WorldWideScience

Sample records for drug development programmes

  1. Controlling type I error rate for fast track drug development programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Weichung J; Ouyang, Peter; Quan, Hui; Lin, Yong; Michiels, Bart; Bijnens, Luc

    2003-03-15

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Modernization Act of 1997 has a Section (No. 112) entitled 'Expediting Study and Approval of Fast Track Drugs' (the Act). In 1998, the FDA issued a 'Guidance for Industry: the Fast Track Drug Development Programs' (the FTDD programmes) to meet the requirement of the Act. The purpose of FTDD programmes is to 'facilitate the development and expedite the review of new drugs that are intended to treat serious or life-threatening conditions and that demonstrate the potential to address unmet medical needs'. Since then many health products have reached patients who suffered from AIDS, cancer, osteoporosis, and many other diseases, sooner by utilizing the Fast Track Act and the FTDD programmes. In the meantime several scientific issues have also surfaced when following the FTDD programmes. In this paper we will discuss the concept of two kinds of type I errors, namely, the 'conditional approval' and the 'final approval' type I errors, and propose statistical methods for controlling them in a new drug submission process. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Patient and physician attitudes regarding risk and benefit in streamlined development programmes for antibacterial drugs: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Thomas L; Mikita, Stephen; Bloom, Diane; Roberts, Jamie; McCall, Jonathan; Collyar, Deborah; Santiago, Jonas; Tiernan, Rosemary; Toerner, Joseph

    2016-11-10

    To explore patient, caregiver and physician perceptions and attitudes regarding the balance of benefit and risk in using antibacterial drugs developed through streamlined development processes. Semistructured focus groups and in-depth interviews were conducted to elicit perceptions and attitudes about the use of antibacterial drugs to treat multidrug-resistant infections. Participants were given background information about antibiotic resistance, streamlined drug development programmes and FDA drug approval processes. Audio recordings of focus groups/interviews were reviewed and quotes excerpted and categorised to identify key themes. Two primary stakeholder groups were engaged: one comprising caregivers, healthy persons and patients who had recovered from or were at risk of resistant infection (N=67; 11 focus groups); and one comprising physicians who treat resistant infections (N=23). Responses from focus groups/interviews indicated widespread awareness among patients/caregivers and physicians of the seriousness of the problem of antibacterial resistance. Both groups were willing to accept a degree of uncertainty regarding the balance of risk and benefit in a new therapy where a serious unmet need exists, but also expressed a desire for rigorous monitoring and rapid, transparent reporting of safety/effectiveness data. Both groups wanted to ensure that >1 physician had input on whether to treat patients with antibiotics developed through a streamlined process. Some patients/caregivers unfamiliar with exigencies of critical care suggested a relatively large multidisciplinary team, while physicians believed individual expert consultations would be preferable. Both groups agreed that careful oversight and stewardship of antibacterial drugs are needed to ensure patient safety, preserve efficacy and prevent abuse. Groups comprising patients/caregivers and physicians were aware of serious issues posed by resistant infections and the lack of effective antibacterial drug

  3. The Innovative Medicines Initiative's New Drugs for Bad Bugs programme: European public-private partnerships for the development of new strategies to tackle antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyanev, T; Bonten, M J M; O'Brien, S; Steel, H; Ross, S; François, B; Tacconelli, E; Winterhalter, M; Stavenger, R A; Karlén, A; Harbarth, S; Hackett, J; Jafri, H S; Vuong, C; MacGowan, A; Witschi, A; Angyalosi, G; Elborn, J S; deWinter, R; Goossens, H

    2016-02-01

    Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is a global public health threat. Despite the emergence of highly resistant organisms and the huge medical need for new drugs, the development of antibacterials has slowed to an unacceptable level worldwide. Numerous government and non-government agencies have called for public-private partnerships and innovative funding mechanisms to address this problem. To respond to this public health crisis, the Innovative Medicines Initiative Joint Undertaking programme has invested more than €660 million, with a goal of matched contributions from the European Commission and the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations, in the development of new antibacterial strategies. The New Drugs for Bad Bugs (ND4BB) programme, an Innovative Medicines Initiative, has the ultimate goal to boost the fight against ABR at every level from basic science and drug discovery, through clinical development to new business models and responsible use of antibiotics. Seven projects have been launched within the ND4BB programme to achieve this goal. Four of them will include clinical trials of new anti-infective compounds, as well as epidemiological studies on an unprecedented scale, which will increase our knowledge of ABR and specific pathogens, and improve the designs of the clinical trials with new investigational drugs. The need for rapid concerted action has driven the funding of seven topics, each of which should add significantly to progress in the fight against ABR. ND4BB unites expertise and provides a platform where the commitment and resources required by all parties are streamlined into a joint public-private partnership initiative of unprecedented scale. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. United Nations International Drug Control Programme responds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Platzer

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] We would like to reply to the article written by Axel Klein entitled, "Between the Death Penalty and Decriminalization: New Directions for Drug Control in the Commonwealth Caribbean" published in NWIG 75 (3&4 2001. We have noted a number of factual inaccuracies as well as hostile comments which portray the United Nations International Drug Control Programme in a negative light. This reply is not intended to be a critique of the article, which we find unbalanced and polemical, but rather an alert to the tendentious statements about UNDCP, which we feel should be corrected.

  5. Offshoots from beryllium development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.P.; Sinha, P.K.

    1995-01-01

    The paper briefly presents extraction and processing of beryllium metal as practiced in the beryllium facilities at Turbhe, New Bombay. These facilities have been set up to meet the indigenous requirements of the metal in space and nuclear science programmes. As offshoot of this beryllium development programme has been the development of a number of pyro and powder metallurgical equipment. Indigenous development of these pieces of equipment has been a professionally rewarding experience. Efforts are now on to promote these equipment for industrial use. (author). 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Staged Repository Development Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, T

    2003-01-01

    Programs to manage and ultimately dispose of high-level radioactive wastes are unique from scientific and technological as well as socio-political aspects. From a scientific and technological perspective, high-level radioactive wastes remain potentially hazardous for geological time periods-many millennia-and scientific and technological programs must be put in place that result in a system that provides high confidence that the wastes will be isolated from the accessible environment for these many thousands of years. Of course, ''proof'' in the classical sense is not possible at the outset, since the performance of the system can only be known with assurance, if ever, after the waste has been emplaced for those geological time periods. Adding to this challenge, many uncertainties exist in both the natural and engineered systems that are intended to isolate the wastes, and some of the uncertainties will remain regardless of the time and expense in attempting to characterize the system and assess its performance. What was perhaps underappreciated in the early days of waste management and repository program development were the unique and intense reactions that the institutional, political, and public bodies would have to repository program development, particularly in programs attempting to identify and then select sites for characterization, design, licensing, and ultimate development. Reactions in most nations were strong, focused, unrelenting, and often successful in hindering, derailing, and even stopping national repository programs. The reasons for such reactions and the measures to successfully respond to them are still evolving and continue to be the focus of many national program and political leaders. Adaptive Staging suggests an approach to repository program development that reflects the unique challenges associated with the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The step-wise, incremental, learn-as-you-go approach is intended to maximize the

  7. The impact of a multiple intelligences teaching approach drug education programme on drug refusal skills of Nigerian pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwagu, Evelyn N; Ezedum, Chuks E; Nwagu, Eric K N

    2015-09-01

    The rising incidence of drug abuse among youths in Nigeria is a source of concern for health educators. This study was carried out on primary six pupils to determine the effect of a Multiple Intelligences Teaching Approach Drug Education Programme (MITA-DEP) on pupils' acquisition of drug refusal skills. A programme of drug education based on the Multiple Intelligences Teaching Approach (MITA) was developed. An experimental group was taught using this programme while a control group was taught using the same programme but developed based on the Traditional Teaching Approach. Pupils taught with the MITA acquired more drug refusal skills than those taught with the Traditional Teaching Approach. Urban pupils taught with the MITA acquired more skills than rural pupils. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean refusal skills of male and female pupils taught with the MITA. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Sustainable Industrial Development Programmes of International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, more insightful corporate entrepreneurship programmes with improved infrastructural and electric power facilities should be encouraged. Increasing support to firms through diverse channels would boost rapid economic development of the sub region. Key words: Sustainable programmes, economic development, ...

  9. IMPACT OF SELECTED RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    development programmes in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria. The area under study was .... The programme was later replaced by Family support Programme (FSP). FSP was almost the same with BLP ..... Assessed 15/12/05 2005. FOS. Federal Office of Statistics National Consumers Survey. 1985/86 ...

  10. Drug-free workplace programmes: New Zealand perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Susan

    2008-01-30

    New Zealand (NZ) companies have been introducing Drug & Alcohol Free Workplace Policies and Programmes, which include testing, since 1992. Most "safety-critical" industry sectors are now embracing drug and alcohol testing as part of comprehensive programmes which also have a strong focus on education and rehabilitation. Prison Inmate testing was also introduced in 1998. Lawful drug testing in NZ should be conducted to the strict medico-legal requirements of the Australian/New Zealand Standard, AS/NZS 4308:2001 "Procedures for the collection, detection and quantitation of drugs of abuse in urine." This paper gives an overview of the NZ experience, highlighting the mix of testing options employed, the industry sector trends, the categories of drugs misused, the influence of significant Employment Court Judgements, proposed changes to the AS/NZS 4308(2006), and current oral fluid research projects.

  11. Nuclear power programmes in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The paper on ''Nuclear power programmes in developing countries'' is a report to the IAEA by a Senior Expert Group. A description is given of the requirements for a successful nuclear power programme, including the constraints that developing countries might face in the introduction and execution of the programme. The group attempted to identify the main issues affecting the financing of nuclear power projects and suggested specific actions that could be undertaken in order to reduce economic and financial risks. The various issues were discussed under the topic headings:-programme-project-related factors, investment climate, financing plan, export credits and creditworthiness. (U.K.)

  12. The South Pacific Forestry Development Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang Hon Tat

    1992-01-01

    Only a few countries in the South Pacific are large enough for industrial forestry to be a key component of the national economy, but forests provide benefits to many people. The United Nations FA0 South Pacific Forestry Development Programme was established in April 1988, at Port Vila, Vanuatu, with a $385,000 budget, and 14 nations participating. The Programme's...

  13. Drug development in neuropsychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritze, Jürgen

    2008-03-01

    Personalized medicine is still in its infancy concerning drug development in neuropsychopharmacology. Adequate biomarkers with clinical relevance to drug response and/or tolerability and safety largely remain to be identified. Possibly, this kind of personalized medicine will first gain clinical relevance in the dementias. The clinical relevance of the genotyping of drug-metabolizing enzymes as suggested by drug licensing authorities for the pharmacokinetic evaluation of medicinal products needs to be proven in sound clinical trials.

  14. Human Resources Development Programmes in Nigerian Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samaru Journal of Information Studies ... The purpose of this study was to assess Human Resources Development (HRD) programmes of librarians ... It was suggested that for effective HRD, each university library should have a written staff

  15. Poverty Alleviation Programmes and Economic Development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poverty Alleviation Programmes and Economic Development in Nigeria: A Comparative Assessment of Asa and Ilorin West Local ... Journal Home > Vol 3, No 4 (2009) > ... and worst hit income inequality group with about 84percent of total

  16. Evaluation of a nurse leadership development programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Margaret; Smithgall, Lisa; Rosler, Greta; Winn, Erin

    2016-03-01

    The challenge for nursing leaders responsible for workforce planning is to predict the knowledge, skills and abilities required to lead future healthcare delivery systems effectively. Succession planning requires a constant, competitive pool of qualified nursing leader candidates, and retention of those interested in career growth. Formal nursing leadership education in the United States is available through graduate education and professional nursing organisation programmes, such as the Emerging Nurse Leader Institute of the American Organization of Nurse Executives. However, there is also a need for local development programmes tailored to the needs of individual organisations. Leaders at Geisinger Health System, one of the largest rural health systems in the US, identified the need for an internal professional development scheme for nurses. In 2013 the Nurses Emerging as Leaders programme was developed to prepare nurse leaders for effective leadership and successful role transition. This article describes the programme and an evaluation of its effectiveness.

  17. Metabonomics and drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramana, Pranov; Adams, Erwin; Augustijns, Patrick; Van Schepdael, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Metabolites as an end product of metabolism possess a wealth of information about altered metabolic control and homeostasis that is dependent on numerous variables including age, sex, and environment. Studying significant changes in the metabolite patterns has been recognized as a tool to understand crucial aspects in drug development like drug efficacy and toxicity. The inclusion of metabonomics into the OMICS study platform brings us closer to define the phenotype and allows us to look at alternatives to improve the diagnosis of diseases. Advancements in the analytical strategies and statistical tools used to study metabonomics allow us to prevent drug failures at early stages of drug development and reduce financial losses during expensive phase II and III clinical trials. This chapter introduces metabonomics along with the instruments used in the study; in addition relevant examples of the usage of metabonomics in the drug development process are discussed along with an emphasis on future directions and the challenges it faces.

  18. Development of Radiometric and Allied Analytical Methods and Strategies to Strengthen National Residue Control Programmes for Antibiotic and Anthelmintic Veterinary Drug Residues. Final Report of a Coordinated Research Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-08-01

    Awareness of food safety is rising among consumers, and many importing countries implement food control regulations to guarantee the quality and safety of imported foods for their consumers. Many developing countries have also taken steps to put in place control systems that encourage responsible use of veterinary medicines to combat possible drug resistance, control drug residues and ensure compliance with international and national standards. However, these countries still require the necessary know-how and skills to protect local consumers and to access international markets. One significant constraint is the capacity of laboratory services to generate surveillance data using reliable and cost effective analytical methods validated to national and international standards. The IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) on the Development of Radiometric and Allied Analytical Methods to Strengthen National Residue Control Programmes for Antibiotic and Anthelmintic Veterinary Drug Residues was initiated in 2009 to conduct work on robust nuclear and related technologies suitable for the screening and confirmatory analysis of residues of veterinary medicines, including antimicrobials and anthelmintics commonly used in animal production, with public health and trade significance. The CRP also explored mechanisms to enhance networking among research institutions involved in research on pharmacologically active veterinary drug residues in food (primarily) and environmental samples. The project was implemented by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture between 2009 and 2014 and involved eleven research contracts and one technical contract, five research agreements and one institution. The CRP was a continuation of the CRP on the Development of Strategies for the Effective Monitoring of Veterinary Drug Residues in Livestock and Livestock Products in Developing Countries and the key findings are also summarized in this publication.

  19. Quality medicines for the poor: experience of the Delhi programme on rational use of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, R Roy; Parameswar, R; Gupta, U; Sharma, S; Tekur, U; Bapna, J S

    2005-03-01

    Prior to 1994, most Delhi hospitals and dispensaries experienced constant shortages of essential medicines. There was erratic prescribing of expensive branded products, frequent complaints about poor drug quality and low patient satisfaction. Delhi took the lead in developing a comprehensive Drug Policy in 1994 and was the only Indian state to have such a comprehensive policy. The policy's main objective is to improve the availability and accessibility of quality essential drugs for all those in need. The Delhi Society for the Promotion of Rational Use of Drugs (DSPRUD), a non-governmental organization, worked in close collaboration with the Delhi Government and with universities to implement various components of the policy. The first Essential Drugs List (EDL) was developed, a centralized pooled procurement system was set up and activities promoting rational use of drugs were initiated. In 1997, the Delhi Programme was designated the INDIA-WHO Essential Drugs Programme by the World Health Organization. The EDL was developed by a committee consisting of a multidisciplinary group of experts using balanced criteria of efficacy, safety, suitability and cost. The first list contained 250 drugs for hospitals and 100 drugs for dispensaries; the list is revised every 2 years. The pooled procurement system, including the rigorous selection of suppliers with a minimum annual threshold turnover and the introduction of Good Manufacturing Practice inspections, resulted in the supply of good quality drugs and in holding down the procurement costs of many drugs. Bulk purchasing of carefully selected essential drugs was estimated to save nearly 30% of the annual drugs bill for the Government of Delhi, savings which were mobilized for procuring more drugs, which in turn improved availability of drugs (more than 80%) at health facilities. Further, training programmes for prescribers led to a positive change in prescribing behaviour, with more than 80% of prescriptions being from

  20. Skills development programme: The UNISA/CSIR model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sparrow, RW

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available development programmes and industry. A key component will be the use of Information Learning Technology. The skills development programmes are vocational and centred on research and industrial requirements. This programme is modelled on vocational...

  1. The AECL reactor development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menelely, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    The modem CANDU-PHWR power reactor is the result of more than 50 years of evolutionary design development in Canada. It is one of only three commercially successful designs in the world to this date. The basis for future development is the CANDU 6 and CANDU 9 models. Four of the first type are operating and four more will go an line before the end of this decade. The CANDU 9 is a modernized single-unit version of the twelve large multi-unit plants operated by Ontario Hydro. All of these plants use proven technology which resulted from research, development, design construction, and operating experience over the past 25 years. Looking forward another 25 years, AECL plans to retain all of the essential features that distinguish today's CANDU reactors (heavy water moderation, on-power fuelling simple bundle design, horizontal fuel channels, etc.). The end product of the planned 25-year development program is more than a specific design - it is a concept which embodies advanced features expected from ongoing R and D programs. To carry out the evolutionary work we have selected seven main areas for development: Safety Technology, Fuel and Fuel Cycles, Fuel Channels, Systems and Components, Heavy Water and Tritium Information Technology, and Construction. There are three strategic measures of success for each of these work areas: improved economics, advanced fuel cycle utilization, and enhanced safety/plant robustness. The paper describes these work programs and the overall goals of each of them. (author)

  2. 581 influence of community development programmes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    The study examined the socio-economic empowerment of rural women as a correlate of community development ... corporations did not follow the principle of community development in the intervention programmes because ..... In the third stage, quota sampling technique was .... Research Papers, Issue 07/07, European.

  3. Development Programme, 1983-1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This document reprints provisions of Chile's Development Program for 1983-89. The population and family objectives of the Program include: strengthening the right of every couple to decide freely the number of their children by providing everyone with access to information and adequate health care services, as well as seeking a balanced population growth and appropriate geographic distribution for this increased population. Specific policies include protecting human life from the moment of conception; offering family planning methods that may include sterilization but not abortion; recognizing the equality of women and their right to participate in economic and social development without arbitrary discrimination while validating their role as mothers; social protection of minors; provision of special services to underprivileged children; inclusion of a "family education" course in schools; promotion of programs of family development for the general public; and encouragement of women's participation as volunteers in accomplishing tasks of social action.

  4. Making integrated rural development programmes work: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It follows from the foregoing that The Bank will assist poor countries with grants or soft loans to pilot-test the C4D strategy. The C4D strategy has been field-tested and, therefore, offers great promise of making poverty reduction programmes work more sustainably. It is inexcusable, therefore, for developing countries not to try ...

  5. Material development for India's nuclear power programme

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    rials with emphasis on development of fabrication routes of zirconium alloys for .... nuclear power programme, which envisages design and construction of thermal breeder ... Production of Hf-free nuclear grade zirconium ..... Later on for pressure tubes specified limit for hydrogen content in the as manufactured condition.

  6. Development of national immunoassay reagent programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sufi, S.B.; Micallef, J.V.; Ahsan, R.; Goncharov, N.P.

    1992-01-01

    Despite the existence of networks of fully equipped laboratories with well-trained staff, the availability of immunodiagnostic services in developing countries is often limited by the high cost of imported kits. There are a number of ways of tackling this problem, ranging from bulk purchase of kits or reagents to local development and production of assay systems. Argentina/Chile, China, Cuba/Mexico, and Thailand are amongst the countries which have established local immunoassay reagent programmes to manufacture low cost, high quality immunoassay reagents. Kits from these projects are now beginning to become available, and it is hoped that they will promote national diagnostic services and research, as well as stimulating the development of reagent programmes for other analytes. (author). 4 refs, 1 tab

  7. The Brazilian nuclear power manpower development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbalho, A.R.; Spitalnik, J.; Machado, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    Since the early stages of decision making, manpower availability has been recognized to be a key factor for the implementation of Brazil's nuclear power programme. Though care has been given to securing an industrial base and financial resources, the consequences of a lack of sufficient qualified manpower could be critical for the success of the whole programme. The broad scope of the Brazilian nuclear power programme which, as a main concept, aimed at establishing in the country a complete fuel cycle industry together with the construction of nuclear power plants, added another burden to the already complex task of providing appropriate human resources when advanced technologies are introduced in a developing country. Thus, not only the work-force required for nuclear power plant operation but also that needed for plant design, component manufacture, fuel cycle plant design and operation, had to be made available in number and qualification in accordance with the standards of the nuclear industry. The feasibility of the Brazilian programme depended on a complete transfer of technology, essentially achieved through personnel training. Again, the process of manpower preparation for an efficient know-how transfer required careful planning, and the great difficulty in its implementation was the lack of reliable experience at the time. (author)

  8. Drug development for neurodevelopmental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth M; Lindemann, Lothar; Jønch, Aia E

    2018-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders such as fragile X syndrome (FXS) result in lifelong cognitive and behavioural deficits and represent a major public health burden. FXS is the most frequent monogenic form of intellectual disability and autism, and the underlying pathophysiology linked to its causal ge......, FMR1, has been the focus of intense research. Key alterations in synaptic function thought to underlie this neurodevelopmental disorder have been characterized and rescued in animal models of FXS using genetic and pharmacological approaches. These robust preclinical findings have led...... to the implementation of the most comprehensive drug development programme undertaken thus far for a genetically defined neurodevelopmental disorder, including phase IIb trials of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) antagonists and a phase III trial of a GABAB receptor agonist. However, none of the trials has...... been able to unambiguously demonstrate efficacy, and they have also highlighted the extent of the knowledge gaps in drug development for FXS and other neurodevelopmental disorders. In this Review, we examine potential issues in the previous studies and future directions for preclinical and clinical...

  9. Developing a public information programme in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissot-Colle, Catherine

    1991-01-01

    In today's world, companies must initiate their own communications programmes or else they will be overtaken by others under circumstances and at times that are both generally unfavourable and not of their choosing. The development of a corporate communications programme is good for a company's commercial activities, for its management, and for its integration into its operating environment, as well as for its internal harmony. This is true for any company, regardless of its business sector. However, for companies in the nuclear field, such as the Cogema Group, do special considerations need to be taken into account? What is the communications track record of this industry? Should the overall communications strategy of a company be challenged based on this record? The questions are addressed in this paper. (author)

  10. Five year results of an international proficiency testing programme for measurement of antifungal drug concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lempers, V.J.C.; Alffenaar, J.W.C.; Touw, D.J.; Burger, D.M.; Uges, D.R.A.; Aarnoutse, R.E.; Brüggemann, R.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Since 2007 the Dutch Association for Quality Assessment in Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (KKGT) has organized an international interlaboratory proficiency testing (PT) programme for measurement of antifungal drugs in plasma. We describe the 5 year results of the laboratories' performance.

  11. Plutonium Contaminated Materials Working Party development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higson, S.G.

    1985-01-01

    The broad objectives of the programme are to develop and assess: (a) techniques for the minimisation, treatment and encapsulation of solid PCM; (b) techniques for the measurement of plutonium in encapsulated and unencapsulated PCM; and (c) advanced treatments for alpha bearing liquid wastes, in order to provide information on their waste management implications. Development has been carried out in eight areas: (a) reduction of arisings; (b) plutonium measurement; (c) decommissioning and non-combustible PCM treatments; (d) washing; (e) PCM immobilisation; (f) liquid effluent treatment; (g) sorting and packaging; and (h) engineering objectives. The work is reported. (author)

  12. Developing Infrastructure for New Nuclear Power Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-09-01

    Many countries are interested in introducing or expanding nuclear energy programmes because they regard nuclear power as a clean and stable source of electricity that can help to mitigate the impact of climate change. However, the March 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan - caused by an earthquake and tsunami of unprecedented proportions - demonstrated that there is a constant need to improve global nuclear safety, despite the great progress made in the previous 25 years. A 'safety first' approach needs to become fully entrenched among nuclear power plant operators, governments and regulators everywhere. Safety first must also be the watchword for Member States considering the introduction of nuclear power. I believe that all IAEA Member States should have access to nuclear power if they wish to add it their energy mix. While it is up to each country to decide whether or not to opt for nuclear power, the IAEA has a key role to play in ensuring that the development of nuclear power programmes takes place in a safe, efficient, responsible and sustainable manner. The IAEA has developed guidelines and milestones to help countries work in a systematic way towards the introduction of nuclear power. Use of the 'Milestones' approach can increase transparency both within a country introducing nuclear power, and between it and other States. This brochure summarizes the services which the IAEA offers to Member States considering introducing nuclear power. These include advice on proper planning, building the required human resources and infrastructure, establishing legal and regulatory frameworks, and ensuring the highest standards of safety and security, without increasing proliferation risks. The IAEA offers independent know-how on the construction, commissioning, startup and operation of nuclear reactors. Through the Technical Cooperation programme, we provide targeted support to 'newcomer' countries in response to national development needs

  13. Melatonergic drugs in development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carocci A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Alessia Carocci,1 Alessia Catalano,1 Maria Stefania Sinicropi2 1Department of Pharmacy–Drug Sciences, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, 2Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, Cosenza, Italy Abstract: Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine is widely known as "the darkness hormone". It is a major chronobiological regulator involved in circadian phasing and sleep-wake cycle in humans. Numerous other functions, including cyto/neuroprotection, immune modulation, and energy metabolism have been ascribed to melatonin. A variety of studies have revealed a role for melatonin and its receptors in different pathophysiological conditions. However, the suitability of melatonin as a drug is limited because of its short half-life, poor oral bioavailability, and ubiquitous action. Due to the therapeutic potential of melatonin in a wide variety of clinical conditions, the development of new agents able to interact selectively with melatonin receptors has become an area of great interest during the last decade. Therefore, the field of melatonergic receptor agonists comprises a great number of structurally different chemical entities, which range from indolic to nonindolic compounds. Melatonergic agonists are suitable for sleep disturbances, neuropsychiatric disorders related to circadian dysphasing, and metabolic diseases associated with insulin resistance. The results of preclinical studies on animal models show that melatonin receptor agonists can be considered promising agents for the treatment of central nervous system-related pathologies. An overview of recent advances in the field of investigational melatonergic drugs will be presented in this review. Keywords: MT1/MT2 ligands, circadian rhythms, melatonin 

  14. [Development of an evidence-based self-management programme for patients in the first year after renal transplantation with a focus on prevention of weight gain, physical exercise and drug adherence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid-Mohler, Gabriela; Fehr, Thomas; Witschi, Patrick; Albiez, Thomas; Biotti, Beatrice; Spirig, Rebecca

    2013-06-01

    In the first year after kidney transplantation patients are challenged with incorporating new behaviour patterns into their daily lives. Due to the higher risk of cardiovascular disease amongst kidney transplant recipients, behaviours such as preventing undesired weight gain, exercising, avoiding smoking, and managing medications take on crucial importance. The aim of the project was to develop a programme based on prevailing evidence to promote self-management skills in this patient population. To this end a participatory action research approach was chosen. The programme was developed with inter-professional collaboration under the direction of an advanced practice nurse. As theoretical framework for the development of the intervention models of behaviour change and self-management were chosen. The content is based on current literature and includes the viewpoints of both patients and nursing experts. The programme consists of three elements: 1) Educational brochures developed through inter-professional collaboration and evaluated in a pilot survey. These brochures provide a framework for appointments with nursing professionals. 2) The appointments are a forum in which the patient can gain access to relevant information and can be supported in putting sustainable health-related behaviours into practice in daily life. 3) A peer programme that uses treatment plans to encourage patients deviating from preferred health-related behaviours to make changes in their behaviour. The programme evaluation started in May of 2012. Results of the pilot study are expected in 2014.

  15. Effect of capacity building programme of development agencies on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of capacity building programme of development agencies on well being of beneficiaries in Niger Delta, Nigeria. ... available for training. Adequate supervision will also go a long way to ensuring sustainability of the programmes. Key words: capacity building programme, development agencies, well being, beneficiaries ...

  16. Impact of Government Anti-Poverty Programme on Development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of Government Anti-Poverty Programme on Development of Rural Areas of ... of National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) among rural population in ... different statistical techniques such as descriptive statistics among others.

  17. Melatonergic drugs in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carocci, Alessia; Catalano, Alessia; Sinicropi, Maria Stefania

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is widely known as "the darkness hormone". It is a major chronobiological regulator involved in circadian phasing and sleep-wake cycle in humans. Numerous other functions, including cyto/neuroprotection, immune modulation, and energy metabolism have been ascribed to melatonin. A variety of studies have revealed a role for melatonin and its receptors in different pathophysiological conditions. However, the suitability of melatonin as a drug is limited because of its short half-life, poor oral bioavailability, and ubiquitous action. Due to the therapeutic potential of melatonin in a wide variety of clinical conditions, the development of new agents able to interact selectively with melatonin receptors has become an area of great interest during the last decade. Therefore, the field of melatonergic receptor agonists comprises a great number of structurally different chemical entities, which range from indolic to nonindolic compounds. Melatonergic agonists are suitable for sleep disturbances, neuropsychiatric disorders related to circadian dysphasing, and metabolic diseases associated with insulin resistance. The results of preclinical studies on animal models show that melatonin receptor agonists can be considered promising agents for the treatment of central nervous system-related pathologies. An overview of recent advances in the field of investigational melatonergic drugs will be presented in this review.

  18. South Africa's nuclear hydrogen production development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ravenswaay, J.P.; Van Niekerk, F.; Kriek, R.J.; Blom, E.; Krieg, H.M.; Van Niekerk, W.M.K.; Van der Merwe, F.; Vosloo, H.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    In May 2007 the South African Cabinet approved a National Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies R and D and Innovation Strategy. The strategy will focus on research, development and innovation for: i) wealth creation through high value-added manufacturing and developing platinum group metals catalysis; ii) building on the existing knowledge in high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR) and coal gasification Fischer-Tropsch technology, to develop local cost-competitive hydrogen production solutions; iii) to promote equity and inclusion in the economic benefits from South Africa's natural resource base. As part of the roll-out strategy, the South African Department of Science and Technology (DST) created three Competence Centres (CC), including a Hydrogen Infrastructure Competence Centre hosted by the North-West University (NWU) and the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). The Hydrogen Infrastructure CC is tasked with developing hydrogen production, storage, distribution as well as codes and standards programmes within the framework of the DST strategic objectives to ensure strategic national innovation over the next fifteen years. One of the focus areas of the Hydrogen Infrastructure CC will be on large scale CO 2 free hydrogen production through thermochemical water-splitting using nuclear heat from a suitable heat source such as a HTGR and the subsequent use of the hydrogen in applications such as the coal-to-liquid process and the steel industry. This paper will report on the status of the programme for thermochemical water-splitting as well as the associated projects for component and technology development envisaged in the Hydrogen Infrastructure CC. The paper will further elaborate on current and future collaboration opportunities as well as expected outputs and deliverables. (authors)

  19. Developing an education programme for schools on radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curd, P.J.; Hutchins, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    United Kingdom Nirex Ltd. is responsible for the development of a deep disposal facility for Britain's solid low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. In line with their technical programme Nirex has a substantial public information programme costing in excess of Brit-pounds 1M per year. An important part of this programme is the need to develop an effective education programme for schools. This paper details the development and content of this education programme and the rationale behind the development in its current form

  20. IAEA Nutrition Programmes Feed Global Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, Sasha

    2014-01-01

    As an organization, the IAEA has a statutory requirement to “accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world.” Good nutrition is the cornerstone of good health and the development of nations. That’s why the IAEA is involved in nutrition. The IAEA’s Member States use nuclear methods to move their nutrition programmes forward. These nuclear techniques include the use of stable isotopes (which have no radioactivity) to better understand how nutrients are absorbed, utilized, or stored in the body. These very precise and powerful techniques can be safely and non-invasively used on everyone, from babies to the elderly, in order to determine nutritional status, and measure the effectiveness of nutrition programmes. Nuclear techniques often provide answers that are not available by any other means. By training Member States in the use of nuclear techniques for nutrition, the IAEA complements the work that these countries are doing with other international organizations and not-for-profit groups around the world to combat malnutrition in all its forms and to promote health

  1. The Role of Local Leaders in Community Development Programmes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... like their male counterparts. Incompatibility of government policies with community programmes (= 3.84), insufficient sources of funds (= 3.83), poor implementation of programmes (= 3.80), and gender bias (= 3.77) constituted the major constraints to effective leadership in community development programmes in the area.

  2. Development of Elite Programmes at Aalborg University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove

    2008-01-01

    Europe and  the United States on higher educations  tailored  to challenge  the most  talented and motivated students. Further details are provided on  the current situation  in Denmark, where the government has decided  to support  the development of highly specialised elite programmes at  the  master......The Commission of European Communities concluded  in a  report  from 2005  that “knowledge, research,  skills and education will be  the currency of success  in  the  face of globalization” and that  there should be support for excellence  in European universities. This paper gives examples from...

  3. Development of loyalty programmes in the hotel industry

    OpenAIRE

    Laškarin, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – In the very beginning when loyalty programmes were being developed, hoteliers were mostly involved as partners of airline companies. However, once they realized the obvious numerous advantages that airlines were gaining, hoteliers began to design their own loyalty programmes. The idea of a loyalty programme is to strike a balance between what guests want and what is offered to them as a reward, and to find other programme partners whose services guests will also use. This paper will...

  4. An evaluation of a leadership development coaching and mentoring programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Comte, Lyndsay; McClelland, Beverley

    2017-07-03

    Purpose The purpose of this paper was to determine the value and impact of the Leadership Development - Coaching and Mentoring Programme at Counties Manukau Health and understand how the skills gained are applied. Design/methodology/approach Mixed-methods approach including surveys of programme participants and senior staff and semi-structured interviews with programme participants. Findings The survey response rate was 24.4 per cent for programme participants and 30 per cent for senior staff. Eight programme participants participated in semi-structured interviews. Of the 70 programme participants, 69 utilised their learning from the programme; 45 of 70 changed their approach to managing staff; and 40 of 68 programme participants reported that meeting with peers for triad group coaching was the most challenging aspect of the programme. Key themes identified through interviews included: working with others; not owning others' problems; professional support and development; coaching and mentoring; future participants. Practical implications The majority of participants changed their leadership behaviours as a result of the programme, which has resulted in improved communication, a more supportive culture and distributed leadership. These changes contribute to better patient care. Originality value There is a paucity of evidence in the literature about the impact of coaching and mentoring programme on leadership development and how the skills gained in such programmes are applied in practice in a healthcare context. This evaluation helps to address that gap.

  5. Planning and developing the French nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carle, R.

    1983-01-01

    Since France has been compelled to free itself from the domination of oil, it has undertaken a nuclear programme capable of providing for nearly one third of its energy needs by 1990. Some years after the first oil crisis, a good part of the battle has already been won: 22 reactor units of 900 MW each have been connected to the grid and account for 40% of the electricity produced in France, while 12 other 900 MW units, together with the first 1300 MW units, are under construction. Nuclear power has thus become an industrial reality possessed of the tools appropriate for the whole fuel cycle, which has managed to cope with costs and meet deadlines, and has developed a safe and reliable product. With these positive results despite inevitable incidents the French nuclear industry has come of age. There are, however, handicaps which remain to be overcome: high investment costs, operating constraints and continuing doubt on the part of the public. The efforts deployed in these three spheres are beginning to bear fruit. As a result, implementation of the French nuclear programme is being continued, albeit at a slower rate, for the aim is no longer to replace oil by nuclear power as soon as possible, but rather to keep up with the rise in consumption. In pursuing its nuclear efforts, France will henceforth be stressing progress in terms of quality, which can still be achieved in terms of increased reliability (incorporation of feedback), better economic return (initiation of a new series known as ''N4''), easier operation (improvement of the man-machine interface) and also more independence. The ''frenchification'' of the light-water reactor has from the beginning been seen as one of the means of achieving this independence. This also applies to mastery of the whole fuel cycle. And finally, fast breeders represent the next stage

  6. Drug Development Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preclinical Research Preclinical Research Drugs undergo laboratory and animal testing to answer basic questions about safety. More Information ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  7. Quantitative decisions in drug development

    CERN Document Server

    Chuang-Stein, Christy

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a high-level treatise of evidence-based decisions in drug development. Because of the inseparable relationship between designs and decisions, a good portion of this book is devoted to the design of clinical trials. The book begins with an overview of product development and regulatory approval pathways. It then discusses how to incorporate prior knowledge into study design and decision making at different stages of drug development. The latter include selecting appropriate metrics to formulate decisions criteria, determining go/no-go decisions for progressing a drug candidate to the next stage and predicting the effectiveness of a product. Lastly, it points out common mistakes made by drug developers under the current drug-development paradigm. The book offers useful insights to statisticians, clinicians, regulatory affairs managers and decision-makers in the pharmaceutical industry who have a basic understanding of the drug-development process and the clinical trials conducted to support dru...

  8. A process evaluation of a supervisory development programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper Buys

    2012-07-01

    Research purpose: The study aimed to provide information about coverage, service delivery, organisational resources, and medium-term outcomes for a supervisory development programme (SDP in the hospitality industry. Motivation for the study: The primary motivation was to assist programme staff to understand their programme and also to generate information that the programme staff could use to reflect on the programme’s performance and future direction. Research design, approach and method: A mixture of quantitative and qualitative methods was employed, namely: a literature review; personal interviews; and internal programme documentation, such as e-mail correspondence, financial statements, attendance registers, and personnel records. Personal interviews were conducted with two stakeholders, namely the programme manager and programme administrator. The programme data of 69 participants in the SDP were utilised for the evaluation. Main findings: The evaluation’s main finding concluded that the ‘implemented programme’ was not congruent with the ‘planned programme’. Practical/managerial implications: It is recommended that programme activities and theory should be re-evaluated, as the programme is used mainly as a training programme for new appointees, rather than a management development programme to create a pool of potential supervisors. Programme uptake and output should also be closely aligned. The length of time that people in the pool of potential supervisors had to wait before they were appointed should also be reduced. Contribution/value-add: By explicating the basic programme theory and studying programme implementation, this evaluation serves as a starting point for future evaluations of the SDP.

  9. Nigeria's Satellite Programme Development: Prospects and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyede, Joseph

    Nigeria's desire to maximize the benefits of space technology for its sustainable development, has become a reality with the establishment of the National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA) in May 1999 and the approval of the national Space Policy and Programmes in July 2001. In November, 2000, the Federal Government took a bold step with the signing of an agreement with the Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) of United Kingdom (UK) for the design, construction and launch of a medium resolution micro-satellite - NigeriaSat-1 with a Ground Sampling Distance of thirty-two (32) meters. The agreement also covers the Know-How-Technology-Training (KHTT) to Nigerian Engineers and Scientists for a period of 18th months at SSTL‘s facility in the U.K.. NigeriaSat-1 was successfully launched into Leo Earth Orbit on 27th September, 2003. NigeriaSat- 1 is one of the five (5) satellites belonging to Nigeria, Algeria, Turkey, United Kingdom and China being operated in a Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC). The launch of NigeriaSat-1 has promoted access to information which has become a strategy for mass socio-economic development, as information underscores all developmental effort be it in education, provision of health services, marketing, construction industry, tourism, defense, etc. As a follow-up to the successful launch of NigeriaSat-1, the government of Nigeria started the implementation of a Nigerian communication satellite (NigcomSat-1) to address the problem of communication which is the greatest drawbacks to the socio-economic development of the country, particularly in the areas of rural telephone, tele-education, tele-medicine, egovernment, e-commerce and real-time monitoring services. NigcomSat-1, which carries 40- hybrid transponders in the C, KU, KA and L bands, has a 15 years life span and coverage of the African continent, Middle East and part of Europe was launched in May 2007. To satisfy geospatial data needs in sectors such as survey

  10. Drug Development Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... molecule that contains genetic instructions to make proteins. Delivery of CFTR-encoded mRNA would allow the lung cells to create normally functioning CFTR protein, regardless of an individual’s specific CFTR gene mutation. This drug is delivered via inhalation. Editas This program is ...

  11. Drug development and manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.

    2015-10-13

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry has been used for detecting binding events and measuring binding selectivities between chemicals and receptors. XRF may also be used for estimating the therapeutic index of a chemical, for estimating the binding selectivity of a chemical versus chemical analogs, for measuring post-translational modifications of proteins, and for drug manufacturing.

  12. The Management of innovation: Lessons from a Danish Development Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lennie

    1997-01-01

    The paper reports from an ongoing Danish development programme entitled "Process and Product Development in the Building Industry". The programme is a joint initiatvie, initiated by the Ministry of Housing and Building and the Ministry of Busines and Industry. In a competition in 1994 four...... consortia representing actors of the whole value chain were chosen to carry out innovation projects during a 4-year period, including experimental building projects. The paper describes the programme with respect to its background and organisation, the basic development ideas of the four consortia...... in the consortia.Keywords: R&D programme, innovation, experimental building projects, consortia....

  13. Nuclear power programme: development and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Y.S.R.

    1997-01-01

    The relevance of nuclear power in meeting the short and long term energy needs of India was recognised right at the beginning of the atomic energy programme. From the very beginning, as a long term strategy, the nuclear power programme, formulated by Dr Homi Jehangir Bhabha, embarked on a three stage process linking the fuel cycles of Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) and Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR), and was planned for judicious utilisation of the country's limited uranium ore (78,000 tonne) but vast thorium resources (>360,000 tonne). The emphasis of the programme was on self-reliance and thorium utilisation as a long term objective. India selected Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) because of several inherent advantages. (author)

  14. Attitude of Youth to Agricultural Development Programmes In Ughelli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problems associated with youth behaviours in the Niger Delta region necessitated the study. The specific objectives were to collate the current agricultural development intervention programmes; compare the attitude of youth leaders and non-leaders to agricultural development intervention programmes, and examine ...

  15. Nurses' experiences of participation in a research and development programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kirsten Pryds; Bäck-Pettersson, Siv; Kýlén, Sven

    2013-01-01

    To describe clinical nurses' experience of participating in a Research and Development (R&D) programme and its influence on their research interest and ability to conduct and apply nursing research......To describe clinical nurses' experience of participating in a Research and Development (R&D) programme and its influence on their research interest and ability to conduct and apply nursing research...

  16. Metallomics in drug development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Trinh Thi Nhu Tam; Ostergaard, Jesper; Stürup, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    in plasma. A detection limit of 41 ng/mL of platinum and a precision of 2.1 % (for 10 µg/mL of cisplatin standard) were obtained. Simultaneous measurements of phosphorous and platinum allows the simultaneous monitoring of the liposomes, liposome-encapsulated cisplatin, free cisplatin and cisplatin bound...... to plasma constituents in plasma samples. It was demonstrated that this approach is suitable for studies of the stability of liposome formulations as leakage of active drug from the liposomes and subsequent binding to biomolecules in plasma can be monitored. This methodology has not been reported before...

  17. Development through science: The IAEA research contract programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson Wiltschegg, T.; Gillen, V.

    1991-01-01

    The IAEA strives to stimulate the growth of science in developing countries by assuring that the IAEA and the scientific communities of developed and developing countries share their knowledge and experience. If the assistance provided is well organized and in keeping with the needs of developing countries it can make the crucial difference in sustainable development. This booklet provides a survey of the historical development of the IAEA's Research Contract Programme and outlines the aims and achievements of selected Co-ordinated Research Programmes. A complete listing of Co-ordinated Research Programmes is provided

  18. Sustainable Industrial Development Programmes of International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2012-10-27

    Oct 27, 2012 ... projects include Policy Research Institutes that support the national government in ... Increasing support to firms through diverse .... in Africa failed to perform because of poor initial investment decisions, inappropriate .... The implications of these laudable programmes are that the international communities ...

  19. Nuclear imaging drug development tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, L.; Jurek, P.; Redshaw, R.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the development of nuclear imaging as an enabling technology in the pharmaceutical industry. Molecular imaging is maturing into an important tool with expanding applications from validating that a drug reaches the intended target through to market launch of a new drug. Molecular imaging includes anatomical imaging of organs or tissues, computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound.

