market.

  9. Alternative drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations.

  10. Drug induced aseptic meningitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2013-09-29

    Sep 29, 2013 ... Abstract. Drug-induced aseptic meningitis (DIAM) is a rare but important and often challenging diagnosis for the physician. Intake of antimicrobials, steroids, anal- gesics amongst others has been implicated. Signs and symptoms generally develop within 24-48 hours of drug ingestion. The pa- tient often ...

  11. Student Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowlis, Helen H.

    This paper discusses the nature and extent of student drug use, its meaning and significance, society's response to it, and some of the problems resulting from efforts to control it. Drugs are any substance which by its chemical nature affects the structure or function of the living organism. Abuse refers to any use of a non-medically approved…

  12. Drug delivery and formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkreutz, Jörg; Boos, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Paediatric drug delivery is a major challenge in drug development. Because of the heterogeneous nature of the patient group, ranging from newborns to adolescents, there is a need to use appropriate excipients, drug dosage forms and delivery devices for different age groups. So far, there is a lack of suitable and safe drug formulations for children, especially for the very young and seriously ill patients. The new EU legislation will enforce paediatric clinical trials and drug development. Current advances in paediatric drug delivery include interesting new concepts such as fast-dissolving drug formulations, including orodispersible tablets and oral thin strips (buccal wafers), and multiparticulate dosage forms based on mini-tabletting or pelletization technologies. Parenteral administration is likely to remain the first choice for children in the neonatal period and for emergency cases. Alternative routes of administration include transdermal, pulmonary and nasal drug delivery systems. A few products are already available on the market, but others still need further investigations and clinical proof of concept.

  13. Vaginal drug distribution modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, David F; Yuan, Andrew; Gao, Yajing

    2015-09-15

    This review presents and applies fundamental mass transport theory describing the diffusion and convection driven mass transport of drugs to the vaginal environment. It considers sources of variability in the predictions of the models. It illustrates use of model predictions of microbicide drug concentration distribution (pharmacokinetics) to gain insights about drug effectiveness in preventing HIV infection (pharmacodynamics). The modeling compares vaginal drug distributions after different gel dosage regimens, and it evaluates consequences of changes in gel viscosity due to aging. It compares vaginal mucosal concentration distributions of drugs delivered by gels vs. intravaginal rings. Finally, the modeling approach is used to compare vaginal drug distributions across species with differing vaginal dimensions. Deterministic models of drug mass transport into and throughout the vaginal environment can provide critical insights about the mechanisms and determinants of such transport. This knowledge, and the methodology that obtains it, can be applied and translated to multiple applications, involving the scientific underpinnings of vaginal drug distribution and the performance evaluation and design of products, and their dosage regimens, that achieve it. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Drugs in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, J C; Cowan, D A

    2008-06-01

    This themed issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology has been compiled and edited by Ian McGrath, Regius Professor of Physiology at University of Glasgow and David Cowan, Director of the Drug Control Centre at King's College London. It contains 11 articles covering the mechanisms of action of the major groups of drugs used illicitly in sport. The articles, written by experts in how drugs work, set out where drugs can or cannot affect sporting performance, how this relates to their legitimate medicinal use, their other detrimental effects and how they can be detected. Publication coincides with Olympic year, when sport is highlighted in the public mind and much speculation is made concerning the use of drugs. The articles provide a framework of expert, accurate knowledge to inform and facilitate these debates and to help to overcome the ill-informed and dangerous anecdotal information by which sports men and women are persuaded to misuse drugs in the mistaken belief that this will improve their performance without present or future ill effects. A unique article is included by the Spedding brothers, Mike with a long career in drug discovery and Charlie, the 1984 Los Angeles Olympic Marathon Bronze Medallist and still the English National Marathon record holder. From their unique experience, they describe the insidious and unfair way that drug-assisted performance undermines the ethos of sport and endangers the vital place of sport in maintaining the health of the population.

  15. Dendrimers for Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay Singh Chauhan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Dendrimers have come a long way in the last 25 years since their inception. Originally created as a wonder molecule of chemistry, dendrimer is now in the fourth class of polymers. Dr. Donald Tomalia first published his seminal work on Poly(amidoamine (PAMAM dendrimers in 1985. Application of dendrimers as a drug delivery system started in late 1990s. Dendrimers for drug delivery are employed using two approaches: (i formulation and (ii nanoconstruct. In the formulation approach, drugs are physically entrapped in a dendrimer using non-covalent interactions, whereas drugs are covalently coupled on dendrimers in the nanoconstruct approach. We have demonstrated the utility of PAMAM dendrimers for enhancing solubility, stability and oral bioavailability of various drugs. Drug entrapment and drug release from dendrimers can be controlled by modifying dendrimer surfaces and generations. PAMAM dendrimers are also shown to increase transdermal permeation and specific drug targeting. Dendrimer platforms can be engineered to attach targeting ligands and imaging molecules to create a nanodevice. Dendrimer nanotechnology, due to its multifunctional ability, has the potential to create next generation nanodevices.

  16. Academic Drug Discovery Centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Henriette Schultz; Valentin, Finn

    2014-01-01

    Academic drug discovery centres (ADDCs) are seen as one of the solutions to fill the innovation gap in early drug discovery, which has proven challenging for previous organisational models. Prior studies of ADDCs have identified the need to analyse them from the angle of their economic...

  17. Current obesity drug treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio C. Mancini

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological treatment of obesity is an area of sudden changes,development of new drugs and treatment propositions. This articlepresents information on physiological agents that are currentlybeing used as well as drugs that were widely used but are nomore available.

  18. Drugs, Alcohol & Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Christina

    Expectant parents are introduced to the effects of a variety of drugs on the unborn baby. Material is divided into seven sections. Section 1 deals with the most frequently used recreational drugs, including alcohol, marijuana, narcotics, depressants, stimulants, inhalants, and hallucinogens. Sections 2 and 3 focus on the effects of prescription…

  19. Drug Impact Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Center for Drug-Free Schools and Communities.

    The Drug Impact Index provides a set of indicators designed to determine the extent of the local drug problem in a community. Each indicator includes a technical note on the data sources, a graph showing comparative statistics on that indicator for the Portland area and for the State of Oregon, and brief remarks on the implications of the data.…

  20. [Drug-Drug Interactions with Consideration of Pharmacogenetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Shogo

    2018-01-01

     Elderly patients often suffer from a variety of diseases and therefore may be prescribed several kinds of drugs. Interactions between these drugs may cause problems in some patients. Guidelines for drug interactions were released on July 8, 2014 "Drug Interaction Guideline for Drug Development and Labeling Recommendations (Final Draft)". These guidelines include the theoretical basis for evaluating the mechanisms of drug interaction, the possible extent of drug interactions, and take into consideration special populations (e.g., infants, children, elderly patients, patients with hepatic or renal dysfunction, and subjects with minor deficient alleles for drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters). In this symposium article, I discuss this last special population: altered drug metabolism and drug interactions in subjects with minor alleles of genes encoding deficient drug metabolizing enzymes. I further discuss a drug label for eliglustat (Cerdelga) with instructions for patients with ultra-rapid, extensive, intermediate, and poor metabolizer phenotypes that arise from different CYP2D6 gene alleles.

  1. Parents who use drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Tim; Bernays, Sarah; Houmøller, Kathrin

    2010-01-01

    Parents who use drugs parent in a context of heightened concern regarding the damaging effects of parental drug use on child welfare and family life. Yet there is little research exploring how parents who use drugs account for such damage and its limitation. We draw here upon analyses of audio......-recorded depth qualitative interviews, conducted in south-east England between 2008 and 2009, with 29 parents who use drugs. Our approach to thematic analysis treated accounts as co-produced and socially situated. An over-arching theme of accounts was 'damage limitation'. Most damage limitation work centred...... on efforts to create a sense of normalcy of family life, involving keeping drug use secret from children, and investing heavily in strategies to maintain ambiguity regarding children's awareness. Our analysis highlights that damage limitation strategies double-up in accounts as resources of child protection...

  2. Metabonomics and drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramana, Pranov; Adams, Erwin; Augustijns, Patrick; Van Schepdael, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Metabolites as an end product of metabolism possess a wealth of information about altered metabolic control and homeostasis that is dependent on numerous variables including age, sex, and environment. Studying significant changes in the metabolite patterns has been recognized as a tool to understand crucial aspects in drug development like drug efficacy and toxicity. The inclusion of metabonomics into the OMICS study platform brings us closer to define the phenotype and allows us to look at alternatives to improve the diagnosis of diseases. Advancements in the analytical strategies and statistical tools used to study metabonomics allow us to prevent drug failures at early stages of drug development and reduce financial losses during expensive phase II and III clinical trials. This chapter introduces metabonomics along with the instruments used in the study; in addition relevant examples of the usage of metabonomics in the drug development process are discussed along with an emphasis on future directions and the challenges it faces.

  3. Drug metabolism in birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huo Ping; Fouts, James R.

    1979-01-01

    Papers published over 100 years since the beginning of the scientific study of drug metabolism in birds were reviewed. Birds were found to be able to accomplish more than 20 general biotransformation reactions in both functionalization and conjugation. Chickens were the primary subject of study but over 30 species of birds were used. Large species differences in drug metabolism exist between birds and mammals as well as between various birds, these differences were mostly quantitative. Qualitative differences were rare. On the whole, drug metabolism studies in birds have been neglected as compared with similar studies on insects and mammals. The uniqueness of birds and the advantages of using birds in drug metabolism studies are discussed. Possible future studies of drug metabolism in birds are recommended.

  4. Drug therapy of leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kubanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy (Hansen’s disease is a chronic granulomatous bacterial infection mainly affecting the skin and peripheral nervous system yet also involving other organs and systems as a result of a pathological process. The causative agent of leprosy - Mycobacterium leprae - is an obligate intracellular microorganism. Despite the removal of a threat of a leprosy epidemic, European countries still record outbreaks of the disease mainly among migrants coming from endemic areas. A golden standard of the treatment of leprosy is a WHO-recommended combined drug therapy comprising drugs such as dapsone, clofazimine and rifampicin. The article provides current data on the mechanisms of action, efficacy and safety of these drugs and their combined scheme of treatment obtained as a result of clinical trials. Moreover, it also reviews new regimens of the drug therapy of leprosy including those with the use of drugs from the group of fluoroquinols as well as immunotherapy of the disease.

  5. Drug Pricing Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Mendez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Reference price systems for prescription drugs have found widespread use as cost containment tools. Under such regulatory regimes, patients co-pay a fraction of the difference between pharmacy retail price of the drug and a reference price. Reference prices are either externally (based on drug...... prices in other countries) or internally (based on domestic drug prices) determined. In a recent study, we analysed the effects of a change from external to internal reference pricing in Denmark in 2005, finding that the reform led to substantial reductions in prices, producer revenues, and expenditures...... for patients and the health insurance system. We also estimated an increase in consumer welfare but the size effect depends on whether or not perceived quality differences between branded and other drugs are taken into account....

  6. [Drug induced diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morard, Isabelle; Hadengue, Antoine

    2008-09-03

    Diarrhea is a frequent adverse event involving the most frequently antibiotics, laxatives and NSAI. Drug induced diarrhea may be acute or chronic. It may be due to expected, dose dependant properties of the drug, to immuno-allergic or bio-genomic mechanisms. Several pathophysiological mechanisms have been described resulting in osmotic, secretory or inflammatory diarrhea, shortened transit time, or malabsorption. Histopathological lesions sometimes associated with drug induced diarrhea are usually non specific and include ulcerations, inflammatory or ischemic lesions, fibrous diaphragms, microscopic colitis and apoptosis. The diagnosis of drug induced diarrhea, sometimes difficult to assess, relies on the absence of other obvious causes and on the rapid disappearance of the symptoms after withdrawal of the suspected drug.

  7. Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for cervical cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  8. Drugs Approved for Multiple Myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for multiple myeloma and other plasma cell neoplasms. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  9. Drugs Approved for Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for testicular cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  10. Drugs Approved for Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Hodgkin lymphoma. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  11. Drugs Approved for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for myeloproliferative neoplasms. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  12. Herb-drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugh-Berman, A

    2000-01-08

    Concurrent use of herbs may mimic, magnify, or oppose the effect of drugs. Plausible cases of herb-drug interactions include: bleeding when warfarin is combined with ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), garlic (Allium sativum), dong quai (Angelica sinensis), or danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza); mild serotonin syndrome in patients who mix St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) with serotonin-reuptake inhibitors; decreased bioavailability of digoxin, theophylline, cyclosporin, and phenprocoumon when these drugs are combined with St John's wort; induction of mania in depressed patients who mix antidepressants and Panax ginseng; exacerbation of extrapyramidal effects with neuroleptic drugs and betel nut (Areca catechu); increased risk of hypertension when tricyclic antidepressants are combined with yohimbine (Pausinystalia yohimbe); potentiation of oral and topical corticosteroids by liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra); decreased blood concentrations of prednisolone when taken with the Chinese herbal product xaio chai hu tang (sho-salko-to); and decreased concentrations of phenytoin when combined with the Ayurvedic syrup shankhapushpi. Anthranoid-containing plants (including senna [Cassia senna] and cascara [Rhamnus purshiana]) and soluble fibres (including guar gum and psyllium) can decrease the absorption of drugs. Many reports of herb-drug interactions are sketchy and lack laboratory analysis of suspect preparations. Health-care practitioners should caution patients against mixing herbs and pharmaceutical drugs.

  13. Drug abuse in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reardon CL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. Keywords: doping, athletes, steroids, drug abuse, mental illness

  14. Anticancer drugs during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Shingo; Yamada, Manabu; Kasai, Yasuyo; Miyauchi, Akito; Andoh, Kazumichi

    2016-09-01

    Although cancer diagnoses during pregnancy are rare, they have been increasing with the rise in maternal age and are now a topic of international concern. In some cases, the administration of chemotherapy is unavoidable, though there is a relative paucity of evidence regarding the administration of anticancer drugs during pregnancy. As more cases have gradually accumulated and further research has been conducted, we are beginning to elucidate the appropriate timing for the administration of chemotherapy, the regimens that can be administered with relative safety, various drug options and the effects of these drugs on both the mother and fetus. However, new challenges have arisen, such as the effects of novel anticancer drugs and the desire to bear children during chemotherapy. In this review, we outline the effects of administering cytotoxic anticancer drugs and molecular targeted drugs to pregnant women on both the mother and fetus, as well as the issues regarding patients who desire to bear children while being treated with anticancer drugs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Notes Podcasts E-Newsletters Public Education Projects National Drug & Alcohol Facts Week NIDA TV PEERx Drugs & Health Blog ... Award for Addiction Science USA Science & Engineering Festival Drug & Alcohol Chat Day HBO Addiction Project Learn the Link ...

  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... www.cdc.gov/actagainstaids/basics/whatishiv.html ). Atlanta, GA: CDC, DHHS. Retrieved November 2017. How are Drug ... lead people to engage in impulsive and unsafe behaviors. Injection drug use. People typically associate drug misuse ...

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or reduce their drug use and related risk behaviors, including drug injection and unsafe sexual practices. Drug use disorder treatment programs also serve an important role in providing ...

  18. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... risk for getting HIV. Drug and alcohol intoxication affect judgment and can lead to unsafe sexual practices, ... effects of drugs. Drug misuse and addiction can affect a person's overall health, thereby altering susceptibility to ...

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is partly due to the addictive and intoxicating effects of many drugs, which can alter judgment and ... HIV or transmitting it to someone else. Biological effects of drugs. Drug misuse and addiction can affect ...

  20. State Drug Utilization Data 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts ... to HIV and progression of AIDS. Drugs of abuse and HIV both affect the brain. Research has ...

  2. State Drug Utilization Data 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  3. State Drug Utilization Data 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  4. Drugs Approved for Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for pancreatic cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  5. State Drug Utilization Data 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  6. Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for lung cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  7. Drugs Approved for Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bladder cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana ... person at risk for getting HIV. Drug and alcohol intoxication affect judgment and can lead to unsafe ...

  9. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Skip to main content En español Researchers Medical & Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search ... Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Health Consequences of Drug Misuse Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/ ...

  10. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or reduce their drug use and related risk behaviors, including drug injection and unsafe sexual practices. Drug use disorder treatment programs also serve an important role in ...

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl ... groups of young people, guiding the use of technology, the discussion between friends, and the importance of ...

  12. State Drug Utilization Data 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  13. State Drug Utilization Data 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  14. Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer Cabozantinib-S-Malate Caprelsa (Vandetanib) Cometriq (Cabozantinib-S-Malate) Doxorubicin ...

  15. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Health Consequences of Drug Misuse Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/AIDS Mental ... is partly due to the addictive and intoxicating effects of many drugs, which can alter judgment and ...

  16. State Drug Utilization Data 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  17. State Drug Utilization Data 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  18. State Drug Utilization Data 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  19. State Drug Utilization Data 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  20. State Drug Utilization Data 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  1. State Drug Utilization Data 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  2. State Drug Utilization Data 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  3. State Drug Utilization Data 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  4. State Drug Utilization Data 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  5. State Drug Utilization Data 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  6. State Drug Utilization Data 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  7. State Drug Utilization Data 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  8. State Drug Utilization Data 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  9. State Drug Utilization Data 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  10. State Drug Utilization Data 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  11. State Drug Utilization Data 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  12. State Drug Utilization Data 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  13. State Drug Utilization Data 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the ... AIDS, as well as HIV/AIDS research and policies. AIDS.gov New Media Tools : These new media ...

  15. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl ... AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). AIDS is a disease of the immune system for which there is ...

  16. Drug: D05157 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D05157 Drug Nicotine polacrilex (USAN); Nicorette (TN) ... Other ... DG01718 ... Drugs... for addictive disorder ... DG01715 ... Drugs for nicotine dependence Cyp substrate ... DG01638 ... CYP2A6 substrate Cy

  17. Drug: D00123 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00123 Drug Cyanamide (JP17); Cyanamide (TN) ... CH2N2 D00123.gif ... Other ... DG01718 ... Drugs... for addictive disorder ... DG01716 ... Drugs for alcohol dependence Same as: C01566 Therapeutic category: 3

  18. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain ... Campaign! NIDA acknowledges the following television networks, organizations, educational institutions, magazines, newspapers, companies, events, and radio stations ...

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... parents and teachers). It provides them with useful information on the science behind drug use. NIDA’s Easy-to-Read Drug Facts Web site describes the dangers of drug misuse and ...

  20. Drug: D00330 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00330 Drug Flurbiprofen (JP17/USP/INN); Ansaid (TN) ... C15H13FO2 D00330.gif ... Anti...-inflammatory ... DG01908 ... Antiinflammatory drug, propionic acid derivatives ... DG01504 ... Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAI

  1. State Drug Utilization Data 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  2. Neurocircuitry of drug reward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikemoto, Satoshi; Bonci, Antonello

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, neuroscientists have produced profound conceptual and mechanistic advances on the neurocircuitry of reward and substance use disorders. Here, we will provide a brief review of intracranial drug self-administration and optogenetic self-stimulation studies that identified brain regions and neurotransmitter systems involved in drug- and reward-related behaviors. Also discussed is a theoretical framework that helps to understand the functional properties of the circuitry involved in these behaviors. The circuitry appears to be homeostatically regulated and mediate anticipatory processes that regulate behavioral interaction with the environment in response to salient stimuli. That is, abused drugs or, at least, some may act on basic motivation and mood processes, regulating behavior-environment interaction. Optogenetics and related technologies have begun to uncover detailed circuit mechanisms linking key brain regions in which abused drugs act for rewarding effects. PMID:23664810

  3. Drug Dosing Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs and Alcohol Exercise Mental Health Sex and Sexuality Smoking FAQs Tips and Tools Community For Health ... Homeless Veterans Returning Service Members Rural Veterans Seniors & Aging Veterans Volunteers Women Veterans Careers, Job Help & Training ...