  20. Development of human resources for Indian nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, R.B.; Puri, R.R.

    2013-01-01

    The continuing research and development on nuclear technology by research establishments in the country and maturing of Indian industry have brought the nuclear energy programme in India to a stage where it is poised to take a quantum leap forward. The vision of expansion of nuclear power also requires a well-structured specialized human resource development programme. This paper discusses the requirements of the human resource development programme for nuclear energy, the challenges in the way of its realization, its national and international status and traces the history of nuclear education in the country. It brings out the linkage of human resource development programme with the nuclear energy programme in the country. It also describes the initiatives by the university system in the area of nuclear education and support provided by the Department of Atomic Energy to the university system by way of extra-mural funding and by providing access to research facilities. (author)

  1. Obesity and Pediatric Drug Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughns, Janelle D; Conklin, Laurie S; Long, Ying; Zheng, Panli; Faruque, Fahim; Green, Dionna J; van den Anker, John N; Burckart, Gilbert J

    2018-05-01

    There is a lack of dosing guidelines for use in obese children. Moreover, the impact of obesity on drug safety and clinical outcomes is poorly defined. The paucity of information needed for the safe and effective use of drugs in obese patients remains a problem, even after drug approval. To assess the current incorporation of obesity as a covariate in pediatric drug development, the pediatric medical and clinical pharmacology reviews under the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Amendments Act of 2007 and the FDA Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA) of 2012 were reviewed for obesity studies. FDA labels were also reviewed for statements addressing obesity in pediatric patients. Forty-five drugs studied in pediatric patients under the FDA Amendments Act were found to have statements and key words in the medical and clinical pharmacology reviews and labels related to obesity. Forty-four products were identified similarly with pediatric studies under FDASIA. Of the 89 product labels identified, none provided dosing information related to obesity. The effect of body mass index on drug pharmacokinetics was mentioned in only 4 labels. We conclude that there is little information presently available to provide guidance related to dosing in obese pediatric patients. Moving forward, regulators, clinicians, and the pharmaceutical industry should consider situations in drug development in which the inclusion of obese patients in pediatric trials is necessary to facilitate the safe and effective use of new drug products in the obese pediatric population. © 2018, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  2. Meeting Teacher Expectations in a DL Professional Development Programme--A Case Study for Sustained Applied Competence as Programme Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Cornè Gerda; Van Rensburg, Ona Janse; De Witt, Marike W.

    2016-01-01

    Meeting teacher expectations for a professional development programme (PDP) is expected to strengthen sustainable applied competence as programme outcome since teachers will be more motivated to apply the programme content in practice. A revised distance learning (DL) programme was augmented by a practical component comprising a work-integrated…

  3. Drug discovery and developments in developing countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the major burden being in developing countries. Many of ... The driving force for drug discovery and development by pharmaceutical firms ... world and particularly in the third world countries ..... GFHR (2000) Global Forum for Health Research:.

  4. 'kids in parks' programme to the professional development of teachers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article considers the possible contribution of the 'kids in parks' programme offered at Golden Gate Highlands National Park to the professional development of teachers. Focus group interviews were held with teachers who participated in the programme, and an interview with open-ended questions was held with a ...

  5. Developing a Mind-Body Exercise Programme for Stressed Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Claudia; Seo, Dong-Chul; Geib, Roy W

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To describe the process of developing a Health Qigong programme for stressed children using a formative evaluation approach. Methods: A multi-step formative evaluation method was utilised. These steps included (1) identifying programme content and drafting the curriculum, (2) synthesising effective and age-appropriate pedagogies, (3)…

  6. Parent involvement when developing health education programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Hassel

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The problem of obesity in children and adults has been widely recognised and described in the literature [1]. There are several challenges leading to an augmentation of the problem. Firstly, the aetiology of overweight and obesity is not clear. Secondly, the long term effectiveness of prevention programmes is low. Only in some groups and for a short period of time an effect may be visible [2]. Thirdly, little is known about what children should learn when [3]. A proper concept of educating children in regard to healthy eating or physical activity does not exist. As far as we know an essential pre-requisite for health education programmes is that they are lifestyleoriented and easily transferable into daily family life [4]. For this, working together with the parents would be essential. The main goal of this article will be 1 to get a better understanding of what parents and nurses/ teachers want 2 to strengthen the point that this method is one way to involve the target groups and thus it is likely to increase the acceptance of health education programmes 3 to describe that focus group discussions are a useful tool to identify the opinions of the target group.

    Methods: In the frame of three projects, focus groups with nurses/ teachers and parents have been carried out.

    Results and Conclusions: Results from different focus group discussions with pedagogues and parents will be discussed and conclusions for health education programmes relevant to all key players involved will be identified.

  7. Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Hobday, E, fl. 1905, artist

    2003-01-01

    A photograph of an illustrated programme listing dances. The illustration shows a snake charmer playing to a snake while another man watches. Buildings and trees can be seen behind a wall in the distance. In the lower right-hand corner of the programme is the signature 'E. Hobday'. The programme is almost certainly related to the Punjab Ball, Lahore. It is placed next to the Punjab Ball Menu in the album and the Menu is also illustrated by 'E. Hobday'.

  8. Five typologies of alcohol and drug prevention programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Laura Marie, Schierff

    2018-01-01

    Adolescents exhibit a high rate of use of alcohol and illicit drugs. Effect studies rarely describe the actual content of the interventions in detail. Less is known about what was actually done in the prevention than about their effects. Aim: This study is a review study grouping the qualitatively...

  9. Programmable release of multiple protein drugs from aptamer-functionalized hydrogels via nucleic acid hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battig, Mark R; Soontornworajit, Boonchoy; Wang, Yong

    2012-08-01

    Polymeric delivery systems have been extensively studied to achieve localized and controlled release of protein drugs. However, it is still challenging to control the release of multiple protein drugs in distinct stages according to the progress of disease or treatment. This study successfully demonstrates that multiple protein drugs can be released from aptamer-functionalized hydrogels with adjustable release rates at predetermined time points using complementary sequences (CSs) as biomolecular triggers. Because both aptamer-protein interactions and aptamer-CS hybridization are sequence-specific, aptamer-functionalized hydrogels constitute a promising polymeric delivery system for the programmable release of multiple protein drugs to treat complex human diseases.

  10. Educating educators about alcoholism and drug addiction: the role of employee assistance programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bergh, N

    1990-01-01

    The historical development of employee assistance programmes (EAPs) from occupational alcoholism programmes is outlined. Services for the three prevention levels of a 'broad brush' programme are described. The 'at-risk' characteristics of academia in potentiating alcoholism and addiction are noted, including several intrinsic characteristics of academics which could predispose to substance abuse. Ways in which EAPs enhance organizational goals are noted and several crucial steps in designing an academic EAP are suggested.

  11. Fast reactor development programme in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Rigoleur, C [Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires, CEA Centre d` Etudes de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1998-04-01

    First the general situation regarding production of electricity in France is briefly described. Then in the field of Fast Reactors, the main events of 1996 are presented. At the end of February 1996, the PHENIX reactor was ready for operation. After review meetings, the Safety Authority has requested safety improvements and technical demonstrations, before it examines the possibility of authorizing a new start-up of PHENIX. The year 1996 was devoted to this work. In 1996, SUPERPHENIX was characterized by excellent operation throughout the year. The reactor was restarted at the end of 1995 after a number of minor incidents. The reactor power was increased by successive steps: 30% Pn up to February 6, followed by 50% Pn up to May then 60% up to October and 90% Pn during the last months. A programmed shutdown period occurred during May, June and mid-July 1996. The reactor has been shutdown at the end of 1996 for the decenial control of the steam generators. The status of the CAPRA project, aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of a fast reactor to burn plutonium at as high a rate as possible and the status of the European Fast Reactor are presented as well as their evolution. Finally the R and D in support of the operation of PHENIX and SUPERPHENIX, in support of the ````knowledge-acquisition```` programme, and CAPRA and EFR programmes is presented, as well as the present status of the stage 2 dismantling of the RAPSODIE experimental fast reactor. (author). 4 refs, figs, 2 tabs.

  12. Screening of newborns for congenital hypothyroidism. Guidance for developing programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism is a condition that, if left untreated, can cause lifelong human suffering as a result of severe mental retardation and deficiency of growth. With the involvement of the IAEA, screening programmes to detect congenital hypothyroidism in newborn infants have been introduced successfully in a large number of countries. The cornerstone of these programmes is accurate and reliable screening methods involving isotope techniques and simple medical treatment. The suffering - and heavy social and economic burden - caused by congenital hypothyroidism prompted many countries to institute a formalized screening programme directed at newborns, just as a vaccination programme has become an integral part of child health care. In many other countries however, this type of formalized service has not yet been established. For these countries, the implementation of a neonatal screening programme will bring about a considerable improvement in child health care. It is hoped that the guidance in this publication will be especially useful to the signatories of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Several factors that prevail in a country - the climate, political environment, economic development, level of health care and the transportation system - have an influence on the overall operational systems, design and implementation of a screening programme. As such, the design of such a programme will differ greatly from country to country. Nevertheless, neonatal screening programmes have many elements in common. This book draws on the IAEA's experience in this area over more than a decade, and on the results of a regional technical cooperation programme on neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism in East Asia (IAEA Project RAS6032). This publication provides guidance aimed specifically at implementing and sustaining programmes for the screening of newborn infants

  13. Investigating the Influence of a Leadership Development Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walker, Roderick

    2016-01-01

    , rather than solely focusing on events taking place on-site in the development programme. By undertaking a multisited ethnography and adopting a case study approach, individual trajectories of participation through the programme become traceable, training focus onindividual leaders’ iterative movement......The article outlines the approach taken in an ongoing PhD study, investigating organisational influences of a diploma programme in leadership offered to employees within the Danish public sector. The intention is to consider the implications of wider societal conditions and organisational contexts...

  14. Uptake of mass drug administration programme for schistosomiasis control in Koome Islands, Central Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doreen Tuhebwe

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is one of the neglected tropical diseases targeted for elimination in Uganda through the Mass Drug Administration (MDA programme. Praziquantel has been distributed using community resource persons in fixed sites and house-to-house visits; however the uptake is still below target coverage. In 2011/2012 MDA exercise, uptake stood at 50% yet WHO target coverage is 75% at community level. We assessed the uptake of MDA and the associated factors in Koome Islands, Central Uganda.In March 2013, we conducted a mixed methods cross sectional study in 15 randomly selected villages. We interviewed a total of 615 respondents aged 18 years and above using semi structured questionnaires and five key informants were also purposively selected. Univariate and multivariate analysis was done. MDA uptake was defined as self reported swallowing of praziquantel during the last (2012 MDA campaign. We conducted key informant interviews with Ministry of Health, district health personnel and community health workers.Self reported uptake of praziquantel was 44.7% (275/615, 95% confidence interval (CI 40.8-48.7%. Of the 275 community members who said they had swallowed praziquantel, 142 (51.6% reported that they had developed side effects. Uptake of MDA was more likely if the respondent was knowledgeable about schistosomiasis transmission and prevention (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.85, 95% CI 1.22-2.81 and reported to have received health education from the health personnel (AOR 5.95, 95% CI 3.67-9.65. Service delivery challenges such as drug shortages and community health worker attrition also influenced MDA in Koome Islands.Uptake of MDA for schistosomiasis control in Koome was sub optimal. Lack of knowledge about schistosomiasis transmission and prevention, inadequate health education and drug shortages are some of the major factors associated with low uptake. These could be addressed through routine health education and systematic drug supply for the

  15. A TRANSFERABLE MODEL FOR INNOVATIVE JOINT POSTGRADUATE DEGREE PROGRAMME DEVELOPMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maclachlan, Ross; Ion, William; Kochanowska, Rowena

    2009-01-01

    aim of the programme is to produce graduates with an expanded perspective of innovation management to meet the needs of global industry. In particular this is to be achieved through a curriculum that integrates design based modules with progressive innovation and technology management education....... The collaboration brings depth and breadth to the innovation curriculum, and the student experience, through student mobility and the complementary expertise of partners. However, for higher education institutions to effectively collaborate at both administrative and academic levels, a number of new challenges must...... be overcome. This paper reflects on specific challenges met during development of the GIM programme and presents a programme model addressing these. The model is presented as transferable to other consortia and as basis for a set of tentative principles for joint programme development with particular...

  16. Imaging biomarkers as surrogate endpoints for drug development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, Wolf S.

    2006-01-01

    The employment of biomarkers (including imaging biomarkers, especially PET) in drug development has gained increasing attention during recent years. This has been partly stimulated by the hope that the integration of biomarkers into drug development programmes may be a means to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the drug development process by early identification of promising drug candidates - thereby counteracting the rising costs of drug development. More importantly, however, the interest in biomarkers for drug development is the logical consequence of recent advances in biosciences and medicine which are leading to target-specific treatments in the framework of ''personalised medicine''. A considerable proportion of target-specific drugs will show effects in subgroups of patients only. Biomarkers are a means to identify potential responders, or patient subgroups at risk for specific side-effects. Biomarkers are used in early drug development in the context of translational medicine to gain information about the drug's potential in different patient groups and disease states. The information obtained at this stage is mainly important for designing subsequent clinical trials and to identify promising drug candidates. Biomarkers in later phases of clinical development may - if properly validated - serve as surrogate endpoints for clinical outcomes. Regulatory agencies in the EU and the USA have facilitated the use of biomarkers early in the development process. The validation of biomarkers as surrogate endpoints is part of FDA's ''critical path initiative''. (orig.)

  17. Accelerator development programme in India - an outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandari, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    With the construction of the VEC, Indus-1, Indus-2, superconducting cyclotron, superconducting heavy ion linac boosters etc. and implementation of other accelerator R and D programmes, we are now 'equipped' to take a quantum jump in the accelerator field. We have highly trained and skilled manpower that can take up challenges in this rapidly growing field both for research as well as applications. Serious planning is going on in the country to construct accelerator facilities for versatile Rare Ion Beams (RIB), powerful spallation source, advanced synchrotron source, high power beam for ADS etc. There is strong demand by the medical community for a proton/heavy ion cancer therapy facility and for accelerator-produced radioisotopes for medical diagnostics. Proliferation of accelerators in the industry field is long overdue in our country and welcome realization is coming. In this presentation a glimpse of the intended growth of accelerator field in the country will be given. Interesting challenges are there not only for the accelerator community, which has to grow, but also for the industry. Since the general trend is now to construct high intensity and high beam power accelerators - both for research as well as applications - the associated problems of radiation safety will be highlighted. (author)

  18. Developing a digital learning version of a mentorship training programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Debbie; Clark, Liz; Gould, Kathryn

    2018-01-25

    This article describes the experience of one university team in developing, delivering and evaluating an online Nursing and Midwifery Council-approved mentorship programme for nurses and midwives who support pre-registration students in practice. Although the authors are confident of the quality of the educational provision, this article does not discuss this programme as an exemplar of best practice, but aims to share the learning gained from the experience of introducing a digital learning version of a mentorship course.

  19. A review of teaching skills development programmes for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Gregory E; McCullough, Brendan; Ramnanan, Christopher J

    2015-02-01

    The CanMEDS role of Scholar requires that medical trainees develop their skills as medical educators. The development of teaching skills in undergraduate medical students is therefore desirable, especially in view of the teaching obligations in residency programmes. The goal of this review was to identify the characteristics and outcomes of programmes designed to develop the teaching skills of undergraduate medical students. The authors searched medical literature databases using combinations of the search terms 'medical student', 'teacher', 'teaching skills', 'peer teaching', 'near-peer teaching' and 'student as teacher'. Twenty papers fit the predetermined search criteria, which included original characterisations of specific programmes involving undergraduate medical students. Three types of initiative were identified in the reviewed articles: peer teaching programmes; teaching workshops, and community outreach programmes. The majority of study participants were students in Years 3 and 4. Subjective self-evaluation by participants using Likert scale-based surveys was by far the most commonly used method of measuring project outcomes. Objective, quantitative teaching-related outcomes were rarely noted in the reports reviewed. Self-perceived improvements in teaching skills were noted by participants in most of the reports. Other perceived benefits included increases in organisational skills, knowledge and confidence in giving feedback. Although several types of programmes have been shown to subjectively improve the teaching skills of undergraduate medical students, characterisation of the objective outcomes of these initiatives is lacking and requires further study. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Adolescent Brain Development and Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Ken C.; Arria, Amelia

    2011-01-01

    Research now suggests that the human brain is still maturing during adolescence. The developing brain may help explain why adolescents sometimes make decisions that are risky and can lead to safety or health concerns, including unique vulnerabilities to drug abuse. This article explores how this new science may be put to use in our prevention and…

  1. The development of radwaste policy and the Nirex programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folger, M.

    1993-01-01

    Radwaste policy has had a chequered past in this country and although some of the blame has occasionally been laid at our door, three things sound be borne in mind, the context within which Nirex has worked and must continue to work, many of the ''myths'' about Nirex, and assurance that there is a well structured programme for stepwise investigation, and potential development, at Sellafield. Through that solution the waste producers will be paying real money to meet the requirement in the present generation. I aim to demonstrate that the United Kingdom (UK) programme for deep disposal is on track and compares well with the programmes which other nuclear nations have in place. Whatever the future investment decisions on nuclear power, government strategy does properly require safe disposal of the wastes we already have and the wastes which will come forward from the present nuclear programme. (Author)

  2. Integrating multiple programme and policy approaches to hepatitis C prevention and care for injection drug users: a comprehensive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkhead, Guthrie S; Klein, Susan J; Candelas, Alma R; O'Connell, Daniel A; Rothman, Jeffrey R; Feldman, Ira S; Tsui, Dennis S; Cotroneo, Richard A; Flanigan, Colleen A

    2007-10-01

    New York State is home to an estimated 230,000 individuals chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and roughly 171,500 active injection drug users (IDUs). HCV/HIV co-infection is common and models of service delivery that effectively meet IDUs' needs are required. A HCV strategic plan has stressed integration. HCV prevention and care are integrated within health and human service settings, including HIV/AIDS organisations and drug treatment programmes. Other measures that support comprehensive HCV services for IDUs include reimbursement, clinical guidelines, training and HCV prevention education. Community and provider collaborations inform programme and policy development. IDUs access 5 million syringes annually through harm reduction/syringe exchange programmes (SEPs) and a statewide syringe access programme. Declines in HCV prevalence amongst IDUs in New York City coincided with improved syringe availability. New models of care successfully link IDUs at SEPs and in drug treatment to health care. Over 7000 Medicaid recipients with HCV/HIV co-infection had health care encounters related to their HCV in a 12-month period and 10,547 claims for HCV-related medications were paid. The success rate of transitional case management referrals to drug treatment is over 90%. Training and clinical guidelines promote provider knowledge about HCV and contribute to quality HCV care for IDUs. Chart reviews of 2570 patients with HIV in 2004 documented HCV status 97.4% of the time, overall, in various settings. New HCV surveillance systems are operational. Despite this progress, significant challenges remain. A comprehensive, public health approach, using multiple strategies across systems and mobilizing multiple sectors, can enhance IDUs access to HCV prevention and care. A holisitic approach with integrated services, including for HCV-HIV co-infected IDUs is needed. Leadership, collaboration and resources are essential.

  3. General aspects of a manpower development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calori, F.; Goodman, E.I.

    1977-01-01

    A manpower development program as a long term program for developing countries, requirements based on objectives, organizations and roles, a utility program, the level of domestic involvement, the methodology of a manpower development program and the identification of requirements are treated. (HK) [de

  4. Promotion and financing of nuclear power programmes in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency established in February 1986 a Senior Expert Group (SEG) on Mechanisms to Assist Developing Countries in the Promotion and Financing of Nuclear Power Programmes, which was asked: (a) To identify and analyse the problems of and constraints on nuclear power introduction/expansion in developing countries, with particular attention being paid to the problems of financing nuclear power projects; (b) To study mechanisms for dealing with the identified problems and constraints in order to assist developing countries with the promotion and financing of their nuclear power programmes, and to determine the role of the IAEA in this context. This report summarizes the Senior Expert Group's study. It also presents a number of recommendations on mechanisms to assist developing countries in promoting and financing their nuclear power programmes. 1 fig., 3 tabs

  5. Developing compassion through a relationship centred appreciative leadership programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Belinda; Cook, Fiona

    2014-09-01

    Recent attention in health care focuses on how to develop effective leaders for the future. Effective leadership is embodied in relationships and should be developed in and with staff and patients. This paper describes development, implementation and evaluation of an appreciative and relationship centred leadership programme carried out with 86 nursing staff covering 24 in-patient areas within one acute NHS Board in Scotland. The aim of the programme was to support staff to work together to develop a culture of inquiry that would enhance delivery of compassionate care. The 12 month Leadership Programme used the principles of appreciative relationship centred leadership. Within this framework participants were supported to explore relationships with self, patients and families, and with teams and the wider organisation using caring conversations. Participants worked within communities of practice and action learning sets. They were supported to use a range of structured tools to learn about the experience of others and to identify caring practices that worked well and then explore ways in which these could happen more of the time. A range of methods were used to evaluate impact of the programme including a culture questionnaire and semi structured interviews. Immersion crystallisation technique and descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. Key themes included; enhanced self-awareness, better relationships, greater ability to reflect on practice, different conversations in the workplace that were more compassionate and respectful, and an ethos of continuing learning and improvement. The programme supported participants to think in different ways and to be reflective and engaged participants rather than passive actors in shaping the cultural climate in which compassionate relationship centred care can flourish. Multidisciplinary programmes where the process and outcomes are explicitly linked to organisational objectives need to be considered in future

  6. Surrogacy in antiviral drug development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaunak, Sunil; Davies, Donald S

    2002-01-01

    The coming of age of molecular biology has resulted in an explosion in our understanding of the pathogenesis of virus related diseases. New pathogens have been identified and characterized as being responsible for old diseases. Empirical clinical evaluation of morbidity and mortality as outcome measures after a therapeutic intervention have started to give way to the use of an increasing number of surrogate markers. Using a combination of these markers, it is now possible to measure and monitor the pathogen as well as the host's response. Nowhere is this better exemplified in virology than in the field of AIDS. We have utilized the advances in pathogenesis and new antiretroviral drug development to: develop a new class of drugs which block the entry of HIV-1 into cells.develop a new approach for effectively delivering these drugs to those tissues in which most viral replication takes place. Over the last 10 years, our work has progressed from concept to clinical trial. Our laboratory based evaluation of the new molecules developed as well as our clinical evaluation of their safety and efficacy have had to respond and adapt to the rapid changes taking place in AIDS research. This paper discusses the problems encountered and the lessons learnt. PMID:12100230

  7. On the programme of research development in the exclave region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilchak Vasily

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the development of research in the exclave region. The authors offer a programme of research development in the Kaliningrad region. The article describes the principal lines of implementation of priorities of modernization and technological upgrade of regional industries.

  8. Programme on Integrated Seed Sector Development in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walsh, Stephen; Thijssen, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    The programme on Integrated Seed Sector Development in Ethiopia aims to strengthen the development of a vibrant, market-oriented and pluralistic seed sector in the country, where quality seed of superior varieties is available and affordable for a larger number of farmers, thereby contributing to

  9. Leading an Effective Improvement and Development Programme for Children's Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Gill; Tyler, Mary

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the process and achievements of leadership of an improvement and development programme for children's centres in the context of public value and Ofsted inspection. It analyses how the capacity has been developed of children's centre managers to work more strategically and collectively. Distributed leadership theory is applied…

  10. Measuring the success of an academic development programme: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study uses statistical analysis to estimate the impact of first-year academic development courses in microeconomics, statistics, accountancy, and information systems, offered by the University of Cape Town's Commerce Academic Development Programme, on students' graduation performance relative to that achieved ...

  11. The Relevance Of Research And Development (R&D) Programmes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relevance of Research and Development (R&D) programmes of Nigerian universities in national development. Data was collected form 432 senior academic staff of five selected universities in Nigeria. Indicators of relevance such as quality, results, dissemination, utilization and ...

  12. Accelerator development in India for ADS programme

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India. *Physics ... At BARC, development of a Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator. (LEHIPA) ... incinerate the MA (minor actinides) and LLFP (long-lived fission products) ra- diotoxic .... figure 3 to satisfy the required boundary conditions.

  13. Materials for federal radiation diagnosis development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    .

    1995-01-01

    The program of radiation diagnosis development envisages solution of four fundamental tasks: creation of organizational structure for interaction of all diagnostic means; formation of rational diagnostic algorithms, based on application of optimal combination of radiation diagnostics methods; provision of radiation diagnostic institutions with complex of introscopy means; reform of post graduate education. 2 tabs

  14. Rationale for energy research and development programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-04-01

    This paper describes the rationale for the expenditure of government money on energy research and development. The Committee, organized in 1974, established the following order of project priorities: projects to determine current and future energy demand; projects concerned with the conservation and more efficient use of energy; projects concerned with the assessment of indigenous energy resources; projects concerned with the assessment of the human, financial, and organizational resources for energy production and use; and projects concerned with economic, technological, social, and environmental aspects of energy use and production over the next 15 years and beyond the next 15 years. Significant factors affecting the national energy economy, the strategy for energy research and development, and the results of committee activities are summarized. An energy scenario research is laid out. (MCW)

  15. Trust-development in Danish and Norwegian Integration Programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Larsen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the aim has been to challenge ‘integration’ as a concept and to explore integration practices in Denmark and Norway. The purpose is to analyse how trust can develop within integration practice. The article is based on a comparison between theories about inclusion/exclusion, assimilation, integration and trust/distrust, and between the Danish and Norwegian integration practices. These two countries provide an introduction programme, which has been developed as a means to integrate immigrants into the labour market and society. In accordance with these programmes language training, social studies and work practice are provided for mainly non-Western immigrants. However, the comparison between Denmark and Norway shows that the introduction programmes are both similar and different, and in this article the discussion focuses on how these two practices in many ways can be more than simply integrating.

  16. Human Resources Development for Jordan’s Nuclear Energy Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkawi, Salaheddin; Amawi, Dala’

    2014-01-01

    Jordan's HRD strategy: • Utilize Jordan’s academic infrastructure: – 25 Universities (10 public & 15 private); – 35 Community Colleges (15 public & 20 private). • Build on existing programmes and establish new ones to support Nuclear Energy Programme. • Nuclear Education in Jordan: – B. Sc. Nuclear Engineering at Jordan University of Science & Technology (JUST); – M. Sc. Nuclear Physics at University of Jordan, Yarmouk University and Al-Balqa Applied University. • Scholarships for M. Sc. and Ph. D in Nuclear Engineering and Nuclear Science from Universities outside Jordan: – United States, Russia, France, Japan, China, Korea. Utilization of JSA and JRTR; • Vendor supplied training; • Support through Nuclear Cooperation Agreements; • IAEA Technical Cooperation; • Development of a Jordan-Specific Qualification and Certification Programmes; • Specialized Training in International Codes & Standards: – Transition to JNRC Developed/Adopted Standards, Codes, Regulations

  17. Cost effectiveness of rural development programme instruments in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J Dejgaard; Jakobsen, L; Madsen, B

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the cost-effectiveness of selected instruments of the Danish Rural Development Programme 2007-2013, which constitutes the Danish implementation of the EU Rural Development Programme under Pillar Two of the Common Agricultural Policy. The Programme aims...... to support sustainable economic growth and income diversification in rural areas (and in particular in economically vulnerable areas). The study combines different datasets and simulation models at farm level (register data, Farm Accountancy Data, farm sector model, run-off models, etc.), municipality level...... (micro-based “National Accounts” for municipalities, municipality economic model) and national level (national economic model), which enables analysis at a fairly detailed geographical level and hence to evaluate the spatially distributed effects of the considered policy instruments, while at the same...

  18. Financing nuclear programmes in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, N.C.

    1977-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: the implications for a developing nation's economy of acquiring nuclear plants with the attendant high capital cost but low operating cost; political factors and safeguards provisions; turnkey versus non-turnkey contracts; spreading exchange and other risks through multi-national consortia; maximising local content; cash flow considerations; availability of aid or other direct government to government loans; packaging of export finance from different countries; downpayments and local costs; eurodollar markets, bank syndications and bond issues, and domestic markets; available security, central bank or government guarantees; special considerations, barter deals, leasing, and finance for the fuel cycle

  19. Financing nuclear programmes in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, N.C.

    1977-01-01

    The paper discusses the following topics: The implications for a developing nation's economy of acquiring nuclear plants with the attendant high capital cost but low operating cost; political factors and safeguards provisions; turnkey versus non-turnkey contracts; spreading exchange and other risks through multi-national consortia; maximizing local content; cash flow considerations; availability of aid or other direct government to government loans; packaging of export finance from different countries; downpayments and local costs; Eurodollar markets, bank syndications and bond issues, domestic markets; available security, central bank or government guarantees; special considerations, barter deals, leasing; and finance for the fuel cycle. (author)

  20. Drug Development for Metastasis Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontebasso, Yari; Dubinett, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic disease is responsible for 90% of death from solid tumors. However, only a minority of metastasis-specific targets has been exploited therapeutically, and effective prevention and suppression of metastatic disease is still an elusive goal. In this review, we will first summarize the current state of knowledge about the molecular features of the disease, with particular focus on steps and targets potentially amenable to therapeutic intervention. We will then discuss the reasons underlying the paucity of metastatic drugs in the current oncological arsenal and potential ways to overcome this therapeutic gap. We reason that the discovery of novel promising targets, an increased understanding of the molecular features of the disease, the effect of disruptive technologies, and a shift in the current preclinical and clinical settings have the potential to create more successful drug development endeavors.

  1. Annual report 1974. Sodium technology development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The sodium technology development program comprises a number of separate research programs in the field of designing and testing parts and components for the SNR-300 reactor. Design studies and theoretical studies on cold trapping and the behavior of hydrogen in sodium circuits are reported. A preliminary test program for fighting sodium fires is completed. Results of research done on vibration measurements and counter-current mixing in a dummy tube bundle of a S.N.R. spiralized steam generator with counter-current flow are reported briefly. Research done in the field of heat transfer, pressure drop and bubble dynamics of a straight pipe steam generator are also briefly reported. To determine the influence of spiral diameter of the spiralized pipe on heat transfer in a spiralized pipe heat exchanger, a second testsection will be built in 1975. Research was reported on pump viscoseals, bearing stability, rotordynamics and bearing materials for sodium pumps. Research done on the properties of SNR-construction materials at high temperature and long time exposure and corrosion in sodium are reported. Fundamental research on corrosion accompanied this research. The report closes with results of weldability, mechanized-welding and remote welding of sodium-wetted surfaces

  2. Developing IEC strategies for population programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S I

    1993-01-01

    psychological factors, such as self-efficacy, intentionally, and peer or family influences. The development of an operations plan, as well, requires a detailed institutional and situational analysis.

  3. Decommissioning Challenges, strategy and programme development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potier, J.M.; Laraie, M.; Dinner, P. [Waste Technology Section, Dept. of Nuclear Energy, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Pescatore, C.; O' Sullivan [Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, Nuclear Energy Agency, 75 - Paris (France); Dupuis, M.C. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA), 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France); Szilagyi, A.; Collazo, Y.; Negin, Ch. [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2008-11-15

    This document gathers 4 short articles. The first one presents the IAEA decommissioning activities. These activities include: -) the development and implementation of the international action on decommissioning, -) the provision of experts and equipment to assist member states, -) networking activities such as training or exchange of knowledge and experience. The second article presents the work program of the Nea (nuclear energy agency) in the field of decommissioning and reports on the lessons that have been learnt. Among these lessons we can quote: -) selecting a strategy for decommissioning and funding it adequately, -) regulating the decommissioning of nuclear activities, -) thinking of the future in terms of reusing materials, buildings and sites, -) involving local and regional actors in the decommissioning process from decision-making to dismantling work itself, and -) increasing transparency in decision-making in order to build trust. The third article presents the management of radioactive wastes in France. This management is based on the categorization of wastes in 6 categories according to both the activity level and the radioactive half-life T: 1) very low activity, 2) low activity and T < 31 years, 3) low activity and T > 31 years, 4) intermediate activity and T < 31 years, 5) intermediate activity and T > 31 years, and 6) high activity. For categories 1, 2, 3 and 5, the waste treatment process and the disposal places have been operating for a long time while for categories 4 and 6, the disposal places are still being studied: low-depth repository and deep geological repository respectively. The last article presents the action of the US Department of energy in decommissioning activities and environmental remediation, the example of the work done at the ancient nuclear site of Rocky Flats gives an idea of the magnitude and complexity of the operations made. (A.C.)

  4. Wellness programme and health policy development at a large faith ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study's primary recommendations include: taking its employees' cultural and social norms into consideration; addressing issues related to capacity and ... list of recommendations for other resource-constrained NGOs that also wish to develop and implement wellness programmes and health policies in their workplace.

  5. Competence Based Educational Metadata for Supporting Lifelong Competence Development Programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampson, Demetrios; Fytros, Demetrios

    2008-01-01

    Sampson, D., & Fytros, D. (2008). Competence Based Educational Metadata for Supporting Lifelong Competence Development Programmes. In P. Diaz, Kinshuk, I. Aedo & E. Mora (Eds.), Proceedings of the 8th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT 2008), pp. 288-292. July,

  6. Great Expectations: Teacher Learning in a National Professional Development Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Kathleen M.; Makopoulou, Kyriaki

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports findings from an evaluation of a national continuing professional development (CPD) programme for teachers in England. Data showed that the localised implementation, opportunities for interactive learning, and "collective participation" were positive factors. Research participants reported difficulties, however, in…

  7. Towards a sustainable system of drug development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moors, Ellen H.M.; Cohen, Adam F.; Schellekens, Huub

    2014-01-01

    Drug development has become the exclusive activity of large pharmaceutical companies. However, the output of new drugs has been decreasing for the past decade and the prices of new drugs have risen steadily, leading to access problems for many patients. By analyzing the history of drug development

  8. Prodrug Strategy in Drug Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajnal Kelemen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Prodrugs are chemically modified derivatives introduced in therapy due to their advantageous physico-chemical properties (greater stability, improved solubility, increased permeability, used in inactive form. Biological effect is exerted by the active derivatives formed in organism through chemical transformation (biotransformation. Currently, 10% of pharmaceutical products are used as prodrugs, nearly half of them being converted to active form by hydrolysis, mainly by ester hydrolysis. The use of prodrugs aims to improve the bioavailability of compounds in order to resolve some unfavorable characteristics and to reduce first-pass metabolism. Other objectives are to increase drug absorption, to extend duration of action or to achieve a better tissue/organ selective transport in case of non-oral drug delivery forms. Prodrugs can be characterized by chemical structure, activation mechanism or through the presence of certain functional groups suitable for their preparation. Currently we distinguish in therapy traditional prodrugs prepared by chemical derivatisation, bioprecursors and targeted delivery systems. The present article is a review regarding the introduction and applications of prodrug design in various areas of drug development.

  9. Developing a national programme of flood risk management measures: Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramsbottom David

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A Technical Assistance project funded by the European Investment Bank has been undertaken to develop a programme of flood risk management measures for Moldova that will address the main shortcomings in the present flood management system, and provide the basis for long-term improvement. Areas of significant flood risk were identified using national hydraulic and flood risk modelling, and flood hazard and flood risk maps were then prepared for these high risk areas. The flood risk was calculated using 12 indicators representing social, economic and environmental impacts of flooding. Indicator values were combined to provide overall estimates of flood risk. Strategic approaches to flood risk management were identified for each river basin using a multi-criteria analysis. Measures were then identified to achieve the strategic approaches. A programme of measures covering a 20-year period was developed together with a more detailed Short-Term Investment Plan covering the first seven years of the programme. Arrangements are now being made to implement the programme. The technical achievements of the project included national hydrological and hydraulic modelling covering 12,000 km of river, the development of 2-dimensional channel and floodplain hydraulic models from a range of topographic and bathymetric data, and an integrated flood risk assessment that takes account of both economic and non-monetary impacts.

  10. Corporate traveler centered development of a loyalty programme

    OpenAIRE

    Keskiväli, Mika

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is a qualitative case study that examined how the airline corporate sales client company employee (known as business traveler) engagement could be developed by the customer co-creation methods in the loyalty programme perspective. The thesis is using the service marketing theory and the service- and customer-dominant logics as the base in understanding the service development and the customer-centric approach. The business-to-business and the relationship marketing theories are in...

  11. Developments in platinum anticancer drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylkowski, Bartosz; Jastrząb, Renata; Odani, Akira

    2018-01-01

    Platinum compounds represent one of the great success stories of metals in medicine. Following the unexpected discovery of the anticancer activity of cisplatin (Fig. 1) in 1965 by Prof. Rosenberg [1], a large number of its variants have been prepared and tested for their ability to kill cancer cells and inhibit tumor growth. Although cisplatin has been in use for over four decades, new and more effective platinum-based therapeutics are finally on the horizon. A wide introduction to anticancer studies is given by the authors of the previous chapter. This chapter aims at providing the readers with a comprehensive and in-depth understanding of recent developments of platinum anticancer drugs and to review the state of the art. The chapter is divided into two parts. In the first part we present a historical aspect of platinum and its complexes, while in the second part we give an overview of developments in the field of platinum anticancer agents.

  12. Development and Optimization of controlled drug release ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to develop and optimize an osmotically controlled drug delivery system of diclofenac sodium. Osmotically controlled oral drug delivery systems utilize osmotic pressure for controlled delivery of active drugs. Drug delivery from these systems, to a large extent, is independent of the physiological factors ...

  13. Nuclear power programmes in developing countries: Promotion and financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    In 1986 the Agency's Director General established a Senior Expert Group on Mechanisms to Assist Developing Countries in the Promotion and Planning of Nuclear Power Programmes. This group, which was comprised of 20 experts with extensive experience in the topics to be studied, coming from 15 Member States plus the World Bank, was asked to: identify and analyse the problems of and constraints on nuclear power introduction/expansion in developing countries, with particular attention being paid to the problems of financing nuclear power projects; study mechanisms for dealing with the identified problems and constraints in order to assist developing countries with the promotion and financing of their nuclear power programmes and to determine the role of the IAEA in this context. This paper summarizes the Senior Expert Group's study

  14. Orphan drugs: trends and issues in drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Proteesh; Chawla, Shalini

    2018-04-12

    Research in rare diseases has contributed substantially toward the current understanding in the pathophysiology of the common diseases. However, medical needs of patients with rare diseases have always been neglected by the society and pharmaceutical industries based on their small numbers and unprofitability. The Orphan Drug Act (1983) was the first serious attempt to address the unmet medical needs for patients with rare diseases and to provide impetus for the pharmaceutical industry to promote orphan drug development. The process of drug development for rare diseases is no different from common diseases but involves significant cost and infrastructure. Further, certain aspect of drug research may not be feasible for the rare diseases. The drug-approving authority must exercise their scientific judgment and ensure due flexibility while evaluating data at various stages of orphan drug development. The emergence of patent cliff combined with the government incentives led the pharmaceutical industry to realize the good commercial prospects in developing an orphan drug despite the small market size. Indeed, many drugs that were given orphan designation ended up being blockbusters. The orphan drug market is projected to reach $178 billion by 2020, and the prospects of research and development in rare diseases appears to be quite promising and rewarding.

  15. Early Childhood Development and E-Learning in Africa: The Early Childhood Development Virtual University Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Alan

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the development and evaluation of the graduate-level Early Childhood Development Virtual University (ECDVU) programme in Sub-Saharan Africa from 2001 through to 2004. It outlines the history of the ECDVU and the establishing of a Sub-Saharan programme for future leaders in the early childhood field guided by the key principle…

  16. The European Nb3Sn advanced strand development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vostner, A.; Salpietro, E.

    2005-01-01

    Strands relevant for fusion with high critical current densities and moderate hysteresis losses were developed and already produced on industrial scale. Based on these achievements EFDA-CSU Garching has launched a Nb 3 Sn strand development and procurement action inside Europe in order to assess the current status of the Nb 3 Sn strand production capability. All six addressed companies have replied positively to the strand R and D programme which includes the three major Nb 3 Sn production techniques namely the bronze, internal-tin and powder-in-tube (PIT) route. According to the strand requirements for the ITER TF conductor a critical current density of 800 A/mm 2 (at 12 T, 4.2 K and 10 μV/m) and overall strand hysteresis losses below 500 kJ/m 3 have been specified as the minimum guaranteed strand performance. The second major objective of this programme is to motivate the strand manufacturers to develop and design high performance Nb 3 Sn strands optimised for the ITER conductor. For this purpose, a target critical current density of 1100 A/mm 2 has been added to the specification. This paper describes the strategy behind the strand development programme, the actual status of the strand production as well as first preliminary results obtained from the strand suppliers

  17. The effect of an emotional intelligence development programme on accountants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara S. Jonker

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The  objective  of  this  research was to compile and  evaluate  a development programme  aimed at emotional  intelligence (EI  in the accounting profession. A two-group design (pre- and post-test was used. An accidental  sample  (experimental and control group was taken from future employees within a financial management environment. The  BarOn-EQ-i was administered and further data were gathered qualitatively by means of diary entries. The results showed an improvement in total EI level. The specific areas of EI that were developed due to the programme included the following subscales: interpersonal, adaptability and general mood. The specific EI factors that showed improvement included self-regard, self-actualisation, interpersonal relations, reality testing, problem solving, flexibility, stress tolerance and optimism.

  18. Joint BNFL/DoE ILW development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, R.J.; James, R.A.; Higson, S.G.

    1985-01-01

    It is proposed by BNFL that ILWs resulting from reprocessing operations at Sellafield will be incorporated in a matrix which will produce a waste product suitable for transport, storage and disposal. The broad objective of the programme is therefore to evaluate potential waste products arising from treatment of ILWs and to develop appropriate techniques which could be used to check the quality of the finished waste product. (author)

  19. Programme d'immersion du Sustainable Development Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Grâce à cette subvention, le Sustainable Development Policy Institute (SPDI) sera en mesure de former un groupe de diplômés et de jeunes professionnels afin qu'ils puissent réaliser des recherches en sciences sociales au Pakistan et en Asie du Sud. Le programme comportera un volet théorique et des travaux pratiques ...

  20. Programme d'immersion du Sustainable Development Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Programme d'immersion du Sustainable Development Policy Institute sur les questions de paix, de violence et de développement. Alors que la paix, la violence et le développement représentent des défis de taille au Pakistan, ils constituent rarement le point de mire pour l'élaboration de politiques. De surcroît, les étudiants ...

  1. Professional Development Programmes for Teachers in the Northern Territory of Australia: Enablers and Inhibiters for Success in Two Aspirant Leadership Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speering, Glen

    2016-01-01

    Professional development programmes for teachers have become an increasing focus in the quest to improve teacher quality. In regional and remote areas of Australia the delivery of professional development programmes can become problematic. This study compares and contrasts the two separate professional development programmes evaluated (Programme A…

  2. The 1964 programme of help in atomic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    A wide variety of projects for the provision of experts and equipment to 32 countries has been approved by the IAEA Board of Governors for 1964. Further work is being financed under the United Nations Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance; altogether, the services of about 100 experts in the field are called for, in addition to those who are still at work on earlier assignments. The estimated cost of the Agency's 1964 programme is $804 600, of which $459 200 is for the services of experts, and $345 400 for the provision of equipment and supplies. In addition, $513 500 is being allocated for EPTA programmes. It is becoming increasingly difficult, however, for the Agency to meet the growing number of requests and lack of finance may prevent its programme from being carried out in full. Many of these requests come from newly independent countries which have become Member States, and which seek assistance in developing national atomic energy programmes. In addition, numerous research reactors and radioisotope laboratories are being built or have recently been completed under bilateral arrangements which are normally limited to the period of construction. Most of these new centres then require some form of assistance in their programmes of research and training. Such a group could help the new centres with the technical aspects of the programme, and could also be helpful in furthering regional collaboration. There is evidently no lack of local talent and initiative in the regions where these meetings have been held. Given the lead, they should be able to organize a more fruitful utilization of research facilities, with the Agency supplementing local effort by acting as a clearing-house for information and assistance, on the lines indicated in its long-range plan. The study group meetings are also helping to create greater awareness in the advanced countries about the work and needs of the developing centres. As a result, it may be hoped that the advanced centres

  3. The 1964 programme of help in atomic development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1964-04-15

    A wide variety of projects for the provision of experts and equipment to 32 countries has been approved by the IAEA Board of Governors for 1964. Further work is being financed under the United Nations Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance; altogether, the services of about 100 experts in the field are called for, in addition to those who are still at work on earlier assignments. The estimated cost of the Agency's 1964 programme is $804 600, of which $459 200 is for the services of experts, and $345 400 for the provision of equipment and supplies. In addition, $513 500 is being allocated for EPTA programmes. It is becoming increasingly difficult, however, for the Agency to meet the growing number of requests and lack of finance may prevent its programme from being carried out in full. Many of these requests come from newly independent countries which have become Member States, and which seek assistance in developing national atomic energy programmes. In addition, numerous research reactors and radioisotope laboratories are being built or have recently been completed under bilateral arrangements which are normally limited to the period of construction. Most of these new centres then require some form of assistance in their programmes of research and training. Such a group could help the new centres with the technical aspects of the programme, and could also be helpful in furthering regional collaboration. There is evidently no lack of local talent and initiative in the regions where these meetings have been held. Given the lead, they should be able to organize a more fruitful utilization of research facilities, with the Agency supplementing local effort by acting as a clearing-house for information and assistance, on the lines indicated in its long-range plan. The study group meetings are also helping to create greater awareness in the advanced countries about the work and needs of the developing centres. As a result, it may be hoped that the advanced centres

  4. Development of nuclear emergency exercise programme (NEEP) in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, H. K.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, M. K.; Kim, S. H.

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear emergency exercise programme (NEEP) is a PC-based application intended for design and planning emergency preparedness and response (EP and R) exercises for a potential nuclear emergency in Korea. The application programme allows EP and R staff to create and edit exercise scenarios based on information customised for a specific nuclear power plant's emergency plans. NEEP includes the following features: (1) step-by-step guide to developing new exercise scenario according to emergency alarm level and potential accident type, (2) database of specific plant's field exercise scenarios that can be easily modified by users, (3) generating master scenario events list and messages of exercise participants and (4) allowing the quantitative evaluation of exercise participants from the view of exercise objectives and evaluator guides. NEEP also features tools for queries, reports and visualisation that can be used to create documentation during the scenario planning and exercise evaluation processes. (authors)

  5. Orphan drug: Development trends and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of pharma industries has slowed in recent years because of various reasons such as patent expiries, generic competition, drying pipelines, and increasingly stringent regulatory guidelines. Many blockbuster drugs will loose their exclusivity in next 5 years. Therefore, the current economic situation plus the huge generic competition shifted the focus of pharmaceutical companies from the essential medicines to the new business model - niche busters, also called orphan drugs. Orphan drugs may help pharma companies to reduce the impact of revenue loss caused by patent expiries of blockbuster drugs. The new business model of orphan drugs could offer an integrated healthcare solution that enables pharma companies to develop newer areas of therapeutics, diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, and patient support. Incentives for drug development provided by governments, as well as support from the FDA and EU Commission in special protocols, are a further boost for the companies developing orphan drugs. Although there may still be challenges ahead for the pharmaceutical industry, orphan drugs seem to offer the key to recovery and stability within the market. In our study, we have compared the policies and orphan drug incentives worldwide alongwith the challenges faced by the pharmaceutical companies. Recent developments are seen in orphan drug approval, the various drugs in orphan drug pipeline, and the future prospectives for orphan drugs and diseases.

  6. NMR spectroscopy and drug development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craik, D.; Munro, S.

    1990-01-01

    The use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for structural and conformational studies on drug molecules, the three-dimensional investigation of proteins structure and their interactions with ligands are discussed. In-vivo NMR studies of the effects of drugs on metabolism in perfused organs and whole animals are also briefly presented. 5 refs., ills

  7. Parenting Programmes for Preventing Tobacco, Alcohol or Drugs Misuse in Children Less than 18: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Jane; Bunn, Frances; Byrne, Geraldine

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of controlled studies of parenting programmes to prevent tobacco, alcohol or drug abuse in children less than 18. We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, specialized Register of Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group, Pub Med, psych INFO, CINALH and SIGLE. Two reviewers independently screened studies,…

  8. Programmable SAW development :Sandia/NASA project final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2004-10-01

    This report describes a project to develop both fixed and programmable surface acoustic wave (SAW) correlators for use in a low power space communication network. This work was funded by NASA at Sandia National Laboratories for fiscal years 2004, 2003, and the final part of 2002. The role of Sandia was to develop the SAW correlator component, although additional work pertaining to use of the component in a system and system optimization was also done at Sandia. The potential of SAW correlator-based communication systems, the design and fabrication of SAW correlators, and general system utilization of those correlators are discussed here.

  9. Detailed programme for research and development 1999-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This report is a background to RD and D-Programme 98. The report gives an account of most of the research and development being conducted by SKB. The current state of knowledge is described, along with the goals and programmes that govern the continued work. The period of immediate concern comprises the next three years, 1999-2001. Chapters 2 and 3 give an account of the development of the safety assessment, and the methods and models used to assess long-term safety. Then follow a number of chapters that give an account of the R and D with primary purpose to support the safety assessment. There is also a description of some technical development of the deep repository and its components, as well as review of alternative methods such as partitioning and transmutation. Methods for investigation and evaluation of sites for the deep repository are also being further examined and developed, with sights set on the commencement of a site investigation by no earlier than 2001. A large part of SKBs research, development and demonstration is conducted in the form of projects. The majority of the projects have international participation. The Aespoe HRL (Hard Rock Laboratory) is an excellent example of this. A considerable portion of SKBs project-oriented R and D is concentrated to the Aespoe HRL. An important task for the Aespoe HRL is to test and demonstrate parts of the disposal system on a full scale. Finally, there is a chapter on scientific information. We want to communicate our scientific findings to the public and to local politicians and community leaders to obtain acceptance for a deep repository. It is the purpose of the safety assessment to develop and administer the methods and models for calculations employed by the safety assessment (Chapters 2 and 3). The topic-specific programmes serve to develop a better understanding of the processes dealt with in the safety assessment, to develop and review alternative models and to compile background data for the safety

  10. Detailed programme for research and development 1999-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    This report is a background to RD and D-Programme 98. The report gives an account of most of the research and development being conducted by SKB. The current state of knowledge is described, along with the goals and programmes that govern the continued work. The period of immediate concern comprises the next three years, 1999-2001. Chapters 2 and 3 give an account of the development of the safety assessment, and the methods and models used to assess long-term safety. Then follow a number of chapters that give an account of the R and D with primary purpose to support the safety assessment. There is also a description of some technical development of the deep repository and its components, as well as review of alternative methods such as partitioning and transmutation. Methods for investigation and evaluation of sites for the deep repository are also being further examined and developed, with sights set on the commencement of a site investigation by no earlier than 2001. A large part of SKBs research, development and demonstration is conducted in the form of projects. The majority of the projects have international participation. The Aespoe HRL (Hard Rock Laboratory) is an excellent example of this. A considerable portion of SKBs project-oriented R and D is concentrated to the Aespoe HRL. An important task for the Aespoe HRL is to test and demonstrate parts of the disposal system on a full scale. Finally, there is a chapter on scientific information. We want to communicate our scientific findings to the public and to local politicians and community leaders to obtain acceptance for a deep repository. It is the purpose of the safety assessment to develop and administer the methods and models for calculations employed by the safety assessment (Chapters 2 and 3). The topic-specific programmes serve to develop a better understanding of the processes dealt with in the safety assessment, to develop and review alternative models and to compile background data for the safety

  11. Pediatric Melanoma and Drug Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Rose

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Importance—Pediatric melanoma occurs, albeit rarely. Should patients be treated by today’s medical standards, or be subjected to medically unnecessary clinical studies? Observations—We identified international, industry-sponsored pediatric melanoma studies triggered by regulatory demands in www.clinicaltrials.gov and further pediatric melanoma studies demanded by European Union pediatric investigation plans. We retrieved related regulatory documents from the internet. We analyzed these studies for rationale and medical beneficence on the basis of physiology, pediatric clinical pharmacology and rationale. Regulatory authorities define children by chronological age, not physiologically. Newborns’ organs are immature but they develop and mature rapidly. Separate proof of efficacy in underage patients is justified formally/regulatorily but lacks medical sense. Children—especially post-puberty—and adults vis-a-vis medications are physiologically very similar. Two adolescent melanoma studies were terminated in 2016 because of waning recruitment, while five studies in pediatric melanoma and other solid tumors, triggered by European Union pediatric investigation plans, continue recruiting worldwide. Conclusions and Relevance—Regulatory-demanded pediatric melanoma studies are medically superfluous. Melanoma patients of all ages should be treated with effective combination treatment. Babies need special attention. Children need dose-finding and pharmacokinetic studies but adolescents metabolize and respond to drugs similarly to adults. Institutional Review Boards/ethics committees should suspend ongoing questionable pediatric melanoma studies and reject newly submitted questionable studies.

  12. Organization and development of the Brazilian nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, C.S.M.; Souza, J.A.M. de; Grinberg, M.; Alves, R.N.; Costa, H.M. da; Grimberg, M.

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Programme, its development, the organizations and the distribution of responsibilities involved in its execution at the present time. The nuclear power policy is established at the Presidency of the Republic and is planned, executed and controlled through the Ministry of Mines and Energy. Directly subject to the Ministry is the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), which has regulatory, standardization, licensing, planning and surveillance functions. The nuclear fundamental research and manpower formation are also under CNEN responsibility. Also subject to the Ministry are two companies responsible for the execution of the Programme: the Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras S.A. - Eletrobras, which advises on the granting of permits for the construction and operation of nuclear power plants, and the Empresas Nucleares Brasileiras S.A. - Nuclebras, which holds the monopoly of the nuclear fuel cycle in the country, designs and builds nuclear power plants and provides assistance to the electric utilities and promotes the participation of Brazilian industry. Besides describing the new distribution of regulatory functions given by law to CNEN, the paper gives special emphasis to the large industrial complex in the process of being established through the setting-up of the many Nuclebras subsidiaries in joint venture with German firms under the Industrial Co-operation Agreement Between Brazil and the Federal Republic of Germany in the Field of the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. The programmes for these subsidiaries are presented and their participation in the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Programme is discussed. The technology transfer aspects of the industrial activities are also discussed. (author)

  13. Earth Sciences' Capacity Building In Developing Countries through International Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, W.

    2007-12-01

    Within the framework of "traditional" programmes, like the joint UNESCO-IUGS "International Geoscience Programme" (IGCP), the "International Continental Scientific Drilling Program" (ICDP), the "Integrated Ocean Drilling Program" (IODP) or the "International Lithosphere Programme" (ILP) numerous opportunities are provided to strengthen postgraduate geo-scientific education of representatives from developing countries. Recently established new initiatives, such as the "International Year of Planet Earth" (IYPE) or UNESCO's Global Network of Geoparks complement these in addition as important components to UNESCO's 'Education for All' programme, notably the youth, as well as to the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005 - 2014). The "International Year of Planet Earth" is a joint initiative of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) and UNESCO. The central aims and ambitions of the Year, proclaimed for 2008 by the UN General Assembly, are to demonstrate the great potential of the Earth sciences in building a safer, healthier and wealthier society, and to encourage more widespread and effective application of this potential by targeting politicians and other decision-makers, educational systems, and the general public. Promotion of international collaboration, as well as capacity building and training of students of developing countries in all fields of Earth Sciences seem to be the most appropriate way to meet also the challenges of the IYPE. Another opportunity to improve the international recognition of Earth Scinces, also in developing countries, is the use of Geoparks as a promotional tool for education and popularization of Earth Sciences. Geoparks, notably those included in the European and/or Global Geoparks Networks, provide an international platform of cooperation and exchange between experts and practitioners in geological heritage matters, and are as such excellent instruments in highlighting Earth sciences. The

  14. Use of SPring-8 in drug development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishijima, Kazumi

    2006-01-01

    Protein structure analysis consortium was established by 21 drug companies and has analyzed protein structures using the beam line BL32B2 of SPring-8 since September in 2002. Outline of the protein structure analysis consortium, contribution of SPring-8 to drug development, and the present status and future of use of SPring-8 are stated. For examples of structure analysis, the human nuclear enzyme (PARP-1) fragment complex crystal structure, human ISG20, human dipeptidine peptidase IV, human cMDH, chromatin binding human nuclear enzyme complex, change of structure of each step of tyrosine activation of bacteria tyrosine tRNA synthetase are described. Contribution of analysis of protein structure and functions to drug development, development process of new drug, drug screening using compounds database on the basis of the three dimensional structure of receptor active site, genome drug development, and the effects of a target drug on the market are explained. (S.Y.)

  15. Pharmacometrics in early clinical drug development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacometrics, the science of quantitative clinical pharmacology, has been recognized as one of the main research fields able to improve efficiency in drug development, and to reduce attrition rates on the route from drug discovery to approval. This field of drug research, which builds heavily on

  16. Antimalarial Drug: From its Development to Deface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Tapan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Wiping out malaria is now the global concern as about three billion people are at risk of malaria infection globally. Despite of extensive research in the field of vaccine development for malaria, till now, no effective vaccine is available for use and hence only antimalarial drugs remain our best hope for both treatment and prevention of malaria. However, emergence and spread of drug resistance has been a major obstacle for the success of malaria elimination globally. This review will summarize the information related to antimalarial drugs, drug development strategies, drug delivery through nanoparticles, few current issues like adverse side effects of most antimalarial drugs, non availability of drugs in the market and use of fake/poor quality drugs that are hurdles to malaria control. As we don't have any other option in the present scenario, we have to take care of the existing tools and make them available to almost all malaria affected area.

  17. Positron emission tomography in drug development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, R. H.; Fischman, A. J.

    1997-01-01

    There are four kinds of measurements that can be carried out with positron emission tomography (PET) that can contribute significantly to the process of drug development: pharmacodynamic measurement of tissue metabolism influenced by a given drug; precise measurements of tissue blood flow; tissue pharmacokinetics of a given drug following administration of a particular dose; and the temporal course of ligand-receptor interaction. One or more of these measurements can greatly improve the decision making involved in determining the appropriate dose of a drug, the clinical situations in which a drug might be useful, and the linkage of pharmacokinetics with pharmacodynamics, which is at the heart of effective drug development. The greater the potential of a particular compound as a therapeutic agent, the greater the potential for PET to contribute to the drug development process

  18. Time-programmable drug dosing allows the manipulation, suppression and reversal of antibiotic drug resistance in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Mari; Galiñanes Reyes, Sabrina Galiñanes; Tsuda, Soichiro; Horinouchi, Takaaki; Furusawa, Chikara; Cronin, Leroy

    2017-01-01

    Multi-drug strategies have been attempted to prolong the efficacy of existing antibiotics, but with limited success. Here we show that the evolution of multi-drug-resistant Escherichia coli can be manipulated in vitro by administering pairs of antibiotics and switching between them in ON/OFF manner. Using a multiplexed cell culture system, we find that switching between certain combinations of antibiotics completely suppresses the development of resistance to one of the antibiotics. Using thi...

  19. Nuclear power programmes in developing countries: Costs and financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpentier, J.P.; Bennett, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    This article refers to a seminar (organized by the IAEA) on Costs and Financing of Nuclear Power Programmes in Developing Countries held in Vienna from 9-12 September 1985. Its main objective was to promote a dialogue among the various parties involved in the domain of nuclear power financing, i.e. buyers, suppliers and financing organizations. At the meeting the Agency presented information showing that nuclear power plants are an economic means of generating electricity. In relation hereto the article deals with such topics as performance records, economic records, projected nuclear plant additions, financing constraints, current debt problems and new working relationships

  20. Manpower development for the nuclear power programme in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, A.; Rahman, M.A.; Quaiyum, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    Surveys undertaken in the early sixties established that nuclear power had a great potential for meeting energy demands in Bangladesh. Therefore, since then the development of the requisite manpower for producing nuclear power in the country has been supported by the authorities. Through the co-operation of the IAEA and national and international agencies, Bangladesh has been able to create a corps of scientists and engineers trained at M.Sc. and Ph.D. levels in various nuclear science and technology disciplines. Some are professional nuclear engineers who have participated in the planning, safety evaluation, construction, commissioning and the subsequent operation of nuclear power plants. This paper reviews the present activities and the future plans for developing qualified manpower for Bangladesh's nuclear power programme. The difficulties in developing skilled manpower are also discussed. Overall manpower requirements have been evaluated. It has been found that in certain areas, such as quality control and quality assurance, BAEC has no trained personnel, and existing trained manpower falls short in requirements. Hence, recruitment is being done and training in selected areas is being arranged under different IAEA and bilateral assistance programmes, and a national nuclear training institution with adequate facilities is being established. (author)

  1. Programmes and projects for high-temperature reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogusch, Edgar; Hittner, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    An increasing attention has to be recognised worldwide on the development of High-Temperature Reactors (HTR) which has started in Germany and other countries in the 1970ies. While pebble bed reactors with spherical fuel elements have been developed and constructed in Germany, countries such as France, the US and Russia investigated HTR concepts with prismatic block-type fuel elements. The concept of a modular HTR formerly developed by Areva NP was an essential basis for the HTR-10 in China. A pebble bed HTR for electricity production is developed in South Africa. The construction is planned after the completion of the licensing procedure. Also the US is planning an HTR under the NGNP (Next Generation Nuclear Plant) Project. Due to the high temperature level of the helium coolant, the HTR can be used not only for electricity production but also for supply of process heat. Including its inherent safety features the HTR is an attractive candidate for heat supply to various types of plants e.g. for hydrogen production or coal liquefactions. The conceptual design of an HTR with prismatic fuel elements for the cogeneration of electricity and process heat has been developed by Areva NP. On the European scale the HTR development is promoted by the RAPHAEL (ReActor for Process heat, Hydrogen And ELectricity generation) project. RAPHAEL is an Integrated Project of the Euratom 6th Framework Programme for the development of technologies towards a Very High-Temperature Reactor (VHTR) for the production of electricity and heat. It is financed jointly by the European Commission and the partners of the HTR Technology Network (HTR-TN) and coordinated by Areva NP. The RAPHAEL project not only promotes HTR development but also the cooperation with other European projects such as the material programme EXTREMAT. Furthermore HTR technology is investigated in the frame of Generation IV International Forum (GIF). The development of a VHTR with helium temperatures above 900 C for the

  2. Development of domestic capabilities for the Indian nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakodkar, A.; Sinha, R.K.; Chetal, S.C.; Bhoje, S.B.

    2000-01-01

    India, has an extensive programme for nuclear power that is self reliant to achieve long term energy security. This paper describes the Indian experience in structuring and implementing the national nuclear programme turned to its natural resources. (author)

  3. The long-term effectiveness of the International Child Development Programme (ICDP) implemented as a community-wide parenting programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skar, Ane-Marthe Solheim; von Tetzchner, Stephen; Clucas, Claudine; Sherr, Lorraine

    2015-01-02

    Short-term effectiveness of the International Child Development Programme (ICDP) for parents in the general population has been studied. The aim of this paper was to investigate the longer term impact of the ICDP programme on parents looking for sustained changes 6-12 months after the programme. For this, a non-clinical caregiver group attending the ICDP programme ( N  = 79) and a non-attending comparison group ( N  = 62) completed questionnaires on parenting, psychosocial functioning, and child difficulties before, on completion and 6-12 months after the ICDP programme. Analyses compare changes in scores over time. The results revealed that the ICDP group showed significantly improved scores on parenting measures, less loneliness, and trends towards improved self-efficacy compared to the comparison group 6-12 months after programme completion. The ICDP group also reported that their children spent significantly less time on television and computer games and a trend towards fewer child difficulties. Key positive effects sustained over time but at a somewhat lower level, supporting community-wide implementation of ICDP as a general parenting programme. It is concluded that more intensive training with follow-up sessions should be considered to sustain and boost initial gains.

  4. Institutional provisions for administration of rural development programmes: experience from Fadama 111 development programme in Taraba state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.U. Dimelu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examined institutional provisions in the implementation of Fadama 111 Development Project in Taraba State, Nigeria during 2008-2013. All the staff of the project (57 from eight out of 16 local government areas participated in the programme was used in the study. Data were collected with questionnaire and analysed using descriptive statistics. The results showed strong linkages of the state Fadama coordinating office with government parastaltals and organizations at different levels of the project implementation. There were strong adherence to rules and regulations guiding staff recruitment, financial management, preparation of local development plan, environmental compliance and friendliness, and group formation. The project was constrained by several institutional factors namely delay in the payment of counterpart fund by the government (M=3.39, lack of transport and other logistic supports (M=3.06, lack of payment of counterpart fund by the government (M=3.04 and others. The study recommends that policy makers and development planner should ensure functional mechanisms that could foster and enhance linkages, and support adherence to rules and regulations prescribed for implementation of development programmes.

  5. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe Technik und Umwelt. Research and development programme 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Karlsruhe Research Center is a national research establishment placed under the responsibility of the Federal Republic of Germany and the Federal Land of Baden-Wuerttemberg, and as a member of the Hermann von Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren belongs to the most important and independent research centers in Germany working in the fields of the natural sciences and engineering sciences. The center's research and development activities are defined in coordination with the policy and programmes of the two responsible Federal and Land Governments and span the range from pre-industrial research through to product and process development, research of a provident nature, and fundamental scientific research work, with almost all R and D activities of the center relating in one way or other to technology and the environment. The research programme of the center today covers subjects and aspects relating to the environment, energy, key technologies, and fundamental research, whereas at the time the center was founded, nuclear science and engineering was the dominating field of activities. The current spectrum of activities reflects the evolution in the past and is characterized by a great complexity of problems involved, which requires cross-disciplinary cooperation, and foresight in the definition of tasks and time horizons. (orig./CB) [de

  6. Development of operator training programmes for Sizewell B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birnie, S.

    1988-01-01

    In accordance with existing practice, it is the Central Electricity Generating Board's (CEGB's) intention that the station manager of Sizewell B and future pressurized water reactor (PWR) stations will be responsible for ensuring that his staff perform their designated duties competently. To assist the station managers in fulfilling these responsibilities, the CEGB ensures that all nuclear training needs are identified, effective training strategies are developed and training programmes provided. The management, operation and development of the CEGB Nuclear Power Training Centre is integrated with nuclear power training activities conducted on site and at other locations. A systematic approach to training must be used so that the training is effective, i.e. that the staff can operate the plant safely and economically. To aid in the systematic production of PWR training programmes in general, but in particular for shift operations engineers, a PWR section was established in 1983 at the CEGB Nuclear Power Training Centre. A condition in the site licence for Sizewell B states that a suitable simulator must be available for training operations staff at least one year before fuel loading commences. The work of this section in operations engineer training is summarized. (author)

  7. Designing and Developing a Programme-Focused Assessment Strategy: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, James; Brown, Mark; Costello, Eamon; Walsh, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    This case study describes the process that the Humanities Programme Team, in Dublin City University's Open Education Unit, has undertaken with regard to developing a systematic, programme-focused assessment strategy. It charts the development of an Assessment Matrix that facilitated the enhancement of programme coherence in the context of a…

  8. Further development and verification of the calculating programme Felix for the simulation of criticality excursions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, J.; Denk, W.

    1985-01-01

    An improved version of the FELIX programme was applied to varify excursion experiments 01, 03 through 07, and 13. The correspondence of experiments and verification was good. Programme points to be further developed are shown. (orig.) [de

  9. Pathology Residency Programme of a Developing Country--Landscape of Last 25 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Imran; Ali, Natasha; Kayani, Naila

    2016-01-01

    We report the evolution of a residency programme in Pathology from a developing country. This article highlights the historical perspective of our application procedure, the number of inductions, the programme framework, acheivements and limitations.

  10. Communication and development. Obstacles in implementing development programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, M L

    1989-01-01

    In developing countries communication is an important part of development, but will not generate development itself. In agricultural development in Third World countries 2 models are used: the innovation diffusion model and the package program model. These methods did not meet the needs of the small farmer, since they focused on single crop production. Most of these services do not spend time diagnosing the needs of individual farmers and give standard recommendations that do not suit many clients. Irrigation development projects require special communications skills, and in some cases in Mexico and Peru there were poor communications between farmers and the technical experts. Some argue that a strong state irrigation bureaucracy is needed to build and maintain a complex system, but others state farmer participation and cooperation as mandatory. In the health education area, the mass media is in question on its role as an educator. The confusion caused by advertising of Western medicine and miracle healings can be a major obstacle to health education. In family planning programs in these countries failures have been due to poor communication strategies that were built on false assumptions. The use of mass media including radio, television, and satellite has had some successes and failures in literacy programs. The communication factors that cause failures in these various programs are the lack of understanding and insight of the planners on the needs of their clients. Poorly developed messages, improper channels, and top down methods also cause these poor results.

  11. Discovery and development of new antibacterial drugs: learning from experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Nicole; Czaplewski, Lloyd; Piddock, Laura J V

    2018-06-01

    Antibiotic (antibacterial) resistance is a serious global problem and the need for new treatments is urgent. The current antibiotic discovery model is not delivering new agents at a rate that is sufficient to combat present levels of antibiotic resistance. This has led to fears of the arrival of a 'post-antibiotic era'. Scientific difficulties, an unfavourable regulatory climate, multiple company mergers and the low financial returns associated with antibiotic drug development have led to the withdrawal of many pharmaceutical companies from the field. The regulatory climate has now begun to improve, but major scientific hurdles still impede the discovery and development of novel antibacterial agents. To facilitate discovery activities there must be increased understanding of the scientific problems experienced by pharmaceutical companies. This must be coupled with addressing the current antibiotic resistance crisis so that compounds and ultimately drugs are delivered to treat the most urgent clinical challenges. By understanding the causes of the failures and successes of the pharmaceutical industry's research history, duplication of discovery programmes will be reduced, increasing the productivity of the antibiotic drug discovery pipeline by academia and small companies. The most important scientific issues to address are getting molecules into the Gram-negative bacterial cell and avoiding their efflux. Hence screening programmes should focus their efforts on whole bacterial cells rather than cell-free systems. Despite falling out of favour with pharmaceutical companies, natural product research still holds promise for providing new molecules as a basis for discovery.

  12. New Zealand’s Drug Development Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Carswell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The pharmaceutical industry’s profitability depends on identifying and successfully developing new drug candidates while trying to contain the increasing costs of drug development. It is actively searching for new sources of innovative compounds and for mechanisms to reduce the enormous costs of developing new drug candidates. There is an opportunity for academia to further develop as a source of drug discovery. The rising levels of industry outsourcing also provide prospects for organisations that can reduce the costs of drug development. We explored the potential returns to New Zealand (NZ from its drug discovery expertise by assuming a drug development candidate is out-licensed without clinical data and has anticipated peak global sales of $350 million. We also estimated the revenue from NZ’s clinical research industry based on a standard per participant payment to study sites and the number of industry-sponsored clinical trials approved each year. Our analyses found that NZ’s clinical research industry has generated increasing foreign revenue and appropriate policy support could ensure that this continues to grow. In addition the probability-based revenue from the out-licensing of a drug development candidate could be important for NZ if provided with appropriate policy and financial support.

  13. Near real time materials accountancy development programme for Thorp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    BNFL is currently designing and installing a fully automated system of data capture, storage and processing for its Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) at Sellafield. A prototype Near Real Time Materials Accountancy (NRTMA) system has been used to demonstrate the advantages of this method of materials control to the future plant operators and their feedback continues to be incorporated in the development of user interfaces. NRTMA has been included in the User Requirements Specification for Chemical Plant Information Computer, the top-tier computer which is being provided to archive, retrieve and analyse plant data. The paper describes a development programme of performance and quality related improvements to the prototype NRTMA system. Furthermore, advanced diagnostic systems are described which will help the operator in the resolution of anomalies

  14. The DOE technology development programme on severe accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhold, R.J.; Moore, R.A.; Theofanous, T.G.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring a programme in technology development aimed at resolving the technical issues in severe accident management strategies for advanced and evolutionary light water reactors (LWRs). The key objective of this effort is to achieve a robust defense-in-depth at the interface between prevention and mitigation of severe accidents. The approach taken towards this goal is based on the Risk Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM). Applications of ROAAM to the severe accident management strategy for the US AP600 advanced LWR have been effective both in enhancing the design and in achieving acceptance of the conclusions and base technology developed in the course of the work. This paper presents an overview of that effort and its key technical elements

  15. Joint development effort Thermonuclear Fusion. Programme budgeting 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The joint KfK and IPP project for the development of thermonuclear fusion device is established as the centerpiece of Federal German efforts in this field. It is meant to enhance the German contribution to the European programme and thus foster the chances of a joint European large-scale experiment to be started in the Federal Republic of Germany. IPP's tasks in the project are to study the physical principles and aspects, whereas KfK is responsible for the technological aspects. Work at IPP is focused on divertor experiments with the ASDEX series in order to go deeper into the problems that could not be solved by the JET experiments, namely those of the plasma boundary and control of impurities. Stellarator experiments are made in order to study the potentials of this toroidal confinement concept for steady-state operation. The IPP which always has been working in the plasma physics field devotes all activities to the joint effort. KfK has established a special project group for this purpose, PKF. The budgeting programme presented therefore covers the IPP entire working schedule, and that of PKF of the KfK. (orig./GG) [de

  16. The european programme on negative ion beam development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamela, J.; Hemsworth, R.; Jacquot, C.; Holmes, A.J.T.

    1991-01-01

    The European Programme on Negative Ion Beam development consists presently of three main tasks: (i) the DRAGON experiment starting at Culham, with the objective of accelerating 4 A of D - to 200 keV; (ii) the conceptual study of a 1 MV, 15 A power supply, conducted in european industry under the supervision of Cadarache; (iii) the design study of a 1MV, 4 A, deuterium test bed at Cadarache, conducted by the EURATOM-CEA Association (Cadarache) with support from the EURATOM-UKAEA association (Culham) and the FOM institute (Amsterdam). The conclusions of these three tasks are to be brought together during the first half of 1992, in order to prepare a proposal for a 1 MV, 4 A, deuterium test bed. Other experimental activities are being conducted in european laboratories, either directly related to the main programme (RF source and plasma neutralizer at Culham; discharge pulsing at Dublin and FOM-Amsterdam) or under separate contracts (energy recovery and cesium seeding at Cadarache)

  17. Development of web based system for internal monitoring programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Vanessa R. de; Rodrigues Junior, Orlando; Todo, Alberto S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: vrlima@ipen.br; rodrijr@ipen.br; astodo@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    The purposes of monitoring in general are to verify and to document that each worker is protected adequately against risks from radionuclide intakes and the protection complies with legal requirements. Therefore, it forms part of the overall radiation protection programme, which starts with an assessment to identify work situations in which there is a risk of internal contamination of workers and to quantify the likely intake of radioactive material and the resulting committed effective dose. As a part of a continuous improvement of the monitoring programme for occupationally exposed workers at IPEN, it is being developed a Web based system to access the internal dosimetry database. The system was implemented using Hypertext Preprocessor, PHP, and a PostgreSQL database. This system will introduce a new paradigm in the routine of the internal dosimetry service, providing a fast access to the information among the measurement laboratories staff, dose evaluation group and the radiation protection supervisor. The database maintains information about worker identification, physical and chemical characteristics of the radionuclide, type of monitoring, measurement data and the dose. Moreover, this information will be readily available to provide support for regulatory compliance and quality control requirements. (author)

  18. Development of Web based system for individual internal monitoring programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Vanessa Rogeria de

    2007-01-01

    The purposes of the internal monitoring, in general, are to verify and document that each worker is protected adequately against risks from radionuclide intakes and the protection complies with legal requirements. Therefore, an overall radiation protection programme, starts with an assessment to identify work situations in which there is a risk of internal contamination of workers and to quantify the likely intake of radioactive material and the resulting committed effective dose. As a part of a continuous improvement of the monitoring programme for occupationally exposed workers at IPEN, it is being developed a Web based system to access the internal dosimetry database. The system was implemented using Hypertext Preprocessor, PHP, and a PostgreSQL database. This system will introduce a new paradigm in the routine of the internal dosimetry service, providing a fast access to the information among the measurement laboratories staff, dose evaluation group and the radiation protection supervisor. The database maintains information about worker identification, physical and chemical characteristics of the radionuclide, type of monitoring, measurement data and the dose. Moreover, this information will be readily available to provide support for regulatory compliance and quality control requirements. (author)

  19. Training and manpower development for nuclear energy programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajakaiye, D.E.; Elegba, S.B.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose is to train and develop the adequately qualified manpower in the areas of nuclear science and technology. Various options were introduced by the science departments, based on the existing facilities within the university. Twenty final year students were selected annually to attend a summer school in reactor physics and technology at the Karlsruhe Institute for Nuclear Research in West Germany. Also, there was approval for an annual recruitment quota of twelve graduate assistants for the nuclear project. Fifty qualified students were trained for various courses in nuclear science and technology both in the country and abroad. There had been graduates in nuclear science and technology courses up to the doctorate degree level. Part of efforts in the manpower has been directed towards the acquisition of adequate equipment for the teaching laboratories. The establishment of a training center in nuclear technology at Ahmadu Bello University and at University of Ife can only be considered as the zero phase in the nuclear programme of Nigeria. Funding of the nuclear programme must be guaranteed. It is also suggested that the nuclear project be allocated sufficient foreign exchange to meet all its commitments. (A.S.)

  20. Drug development for airway diseases: looking forward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holgate, Stephen; Agusti, Alvar; Strieter, Robert M.; Anderson, Gary P.; Fogel, Robert; Bel, Elisabeth; Martin, Thomas R.; Reiss, Theodore F.

    2015-01-01

    Advancing drug development for airway diseases beyond the established mechanisms and symptomatic therapies requires redefining the classifications of airway diseases, considering systemic manifestations, developing new tools and encouraging collaborations

  1. Promotion and financing of nuclear power programmes in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, L.L.; Skjoeldebrand, R.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power has been introduced only to a small extent in a few developing countries. A group of senior experts conducted a study of the existing constraints on nuclear power in developing countries, the requirements to be met for successful introduction of a nuclear power programme, and mechanisms to assist developing countries in overcoming the identified constraints. Financing represents one (but not the only) major constraint to nuclear power development in developing countries. The present schemes of export credits and commercial financing are seen as not adequately meeting the needs of nuclear power financing in terms of repayment periods and profiles, or in terms of flexibility to meet delays and cost overruns. Innovative and workable arrangements to share the economic and financial risks would be helpful in obtaining financing for a nuclear power project. All possible efforts should be made by all parties involved in the development of nuclear power to reduce as far as possible the uncertainties surrounding the cost and schedule of a nuclear power project, as an essential step to improve the overall climate for financing the project. Government commitment, soundly based and thorough planning, development of qualified manpower and other key infrastructures, and good project management are important mechanisms to achieve greater predictability in project schedule and cost. Technical assistance provided by the IAEA can be very helpful in building these capabilities in developing countries. (author). 1 tab

  2. Japanese programme on the development of high duty fuel and related power ramping tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishima, Y

    1983-06-01

    Power ramping tests hitherto planned or carried out in Japan can be classified into two categories: 1) the tests programme by private organizations on fuel behaviour under various conditions of power ramping, in participating international programmes; and 2) a partially government sponsored programme, which was officially inaugurated in 1981 under the title of High-Duty Fuel Development Programme. The latter has been carried out by the Nuclear Power Engineering Test Centre, based on the schedule decided by the MITI Committee (chaired by the author), for a period of 10 years. These programmes will be described with emphasis on the latter (National Programme). (author)

  3. Japanese programme on the development of high duty fuel and related power ramping tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Power ramping tests hitherto planned or carried out in Japan can be classified into two categories: 1) the tests programme by private organizations on fuel behaviour under various conditions of power ramping, in participating international programmes; and 2) a partially government sponsored programme, which was officially inaugurated in 1981 under the title of High-Duty Fuel Development Programme. The latter has been carried out by the Nuclear Power Engineering Test Centre, based on the schedule decided by the MITI Committee (chaired by the author), for a period of 10 years. These programmes will be described with emphasis on the latter (National Programme). (author)

  4. A Systematic Review of Reporting Tools Applicable to Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes: Step 1 in Developing Programme Reporting Standards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kågesten

    Full Text Available Complete and accurate reporting of programme preparation, implementation and evaluation processes in the field of sexual and reproductive health (SRH is essential to understand the impact of SRH programmes, as well as to guide their replication and scale-up.To provide an overview of existing reporting tools and identify core items used in programme reporting with a focus on programme preparation, implementation and evaluation processes.A systematic review was completed for the period 2000-2014. Reporting guidelines, checklists and tools, irrespective of study design, applicable for reporting on programmes targeting SRH outcomes, were included. Two independent reviewers screened the title and abstract of all records. Full texts were assessed in duplicate, followed by data extraction on the focus, content area, year of publication, validation and description of reporting items. Data was synthesized using an iterative thematic approach, where items related to programme preparation, implementation and evaluation in each tool were extracted and aggregated into a consolidated list.Out of the 3,656 records screened for title and abstracts, full texts were retrieved for 182 articles, out of which 108 were excluded. Seventy-four full text articles corresponding to 45 reporting tools were retained for synthesis. The majority of tools were developed for reporting on intervention research (n = 15, randomized controlled trials (n = 8 and systematic reviews (n = 7. We identified a total of 50 reporting items, across three main domains and corresponding sub-domains: programme preparation (objective/focus, design, piloting; programme implementation (content, timing/duration/location, providers/staff, participants, delivery, implementation outcomes, and programme evaluation (process evaluation, implementation barriers/facilitators, outcome/impact evaluation.Over the past decade a wide range of tools have been developed to improve the reporting of health research

  5. Molecular science for drug development and biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wei-Zhu; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2014-11-04

    With the avalanche of biological sequences generated in the postgenomic age, molecular science is facing an unprecedented challenge, i.e., how to timely utilize the huge amount of data to benefit human beings. Stimulated by such a challenge, a rapid development has taken place in molecular science, particularly in the areas associated with drug development and biomedicine, both experimental and theoretical. The current thematic issue was launched with the focus on the topic of "Molecular Science for Drug Development and Biomedicine", in hopes to further stimulate more useful techniques and findings from various approaches of molecular science for drug development and biomedicine.[...].

  6. Planning and development of the Spanish nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Rodriguez, M.

    1983-01-01

    The paper analyses the Spanish nuclear power programme from its inception to the present time, doing so within the context of the country, characterized by the fairly rapid change from a basically agricultural economy to an economy in which industry and services play an important part and the transformation of which took place mainly during the decade prior to the energy crisis 1973. Reference is made to the early establishment of the Junta de Energia Nuclear (Nuclear Energy Board) (JEN), which was set up as a research body even before nuclear energy became competitive with other sources for the production of electric power and which, by adapting its structure and programmes to the different phases in the development and utilization of nuclear energy in the country, contributed the necessary scientific, technical and legal infrastructure. There is also an analysis of the most striking features of the Spanish energy system and an account of the planning and construction of the first three Spanish nuclear power stations. A further subject of discussion is the energy planning and development projects devised by the Government which gave rise to the second generation of nuclear power plants, some of which are already in operation and the remainder in an advanced state of construction. Emphasis is placed on the action taken by the Spanish Government to increase the participation of Spanish industry in the construction of nuclear power plants and in the supply of equipment and services required for their operation. Reference is made to the experimental changes which have been made in the institutional infrastructure in order to adapt it to the phase of development which has been reached and to the objectives subsequently laid down in the planning: establishment of ENUSA (the national uranium enterprise), the Equipos Nucleares corporation and the Nuclear Safety Council, and also the changes made in the JEN

  7. Development of a synchrotron timing system on a programmable chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Feiyu; Qiao Weimin; Wang Yanyu; Guo Yuhui

    2009-01-01

    A synchrotron requires extremely high time constraints for timing signals, so timing system is very important for a synchrotron control system. A FPGA+ARM+Linux+DSP architecture has been mainly used in timing control of the HIRFL-CSR control system. In this paper, we report the development of the SOPC(System On a Programmable Chip) based on FPGA and uClinux.It can integrate all the functions of ARM+Linux in one single FPGA chip, hence no need of the dedicated ARM chip, and the reduced cost. The maximum operation frequency of this system is 185 MHz. The hardware consumes less than 4% of total resources of FPGA chip. And both the hardware system and the operating system of the SOPC are reconfigurable. The SOPC system has a wide prospect of applications in accelerator engineering and many fields of scientific research. (authors)

  8. Developing a customer loyalty programme for Aircooled Ltd

    OpenAIRE

    Muljar, Evelina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis project was to plan a customer loyalty programme for a small company called Aircooled Finland Oy/Ltd. The study was conducted using a quantitative research method in the form of a questionnaire. Although the plan for the customer loyalty programme was already agreed on with the manager of the company, this research was commissioned as a form of information retrieval to determine whether the customers would find this type of a loyalty programme appealing. This st...

  9. The Eczema Education Programme: intervention development and model feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, K; Ersser, S J; Dennis, H; Farasat, H; More, A

    2014-07-01

    The systematic support of parents of children with eczema is essential to their effective management; however, we have few models of support. This study examines the rationale, evidence base and development of a large-scale, structured, theory-based, nurse-led intervention, the 'Eczema Education Programme' (EEP), for parents of children with eczema. To outline development of the EEP, model of delivery, determine its feasibility and evaluate this based on service access and parental satisfaction data. Parent-child dyads meeting EEP referral criteria were recruited and demographic information recorded. A questionnaire survey of parental satisfaction was conducted 4 weeks post EEP; parental focus groups at 6 weeks provided comparative qualitative data. Descriptive statistics were derived from the questionnaire data using Predictive Analytics Software (PASW); content analysis was applied to focus group data. A total of 356 parents attended the EEP during the evaluation period. Service access was achieved for those in a challenging population. Both survey data (n = 146 parents, 57%) and focus group data (n = 21) revealed a significant level of parental satisfaction with the programme. It was feasible to provide the EEP as an adjunct to normal clinical care on a large scale, achieving a high level of patient/parent satisfaction and access within an urban area of multiple deprivation and high mobility. The intervention is transferable and the results are generalizable to other ethnically diverse child eczema populations within metropolitan areas in Britain. A multicentre RCT is required to test the effectiveness of this intervention on a larger scale. © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  10. The FAO programme for the control of African animal trypanosomiasis and related development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hursey, B S [FAO, Rome (Italy)

    1990-04-01

    The FAO proposal for a long-term Programme for the Control of African Animal Trypanosomiasis and Related Development was presented to the World Food Conference in November 1974. A recommendation was adopted that the programme should be implemented as a matter of urgency and should receive high priority in the FAO programme of work and budget. Following recommendations of support by FAO statutory bodies the preparatory phase, which led to implementation of a large-scale programme, was launched in 1980.

  11. The FAO programme for the control of African animal trypanosomiasis and related development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hursey, B.S.

    1990-01-01

    The FAO proposal for a long-term Programme for the Control of African Animal Trypanosomiasis and Related Development was presented to the World Food Conference in November 1974. A recommendation was adopted that the programme should be implemented as a matter of urgency and should receive high priority in the FAO programme of work and budget. Following recommendations of support by FAO statutory bodies the preparatory phase, which led to implementation of a large-scale programme, was launched in 1980

  12. DEVELOPMENT AND REGISTRATION OF CHIRAL DRUGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WITTE, DT; ENSING, K; FRANKE, JP; DEZEEUW, RA

    1993-01-01

    In this review we describe the impact of chirality on drug development and registration in the United States, Japan and the European Community. Enantiomers may have differences in their pharmacological profiles, and, therefore, chiral drugs ask for special analytical and pharmacological attention

  13. High risk behaviors of injection drug users registered with harm reduction programme in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memon Ashraf

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surveillance data of Sindh AIDS Control Programme, Pakistan suggest that HIV infection is rapidly increasing among IDUs in Karachi and has reached 9% in 2004–5 indicating that the country has progressed from nascent to concentrated level of HIV epidemic. Findings of 2nd generation surveillance in 2004–5 also indicate 104/395 (26.3% IDUs HIV positive in the city. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study among registered IDUs of a needle exchange and harm reduction programme in Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 161 IDUs were included in the study between October–November 2003. A detailed questionnaire was implemented and blood samples were collected for HIV, hepatitis B & C and syphilis. HIV, hepatitis B and C antibody tests were performed using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA method. Syphilis tests (RPR & TPHA were performed on Randox kit. Besides calculating frequencies univariate analysis was performed using t tests for continuous variables as age, age at first intercourse and average age of initiation of addiction and chi square for categorical variables like paid for sex or not to identify risk factors for hepatitis B and C and syphilis. Results Average age of IDU was 35.9 years and average age of initiation of drugs was 15.9 years. Number of drug injections per day was 2.3. Shooting drugs in group sharing syringes was reported by 128 (79.5% IDUs. Over half 94 (58.3% reported paying for sex and 64% reported never using a condom. Commercial selling of blood was reported by 44 (28%. 1 of 161 was HIV positive (0.6%. The prevalence of hepatitis B was 12 (7.5%, hepatitis C 151 (94.3% and syphilis 21 (13.1%. IDUs who were hepatitis C positive were more likely to start sexual activity at an earlier age and had never used condoms. Similarly IDUs who were hepatitis B positive were more likely to belong to a younger age group. Syphilis positive IDUs were more likely to have paid for sex and had never used a condom

  14. Fast-tracking authentic leadership development by means of a programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tineke Wulffers

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: While there is considerable literature on the definition and impact of authentic leadership (AL, there is a research gap regarding the effectiveness of AL programmes. Research purpose: The focus of this article is on the proximal programme effect of an AL development programme on executive leaders within a period of 3 months. Motivation for the study: AL has been identified not only as the root construct of positive forms of leadership but also equates to the highest level of leadership effectiveness. Leadership authenticity can take a life time to develop, and organisations need positive and ethical leadership now. An appropriate AL programme could considerably shorten the development period of a such leadership Research design, approach and method: A longitudinal qualitative programme evaluation approach was used. The participants comprised a primary group of a 10-member executive leadership team who were the AL programme participants and their respective secondary (senior, peer and subordinate participants who provided pre- and post-programme data on the leadership authenticity of the primary participants. Main findings: The outline of the AL programme is presented with an indication of how it adhered to specific guidelines offered for development of such programmes. Findings indicate that the programme had a proximal effect of increasing AL; starting with the development of personal followed by interpersonal and professional leadership. Practical/managerial implications: An appropriate and effective AL programme could thus considerably shorten the development period of such leadership.