  4. Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... June 6, 2018 HIV Vaccine Elicits Antibodies in Animals that Neutralize Dozens of HIV Strains , June 4, 2018 ... Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance > Understanding share with facebook share with twitter share ...

  5. MSIS Drug Utilization Datamart

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This page provides background needed to take advantage of the capabilities of the MSIS Drug Utilization Datamart. This mart allows the user to develop high-level...

  6. Street Drugs and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help you quit. Or contact: National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence (800) 622-2255 Substance Abuse Treatment Facility Locator (800) 662-4357 Last reviewed: November, 2016 Pregnancy Is it safe? Other Pregnancy topics ') document.write(' ...

  7. DrugFacts: Heroin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  8. Drug Facts: Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  9. Cholesterol - drug treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000314.htm Cholesterol - drug treatment To use the sharing features on ... treatment; Hardening of the arteries - statin Statins for Cholesterol Statins reduce your risk of heart disease, stroke, ...

  10. Bibliography [On Drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Student Personnel Administrators, Detroit, MI.

    A bibliography of materials on drugs is presented. The book and paper back entries are annotated. Selected technical references are listed under these major findings: (1) dependency, (2) barbiturates, (3) amphetamines, and (4) general pharmacology. (PS)

  11. Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahamatullah Shaikh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoadhesion is commonly defined as the adhesion between two materials, at least one of which is a mucosal surface. Over the past few decades, mucosal drug delivery has received a great deal of attention. Mucoadhesive dosage forms may be designed to enable prolonged retention at the site of application, providing a controlled rate of drug release for improved therapeutic outcome. Application of dosage forms to mucosal surfaces may be of benefit to drug molecules not amenable to the oral route, such as those that undergo acid degradation or extensive first-pass metabolism. The mucoadhesive ability of a dosage form is dependent upon a variety of factors, including the nature of the mucosal tissue and the physicochemical properties of the polymeric formulation. This review article aims to provide an overview of the various aspects of mucoadhesion, mucoadhesive materials, factors affecting mucoadhesion, evaluating methods, and finally various mucoadhesive drug delivery systems (buccal, nasal, ocular, gastro, vaginal, and rectal.

  12. Drug-induced pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, Claudia; Maertin, Sandrina; Scheiber, Jonas; Ritter, Christoph A; Lerch, Markus M; Mayerle, Julia

    2012-04-01

    Drugs are thought to be a rare cause for acute pancreatitis; however 525 different drugs are listed in the World Health Organization (WHO) database suspected to cause acute pancreatitis as a side effect. Many of them are widely used to treat highly prevalent diseases. The true incidence is not entirely clear since only few systematic population based studies exist. The majority of the available data are derived from case reports or case control studies. Furthermore, the causality for many of these drugs remains elusive and for only 31 of these 525 dugs a definite causality was established. Definite proof for causality is defined by the WHO classification if symptoms reoccur upon rechallenge.In the actual algorithm the diagnosis is confirmed if no other cause of acute pancreatitis can be detected, and the patient is taking one of the suspected drugs.

  13. Drug therapy smartens up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christian

    2015-11-01

    The submission of the first 'smart pill' for market approval, combined with progress in the European nanomedicine landscape, illustrates the positive outlook for drug therapy and health monitoring, explains Christian Martin.

  14. Drug Development Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preclinical Research Preclinical Research Drugs undergo laboratory and animal testing to answer basic questions about safety. More Information ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  15. Neuropathy secondary to drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paclitaxel Suramin Vincristine Drugs used to fight infections: Chloroquine Dapsone Isoniazid (INH), used against tuberculosis Metronidazole (Flagyl) ... to treat gout) Disulfiram (used to treat alcohol use) Arsenic Gold Symptoms Symptoms may include any of ...

  16. The drug swindlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, M; Lydecker, M; Lee, P R

    1990-01-01

    In a number of important developing nations--among them Indonesia, India, and Brazil--clinical pharmacologists and other drug experts are revealing mounting concern over the marketing of fraudulent drug products. These are shaped, colored, flavored, marked, and packaged to mimic the real product. They may contain the actual antibiotic or other drug indicated on the label, but so "cut" that the product provides only a small fraction of the labeled amount, or they may contain only useless flour or starch. At best, they are worthless. At the worst, they can kill. In most instances, it is believed that these "drugs" are produced and marketed by local or domestic fly-by-night groups and not by multinational pharmaceutical firms. Blame for these practices is placed on inadequate or unenforced laws, only trivial punishments, bribery and corruption, and the fact that generally "nobody inspects the inspectors."

  17. Vitiligo, drug induced (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this person's face have resulted from drug-induced vitiligo. Loss of melanin, the primary skin pigment, occasionally ... is the case with this individual. The typical vitiligo lesion is flat and depigmented, but maintains the ...

  18. Drugs and driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walsh, J. Michael; De Gier, Johan J.; Christopherson, Asbjørg S.; Verstraete, Alain G.

    The authors present a global overview on the issue of drugs and driving covering four major areas: (1) Epidemiology and Prevalence-which reviews epidemiological research, summarizes available information, discusses the methodological shortcomings of extant studies, and makes recommendations for

  19. Medicaid Drug Claims Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicaid Drug Claims Statistics CD is a useful tool that conveniently breaks up Medicaid claim counts and separates them by quarter and includes an annual count.

  20. Transdermal drug delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Prausnitz, Mark R.; Langer, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery has made an important contribution to medical practice, but has yet to fully achieve its potential as an alternative to oral delivery and hypodermic injections. First-generation transdermal delivery systems have continued their steady increase in clinical use for delivery of small, lipophilic, low-dose drugs. Second-generation delivery systems using chemical enhancers, non-cavitational ultrasound and iontophoresis have also resulted in clinical products; the ability ...

  1. Immunosuppressive drugs and fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Leroy, Clara; Rigot, Jean-Marc; Leroy, Maryse; Decanter, Christine; Le Mapihan, Kristell; Parent, Anne-Sophie; Le Guillou, Anne-Claire; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Dharancy, Sébastien; Noel, Christian; Vantyghem, Marie-Christine

    2015-01-01

    Immunosuppressive drugs are used in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, as well as in transplantation. Frequently prescribed in young people, these treatments may have deleterious effects on fertility, pregnancy outcomes and the unborn child. This review aims to summarize the main gonadal side effects of immunosuppressants, to detail the effects on fertility and pregnancy of each class of drug, and to provide recommendations on the management of patients who are seen prior ...

  2. Microfabrication for Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Brendan; Rubino, Ilaria; Quan, Fu-Shi; Yoo, Bongyoung; Choi, Hyo-Jick

    2016-01-01

    This review is devoted to discussing the application of microfabrication technologies to target challenges encountered in life processes by the development of drug delivery systems. Recently, microfabrication has been largely applied to solve health and pharmaceutical science issues. In particular, fabrication methods along with compatible materials have been successfully designed to produce multifunctional, highly effective drug delivery systems. Microfabrication offers unique tools that can tackle problems in this field, such as ease of mass production with high quality control and low cost, complexity of architecture design and a broad range of materials. Presented is an overview of silicon- and polymer-based fabrication methods that are key in the production of microfabricated drug delivery systems. Moreover, the efforts focused on studying the biocompatibility of materials used in microfabrication are analyzed. Finally, this review discusses representative ways microfabrication has been employed to develop systems delivering drugs through the transdermal and oral route, and to improve drug eluting implants. Additionally, microfabricated vaccine delivery systems are presented due to the great impact they can have in obtaining a cold chain-free vaccine, with long-term stability. Microfabrication will continue to offer new, alternative solutions for the development of smart, advanced drug delivery systems. PMID:28773770

  3. Emerging drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael E; Bryant, Sean M; Aks, Steven E

    2014-02-01

    Many new emerging drugs of abuse are marketed as legal highs despite being labeled "not for human consumption" to avoid regulation. The availability of these substances over the Internet and in "head shops" has lead to a multitude of emergency department visits with severe complications including deaths worldwide. Despite recent media attention, many of the newer drugs of abuse are still largely unknown by health care providers. Slight alterations of the basic chemical structure of substances create an entirely new drug no longer regulated by current laws and an ever-changing landscape of clinical effects. The purity of each substance with exact pharmacokinetic and toxicity profiles is largely unknown. Many of these substances can be grouped by the class of drug and includes synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, phenethylamines, as well as piperazine derivatives. Resultant effects generally include psychoactive and sympathomimetic-like symptoms. Additionally, prescription medications, performance enhancing medications, and herbal supplements are also becoming more commonly abused. Most new drugs of abuse have no specific antidote and management largely involves symptom based goal directed supportive care with benzodiazepines as a useful adjunct. This paper will focus on the history, epidemiology, clinical effects, laboratory analysis, and management strategy for many of these emerging drugs of abuse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Drugs and occupational accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratzke, H; Albers, C

    1996-02-01

    In a case of a fatal occupational accident (construction worker, fall from roof, urine test positive for cocaine and THC, e.g. cannabis) the question arised to what extent those drug-related occupational accidents occur. In the literature only few cases, mainly dealing with cannabis influence, have been reported, however, a higher number is suspected. Cocaine and other stimulating drugs (amphetamine) are more often used to increase physical fitness. By direct or indirect interference with vigilance these compounds may provoke accidents. Due to the lack of a legal basis proving of the influence of drugs at the working place is still very limited, although highly sensitive chemical-toxicological assay procedures are available to detect even the chronic abuse (in hair). In the general conditions of accident insurances a compensation is excluded when alcohol is involved, but drugs are not mentioned. It is indeed difficult to establish a concentration limit for drugs like that existing for alcohol (1.1%). In each case the assay of the drug involved and exact knowledge of its specific effects is in an essential prerequisite to prove the causal relationship.