  15. Effectiveness of the 'Healthy School and Drugs' prevention programme on adolescents' substance use: a randomized clustered trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malmberg, M.; Kleinjan, M.; Overbeek, G.; Vermulst, A.; Monshouwer, K.; Lammers, J.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of the Healthy School and Drugs programme on alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use among Dutch early adolescents. Design: Randomized clustered trial with two intervention conditions (i.e. e-learning and integral). Setting: General population of 11-15-year-old

  16. Effectiveness of the 'Healthy School and Drugs' prevention programme on adolescents' substance use : A randomized clustered trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malmberg, Monique; Kleinjan, Marloes; Overbeek, Geertjan; Vermulst, Ad; Monshouwer, Karin; Lammers, Jeroen; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of the Healthy School and Drugs programme on alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use among Dutch early adolescents. Design: Randomized clustered trial with two intervention conditions (i.e. e-learning and integral). Setting: General population of 11-15-year-old

  17. Effectiveness of the 'Healthy School and Drugs' prevention programme on adolescents' substance use: a randomized clustered trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malmberg, M.; Kleinjan, M.; Overbeek, G.J.; Vermulst, A.A.; Monshouwer, K.; Lammers, J.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the effectiveness of the Healthy School and Drugs programme on alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use among Dutch early adolescents. Design Randomized clustered trial with two intervention conditions (i.e. e-learning and integral). Setting General population of 11-15-year-old adolescents

  18. Effects of a lifestyle programme on ambulatory blood pressure and drug dosage in treated hypertensive patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Valerie; Beilin, Lawrie J; Cutt, Hayley E; Mansour, Jacqueline; Wilson, Amy; Mori, Trevor A

    2005-06-01

    To assess effects of multifactorial lifestyle modification on antihypertensive drug needs in treated hypertensive individuals. Randomized controlled trial. Research studies unit. Overweight hypertensive patients, receiving one or two antihypertensive drugs, were recruited by advertising, and allocated randomly to a usual care group (controls; n = 118) or a lifestyle modification group (programme group; n = 123). A 4-month programme of weight loss, a low-sodium 'Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension'-type diet with added fish, physical activity and moderation of alcohol intake. After 4 months, if mean 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) was less than 135/85 mmHg, antihypertensive drugs were withdrawn over 4 weeks and long-term home blood pressure monitoring was begun. Antihypertensive drug requirements, ABP, weight, waist girth at 4 months and 1-year follow-up. Ninety control group and 102 programme group participants completed the study. Mean 24-h ABP changed after 4 months by -1.0/-0.3 +/- 0.5/0.4 mmHg in controls and -4.1/-2.1 +/- 0.7/0.5 mmHg with the lifestyle programme (P lifestyle modification in patients with treated hypertension reduced blood pressure in the short-term. Decreased central obesity persisted 1 year later and could reduce overall cardiovascular risk.

  19. Development and Evaluation of Chronotherapeutic Drug Delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The developed system is capable of releasing the drug after a 4-h lag period. However ... concentration would be at its maximum level, ... spheronizer (Caleva MBS, UK)operating at .... capsules show that the color intensity of the.

  20. A modular and programmable development platform for capsule endoscopy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tareq Hasan; Shrestha, Ravi; Wahid, Khan A

    2014-06-01

    The state-of-the-art capsule endoscopy (CE) technology offers painless examination for the patients and the ability to examine the interior of the gastrointestinal tract by a noninvasive procedure for the gastroenterologists. In this work, a modular and flexible CE development system platform consisting of a miniature field programmable gate array (FPGA) based electronic capsule, a microcontroller based portable data recorder unit and computer software is designed and developed. Due to the flexible and reprogrammable nature of the system, various image processing and compression algorithms can be tested in the design without requiring any hardware change. The designed capsule prototype supports various imaging modes including white light imaging (WLI) and narrow band imaging (NBI), and communicates with the data recorder in full duplex fashion, which enables configuring the image size and imaging mode in real time during examination. A low complexity image compressor based on a novel color-space is implemented inside the capsule to reduce the amount of RF transmission data. The data recorder contains graphical LCD for real time image viewing and SD cards for storing image data. Data can be uploaded to a computer or Smartphone by SD card, USB interface or by wireless Bluetooth link. Computer software is developed that decompresses and reconstructs images. The fabricated capsule PCBs have a diameter of 16 mm. An ex-vivo animal testing has also been conducted to validate the results.

  1. Individual-level outcomes from a national clinical leadership development programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Declan; Fealy, Gerard; McNamara, Martin; Casey, Mary; Connor, Tom O; Doyle, Louise; Quinlan, Christina

    2013-08-01

    A national clinical leadership development programme was instituted for Irish nurses and midwives in 2010. Incorporating a development framework and leadership pathway and a range of bespoke interventions for leadership development, including workshops, action-learning sets, mentoring and coaching, the programme was introduced at seven pilot sites in the second half of 2011. The programme pilot was evaluated with reference to structure, process and outcomes elements, including individual-level programme outcomes. Evaluation data were generated through focus groups and group interviews, individual interviews and written submissions. The data provided evidence of nurses' and midwives' clinical leadership development through self and observer-reported behaviours and dispositions including accounts of how the programme participants developed and displayed particular clinical leadership competencies. A key strength of the new programme was that it involved interventions that focussed on specific leadership competencies to be developed within the practice context.

  2. China: the long wait. [Developments in the nuclear power programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    The repercussions of Tiananmen Square coupled with worse than expected balance of payments problems have been made it even more difficult than usual to discern the likely future direction of China's nuclear power programme. Currently there are three power reactors under construction, an indigenously designed 300MWe PWR at Qinsham and the two 900MWe Framatome units at Daya Bay, Guang-dong. Prior to the events of June the most likely way forward, beyond these units under construction, appeared to be development of 600MWe units for Chinese conditions in a joint venture with Western companies. There are strong pressures to ''go indigenous'', and attempt to develop a home grown 600MWe design or, perhaps more likely, go for repeats of the 300 MWe plant - assuming it can be operated successfully, a point on which some factions of the Chinese nuclear industry have their doubts. Nuclear district heating still has strong advocates, as an environmentally sound way of meeting the country's huge projected increases in primary energy consumption over the coming years. Construction of a 5MWt district heating reactor at Tsinghua University, Beijing, started in 1986, entered operation at the end of 1989 following a test phase and is now supplying 3MWt to heating of university buildings. (author).

  3. Programme Costing of a Physical Activity Programme in Primary Prevention: Should the Costs of Health Asset Assessment and Participatory Programme Development Count?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke B. Wolfenstetter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This analysis aims to discuss the implications of the “health asset concept”, introduced by the WHO, and the “investment for health model” requiring a “participatory approach” of cooperative programme development applied on a physical activity programme for socially disadvantaged women and to demonstrate the related costing issues as well as the relevant decision context. The costs of programme implementation amounted to €48,700. Adding the costs for developing the programme design of €48,800 results in total costs of €97,500; adding on top of that the costs of asset assessment running to €35,600 would total €133,100. These four different cost figures match four different types of potentially relevant decisions contexts. Depending on the decision context the total costs, and hence the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of a health promotion intervention, could differ considerably. Therefore, a detailed cost assessment and the identification of the decision context are of crucial importance.

  4. Guidelines for developing an at-sea fishery observer programme

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davies, Sandy I; Reynolds, J. Eric

    2003-01-01

    These guidelines are intended to help those involved in managing fisheries to understand the range of objectives that an observer programme can meet and how these contribute towards the management of a fishery...

  5. A Narrative Enrichment Programme in literacy development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    second part of the programme consisted of supporting exercises that .... language for enjoyment, such as language games and language for laughter (also ..... Available online: http://www.unesco.org/education/GMR2006/full/chapt6_eng.pdf ( ...

  6. Programmable Relations for Managing Change During Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-15

    POSTGRES [37], in which attributes of relations can include abstract data types, although not other relations. POSTGRES [39] also includes other...that programmability of this type is missing from both POSTGRES and ALGRES. Nevertheless, programmable implementations are not mutually incompatible...December 1975. [37] L. A. Rowe and Michael R. Stonebraker. "The POSTGRES Data Model". In Proc. of the 13th VLDB Conference, pages 83-96, 1987. [38

  7. Using the intervention mapping protocol to develop a maintenance programme for the SLIMMER diabetes prevention intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsman, Ellen B M; Leerlooijer, Joanne N; Ter Beek, Josien; Duijzer, Geerke; Jansen, Sophia C; Hiddink, Gerrit J; Feskens, Edith J M; Haveman-Nies, Annemien

    2014-10-27

    Although lifestyle interventions have shown to be effective in reducing the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, maintenance of achieved results is difficult, as participants often experience relapse after the intervention has ended. This paper describes the systematic development of a maintenance programme for the extensive SLIMMER intervention, an existing diabetes prevention intervention for high-risk individuals, implemented in a real-life setting in the Netherlands. The maintenance programme was developed using the Intervention Mapping protocol. Programme development was informed by a literature study supplemented by various focus group discussions and feedback from implementers of the extensive SLIMMER intervention. The maintenance programme was designed to sustain a healthy diet and physical activity pattern by targeting knowledge, attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control of the SLIMMER participants. Practical applications were clustered into nine programme components, including sports clinics at local sports clubs, a concluding meeting with the physiotherapist and dietician, and a return session with the physiotherapist, dietician and physical activity group. Manuals were developed for the implementers and included a detailed time table and step-by-step instructions on how to implement the maintenance programme. The Intervention Mapping protocol provided a useful framework to systematically plan a maintenance programme for the extensive SLIMMER intervention. The study showed that planning a maintenance programme can build on existing implementation structures of the extensive programme. Future research is needed to determine to what extent the maintenance programme contributes to sustained effects in participants of lifestyle interventions.

  8. TRPV3 in Drug Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Broad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 (TRPV3 is a member of the TRP (Transient Receptor Potential super-family. It is a relatively underexplored member of the thermo-TRP sub-family (Figure 1, however, genetic mutations and use of gene knock-outs and selective pharmacological tools are helping to provide insights into its role and therapeutic potential. TRPV3 is highly expressed in skin, where it is implicated in skin physiology and pathophysiology, thermo-sensing and nociception. Gain of function TRPV3 mutations in rodent and man have enabled the role of TRPV3 in skin health and disease to be particularly well defined. Pre-clinical studies provide some rationale to support development of TRPV3 antagonists for therapeutic application for the treatment of inflammatory skin conditions, itch and pain. However, to date, only one compound directed towards block of the TRPV3 receptor (GRC15300 has progressed into clinical trials. Currently, there are no known clinical trials in progress employing a TRPV3 antagonist.

  9. Thailand: Infrastructure Development and Challenges to Launch Nuclear Power Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keinmeesuke, Sirichai

    2011-01-01

    In June 2007, the cabinet passed a resolution for Thailand's Power Development Plan (PDP 2007). It was mentioned in the plan that Thailand will have 2 x 1,000 MWe nuclear power plants in 2020 and another 2 x 1,000 MWe in 2021. The PDP 2007 was revised in March 2009 and it was agreed to change the nuclear power generation to only 1 x 1,000 MWe in 2020 and 2021 respectively due to the large excess capacity at present. Many activities related to development of infrastructures in order to support electricity generation using nuclear power are being executed. Milestones for nuclear power program implementation has been developed using the IAEA document 'Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power' with some amendment/additions to suit the country situation. According to the schedule, a lot of activities related to infrastructure establishment, feasibility study, utility preparation and public education and participation are being performed. Within the year 2011, various issues such as legal and regulatory systems and international commitment, industrial and commercial infrastructure, technology transfer and human resource development, safety and environmental protection, public information and public acceptance, preparation of the nuclear power utility establishment, etc. must be solved out and undertaken to assure the cabinet to make final decision to go nuclear. There are many challenges for Thailand embarking of the nuclear power programme. It is essential to plan for the establishment of a regulatory body at the national level to support and regulate the nuclear power plant industry. Currently, the application for a license and the monitoring of a power plant are administered by the authorities of various agencies under different ministries; hence the process is very time-consuming and overlaps with one another. The approach that the regulatory body and the authorities to issue licenses relevant to the nuclear power plant operation

  10. Development Considerations for Nanocrystal Drug Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Ling; John, Mathew; Lee, Sau L; Tyner, Katherine M

    2017-05-01

    Nanocrystal technology has emerged as a valuable tool for facilitating the delivery of poorly water-soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and enhancing API bioavailability. To date, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has received over 80 applications for drug products containing nanocrystals. These products can be delivered by different routes of administration and are used in a variety of therapeutic areas. To aid in identifying key developmental considerations for these products, a retrospective analysis was performed on the submissions received by the FDA to date. Over 60% of the submissions were for the oral route of administration. Based on the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), most nanocrystal drugs submitted to the FDA are class II compounds that possess low aqueous solubility and high intestinal permeability. Impact of food on drug bioavailability was reduced for most nanocrystal formulations as compared with their micronized counterparts. For all routes of administration, dose proportionality was observed for some, but not all, nanocrystal products. Particular emphasis in the development of nanocrystal products was placed on the in-process tests and controls at critical manufacturing steps (such as milling process), mitigation and control of process-related impurities, and the stability of APIs or polymorphic form (s) during manufacturing and upon storage. This emphasis resulted in identifying challenges to the development of these products including accurate determination of particle size (distribution) of drug substance and/or nanocrystal colloidal dispersion, identification of polymorphic form (s), and establishment of drug substance/product specifications.

  11. RDandD Programme 2010. Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-09-15

    RDandD Programme 2010 presents SKB's plans for research, development and demonstration during the period 2011-2016. SKB's activities are divided into two main areas: the programme for low- and intermediate-level waste (the LILW Programme) and the Nuclear Fuel Programme. Operation of the existing facilities takes place within the Operational Process. RDandD Programme 2010 consists of five parts: Part I Overall plan of action Part II The LILW Programme Part III The Nuclear Fuel Programme Part IV Research for assessment of long-term safety Part V Social science research RDandD Programme 2007 was mainly focused on development of technology to realize the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The efforts described were aimed at gaining a greater knowledge of long-term safety and compiling technical supporting documentation for applications under the Nuclear Activities Act for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel and under the Environmental Code for the final repository system. Many important results from these efforts are reported in this programme. The integrated account of the results will be presented in applications submitted in early 2011. The regulatory review of RDandD Programme 2007 and its supplement called for clarifications of plans and programmes for the final repository for short-lived radioactive waste, SFR, and the final repository for long-lived waste, SFL. This RDandD Programme describes these plans more clearly

  12. RDandD Programme 2010. Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    RDandD Programme 2010 presents SKB's plans for research, development and demonstration during the period 2011-2016. SKB's activities are divided into two main areas: the programme for low- and intermediate-level waste (the LILW Programme) and the Nuclear Fuel Programme. Operation of the existing facilities takes place within the Operational Process. RDandD Programme 2010 consists of five parts: Part I Overall plan of action Part II The LILW Programme Part III The Nuclear Fuel Programme Part IV Research for assessment of long-term safety Part V Social science research RDandD Programme 2007 was mainly focused on development of technology to realize the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The efforts described were aimed at gaining a greater knowledge of long-term safety and compiling technical supporting documentation for applications under the Nuclear Activities Act for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel and under the Environmental Code for the final repository system. Many important results from these efforts are reported in this programme. The integrated account of the results will be presented in applications submitted in early 2011. The regulatory review of RDandD Programme 2007 and its supplement called for clarifications of plans and programmes for the final repository for short-lived radioactive waste, SFR, and the final repository for long-lived waste, SFL. This RDandD Programme describes these plans more clearly

  13. RDandD Programme 2010. Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-09-15

    RDandD Programme 2010 presents SKB's plans for research, development and demonstration during the period 2011-2016. SKB's activities are divided into two main areas: the programme for low- and intermediate-level waste (the LILW Programme) and the Nuclear Fuel Programme. Operation of the existing facilities takes place within the Operational Process. RDandD Programme 2010 consists of five parts: Part I Overall plan of action Part II The LILW Programme Part III The Nuclear Fuel Programme Part IV Research for assessment of long-term safety Part V Social science research RDandD Programme 2007 was mainly focused on development of technology to realize the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The efforts described were aimed at gaining a greater knowledge of long-term safety and compiling technical supporting documentation for applications under the Nuclear Activities Act for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel and under the Environmental Code for the final repository system. Many important results from these efforts are reported in this programme. The integrated account of the results will be presented in applications submitted in early 2011. The regulatory review of RDandD Programme 2007 and its supplement called for clarifications of plans and programmes for the final repository for short-lived radioactive waste, SFR, and the final repository for long-lived waste, SFL. This RDandD Programme describes these plans more clearly

  14. Quality Control and Complication Screening Programme of Chinese Medicinal Drugs at the First German Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine - A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchart, Dieter; Hager, Stefan; Dai, Jingzhang; Weidenhammer, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The use of drugs derived from plants is a cornerstone of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Yet, too little is known about risk and safety of Chinese medicinal drugs (CMD). Therefore, the TCM hospital Bad Kötzting has developed a quality control and complication screening programme in order to ensure a safe administration of TCM drugs to their patients. All Chinese medicinal drugs delivered to the hospital between September 1, 2012 and December 31, 2013 entered the quality control program and were screened for microbial contamination, aflatoxin, pesticides and heavy metals. A routinely applied complication screening programme monitored liver enzymes in all patients. Case causality assessment by CIOMS scale and identification of admitted herbs were conducted. Additionally, side effects of patients were identified by a routinely performed web-based documentation system. In 5 of 23 investigated samples (21.7%) the initial testing showed microbial contamination (2), pesticide (2) and heavy metals (1). The drugs were tested for authenticity and adulterations, respectively. All 994 patients (mean age 52.6 years; 72.6% female) admitted were available for analysis. 448 (45.1%) of all patients reported having perceived at least one side effect of treatment. They experienced mainly gastrointestinal symptoms (13.6%), neurovegetative symptoms (10.8 %), temporary deteriorations of pain (8.8%), diarrhoea (5.9%), nausea (1.6%) and vomiting (0.5%). Further, 6 patients with a more than 2-fold elevation (compared to maximum normal value or elevated admission values) of ALT were found in the systematic laboratory control with a non-conclusive causality assessment for TCM-drugs. Approximate incidence rates and analysed drugs associated with liver damage revealed a low rate of liver injury. Patients should be informed of the gastrointestinal symptoms caused by and potential hepatotoxicity of TCM herbs. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  15. Drug Repurposing Is a New Opportunity for Developing Drugs against Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong-Min Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Better the drugs you know than the drugs you do not know. Drug repurposing is a promising, fast, and cost effective method that can overcome traditional de novo drug discovery and development challenges of targeting neuropsychiatric and other disorders. Drug discovery and development targeting neuropsychiatric disorders are complicated because of the limitations in understanding pathophysiological phenomena. In addition, traditional de novo drug discovery and development are risky, expensive, and time-consuming processes. One alternative approach, drug repurposing, has emerged taking advantage of off-target effects of the existing drugs. In order to identify new opportunities for the existing drugs, it is essential for us to understand the mechanisms of action of drugs, both biologically and pharmacologically. By doing this, drug repurposing would be a more effective method to develop drugs against neuropsychiatric and other disorders. Here, we review the difficulties in drug discovery and development in neuropsychiatric disorders and the extent and perspectives of drug repurposing.

  16. Drug development: from concept to marketing!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamimi, Nihad A M; Ellis, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Drug development is an expensive, long and high-risk business taking 10-15 years and is associated with a high attrition rate. It is driven by medical need, disease prevalence and the likelihood of success. Drug candidate selection is an iterative process between chemistry and biology, refining the molecular properties until a compound suitable for advancing to man is found. Typically, about one in a thousand synthesised compounds is ever selected for progression to the clinic. Prior to administration to humans, the pharmacology and biochemistry of the drug is established using an extensive range of in vitro and in vivo test procedures. It is also a regulatory requirement that the drug is administered to animals to assess its safety. Later-stage animal testing is also required to assess carcinogenicity and effects on the reproductive system. Clinical phases of drug development include phase I in healthy volunteers to assess primarily pharmacokinetics, safety and toleration, phase II in a cohort of patients with the target disease to establish efficacy and dose-response relationship and large-scale phase III studies to confirm safety and efficacy. Experience tells us that approximately only 1 in 10 drugs that start the clinical phase will make it to the market. Each drug must demonstrate safety and efficacy in the intended patient population and its benefits must outweigh its risks before it will be approved by the regulatory agencies. Strict regulatory standards govern the conduct of pre-clinical and clinical trials as well as the manufacturing of pharmaceutical products. The assessment of the new medicinal product's safety continues beyond the initial drug approval through post-marketing monitoring of adverse events. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Success rates for product development strategies in new drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, E; Nelson, G M; Haynes, M; Sargeant, F

    2016-04-01

    While research has examined the likelihood that drugs progress across phases of clinical trials, no research to date has examined the types of product development strategies that are the most likely to be successful in clinical trials. This research seeks to identify the strategies that are most likely to reach the market-those generated using a novel product development strategy or strategies that combine a company's expertise with both drugs and indications, which we call combined experience strategies. We evaluate the success of product development strategies in the drug development process for a sample of 2562 clinical trials completed by 406 US pharmaceutical companies. To identify product development strategies, we coded each clinical trial according to whether it consisted of an indication or a drug that was new to the firm. Accordingly, a clinical trial that consists of both an indication and a drug that were both new to the firm represents a novel product development strategy; indication experience is a product development strategy that consists of an indication that a firm had tested previously in a clinical trial, but with a drug that was new to the firm; drug experience is a product development strategy that consists of a drug that the firm had prior experience testing in clinical trials, but with an indication that was new to the firm; combined experience consists of both a drug and an indication that the firm had experience testing in clinical trials. Success rates for product development strategies across clinical phases were calculated for the clinical trials in our sample. Combined experience strategies had the highest success rate. More than three and a half percent (0·036) of the trials that combined experience with drugs and indications eventually reached the market. The next most successful strategy is drug experience (0·025) with novel strategies trailing closely (0·024). Indication experience strategies are the least successful (0·008

  18. Researching the Impact of Teacher Professional Development Programmes Based on Action Research, Constructivism, and Systems Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehetmeier, Stefan; Andreitz, Irina; Erlacher, Willibald; Rauch, Franz

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the topic of professional development programmes' impact. Concepts and ideas of action research, constructivism, and systems theory are used as a theoretical framework and are combined to describe and analyse an exemplary professional development programme in Austria. Empirical findings from both quantitative and qualitative…

  19. Development of Health Promoting Leadership--Experiences of a Training Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Andrea; Axelsson, Runo; Axelsson, Susanna Bihari

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyse the experiences of an intervention programme for development of health promoting leadership in Gothenburg in Sweden. The more specific purpose is to identify critical aspects of such a programme as part of the development of a health promoting workplace. Design/methodology/approach: A…

  20. Phase II clinical development of new drugs

    CERN Document Server

    Ting, Naitee; Ho, Shuyen; Cappelleri, Joseph C

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on how to appropriately plan and develop a Phase II program, and how to design Phase II clinical trials and analyze their data. It provides a comprehensive overview of the entire drug development process and highlights key questions that need to be addressed for the successful execution of Phase II, so as to increase its success in Phase III and for drug approval. Lastly it warns project team members of the common potential pitfalls and offers tips on how to avoid them.

  1. The impact of a leadership development programme on nurses' self-perceived leadership capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Karyn; Henderson, Amanda; Burmeister, Elizabeth

    2015-11-01

    This paper reports on the outcomes of a locally designed educational programme to support leadership capability of junior registered nurses. The Developing Leader Programme is an in-house programme delivered in three face-to-face workshops, comprising self-directed reflective and application activities. Surveys were used to evaluate self-perceived leadership capability over a 9-month period. The survey comprised a Leadership Capability Instrument adapted from two existing tools. Participants completed surveys at the commencement of the programme, after the third and final workshop and approximately 6 months afterwards. In addition, examples of descriptive accounts of programme activities submitted by individual participants were included to enrich data. Of 124 participants, 79 completed surveys at the first workshop, 28 at the final workshop and 31 were returned 6 months after completion of the programme. Mean scores for each area of leadership capability significantly improved throughout the duration of the programme (P leadership behaviours through reported activities. Survey responses indicated that participants perceived improved leadership capability after completing the Developing Leader Programme. Early educational intervention to facilitate the development of leadership skills as well as clinical skills in junior registered nurses can assist with how they interact with the team. Participation of junior registered nurses in a locally designed leadership programme can assist them to develop leadership behaviours for everyday practice. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Student performance in a newly developed MSc programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richelsen, Ann Bettina

    2011-01-01

    The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) offers, as a consequence of the Bologna Declaration, international Master of Science in Engineering (MSc) programmes. Thereby, one of the challenges for DTU is to evaluate international applicants with an educational engineering background and traditions...... other than DTUs and allow qualified students to enter the MSc programmes. The focus of the present work is a comparison of how international and Danish students perform within specific modules of the MSc curriculum in Engineering Design and Applied Mechanics at Technical University of Denmark...

  3. Stimulation of Technological Development of Ukraine in State Programmes of Economic Development in 2013 - 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Matyushenko Igor Y.

    2013-01-01

    The article considers main reasons and possible ways of improvement of the balance of payments of Ukraine. It conducts analysis of measures of the State Programme of Economic Development of Ukraine in 2013 - 2014, directed at increase of competitiveness and improvement of the investment climate. It gives an assessment of measures directed at activation of financing of economic development, namely: ensuring an optimal level of inflation, ensuring de-dollarisation and de-shadowing of economy; b...

  4. Information technologies for taking into account risks in business development programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalach, A. V.; Khasianov, R. R.; Rossikhina, L. V.; Zybin, D. G.; Melnik, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    The paper describes the information technologies for taking into account risks in business development programme, which rely on the algorithm for assessment of programme project risks and the algorithm of programme forming with constrained financing of high-risk projects taken into account. A method of lower-bound estimate is suggested for subsets of solutions. The corresponding theorem and lemma and their proofs are given.

  5. Challenges in developing drugs for primary headaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, Henrik Winther; Hargreaves, Richard; Ashina, Messoud

    2017-01-01

    This review considers the history of drug development in primary headaches and discusses challenges to the discovery of innovative headache therapeutics. Advances in headache genetics have yet to translate to new classes of therapeutics and there are currently no clear predictive human biomarkers...... for any of the primary headaches that can guide preventative drug discovery and development. Primary headache disorder subtypes despite common phenotypic presentation are undoubtedly heterogeneous in their pathophysiology as judged by the variability of response to headache medicines. Sub......, despite having promising effects in basic pain models, have not delivered efficacy in the clinic. Future efforts may triage novel physiological mediators using human experimental models of headache pain to support drug discovery strategies that target active pathways pharmacologically....

  6. Evaluating Development Projects and Programmes in Africa: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    evaluation. It is indicated that NEPAD has not prescribed any internal or external monitoring and evaluation of its projects and programmes, and therefore calls into doubt the level of professional competence in its delivery strategies. The article also examines selected monitoring and evaluation strategies such as the African

  7. A computer-based teaching programme (CBTP) developed for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nursing profession, like other professions, is focused on preparing students for practice, and particular attention must be paid to the ability of student nurses to extend their knowledge and to solve nursing care problems effectively. A computer-based teaching programme (CBTP) for clinical practice to achieve these ...

  8. A Trojan horse in drug development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren Brøgger; Skytte, Dorthe Mondrup; Denmeade, Samuel R

    2009-01-01

    Available chemotherapeutics take advantage of the fast proliferation of cancer cells. Consequently slow growth makes androgen refractory prostate cancer resistant towards available drugs. No treatment is available at the present, when the cancer has developed metastases outside the prostate (T4 s...

  9. Has molecular imaging delivered to drug development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Philip S.; Patel, Neel; McCarthy, Timothy J.

    2017-10-01

    Pharmaceutical research and development requires a systematic interrogation of a candidate molecule through clinical studies. To ensure resources are spent on only the most promising molecules, early clinical studies must understand fundamental attributes of the drug candidate, including exposure at the target site, target binding and pharmacological response in disease. Molecular imaging has the potential to quantitatively characterize these properties in small, efficient clinical studies. Specific benefits of molecular imaging in this setting (compared to blood and tissue sampling) include non-invasiveness and the ability to survey the whole body temporally. These methods have been adopted primarily for neuroscience drug development, catalysed by the inability to access the brain compartment by other means. If we believe molecular imaging is a technology platform able to underpin clinical drug development, why is it not adopted further to enable earlier decisions? This article considers current drug development needs, progress towards integration of molecular imaging into studies, current impediments and proposed models to broaden use and increase impact. This article is part of the themed issue 'Challenges for chemistry in molecular imaging'.

  10. Building Technological Capabilities in Ghanaian SMEs through Private Sector Development Programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Jens Peter

    2005-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1990s an increasing number of donors have initiated pro-grammes to support the private sector in developing countries in order to enhance eco-nomic growth and thereby alleviate poverty. This paper uses case studies of a wide spec-trum of private enterprises in Ghana...... and related business entities to illustrate how the private sector programme of Danida has worked in Ghana. It looks into the direct effects of the programme, i.e. capability building and simultaneously shows how conventional evaluation procedures miss many of the derived effects of the programme....

  11. A novel mentorship programme for residents integrating academic development, clinical teaching and graduate medical education assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Kriti; Takayesu, James Kimo; Nadel, Eric S

    2016-02-01

    Mentorship fosters career development and growth. During residency training, mentorship should support clinical development along with intellectual and academic interests. Reported resident mentoring programmes do not typically include clinical components. We designed a programme that combines academic development with clinical feedback and assessment in a four-year emergency medicine residency programme. Incoming interns were assigned an advisor. At the conclusion of the intern year, residents actively participated in selecting a mentor for the duration of residency. The programme consisted of quarterly meetings, direct clinical observation and specific competency assessment, assistance with lecture preparation, real-time feedback on presentations, simulation coaching sessions, and discussions related to career development. Faculty participation was recognized as a valuable component of the annual review process. Residents were surveyed about the overall programme and individual components. Over 88 % of the respondents said that the programme was valuable and should be continued. Senior residents most valued the quarterly meetings and presentation help and feedback. Junior residents strongly valued the clinical observation and simulation sessions. A comprehensive mentorship programme integrating clinical, professional and academic development provides residents individualized feedback and coaching and is valued by trainees. Individualized assessment of clinical competencies can be conducted through such a programme.

  12. HIV drug resistance following a decade of the free antiretroviral therapy programme in India: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karade, Santosh; Chaturbhuj, Devidas N; Sen, Sourav; Joshi, Rajneesh K; Kulkarni, Smita S; Shankar, Subramanian; Gangakhedkar, Raman R

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this review was to assess the burden of HIV drug resistance mutations (DRM) in Indian adults exposed to first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) as per national guidelines. An advanced search of the published literature on HIV drug resistance in India was performed in the PubMed and Scopus databases. Data pertaining to age, sex, CD4 count, viral load, and prevalence of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)/non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) DRM were extracted from each publication. Year-wise Indian HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) sequences were retrieved from the Los Alamos HIV database and mutation analyses were performed. A time trend analysis of the proportion of sequences showing NRTI resistance mutations among individuals exposed to first-line ART was conducted. Overall, 23 studies (1046 unique RT sequences) were identified indicating a prevalence of drug resistance to NRTI and NNRTI. The proportion of RT sequences with any DRM, any NRTI DRM, and any NNRTI DRM was 78.39%, 68.83%, and 73.13%, respectively. The temporal trend analysis of individual DRM from sequences retrieved during 2004-2014 indicated a rising trend in K65R mutations (p=0.013). Although the overall burden of resistance against first-line ART agents remained steady over the study decade, periodic monitoring is essential. There is the need to develop an HIV-1 subtype C-specific resistance database in India. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Drugs and development: the global impact of drug use and trafficking on social and economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Merrill

    2008-12-01

    Locating development efforts within the context of globalism and global drug capitalism, this article examines the significant health and social impact both legal and illegal drugs have on international development efforts. The paper takes on an issue that is generally overlooked in the development debate and is not much addressed in the current international development standard, the Millennium Development Goals, and yet is one that places serious constraints on the ability of underdeveloped nations to achieve improvement. The relationship between psychotropic or "mind/mood altering" drugs and sustainable development is rooted in the contribution that the legal and illegal drug trade makes to a set of barriers to development, including: (1) interpersonal crime and community violence; (2) the corruption of public servants and the disintegration of social institutions; (3) the emergence of new or enhanced health problems; (4) the lowering of worker productivity; (5) the ensnarement of youth in drug distribution and away from productive education or employment; (6) the skewing of economies to drug production and money laundering. The paper emphasizes the need for new approaches for diminishing the burden placed by drugs on development.

  14. Mixed WTO ruling on generic drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, R

    2000-01-01

    On 17 March 2000, the World Trade Organization upheld the provision in Canada's patent laws that allows generic drug manufacturers to develop (but not sell) their cheaper versions of patented medicines before the 20-year patients expire. The decision prevents pharmaceutical companies from enjoying market monopolies beyond their patent terms, avoiding what would otherwise be even lengthier delays in the sale of cheaper, generic drugs in Canada. This decision is of significance not only to Canada, but also to other WTO member countries and to all individuals who use pharmaceutical products. However, the decision is not all positive: the WTO also ruled that Canada is violating international agreements by letting generic manufacturers stockpile their versions of patented drugs before patents expire. This article explains the issues, the arguments, and the decision.

  15. Heterocyclic Scaffolds: Centrality in Anticancer Drug Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Imran; Lone, Mohammad Nadeem; Al-Othman, Zeid A; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Sanagi, Mohd Marsin

    2015-01-01

    Cancer has been cursed for human beings for long time. Millions people lost their lives due to cancer. Despite of the several anticancer drugs available, cancer cannot be cured; especially at the late stages without showing any side effect. Heterocyclic compounds exhibit exciting medicinal properties including anticancer. Some market selling heterocyclic anticancer drugs include 5-flourouracil, methortrexate, doxorubicin, daunorubicin, etc. Besides, some natural products such as vinblastine and vincristine are also used as anticancer drugs. Overall, heterocyclic moeities have always been core parts in the expansion of anticancer drugs. This article describes the importance of heterocyclic nuclei in the development of anticancer drugs. Besides, the attempts have been made to discuss both naturally occurring and synthetic heterocyclic compounds as anticancer agents. In addition, some market selling anticancer heterocyclic compounds have been described. Moreover, the efforts have been made to discuss the mechanisms of actions and recent advances in heterocyclic compounds as anticancer agents. The current challenges and future prospectives of heterocyclic compounds have also been discussed. Finally, the suggestions for syntheses of effective, selective, fast and human friendly anticancer agents are discussed into the different sections.

  16. Developing a Services Science Graduation Programme at the University of Twente

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorathia, V.S.; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Pires, L.F.; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Wijnhoven, Alphonsus B.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The recent growth in the services sector implies that more people must be trained in this area. This inspired us to develop a Services Science Graduation Programme at the University of Twente, the Netherlands. We propose a study programme of five years, consisting of a Master phase of two years and

  17. Developing Civic Leaders through an Experiential Learning Programme for Holocaust Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyde, Carol

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact that involvement in an experiential learning programme for Holocaust education had on college and university participants' worldviews and civic leadership development. Results indicate that involvement in specific elements of the programme did have an impact. The student-focused, experiential…

  18. Strategies for a professional development programme: empowering teachers for context-based chemistry education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, M.; Bulte, A.M.W.; de Jong, O.; Pilot, A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the design of professional development programmes in teacher-based and context-based chemistry curriculum innovations. Firstly, the goals of these programmes are discussed and related to the concept of empowerment. Next, in a selection of empirical studies,

  19. Strategies for a Professional Development Programme: Empowering Teachers for Context-Based Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolk, Machiel J.; Bulte, Astrid M. W.; de Jong, Onno; Pilot, Albert

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the design of professional development programmes in teacher-based and context-based chemistry curriculum innovations. Firstly, the goals of these programmes are discussed and related to the concept of empowerment. Next, in a selection of empirical studies, four general strategies for professional development…

  20. The simplification of quality assurance programmes to suit developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, F.J.

    1978-01-01

    Whilst the need to produce and maintain documentation covering the supply and operation of Nuclear Steam Supply Systems is appreciated, it is felt that there is now a tendency to regard such documentation as more important than the plant itself. This tendency must be corrected if the safety and reliability of nuclear plants is to be maintained. The following paper proposes actions which will bring documentation into its proper perspective and make it more easily understood internationally. In addition, it is proposed that a common international Quality Assurance Programme Standard should be adopted by countries importing and exporting NSSS in order to make the requirements more understandable to all concerned. The proposals cover Quality Assurance Systems Specifications and the training of quality engineers and evaluators, and discuss Quality Assurance Programmes and Quality Plans. Specifically, the paper suggests the actions which could be undertaken now and proposes the bodies which should be responsible for such actions. (author)

  1. Cumbria PFT: Leadership Development Programme: interim evaluation report

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Paul K.; Grimwood, Tom; Relph, Nicola; Bargh, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This report investigates findings arising from participant feedback evaluations of the introduction day and first two modules (themselves spread over four days) of Cumbria Partnership Foundation Trust’s “Leadership Development” Programme, running 2012-2013, as part of a broader multi-method evaluation. The report summarises both quantitative and qualitative feedback, and synthesises results to provide a more three-dimensional overview. Specifically designed to provide insight into participant...

  2. Teachers' Experience from a School-Based Collaborative Teacher Professional Development Programme: Reported Impact on Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Bodil

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find out how science teachers who have participated in a one-year school-based collaborative teacher professional development programme, perceive the programme's impact on their professional development. Constant comparative analysis was used on data from three schools to generate the findings in this study. The…

  3. Developing industrial infrastructures to support a programme of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This Guidebook is intended to offer assistance in the many considerations and decisions involved in preparing the national industry for participation in a nuclear power programme. The heavy financial investment, the setting up of certain infrastructures many years ahead of plant construction, plus the high level of technology involved require early and systematic planning. A further purpose of this Guidebook is to serve particularly those decision makers and planners in the various governmental authorities, the technological institutions and in the industries likely to be involved in a nuclear project. These industries include the services of the national engineering resources, the domestic design and manufacturing groups as well as the civil construction companies. These will be responsible for plant erection, testing and commissioning and most of all for the establishment of a framework for quality assurance. All of these are the components of an essential infrastructure necessary to raise the standards of the national industry and to displace increasingly foreign suppliers to the extent possible. In addition, this Guidebook should help to show some of the implications, consequences and options involved in a nuclear power programme. It does not consider the basic decisions for going nuclear, nor does it review the choice of the technology or nuclear process selected for the programme. Instead, it limits itself to a consideration of the nuclear power plant and its essential cycle activities. Figs and tabs

  4. Web-Based Parenting Support: Development of the COPING Confident Parenting Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Hutchings

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Parents have the most significant impact on children’s development and the key parenting factors that promote child development and wellbeing are well known. Furthermore, many behavioural, social and emotional problems in children are associated with poor parenting practices. Parenting interventions that address parental skill deficits and teach positive parenting principles based on social learning theory are effective and are the recommended treatment for conduct disorder. Alongside the development of treatment programmes, universal parenting programmes have been developed; many present the same core parenting principles but their rationales vary from promoting children’s development to addressing common behavioural challenges and the evidence for these programmes is less well established. Most parents now have internet access and are making daily use of it, including seeking advice on parenting matters but that advice is often anecdotal and lacking evidence. In the meantime, a small number of web-based programmes, including parenting programmes have been developed and evaluated. This paper summarises the rationale for web-based universal programmes to support parents and briefly describes the history, content and a summary of the initial research on the COPING (confident parent internet guide programme developed by the authors. The paper concludes with suggestions for future research directions.

  5. Multi-target drugs: the trend of drug research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jin-Jian; Pan, Wei; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2012-01-01

    Summarizing the status of drugs in the market and examining the trend of drug research and development is important in drug discovery. In this study, we compared the drug targets and the market sales of the new molecular entities approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration from January 2000 to December 2009. Two networks, namely, the target-target and drug-drug networks, have been set up using the network analysis tools. The multi-target drugs have much more potential, as shown by the network visualization and the market trends. We discussed the possible reasons and proposed the rational strategies for drug research and development in the future.

  6. Drug development against tuberculosis: Impact of alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shardendu K; Tripathi, Garima; Kishore, Navneet; Singh, Rakesh K; Singh, Archana; Tiwari, Vinod K

    2017-09-08

    Despite of the advances made in the treatment and management, tuberculosis (TB) still remains one of main public health problem. The contrary effects of first and second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs have generated extended research interest in natural products in the hope of devising new antitubercular leads. Interestingly, plethoras of natural products have been discovered to exhibit activity towards various resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. Extensive applications of alkaloids in the field of therapeutics is well-established and nowday's researches being pursued to develop new potent drugs from natural sources for tuberculosis. Alkaloids are categorized in quite a few groups according to their structures and isolation from both terrestrial and marine sources. These new drugs might be a watershed in the battle against tuberculosis. This review summarizes alkaloids, which were found active against Mycobacteria since last ten years with special attention on the study of structure-activity relationship (SAR) and mode of action with their impact in drug discovery and development against tuberculosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Tofacitinib, an oral Janus kinase inhibitor: analysis of malignancies across the rheumatoid arthritis clinical development programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Jeffrey R; Lee, Eun Bong; Kaplan, Irina V; Kwok, Kenneth; Geier, Jamie; Benda, Birgitta; Soma, Koshika; Wang, Lisy; Riese, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To further assess the potential role of Janus kinase inhibition in the development of malignancies, we performed an integrated analysis of data from the tofacitinib RA clinical development programme. Malignancy data (up to 10 April 2013) were pooled from six phase II, six Phase III and two long-term extension (LTE) studies involving tofacitinib. In the phase II and III studies, patients with moderate-to-severe RA were randomised to various tofacitinib doses as monotherapy or with background non-biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), mainly methotrexate. The LTE studies (tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg twice daily) enrolled patients from qualifying prior phase I, II and III index studies. Of 5671 tofacitinib-treated patients, 107 developed malignancies (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC)). The most common malignancy was lung cancer (n=24) followed by breast cancer (n=19), lymphoma (n=10) and gastric cancer (n=6). The rate of malignancies by 6-month intervals of tofacitinib exposure indicates rates remained stable over time. Standardised incidence ratios (comparison with Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results) for all malignancies (excluding NMSC) and selected malignancies (lung, breast, lymphoma, NMSC) were within the expected range of patients with moderate-to-severe RA. The overall rates and types of malignancies observed in the tofacitinib clinical programme remained stable over time with increasing tofacitinib exposure. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Is Professional Literature of Any Help in Developing an Educational Programme?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiga Stupica

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with findings concer­ ning development of a programme for adult learners, the term programme being used along with the term curriculum. An educational programme for adults is a process and as such always in progress. It encompasses preliminary procedures and content programming as well as planning the programme and evaluation. Program­ me models can be either integral or no­ nintegral, integral being those which ma­ ke use of professional findings for pro­ gramme development. Integral program­ mes can be further divided into linear and nonlinear ones. Linear programmes seem to be mostly focusing on adult education didactics while the nonlinear ones are more open since they integrate many other factors.

  9. Coverage of, and compliance with, mass drug administration under the programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis in India: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Bontha V; Babu, Gopalan R

    2014-09-01

    India's mass drug administration (MDA) programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (PELF) covers all 250 endemic districts, but compliance with treatment is not adequate for the programme to succeed in eradicating this neglected tropical disease. The objective of our study was to systematically review published studies on the coverage of and compliance with MDA under the PELF in India. We searched several databases-PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar, CINAHL/EBSCO, Web of Knowledge (including Web of Science) and OVID-and by applying selection criteria identified a total of 36 papers to include in the review. Overall MDA coverage rates varied between 48.8% and 98.8%, while compliance rates ranged from 20.8% to 93.7%. The coverage-compliance gap is large in many MDA programmes. The effective level of compliance, ≥65%, was reported in only 10 of a total of 31 MDAs (5 of 20 MDAs in rural areas and 2 of 12 MDAs in urban areas). The review has identified a gap between coverage and compliance, and potentially correctable causes of this gap. These causes need to be addressed if the Indian programme is to advance towards elimination of lymphatic filariasis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Determinants of HIV sero-conversion among male injection drug users enrolled in a needle exchange programme at Karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samo, R. N.; Altaf, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the determinants of HIV sero-conversion among male injection drug users enrolled in needle exchange programme at Karachi. Methods: An unmatched retrospective case control study was conducted among male injection drug users receiving needle exchange services in Karachi. The cases and controls were identified from one drop in center providing needle exchange services. The data for the study participants was collected retrospectively from the programme. Descriptive statistics, univariate analysis, and multivariate regression analysis for determinants of HIV sero-conversion and Hosmer and Lameshow goodness of fit test for model adequacy were performed. Results: Mean age of the study participants was 34.17 +- 10.74 years. Average monthly income of the participants was US$ 125.15+-76.32. In unconditional multivariate regression analysis being unmarried (AOR: 3.0 95% CI 1.14-7.9, p=0.02), not living with family (AOR: 2.8 95% CI 1.18-6.79 p=0.02), family history of addiction (AOR: 2.5, 95% CI 1.01-6.49, p=0.04), injecting drugs in groups (AOR: 2.8, 95% CI 1.12 7.02 p=0.02), not obtaining syringes from the programme (AOR: 26.45, 95% CI 2.47-282.8 p=0.007), and history of blood transfusion (AOR: 52.9, 95% CI 1.32-2118.41 p=0.03) were significantly associated with HIV positive sero-status. Model adequacy was assessed by Hosmer and Lameshow goodness of (J: 4.95, p=0.7) indicating that the model was accurate. Conclusion: Social and drug related risky behaviours are important determinants of HIV among male IDUs in Karachi. The situation calls for programmatic initiatives for addressing the risky behaviours among IDUs for effective control of epidemic in the country. (author)

  11. 75 FR 32482 - Investigational New Drug Applications; Co-development of Investigational Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0247] Investigational New Drug Applications; Co-development of Investigational Drugs AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; establishment of docket; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug...

  12. Programme for the control of African animal trypanosomiasis and related development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finelle, P.

    1980-01-01

    After a statement on the problems raised by African animal trypanosomiasis and its control, and the development of currently affected areas, the Programme is outlined describing the methodology for tsetse and trypanosomiasis control operations and the basic approach for implementation of related development. The activities carried out during the five-year preliminary phase are summarized. The operational phase of the Programme is now being launched. The possible use of the sterile male technique is mentioned marginally. No details of research programmes envisaged are presented. A series of Preliminary Assistance Missions to Governments for the evaluation and preparation of control schemes, development strategies and projects is being mounted

  13. Effects of Psychostimulant Drugs on Developing Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Durukan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Although psychostimulants have been used for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder for approximately 70 years, little is known about the long term effects of these drugs on developing brain. The observable effects of psychostimulants are influenced by the timing of exposure, the age of examination after drug exposure and sex. Preclinical studies point out that chronic psychostimulant exposure before adolescence cause reverse sensitization or tolerance and this leads to reduction in stimulant effectiveness in adolesecence and adulthood. Preclinical studies show the potential long term effects of psychostimulants. But it is necessary to investigate the relationship between preclinical effects and clinical practice. A developmental approach is needed to understand the impact of pediatric medications on the brain that includes assessment at multiple ages to completely characterize the long term effects of these medications. The aim of this paper is to review the effects of psychostimulants on developing brain.

  14. AMS in drug development at GSK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, G.C.; Ellis, W.J.

    2007-01-01

    A history of the use of AMS in GSK studies spanning the last 8 years (1998-2005) is presented, including use in pilot studies through to clinical, animal and in vitro studies. A brief summary of the status of GSK's in-house AMS capability is outlined and views on the future of AMS in GSK are presented, including potential impact on drug development and potential advances in AMS technology

  15. SOLARGE - European programme for the development of collective thermal solar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimmig, Bodo; Chastanet, Aymeric; Gagnepain, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    The European programme SOLARGE aims at enlarging solar thermal systems in multi-family houses, hotels, public and social buildings in Europe. This publication first outlines that it is a way to struggle against climate change at a rather large scale. It indicates the members of this European consortium, and proposes sheets of presentation of operations (in La Rochelle, Paris, Venissieux, Ostwald, Strasbourg, Val Thorens, Echirolles, Asnieres, Saint-Raphael, Sophia Antipolis, Saignon, Beziers) which mainly concern solar production of domestic hot water in collective building (often social housing), and hotels

  16. Development of nuclear technology through International Technical Cooperation programme: Malaysian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainul Hayati Daud

    1997-01-01

    In the advent of new technologies and knowledge, countries need to rely on one another for progress and development. At the same time, new challenges to development, which are beyond the competence of any country to approach individually, have emerged. These have led to greater need for international co-operation, particularly among the developing countries. In Malaysia, international technical co-operation has contributed significantly towards the development of nuclear technology. Malaysia has received technical assistance through the multilateral, regional and bilateral co-operation. This assistance complements the efforts of the government to meet the primary objectives of science and technology programme, which are; intensification of R and D capacity and applications of technologies, both acquired and developed, in national development. Over the last one and a half decade, more than 70 projects valued almost USD 15 millions, were implemented under the Technical Assistance Programme of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Bilateral Technical Assistance Programme of Japan and Australia. Malaysia also has benefited from the regional technical co-operation programme such Regional Co-operative Agreement for Asia and Pacific Region, United Nation Department Programme, International Nuclear Co-operation in Asia. While receiving assistance, Malaysia continues to assist other developing countries in their development efforts in the fields of nuclear technology, through the various international co-operation programmes. This report reviews the technical assistance received through the international co-operation and its contributions towards the development of nuclear technology in Malaysia for period 1980 - 1996

  17. Drug discovery and development tomorrow -- changing the mindset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Robert A

    2009-09-01

    Today's drug discovery and development paradigm is not working, and something needs to be done about it. There is good reason to believe that a move away from reliance on animal surrogates for human subjects in the Pharma Industry's R&D programmes could provide an important step forward. However, no serious move will be made in that direction until there is some hard evidence that it will be rewarded with improved productivity outcomes. The Safer Medicines Trust are proposing that a study be undertaken, involving a range of drugs that have been approved for human use, but have subsequently proved to have limitations in terms of safety and/or efficacy. The aim is to determine the efficiency of a battery of human-based test methods to identify a compound's safety and efficacy profiles, and to compare this with that of the more traditional, largely animal-based methods that were employed in their original development. Should such an approach prove more reliable, the authorities will be faced with important decisions relating to the role of human biological test data in regulatory submissions, while the Pharma Industry will be faced with the key logistical issue of how to acquire the human biomaterials necessary to make possible the routine application of such test methods. 2009 FRAME.

  18. De-Radicalising Prisoners in Nigeria: developing a basic prison based de-radicalisation programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atta Barkindo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Nigerian Counter Terrorism Strategy recognised that force alone was not enough to combat violent extremist elements in Nigeria and that a multi-faceted approach was required to counter the threat of violent extremism. The Office of the National Security Advisor (ONSA was tasked with developing an ambitious countering violent extremism (CVE programme consisting of three elements: community-based counter radicalisation; strategic communications; and de-radicalisation. The de-radicalisation element of the CVE programme included establishing a prison based de-radicalisation programme for sentenced and pre-trial prisoners. The challenge facing ONSA and the Nigerian Prisons Service (NPS in setting up the de-radicalisation programme was considerable. Prison conditions were basic; there were no existing offending behaviour programmes on which to build; risk assessment was rudimentary and focussed on escape risk; awareness among staff at all levels of de-radicalisation programmes, their content and how they should be managed, was minimal; specialist staff were in short supply and had no training in running interventions; and resources, both physical and financial, were limited. This paper sets out how ONSA and NPS went about establishing the de-radicalisation programme and describes key elements of that programme, including: creating a supportive operating environment; risk and needs assessment; types of intervention; and programme management and staffing. It highlights the challenges and lessons that can be drawn from the operation of the programme during its first 18 months, which will be of particular interest to low resource, post-conflict and fragile states that are seeking to establish their own basic de-radicalisation programmes.

  19. Developing consumer involvement in rural HIV primary care programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamary, Edward M; Toevs, Kim; Burnworth, Karla B; Becker, Lin

    2004-06-01

    As part of a broader medical and psychosocial needs assessment in a rural region of northern California, USA, five focus groups were conducted to explore innovative approaches to creating a system of consumer involvement in the delivery of HIV primary care services in the region. A total of five focus groups (n = 30) were conducted with clients from three of five counties in the region with the highest number of HIV patients receiving primary care. Participants were recruited by their HIV case managers. They were adults living with HIV, who were receiving health care, and who resided in a rural mountain region of northern California. Group discussions explored ideas for new strategies and examined traditional methods of consumer involvement, considering ways they could be adapted for a rural environment. Recommendations for consumer involvement included a multi-method approach consisting of traditional written surveys, a formal advisory group, and monthly consumer led social support/informal input groups. Specific challenges discussed included winter weather conditions, transportation barriers, physical limitations, confidentiality concerns, and needs for social support and education. A multiple-method approach would ensure more comprehensive consumer involvement in the programme planning process. It is also evident that methods for incorporating consumer involvement must be adapted to the specific context and circumstances of a given programme.

  20. Fast reactor development programme in France during 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Rigoleur, C.

    1996-01-01

    In 1995, the total amount of electricity produced in France was 471 TWh, out of which 358.2 TWh (76 %) were produced by nuclear power plants, 36.9 TWh (7.8 %) by conventional thermal plants, and 75.5 TWh (16 %) by hydraulic plants. The net electrical power consumption was 368.7 TWh. At the end of 1995, 'Electricite de France' had 54 PWR units in operation. The availability factor for these units was maintained at 81%. 1995 was marked by a decrease of unexpected shutdowns (1.8% in 1995 instead of 2.2% in 1994), a new reduction in programmed shutdown periods, and a good safety level was maintained. In the field of Fast Reactors, the main events of 1995 were the following. At the end of December 1994, the PHENIX reactor was authorized to perform its 49th cycle at 350 MW th (143 MWe). This 49th cycle was completed without any significant problems on April 7, 1995. During the remainder of the year, the reactor had been shut down in order to carry out several tasks within the scope of the ten-year extension of the PHENIX reactor's lifetime. Concerning the CREYS-MALVILLE plant (SUPER-PHENIX) the first part of the year was devoted to repairing argon leak of one of the IHX. Authorization to restart the reactor was given on August 22. The end of the year was beset by a number of minor incidents. The reactor was restarted at the end of 1995 and reactor power was increased by successive steps (30% Pn (Nominal Power) up to February 6 1996; followed by 50 %...). The 'Decret d'Autorisation de Creation' stipulates that because of its prototype character, SUPER PHENIX will have to be operated under conditions explicitly giving priority to safety and knowledge acquisition, with an objective of research and demonstration. In this context, the so-called 'knowledge acquisition' programme designed to prove the capacity of a large FBR to produce electricity on an industrial scale, to test the consumption of plutonium and minor actinides in a large fast reactor, as well as to provide

  1. The Agency programme for the development of safeguards techniques and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Menchero, E.; Waligura, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    The programme of the Division of Development concentrates attention upon a variety of technical problems and tasks to enable the Agency safeguards system to achieve its safeguards objectives most economically for the Agency, the Member States and the nuclear facility operators. The programme must take into account the changes which may occur in the Agency's tasks as a consequence of implementation of safeguards in States with important nuclear activities. This paper attempts to summarize where the Agency methods and techniques development programme stands on meeting defined technical objectives, to point out where the main problems lie and to offer some guidelines for their solution. (author)

  2. The comparison and coordination of national policies and programmes in the energy research and development sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Inventory of programmes and expenditures in the field of energy research and development, which are financed from the public sector funds of the Member States and of the European Communities (1974-1976)

  3. The development of an evidence-based physical self-management rehabilitation programme for cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weert, Ellen; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; May, Anne M.; Korstjens, Irene; Ros, Wynand J. G.; van der Schans, Cees P.

    Objective: This paper describes the development of a physical training programme for cancer patients. Four related but conceptually and empirically distinct physical problems are described: decreased aerobic capacity, decreased muscle strength, fatigue and impaired role physical functioning. The

  4. The development of an evidence-based physical self-management rehabilitation programme for cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weert, Ellen; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E H M; May, Anne M; Korstjens, Irene; Ros, Wynand J G; van der Schans, Cees

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This paper describes the development of a physical training programme for cancer patients. Four related but conceptually and empirically distinct physical problems are described: decreased aerobic capacity, decreased muscle strength, fatigue and impaired role physical functioning. The

  5. Mentoring, coaching and action learning: interventions in a national clinical leadership development programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Martin S; Fealy, Gerard M; Casey, Mary; O'Connor, Tom; Patton, Declan; Doyle, Louise; Quinlan, Christina

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate mentoring, coaching and action learning interventions used to develop nurses' and midwives' clinical leadership competencies and to describe the programme participants' experiences of the interventions. Mentoring, coaching and action learning are effective interventions in clinical leadership development and were used in a new national clinical leadership development programme, introduced in Ireland in 2011. An evaluation of the programme focused on how participants experienced the interventions. A qualitative design, using multiple data sources and multiple data collection methods. Methods used to generate data on participant experiences of individual interventions included focus groups, individual interviews and nonparticipant observation. Seventy participants, including 50 programme participants and those providing the interventions, contributed to the data collection. Mentoring, coaching and action learning were positively experienced by participants and contributed to the development of clinical leadership competencies, as attested to by the programme participants and intervention facilitators. The use of interventions that are action-oriented and focused on service development, such as mentoring, coaching and action learning, should be supported in clinical leadership development programmes. Being quite different to short attendance courses, these interventions require longer-term commitment on the part of both individuals and their organisations. In using mentoring, coaching and action learning interventions, the focus should be on each participant's current role and everyday practice and on helping the participant to develop and demonstrate clinical leadership skills in these contexts. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Nonimaging detectors in drug development and approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, H N

    2001-07-01

    Regulatory applications for imaging biomarkers will expand in proportion to the validation of specific parameters as they apply to individual questions in the management of disease. This validation is likely to be applicable only to a particular class of drug or a single mechanism of action. Awareness among the world's regulatory authorities of the potential for these emerging technologies is high, but so is the cost to the sponsor (including the logistics of including images in a dossier), and therefore the pharmaceutical industry must evaluate carefully the potential benefit of each technology for its drug development programs, just as the authorities must consider carefully the extent to which the method is valid for the use to which the applicant has put it. For well-characterized tracer systems, it may be possible to design inexpensive cameras that make rapid assessments.

  7. Animal Migraine Models for Drug Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen-Olesen, Inger; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Olesen, Jes

    2013-01-01

    Migraine is number seven in WHO's list of all diseases causing disability and the third most costly neurological disorder in Europe. Acute attacks are treatable by highly selective drugs such as the triptans but there is still a huge unmet therapeutic need. Unfortunately, drug development...... for headache has almost come to a standstill partly because of a lack of valid animal models. Here we review previous models with emphasis on optimal characteristics of a future model. In addition to selection of animal species, the method of induction of migraine-like changes and the method of recording...... responses elicited by such measures are crucial. The most naturalistic way of inducing attacks is by infusion of endogenous signaling molecules that are known to cause migraine in patients. The most valid response is recording of neural activity in the trigeminal system. The most useful headache related...

  8. USER PERCEPTIONS AND EXPECTATIONS ON E-INFORMATION LITERACY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES: A GAP ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaminda Chiran Jayasundara

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuses the user perceptions and expectations of postgraduate students of the University of Colombo towards the e-information literacy skills development programme conducted by the library. Data was collected from 21 individuals through semi-structured questionnaire using gap theory. Overall, students satisfy with the quality of the programme and found three impediments to develop the service such as staff attitude, lack of mentoring and high customer demand.

  9. Benefits of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) Programmes in Music for KS2 (Primary) Teachers through the Example of the London Symphony Orchestra (LSO) on Track Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvarigou, Maria; Creech, Andrea; Hallam, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Between September 2008 and August 2010 24 KS2 classroom teachers were involved in a two-year programme of continuing professional development (CPD), delivered by the LSO in partnership with Local Authority Music Services. The teachers indicated that they embarked on the CPD programme looking forward to opportunities to share good practice, gain…

  10. The development and maintenance of drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Roy A; Koob, George F

    2014-01-01

    What is the defining property of addiction? We dust off a several-decades-long debate about the relative importance of two forms of reinforcement—positive reinforcement, subjectively linked to drug-induced euphoria, and negative reinforcement, subjectively linked to the alleviation of pain—both of which figure importantly in addiction theory; each of these forms has dominated addiction theory in its time. We agree that addiction begins with the formation of habits through positive reinforcement and that drug-opposite physiological responses often establish the conditions for negative reinforcement to come into play at a time when tolerance, in the form of increasing reward thresholds, appears to develop into positive reinforcement. Wise’s work has tended to focus on positive-reinforcement mechanisms that are important for establishing drug-seeking habits and reinstating them quickly after periods of abstinence, whereas Koob’s work has tended to focus on the negative-reinforcement mechanisms that become most obvious in the late stages of sustained addiction. While we tend to agree with each other about the early and late stages of addiction, we hold different views as to (i) the point between early and late at which the diagnosis of ‘addiction’ should be invoked, (ii) the relative importance of positive and negative reinforcement leading up to this transition, and (iii) the degree to which the specifics of negative reinforcement can be generalized across the range of addictive agents.

  11. Rational drug use--evaluation of a training programme for interns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natu, M V; Zachariah, P; Zachariah, A; Chand, S; Singh, T; Choudhry, K

    1995-09-01

    A workshop covering various aspects of rational drug use was conducted for interns of Christian Medical College, Ludhiana. Evaluation of the workshop revealed that it was able to bring about an attitudinal change regarding rational drug use. The methodology and evaluation procedures have been described. It is suggested that similar attempts should be made at all medical colleges so that every graduate enters medical practice with a positive attitude towards rational drug use.

  12. Introducing innovation in a management development programme for a UK primary care organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul; Hampson, Libby; Scott, Jonathan; Bower, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the introduction of innovation as part of a management development programme at a primary care organisation, a legal form known as a Primary Care Trust (PCT), in the UK. The paper draws on experience of managing a successful management development programme for a PCT. The report of the case study analyses the key events that took place between 2008 and 2010, from direct observation, surveys, discussion and documentary evidence. The Northern PCT has partnerships with a number of educational providers to deliver their leadership and management development programmes. A close working relationship had developed and the programme is bespoke - hence it is current and of practical use to the UK's National Health Service (NHS). In addition, there are regular meetings, with module leaders gaining a firsthand understanding of the organisation's needs and aspirations. This has resulted in a very focused and personalised offering and a genuine involvement in the programme and individuals concerned. The research was conducted among a relatively small sample, and there is a lack of previous literature evidence to make significant comparisons. The paper identifies key implications for practitioners and educators in this area. This paper is one of few to investigate innovation and improvement in the NHS, and is unique in that it uses the lenses of a management development programme to explore this important, and under-researched, topic.

  13. Service impact of a national clinical leadership development programme: findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fealy, Gerard M; McNamara, Martin S; Casey, Mary; O'Connor, Tom; Patton, Declan; Doyle, Louise; Quinlan, Christina

    2015-04-01

    The study reported here was part of a larger study, which evaluated a national clinical leadership development programme with reference to resources, participant experiences, participant outcomes and service impact. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the programme's service impact. Clinical leadership development develops competencies that are expressed in context. The outcomes of clinical leadership development occur at individual, departmental and organisational levels. The methods used to evaluate the service impact were focus groups, group interviews and individual interviews. Seventy participants provided data in 18 separate qualitative data collection events. The data contained numerous accounts of service development activities, initiated by programme participants, which improved service and/or improved the culture of the work setting. Clinical leadership development programmes that incorporate a deliberate service impact element can result in identifiable positive service outcomes. The nuanced relationship between leader development and service development warrants further investigation. This study demonstrates that clinical leadership development can impact on service in distinct and identifiable ways. Clinical leadership development programmes should focus on the setting in which the leadership competencies will be demonstrated. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The European Community's research and development programme on the decommissioning of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skupinski, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities (CEC) continued with a second research programme on the decommissioning of nuclear installations (1984-88), after having completed a first programme on the decommissioning of nuclear power plants (1979-83). The programme, which has about 70 research contracts with organisations or private firms in the member states, includes the development and testing of advanced techniques, such as decontamination and dismantling, and the consideration of the radioactive waste arising therefrom. Work is done at laboratory scale or in the context of large-scale decommissioning operations. The paper will give an overview on the technical content and on some selected results. (author)

  15. The European Fusion Research and Development Programme and the ITER Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B J

    2006-01-01

    The EURATOM fusion research and development programme is a well integrated and coordinated programme. It has the objective of ''developing the technology for a safe, sustainable, environmentally responsible and economically viable energy source.'' The programme is focussed on the magnetic confinement approach and supports 23 Associations which involve research entities (many with experimental and technology facilities) each having a bilateral contractual relationship with the European Commission. The paper will describe fusion reactions and present their potential advantages as an energy source. Further, it will describe the EURATOM programme and how it is organised and implemented. The success of the European programme and that of other national programmes, have provided the basis for the international ITER Project, which is the next logical step in the development of fusion energy. The paper will describe ITER, its aims, its design, and the supporting manufacture of prototype components. The European contribution to ITER, the exploitation of the Joint European Torus (JET), and the long-term reactor technology R and D are carried out under the multilateral European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA)

  16. Development of an education and training programme for radiation protection officers in facilities and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutwamezi, Tekla

    2015-02-01

    Education and training is a crucial matter in radiation protection and it is considered a regulatory requirement. For this reason, this project work focused on developing an education and training programme for Radiation Protection Officers whose overall function is to oversee radiation protection and safety at the work place. The developed education and training programme has adopted both the class room based and on the job training methods. Additionally, the programme is organized into 6 modules and focuses on fundamentals of radioactivity; biological effects; legislation; principles of radiation protection; assessment and protection against occupational exposure; medical exposure (only applicable to Radiation Protection Officers in the medical sector) and emergency preparedness and response. The purpose of the programme is to provide Radiation Protection Officers with the basic knowledge and skills to function effectively to meet radiation safety and regulatory requirements. (au)

  17. Alcohol Prevention: What Can Be Expected of a Harm Reduction Focused School Drug Education Programme?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midford, Richard; Cahill, Helen; Ramsden, Robyn; Davenport, Gillian; Venning, Lynne; Lester, Leanne; Murphy, Bernadette; Pose, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This pilot study investigated what alcohol prevention benefits could be achieved by a harm reduction focused school drug education intervention that addressed all drug use, both licit and illicit. Method: The study population comprised a cohort of 225 students in three intervention secondary schools and 93 students in a matched control school…

  18. Drug safety alerts of pharmacovigilance programme of India: A scope for targeted spontaneous reporting in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Thota

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: In India, spontaneous reporting of ADRs existed since 1998 under passive surveillance method, but there is an urgent need to initiate TSR, which is a complementary method to spontaneous reporting on these drug safety alerts for further regulatory action by Central Drugs Standard Control Organization.

  19. Development of procedures for programmable proximity aperture lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitlow, H.J., E-mail: harry.whitlow@he-arc.ch [Institut des Microtechnologies Appliquées Arc, Haute Ecole Arc Ingénierie, Eplatures-Grise 17, CH-2300 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland); Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FI-40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Gorelick, S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, Tietotie 3, Espoo, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Puttaraksa, N. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FI-40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Napari, M.; Hokkanen, M.J.; Norarat, R. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FI-40014 Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2013-07-01

    Programmable proximity aperture lithography (PPAL) with MeV ions has been used in Jyväskylä and Chiang Mai universities for a number of years. Here we describe a number of innovations and procedures that have been incorporated into the LabView-based software. The basic operation involves the coordination of the beam blanker and five motor-actuated translators with high accuracy, close to the minimum step size with proper anti-collision algorithms. By using special approaches, such writing calibration patterns, linearisation of position and careful backlash correction the absolute accuracy of the aperture size and position, can be improved beyond the standard afforded by the repeatability of the translator end-point switches. Another area of consideration has been the fluence control procedures. These involve control of the uniformity of the beam where different approaches for fluence measurement such as simultaneous aperture current and the ion current passing through the aperture using a Faraday cup are used. Microfluidic patterns may contain many elements that make-up mixing sections, reaction chambers, separation columns and fluid reservoirs. To facilitate conception and planning we have implemented a .svg file interpreter, that allows the use of scalable vector graphics files produced by standard drawing software for generation of patterns made up of rectangular elements.

  20. Guidelines on Devising a Programme for Competence Acquisition and Development among Nuclear Regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-12-01

    This publication provides the outline of a programme to strengthen regulatory competences, based on the operating experience of countries with a developed nuclear programme and which are members of the Forum of Radiological and Nuclear Regulatory Agencies (FORO). The guidelines are designed to optimize the resources of the Ibero-American region and they complement and supplement the IAEA’s Safety Reports Series No. 79 as a frame of reference.

  1. Developing international alumni activities in Mikkeli University of Applied Sciences : Case Business Management degree programme

    OpenAIRE

    Honkaniemi, Meri

    2014-01-01

    My thesis focuses on international alumni activities in Mikkeli University of Applied Sciences. My aim was to find development ideas and recommendations for the international side of the alumni activities. I intended to offer realistic suggestions enough in order to make them work in practice too. I put also my effort on finding recommendations for Business Management programme, because I wanted to make sure that international alumni activities get attention in degree programme level too. ...

  2. Guidelines on Devising a Programme for Competence Acquisition and Development among Nuclear Regulators (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-05-01

    This publication provides the outline of a programme to strengthen regulatory competences, based on the operating experience of countries with a developed nuclear programme and which are members of the Forum of Radiological and Nuclear Regulatory Agencies (FORO). The guidelines are designed to optimize the resources of the Ibero-American region and they complement and supplement the IAEA’s Safety Reports Series No. 79 as a frame of reference.

  3. The Mission of customer loyalty programmes and peculiarities of their development

    OpenAIRE

    Bagdonienė, Liudmila; Jakštaitė, Rasa

    2006-01-01

    Loyalty is a characteristic of a person showing any relation with an object – goods, service or enterprise. Nowadays it is important to earn loyalty of investors, employees and customers. The article deals with essence of customer loyalty, dimensions of customer loyalty, mission, goals, tasks of customer loyalty as well as disputes a process of developing customer loyalty programme: choice of a target group, grounding the structure implementing customer loyalty programme, registration of part...

  4. UKAEA's programme for the development of waste packages for deep disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes UKAEA ILW, the development programme underpinning the proposed disposals, the case for cement as the immobilising matrix and the waste package performance required by the Deep Repository. The paper also seeks to show that UKAEA is effectively managing its ILW liability through a well managed programme which is convincingly best value whilst meeting appropriate national and international agreed standards for safety and environmental care. (author)

  5. The development of peer educator-based harm reduction programmes in Northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Nick; Gibbie, Tania M; Higgs, Peter

    2008-03-01

    Injecting drug use remains an important risk factor for transmission in Vietnam, with an estimated 50% of the 290 000 people living with HIV/AIDS reporting injecting drug use as a risk factor. Despite this, effective harm reduction interventions are generally lacking. This paper describes the implementation of peer-based harm reduction programmes in two rural provinces of Vietnam. Peer educators were trained in basic HIV prevention, including harm reduction. After significant preparation work with the Provincial AIDS Committees of Bac Giang and Thanh Hoa and other relevant national, provincial and local authorities, the interventions were commenced. Harm reduction interventions were delivered through outreach as well as on-site. This included needle and syringe distribution and collection. Community advocacy occurred throughout the life of the project. Local authorities and peers believed that while there was a general reduction in stigma and discrimination, legal barriers associated particularly with the carrying of injecting equipment remained. This impacted upon the ability of peer educators to work with their clients. Peer-based delivery of harm reduction intervention is acceptable. Harm reduction interventions, including needle and syringe programmes, are feasible and acceptable in these two rural Vietnamese provinces. Community acceptance and uptake of these interventions is key to successful expansion across the region. Active participation by families of drug users seems crucial. This initiative demonstrates that despite a difficult policy environment, peer-delivered needle and syringe programmes are feasible within a rural Asian environment as long as there is adequate local political and community support.

  6. Talent identification and development programmes in sport : current models and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaeyens, Roel; Lenoir, Matthieu; Williams, A Mark; Philippaerts, Renaat M

    2008-01-01

    Many children strive to attain excellence in sport. However, although talent identification and development programmes have gained popularity in recent decades, there remains a lack of consensus in relation to how talent should be defined or identified and there is no uniformly accepted theoretical framework to guide current practice. The success rates of talent identification and development programmes have rarely been assessed and the validity of the models applied remains highly debated. This article provides an overview of current knowledge in this area with special focus on problems associated with the identification of gifted adolescents. There is a growing agreement that traditional cross-sectional talent identification models are likely to exclude many, especially late maturing, 'promising' children from development programmes due to the dynamic and multidimensional nature of sport talent. A conceptual framework that acknowledges both genetic and environmental influences and considers the dynamic and multidimensional nature of sport talent is presented. The relevance of this model is highlighted and recommendations for future work provided. It is advocated that talent identification and development programmes should be dynamic and interconnected taking into consideration maturity status and the potential to develop rather than to exclude children at an early age. Finally, more representative real-world tasks should be developed and employed in a multidimensional design to increase the efficacy of talent identification and development programmes.

  7. Patent extension policy for paediatric indications: an evaluation of the impact within three drug classes in a state Medicaid programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Richard E; McAdam-Marx, Carrie; Evans, Megan L; Ward, Robert; Campbell, Benjamin; Brixner, Diana; Lafleur, Joanne

    2011-05-01

    The Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act (FDAMA) of 1997, Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act (BPCA) of 2002 and Pediatric Research Equity Act of 2007 provide an extended period of 6 months of marketing exclusivity (i.e. patent extension) to prescription drug manufacturers that conduct paediatric studies. Branded drugs in the statin, ACE inhibitor and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) classes were three of many classes with drugs granted patent extensions. We estimated the cost impact of the 6-month exclusivity extension policy on the Utah Medicaid drug programme by comparing actual costs to projected costs had the 6-month exclusivity extension not been granted for these drugs and thus less expensive generic alternatives been available sooner. Using these results, we then projected the cost impact of this policy on Medicaid programmes in the US during the 18 months following patent expiration. The Utah Medicaid prescription claims obtained for statins, ACE inhibitors and SSRIs included reimbursement amount, number of units dispensed, days supplied, date of service and drug strength. Actual expenditures for each drug were calculated for the 6 months before and 12 months after generic availability. The percentage difference between the brand name prescription reimbursement amount to Medicaid in the last 2 months of the 6-month extension and the generic prescription reimbursement amount to Medicaid in the first 2 months following exclusivity expiration was then calculated for each drug. This was done using data from the 5 months surrounding the exclusivity expiration by regressing the log-transformed Utah Medicaid reimbursement amount on an indicator for patent expiration, controlling for number of units, volume of sales, month filled and strength. This was used to estimate what the initial generic prescription price would have been without the 6-month patent extension and what costs would have been in the 18 months following the original

  8. Developing a national programme for textiles and clothing recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Mohammad Abdullatif; Carrasco-Gallego, Ruth; Ponce-Cueto, Eva

    2018-04-01

    Textiles waste is relatively small in terms of weight as compared to other waste streams, but it has a large impact on human health and environment, and its rate is increasing due to the 'fast fashion' model. In this paper, we examine the French national programme for managing post-consumer textiles and clothing through a case study research. To date, France is the only country in the world implementing an extended producer responsibility (EPR) policy for end-of-use clothing, linen and shoes. The case highlights the benefits of using an EPR policy and provides interesting insights about the challenges faced by the textiles waste sector. For instance, the EPR policy has contributed to a threefold increase in the collection and recycling rates of post-consumer textiles since 2006. In addition, the material recovery rate of the post-consumer textiles can reach 90%, 50% of which can be directly reused. However, the 'reuse' stream is facing some challenges because its main market is in Africa and many African countries are considering banning the import of used textiles to encourage a competitive textiles industry locally and internationally. The EPR policy shows a great potential to identify new markets for 'reuse' and to improve the textiles waste sector. Such an EPR policy also could drive societies to financially support innovation and research to provide feasible solutions for fashion producers to adopt eco-design and design for recycling practices. This paper provides guidance for policy makers, shareholders, researchers and practitioners interested in diverting post-consumer textiles and clothing waste from landfills and promoting circular textiles transition.

  9. Developing National Capacity to Initiate Nuclear Power Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndontchueng, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: ⇒ Nuclear power is needed for Developing Countries in the long term development strategy; ⇒ Developing Countries are lack of man power for both the NPP projects and the long term nuclear power program; ⇒ A long term HRD program (strategy) is needed to be established, in cooperation with Developed countries; ⇒ Education and training abroad is essential to the technology transfer; ⇒ Establishment of adequate infrastructure supporting HRD (nuclear engineering faculties, research groups, technical support centers) is indispensible for Developing Countries

  10. Developing clinical leaders: the impact of an action learning mentoring programme for advanced practice nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggat, Sandra G; Balding, Cathy; Schiftan, Dan

    2015-06-01

    To determine whether a formal mentoring programme assists nurse practitioner candidates to develop competence in the clinical leadership competencies required in their advanced practice roles. Nurse practitioner candidates are required to show evidence of defined clinical leadership competencies when they apply for endorsement within the Australian health care system. Aiming to assist the candidates with the development or enhancement of these leadership skills, 18 nurse practitioner candidates participated in a mentoring programme that matched them with senior nurse mentors. A pre-postlongitudinal intervention study. Eighteen nurse practitioner candidates and 17 senior nurses participated in a voluntary mentoring programme that incorporated coaching and action learning over 18 months in 2012 and 2013. Participants completed a pen and paper questionnaire to document baseline measures of self-reported leadership practices prior to commencement of the programme and again at the end of the programme. The mentors and the nurse practitioner candidates qualitatively evaluated the programme as successful and quantitative data illustrated significant improvement in self-reported leadership practices among the nurse practitioner candidates. In particular, the nurse practitioner candidates reported greater competence in the transformational aspects of leadership, which is directly related to the nurse practitioner candidate clinical leadership standard. A formal, structured mentoring programme based on principles of action learning was successful in assisting Australian advanced practice nurses enhance their clinical leadership skills in preparation for formal endorsement as a nurse practitioner and for success in their advanced practice role. Mentoring can assist nurses to transition to new roles and develop knowledge and skills in clinical leadership essential for advanced practice roles. Nurse managers should make greater use of mentoring programmes to support nurses in

  11. Pharmacogenomics to Revive Drug Development in Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Marie-Pierre; de Denus, Simon; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2016-02-01

    Investment in cardiovascular drug development is on the decline as large cardiovascular outcomes trials require considerable investments in time, efforts and financial resources. Pharmacogenomics has the potential to help revive the cardiovascular drug development pipeline by providing new and better drug targets at an earlier stage and by enabling more efficient outcomes trials. This article will review some of the recent developments highlighting the value of pharmacogenomics for drug development. We discuss how genetic biomarkers can enable the conduct of more efficient clinical outcomes trials by enriching patient populations for good responders to the medication. In addition, we assess past drug development programs which support the added value of selecting drug targets that have established genetic evidence supporting the targeted mechanism of disease. Finally, we discuss how pharmacogenomics can provide valuable evidence linking a drug target to clinically relevant outcomes, enabling novel drug discovery and drug repositioning opportunities.

  12. [Second wave of the French drug harmonisation programme to prevent medication errors: overall appreciation of healthcare professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhamou, D; Nacry, R; Journois, D; Auroy, Y; Durand, D; Arnoux, A; Olier, L; Castot, A

    2012-01-01

    Medication errors are a significant cause of severe healthcare-associated complications. In December 2006, the French Health Products Agency (Afssaps) has issued a protocol to harmonise labeling of injectable drugs vials. In 2007, a first change was launched for four drugs and was followed in 2008-2009 by a second wave concerning 42 active drugs. The present study describes how healthcare professionals have perceived this change and their overall appreciation of the drug harmonisation programme. A survey using an electronic questionnaire was distributed to medical and non-medical professionals in anaesthesia and intensive care and pharmacists in a representative sample of 200 French hospitals. The harmonisation procedure was felt as being overall satisfactory by 53% of professionals who had responded but it was recognised that the new procedure is associated with improved readability and understanding of drug dosage. The use of colour coding was also well accepted by the personnel of clinical units. Respondents expressed significant criticisms regarding both the communication plan and the way the plan was implemented locally in hospitals. Old and new labeling coexisted in 66% of responding hospitals and many respondents described being aware of errors or near-misses that were considered related to the transition. For many important topics, pharmacists had views that were significantly different from clinicians. This national survey describing the perception of healthcare professionals regarding the new harmonisation procedure for injectable drugs highlighted some progress but also a number of deficiencies, notably regarding communication and implementation of the change in clinical units. This survey will be used by the French Health Products Agency to improve future steps of the long-lasting campaign against medication errors. Copyright © 2011 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Mind the gap : predicting cardiovascular risk during drug development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chain, Anne S. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular safety issues, specifically drug-induced QT/QTc-interval prolongation, remain a major cause of drug attrition during clinical development and is one of the main causes for post-market drug withdrawals accounting for 15-34% of all drug discontinuation. Given the potentially fatal

  14. The Cockcroft difference: an analysis of the impact of a nursing leadership development programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Kate K; Willis, Leah

    2013-03-01

    Identifying impact areas of nursing leadership development programmes is needed to determine if there are measureable effects on participants. These impact areas help to identify measures to substantiate the benefits of nursing leadership programmes for organization leaders making decisions about support and implementation of such opportunities for their emerging leaders. Using mixed qualitative/quantitative methods, the impact of a nursing leadership development programme, the Amy V. Cockcroft Fellowship, is examined to determine if there are measureable influences. Themes of four areas of impact: improved conflict resolution/negotiation skills, communication skills, personal development and career action or change were identified through content analysis. These themes provide the basis for creating measureable indicators for nursing organizations to use in determining the value of nursing leadership development programmes such as the Amy V. Cockcroft Fellowship. Based on the findings established in this research article, nurse managers can focus on developing themselves and their peer groups through nursing leadership development programmes to prepare for leading in the present and future healthcare environment. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. International Conference on Human Resource Development for Nuclear Power Programmes: Building and Sustaining Capacity. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the conference are to: • Review developments in the global status of HRD since the 2010 international conference; • Emphasize the role of human resources and capacity building programmes at the national and organizational level for achieving safe, secure and sustainable nuclear power programmes; • Discuss the importance of building competence in nuclear safety and security; • Provide a forum for information exchange on national, as well as international, policies and practices; • Share key elements and best practices related to the experience of Member States that are introducing, operating or expanding nuclear power programmes; • Highlight the practices and issues regarding HRD at the organizational and national level; • Highlight education and training programmes and practices; • Emphasize the role of nuclear knowledge management for knowledge transfer and HRD; and • Elaborate on the role and scope of various knowledge networks

  16. Research and development programme of the EC in the field of raw materials 1982 to 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Brussels: The EC Cabinet Council was presented a research and development programme in the field of raw materials for the years 1982 to 1985 which covers programmes already running and new actions as an overlapping raw material research programme of the EC. The new programme is divided up into 7 subprogrammes: I) metals and minerals (formerly: primary raw materials, II) uranium, III) ceramics, IV) wood as a renewable raw material, V) recycling of wastes (house and industry, VI) regaining of non-iron metals, VII) substitution. For the continuing of running actions and for beginning new projects in the 4 years plan, a total of 17 million ECU are to be allocated in the budget of the EC which will be used in cost sharing contracts or for coordinative projects. (orig./UA) [de

  17. Towards a framework for a professional development programme: empowering teachers for context-based chemistry education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, M.; Bulte, A.M.W.; de Jong, O.; Pilot, A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a framework for professional development programmes that empowers chemistry teachers to teach and design context-based chemistry curricula. Firstly, teachers involvement, their concerns and their professional development in several context-based curriculum

  18. The development and implementation of a public information programme at the Kozloduy nuclear power plant, Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, Keith

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes to examine the aims, approach and evaluation of a Public Information Programme currently being undertaken by the British Nuclear Industry Forum. The Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant has awarded a contract to the British Nuclear Industry Forum to carry out a Public Information Programme with the objective of informing the people of Bulgaria about the content of the Nuclear Safety Account Grant Agreement, the role of the NSA, the role of EBRD and the donor countries in providing the necessary funding, the safety improvement programme being undertaken and the progress being made. The overall aim of the Programme is to build a consensus among energy consumers of the principal issues to be faced in the development and implementation of a Bulgarian energy strategy. There are a number of key elements of the Programme which include: 1) To carry out a communications audit in order to assess current structures and methods of information dissemination. This is to establish the Programme's requirements and provide a detailed operational plan. 2) To assess public opinion and general levels of awareness of the general public, workforce, press, government and industry regarding Kozloduy in order to establish priority messages and create and produce the necessary information material. 3) To review the plant's existing information centre and to provide training and support to facilitate the handling of public and press enquiries and also presentation training for the centre's personnel. 4) To create bespoke outreach programmes which will inform local and national Government, the workforce and local communities, women and schools of safety improvement processes. 5) To implement a media programme which will enable staff at the plant to deal effectively with inquiries and to enable them to anticipate media interest in a range of issues including the safety upgrade. 6) To organise a workshop on issue management so that participants can create and communicate an issue

  19. Human Resource Development for Introducing and Expanding Nuclear Power Programmes. Summary of an International Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Currently, the world is witnessing a resurgence of interest in nuclear power. More than fifty Member States, with support from the IAEA, are considering the introduction of nuclear power, and human resource development is one of the crucial areas in terms of requests for support. The need for human resources in the nuclear sector is not only experienced by countries embarking on new nuclear power programmes, but also by countries with existing programmes that are considering expansion, as many current professionals are approaching retirement age and the number of newly trained staff is generally not sufficient to meet the potential demand. The IAEA conference on Human Resource Development for Introducing and Expanding Nuclear Power Programmes was held from 14 to 18 March 2010 in Abu Dhabi, hosted by the Government of the United Arab Emirates. This conference was organized to address work force issues faced by countries which are embarking on new nuclear power programmes, expanding current programmes or planning to supply nuclear technology to other countries. The situation is different for each country; some need to develop their own local expertise, while others need to scale up existing educational and training programmes to increase the number of professionals. The purpose of this conference was to bring together Member States to help formulate country specific policies on human resource development, education, training and knowledge management to help support each country's nuclear power programme. In addition, the IAEA can facilitate better use of other educational opportunities, including research reactors and development of training facilities. These proceedings highlight the key findings and recommendations of the meeting and the conclusions of the chairperson. All papers presented and discussed during the meeting are included on the attached CD-ROM. To access the papers, click on 'Index' on the CD-ROM.

  20. Human Resource Development for Introducing and Expanding Nuclear Power Programmes. Summary of an International Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-10-15

    Currently, the world is witnessing a resurgence of interest in nuclear power. More than fifty Member States, with support from the IAEA, are considering the introduction of nuclear power, and human resource development is one of the crucial areas in terms of requests for support. The need for human resources in the nuclear sector is not only experienced by countries embarking on new nuclear power programmes, but also by countries with existing programmes that are considering expansion, as many current professionals are approaching retirement age and the number of newly trained staff is generally not sufficient to meet the potential demand. The IAEA conference on Human Resource Development for Introducing and Expanding Nuclear Power Programmes was held from 14 to 18 March 2010 in Abu Dhabi, hosted by the Government of the United Arab Emirates. This conference was organized to address work force issues faced by countries which are embarking on new nuclear power programmes, expanding current programmes or planning to supply nuclear technology to other countries. The situation is different for each country; some need to develop their own local expertise, while others need to scale up existing educational and training programmes to increase the number of professionals. The purpose of this conference was to bring together Member States to help formulate country specific policies on human resource development, education, training and knowledge management to help support each country's nuclear power programme. In addition, the IAEA can facilitate better use of other educational opportunities, including research reactors and development of training facilities. These proceedings highlight the key findings and recommendations of the meeting and the conclusions of the chairperson. All papers presented and discussed during the meeting are included on the attached CD-ROM. To access the papers, click on 'Index' on the CD-ROM.