  5. New drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rech, Megan A; Donahey, Elisabeth; Cappiello Dziedzic, Jacqueline M; Oh, Laura; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    Drug abuse is a common problem and growing concern in the United States, and over the past decade, novel or atypical drugs have emerged and have become increasingly popular. Recognition and treatment of new drugs of abuse pose many challenges for health care providers due to lack of quantitative reporting and routine surveillance, and the difficulty of detection in routine blood and urine analyses. Furthermore, street manufacturers are able to rapidly adapt and develop new synthetic isolates of older drugs as soon as law enforcement agencies render them illegal. In this article, we describe the clinical and adverse effects and purported pharmacology of several new classes of drugs of abuse including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, salvia, desomorphine, and kratom. Because many of these substances can have severe or life-threatening adverse effects, knowledge of general toxicology is key in recognizing acute intoxication and overdose; however, typical toxidromes (e.g., cholinergic, sympathomimetic, opioid, etc.) are not precipitated by many of these agents. Medical management of patients who abuse or overdose on these drugs largely consists of supportive care, although naloxone may be used as an antidote for desomorphine overdose. Symptoms of aggression and psychosis may be treated with sedation (benzodiazepines, propofol) and antipsychotics (haloperidol or atypical agents such as quetiapine or ziprasidone). Other facets of management to consider include treatment for withdrawal or addiction, nutrition support, and potential for transmission of infectious diseases. © 2014 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  6. Sociology of Drug Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article which is a review of sociological ideas and studies of drug abusers in social situation, drug addiction steps (particularly alcohol, heroin and cocaine consumption are revised and some explanations are made. Also, the role of some sociological ideas in drug addiction is considered in which Anomie Theory reads: "because of such duality, the individuals who are not satisfied with their role are in hurt." According to this theory, drug users choose seclusion and neglecting usual social aims as well as competitive situations. Association of Differentiation Theory claims that drug use behavior is a learned behavior and the first learning occurs in a friendly small group (i.e. youngsters. Social Control theory believes that one can predict normal and abnormal behaviors through the rate of individuals' social commitments. Internal and external controls also determine commitment rate. Micro-cultural theory considers drug use as a compatibility with abnormal micro-culture rules. Symbolic Mutual Action Believes that the etiquettes which society attribute to individuals/behaviors determine their acquired social reactions rather than any inherited acquisition.

  7. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Women and Drugs Publications Search Publications Orderable DrugFacts Research Reports Mind Over Matter Science of Addiction Funding Funding Opportunities Clinical Research Post- ...

  8. Youth, drugs, and biopolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Jose Sanches Vergara

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we tackle the issue of youth and drugs as something linked to biopower and biopolitics, both concepts developed by Michael Foucault. Youth and drugs are taken and analyzed in situations involving the management of crime linked to the risks and deviations from the law, abuse and dependence. The youth; irreverent, courageous, healthy, idealistic, and that wanted to change the world for the better as we have seen in the past, is now strongly related to violence, dangerous activities, moral and social risks, drug addiction, criminality, and others negative images. To deal with these young people, tolerance and small punishments of yore are not enough anymore. The young people emerge as a segment of the population subject to various actions and programs. The drugs now are seen as matters of security and public health. There is a shifting and repositioning in the discourse about the young - from minor, drugged, and criminal to lawbreaker, user and drug addict. The change is subtle, but represents a modulation in the devices of social control. Beyond the consent of the young to get rid of drugs, there is a search for the creation of a wide area of monitoring of their behavior through the activation of community protection networks. The belief that the young are more impressionable and vulnerable, and that action on the cause of the problem or risk reduction are the most efficient ways of management, taking responsibility away from personal and family sphere and transferring it to the State, contributes to the increasing control of young people nowadays.

  9. Drug Release Mechanism of Slightly Soluble Drug from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    theophylline (THP) as drug in drug to clay ratios of 1:2, 3:4 and 1:1. The formulations were characterized for drug release and loading. Dependent and independent kinetic models were employed to analyze the drug release data. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used for the structural characterization of ...

  10. Nanotechnology and Drug Delivery Part 2: Nanostructures for Drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some challenges associated with the technology as it relates to drug effectiveness, toxicity, stability, pharmacokinetics and drug regulatory control are discussed in this review. Clearly, nanotechnology is a welcome development that is set to transform drug delivery and drug supply chain management, if optimally developed ...

  11. Influence of drug colour on perceived drug effects and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Da; Wang, Tieyan; Wang, Tieshan; Qu, Xingda

    2018-02-01

    A drug's physical characteristics, such as colour, could be factors influencing its therapeutic effects. It is not well understood whether people's expectations on drug effects and efficacy are affected by colour, especially among Chinese population. This study was conducted to examine people's expectations on drug effects and efficacy on the basis of drug colour, and to reveal possible gender differences in colour-related drug expectations. Participants (n = 224) were asked to classify seven single-coloured and six two-coloured capsules into one of four categories of drug effects, and to indicate the strength of drug efficacy. It is found that all the coloured capsules yielded non-chance distributions in classifications of drug effects, with six single-coloured and four two-coloured capsules associated with specific drug effects. Colour also conveyed differential strengths of drug efficacy in general and in relation to specific drug effects. There were gender differences in drug expectations for some colours and colour combinations. Practitioner Summary: Drug colour was found to have impacts on perceived drug effects and efficacy. The findings from the present study can be used by ergonomics practitioners to design appropriate drug colours in support of drug differentiation, therapeutic effects and medication adherence.

  12. Drug Policy in Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Charalambous

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The provision of pharmaceutical drugs is of enormous significance in our lives. Notable progress made inthe domain of Public Health, combined with a general increase in the standard of living, has had a direct impact on thediscovery of new drugs and cures and has shifted pharmaceutical policies further in line with the current needs of boththe country’s health system and, its population.Aim: This research aims to both shed light on and analyse the current state of pharmaceutical policy in Cyprus, as well asto try to seek out its weaknesses, making suggestions, where possible, as to how to keep these to the minimum.Results, and Conclusions: The lack of both high level research and major industrial facilities relating to the discovery ofnew pharmaceutical drugs in Cyprus, has hindered the effectiveness of pharmaceutical policy in general domains such ascontrol over the circulation and production of pharmaceutical products in the country, their pricing and distribution andthe monitoring of our drug supplies. The lack of transparency in a number of pharmaceutical procedures, and ofinformation on drugs does not enhance the industry’s reliability, but rather exacerbates an underlying feeling of insecurityrelating to it among the population.

  13. Drug hypersensitivity syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Kumari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS is an adverse drug reaction commonly associated with the aromatic antiepileptic drugs (AEDs, viz., phenytoin (PHT, carbamazepine (CBZ, phenobarbital (PB, lamotrigine, primidone, etc. It can also be caused by other drugs, such as sulfonamides, dapsone, minocycline, gold derivatives, cyclosporine, captopril, diltiazem, terbinafine, azathioprine and allopurinol. Diagnosis of DHS may be difficult because of the variety of clinical and laboratory abnormalities and manifestations and because the syndrome may mimic infectious, neoplastic or collagen vascular disorders. The risk for developing hypersensitivity within 60 days of the first or second prescription in new users of PHT or CBZ was estimated to be 2.3-4.5 per 10,000 and 1-4.1 per 10,000, respectively. The syndrome is defined by the fever, skin rash, lymphadenopathy and internal organ involvement within the first 2-8 weeks after initiation of therapy. Internal manifestations include, among others, agranulocytosis, hepatitis, nephritis and myositis. Insufficient detoxification may lead to cell death or contribute to the formation of antigen that triggers an immune reaction. Cross-reactivity among PHT, CBZ and PB is as high as 70%-80%. Management mainly includes immediate withdrawal of the culprit drug, symptomatic treatment and systemic steroids or immunoglobulins.

  14. Drugs and taste aversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rondeau, D.B.; Jolicoeur, F.B.; Merkel, A.D.; Wayner, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The literature on the effects of drugs on the acquisition and the magnitude of taste aversion is reviewed and discussed. Then, the results of a series of experiments on the effects of phenobarbital and related drugs on taste aversion are reported. A standard taste aversion model was used in all experiments; test drugs were injected prior to drinking in a one bottle situation on the first test day following the taste aversion treatment. Phenobarbital in doses ranging from 20 to 80 mg/kg significantly attenuated taste aversion induced by lithium chloride (LiCl) and x-radiation, the maximal effect occurred with the 60 mg/kg dose. The attenuating effect was found to be dependent upon the magnitude of the aversion to the sapid solution. Phenobarbital completely abolished aversion produced by 0.375 mEq LiCl while the attenuation effect decreased linearly with higher doses of LiCl. Results also indicate that phenobarbital's attenuating effect cannot be solely attributed to its dipsogenic characteristic or to its state dependent learning effect. Attenuation of LiCl aversion to a saccharin solution was also observed following single doses of amobarbital, 30 mg/kg, pentobarbital, 15 mg/kg, and chloropromazine, 0.75 mg/kg. Taste aversion was not affected by other doses of those drugs or by hexobarbital, barbital, and chlordiazepoxide. Phenobarbital's attenuating effect on taste aversion is discussed in relation to other known behavioral and neurophysiological effects of the drug

  15. Glutamatergic transmission in drug reward: implications for drug addiction

    OpenAIRE

    D'Souza, Manoranjan S.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals addicted to drugs of abuse such as alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, and heroin are a significant burden on healthcare systems all over the world. The positive reinforcing (rewarding) effects of the above mentioned drugs play a major role in the initiation and maintenance of the drug-taking habit. Thus, understanding the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse is critical to reducing the burden of drug addiction in society. Over the last two decades...