  1. RD and D-Programme 2004. Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste, including social science research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    SKB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co), which is owned by the companies that operate the Swedish nuclear power plants, has been assigned the task of managing and disposing of the spent nuclear fuel from the reactors. The Nuclear Activities Act requires a programme of comprehensive research and development and other measures that are needed to manage and dispose of nuclear waste in a safe manner and to decommission and dismantle the nuclear power plants. SKB is now presenting RD and D-Programme 2004 in fulfilment of this requirement. The programme describes SKB's plans for the period 2005-2010. The period of immediate concern is 2005-2007. The level of detail for the three subsequent years is naturally lower.The programme provides a basis for designing systems for safe management and disposal of the radioactive waste from the nuclear power plants. SKB's plan is to implement deep disposal of the spent fuel in accordance with the KBS-3 method. In the RD and D-Programme we describe our activities and planning for this line of action and the work that is being conducted on alternative methods. Review of the programme can contribute valuable outside viewpoints. The regulatory authorities and the Government can clarify how they look upon different parts of the programme and stipulate guidelines for the future. Municipalities and other stakeholders can, after studying the programme, offer their viewpoints to SKB, the regulatory authorities or the Government.The goal for the period up to the end of 2008 is to be able to submit permit applications for the encapsulation plant and the deep repository. This RD and D-Programme therefore differs from the preceding ones in that it concentrates on questions relating to technology development for these facilities. The programmes for safety assessment and research on the long-term processes that take place in the deep repository are then linked together with the programmes for technology development. Another new

  2. RD and D-Programme 2004. Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste, including social science research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    SKB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co), which is owned by the companies that operate the Swedish nuclear power plants, has been assigned the task of managing and disposing of the spent nuclear fuel from the reactors. The Nuclear Activities Act requires a programme of comprehensive research and development and other measures that are needed to manage and dispose of nuclear waste in a safe manner and to decommission and dismantle the nuclear power plants. SKB is now presenting RD and D-Programme 2004 in fulfilment of this requirement. The programme describes SKB's plans for the period 2005-2010. The period of immediate concern is 2005-2007. The level of detail for the three subsequent years is naturally lower.The programme provides a basis for designing systems for safe management and disposal of the radioactive waste from the nuclear power plants. SKB's plan is to implement deep disposal of the spent fuel in accordance with the KBS-3 method. In the RD and D-Programme we describe our activities and planning for this line of action and the work that is being conducted on alternative methods. Review of the programme can contribute valuable outside viewpoints. The regulatory authorities and the Government can clarify how they look upon different parts of the programme and stipulate guidelines for the future. Municipalities and other stakeholders can, after studying the programme, offer their viewpoints to SKB, the regulatory authorities or the Government.The goal for the period up to the end of 2008 is to be able to submit permit applications for the encapsulation plant and the deep repository. This RD and D-Programme therefore differs from the preceding ones in that it concentrates on questions relating to technology development for these facilities. The programmes for safety assessment and research on the long-term processes that take place in the deep repository are then linked together with the programmes for technology development. Another

  3. RD and D-Programme 2004. Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste, including social science research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-09-01

    SKB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co), which is owned by the companies that operate the Swedish nuclear power plants, has been assigned the task of managing and disposing of the spent nuclear fuel from the reactors. The Nuclear Activities Act requires a programme of comprehensive research and development and other measures that are needed to manage and dispose of nuclear waste in a safe manner and to decommission and dismantle the nuclear power plants. SKB is now presenting RD and D-Programme 2004 in fulfilment of this requirement. The programme describes SKB's plans for the period 2005-2010. The period of immediate concern is 2005-2007. The level of detail for the three subsequent years is naturally lower.The programme provides a basis for designing systems for safe management and disposal of the radioactive waste from the nuclear power plants. SKB's plan is to implement deep disposal of the spent fuel in accordance with the KBS-3 method. In the RD and D-Programme we describe our activities and planning for this line of action and the work that is being conducted on alternative methods. Review of the programme can contribute valuable outside viewpoints. The regulatory authorities and the Government can clarify how they look upon different parts of the programme and stipulate guidelines for the future. Municipalities and other stakeholders can, after studying the programme, offer their viewpoints to SKB, the regulatory authorities or the Government.The goal for the period up to the end of 2008 is to be able to submit permit applications for the encapsulation plant and the deep repository. This RD and D-Programme therefore differs from the preceding ones in that it concentrates on questions relating to technology development for these facilities. The programmes for safety assessment and research on the long-term processes that take place in the deep repository are then linked together with the programmes for technology development. Another new

  4. The role of small satellites in the development of the South African space programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Peter

    In the 1990s a team of scientists and engineers at Stellenbosch University built the first South African satellite to fly in space, the 64-kg Sunsat. This university-based satellite programme took advantage of the skills and facilities developed in the previous South African space programme of the 1980s and early 1990s, which had developed a much larger satellite (Greensat), but was cancelled in the mid-1990s prior to launch. Sunsat incorporated a number of novel capabilities for a microsatellite platform, and interest was shown in these technologies by other groups developing similar satellites. As the University was not the ideal environment to develop the commercial potential of these microsatellite technologies, a company called Sunspace was later established, thus creating industrial capacity in South Africa in a niche area of space technology. This new industrial capability, together with the infrastructure from the previous space programme, have created a foundation upon which to build the new South African space programme. This paper discusses the historical, current and possible future roles of small satellites in the development of the South African space programme.

  5. Improving Latino Children's Early Language and Literacy Development: Key Features of Early Childhood Education within Family Literacy Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Youngok; Zuniga, Stephen; Howes, Carollee; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Parrish, Deborah; Quick, Heather; Manship, Karen; Hauser, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Noting the lack of research on how early childhood education (ECE) programmes within family literacy programmes influence Latino children's early language and literacy development, this study examined key features of ECE programmes, specifically teacher-child interactions and child engagement in language and literacy activities and how these…

  6. Proceedings of the Specialist Meeting on Severe Accident Management Programme Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-04-15

    Effective Accident Management planning can produce both a reduction in the frequency of severe accidents at nuclear power plants as well as the ability to mitigate a severe accident. The purpose of an accident management programme is to provide to the responsible plant staff the capability to cope with the complete range of credible severe accidents. This requires that appropriate instrumentation and equipment are available within the plant to enable plant staff to diagnose the faults and to implement appropriate strategies. The programme must also provide the necessary guidance, procedures, and training to assure that appropriate corrective actions will be implemented. One of the key issues to be discussed is the transition from control room operations and the associated emergency operating procedures to a technical support team approach (and the associated severe accident management strategies). Following a proposal made by the Senior Group of Experts on Severe Accident Management (SESAM), the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations decided to sponsor a Specialist Meeting on Severe Accident Management Programme Development. The general objectives of the Specialist Meeting were to exchange experience, views, and information among the participants and to discuss the status of severe accident management programmes. The meeting brought together utilities, accident management programme developers, personnel training programme developers, regulators, and researchers. In general, the tone of the Specialist Meeting - designed to promote progress, as contrasted with conferences or symposia where the state-of-the-art is presented - was to be rather practical, and focus on accident management programme development, applications, results, difficulties and improvements. As shown by the conclusions of the meeting, there is no doubt that this objective was widely attained.

  7. Proceedings of the Specialist Meeting on Severe Accident Management Programme Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    Effective Accident Management planning can produce both a reduction in the frequency of severe accidents at nuclear power plants as well as the ability to mitigate a severe accident. The purpose of an accident management programme is to provide to the responsible plant staff the capability to cope with the complete range of credible severe accidents. This requires that appropriate instrumentation and equipment are available within the plant to enable plant staff to diagnose the faults and to implement appropriate strategies. The programme must also provide the necessary guidance, procedures, and training to assure that appropriate corrective actions will be implemented. One of the key issues to be discussed is the transition from control room operations and the associated emergency operating procedures to a technical support team approach (and the associated severe accident management strategies). Following a proposal made by the Senior Group of Experts on Severe Accident Management (SESAM), the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations decided to sponsor a Specialist Meeting on Severe Accident Management Programme Development. The general objectives of the Specialist Meeting were to exchange experience, views, and information among the participants and to discuss the status of severe accident management programmes. The meeting brought together utilities, accident management programme developers, personnel training programme developers, regulators, and researchers. In general, the tone of the Specialist Meeting - designed to promote progress, as contrasted with conferences or symposia where the state-of-the-art is presented - was to be rather practical, and focus on accident management programme development, applications, results, difficulties and improvements. As shown by the conclusions of the meeting, there is no doubt that this objective was widely attained

  8. Framework programmable platform for the advanced software development workstation. Integration mechanism design document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Richard J.; Blinn, Thomas M.; Mayer, Paula S. D.; Reddy, Uday; Ackley, Keith; Futrell, Mike

    1991-01-01

    The Framework Programmable Software Development Platform (FPP) is a project aimed at combining effective tool and data integration mechanisms with a model of the software development process in an intelligent integrated software development environment. Guided by this model, this system development framework will take advantage of an integrated operating environment to automate effectively the management of the software development process so that costly mistakes during the development phase can be eliminated.

  9. Communities of teaching practice in the workplace: Evaluation of a faculty development programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, Marie-Louise; Huveneers, Wilma; Dolmans, Diana

    2016-08-01

    The focus of faculty development (FD) has recently shifted from individual and formal learning to formal and informal learning by a team of teachers in the workplace where the teaching is actually effected. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a faculty development programme on teachers' educational workplace environment. We invited 23 teachers, who had successfully completed a University Teaching Qualification (UTQ) programme, to evaluate the faculty development programme and participate in focus group discussions. This UTQ programme spanned one year and covered 185 hours of formal and informal learning and training activities and formal coaching. After having obtained their UTQ, teachers reported that coaching enhances reflection and feedback, to participate more frequently in educational networks, which enhances consultation among teachers, increased awareness of organizational educational policies and more confidence in fulfilling educational tasks and activities. The evaluation of the UTQ programme demonstrated to enhance the development of a community of teachers at the workplace who share a passion for education and provide each other with support and feedback, which triggered a change in culture enhancing improvement of education. However, this did not hold for all teachers. Inhibiting factors hold sway, such as a prevailing commitment to research over education in some departments and a lack of interest in education by some department chairs.

  10. The Development and Evaluation of a Life Skills Programme for Young Adult Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordaan, Jacques; Beukes, Roelf; Esterhuyse, Karel

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this research project was to develop, implement, and evaluate a Life Skills programme for young adult male long-term offenders with the aim of improving their life skills that, in turn, could enable them to adjust more effectively in the correctional environment. Experimental research was used to investigate the effectiveness of the programme. In this study, 96 literate young adult male offenders between the ages of 21 and 25 years, with long sentences, were selected randomly. The participants were assigned randomly into an experimental and a control group. The Solomon four-group design was utilized to control for the effect of pretest sensitization. The measurements of the effectiveness of the programme were conducted before the programme commenced, directly (short term) after, 3 months (medium term) after, and 6 months (long term) after. The findings indicated that the programme had limited success in equipping the offenders with the necessary skills crucial to their survival in a correctional centre. The programme did, however, have significant effects, especially on problem solving and anger management in the short and medium term. These improvements were not long lived.

  11. Human Resource Development for Nuclear Power Programme in Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, Ovona

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Despite the effort by the Government to ensure reliable and available access to electricity which is crucial to the socio – economic development, the use of hydro power, biomass and oil, geothermal and peat alone would not meet the target of the vision 2040. There is need to identifies nuclear energy as a potential option for meeting the energy deficit. Development of nuclear energy for power generation needs decision making, preparation and preparatory work which involve human resource development process, strengthening the legislation and regulatory framework, stakeholders’ involvement and public acceptance campaign

  12. IMPACT OF ANTI-POVERTY PROGRAMME ON DEVELOPMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-01-08

    Jan 8, 2013 ... Abstract. The study investigated the impact of National Poverty Eradication .... Major factors hindering the success of government ... rural poor, women, youth and children in Nigeria ..... develop a tangible business is absent.

  13. Developing 3D Imaging Programmes-Workflow and Quality Control

    OpenAIRE

    Hess, M.; Robson, S.; Serpico, M.; Amati, G.; Pridden, I.; Nelson, T.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a successful project for 3D imaging research, digital applications, and use of new technologies in the museum. The article will focus on the development and implementation of a viable workflow for the production of high-quality 3D models of museum objects, based on the 3D laser scanning and photogrammetry of selected ancient Egyptian artefacts. The development of a robust protocol for the complete process chain for imaging cultural heritage artefacts, from the acquisit...

  14. A Development of Hybrid Drug Information System Using Image Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HwaMin Lee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to prevent drug abuse or misuse cases and avoid over-prescriptions, it is necessary for medicine taker to be provided with detailed information about the medicine. In this paper, we propose a drug information system and develop an application to provide information through drug image recognition using a smartphone. We designed a contents-based drug image search algorithm using the color, shape and imprint of drug. Our convenient application can provide users with detailed information about drugs and prevent drug misuse.

  15. Effects of a preceptorship programme on turnover rate, cost, quality and professional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tso-Ying; Tzeng, Wen-Chii; Lin, Chia-Huei; Yeh, Mei-Ling

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to design a preceptorship programme and to evaluate its effects on turnover rate, turnover cost, quality of care and professional development. A high turnover rate of nurses is a common global problem. How to improve nurses' willingness to stay in their jobs and reduce the high turnover rate has become a focus. Well-designed preceptorship programmes could possibly decrease turnover rates and improve professional development. A quasi-experimental research design was used. First, a preceptorship programme was designed to establish the role and responsibilities of preceptors in instructing new nurses. Second, a quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the preceptorship programme. Data on new nurses' turnover rate, turnover cost, quality of nursing care, satisfaction of preceptor's teaching and preceptor's perception were measured. After conducting the preceptorship programme, the turnover rate was 46.5% less than the previous year. The turnover cost was decreased by US$186,102. Additionally, medication error rates made by new nurses dropped from 50-0% and incident rates of adverse events and falls decreased. All new nurses were satisfied with preceptor guidance. The preceptorship programme effectively lowered the turnover rate of new nurses, reduced turnover costs and enhanced the quality of nursing care, especially by reducing medication error incidents. Positive feedback about the programme was received from new nurses. Study findings may offer healthcare administrators another option for retaining new nurses, controlling costs, improving quality and fostering professional development. In addition, incentives and effective support from the organisation must be considered when preceptors perform preceptorship responsibilities.

  16. The United Nations development programme initiative for sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurry, S.

    1997-12-01

    Energy is central to current concerns about sustainable human development, affecting economic and social development; economic growth, the local, national, regional, and global environment; the global climate; a host of social concerns, including poverty, population, and health, the balance of payments, and the prospects for peace. Energy is not an end in itself, but rather the means to achieve the goals of sustainable human development. The energy systems of most developing countries are in serious crisis involving insufficient levels of energy services, environmental degradation, inequity, poor technical and financial performance, and capital scarcity. Approximately 2.5 billion people in the developing countries have little access to commercial energy supplies. Yet the global demand for energy continues to grow: total primary energy is projected to grow from 378 exajoules (EJ) per year in 1990 to 571 EJ in 2020, and 832 EJ in 2050. If this increase occurs using conventional approaches and energy sources, already serious local (e.g., indoor and urban air pollution), regional (eg., acidification and land degradation), and global (e.g., climate change) environmental problems will be critically aggravated. There is likely to be inadequate capital available for the needed investments in conventional energy sources. Current approaches to energy are thus not sustainable and will, in fact, make energy a barrier to socio-economic development. What is needed now is a new approach in which energy becomes an instrument for sustainable development. The two major components of a sustainable energy strategy are (1) more efficient energy use, especially at the point of end-use, and (2) increased use of renewable sources of energy. The UNDP Initiative for Sustainable Energy (UNISE) is designed to harness opportunities in these areas to build upon UNDP`s existing energy activities to help move the world toward a more sustainable energy strategy by helping program countries.

  17. Measuring the Success of an Academic Development Programme: A Statistical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. C.

    2009-01-01

    This study uses statistical analysis to estimate the impact of first-year academic development courses in microeconomics, statistics, accountancy, and information systems, offered by the University of Cape Town's Commerce Academic Development Programme, on students' graduation performance relative to that achieved by mainstream students. The data…

  18. Evaluation of Follow-Up Effects of the International Child Development Programme on Caregivers in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skar, Ane-Marthe Solheim; Sherr, Lorraine; Clucas, Claudine; von Tetzchner, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Parenting programs have been used to good effect in many settings, yet few are systematically introduced and evaluated in developing countries. This study explores the relative long-term effect of participation in the International Child Development Programme (ICDP) in a group of caregivers in Mozambique. A quasi-experimental design was used to…

  19. Improving Marking Reliability of Scientific Writing with the Developing Understanding of Assessment for Learning Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Fiona L.; Yucel, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    The Developing Understanding of Assessment for Learning (DUAL) programme was developed with the dual aims of improving both the quality and consistency of feedback students receive and the students' ability to use that feedback to improve. DUAL comprises a range of processes (including marking rubrics, sample reports, moderation discussions and…

  20. Constructing a Leader's Identity through a Leadership Development Programme: An Intersectional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorosi, Pontso

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the notion of leadership identity construction as it happens through a leadership development programme. Influenced by a conception that leadership development is essentially about facilitating an identity transition, it uses an intersectional approach to explore school leaders' identity construction as it was shaped and…

  1. Development and feasibility of a patient feedback programme to improve consultation skills in general practice training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, M.E.; Blankenstein, A.H.; van Marwijk, H.W.J.; Schleypen, H.; Schoonheim, P.L.; Stalman, W.A.B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To develop an attractive and effective patient feedback training programme for general practice trainees (GPTs). Methods: First, an exploratory study was conducted in which patients and GPTs were interviewed after they had worked with patient feedback. This contributed to the development

  2. Open source biotechnology : A drug for developing countries' health problems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, M.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    In developing countries, many people suffer from diseases for which there are no drugs or for which drugs exist that they cannot afford because they are too expensive. The advent of genomics has sparked the idea that new drugs can be more easily developed and that genomics thus could lessen the

  3. A Padawan Programmer's Guide to Developing Software Libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yurkovich, James T.; Yurkovich, Benjamin J.; Dräger, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    /Shiny, that make it easier to develop scientific software and by open-source licenses that make it easier to release software. But how do you build a software library that people will use? And what characteristics do the best libraries have that make them enduringly popular? Here, we provide a reference guide......With the rapid adoption of computational tools in the life sciences, scientists are taking on the challenge of developing their own software libraries and releasing them for public use. This trend is being accelerated by popular technologies and platforms, such as GitHub, Jupyter, R......, based on our own experiences, for developing software libraries along with real-world examples to help provide context for scientists who are learning about these concepts for the first time. While we can only scratch the surface of these topics, we hope that this article will act as a guide...

  4. Perceived learned skills and professional development of graduates from a master in dental public health programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, S; Delgado-Angulo, E K; Bernabé, E

    2017-02-01

    Assessing the impact of a training programme is important for quality assurance and further development. It also can helps with accountability and marketing purposes. This study evaluated the impact of King's College London (KCL) Master of Science programme in Dental Public Health in terms of graduates' perceived learned skills and professional development. An online questionnaire was sent to individuals who completed successfully the KCL Master of Science programme in Dental Public Health and had a valid email address. Participants provided information on demographic characteristics, perceived learned skills (intellectual, practical and generic) and professional development (type of organisation, position in the organisation and functions performed at work before and after the programme). Learned skills' scores were compared by demographic factors in multiple linear regression models, and the distribution of responses on career development was compared using nonparametric tests for paired groups. Although all scores on learned skills were on the favourable side of the Likert scale, graduates reported higher scores for practical skills, followed by intellectual and generic skills. No differences in scores were found by sex, age, nationality or time since graduation. In terms of career development, there were significantly higher proportions of graduates working in higher education institutions and taking leadership/managerial roles in organisations as well as greater number and variety of functions at work after than before the programme. This online survey shows that the programme has had a positive impact on graduates in terms of perceived learned skills and professional development. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Dental Education Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Using evaluability assessment to assess local community development health programmes: a Scottish case-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Belford

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluation of the potential effectiveness of a programme’s objectives (health or otherwise is important in demonstrating how programmes work. However, evaluations are expensive and can focus on unrealistic outcomes not grounded in strong theory, especially where there is pressure to show effectiveness. The aim of this research was to demonstrate that the evaluability assessment (a cost-effective pre-evaluation tool that primarily gives quick, constructive feedback can be used to help develop programme and outcome objectives to improve programmes while they run and to assist in producing more effective evaluations. This was done using the example of a community development programme aiming to improve health and reduce health inequalities in its target population. Methods The setting was Glasgow, Scotland, UK and focused on the Health Issues in the Community programme. Data were collected from documents and nine individual stakeholder interviews. Thematic analysis and a realist approach were used to analyse both datasets and, in conjunction with a workshop with stakeholders, produce a logic model of the programme theory and related evaluation options to explore further. Results Five main themes emerged from the analysis: History; Framework; Structure and Delivery of the Course; Theory of Action; and Barriers to Delivery and Successful Outcomes. These themes aided in drafting the logic model which revealed they key programme activities (e.g. facilitating group learning and 23 potential outcomes. The majority of these outcomes (16 were deemed to be short-term outcomes (more easily measured within the timeframe of an individual being involved in the programme e.g. increased self-esteem or awareness of individual/community health. The remaining 6 outcomes were deemed longer-term and included outcomes such as increased social capital and individual mental health and wellbeing. Conclusions We have shown that the evaluability

  6. Personalized Medicine: Pharmacogenomics and Drug Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Mirsadeghi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Personalized medicine aims is to supply the proper drug to the proper patient within the right dose. Pharmacogenomics (PGx is to recognize genetic variants that may influence drug efficacy and toxicity. All things considered, the fields cover a wide area, including basic drug discovery researches, the genetic origin of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, novel drug improvement, patient genetic assessment and clinical patient administration. At last, the objective of Pharmacogenomics is to anticipate a patient’s genetic response to a particular drug as a way of presenting the best possible medical treatment. By predicting the drug response of an individual, it will be possible to increase the success of therapies and decrease the incidence of adverse side effect.

  7. The problems of financing a nuclear programme in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiancette, G.; Penz, P.

    2000-01-01

    In the free market and deregulation framework financing of nuclear power in developing countries requires solutions different from those applied in the seventies and eighties. The paper presents the financial specificity of nuclear power, project finance concept and the market risk. (author)

  8. Development and implementation of a monitoring programme for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-04-02

    Apr 2, 2016 ... 1Resource Quality Information Services, Department Water and Sanitation, Private Bag ... ment of South African estuaries by setting strategic objectives .... Provision is made for adaptive management during the full-scale .... estuary through urban development, tourism, industry and subsistence fisheries, ...

  9. The Development of Programmes for Young Children in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodaira, Sachiko Imaizumi

    1990-01-01

    Describes characteristics of Japanese preschool children's television viewing and gives examples of the development of new television programs. Highlights include the influence of videocassette recorders (VCRs); parental involvement; television viewing at kindergartens and nursery schools; the viewing of Sesame Street in Japan; and the possibility…

  10. GSI research and development programme 1983-85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    In this report the research program of the GSI Darmstadt is described. This program concerns heavy ion reactions, atomic collisions with heavy ions, and applications of heavy ion beams in other fields of science. Furthermore the future development of accelerators and detection methods is described. (HSI) [de

  11. The Learning Effects of a Multidisciplinary Professional Development Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Talitha Christine; Coenders, Ferdinand G.M.; Pieters, Julius Marie; Terlouw, C.

    2013-01-01

    Professional development becomes relevant and effective when teachers are actively involved, collaborate, and when it is linked to teachers’ daily school practice (Hunzicker in Prof Dev Educ 37:177–179, 2011). Preparation of teachers for a curriculum implementation such as the new subject Nature,

  12. The role of radiolabelled compounds in preclinical drug development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    The role of radiolabelled compounds in the development of new drugs is discussed, with particular reference to their use in toxicological, metabolic and pharmacokinetic studies for the pre-clinical safety evaluation of new drugs. (U.K.)

  13. A strategic storage programme for developing countries - to be or not to be?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, B.W. [Petroleum Management Consultant, Moss (Norway)

    1995-05-01

    In the industrialised world agreements between countries or legislation will dictate that there shall be strategic fuel storage of {open_quotes}X{close_quotes} amount of days. What about the developing countries, the third world? For the most part they have no storage regulations. Should they consider a strategic fuel storage programme? If so, how can they go about it? What are the obstacles? Many have neither the technical expertise nor the monies. This paper will explore how developing countries can have a strategic oil storage programme - How they can plan, justify, finance, execute and operate such a storage without having a major impact on their countries.

  14. Needle syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy for preventing hepatitis C transmission in people who inject drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Lucy; Minozzi, Silvia; Reed, Jennifer; Vickerman, Peter; Hagan, Holly; French, Clare; Jordan, Ashly; Degenhardt, Louisa; Hope, Vivian; Hutchinson, Sharon; Maher, Lisa; Palmateer, Norah; Taylor, Avril; Bruneau, Julie; Hickman, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Background Needle syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy for preventing hepatitis C transmission in people who inject drugs Needle syringe programmes (NSP) and opioid substitution therapy (OST) are the primary interventions to reduce hepatitis C (HCV) transmission in people who inject drugs. There is good evidence for the effectiveness of NSP and OST in reducing injecting risk behaviour and increasing evidence for the effectiveness of OST and NSP in reducing HIV acquisition risk, but the evidence on the effectiveness of NSP and OST for preventing HCV acquisition is weak. Objectives To assess the effects of needle syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy, alone or in combination, for preventing acquisition of HCV in people who inject drugs. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Drug and Alcohol Register, CENTRAL, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), the Health Technology Assessment Database (HTA), the NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHSEED), MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Global Health, CINAHL, and the Web of Science up to 16 November 2015. We updated this search in March 2017, but we have not incorporated these results into the review yet. Where observational studies did not report any outcome measure, we asked authors to provide unpublished data. We searched publications of key international agencies and conference abstracts. We reviewed reference lists of all included articles and topic-related systematic reviews for eligible papers. Selection criteria We included prospective and retrospective cohort studies, cross-sectional surveys, case-control studies and randomised controlled trials that measured exposure to NSP and/or OST against no intervention or a reduced exposure and reported HCV incidence as an outcome in people who inject drugs. We defined interventions as current OST (within previous 6 months), lifetime use of OST and high NSP coverage (regular attendance at

  15. A Padawan Programmer's Guide to Developing Software Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurkovich, James T; Yurkovich, Benjamin J; Dräger, Andreas; Palsson, Bernhard O; King, Zachary A

    2017-11-22

    With the rapid adoption of computational tools in the life sciences, scientists are taking on the challenge of developing their own software libraries and releasing them for public use. This trend is being accelerated by popular technologies and platforms, such as GitHub, Jupyter, R/Shiny, that make it easier to develop scientific software and by open-source licenses that make it easier to release software. But how do you build a software library that people will use? And what characteristics do the best libraries have that make them enduringly popular? Here, we provide a reference guide, based on our own experiences, for developing software libraries along with real-world examples to help provide context for scientists who are learning about these concepts for the first time. While we can only scratch the surface of these topics, we hope that this article will act as a guide for scientists who want to write great software that is built to last. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Do national drug policies influence antiretroviral drug prices? Evidence from the Southern African Development community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Galárraga, Omar

    2017-03-01

    The efficacy of low- and middle-income countries’ (LMIC) national drug policies in managing antiretroviral (ARV) pharmaceutical prices is not well understood. Though ARV drug prices have been declining in LMIC over the past decade, little research has been done on the role of their national drug policies. This study aims to (i) analyse global ARV prices from 2004 to 2013 and (ii) examine the relationship of national drug policies to ARV prices. Analysis of ARV drug prices utilized data from the Global Price Reporting Mechanism from the World Health Organization (WHO). Ten of the most common ARV drugs (first-line and second-line) were selected. National drug policies were also assessed for 12 countries in the South African Development Community (SADC), which self-reported their policies through WHO surveys. The best predictor of ARV drug price was generic status—the generic versions of 8 out of 10 ARV drugs were priced lower than branded versions. However, other factors such as transaction volume, HIV prevalence, national drug policies and PEPFAR/CHAI involvement were either not associated with ARV drug price or were not consistent predictors of price across different ARV drugs. In the context of emerging international trade agreements, which aim to strengthen patent protections internationally and potentially delay the sale of generic drugs in LMIC, this study shines a spotlight on the importance of generic drugs in controlling ARV prices. Further research is needed to understand the impact of national drug policies on ARV prices.

  17. The Commission's research action programme on the development of nuclear fission energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    For its 'Framework Programme 1984-1987' the Commission has defined the major goals for a European Scientific and Technical Strategy. One of the means to reduce the energy dependence of the Community, which is an important objective, is to favour the development of nuclear fission energy. As electricity production by nuclear reactors has reached industrial maturity, the Community activities are directed mainly to safety aspects, in order to ensure the protection of workers and the general public, against hazards linked to operations in the nuclear fuel cycle. A description of the main features of the five sub-programmes on nuclear fission energy is given below; these programmes are: reactor safety; nuclear fuels and actinides research; management of radioactive waste; safeguarding and management of fissile materials; decommissioning of nuclear installations. The research and development work is carried out either by the Commission's Joint Research Center or by organizations and companies of the Member Countries, with the Commission's financial support. (author)

  18. Prediction of resistance development against drug combinations by collateral responses to component drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, Christian; Gumpert, Heidi; Nilsson Wallin, Annika

    2014-01-01

    the genomes of all evolved E. coli lineages, we identified the mutational events that drive the differences in drug resistance levels and found that the degree of resistance development against drug combinations can be understood in terms of collateral sensitivity and resistance that occurred during...... adaptation to the component drugs. Then, using engineered E. coli strains, we confirmed that drug resistance mutations that imposed collateral sensitivity were suppressed in a drug pair growth environment. These results provide a framework for rationally selecting drug combinations that limit resistance......Resistance arises quickly during chemotherapeutic selection and is particularly problematic during long-term treatment regimens such as those for tuberculosis, HIV infections, or cancer. Although drug combination therapy reduces the evolution of drug resistance, drug pairs vary in their ability...

  19. Beneficial effects of a woman-focused development programme on child survival: evidence from rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiya, Abbas; Chowdhury, Mushtaque

    2002-11-01

    This paper reports results from a prospective study of the impact of a woman-focused development programme on child survival in Matlab, a rural area of Bangladesh. The programme was targeted to households owning less than 50 decimals of land and members selling more than 100 days of labour for living in a year. Programme components included formation of women's groups for saving and credit, training on skill development, functional literacy including legal and social awareness, and technical and marketing support to projects undertaken with the loan money from the organization. A total of 13,549 children born alive during 1988-97 in the study area were included in the study. Hazards of mortality during pre- and post-intervention periods were compared among the programme participants and non-participants controlling the effects of other relevant variables. There has been a substantial reduction in mortality during the post-intervention period; however, the reduction was much greater for infants whose mothers participated in the development programme compared to infants of non-participant mothers from similar socioeconomic background. In a relative sense, there has been a 52% reduction of the pre-intervention level hazard of death of children during infancy of participant mothers compared to 31% reduction for the infants of non-participant mothers from similar socioeconomic background. There had also been a substantial reduction in hazard of death during childhood (1-4 year age group), however, the reduction was statistically similar for all groups of children irrespective of their mothers' participation in the development programmes.

  20. Investigating Nature's Mysteries for Drug Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than half of the drugs approved to treat cancer come from a natural product or a natural product prototype. Scientists in NCI-Frederick's Natural Products Branch are exploring ways to harness chemicals produced by marine invertebrates, other animals, plants, and microbes for cancer drug discovery.

  1. Development, use and evaluation of drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, E H; Launsø, Laila

    1987-01-01

    . Drugs offer a standard solution to health problems independent of the individuals' social life. Thus drugs become a tool which function in agreement with the disintegrated and achievement-orientated approach to disease as it is organized today. In general the statements in this article are not limited...

  2. Building capacity through leadership development programmes in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afonin, A.; Terentyeva, T.

    2014-01-01

    «Tournament of Emerging Professionals» (TEMP) – an effective tool for selecting and developing talented students. Aim: to select high-potential graduates from key Rosatom universities through a multi-stage competition and employ them at Rosatom enterprises (NPPs, fuel plants, research institutes etc). Key objectives: 1. To provide opportunities for graduates and students to apply theoretical; technical knowledge while working on real case-studies and projects provided by Rosatom enterprises; 2. To popularize nuclear industry and to motivate high-potential young people with technical education to work in Rosatom and its enterprises; 3. To involve subject matter experts and TOP-managers of Rosatom into interactions with high-potential students and graduates

  3. The United States Atomic Energy Commission programme on isotopes and radiation development and its industrial impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, E E [United States Atomic Energy Commission, Division of Isotopes Development, Washington, DC (United States)

    1965-02-01

    The US Atomic Energy Commission isotopes development programme is directed towards (a) encouraging development of beneficial applications of radioisotopes and radiation technology, particularly those designed to meet problems of urgent public interest; (b) accelerating the potential contribution of radioisotopes and radiation applications to the national economy and welfare, and (c) contributing to world development in the peaceful uses of atomic energy. The programme is administered by the Division of Isotopes Development. The programme objectives are being achieved through a multiphase research and development programme including the following major elements: (1) Radiation pasteurization of food, involving development of technology for low dose radiation processing of representative fruit and fishery products to extend their refrigerated shelf life; (2) Process radiation development, directed to fostering development of a broad technology leading to productive use of mega curie quantities of fission products and other radioisotopes for process radiation purposes; (3) Radioisotope technology development, directed to creating a broad base of new and improved technology required for extending and speeding up the application of radioisotopes in science and technology; (4) Radioisotope production and separation technology, directed to insuring availability of radioisotopes to meet the changing needs of advancing science and technology in the USA; (5) Isotopic power and heat sources development, aimed at the development and production of isotopic fuels and fuel forms for a broad spectrum of thermal applications, including SNAP auxiliary electrical power devices; (6) Analysis and applications, whose objective is to identify and analyse radioisotope and radiation research and development activities in the United States of America and abroad; to establish channels of communication with science, government, and industry, and to encourage broad dissemination and productive

  4. Radiocarbon mass spectrometry for drug development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, Schulze-Konig Tim

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Radiocarbon has a huge potential as a tracer for metabolism studies in humans. By using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) for its detection, a unique sensitivity is reached reducing required radiation doses to a negligible level. Until recently, a widespread use of AMS in biomedical research was impeded by the high complexity of the instrument, time-consuming sample preparation, and a limited availability of measurement capacity. Over the last few years, tremendous progress has been achieved in the reduction of size and complexity of AMS instruments. It allowed designing a compact AMS system, dubbed BioMICADAS to address the needs of biomedical users. For more than two years, this system is in successful operation at a commercial service provider for the pharmaceutical industry. A further drastic simplification of radiocarbon mass spectrometers seems possible and could establish a regular usage of this technology in drug development. However, to reach this goal a better integration of AMS into the workflow of bioanalytical laboratories will be necessary. For this purpose, CO 2 accepting ion sources may be a key, since they enable an almost automated sample preparation. The status of radiocarbon AMS in biomedical research and its perspective will be discussed

  5. The development and evaluation of a Biblically-based therapy programme for a congregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.L. Joubert

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research underlying this article was to develop a Biblically-based therapy programme for a congregation and to evaluate its impact. The aim of the programme was to enhance participants’ acceptance of self, their acceptance of others and their ability to have a meaningful relationship with God. A preand post-test design that included an experimental group (n = 27 and a control group (n = 23 was used. The programme consisted of six weekly individual therapy sessions that were conducted by one of the researchers, and a support and prayer group that supported the experimental group. The impact of the programme presentation was assessed by nine measuring instruments. Results obtained indicated that the participants in the experimental group experienced significant growth in almost all the psychological and spiritual dimensions that had been assessed. It was concluded that a Biblically-based therapy programme could be used to enhance individuals’ intra-psychic, interpersonal and, ultimately, spiritual growth.

  6. The European fusion research and development programme and the ITER Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    The EURATOM fusion R and D programme is a well integrated and co-ordinated programme a good example of a European Research Area. Its goal is 'the joint creation of prototype reactors for power stations to meet the needs of society: operational safety, environmental compatibility, economic viability'. The programme is focussed on the magnetic confinement approach to fusion energy and supports 21 associated laboratories and a range of experimental and fusion technology facilities. The paper will briefly describe this programme and how it is organised and implemented. Its success and that of other national programmes has defined the international ITER Project, which is the next logical step in fusion R and D. The paper will describe ITER, its aims, its design, and the supporting manufacture of prototype components. The European contribution to ITER, as well as the exploitation of the Joint European Torus (JET) and long-term fusion reactor technology R and D are carried out under the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA). Finally, the potential advantages of fusion as an energy source will be presented. (author)

  7. Development of a self-managed loaded exercise programme for rotator cuff tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, Chris; Malliaras, Peter; Mawson, Sue; May, Stephen; Walters, Stephen

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes a self-managed loaded exercise programme which has been designed to address the pain and disability associated with rotator cuff tendinopathy. The intervention has been developed with reference to current self-management theory and with reference to the emerging benefit of loaded exercise for tendinopathy. This self-managed loaded exercise programme is being evaluated within the mixed methods SELF study (ISRCTN 84709751) which includes a pragmatic randomised controlled trial conducted within the UK National Health Service. Copyright © 2012 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Solar pond-based rural development programme for selected coastal regions - A concept

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopinathan, C.K.

    is expected to aid speedy development of selected coastal areas. The programme involves design and construction of a solar pond in which brine in the lower layer is heated to 85 degrees C by solar radiation and is used as the heat source for a closed cycle...

  9. Monitoring and Evaluation of an Early Childhood Development Programme: Implications for Leadership and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Sarah; Papatheodorou, Theodora; James, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The article aims to discuss preliminary findings from a participatory monitoring and evaluation (M&E) framework, used in a community-based early childhood development (ECD) programme in KwaZulu-Natal South Africa, and their implications for leadership and management. The purposes of the M&E were for LETCEE, the implementing organization,…

  10. Integrating ICT in Kenyan Secondary Schools: An Exploratory Case Study of a Professional Development Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondeur, Jo; Krug, Don; Bill, Mike; Smulders, Maaike; Zhu, Chang

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the introduction of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Kenyan secondary schools. Specifically, it is a case study of four schools with no previous access to ICT. The professional development programme from which data for this study were drawn was designed to support teachers learning to integrate ICT in the…

  11. What Can the Work of Habermas Offer Educational Researcher Development Programmes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Although certain aspects of the work of Habermas have had much influence on emancipatory and action research, this article draws on a wider range of his thinking in order to explore how his ideas can inform the content and process of educational researcher development programmes. Habermas's theory of communicative action, his discourse ethics…

  12. The Development of Critical Thinking in Professional and Academic Bachelor Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evens, Marie; Verburgh, An; Elen, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Critical thinking is an important goal in higher education. Students are expected to grow in critical thinking during their higher education programme. The present study investigates the development of critical thinking in 1134 bachelor students in Flanders, Belgium. The study followed a mixed longitudinal design. Students' critical thinking was…

  13. How student teachers’ understanding of the greenhouse effect develops during a teacher education programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Ekborg

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a longitudinal study on how student teachers’ understanding of the greenhouse effect developed through a teacher education programme in mathematics and science for pupils aged 7-13. All student teachers, who were accepted to the programme one year, were followed trough 2.5 years of the programme. The student teachers took science courses in which they were taught about the greenhouse effect.Data was collected by questionnaires three times. The results show that a majority of the student teachers developed an adequate understanding of the greenhouse effect during the teaching programme. Several of the students developed further in the second science course. However a rather big group of students with poor understanding did not develop any further in the second science course and no one demonstrated full understanding. Different ways of collecting data and categorising responses affected how the students’ understanding was interpreted.

  14. The Cultural Missions Programme: An Early Attempt at Community Development in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Alfredo

    1978-01-01

    The author reviews the "Cultural Missions Programme" of Mexico's educational reform after 1920, in which groups of teachers using Catholic missionary methods fought poverty and ignorance in rural Mexico. These mission programs embody most of the community development principles and are still needed. (MF)

  15. Striking the Right Note: The Cultural Preparedness Approach to Developing Resonant Career Guidance Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulmani, G.

    2011-01-01

    Cultural preparedness is presented as a conceptual framework that could guide the development of culture-resonant interventions. The "Jiva" careers programme is presented as a case study to illustrate a method of career and livelihood planning based upon Indian epistemology and cultural practices. Social cognitive environments and career beliefs…

  16. Attitudes towards Participation in Business Development Programmes: An Ethnic Comparison in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasian, Saeid; Yazdanfar, Darush

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study is to investigate whether there are any differences between the attitudes towards participation in development programmes of entrepreneurs who are immigrants and those who are native-born. Design/methodology/approach: Several statistical methods, including a binary logistic regression model, were used to analyse a…

  17. Developing L2 Listening Fluency through Extended Listening-Focused Activities in an Extensive Listening Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Anna C-S.; Millett, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effects on developing L2 listening fluency through doing extended listening-focused activities after reading and listening to audio graded readers. Seventy-six EFL university students read and listened to a total of 15 graded readers in a 15-week extensive listening programme. They were divided into three groups (Group…

  18. Reducing Unintentional Plagiarism amongst International Students in the Biological Sciences: An Embedded Academic Writing Development Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divan, Aysha; Bowman, Marion; Seabourne, Anna

    2015-01-01

    There is general agreement in the literature that international students are more likely to plagiarise compared to their native speaker peers and, in many instances, plagiarism is unintentional. In this article we describe the effectiveness of an academic writing development programme embedded into a Biological Sciences Taught Masters course…

  19. Evaluating a Professional Development Programme for Implementation of a Multidisciplinary Science Subject

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Talitha Christine; Coenders, Ferdinand G.M.; Terlouw, C.; Pieters, Julius Marie

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate a professional development programme that prepares and assists teachers with the implementation of a multidisciplinary science module, basing the evaluation on participants’ reactions, the first level of Guskey’s five-level model for evaluation (2002). Positive

  20. The effect of a sport development programme on sprinting and long ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The talented children in both groups then underwent a specific test battery designed for sprinting and long jump. Maturity was determined by means of a maturity questionnaire. The development programme contributed statistically significant to the improvement in flexibility, muscle endurance, 0-40 meter speed and ...

  1. Assessment Guiding Learning: Developing Graduate Qualities in an Experiential Learning Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Michael David; Cord, Bonnie Amelia

    2013-01-01

    As industry demands increase for a new type of graduate, there is more pressure than ever before for higher education (HE) to respond by cultivating and developing students who are prepared for these workplace challenges. This paper explores an innovative experiential learning programme built on the principles of work-related learning that…

  2. Impact of a faculty development programme for teaching communication skills on participants' practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junod Perron, N.; Cullati, S.; Hudelson, P.; Nendaz, M.; Dolmans, D.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: A 6-month faculty development programme was designed to improve supervisors' feedback to junior doctors on their clinical communication skills (CS) and included both CS and teaching skills training. The aim of this study was to assess supervisors' views on the impact of the

  3. An NLP-Based Programme for Developing EFL Student-Teachers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An NLP-Based Programme for Developing EFL Student-Teachers' Motivational Language. ... teaching of motivational language by using influential hypnotic language patterns should be integrated into EFL pre-service teacher training curricula. Keywords: Motivational language, Neuro-linguistic Programming, Milton Model ...

  4. Establishment and development of the National Tuberculosis Control Programme in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huong, N. T.; Duong, B. D.; Co, N. V.; Quy, H. T.; Tung, L. B.; Bosman, M.; Gebhardt, A.; Velema, J. P.; Broekmans, J. F.; Borgdorff, M. W.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the establishment and development of the National Tuberculosis Control Programme (NTP) of Vietnam. METHODS: Data were obtained from the surveillance system established by the new NTP in 1986 and based on the principles now described as the WHO DOTS strategy. RESULTS: The

  5. An Intensive Programme on Education for Sustainable Development: The Participants' Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasutti, Michele

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the framework of an intensive programme (IP) organised by UNESCO and addressed to young graduate professionals to prepare them for a career in fields related to sustainability. The aims of the IP were to address participants' environmental awareness and to develop attitudes and skills related to environmental planning and…

  6. The "Uptake" of a Sport-for-Development Programme in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Cora

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the "uptake" dynamics and resultant manifestations of a school-based, incentive-driven, sport-for-development programme in the South African context of poverty. The ecological systems theory of Brofenbrenner, the theory of complexity and a neo-liberal framework underpin the social constructions of local meanings…

  7. Programme of research and development on plutonium recycling in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The state of progress on 31 December 1977 of the work relating to the research and development programme on plutonium recycling in light-water nuclear power stations is presented in this second annual report. Since almost the entire programme is in the process of implementation, the report contains either the technical specifications and the objectives of recently concluded contracts or the initial results obtained. The prime objective of the programme is to facilitate the acceptance of the plutonium industry in the Community. Among the projects necessary to attain this prime objective is a forward analysis of plutonium utilization and of its impact on the environment. Various preliminary projects have been implemented in order to lessen this impact. The second objective is aimed at improving scientific and technical knowledge of the basic neutron physics of the higher isotopes of plutonium and transplutonium elements, of the behavior of the power station (static and dynamic) and of the fuel

  8. The Communities' research and development programme on decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This is the first progress report of the European Community's programme (1979-1983) of research on the decommissioning of nuclear power plants. It shows the status of the programme on 31 December 1980. The programme seeks to promote a number of research and development projects as well as the identification of guiding principles. The projects concern the following subjects: long-term integrity of buildings and systems; decontamination for decommissioning purposes; dismantling techniques; treatment of specific waste materials: steel, concrete and graphite; large transport containers for radioactive was produced in the dismantling of nuclear power plants; estimation of the quantities of radioactive wastes arising from decommissioning of nuclear power plants in the Community; influence of nuclear power plant design features on decommissioning

  9. Biomarker-guided repurposing of chemotherapeutic drugs for cancer therapy: a novel strategy in drug development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan eStenvang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a leading cause of mortality worldwide and matters are only set to worsen as its incidence continues to rise. Traditional approaches to combat cancer include improved prevention, early diagnosis, optimized surgery, development of novel drugs and honing regimens of existing anti-cancer drugs. Although discovery and development of novel and effective anti-cancer drugs is a major research area, it is well known that oncology drug development is a lengthy process, extremely costly and with high attrition rates. Furthermore, those drugs that do make it through the drug development mill are often quite expensive, laden with severe side-effects and, unfortunately, to date, have only demonstrated minimal increases in overall survival. Therefore, a strong interest has emerged to identify approved non-cancer drugs that possess anti-cancer activity, thus shortcutting the development process. This research strategy is commonly known as drug repurposing or drug repositioning and provides a faster path to the clinics. We have developed and implemented a modification of the standard drug repurposing strategy that we review here; rather than investigating target-promiscuous non-cancer drugs for possible anti-cancer activity, we focus on the discovery of novel cancer indications for already approved chemotherapeutic anti-cancer drugs. Clinical implementation of this strategy is normally commenced at clinical phase II trials and includes pre-treated patients. As the response rates to any non-standard chemotherapeutic drug will be relatively low in such a patient cohort it is a pre-requisite that such testing is based on predictive biomarkers. This review describes our strategy of biomarker-guided repurposing of chemotherapeutic drugs for cancer therapy, taking the repurposing of topoisomerase I inhibitors and topoisomerase I as a potential predictive biomarker as case in point.