  16. Hybrid nanostructured drug carrier with tunable and controlled drug release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depan, D.; Misra, R.D.K.

    2012-01-01

    We describe here a transformative approach to synthesize a hybrid nanostructured drug carrier that exhibits the characteristics of controlled drug release. The synthesis of the nanohybrid architecture involved two steps. The first step involved direct crystallization of biocompatible copolymer along the long axis of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs), followed by the second step of attachment of drug molecule to the polymer via hydrogen bonding. The extraordinary inorganic–organic hybrid architecture exhibited high drug loading ability and is physically stable even under extreme conditions of acidic media and ultrasonic irradiation. The temperature and pH sensitive characteristics of the hybrid drug carrier and high drug loading ability merit its consideration as a promising carrier and utilization of the fundamental aspects used for synthesis of other promising drug carriers. The higher drug release response during the application of ultrasonic frequency is ascribed to a cavitation-type process in which the acoustic bubbles nucleate and collapse releasing the drug. Furthermore, the study underscores the potential of uniquely combining CNTs and biopolymers for drug delivery. - Graphical abstract: Block-copolymer crystallized on carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Nanohybrid drug carrier synthesized by attaching doxorubicin (DOX) to polymer crystallized CNTs. Crystallized polymer on CNTs provide mechanical stability. Triggered release of DOX. Highlights: ► The novel synthesis of a hybrid nanostructured drug carrier is described. ► The drug carrier exhibits high drug loading ability and is physically stable. ► The high drug release is ascribed to a cavitation-type process.

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and ... the Link campaign. This campaign shows teens and young adults that non-injection drug use and alcohol use ...

  18. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs ... from the Director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, Dr. Nora D. Volkow. Message from the Director ...

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... parents and teachers). It provides them with useful information on the science behind drug use. NIDA’s Easy-to-Read Drug ... between drugs and HIV, as well as other information about the science of drug use is available at NIDA's home ...

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Health Consequences of Drug Misuse Hepatitis ( ... service of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), offers access to the latest, federally approved ... & Alcohol Chat Day HBO Addiction Project ...

  1. Human drug metabolism: an introduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coleman, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    ..., both under drug pressure and during inhibition. Factors affecting drug metabolism, such as genetic polymorphisms, age and diet are discussed and how metabolism can lead to toxicity is explained. The book concludes with the role of drug metabolism in the commercial development of therapeutic agents as well as the pharmacology of some illicit drugs.

  2. National Drug Control Strategy. Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, Washington, DC.

    President Bush's new National Drug Control Strategy for 2003 focuses on three core priorities: stopping drug use before it starts; healing America's drug users; and disrupting the market. The 2003 strategy reports progress toward meeting the President's goals of reducing drug use by 10 percent over 2 years, and 25 percent over 5 years. With regard…

  3. Neurocognitive Predictors of Drug Relapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Marhe (Reshmi)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWorldwide, about 35 million people, that is 0.8% of the world’s adult population, use heroin and/or cocaine and more than 10-13% of these drug users are or will become drug dependent (UNODC, World Drug Report, 2012). Drug dependency is characterized as a chronic relapsing disorder

  4. Principles for School Drug Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Lois

    2004-01-01

    This document presents a revised set of principles for school drug education. The principles for drug education in schools comprise an evolving framework that has proved useful over a number of decades in guiding the development of effective drug education. The first edition of "Principles for Drug Education in Schools" (Ballard et al.…

  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain ... projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and ...

  6. European rating of drug harms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amsterdam, Jan; Nutt, David; Phillips, Lawrence; van den Brink, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The present paper describes the results of a rating study performed by a group of European Union (EU) drug experts using the multi-criteria decision analysis model for evaluating drug harms. Forty drug experts from throughout the EU scored 20 drugs on 16 harm criteria. The expert group also assessed

  7. Biochemistry of drugs. XXVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raz, K.; Smolik, S.; Vinarova, M.; Janda, J.; Franc, Z.

    1979-01-01

    The erythro- and threoform of p-hydroxynorephedrine belong to the group of drugs affecting the course of hypertensive disease. For pharmacological studies both forms were labelled with 3 H radionuclide on the benzene ring. 90% of radioactivity was concentrated in the ortho positions with regard to the hydroxyl, 10% in the meta position. After the administration of the labelled drug to rats, rapid absorption occurs and radioactivity is eliminated from the organism, especially in the urine. Three radioactive substances were found in the urine of experimental animals. A substance with properties corresponding to those of the administered drug prevailed. The highest levels of radioactivity in the tissues were found after intravenous administration as early as after 5 minutes after administration, 15 minutes after subcutaneous administration. It was found that p-hydroxynorephedrine significantly restricted the detainment of labelled noradrenaline-7- 3 H in the tissues of premedicated animals. (author)

  8. Toxins and drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Alan L

    2014-12-15

    Components from venoms have stimulated many drug discovery projects, with some notable successes. These are briefly reviewed, from captopril to ziconotide. However, there have been many more disappointments on the road from toxin discovery to approval of a new medicine. Drug discovery and development is an inherently risky business, and the main causes of failure during development programmes are outlined in order to highlight steps that might be taken to increase the chances of success with toxin-based drug discovery. These include having a clear focus on unmet therapeutic needs, concentrating on targets that are well-validated in terms of their relevance to the disease in question, making use of phenotypic screening rather than molecular-based assays, and working with development partners with the resources required for the long and expensive development process. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. [Anti-angiogenic drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yasufumi

    2010-06-01

    Angiogenesis or neovascularization, the formation of neo-vessels, is a physiological phenomenon endued in vasculature, but is involved in various pathological conditions. Angiogenesis is required for tumor growth and metastasis, and thus constitutes an important target for the control of tumor progression. Indeed, the recent development of bevacizumab, a neutralizing anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody as the first anti-angiogenic drug, legalized the clinical merit of anti-angiogenesis in cancers. Thereafter, various drugs targeting VEGF-mediated signals have been developed to control tumor angiogenesis. Thus, anti-angiogenic drugs are now recognized in the clinic as a major step forward for the treatment of cancers. This review focuses on the current status of antiangiogenesis treatment in cancers.

  10. Drug Policy in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnz-Różyk, Karina; Kawalec, Pawel; Malinowski, Krzysztof; Czok, Katarzyna

    2017-09-01

    We presented a general overview of the health care system as well as the pricing and reimbursement environment in Poland. Poland aims to ensure proper access to safe and effective medicines while reducing patients' share in treatment costs. Nevertheless, the co-payment for pharmacotherapy is still high (more than 60%). The key policymaker and regulator in the system is the Ministry of Health, which is supported by the Polish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Tariff System (Agencja Oceny Technologii Medycznych i Taryfikacji), responsible for evaluating applicant drugs, and the Economic Commission, responsible for negotiating the official sales prices and conditions for reimbursement with pharmaceutical companies (e.g., level of reimbursement and risk-sharing scheme agreements). The Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Tariff System dossier is obligatory for reimbursement application and includes the analysis of clinical effectiveness, economic analysis (with the threshold of quality-adjusted life-year established as no more than 3 times the gross domestic product per capita), and the analysis of budget impact. In Poland, only a positive list of reimbursed drugs is published and it is updated every 2 months. The following levels of reimbursement are in use: 100%, 70%, 50%, and lump sum (about €0.8). The first reimbursement decision is given for a period of 2 years only, the second for 3 years, and the third for 5 years. There is no separate budget or special legal regulations for orphan drugs. Generic substitution of drugs is desired but not mandatory. Physicians are not assigned with pharmaceutical budgets. The access to real-world data is limited; the only registers available are for drugs used in drug programs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Drug Policy in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culig, Josip; Antolic, Sinisa; Szkultecka-Dębek, Monika

    2017-09-01

    We presented a general overview of the health care system as well as the pricing and reimbursement environment in Croatia. In Croatia, most of the public funding for health care is collected from employers, through mandatory health care contributions for all the employed citizens. This contribution is a dedicated tax reserved for the health care system derived from employees' salaries. The rest of the public funds is mainly from taxes used by the Ministry of Finance to complement the overall health budget each year. The population is covered by a basic health insurance plan provided by statute and optional insurance, administered by the Croatian Health Insurance Fund. Reimbursement decisions are based on the Ordinance of Ministry of Health issued in 2013, which is an ordinance establishing the criteria for inclusion of medicinal products in the Croatian Health Insurance Fund basic and supplementary drug lists. A health technology assessment agency was established in 2007 as a legal, public, independent, nonprofit institution under the Act on Quality of Health Care. Budget impact analysis is obligatory, and cost-effectiveness analysis is beneficial. Two reimbursement lists exist: the basic (100% drug coverage) and the supplementary (co-payment from 10% to 90%) lists. The basic list covers both hospital and retail drugs. There is also a special drug list for expensive drugs (mainly hospital drugs). International reference pricing is also in place. List updates are done on an yearly basis. Real-world evidence can be required for health technology assessment as evidence for the budget impact models and cost-effective analysis; it is, however, not mandatory. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Drugs for rare disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremers, Serge; Aronson, Jeffrey K

    2017-08-01

    Estimates of the frequencies of rare disorders vary from country to country; the global average defined prevalence is 40 per 100 000 (0.04%). Some occur in only one or a few patients. However, collectively rare disorders are fairly common, affecting 6-8% of the US population, or about 30 million people, and a similar number in the European Union. Most of them affect children and most are genetically determined. Diagnosis can be difficult, partly because of variable presentations and partly because few clinicians have experience of individual rare disorders, although they may be assisted by searching databases. Relatively few rare disorders have specific pharmacological treatments (so-called orphan drugs), partly because of difficulties in designing trials large enough to determine benefits and harms alike. Incentives have been introduced to encourage the development of orphan drugs, including tax credits and research aids, simplification of marketing authorization procedures and exemption from fees, and extended market exclusivity. Consequently, the number of applications for orphan drugs has grown, as have the costs of using them, so much so that treatments may not be cost-effective. It has therefore been suggested that not-for-profit organizations that are socially motivated to reduce those costs should be tasked with producing them. A growing role for patient organizations, improved clinical and translational infrastructures, and developments in genetics have also contributed to successful drug development. The translational discipline of clinical pharmacology is an essential component in drug development, including orphan drugs. Clinical pharmacologists, skilled in basic pharmacology and its links to clinical medicine, can be involved at all stages. They can contribute to the delineation of genetic factors that determine clinical outcomes of pharmacological interventions, develop biomarkers, design and perform clinical trials, assist regulatory decision