  10. The Development Impact of the Illegality of Drug Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Keefer, Philip; Loayza, Norman V.; Soares, Rodrigo R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the unintended consequences of the war on drugs, particularly for developing countries, and weighs them against the evidence regarding the efficacy of prohibition to curb drug use and trade. It reviews the available evidence and presents new results that indicate that prohibition has limited effects on drug prevalence and prices, most likely indicating a combination of i...

  11. Development and fabrication of superconducting hybrid Cable-In-Conduit-Conductor (CICC) for indigenous fusion programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.K.; Hussain, M.M.; Abdulla, K.K.; Singh, R.P.

    2011-01-01

    The Atomic Fuels Division has initiated development and fabrication of Cable-In-Conduit-Conductor (CICC) of various configurations, for superconducting fusion grade magnets required for their indigenous Fusion Programme. The process involves development of high grade superconducting multifilamentary wire, multi stage cabling of superconducting as well as copper wires and, finally, jacketing of the cables in SS316LN tubes. The overview of the development and fabrication of CICC is presented in this article. (author)

  12. Investigation of toxic metabolites during drug development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kevin; Williams, Dominic P.; Naisbitt, Dean J.; Kitteringham, Neil R.; Pirmohamed, Munir

    2005-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a significant human health problem. Any organ system can be affected, including the liver, skin and kidney. Drug-induced liver injury is the most frequent reason for the withdrawal of an approved drug from the market, and it also accounts for up to 50% of cases of acute liver failure. The clinical picture is often diverse, even for the same drug. Mild, asymptomatic effects occur at a relatively high frequency with a number of drugs. Idiosyncratic toxicity is rare but potentially life-threatening. Many serious ADRs that occur in man are unpredictable from routine pathology and clinical chemistry in laboratory animals and are therefore poorly understood. The drug metabolist can determine the propensity of a novel chemical entity to either accumulate in the hepatocyte or undergo bioactivation in numerous model systems, from expressed enzymes, genetically engineered cells to whole animals. Bioactivation can be measured using trapping experiments with model nucleophiles or by measurement of non-specific covalent binding. The chemistry of the process is defined and the medicinal chemist can address the issue by seeking a metabolically stable pharmacophore to replace the potential toxicophore. However, we require a more fundamental understanding of the role of drug chemistry and biochemistry in ADRs. This requires knowledge of the ultimate toxin, signalling in cell defense and the sequence of molecular events, which ultimately lead to cell and tissue damage. It is imperative that such studies have a clinical level, but then translated into laboratory-based molecular studies. This will provide a deeper understanding of potential toxicophores for drug design and define candidate genes for pharmacogenomic approaches to individualized medicines

  13. Designing and Evaluating a Professional Development Programme for Basic Technology Integration in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansyari, Muhammad Fauzan

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to develop and evaluate a professional development programme for technology integration in an Indonesian university's English language teaching setting. The study explored the characteristics of this programme to English lecturers' technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) development. This design-based research employed…

  14. The worldwide trend of using botanical drugs and strategies for developing global drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Kyungseop

    2017-03-01

    Natural product drugs, or botanical drugs, are drugs composed of natural substances which have constituents with healthenhancing or medicinal activities. In Korea, government-led projects brought attention to botanical drugs invigorating domestic botanical drug industry. Foreign markets, as well, are growing bigger as the significance of botanical drugs stood out. To follow along with the tendency, Korea puts a lot of effort on developing botanical drugs suitable for global market. However, standards for approving drug sales vary by countries. And also, thorough standardization, certification, clinical studies and data of these will be required as well as data confirming safety and effectiveness. Meanwhile, as an international exchange in botanical drug market continues, the importance of plant resources was emphasized. Thus countries' ownership of domestic natural resources became vital. Not only establishing a systematic method to secure domestic plant resources, but also cooperation with other countries on sharing natural resources is essential to procure natural resources effectively. Korea started to show visible results with botanical drugs, and asthma/COPD treatment made out of speedwell is one example. Sufficient investment and government's active support for basic infrastructure for global botanical drugs will bring Korea to much higher level of botanical drug development. [BMB Reports 2017; 50(3): 111-116].

  15. Task 9. Deployment of photovoltaic technologies: co-operation with developing countries. PV for rural electrification in developing countries - Programme design, planning and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, W. [Institute for Sustainable Power, Highlands Ranch, CO (United States); Oldach, R.; Wilshaw, A. [IT Power Ltd, The Manor house, Chineham (United Kingdom)

    2003-09-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the design, planning and implementation of PV programmes. The guide contains details on the preparation for PV programmes, including the assessment of needs, stakeholder consultation, social context analysis, supply options and national policy considerations. The establishment of goals, delivery modes, timelines, logistics and quality assurance are discussed. Further, the implementation, monitoring and evaluation of PV programmes is discussed, as are a number of methodologies that have been developed with the aim of improving programme design and implementation. The guide highlights issues pertinent to rural energy programmes in developing countries and leads programme administrators through the process of planning, implementing and evaluating a PV programme.

  16. A school-based programme for tobacco and alcohol prevention in special education: effectiveness of the modified 'healthy school and drugs' intervention and moderation by school subtype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turhan, Abdullah; Onrust, Simone; ten Klooster, Peter M.; Pieterse, Marcel E.

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To test the effectiveness of the Healthy School and Drugs (HSD) programme on tobacco and alcohol use in Dutch secondary special education (SE) schools, and whether this depends upon subtypes of SE schools and the level of implementation. DESIGN: In a quasi-experimental design with baseline and

  17. Development of a Customizable Programme for Improving Interprofessional Team Meetings: An Action Research Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Jerôme Jean Jacques; van Bokhoven, Marloes Amantia; Goossens, Wilhelmus Nicolaas Marie; Daniëls, Ramon; van der Weijden, Trudy; Beurskens, Anna

    2018-01-25

    Interprofessional teamwork is increasingly necessary in primary care to meet the needs of people with complex care demands. Needs assessment shows that this requires efficient interprofessional team meetings, focusing on patients' personal goals. The aim of this study was to develop a programme to improve the efficiency and patient-centredness of such meetings. Action research approach: a first draft of the programme was developed, and iteratively used and evaluated by three primary care teams. Data were collected using observations, interviews and a focus group, and analysed using directed content analysis. The final programme comprises a framework to reflect on team functioning, and training activities supplemented by a toolbox. Training is intended for the chairperson and a co-chair, and aims at organizing and structuring meetings, and enhancing patient-centredness. Our findings emphasize the essential role of the team's chairperson, who, in addition to technically structuring meetings, should act as a change agent guiding team development. Findings show that the programme should be customizable to each individual team's context and participants' learning objectives. Becoming acquainted with new structures can be considered a growth process, in which teams have to find their way, with the chairperson as change agent.

  18. Assessment of learning needs and the development of an educational programme for registered nurses in advanced midwifery and neonatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AE Fichardt

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available A key step in the development of any educational programme is learning needs assessment. This is however often neglected. The purpose of this research was to identify learning needs of potential students in order to develop a relevant educational programme for registered nurses in advanced midwifery and neonatology. A survey design was used, and the population of the study was the registered nurses in the Free State. Two thousand questionnaires were mailed to respondents, selected by means of simple random sampling. Advanced educational programmes emphasize the teaching of advanced knowledge and skills and accept that the students entering these programmes already have specific knowledge and skills included in the curricula for basic programmes. This is contrary to the findings of this study. The results underline the importance of learning needs assessment in the development of relevant educational programmes.

  19. Developing a diabetes prevention education programme for community health-care workers in Thailand: formative findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sranacharoenpong, Kitti; Hanning, Rhona M

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate barriers to and supports for implementing a diabetes prevention education programme for community health-care workers (CHCWs) in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. The study also aimed to get preliminary input into the design of a tailored diabetes prevention education programme for CHCWs. Thailand has faced under-nutrition and yet, paradoxically, the prevalence of diseases of over-nutrition, such as obesity and diabetes, has escalated. As access to diabetes prevention programme is limited in Thailand, especially in rural and semi-urban areas, it becomes critical to develop a health information delivery system that is relevant, cost-effective, and sustainable. Health-care professionals (n = 12) selected from health centres within one district participated in in-depth interviews. In addition, screened people at risk for diabetes participated in interviews (n = 8) and focus groups (n = 4 groups, 23 participants). Coded transcripts from audio-taped interviews or focus groups were analysed by hand and using NVivo software. Concept mapping illustrated the findings. Health-care professionals identified potential barriers to programme success as a motivation for regular participation, and lack of health policy support for programme sustainability. Health-care professionals identified opportunities to integrate health promotion and disease prevention into CHCWs' duties. Health-care professionals recommended small-group workshops, hands-on learning activities, case studies, and video presentations that bring knowledge to practice within their cultural context. CHCWs should receive a credit for continuing study. People at risk for diabetes lacked knowledge of nutrition, diabetes risk factors, and resources to access health information. They desired two-way communication with CHCWs. Formative research supports the need for an effective, sustainable programme to support knowledge translation to CHCWs and at-risk populations in the

  20. Developing a Science and Technology Centre for Supporting the Launching of a Nuclear Power Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawy, I.

    2013-01-01

    The present investigation aims at developing a science and technology centre for supporting the launching of a nuclear power [NP] programme in a developing country with a relatively high economic growth rate. The development approach is based on enhancing the roles and functions of the proposed centre with respect to the main pillars that would have effect on the safe, secure and peaceful uses of the nuclear energy -particularly- in the field of electricity generation and sea-water desalination. The study underlines the importance of incorporating advanced research and development work, concepts and services provided by the proposed centre to the NP programme, to the regulatory systems of the concerned State and to the national nuclear industry in the fields of nuclear safety, radiation safety, nuclear safeguards, nuclear security and other related scientific and technical fields including human resources and nuclear knowledge management.

  1. Developing artemisinin based drug combinations for the treatment of drug resistant falciparum malaria: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olliaro P

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and spread of drug resistant malaria represents a considerable challenge to controlling malaria. To date, malaria control has relied heavily on a comparatively small number of chemically related drugs, belonging to either the quinoline or the antifolate groups. Only recently have the artemisinin derivatives been used but mostly in south east Asia. Experience has shown that resistance eventually curtails the life-span of antimalarial drugs. Controlling resistance is key to ensuring that the investment put into developing new antimalarial drugs is not wasted. Current efforts focus on research into new compounds with novel mechanisms of action, and on measures to prevent or delay resistance when drugs are introduced. Drug discovery and development are long, risky and costly ventures. Antimalarial drug development has traditionally been slow but now various private and public institutions are at work to discover and develop new compounds. Today, the antimalarial development pipeline is looking reasonably healthy. Most development relies on the quinoline, antifolate and artemisinin compounds. There is a pressing need to have effective, easy to use, affordable drugs that will last a long time. Drug combinations that have independent modes of action are seen as a way of enhancing efficacy while ensuring mutual protection against resistance. Most research work has focused on the use of artesunate combined with currently used standard drugs, namely, mefloquine, amodiaquine, sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, and chloroquine. There is clear evidence that combinations improve efficacy without increasing toxicity. However, the absolute cure rates that are achieved by combinations vary widely and depend on the level of resistance of the standard drug. From these studies, further work is underway to produce fixed dose combinations that will be packaged in blister packs. This review will summarise current antimalarial drug developments and outline recent

  2. A development perspective on adolescent drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, D; Moselle, K A

    1985-01-01

    Adolescent drug use is placed in an historical and developmental perspective. Existing evidence concerning causes and consequences of adolescent drug use is inconclusive. In the absence of conclusive empirical evidence and cogent theories, we present a prima facie case against early adolescent drug use by defending six propositions which posit specific cognitive, conative, and affective negative consequences including impairment of attention and memory; developmental lag imposing categorical limitations on the level of maximum functioning available to the user in cognitive, moral and psychosocial domains; amotivational syndrome; consolidation of diffuse or negative identity; and social alienation and estrangement. We call for a program of research which could provide credible evidence to support or rebut these propositions, and thus address the factual claims underlying the sociomoral concerns of social policy planners.

  3. Generic learning skills in academically-at-risk medical students: a development programme bridges the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Vanessa C; Sikakana, Cynthia N T; Gunston, Geney D; Shamley, Delva R; Murdoch-Eaton, Deborah

    2013-08-01

    Widening access to medical students from diverse educational backgrounds is a global educational mandate. The impact, on students' generic learning skills profiles, of development programmes designed for students at risk of attrition is unknown. This study investigated the impact of a 12-month Intervention Programme (IP) on the generic learning skills profile of academically-at-risk students who, after failing at the end of the first semester, completed the IP before entering the second semester of a conventional medical training programme. This prospective study surveyed medical students admitted in 2009 and 2010, on entry and on completion of first year, on their reported practice and confidence in information handling, managing own learning, technical and numeracy, computer, organisational and presentation skills. Of 414 first year students, 80 (19%) entered the IP. Levels of practice and confidence for five of the six skills categories were significantly poorer at entry for IP students compared to conventional stream students. In four categories these differences were no longer statistically significant after students had completed the IP; 62 IP students (77.5%) progressed to second year. A 12-month development programme, the IP, effectively addressed generic learning skills deficiencies present in academically-at-risk students entering medical school.

  4. Summary and conclusions of the specialist meeting on severe accident management programme development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The CSNI Specialist meeting on severe accident management programme development was held in Rome and about seventy experts from thirteen countries attended the meeting. A total of 27 papers were presented in four sessions, covering specific aspects of accident management programme development. It purposely focused on the programmatic aspects of accident management rather than on some of the more complex technical issues associated with accident management strategies. Some of the major observations and conclusions from the meeting are that severe accident management is the ultimate part of the defense in depth concept within the plant. It is function and success oriented, not event oriented, as the aim is to prevent or minimize consequences of severe accidents. There is no guarantee it will always be successful but experts agree that it can reduce the risks significantly. It has to be exercised and the importance of emergency drills has been underlined. The basic structure and major elements of accident management programmes appear to be similar among OECD member countries. Dealing with significant phenomenological uncertainties in establishing accident management programmes continues to be an important issue, especially in confirming the appropriateness of specific accident management strategies

  5. Open source drug discovery--a new paradigm of collaborative research in tuberculosis drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Anshu; Scaria, Vinod; Raghava, Gajendra Pal Singh; Lynn, Andrew Michael; Chandra, Nagasuma; Banerjee, Sulagna; Raghunandanan, Muthukurussi V; Pandey, Vikas; Taneja, Bhupesh; Yadav, Jyoti; Dash, Debasis; Bhattacharya, Jaijit; Misra, Amit; Kumar, Anil; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Thomas, Zakir; Brahmachari, Samir K

    2011-09-01

    It is being realized that the traditional closed-door and market driven approaches for drug discovery may not be the best suited model for the diseases of the developing world such as tuberculosis and malaria, because most patients suffering from these diseases have poor paying capacity. To ensure that new drugs are created for patients suffering from these diseases, it is necessary to formulate an alternate paradigm of drug discovery process. The current model constrained by limitations for collaboration and for sharing of resources with confidentiality hampers the opportunities for bringing expertise from diverse fields. These limitations hinder the possibilities of lowering the cost of drug discovery. The Open Source Drug Discovery project initiated by Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, India has adopted an open source model to power wide participation across geographical borders. Open Source Drug Discovery emphasizes integrative science through collaboration, open-sharing, taking up multi-faceted approaches and accruing benefits from advances on different fronts of new drug discovery. Because the open source model is based on community participation, it has the potential to self-sustain continuous development by generating a storehouse of alternatives towards continued pursuit for new drug discovery. Since the inventions are community generated, the new chemical entities developed by Open Source Drug Discovery will be taken up for clinical trial in a non-exclusive manner by participation of multiple companies with majority funding from Open Source Drug Discovery. This will ensure availability of drugs through a lower cost community driven drug discovery process for diseases afflicting people with poor paying capacity. Hopefully what LINUX the World Wide Web have done for the information technology, Open Source Drug Discovery will do for drug discovery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of a national injury prevention/safe community programme in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luau, H C; Svanström, L; Ekman, R; Duong, H L; Nguyen, O C; Dahlgren, G; Hoang, P

    2001-03-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the initiation of a national programme on injury prevention/safe community (IP/SC). Market economy, Doi Moi, was introduced in Vietnam in 1986, and since then the injury pattern has been reported to have changed. The number of traffic injury deaths has increased three-fold from 1980 to 1996 and traffic injuries more than four-fold. Injuries are now the leading cause of mortality in hospitals. There are difficulties in obtaining a comprehensive picture of the injury pattern from official statistics and, in conjunction with the work initiated by the Ministry of Health, a number of local reporting systems have already been developed. Remarkable results have been achieved within the IP/SC in a very short time, based on 20 years of experience. An organizational construction system has been built from province to local community areas. Management is based on administrative and legislative documents. IP/SC implementation is considered the duty of the whole community, local authorities and people committees, and should be incorporated into local action plans. The programme is a significant contribution towards creating a safe environment in which everybody may live and work, allowing the stability for society to develop. Implementation of the programme in schools is a special characteristic. The programme will be developed in 800 schools with a large number of pupils (25% of the population). This model for safer schools is considerably concerned and is a good experience to disseminate. The recommendations are that more pilot models of IP/SC should be conducted in other localities and that the programme should be expanded to a national scale. Furthermore, co-operation between sectors and mass organizations should be encouraged and professional skills of key SC members at all levels should be raised.

  7. Unintended outcomes evaluation approach: A plausible way to evaluate unintended outcomes of social development programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Sumera

    2018-06-01

    Social development programmes are deliberate attempts to bring about change and unintended outcomes can be considered as inherent to any such intervention. There is now a solid consensus among the international evaluation community regarding the need to consider unintended outcomes as a key aspect in any evaluative study. However, this concern often equates to nothing more than false piety. Exiting evaluation theory suffers from overlap of terminology, inadequate categorisation of unintended outcomes and lack of guidance on how to study them. To advance the knowledge of evaluation theory, methods and practice, the author has developed an evaluation approach to study unintended effects using a theory building, testing and refinement process. A comprehensive classification of unintended outcomes on the basis of knowability, value, distribution and temporality helped specify various type of unintended outcomes for programme evaluation. Corresponding to this classification, a three-step evaluation process was proposed including a) outlining programme intentions b) forecasting likely unintended effects c) mapping the anticipated and understanding unanticipated unintended outcomes. This unintended outcomes evaluation approach (UOEA) was then trialled by undertaking a multi-site and multi-method case study of a poverty alleviation programme in Pakistan and refinements were made to the approach.The case study revealed that this programme was producing a number of unintended effects, mostly negative, affecting those already disadvantaged such as the poorest, women and children. The trialling process demonstrated the effectiveness of the UOEA and suggests that this can serve as a useful guide for future evaluation practice. It also provides the discipline of evaluation with an empirically-based reference point for further theoretical developments in the study of unintended outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. RDandD Programme 2010. Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    The RD and D programme 2010 gives an account of SKB's plans for research, development and demonstration during the period 2011-2016. SKB's activities are divided into two main areas - the programme for Low and Intermediate Level Waste (the Loma program) and the Nuclear Fuel Program. The RD and D Programme 2010 consists of five parts: Part I: Overall Plan, Part II: Loma program, Part III: Nuclear Fuel Program, Part IV: Research on analysis of long-term safety, Part V: Social Science Research. The 2007 RD and D programme was focused primarily on technology development to realize the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The actions described were aimed at increasing awareness of long-term safety and to obtain technical data for application under the Nuclear Activities Act for the final repository for spent fuel and under the Environmental Code of the repository system. Many important results from these efforts are reported in this program. An overall account of the results will be given in the Licensing application in early 2011. The authorities' review of RD and D programme in 2007 and completion of the program called for clarification of plans and programs for the final repository for short-lived radioactive waste, SFR, and the final repository for waste, SFL. This RD and D program describes these plans in a more detailed way

  9. A qualitative evaluation of the Scottish Staff and Associate Specialist Development Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Jennifer; Burr, Jacqueline; Johnston, Peter

    2016-05-01

    The continued professional development of staff and associate specialist doctors in the UK was ill served prior to the introduction of the new staff and associate specialist doctor's contract in 2008. The aim of this study was to independently evaluate NHS Education for Scotland's approach to improving professional development for staff and associate specialist doctors, the staff and associate specialist Professional Development Fund. Semi-structured telephone interviews with key stakeholders, framed by a realistic approach to evaluate what works, for whom and in how and under what circumstances. An inductive and data-driven thematic analysis was carried out and then the realist framework was applied to the data. We interviewed 22 key stakeholders: staff and associate specialist doctors, staff and associate specialist educational advisors, programme architects and clinical directors, between end February and May 2014. The resultant data indicated five broad themes: organisational barriers to continued professional development for staff and associate specialist doctors, the purpose of funding, gains from funding, the need for better communication about the staff and associate specialist Programme Development Fund, and the interplay between individual and systems factors. The staff and associate specialist Programme Development Fund has changed the opportunities available to staff and associate specialist doctors in Scotland and, in that sense, has changed the context for this group - or at least those who have realised the opportunities. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. A Research-Informed, School-Based Professional Development Workshop Programme to Promote Dialogic Teaching with Interactive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Sara; Dragovic, Tatjana; Warwick, Paul

    2018-01-01

    The study reported in this article investigated the influence of a research-informed, school-based, professional development workshop programme on the quality of classroom dialogue using the interactive whiteboard (IWB). The programme aimed to develop a dialogic approach to teaching and learning mediated through more interactive uses of the IWB,…

  11. Exploring the Development of Existing Sex Education Programmes for People with Intellectual Disabilities: An Intervention Mapping Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaafsma, Dilana; Stoffelen, Joke M. T.; Kok, Gerjo; Curfs, Leopold M. G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disabilities face barriers that affect their sexual health. Sex education programmes have been developed by professionals working in the field of intellectual disabilities with the aim to overcome these barriers. The aim of this study was to explore the development of these programmes. Methods: Sex education…

  12. Experience with, and programme of, FBR and HWR development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, M.; Sawai, S.; Nomoto, S.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear power generation in Japan is moving forward on the long-term development programme of nuclear power from the LWR to the FBR, essentially in the same way as in other advanced nuclear countries. In this development programme the unique HWR is also included; it can use plutonium produced in LWRs together with depleted uranium before the introduction of commercial FBRs. This report describes the status of the FBR and HWR development project being carried out by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) based upon the Long-Term Programme on Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy in Japan. Operational experience and technical results are shown for the experimental fast reactor JOYO (100 MW(th)), which reached initial criticality in 1977. The status of the 280 MW(e) prototype reactor MONJU, under construction as of 1982, is described. The conceptual design of the subsequent 1000 MW(e) demonstration plant is outlined, as is additional future planning. Research and development results, mainly carried out at Oarai Engineering Center of PNC, are shown. The 165 MW(e) prototype FUGEN is a heavy-water-moderated, boiling-light-water-cooled, pressure-tube-type reactor which uses plutonium mixed-oxide fuel. This report describes the relationship of the fuel cycle to the HWR in Japan and also discusses the operational experience of the prototype FUGEN, which has operated since 1979. Also described is the design of the 600 MW(e) demonstration plant and the programme of related research and development. (author)

  13. RDandD Programme 2007. Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-09-01

    The programme describes in general terms the planned measures and the facilities that are needed for the task, with a focus on the plans for the period 2008-2013. The period of immediate concern is 2008-2010. The level of detail for the three subsequent years is naturally lower. The programme provides a basis for designing systems to manage and dispose of the radioactive waste from the nuclear power plants. SKB intends to dispose of the spent nuclear fuel in accordance with the KBS-3 method. In the RDandD Programme we describe our activities and the planning for it. We also deal with societal research and other methods for disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The planning for low- and intermediate-level waste, as well as for the societal research, is presented in separate parts. The upcoming review of the programme can contribute valuable outside viewpoints. The regulatory authorities and the Government can clarify how they view different parts of the activity. Municipalities and other stakeholders can, after studying the programme, offer their viewpoints to SKB, the regulatory authorities or the Government. The most important milestone during the coming three-year period is to submit applications under the Nuclear Activities Act for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel and under the Environmental Code for the final repository system. RDandD programme 2007 therefore focuses on the technology development that is needed to realize the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The site investigations in Forsmark and Laxemar will be concluded in 2007. The work of compiling the applications for the final repository is under way. In contrast to the immediately preceding programmes, RDandD Programme 2007 therefore also contains a summary of the site investigation phase and a look ahead at the steps that remain before the final repository can be put into operation. RDandD Programme 2007 consists of six parts: Part I SKB's plan of action; Part II Final repository for spent

  14. RDandD Programme 2007. Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-09-15

    The programme describes in general terms the planned measures and the facilities that are needed for the task, with a focus on the plans for the period 2008-2013. The period of immediate concern is 2008-2010. The level of detail for the three subsequent years is naturally lower. The programme provides a basis for designing systems to manage and dispose of the radioactive waste from the nuclear power plants. SKB intends to dispose of the spent nuclear fuel in accordance with the KBS-3 method. In the RDandD Programme we describe our activities and the planning for it. We also deal with societal research and other methods for disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The planning for low- and intermediate-level waste, as well as for the societal research, is presented in separate parts. The upcoming review of the programme can contribute valuable outside viewpoints. The regulatory authorities and the Government can clarify how they view different parts of the activity. Municipalities and other stakeholders can, after studying the programme, offer their viewpoints to SKB, the regulatory authorities or the Government. The most important milestone during the coming three-year period is to submit applications under the Nuclear Activities Act for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel and under the Environmental Code for the final repository system. RDandD programme 2007 therefore focuses on the technology development that is needed to realize the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The site investigations in Forsmark and Laxemar will be concluded in 2007. The work of compiling the applications for the final repository is under way. In contrast to the immediately preceding programmes, RDandD Programme 2007 therefore also contains a summary of the site investigation phase and a look ahead at the steps that remain before the final repository can be put into operation. RDandD Programme 2007 consists of six parts: Part I SKB's plan of action; Part II Final repository for spent

  15. RDandD Programme 2007. Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-09-15

    The programme describes in general terms the planned measures and the facilities that are needed for the task, with a focus on the plans for the period 2008-2013. The period of immediate concern is 2008-2010. The level of detail for the three subsequent years is naturally lower. The programme provides a basis for designing systems to manage and dispose of the radioactive waste from the nuclear power plants. SKB intends to dispose of the spent nuclear fuel in accordance with the KBS-3 method. In the RDandD Programme we describe our activities and the planning for it. We also deal with societal research and other methods for disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The planning for low- and intermediate-level waste, as well as for the societal research, is presented in separate parts. The upcoming review of the programme can contribute valuable outside viewpoints. The regulatory authorities and the Government can clarify how they view different parts of the activity. Municipalities and other stakeholders can, after studying the programme, offer their viewpoints to SKB, the regulatory authorities or the Government. The most important milestone during the coming three-year period is to submit applications under the Nuclear Activities Act for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel and under the Environmental Code for the final repository system. RDandD programme 2007 therefore focuses on the technology development that is needed to realize the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The site investigations in Forsmark and Laxemar will be concluded in 2007. The work of compiling the applications for the final repository is under way. In contrast to the immediately preceding programmes, RDandD Programme 2007 therefore also contains a summary of the site investigation phase and a look ahead at the steps that remain before the final repository can be put into operation. RDandD Programme 2007 consists of six parts: Part I SKB's plan of action; Part II Final repository for

  16. The development of multiple drug use among anabolic-androgenic steroid users: six subjective case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyberg Fred

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inappropriate use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS was originally a problem among athletes but AAS are now often used in nonsport situations and by patients attending regular addiction clinics. The aim of this study was to improve understanding of the development of multiple drug use in patients seeking treatment at an addiction clinic for AAS-related problems. Methods We interviewed six patients (four men and two women with experience of AAS use who were attending an addiction clinic for what they believed were AAS-related problems. The patients were interviewed in-depth about their life stories, with special emphasis on social background, substance use, the development of total drug use and subjective experienced psychological and physical side effects. Results There was significant variation in the development of drug use in relation to social background, onset of drug use, relationship to AAS use and experience of AAS effects. All patients had initially experienced positive effects from AAS but, over time, the negative experiences had outweighed the positive effects. All patients were dedicated to excess training and took AAS in combination with gym training, indicating that the use of these drugs is closely related to this form of training. Use of multiple drugs was common either in parallel with AAS use or serially. Conclusion The study shows the importance of understanding how AAS use can develop either with or without the concomitant use of other drugs of abuse. The use of AAS can, however, progress to the use of other drugs. The study also indicates the importance of obtaining accurate, comprehensive information about the development of AAS use in designing treatment programmes and prevention strategies in this area.

  17. Kinase-Centric Computational Drug Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, Albert J.; Volkamer, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Kinases are among the most studied drug targets in industry and academia, due to their involvement in a majority of cellular processes and, upon dysregulation, in a variety of diseases including cancer, inflammation, and autoimmune disorders. The high interest in this druggable protein family

  18. Preclinical experimental models of drug metabolism and disposition in drug discovery and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donglu Zhang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Drug discovery and development involve the utilization of in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Different models, ranging from test tube experiments to cell cultures, animals, healthy human subjects, and even small numbers of patients that are involved in clinical trials, are used at different stages of drug discovery and development for determination of efficacy and safety. The proper selection and applications of correct models, as well as appropriate data interpretation, are critically important in decision making and successful advancement of drug candidates. In this review, we discuss strategies in the applications of both in vitro and in vivo experimental models of drug metabolism and disposition.

  19. HIV drug resistance following a decade of the free antiretroviral therapy programme in India: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Karade

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the overall burden of resistance against first-line ART agents remained steady over the study decade, periodic monitoring is essential. There is the need to develop an HIV-1 subtype C-specific resistance database in India.

  20. Framework Programmable Platform for the advanced software development workstation: Framework processor design document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Richard J.; Blinn, Thomas M.; Mayer, Paula S. D.; Ackley, Keith A.; Crump, Wes; Sanders, Les

    1991-01-01

    The design of the Framework Processor (FP) component of the Framework Programmable Software Development Platform (FFP) is described. The FFP is a project aimed at combining effective tool and data integration mechanisms with a model of the software development process in an intelligent integrated software development environment. Guided by the model, this Framework Processor will take advantage of an integrated operating environment to provide automated support for the management and control of the software development process so that costly mistakes during the development phase can be eliminated.

  1. Multiscale Modeling in the Clinic: Drug Design and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clancy, Colleen E.; An, Gary; Cannon, William R.; Liu, Yaling; May, Elebeoba E.; Ortoleva, Peter; Popel, Aleksander S.; Sluka, James P.; Su, Jing; Vicini, Paolo; Zhou, Xiaobo; Eckmann, David M.

    2016-02-17

    A wide range of length and time scales are relevant to pharmacology, especially in drug development, drug design and drug delivery. Therefore, multi-scale computational modeling and simulation methods and paradigms that advance the linkage of phenomena occurring at these multiple scales have become increasingly important. Multi-scale approaches present in silico opportunities to advance laboratory research to bedside clinical applications in pharmaceuticals research. This is achievable through the capability of modeling to reveal phenomena occurring across multiple spatial and temporal scales, which are not otherwise readily accessible to experimentation. The resultant models, when validated, are capable of making testable predictions to guide drug design and delivery. In this review we describe the goals, methods, and opportunities of multi-scale modeling in drug design and development. We demonstrate the impact of multiple scales of modeling in this field. We indicate the common mathematical techniques employed for multi-scale modeling approaches used in pharmacology and present several examples illustrating the current state-of-the-art regarding drug development for: Excitable Systems (Heart); Cancer (Metastasis and Differentiation); Cancer (Angiogenesis and Drug Targeting); Metabolic Disorders; and Inflammation and Sepsis. We conclude with a focus on barriers to successful clinical translation of drug development, drug design and drug delivery multi-scale models.

  2. Developing a structured education reminiscence-based programme for staff in long-stay care facilities in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Adeline; O'Shea, Eamon; Casey, Dympna; Murphy, Kathy; Dempsey, Laura; Smyth, Siobhan; Hunter, Andrew; Murphy, Edel; Devane, Declan; Jordan, Fionnuala

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the steps used in developing and piloting a structured education programme - the Structured Education Reminiscence-based Programme for Staff (SERPS). The programme aimed to prepare nurses and care assistants to use reminiscence when caring for people with dementia living in long-term care. Reminiscence involves facilitating people to talk or think about their past. Structured education programmes are used widely as interventions in randomised controlled trials. However, the process of developing a structured education programme has received little attention relative to that given to evaluating the effectiveness of such programmes. This paper makes explicit the steps followed to develop the SERPS, thereby making a contribution to the methodology of designing and implementing effective structured education programmes. The approach to designing the SERPS was informed by the Van Meijel et al. (2004) model (Journal of Advanced Nursing 48, 84): (1) problem definition, (2) accumulation of building blocks for intervention design, (3) intervention design and (4) intervention validation. Grounded theory was used (1) to generate data to shape the 'building blocks' for the SERPS and (2) to explore residents, family and staff's experience of using/receiving reminiscence. Analysis of the pilot data indicated that the programme met its objective of preparing staff to use reminiscence with residents with dementia. Staff were positive both about the SERPS and the use of reminiscence with residents with dementia. This paper outlines a systematic approach to developing and validating a structured education programme. Participation in a structured education programme is more positive for staff if they are expected to actively implement what they have learnt. Ongoing support during the delivery of the programme is important for successful implementation. The incorporation of client and professional experience in the design phase is a key strength of this approach

  3. Indigenous Health Workforce Development: challenges and successes of the Vision 20:20 programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Elana; Reid, Papaarangi

    2013-01-01

    There are significant health workforce inequities that exist internationally. The shortage of indigenous health professionals within Australia and New Zealand requires action across multiple sectors, including health and education. This article outlines the successes and challenges of the University of Auckland's Vision 20:20 programme, which aims to improve indigenous Māori and Pacific health workforce development via recruitment, bridging/foundation and tertiary retention support interventions within the Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences (FMHS). Seven years of student data (2005-2011) are presented for undergraduate Student Pass Rate (SPR) by ethnicity and Certificate in Health Sciences (CertHSc) SPR, enrolments and completions by ethnicity. Four key areas of development are described: (i) student selection and pathway planning; (ii) foundation programme refinement; (iii) academic/pastoral support; and (iv) re-development of the indigenous recruitment model. Key programme developments have had a positive impact on basic student data outcomes. The FMHS undergraduate SPR increased from 89% in 2005 to 94% in 2011 for Māori and from 81% in 2005 to 87% in 2011 for Pacific. The CertHSc SPR increased from 52% in 2005 to 92% in 2011 with a greater proportion of Māori and Pacific enrolments achieving completion over time (18-76% for Māori and 29-74% for Pacific). Tertiary institutions have the potential to make an important contribution to indigenous health workforce development. Key challenges remain including secondary school feeder issues, equity funding, programme evaluation, post-tertiary specialist workforce development and retention in Aotearoa, New Zealand. © 2012 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  4. Developing a training programme for radiation protection officers at industrial irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davor, P.

    2013-04-01

    A training programme for staff of irradiation facilities especially radiation safety officers at industrial irradiation facilities has been developed. The programme focused on technical and administrative basis for ensuring radiation safety at the practices. It consists of thirteen modules ranging from fundamentals of radiation, biological effects of ionizing radiation as well as the technical and administrative issues pertinent to radiation safety of the sources. The overall objective of this programme was to build competence in the area of radiation protection and raise the confidence level of staff of industrial irradiation facilities. The modules are structured in a manner that attempts to give a good understanding to participants on safety features of irradiators and use of radiation monitoring equipment. Each module has specific objectives and expected outcome and the course content is also stated under each module. The duration of the whole programme is sixteen weeks and the participants are expected to have some working knowledge in radiation protection and safe use of radiation sources. (au)

  5. A two-pronged approach in leishmaniasis drug development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nancy Kamau

    Trouiller P; Olliaro P; Torreele E;. Orbinski J; Laing R and Ford N. Drug development for neglected diseases: a deficient market and a public-health policy failure. Lancet. 2002; 359: 2188–94. 9. Nwaka S and Ridley RG. Virtual drug discovery and development for neglected diseases through public-private partnerships.

  6. An active role for machine learning in drug development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the complexity of biological systems, cutting-edge machine-learning methods will be critical for future drug development. In particular, machine-vision methods to extract detailed information from imaging assays and active-learning methods to guide experimentation will be required to overcome the dimensionality problem in drug development. PMID:21587249

  7. Delays in clinical development of neurological drugs in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Masayuki

    2017-06-28

    The delays in the approval and development of neurological drugs between Japan and other countries have been a major issue for patients with neurological diseases. The objective of this study was to analyze factors contributing to the delay in the launching of neurological drugs in Japan. We analyzed data from Japan and the US for the approval of 42 neurological drugs, all of which were approved earlier in the US than in Japan, and examined the potential factors that may cause the delay of their launch. Introductions of the 42 drugs in Japan occurred at a median of 87 months after introductions in the US. The mean review time of new drug applications for the 20 drugs introduced in Japan in January 2011 or later (15 months) was significantly shorter than that for the other 22 drugs introduced in Japan in December 2010 or earlier (24 months). The lag in the Japan's review time behind the US could not explain the approval delays. In the 31 of the 42 drugs, the application data package included overseas data. The mean review time of these 31 drugs (17 months) was significantly shorter than that of the other 11 drugs without overseas data (26 months). The mean approval lag behind the US of the 31 drugs (78 months) was also significantly shorter than that of the other 11 drugs (134 months). These results show that several important reforms in the Japanese drug development and approval system (e.g., inclusion of global clinical trial data) have reduced the delays in the clinical development of neurological drugs.

  8. [New drug development by innovative drug administration--"change" in pharmaceutical field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, T

    1997-11-01

    New drug development can be made by providing products of higher "selectivity for the drug" for medical treatment. There are two ways for the approach to get higher "selectivity of drug": 1) discovery of new compounds with high selectivity of drug; 2) innovation of new drug administration, that is new formulation and/or method with high selectivity of drug by integration and harmonization of various hard/soft technologies. An extensive increase of biological information and advancement of surrounding science and technology may modify the situation as the latter overcomes the former in the 21 century. As the science and technology in the 21 century is said to be formed on "3H", that is, 1. hybrid; 2. hi-quality; 3. husbandry, the new drug development by innovative drug administration is exactly based on the science and technology of 3H. Its characteristic points are interdisciplinary/interfusion, international, of philosophy/ethics, and systems of hard/hard/heart. From these points of view, not only the advance of unit technology but also a revolution in thinking way should be "must" subjects. To organize this type of research well, a total research activity such as ROR (research on research) might take an important and efficient role. Here the key words are the "Optimization technology" and "Change in Pharmaceutical Fields." As some examples of new drug innovation, our trials on several topical mucosal adhesive dosage forms and parenteral administration of peptide drugs such as insulin and erythropoietin will be described.

  9. The ties that bind: a network approach to creating a programme in faculty development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay; Reeves, Scott; Egan-Lee, Eileen; Leslie, Karen; Silver, Ivan

    2010-02-01

    Current trends in medical education reflect the changing health care environment. An increasingly large and diverse student population, a move to more distributed models of education, greater community involvement and an emphasis on social accountability, interprofessional education and student-centred approaches to learning necessitate new approaches to faculty development to help faculty members respond effectively to this rapidly changing landscape. Drawing upon the tenets of network theory and the broader organisational literature, we propose a 'fishhook' model of faculty development programme formation. The model is based on seven key factors which supported the successful formation of a centralised programme for faculty development that addressed many of the contemporary issues in medical education. These factors include: environmental readiness; commitment and vision of a mobiliser; recruitment of key stakeholders and leaders to committees; formation of a collaborative network structure; accumulation of networking capital; legitimacy, and flexibility. Our aim in creating this model is to provide a guide for other medical schools to consider when developing similar programmes. The model can be adapted to reflect the local goals, settings and cultures of other medical education contexts.