  13. Exploring drug-target interaction networks of illicit drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, Ravi V; Sun, Jingchun; Zhao, Zhongming

    2013-01-01

    Drug addiction is a complex and chronic mental disease, which places a large burden on the American healthcare system due to its negative effects on patients and their families. Recently, network pharmacology is emerging as a promising approach to drug discovery by integrating network biology and polypharmacology, allowing for a deeper understanding of molecular mechanisms of drug actions at the systems level. This study seeks to apply this approach for investigation of illicit drugs and their targets in order to elucidate their interaction patterns and potential secondary drugs that can aid future research and clinical care. In this study, we extracted 188 illicit substances and their related information from the DrugBank database. The data process revealed 86 illicit drugs targeting a total of 73 unique human genes, which forms an illicit drug-target network. Compared to the full drug-target network from DrugBank, illicit drugs and their target genes tend to cluster together and form four subnetworks, corresponding to four major medication categories: depressants, stimulants, analgesics, and steroids. External analysis of Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) second sublevel classifications confirmed that the illicit drugs have neurological functions or act via mechanisms of stimulants, opioids, and steroids. To further explore other drugs potentially having associations with illicit drugs, we constructed an illicit-extended drug-target network by adding the drugs that have the same target(s) as illicit drugs to the illicit drug-target network. After analyzing the degree and betweenness of the network, we identified hubs and bridge nodes, which might play important roles in the development and treatment of drug addiction. Among them, 49 non-illicit drugs might have potential to be used to treat addiction or have addictive effects, including some results that are supported by previous studies. This study presents the first systematic review of the network

  14. Drug Use in Gyms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest

    2015-01-01

    Taking some of the most significant academic works into consideration this chapter describes how the scholarly interest in drug use in gyms rose from studies of competitive bodybuilding to studies of larger segments of the gym population. The challenge of establishing reliable figures...... for the frequency of anabolic steroid use and describing the typical users is then addressed. Next, the chapter discusses the associated cultural, psychological, and evolutionary explanations for anabolic steroid use in gyms and fitness centres. The chapter concludes with a brief discussion of some...... of the significant political campaigns and strategies to regulate and counter drug use in gyms....

  15. Computer aided drug design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A.

    2017-08-01

    Computer based method can help in discovery of leads and can potentially eliminate chemical synthesis and screening of many irrelevant compounds, and in this way, it save time as well as cost. Molecular modeling systems are powerful tools for building, visualizing, analyzing and storing models of complex molecular structure that can help to interpretate structure activity relationship. The use of various techniques of molecular mechanics and dynamics and software in Computer aided drug design along with statistics analysis is powerful tool for the medicinal chemistry to synthesis therapeutic and effective drugs with minimum side effect.

  16. Drug therapy in headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherall, Mark W

    2015-06-01

    All physicians will encounter patients with headaches. Primary headache disorders are common, and often disabling. This paper reviews the principles of drug therapy in headache in adults, focusing on the three commonest disorders presenting in both primary and secondary care: tension-type headache, migraine and cluster headache. The clinical evidence on the basis of which choices can be made between the currently available drug therapies for acute and preventive treatment of these disorders is presented, and information given on the options available for the emergency parenteral treatment of refractory migraine attacks and cluster headache. © Royal College of Physicians 2015. All rights reserved.

  17. Antiretroviral therapy: current drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, Alice K; George, Jomy M

    2014-09-01

    The rapid advances in drug discovery and the development of antiretroviral therapy is unprecedented in the history of modern medicine. The administration of chronic combination antiretroviral therapy targeting different stages of the human immunodeficiency virus' replicative life cycle allows for durable and maximal suppression of plasma viremia. This suppression has resulted in dramatic improvement of patient survival. This article reviews the history of antiretroviral drug development and discusses the clinical pharmacology, efficacy, and toxicities of the antiretroviral agents most commonly used in clinical practice to date. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Biochemistry of drugs. XXII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franc, Z.; Smolik, S.; Horesovsky, O.; Hradil, F.

    1976-01-01

    The kinetics in rats was studied of the tranquilizer noroxyclothepine (8-chloro-10-(4-hydroxyethyl)piperazino-10,11-dihydrobenzo(b,f)-thiepine). The drug was labelled with carbon 14 and the kinetics of the drug was investigated after oral and i.v. administration. It was found that over 4 days, 88 to 99% of radioactivity was excreted in feces and 5.5 to 6% in the urine, this for both ways of administration. Following oral administration, 50% of radioactivity was eliminated from the organism within 27 hours while following i.v. administration, the elimination took 38 hours. (L.O.)

  19. [New oral anticoagulant drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovits, Alejandro; Aizman, Andrés; Zúñiga, Pamela; Pereira, Jaime; Mezzano, Diego

    2011-10-01

    Thromboembolic disease (TED) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The hallmark of oral long-term anticoagulant therapy has been the use of vitamin K antagonists, whose anticoagulant effect is exerted inhibiting vitamin K epoxide reductase. Warfarin and acenocoumarol are the most commonly used. In the last five years several new drugs for long term anticoagulation have been developed, which can inhibit single clotting factors with the purpose of improving drug therapeutic range and, ideally, minimizing bleeding risks. This review addresses the state of the art on the clinical use of inhibitors of activated factor X and thrombin.

  20. Kinetically Controlled Drug Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xin E.; Hansen, Bjarne Gram; Hedstrom, Lizbeth

    2011-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Penicillium brevicompactum produces the immunosuppressive drug mycophenolic acid (MPA), which is a potent inhibitor of eukaryotic IMP dehydrogenases (IMPDHs). IMPDH catalyzes the conversion of IMP to XMP via a covalent enzyme intermediate, E-XMP*; MPA inhibits by trapping E...... of resistance is not apparent. Here, we show that, unlike MPA-sensitive IMPDHs, formation of E-XMP* is rate-limiting for both PbIMPDH-A and PbIMPDH-B. Therefore, MPA resistance derives from the failure to accumulate the drug-sensitive intermediate....

  1. Dendrimers in drug research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Ulrik; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2004-01-01

    and in vivo cytotoxicity, as well as biopermeability, biostability and immunogenicity. The review deals with numerous applications of dendrimers as tools for efficient multivalent presentation of biological ligands in biospecific recognition, inhibition and targeting. Dendrimers may be used as drugs...... for antibacterial and antiviral treatment and have found use as antitumor agents. The review highlights the use of dendrimers as drug or gene delivery devices in e.g. anticancer therapy, and the design of different host-guest binding motifs directed towards medical applications is described. Other specific examples...

  2. Ketamine - A Multifaceted Drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingzhong; Li, Jian; Lu, Yi; Sun, Dajin; Tao, Yuan-Xiang; Liu, Renyu; Luo, Jin Jun

    There is a petition for tight control of ketamine from the Chinese government to classify ketamine as a Schedule I drug, which is defined as a drug with no currently accepted medical use but a high potential for abuse. However, ketamine has unique properties that can benefit different patient populations. Scholars from the Translational Perioperative and Pain Medicine and the International Chinese Academy of Anesthesiology WeChat groups had an interactive discussion on ketamine, including its current medical applications, future research priorities, and benefits versus risks. The discussion is summarized in this manuscript with some minor edits.

  3. Profit-driven drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collen, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Random drug testing of people being treated for chronic pain has become more common. Physicians may drug test patients on opioid therapy as a result of concerns over prosecution, drug misuse, addiction, and overdose. However, profit motive has remained unexplored. This article suggests profits also drive physician drug-testing behavior and evidence is offered, including an exploration of Medicare reimbursement incentives and kickbacks for drug testing.

  4. Drug use as consumer behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon Robert; Sigurdsson, Valdimar

    2011-12-01

    Seeking integration of drug consumption research by a theory of memory function and emphasizing drug consumption rather than addiction, Müller & Schumann (M&S) treat drug self-administration as part of a general pattern of consumption. This insight is located within a more comprehensive framework for understanding drug use as consumer behavior that explicates the reinforcement contingencies associated with modes of drug consumption.

  5. MRI in ocular drug delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Li, S. Kevin; Lizak, Martin J.; Jeong, Eun-Kee

    2008-01-01

    Conventional pharmacokinetic methods for studying ocular drug delivery are invasive and cannot be conveniently applied to humans. The advancement of MRI technology has provided new opportunities in ocular drug-delivery research. MRI provides a means to non-invasively and continuously monitor ocular drug-delivery systems with a contrast agent or compound labeled with a contrast agent. It is a useful technique in pharmacokinetic studies, evaluation of drug-delivery methods, and drug-delivery de...

  6. Role of drug transporters and drug accumulation in the temporal acquisition of drug resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hembruff, Stacey L; Laberge, Monique L; Villeneuve, David J; Guo, Baoqing; Veitch, Zachary; Cecchetto, Melanie; Parissenti, Amadeo M

    2008-01-01

    Anthracyclines and taxanes are commonly used in the treatment of breast cancer. However, tumor resistance to these drugs often develops, possibly due to overexpression of drug transporters. It remains unclear whether drug resistance in vitro occurs at clinically relevant doses of chemotherapy drugs and whether both the onset and magnitude of drug resistance can be temporally and causally correlated with the enhanced expression and activity of specific drug transporters. To address these issues, MCF-7 cells were selected for survival in increasing concentrations of doxorubicin (MCF-7 DOX-2 ), epirubicin (MCF-7 EPI ), paclitaxel (MCF-7 TAX-2 ), or docetaxel (MCF-7 TXT ). During selection cells were assessed for drug sensitivity, drug uptake, and the expression of various drug transporters. In all cases, resistance was only achieved when selection reached a specific threshold dose, which was well within the clinical range. A reduction in drug uptake was temporally correlated with the acquisition of drug resistance for all cell lines, but further increases in drug resistance at doses above threshold were unrelated to changes in cellular drug uptake. Elevated expression of one or more drug transporters was seen at or above the threshold dose, but the identity, number, and temporal pattern of drug transporter induction varied with the drug used as selection agent. The pan drug transporter inhibitor cyclosporin A was able to partially or completely restore drug accumulation in the drug-resistant cell lines, but had only partial to no effect on drug sensitivity. The inability of cyclosporin A to restore drug sensitivity suggests the presence of additional mechanisms of drug resistance. This study indicates that drug resistance is achieved in breast tumour cells only upon exposure to concentrations of drug at or above a specific selection dose. While changes in drug accumulation and the expression of drug transporters does occur at the threshold dose, the magnitude of

  7. Clinical Drug-Drug Pharmacokinetic Interaction Potential of Sucralfate with Other Drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulochana, Suresh P; Syed, Muzeeb; Chandrasekar, Devaraj V

    2016-01-01

    of drugs. This review covers several category of drugs such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, fluoroquinolones, histamine H2-receptor blockers, macrolides, anti-fungals, anti-diabetics, salicylic acid derivatives, steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and provides pharmacokinetic data summary along...

  8. Drug-induced apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutroy, M J

    1994-01-01

    Drugs have been in the past and will in the future still be liable to induce apnea in neonates, infants and older children. At these different stages of development, the child may be abnormally vulnerable to respiratory disorders and apnea, and doses of drugs, without any abnormal side effects in adult patients, can be harmful in younger subjects. Drugs responsible for apnea during development are numerous, but more than half of the problems are induced by sedatives and hypnotics, among which phenothiazines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines (included transplacentally acquired) and general anesthetics are a few. Other pharmacological families are apnea inducers in the neonatal period and childhood: analgesics and opioid narcotics, agents acting at the levels of neuromuscular function and autonomic ganglia, and cardiovascular agents. The pathogenesis of these apneas depends on the disturbance of any mechanism responsible for the respiratory activity: medullary centers and brain stem structures, afferent influx to CNS, sleep stages, upper airways, lungs and respiratory muscles. At key stages such as birth and infancy, drugs may emphasize the particular sensitivity of the mechanisms responsible for inducing apnea. This might explain unexpected respiratory disorders during development.

  9. Drugs in Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottram, David

    2012-01-01

    Drugs may be used by athletes for a number of reasons, including performance enhancement. The role of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) is vital to ensure a winning performance has been achieved by fair means. Substances and methods that are included on the WADA Prohibited List are described. The procedures for testing banned substances are…

  10. Pharmacogenetics of psychotropic drugs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lerer, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    ... of pharmacogenetics with substance dependence and brain imaging, and consider the impact of pharmacogenetics on the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries. This book defines the young field of pharmacogenetics as it applies to psychotropic drugs and is, therefore, an essential reference for all clinicians and researchers working in this findings field. Bernard ...

  11. Drug-resistant tuberculosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    statistics show that almost half a million new ... testing for second-line drugs, no international consensus has been reached about .... Given the high background rates of TB and MDR-TB in several countries, regimens are often constructed ...

  12. Antiviral Drugs: Seasonal Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee explains the nature of antiviral drugs and how they are used for seasonal flu.  Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2010.

  13. Drug-radiopharmaceutical interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hladik, W.B.; Ponto, J.A.; Stathis, V.J.

    1985-01-01

    Patients seen in the nuclear medicine department have a wide variety of disorders and, consequently, may be receiving any number of therapeutic drugs. For this reason, nuclear medicine professionals should be aware of the potential effects that these pharmacologic agents may have on the bio-distribution of subsequently administered radiopharmaceuticals, commonly referred to as ''drug-radiopharmaceutical interactions.'' Compared with the quantity of literature written about interactions between various therapeutic drugs, the information available on drug-radiopharmaceutical interactions is scarce. However, there has been increasing interest in this subject, particularly during the past five years. Some of the reported interactions are used intentionally to add a new dimension to the nuclear medicine study and increase its diagnostic capabilities, i.e., pharmacologic intervention. These beneficial ''interactions'' are discussed in detail in several other chapters of this book. Other interactions, however, cause changes in the normal distribution of radiopharmaceuticals, which may interfere with the diagnostic utility of various nuclear medicine procedures. The latter group of interactions is the focus of this chapter

  14. Crystallography and Drug Design

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 12. Crystallography and Drug Design. K Suguna. General Article Volume 19 Issue 12 December 2014 pp 1093-1103. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/019/12/1093-1103. Keywords.

  15. Drug allergy REVIEW ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disease. The :most dangerous but least co:m:mon for:m of drug allergy is .... immune response, and allergic reaction occur in only ... mental sensitisation by milk and aerosol.11,19 ... requires cross-linking of the high-affinity specific IgE Fc.

  16. Drugs ID Obesity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a new attitude to eating. Adjunctive measures aimed at modifying behaviour, such as psychotherapy and group therapy, may help in individual cases. Psychological factors in response to stress would appear to be the basis of some cases of obesity, but the use of psychotropic drugs is limited and for specific indications only.

  17. Drug delivery through microneedles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttge, R.; Dietzel, A.

    2016-01-01

    Drug delivery through microneedles is a new form of a pharmaceutical dosage system. While single microneedles have been clinically applied already, the out-of-plane integration of a multitude of microneedles in a pharmaceutical patch is a disruptive technology. To take advantage of micro- and

  18. Drug-mineral interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, L.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of drugs such as glucocorticoids and thyroid extract on calcium metabolism is unknown. However, several other medications affect the excretion and intestinal absorption of calcium. A controlled study was carried out to investigate these aspects. Urinary calcium was determined for 3 months during the long-term intake of the antituberculous drug isoniazid (INH) and of the antibiotic tetracycline. The effect of the diuretics furosemide and hydrochlorothiazide, of several aluminum-containing antacids, of thyroid extract and of corticosteroids was also studied. Metabolic balances of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and zinc were determined, as well as the intestinal absorption of calcium using Ca 47. Plasma levels, urinary and fecal excretions of Ca 47 were determined. All drugs tested increased urinary calcium except for the diuretic hydrochlorothiazide. Regarding the effect of corticosteroids: the intestinal absorption of calcium was unchanged after the short-term use and was very high after long-term use. The studies have shown that several commonly used drugs induce an increase in urinary calcium excretion which may contribute to calcium loss, if this increase persists for prolonged periods of time. Urinary excretions of phosphorus, magnesium and zinc increased in some of the studies

  19. New drugs for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colice, Gene L

    2008-06-01

    The goal of asthma therapy is to reduce symptoms to the extent that patients can lead active, unlimited lives and to minimize concern about exacerbations. Unfortunately, despite advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of asthma and the existence of consensus asthma-management guidelines, patients with asthma still suffer considerable morbidity and, on rare occasions, death. Part of the reason for suboptimal asthma control is poor adherence, by both providers and patients, to the recommended asthma regimens and guidelines. However, even under the ideal circumstances of a motivated patient and a knowledgeable physician, the available asthma drugs are not effective in all patients at all times. The market for asthma drugs has been dynamic; numerous new products have recently been approved for marketing by the Food and Drug Administration. Unfortunately, the products recently approved and those likely to enter the market soon mostly are either reformulations or combinations of established molecules. Developing new drugs to treat asthma, particularly with novel anti-inflammatory properties, should be a priority.

  20. Crystallography and Drug Design

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    is of immense help in developing drugs for specific diseases by targeting molecules ... tions, or selected from a large pool of available libraries and the binding strengths can ... was identified to be caused by a virus named later as the human.

  1. Drug Development Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... molecule that contains genetic instructions to make proteins. Delivery of CFTR-encoded mRNA would allow the lung cells to create normally functioning CFTR protein, regardless of an individual’s specific CFTR gene mutation. This drug is delivered via inhalation. Editas This program is ...

  2. Drug development and manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.

    2015-10-13

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry has been used for detecting binding events and measuring binding selectivities between chemicals and receptors. XRF may also be used for estimating the therapeutic index of a chemical, for estimating the binding selectivity of a chemical versus chemical analogs, for measuring post-translational modifications of proteins, and for drug manufacturing.

  3. Drugs Used in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on drugs used in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first.…

  4. Should Drugs Be Legalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, William; Scorza, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Presents two opposing viewpoints concerning the legalization of drugs. States that control efforts are not cost effective and suggests that legalization with efforts at education is a better course of action (W. Chambliss). The opposing argument contends that the cost in human suffering negates any savings in dollars gained through legalization…

  5. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... were prescribed to someone else or if your child is already taking other prescription medications. Set rules. Let your teen know that it's not OK to share medications with others — or to take drugs prescribed for others. Emphasize the importance of taking the prescribed dose and talking with ...

  6. Drug abuse: newly-emerging drugs and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Gregory G

    2012-09-01

    Drug abusers have access to new, more potent compounds that evade existing laws by virtue of their novel chemical structures. These drugs are available for purchase at stores and over the internet. The drugs are not illegal because they are so new that laws have not yet been passed to ban them. These drugs are leading to emergency department visits for cardiovascular, neurologic, and psychiatric complications. Standard drug screens are not designed to detect these new substances. The internet provides access to drugs for substance abusers but also provides physicians speed of access to the habits of substance abusers.

  7. Immunosuppressive drugs and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Clara; Rigot, Jean-Marc; Leroy, Maryse; Decanter, Christine; Le Mapihan, Kristell; Parent, Anne-Sophie; Le Guillou, Anne-Claire; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Dharancy, Sébastien; Noel, Christian; Vantyghem, Marie-Christine

    2015-10-21

    Immunosuppressive drugs are used in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, as well as in transplantation. Frequently prescribed in young people, these treatments may have deleterious effects on fertility, pregnancy outcomes and the unborn child. This review aims to summarize the main gonadal side effects of immunosuppressants, to detail the effects on fertility and pregnancy of each class of drug, and to provide recommendations on the management of patients who are seen prior to starting or who are already receiving immunosuppressive treatment, allowing them in due course to bear children. The recommendations for use are established with a rather low level of proof, which needs to be taken into account in the patient management. Methotrexate, mycophenolate, and le- and teri-flunomide, cyclophosphamide, mitoxanthrone are contraindicated if pregnancy is desired due to their teratogenic effects, as well as gonadotoxic effects in the case of cyclophosphamide. Anti-TNF-alpha and mTOR-inhibitors are to be used cautiously if pregnancy is desired, since experience using these drugs is still relatively scarce. Azathioprine, glucocorticoids, mesalazine, anticalcineurins such as cyclosporine and tacrolimus, ß-interferon, glatiramer-acetate and chloroquine can be used during pregnancy, bearing in mind however that side effects may still occur. Experience is limited concerning natalizumab, fingolimod, dimethyl-fumarate and induction treatments. Conclusion: At the time of prescription, patients must be informed of the possible consequences of immunosuppressants on fertility and of the need for contraception. Pregnancy must be planned and the treatment modified if necessary in a pre-conception time period adapted to the half-life of the drug, imperatively in relation with the prescriber of the immunosuppressive drugs.

  8. HIV Treatment: What is a Drug Interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more) drugs or between a drug and a food or beverage. Taking a drug while having certain medical conditions ... interaction : A reaction between a drug and a food or beverage. Drug-condition interaction : A reaction that occurs when ...

  9. Drug Information in Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayuse, Tina M.

    2009-01-01

    Published drug information is widely available for terrestrial conditions. However, information on dosing, administration, drug interactions, stability, and side effects is scant as it relates to use in Space Medicine. Multinational crews on board the International Space Station present additional challenges for drug information because medication nomenclature, information available for the drug as well as the intended use for the drug is not standard across countries. This presentation will look at unique needs for drug information and how the information is managed in Space Medicine. A review was conducted of the drug information requests submitted to the Johnson Space Center Pharmacy by Space Medicine practitioners, astronaut crewmembers and researchers. The information requested was defined and cataloged. A list of references used was maintained. The wide range of information was identified. Due to the information needs for the medications in the on-board medical kits, the Drug Monograph Project was created. A standard method for answering specific drug information questions was generated and maintained by the Johnson Space Center Pharmacy. The Drug Monograph Project will be presented. Topic-centered requests, including multinational drug information, drug-induced adverse reactions, and medication events due to the environment will be highlighted. Information management of the drug information will be explained. Future considerations for drug information needs will be outlined.

  10. Creating a comprehensive strategy to prevent nuclear smuggling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luongo, K.

    1998-01-01

    The end of the Cold War has raised awareness in the international community about the threat posed by large, global stockpiles of weapon usable nuclear material. Particular focus has been directed at the level of protection provided to the fissile materials produced by the Soviet Union and concern has been raised about the growing stockpile of plutonium worldwide. Reported incidents of the diversion of nuclear material have raised the specter of potential nuclear terrorism and of countries of proliferation concern being provided a shortcut to the bomb. In order to address this problem, the international community needs to agree on the rapid implementation of a comprehensive, mutually reinforcing strategy to control existing stockpiles of fissile material, constrain future production and use of these materials, and address the underlying causes of this threat

  11. Kenya's implementation of the Smuggling Protocol in response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ldd.v19i1.2 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers ...

  12. Illegal Migration and Human Smuggling in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Futo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The analytical and statistical services of border management organizations in Central and Eastern European countries have registered and accumulated a vast body of knowledge on the demographics and mechanisms of illegal migration over the last one-and-a-half decade. This paper attempts to tap this resource by summarising the results of a yearly survey among border guards of 17 countries. A set of quantitative indicators of illegal migration is developed, presented and interpreted, based on the answers of the border services to a series of quantitative and qualitative questions. This empirical material is used to evaluate the dynamics and pattern of illegal migration in Central and Eastern Europe on the one hand, and to examine the development of border management strategies on the other. The impacts of legal and institutional reforms are investigated in light of the temporal and spatial variations of border apprehension statistics. The interdependence of the two processes is reviewed from the point of view of national border management authorities, perhaps the most authoritative source of information on the issue. The results of the authors’ annual survey indicate that the progressive development of migration control mechanisms at national and international levels seems to have a significant impact on irregular migration flows as most indicators of illegal migration have significantly decreased after the turn of the century. At the same time, the geographical distribution of illegal migration flows in Central and Eastern European countries has become more complex over the years.

  13. Migrant Smuggling between Two Logics: Migration Dynamics and State Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doomernik, J.

    2013-01-01

    Migration processes are driven by forces that are by their very nature difficult to address with government policies, especially when these are aimed at control and restriction. Yet, in response to domestic and international policies, governments, jointly and individually, seek to intervene

  14. A cluster of cutaneous leishmaniasis associated with human smuggling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannella, Anthony P; Nguyen, Bichchau M; Piggott, Caroline D; Lee, Robert A; Vinetz, Joseph M; Mehta, Sanjay R

    2011-06-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is rarely seen in the United States, and the social and geographic context of the infection can be a key to its diagnosis and management. Four Somali and one Ethiopian, in U.S. Border Patrol custody, came to the United States by the same human trafficking route: Djibouti to Dubai to Moscow to Havana to Quito; and then by ground by Columbia/Panama to the United States-Mexico border where they were detained. Although traveling at different times, all five patients simultaneously presented to our institution with chronic ulcerative skin lesions at different sites and stages of evolution. Culture of biopsy specimens grew Leishmania panamensis. Soon thereafter, three individuals from East Africa traveling the identical route presented with L. panamensis CL to physicians in Tacoma, WA. We document here the association of a human trafficking route and new world CL. Clinicians and public health officials should be aware of this emerging infectious disease risk.

  15. Cocaine smuggling in the gastrointestinal tract resulting in mechanical pylorostenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sein Anand, Jacek; Chodorowski, Zygmunt; Masal, Andrzej; Nowak-Banasik, Livia

    2005-01-01

    A 45-year-old male, body packer, who confessed to have swallowed 44 packages of cocaine in a total dose of approx. 360 g, was admitted to hospital because of clinical signs of acute intoxication with cocaine followed by ileus. The emergency surgical gastrotomy was initiated, and the conglomerate of Scotch tape and packages with cocaine were removed. Small rupture of one package of cocaine in a body packer stomach caused acute poisoning with cocaine, confirmed additionally by the presence of its metabolites in the urine. Mechanical pylorostenosis provoked by cocaine packages required emergency surgical operation.

  16. Photonuclear-based Detection of Nuclear Smuggling in Cargo Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. L.; Haskell, K. J.; Hoggan, J. M.; Norman, D. R.; Yoon, W. Y.

    2003-08-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have performed experiments in La Honda, California and at the Idaho Accelerator Center in Pocatello, Idaho to assess and develop a photonuclear-based detection system for shielded nuclear materials in cargo containers. The detection system, measuring photonuclear-related neutron emissions, is planned for integration with the ARACOR Eagle Cargo Container Inspection System (Sunnyvale, CA). The Eagle Inspection system uses a nominal 6-MeV electron accelerator and operates with safe radiation exposure limits to both container stowaways and to its operators. The INEEL has fabricated custom-built, helium-3-based, neutron detectors for this inspection application and is performing an experimental application assessment. Because the Eagle Inspection system could not be moved to LANL where special nuclear material was available, the response of the Eagle had to be determined indirectly so as to support the development and testing of the detection system. Experiments in California have successfully matched the delayed neutron emission performance of the ARACOR Eagle with that of the transportable INEEL electron accelerator (i.e., the Varitron) and are reported here. A demonstration test is planned at LANL using the Varitron and shielded special nuclear materials within a cargo container. Detector results are providing very useful information regarding the challenges of delayed neutron counting near the photofission threshold energy of 5.5 - 6.0 MeV, are identifying the possible utilization of prompt neutron emissions to allow enhanced signal-to-noise measurements, and are showing the overall benefits of using higher electron beam energies.

  17. Regulatory challenges for preventing firearms smuggling into Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Eugenio Weigend; González, Silvia Villarreal

    2015-01-01

    The recent surge in illegal firearms trafficking from the U.S. into Mexico has helped empower Mexican criminal groups to adopt highly confrontational strategies, contributing to a surge of violence throughout the country. This article addresses the regulatory asymmetries between Mexico and the U.S. with respect to the production, import, export, sales and possession of firearms. It reviews several important gun laws and explores why this asymmetry limits bilateral cooperation and encourages g...

  18. Assessment of tobacco control measures and smuggling in Panama

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to describe the evolution of the demand for tobacco in Panama from ... informal market may benefit the tobacco industry. The research team also ... public service establishments (such as bars, restaurants, casinos, and hotels).

  19. A sensitive detector to prevent smuggling of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, H.; Rost, R.; Miller, B.R.

    1995-01-01

    A drive through detector systems using four plastic scintillators and associated electronics for the detections of small amounts or uranium or plutonium in cars is described. The system has been calibrated with various sample of special nuclear material and the lower detection limits are presented. (author)

  20. Potential drug-drug interactions on in-patient medication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential drug-drug interactions on in-patient medication prescriptions at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital (MRRH) in western Uganda: prevalence, clinical importance and associated factors. SJ Lubinga, E Uwiduhaye ...