  10. Enabling Chemistry Technologies and Parallel Synthesis-Accelerators of Drug Discovery Programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, A; Bogdan, A R; Koolman, H F; Wang, Y; Djuric, S W

    There is a pressing need to improve overall productivity in the pharmaceutical industry. Judicious investments in chemistry technologies can have a significant impact on cycle times, cost of goods and probability of technical success. This perspective describes some of these technologies developed and implemented at AbbVie, and their applications to the synthesis of novel scaffolds and to parallel synthesis. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of Verbal Expressive Skills Management Programme (VESMP for Patients with Brocas Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humaira Shamim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Disorders of communication, including aphasia (mainly post stroke caused by the left hemisphere brain damage, is a major community health issue. The prevalence of aphasia after stroke is 25% in Pakistan in which Broca’s aphasia is predominant in stroke patients who have anterior lesion in the frontal lobe of the left hemispheres. The verbal expressive skills management programme (VESMP is the software which developed augmented management for patients to enhance verbal expressive skills for patients with severe Broca’s aphasia from different geographic areas. Moreover, the software increases the independencies which are not observed in other traditional techniques. This study is the pathway for maintaining and improving the functional life of patients. Objectives: The main objective was to develop the verbal expressive skills management programme (VESMP to enhance verbal expressive skills of patients with severe Broca’s aphasia. Methodology: Initially a pilot study with eight cases is carried out. The nonprobability purposive sampling technique was used to recruit the patients with severe aphasia who received therapy through VESMP programme on their smart phones. It contains seven domains: spontaneous speech, comprehension, naming, reading, writing, imitation, and automated speech. The programme was developed in Urdu language and its content was selected from grade three Urdu Punjab text books. The program was then updated with the help of guidance and feedback received from five experts of the relevant field. The patients scoring is recorded for each domain on basis of correct responses. The study was conducted in YUSRA general hospital and Pakistan Railway Hospital, Rawalpindi. The study includes patients that are 40+ years old, and have three months of post stroke with diagnosis of chronic Broca’s Aphasias, patients with severe cognitive impairment were excluded from the study. The pre-and post score was recorded for each

  12. Development of a brief multidisciplinary education programme for patients with osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moe Rikke H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoarthritis (OA is a prevalent progressive musculoskeletal disorder, leading to pain and disability. Patient information and education are considered core elements in treatment guidelines for OA; however, there is to our knowledge no evidence-based recommendation on the best approach, content or length on educational programmes in OA. Objective: to develop a brief, patient oriented disease specific multidisciplinary education programme (MEP to enhance self-management in patients with OA. Method Twelve persons (80% female mean age 59 years diagnosed with hand, hip or knee OA participated in focus group interviews. In the first focus group, six participants were interviewed about their educational needs, attitudes and expectations for the MEP. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and thereafter condensed. Based on results from focus group interviews, current research evidence, clinical knowledge and patients' experience, a multidisciplinary OA team (dietist, nurse, occupational therapist, pharmacist, physical therapist and rheumatologist and a patient representative developed a pilot-MEP after having attended a work-shop in health pedagogics. Finally, the pilot-MEP was evaluated by a second focus group consisting of four members from the first focus group and six other experienced patients, before final adjustments were made. Results The focus group interviews revealed four important themes: what is OA, treatment options, barriers and coping strategies in performing daily activities, and how to live with osteoarthritis. Identified gaps between patient expectations and experience with the pilot-programme were discussed and adapted into a final MEP. The final MEP was developed as a 3.5 hour educational programme provided in groups of 6-9 patients. All members from the multidisciplinary team are involved in the education programme, including a facilitator who during the provision of the programme ensures that the individual

  13. Development, Fabrication and Characterization of Fuels for Indian Fast Reactor Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Arun

    2013-01-01

    Development of Fast Reactor fuels in India started in early Seventies. The successful development of Mixed Carbide fuels for FBTR and MOX fuel for PFBR have given confidence in manufacture of fuels for Fast Reactors. Effort is being put to develop high Breeding Ratio Metallic fuel (binary/ternary). Few fuel pins have been fabricated and is under test irradiation. However, this is only a beginning and complete fuel cycle activities are under development. Metal fuelled Fast Reactors will provide high growth rate in Indian Fast Reactor programme

  14. Examining the pathways for young people with drug and alcohol dependence: a mixed-method design to examine the role of a treatment programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Sally; Rawstorne, Patrick; Hayen, Andrew; Bryant, Joanne; Baldry, Eileen; Ferry, Mark; Williams, Megan; Shanahan, Marian; Jayasinha, Ranmalie

    2016-05-25

    Young people with drug and alcohol problems are likely to have poorer health and other psychosocial outcomes than other young people. Residential treatment programmes have been shown to lead to improved health and related outcomes for young people in the short term. There is very little robust research showing longer term outcomes or benefits of such programmes. This paper describes an innovative protocol to examine the longer term outcomes and experiences of young people referred to a residential life management and treatment programme in Australia designed to address alcohol and drug issues in a holistic manner. This is a mixed-methods study that will retrospectively and prospectively examine young people's pathways into and out of a residential life management programme. The study involves 3 components: (1) retrospective data linkage of programme data to health and criminal justice administrative data sets, (2) prospective cohort (using existing programme baseline data and a follow-up survey) and (3) qualitative in-depth interviews with a subsample of the prospective cohort. The study will compare findings among young people who are referred and (a) stay 30 days or more in the programme (including those who go on to continuing care and those who do not); (b) start, but stay fewer than 30 days in the programme; (c) are assessed, but do not start the programme. Ethics approval has been sought from several ethics committees including a university ethics committee, state health departments and an Aboriginal-specific ethics committee. The results of the study will be published in peer-reviewed journals, presented at research conferences, disseminated via a report for the general public and through Facebook communications. The study will inform the field more broadly about the value of different methods in evaluating programmes and examining the pathways and trajectories of vulnerable young people. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  15. RD and D Programme 98. Treatment and final disposal of nuclear waste. Programme for research, development and demonstration of encapsulation and geological disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    RD and D-Programme 98 is intended to provide an overview of SKBs activities and plans. The detailed research programme is presented in a separate background report. In parallel with RDD-Programme 98, SKB is publishing a number of reports that provide a more thorough background and a more detailed account, particularly on those issues that the Government mentioned in its decision regarding RD and D-Programme 95. The programme is divided into two parts: Background and Execution. The background part begins with a chapter on the basic premises. It deals with general principles, laws and the properties of the waste. The facilities that exist today for dealing with the nuclear waste are also described in the introductory chapter. The two following chapters have to do with the choice between different methods for disposing of nuclear waste and with the KBS-3 method, which SKB has chosen as its main alternative. These two chapters provide a broader account of both the KBS-3 method and different alternative methods than previous RD and D-programmes. The background part concludes with a chapter about the long-term safety of the deep repository. The second part, Execution, begins with an overview of SKBs strategy and the main features of the programme, both for the next few years and further in the future. The plans for siting, technology and safety assessment are then presented in greater detail. This is followed by an overview of our plans for supportive research and development, including continued R and D on other methods than the KBS-3 method. The programme concludes with a chapter on decommissioning of nuclear facilities. An important part of the ongoing and planned work is consultation on environmental impact assessments. A first draft of the contents of future environmental impact statements is therefore provided. By attaching it to RD and D-Programme 98, SKB wishes to give all reviewing bodies an opportunity to offer their viewpoints at an early stage on what future

  16. RD and D Programme 98. Treatment and final disposal of nuclear waste. Programme for research, development and demonstration of encapsulation and geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    RD and D-Programme 98 is intended to provide an overview of SKBs activities and plans. The detailed research programme is presented in a separate background report. In parallel with RDD-Programme 98, SKB is publishing a number of reports that provide a more thorough background and a more detailed account, particularly on those issues that the Government mentioned in its decision regarding RD and D-Programme 95. The programme is divided into two parts: Background and Execution. The background part begins with a chapter on the basic premises. It deals with general principles, laws and the properties of the waste. The facilities that exist today for dealing with the nuclear waste are also described in the introductory chapter. The two following chapters have to do with the choice between different methods for disposing of nuclear waste and with the KBS-3 method, which SKB has chosen as its main alternative. These two chapters provide a broader account of both the KBS-3 method and different alternative methods than previous RD and D-programmes. The background part concludes with a chapter about the long-term safety of the deep repository. The second part, Execution, begins with an overview of SKBs strategy and the main features of the programme, both for the next few years and further in the future. The plans for siting, technology and safety assessment are then presented in greater detail. This is followed by an overview of our plans for supportive research and development, including continued R and D on other methods than the KBS-3 method. The programme concludes with a chapter on decommissioning of nuclear facilities. An important part of the ongoing and planned work is consultation on environmental impact assessments. A first draft of the contents of future environmental impact statements is therefore provided. By attaching it to RD and D-Programme 98, SKB wishes to give all reviewing bodies an opportunity to offer their viewpoints at an early stage on what future

  17. An integration programme of poverty alleviation and development with family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The State Council (the central government) recently issued a Circular for Speeding Up the Integration of Poverty Alleviation and Development with the Family Planning Programme during the Ninth Five-year Plan (1996-2000). The Circular was jointly submitted by the State Family Planning Commission and the Leading Group for Poverty Alleviation and Development. The document sets the two major tasks as solving the basic needs for food and clothing of the rural destitute and the control of over-rapid growth of China's population. Practice indicates that a close Integration Programme is the best way for impoverished farmers to alleviate poverty and become better-off. Overpopulation and low educational attainments and poor health quality of population in backward areas are the major factors retarding socioeconomic development. Therefore, it is inevitable to integrate poverty alleviation with family planning. It is a path with Chinese characteristics for a balanced population and sustainable socioeconomic development. The targets of the Integration Programme are as follows: The first is that preferential policies should be worked out to guarantee family planning acceptors, especially households with an only daughter or two daughters, are the first to be helped to eradicate poverty and become well-off. They should become good examples for other rural poor in practicing fewer but healthier births, and generating family income. The second target is that the population plans for the poor counties identified by the central government and provincial governments must be fulfilled. This should contribute to breaking the vicious circle of poverty leading to more children, in turn generating more poverty. The circular demands that more efforts should focus on the training of cadres for the Integrated Programme and on services for poor family planning acceptors. full text

  18. The Community's research and development programme on decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The programme, adopted by the Council of the European Communities, seeks to promote a number of research and development projects as well as the identification of guiding principles. The projects concern the following subjects: long-term integrity of buildings and systems; decontaminations for decommissioning purposes; dismantling techniques; treatment of specific waste materials (steel, concrete and graphite); large transport containers for radioactive waste arising from decommissioning of nuclear power plants in the Community; and influence of nuclear power plant design features on decommissioning

  19. Developing and implementing an anti-corruption ethics and compliance programme in the African environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Ndedi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the development and implementation of anti-corruption ethics and compliance programme in the African business environment. In the past decade, an international legal framework has been developed to tackle corruption both in public and private sectors. This framework includes the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC, which entered into force in 2005, and the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions, which entered into force in 1999. These instruments mandate that State Parties must criminalise and punish a variety of corrupt practices. Relevant domestic laws have a direct impact on business, especially in States Parties instruments that require the establishment of liability of legal persons for corrupt acts. The African Union Convention also requires States Parties to establish mechanisms to encourage participation by the private sector in the fight against unfair competition, respect of the tender procedures and property rights. The paper details various steps needed to efficiently and effectively implement anti-corruption ethics and compliance programme in the African context. The first part of the paper develops the primary objective of the corruption risk assessment which is to better understand the risk exposure so that informed risk management decisions may be taken. A structured approach for how enterprises could conduct an anti-corruption risk assessment will be outlined in this first section. The author argued in this same first section that each enterprise’s own risk assessment exercise is unique, depending on that enterprise’s industry, size, location, and other factors inherent to that organisation. The second part of the paper drafts the development and the implementation of an anti-corruption programme. The paper concludes by stating that an anti-corruption and compliance programme is not a panacea for fighting all the ills on

  20. Reflection of successful anticancer drug development processes in the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Fabian; Huber, Torsten; Meisel, Christian; Bundschus, Markus; Leser, Ulf

    2016-11-01

    The development of cancer drugs is time-consuming and expensive. In particular, failures in late-stage clinical trials are a major cost driver for pharmaceutical companies. This puts a high demand on methods that provide insights into the success chances of new potential medicines. In this study, we systematically analyze publication patterns emerging along the drug discovery process of targeted cancer therapies, starting from basic research to drug approval - or failure. We find clear differences in the patterns of approved drugs compared with those that failed in Phase II/III. Feeding these features into a machine learning classifier allows us to predict the approval or failure of a targeted cancer drug significantly better than educated guessing. We believe that these findings could lead to novel measures for supporting decision making in drug development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Challenges in orphan drug development and regulatory policy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Alice; Xie, Zhi

    2017-01-18

    While regulatory policy is well defined for orphan drug development in the United States and Europe, rare disease policy in China is still evolving. Many Chinese patients currently pay out of pocket for international treatments that are not yet approved in China. The lack of a clear definition and therefore regulatory approval process for rare diseases has, until now, de-incentivized pharmaceutical companies to pursue rare disease drug development in China. In turn, many grassroots movements have begun to support rare disease patients and facilitate drug discovery through research. Recently, the Chinese FDA set new regulatory guidelines for drugs being developed in China, including an expedited review process for life-saving treatments. In this review, we discuss the effects of these new policy changes on and suggest potential solutions to innovate orphan drug development in China.

  2. Sustainable Development Aspects in Cross-Border Cooperation Programmes: The Case of Macedonia and Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klodjan Seferaj

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The cross-border area between Albania and Macedonia can be considered as a region with agrarian or industrial-agrarian economy, although the overall picture should take into account significant contrasts within the region, between the two countries, but also between the southern and northern part, and between mountainous areas and lowlands. Agriculture, agribusiness, light industry, mining, energy production and tourism are the main economic sectors, which also have the biggest potential in the cross-border region. Both countries are gaining experience in EU funded cross-border cooperation programmes with other neighbouring countries and with each other. The scope of the research is the evaluation and analysis of the Integrated Pre-accession Assistance (IPA Cross-border Cooperation (CBC Programme Macedonia-Albania 2007-2013 and its sustainable development aspects. The research is trying to assess the impact of the programme since its start in 2007 and the impact of the implemented grants on the sustainable development. The importance of the sustainable development aspect is recognized and is formally included into various national strategic documents, however implementation is often problematic and sustainability aspects need to be examined on a more concrete level. The methodology used was qualitative with research tools such as desk studies of relevant program documentation, strategic and planning documentation and other relevant published materials. The desk review considered well over 40 documents relevant to the program, most of which were shared by the Ministry of European Integration (MoEI and other actors.

  3. Impact of a faculty development programme for teaching communication skills on participants' practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod Perron, Noelle; Cullati, Stephane; Hudelson, Patricia; Nendaz, Mathieu; Dolmans, Diana; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2014-05-01

    A 6-month faculty development programme was designed to improve supervisors' feedback to junior doctors on their clinical communication skills (CS) and included both CS and teaching skills training. The aim of this study was to assess supervisors' views on the impact of the programme on their subsequent teaching and communication practice. 28 clinical supervisors at the Geneva University Hospitals, from either inpatient or outpatient settings (general internists or primary care specialists), undertook a six-session faculty development programme, between 2009 and 2011, and each completed a short questionnaire before and 1 month after the course. Between 3 and 6 months after the course, the participants were interviewed about their views on the impact of the course on their practice using a semistructured interview. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. The percentage of participants who reported teaching CS at least once a week had increased from 5/26 (19%) to 8/26 (30%), p=0.07. Participants reported using teaching skills, especially giving structured feedback. Use of newly acquired teaching skills was more likely when participants had protected time for teaching or were involved in formal teaching activities. Even participants who reported minimal teaching activity found the newly acquired CS to be useful, both with their own patients and in other professional situations. The few participants who explicitly reported teaching regularly CS in practice had generally become formal teachers in CS training. A faculty development programme on how to teach CS is perceived to be useful by clinical supervisors to acquire new skills, but using them in the workplace appears to depend on creation of a supportive environment with protected time for teaching. Involving supervisors in formal communication teaching may be one way to ensure continued use of newly learned teaching skills.

  4. Young Women's Lived Experience of Participating in a Positive Youth Development Programme: The "Teens & Toddlers" Pregnancy Prevention Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorhaindo, Annik; Mitchell, Kirstin; Fletcher, Adam; Jessiman, Patricia; Keogh, Peter; Bonell, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of the Teens & Toddlers (T&T) positive youth development (PYD) and teenage pregnancy prevention programme suggested that the intervention had minimal effectiveness partly due to its unclear theory of change. The purpose of this paper is to examine the lived experiences of young women participating in the programme to…

  5. Implications of Social Practice Theory for the Development of a Numeracy Programme for the Gusilay People Group in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerger, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I present research on some traditional numeracy practices of the Gusilay people group in Senegal and make recommendations for developing a numeracy programme for women. Based on a strong foundation of traditional knowledge and practices, the programme will aim to meet felt needs of women who are faced with new numeracy related…

  6. Using intervention mapping (IM) to develop a self-management programme for employees with a chronic disease in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Detaille, S.I.; van der Gulden, J.W.J.; Engels, J.A.; Heerkens, Y.F.; van Dijk, F.J.H.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Employees with a chronic disease often encounter problems at work because of their chronic disease. The current paper describes the development of a self-management programme based on the Chronic Disease Self-Management Programme (CDSMP) of Stanford University to help employees

  7. Using intervention mapping (IM) to develop a self-management programme for employees with a chronic disease in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Detaille, S.I.; Gulden, J.W.J. van der; Engels, J.A.; Heerkens, Y.H.; Dijk, F.J. van

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Employees with a chronic disease often encounter problems at work because of their chronic disease. The current paper describes the development of a self-management programme based on the Chronic Disease Self-Management programme (CDSMP) of Stanford University to help employees with a

  8. Using intervention mapping (IM) to develop a self-management programme for employees with a chronic disease in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Detaille, Sarah I.; van der Gulden, Joost W. J.; Engels, Josephine A.; Heerkens, Yvonne F.; van Dijk, Frank J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Employees with a chronic disease often encounter problems at work because of their chronic disease. The current paper describes the development of a self-management programme based on the Chronic Disease Self-Management programme (CDSMP) of Stanford University to help employees with a chronic

  9. Development of the national nuclear programme and preparations for the introduction of nuclear power in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szili, G.; Erdosi, N.; Varga, I.; Ocsai, M.; Szabo, B.

    1977-01-01

    Hungary's energy situation, energy policy and its interest in the use of nuclear energy are reviewed and the main nuclear power programme targets for the medium term (by 1990) and long term (by 2000) are given. Preparatory steps for the introduction of nuclear energy are outlined, emphasizing the important areas of the preparatory programme. A short technical description is given of Hungary's first nuclear power plant, the Paks Nuclear Power Station, including the preparations for construction and erection, the present construction plan, fuel supply, basic technical aspects of safety, and the social consequences of the plant's erection. The problems involved in the introduction of nuclear energy that must be solved by the state administration are summarized. A review is given of earlier legislation on projects and works representing a radiation hazard; duties are discharged by different state administrations. Additional problems arise from the large-scale use of nuclear energy. These require regulation by the authorities. Preliminary steps have been taken to frame appropriate laws. The activities of the authorities in regard to the practical realization of the first nuclear power station are outlined: there will be a scheduled procedure of authorization. The present potentials and trends in the development and design capacities for energy in general and particularly for nuclear power research are discussed. Hungarian R and D and design resources participate in the joint nuclear power development programme of the CMEA countries. Work is divided amongst various institutes. Preparations being made in the manufacturing, building and construction industries will lead to an expected increase in the domestic share in the construction of future nuclear power plants, compared to the first plant, for which the proportions of foreign and domestic participation are given. Hungary's industry is preparing for the manufacture of nuclear power equipment within the framework of the

  10. Fragment-based drug discovery as alternative strategy to the drug development for neglected diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Juliana da Fonseca Rezende E; Gomes, Renan Augusto; Vital-Fujii, Drielli Gomes; Ferreira, Glaucio Monteiro; Trossini, Gustavo Henrique Goulart

    2017-12-01

    Neglected diseases (NDs) affect large populations and almost whole continents, representing 12% of the global health burden. In contrast, the treatment available today is limited and sometimes ineffective. Under this scenery, the Fragment-Based Drug Discovery emerged as one of the most promising alternatives to the traditional methods of drug development. This method allows achieving new lead compounds with smaller size of fragment libraries. Even with the wide Fragment-Based Drug Discovery success resulting in new effective therapeutic agents against different diseases, until this moment few studies have been applied this approach for NDs area. In this article, we discuss the basic Fragment-Based Drug Discovery process, brief successful ideas of general applications and show a landscape of its use in NDs, encouraging the implementation of this strategy as an interesting way to optimize the development of new drugs to NDs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Accelerating Precision Drug Development and Drug Repurposing by Leveraging Human Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulley, Jill M; Shirey-Rice, Jana K; Lavieri, Robert R; Jerome, Rebecca N; Zaleski, Nicole M; Aronoff, David M; Bastarache, Lisa; Niu, Xinnan; Holroyd, Kenneth J; Roden, Dan M; Skaar, Eric P; Niswender, Colleen M; Marnett, Lawrence J; Lindsley, Craig W; Ekstrom, Leeland B; Bentley, Alan R; Bernard, Gordon R; Hong, Charles C; Denny, Joshua C

    2017-04-01

    The potential impact of using human genetic data linked to longitudinal electronic medical records on drug development is extraordinary; however, the practical application of these data necessitates some organizational innovations. Vanderbilt has created resources such as an easily queried database of >2.6 million de-identified electronic health records linked to BioVU, which is a DNA biobank with more than 230,000 unique samples. To ensure these data are used to maximally benefit and accelerate both de novo drug discovery and drug repurposing efforts, we created the Accelerating Drug Development and Repurposing Incubator, a multidisciplinary think tank of experts in various therapeutic areas within both basic and clinical science as well as experts in legal, business, and other operational domains. The Incubator supports a diverse pipeline of drug indication finding projects, leveraging the natural experiment of human genetics.

  12. Developing and implementing a monitoring programme: recommendations provided by the MODERN project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, S.; Bergmans, A.; Garcia-Sineriz, J.L.; Breen, B.; Jobmann, M.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The successful implementation of a repository programme relies on both the technical aspects of a sound safety strategy, and scientific and engineering excellence, as well as on social aspects such as public acceptance. Monitoring has the potential to contribute to both of these aspects and thus to play an important role as national radioactive waste disposal programmes move forward towards safe and accepted implementation of geological disposal. The main goal of the 'Monitoring Developments for Safe Repository Operation and staged Closure' (MoDeRn) Project is to take the state-of-the-art of broadly accepted, main monitoring objectives and to develop these to a level of description that is closer to the actual implementation of monitoring during the staged approach of the disposal process. It should be noted that the MoDeRn project recognizes the diversity of monitoring activities that will be required in a repository, in particular related to operational safety, nuclear safeguards and environmental impact assessment. The projects emphasis, however, is on monitoring conducted to verify expected repository system evolutions - i.e. evolutions of the natural environment and the engineered system - during a phase of progressive construction, operation and closure that may last on the order of a century. This serves the purpose of confirming and possibly enhancing the prior license basis for safety and pre-closure management options. Achieving this goal includes analysis of whether the implementation of a realistic monitoring programme is likely to address expert and lay stakeholder expectations (objectives), to provide an understanding of monitoring activities and available technologies that can be implemented in a repository context (feasibility), and to provide recommendations for related, future stakeholder engagement activities (social acceptance). These are carried out by the 18 project partners representing 12

  13. Development of Surveillance and In-Service Inspection Programme for Indian Research Reactors Cirus and Dhruva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    Many safety requirements for research reactors are quite similar to those of power reactors. For research reactors with a higher hazard potential, the use of safety codes and guides for power reactors is more appropriate. However, there are many important differences between power reactors and research reactors that must be taken into account to ensure that adequate safety margins are available in design and operation of the research reactor. Most research reactors may have small potential for hazard to the public compared to power reactors but may pose a greater potential hazard to the plant operators. The need for greater flexibility in use of research reactors for individual experiments requires a different safety approach. Safety rules for power reactors are required to be substantially modified for application to specific research reactor. Following the intent of the available safety guides for surveillance and In-Service Inspection of Nuclear Power Plants, guidelines were formulated to develop surveillance and In-Service Inspection programme for research reactors Cirus and Dhruva. Based on the specific design of these research reactors, regulatory requirements, the degree of sophistication and experience of the technical organization involved in operating the research reactor, guidelines were evolved for developing and implementing the surveillance and In-Service Inspection programme for research reactors Cirus (40 MWt) and Dhruva (100 MWt) located at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, India. Paper describes the approach adopted for formulation of surveillance and In-service Inspection programme for Dhruva reactor in detail. (author)

  14. Developing core elements and checklist items for global hospital antimicrobial stewardship programmes: a consensus approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcini, C; Binda, F; Lamkang, A S; Trett, A; Charani, E; Goff, D A; Harbarth, S; Hinrichsen, S L; Levy-Hara, G; Mendelson, M; Nathwani, D; Gunturu, R; Singh, S; Srinivasan, A; Thamlikitkul, V; Thursky, K; Vlieghe, E; Wertheim, H; Zeng, M; Gandra, S; Laxminarayan, R

    2018-04-03

    With increasing global interest in hospital antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programmes, there is a strong demand for core elements of AMS to be clearly defined on the basis of principles of effectiveness and affordability. To date, efforts to identify such core elements have been limited to Europe, Australia, and North America. The aim of this study was to develop a set of core elements and their related checklist items for AMS programmes that should be present in all hospitals worldwide, regardless of resource availability. A literature review was performed by searching Medline and relevant websites to retrieve a list of core elements and items that could have global relevance. These core elements and items were evaluated by an international group of AMS experts using a structured modified Delphi consensus procedure, using two-phased online in-depth questionnaires. The literature review identified seven core elements and their related 29 checklist items from 48 references. Fifteen experts from 13 countries in six continents participated in the consensus procedure. Ultimately, all seven core elements were retained, as well as 28 of the initial checklist items plus one that was newly suggested, all with ≥80% agreement; 20 elements and items were rephrased. This consensus on core elements for hospital AMS programmes is relevant to both high- and low-to-middle-income countries and could facilitate the development of national AMS stewardship guidelines and adoption by healthcare settings worldwide. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. All rights reserved.

  15. TELEMAN - an European community research and development programme on robotics in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolley, B.; Robertson, B.

    1991-01-01

    The TELEMAN Programme is a five year cost-shared research programme covering remote handling in hazardous and disordered nuclear environments. It is supported within the current research and development of the European Communities. TELEMAN's strategic objective is to develop advanced teleoperators that respond to the needs of the nuclear industry. Its technical objective is to strengthen the scientific and engineering bases upon which the design of teleoperators for use throughout the nuclear industry rests. This will be done by providing new solutions to problems of manipulation, material transport and mobile surveillance in nuclear environments and by demonstrating their feasibility. Motivation for such a programme lies in the potential teleoperators have to improve the separation of workers from radioactive equipment. This technology will also enable plant operators and public authorities to deal more effectively with nuclear abnormal incidents and increase gains in productivity, mainly in the repair and maintenance area. Community support is justified by the cost of the reliability and autonomy required for the nuclear teleoperator, the need to rationalise R and D investment in an area of increasing industrial potential and a common interest in coherent responses to emergencies. (author)

  16. Stories of change: The case of a foundation phase teacher professional development programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Brown

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study reported in this article responds to the need for empirical studies that provide evidence of positive change in education at the micro-level of the classroom – an important component of the complex education environment in South Africa. This article describes teachers’ and principals’ reports of micro-level changes that occurred during a professional development programme for foundation phase teachers at a South African university. An overview of the principles underpinning the programme design and implementation is given, followed by a description of the qualitative research design and grounded theory methodology used to research changes in the practices of teachers participating in the programme. The study provides evidence of changes in the classroom and professional practice of the teachers, aligned with changes in academic practice and children’s learning in the classroom. We argue that the programme’s strong orientation to practice, its focus on teachers’ understanding of children, and the model of teacher professional development that is located in reflexive practice together may have facilitated positive changes in the teachers’ practices.

  17. Programme of research and development on plutonium recycling in light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This is the third annual progress report concerning the programme on plutonium recycling in light-water reactors (indirect action) of the Commission of the European Communities. It covers the year 1978 and follows the annual reports for 1977 (EUR 6002 EN) and 1976 (EUR 5780). The preliminary results obtained under the 1975-79 programme indicate that: (a) assuming that plutonium recycling in light-water reactors is industrially developed by the end of the century, the foreseeable radiological impact on both workers and the general public can be maintained within the limits of current radiation protection standards; (b) on the whole, there is a good knowledge and mastery of the specific aspects involved in the plutonium recycling in light-water reactors and in particular they indicate that plutonium fuels have a similar behaviour to uranium fuels

  18. Pharmacogenomics and its potential impact on drug and formulation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnstrom, Karin; Burgess, Diane J

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in genomic research have provided the basis for new insights into the importance of genetic and genomic markers during the different stages of drug development. A new field of research, pharmacogenomics, which studies the relationship between drug effects and the genome, has emerged. Structural pharmacogenomics maps the complete DNA sequences of whole genomes (genotypes) including individual variations, and functional pharmacogenomics assesses the expression levels of thousands of genes in one single experiment. Together, these two areas of pharmacogenomics have generated massive databases, which have become a challenge for the research field of informatics and have fostered a new branch of research, bioinformatics. If skillfully used, the databases generated by pharmacogenomics together with data mining on the Web promise to improve the drug development process in a variety of areas: identification of drug targets, evaluation of toxicity, classification of diseases, evaluation of formulations, assessment of drug response and treatment, post-marketing applications, and development of personalized medicines.

  19. Otic drug delivery systems: formulation principles and recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Li, Mingshuang; Smyth, Hugh; Zhang, Feng

    2018-04-25

    Disorders of the ear severely impact the quality of life of millions of people, but the treatment of these disorders is an ongoing, but often overlooked challenge particularly in terms of formulation design and product development. The prevalence of ear disorders has spurred significant efforts to develop new therapeutic agents, but perhaps less innovation has been applied to new drug delivery systems to improve the efficacy of ear disease treatments. This review provides a brief overview of physiology, major diseases, and current therapies used via the otic route of administration. The primary focuses are on the various administration routes and their formulation principles. The article also presents recent advances in otic drug deliveries as well as potential limitations. Otic drug delivery technology will likely evolve in the next decade and more efficient or specific treatments for ear disease will arise from the development of less invasive drug delivery methods, safe and highly controlled drug delivery systems, and biotechnology targeting therapies.

  20. Recent developments in oral lipid-based drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, N.; Rades, T.; Müllertz, A.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing number of poorly water-soluble drugs in development in the pharmaceutical industry has sparked interest in novel drug delivery options such as lipid-based drug delivery systems (LbDDS). Several LbDDS have been marketed successfully and have shown superior and more reliable...... bioavailability compared to conventional formulations. However, some reluctance in the broader application of LbDDS still appears, despite the growing commercial interest in lipids as a drug delivery platform. This reluctance might at least in part be related to the complexity associated with the development...... and characterization of LbDDS. In particular, the lack of standardized test protocols can be identified as the major obstacles for the broader application of LbDDS. This review seeks to summarize recent approaches in the field of lipid-based drug delivery that try to elucidate some critical steps in their development...

  1. Big Data: transforming drug development and health policy decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemayehu, Demissie; Berger, Marc L

    The explosion of data sources, accompanied by the evolution of technology and analytical techniques, has created considerable challenges and opportunities for drug development and healthcare resource utilization. We present a systematic overview these phenomena, and suggest measures to be taken for effective integration of the new developments in the traditional medical research paradigm and health policy decision making. Special attention is paid to pertinent issues in emerging areas, including rare disease drug development, personalized medicine, Comparative Effectiveness Research, and privacy and confidentiality concerns.

  2. Design and Development of a Proniosomal Transdermal Drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to develop a proniosomal carrier system for captopril for the treatment of hypertension that is capable of efficiently delivering entrapped drug over an extended period of time. Method: The potential of proniosomes as a transdermal drug delivery system for captopril was investigated by ...

  3. Development and formative evaluation of a family-centred adolescent HIV prevention programme in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Maretha; Thurman, Tonya R; Spyrelis, Alexandra; Taylor, Tory M; Nice, Johanna K; Finestone, Michelle

    2018-03-06

    Preventing HIV among young people is critical to achieving and sustaining global epidemic control. Evidence from Western settings suggests that family-centred prevention interventions may be associated with greater reductions in risk behaviour than standard adolescent-only models. Despite this, family-centred models for adolescent HIV prevention are nearly non-existent in South Africa - home to more people living with HIV than any other country. This paper describes the development and formative evaluation of one such intervention: an evidence-informed, locally relevant, adolescent prevention intervention engaging caregivers as co-participants. The programme, originally consisting of 19 sessions for caregivers and 14 for adolescents, was piloted with 12 groups of caregiver-adolescent dyads by community-based organizations (CBOs) in KwaZulu-Natal and Gauteng provinces. Literature and expert reviews were employed in the development process, and evaluation methods included analysis of attendance records, session-level fidelity checklists and facilitator feedback forms collected during the programme pilot. Facilitator focus group discussions and an implementer programme workshop were also held. Results highlighted the need to enhance training content related to cognitive behavioural theory and group management techniques, as well as increase the cultural relevance of activities in the curriculum. Participant attendance challenges were also identified, leading to a shortened and simplified session set. Findings overall were used to finalize materials and guidance for a revised 14-week group programme consisting of individual and joint sessions for adolescents and their caregivers, which may be implemented by community-based facilitators in other settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development and evaluation of a newborn care education programme in primiparous mothers in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sharmila; Adachi, Kumiko; Petrini, Marcia A; Shrestha, Sarita; Rana Khagi, Bina

    2016-11-01

    the health and survival of newborns depend on high levels of attention and care from caregivers. The growth and development of some infants are unhealthy because of their mother's or caregiver's lack of knowledge or the use of inappropriate or traditional child-rearing practices that may be harmful. to develop a newborn care educational programme and evaluate its impact on infant and maternal health in Nepal. a randomised controlled trial. one hundred and forty-three mothers were randomly assigned to the intervention (n=69) and control (n=74) groups. Eligible participants were primiparous mothers who had given birth to a single, full-term, healthy infant, and were without a history of obstetric, medical, or psychological problems. prior to being discharged from the postnatal unit, the intervention group received our structured newborn care education programme, which consisted of one-on-one educational sessions lasting 10-15minutes each and one postpartum follow-up telephone support within two weeks after discharge, in addition to the hospital's routine general newborn care education. The control group received only the regular general newborn care education. Outcomes were measured by using Newborn care Knowledge Questionnaires, Karitane Parenting Confidence Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Adults and infant health and care status. the number of mothers attending the health centre due to the sickness of their babies was significantly decreased in the intervention group compared to the control group. Moreover, the intervention group had significant increases in newborn care knowledge and confidence, and decreases in anxiety, compared with the control group. the structured newborn care education programme enhanced the infant and mother health. Moreover, it increased maternal knowledge of newborn care and maternal confidence; and reduced anxiety in primiparous mothers. Thus, this educational programme could be integrated into routine educational programs to

  5. An evaluation of a public health practitioner registration programme: lessons learned for workforce development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Em; Wills, Jane

    2014-09-01

    This article explores the lessons learned for workforce development from an evaluation of a regional programme to support the assessment and registration of public health practitioners to the UK Public Health Register (UKPHR) in England. A summative and process evaluation of the public health practitioner programme in Wessex was adopted. Data collection was by an online survey of 32 public health practitioners in the Wessex area and semi-structured interviews with 53 practitioners, programme support, employers and system leaders. All survey respondents perceived regulation of the public health workforce as very important or important. Managers and system leaders saw a register of those fit to practise and able to define themselves as a public health practitioner as a necessary assurance of quality for the public. Yet, because registration is voluntary for practitioners, less value was currently placed on this than on completing a master's qualification. The local programme supports practitioners in the compilation of a retrospective portfolio of evidence that demonstrates fitness to practise; practitioners and managers stated that this does not support current and future learning needs or the needs of those working at a senior level. One of the main purposes of statutory regulation of professionals is to protect the public by an assurance of fitness to practise where there is a potential for harm. The widening role for public health practitioners without any regulation means that there is the risk of inappropriate interventions or erroneous advice. Regulators, policy makers and system leaders need to consider how they can support the development of the public health workforce to gain professional recognition at all levels of public health, including practitioners alongside specialists, and support a professional career framework for the public health system. © Royal Society for Public Health 2014.

  6. Development of a competency mapping tool for undergraduate professional degree programmes, using mechanical engineering as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, David W.; Sheehan, Madoc; Birks, Melanie; Smithson, John

    2018-01-01

    Mapping the curriculum of a professional degree to the associated competency standard ensures graduates have the competence to perform as professionals. Existing approaches to competence mapping vary greatly in depth, complexity, and effectiveness, and a standardised approach remains elusive. This paper describes a new mapping software tool that streamlines and standardises the competency mapping process. The available analytics facilitate ongoing programme review, management, and accreditation. The complete mapping and analysis of an Australian mechanical engineering degree programme is described as a case study. Each subject is mapped by evaluating the amount and depth of competence development present. Combining subject results then enables highly detailed programme level analysis. The mapping process is designed to be administratively light, with aspects of professional development embedded in the software. The effective competence mapping described in this paper enables quantification of learning within a professional degree programme, and provides a mechanism for holistic programme improvement.

  7. Inkjet Printing of Drug-Loaded Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles-A Platform for Drug Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickström, Henrika; Hilgert, Ellen; Nyman, Johan O; Desai, Diti; Şen Karaman, Didem; de Beer, Thomas; Sandler, Niklas; Rosenholm, Jessica M

    2017-11-21

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have shown great potential in improving drug delivery of poorly water soluble (BCS class II, IV) and poorly permeable (BCS class III, IV) drugs, as well as facilitating successful delivery of unstable compounds. The nanoparticle technology would allow improved treatment by reducing adverse reactions of currently approved drugs and possibly reintroducing previously discarded compounds from the drug development pipeline. This study aims to highlight important aspects in mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) ink formulation development for digital inkjet printing technology and to advice on choosing a method (2D/3D) for nanoparticle print deposit characterization. The results show that both unfunctionalized and polyethyeleneimine (PEI) surface functionalized MSNs, as well as drug-free and drug-loaded MSN-PEI suspensions, can be successfully inkjet-printed. Furthermore, the model BCS class IV drug remained incorporated in the MSNs and the suspension remained physically stable during the processing time and steps. This proof-of-concept study suggests that inkjet printing technology would be a flexible deposition method of pharmaceutical MSN suspensions to generate patterns according to predefined designs. The concept could be utilized as a versatile drug screening platform in the future due to the possibility of accurately depositing controlled volumes of MSN suspensions on various materials.

  8. Inkjet Printing of Drug-Loaded Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles—A Platform for Drug Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrika Wickström

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs have shown great potential in improving drug delivery of poorly water soluble (BCS class II, IV and poorly permeable (BCS class III, IV drugs, as well as facilitating successful delivery of unstable compounds. The nanoparticle technology would allow improved treatment by reducing adverse reactions of currently approved drugs and possibly reintroducing previously discarded compounds from the drug development pipeline. This study aims to highlight important aspects in mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN ink formulation development for digital inkjet printing technology and to advice on choosing a method (2D/3D for nanoparticle print deposit characterization. The results show that both unfunctionalized and polyethyeleneimine (PEI surface functionalized MSNs, as well as drug-free and drug-loaded MSN–PEI suspensions, can be successfully inkjet-printed. Furthermore, the model BCS class IV drug remained incorporated in the MSNs and the suspension remained physically stable during the processing time and steps. This proof-of-concept study suggests that inkjet printing technology would be a flexible deposition method of pharmaceutical MSN suspensions to generate patterns according to predefined designs. The concept could be utilized as a versatile drug screening platform in the future due to the possibility of accurately depositing controlled volumes of MSN suspensions on various materials.

  9. Overview of current research and development programmes for fuel in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiozawa, S.

    1991-01-01

    The Research and Development (R and D) programmes for HTGR fuel have been performed since 1969 by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) as a leading organization in Japan. The R and D covers all fields necessary for the construction of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR), which is the first HTGR in Japan. This R and D includes fuel fabrication, fuel property data, irradiation performance under normal operating conditions, safety-related research and fuel inspection technology. The R and D for the HTTR has been completed from a licensing point of view. Some R and D including future advanced fuel development continue. 2 figs, 3 tabs

  10. Ethnically diverse pluripotent stem cells for drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakunle, Eyitayo S; Loring, Jeanne F

    2012-12-01

    Genetic variation is an identified factor underlying drug efficacy and toxicity, and adverse drug reactions, such as liver toxicity, are the primary reasons for post-marketing drug failure. Genetic predisposition to toxicity might be detected early in the drug development pipeline by introducing cell-based assays that reflect the genetic and ethnic variation of the expected treatment population. One challenge for this approach is obtaining a collection of suitable cell lines derived from ethnically diverse populations. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) seem ideal for this purpose. They can be obtained from any individual, can be differentiated into multiple relevant cell types, and their self-renewal capability makes it possible to generate large quantities of quality-controlled cell types. Here, we discuss the benefits and challenges of using iPSCs to introduce genetic diversity into the drug development process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Literacy development of English language learners: The outcomes of an intervention programme in grade R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Mari Olivier

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to contribute to the knowledge base on the status and development of emergent literacy skills of learners receiving formal education in their second or additional language. The focus is on young English language learners (ELLs, i.e. learners whose home language is not English but who have English as their language of teaching and learning. This article reports on a study that investigated ELLs’ emergent literacy skills prior to entering grade 1 and then evaluated the effectiveness of an evidence-based stimulation programme on early literacy skills in the South African context. Using a quasi-experimental design, ELLs’ emergent literacy skills were assessed with an adapted version of 8 of the subtests of the Emergent Literacy Assessment battery (Willenberg, 2004 and were compared to those of English first language (L1 and of ELL control groups, both before and after the 8-week purpose-designed programme. While learners showed significant improvement on 6 of the 8 subtests, the programme did not significantly improve ELLs’ skills in comparison to those of the control groups. Possible independent variables contributing to the dearth of intervention effect include socio-economic status, learners’ L1, and teacher- and classroom-specific characteristics, all of which were considered in this study. Clinical implications for speech-language therapists with regard to assessment, intervention, service delivery and outcome measures are highlighted.

  12. The impact of a faculty development programme for health professions educators in sub-Saharan Africa: an archival study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, José M; Bezuidenhout, Juanita; Burch, Vanessa C; Mthembu, Sindi; Rowe, Michael; Tan, Christina; Van Wyk, Jacqueline; Van Heerden, Ben

    2015-03-03

    In 2008 the sub-Saharan FAIMER Regional Institute launched a faculty development programme aimed at enhancing the academic and research capacity of health professions educators working in sub-Saharan Africa. This two-year programme, a combination of residential and distance learning activities, focuses on developing the leadership, project management and programme evaluation skills of participants as well as teaching the key principles of health professions education-curriculum design, teaching and learning and assessment. Participants also gain first-hand research experience by designing and conducting an education innovation project in their home institutions. This study was conducted to determine the perceptions of participants regarding the personal and professional impact of the SAFRI programme. A retrospective document review, which included data about fellows who completed the programme between 2008 and 2011, was performed. Data included fellows' descriptions of their expectations, reflections on achievements and information shared on an online discussion forum. Data were analysed using Kirkpatrick's evaluation framework. Participants (n=61) came from 10 African countries and included a wide range of health professions educators. Five key themes about the impact of the SAFRI programme were identified: (1) belonging to a community of practice, (2) personal development, (3) professional development, (4) capacity development, and (5) tools/strategies for project management and/or advancement. The SAFRI programme has a positive developmental impact on both participants and their respective institutions.

  13. Planning and development of nuclear power programmes in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haunschild, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    The development of the peaceful utilization of nuclear science and technology in the Federal Republic of Germany started in 1955. It concentrated on the development of nuclear energy with its important potential for energy supply, in order to cover the growing energy demand of the recovering economy, and on the application of nuclear radiation and radioactive isotopes in various areas of science and technology such as biology, medicine, chemistry, physics, materials research and development. From the beginning, the nuclear energy programme was a joint undertaking of government, industry and science. To achieve the necessary impetus and to supplement the activities of industry and universities, several nuclear research centres, in particular at Juelich and Karlsruhe, were founded. This comprehensive approach was the basis for the following rapid development of nuclear technology, as well as for its competitive structure and its safety record. With regard to nuclear energy utilization for electricity generation, heat supply, and ship propulsion a broad range of reactor concepts such as light- and heavy-water reactors, high-temperature reactors, and fast-breeder reactors was examined. Today, nuclear energy meets about 17% of the country's electricity demand. Fifteen nuclear power plants with a capacity of about 10,000 MW(e) are in operation; 11 plants with a total capacity of about 12,000 MW(e) are under construction, and the construction of another 10 plants is definitely planned. Activities in uranium enrichment, fuel element fabrication, and reprocessing have reached the industrial stage. The paper indicates possible future trends of the nuclear programme. The successful development of a national nuclear energy programme goes in parallel with broad international co-operation. Therefore the efforts to re-establish a stable system for co-operation in nuclear commerce and technology, based on international safeguards, should be strengthened

  14. [Development of antituberculous drugs: current status and future prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Haruaki; Namba, Kenji

    2006-12-01

    Worldwide, tuberculosis (TB) remains the most frequent and important infectious disease causing morbidity and death. One-third of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), the etiologic agent of TB. The World Health Organization estimates that about eight to ten million new TB cases occur annually worldwide and the incidence of TB is currently increasing. In this context, TB is in the top three, with malaria and HIV being the leading causes of death from a single infectious agent, and approximately two million deaths are attributable to TB annually. In particular, pulmonary TB, the most common form of TB, is a highly contagious and life-threatening infection. Moreover, enhanced susceptibility to TB in HIV-infected populations is another serious health problem throughout the world. In addition, multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) has been increasing in incidence in many areas, not only in developing countries but industrialized countries as well, during the past decade. These situations, particularly the global resurgence of TB and the rapid emergence of MDR-TB, underscore the importance of the development of new antituberculous drugs and new protocols for efficacious clinical control of TB patients using ordinary antimycobacterial drugs. Concerning the development of new antituberculous drugs, the following points are of particular importance. (1) Development of drugs which display lasting antimycobacterial activity in vivo is desirable, since they can be administered with long intervals and consequently facilitate directly observed therapy and enhance patient compliance. (2) Development of novel antituberculosis compounds to combat MDR-TB is urgently needed. (3) The eradication of slowly metabolizing and, if possible, dormant populations of MTB organisms that cause relapse, using new classes of anti-TB drugs is very promising for prevention of TB incidence, because it will markedly reduce the incidence of active TB from persons who are

  15. Benefit-Risk Assessment in Drug Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarac, Sinan

    developed, tested and used. Standardised diagrams for the visualisation of results from the assessment have been established, and different diagrams have been developed for different scenarios. For the visualisation of results from single and/or multiple similar trial assessments, tornado-like diagrams were...

  16. Framework Programmable Platform for the Advanced Software Development Workstation: Preliminary system design document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Richard J.; Blinn, Thomas M.; Mayer, Paula S. D.; Ackley, Keith A.; Crump, John W., IV; Henderson, Richard; Futrell, Michael T.

    1991-01-01

    The Framework Programmable Software Development Platform (FPP) is a project aimed at combining effective tool and data integration mechanisms with a model of the software development process in an intelligent integrated software environment. Guided by the model, this system development framework will take advantage of an integrated operating environment to automate effectively the management of the software development process so that costly mistakes during the development phase can be eliminated. The focus here is on the design of components that make up the FPP. These components serve as supporting systems for the Integration Mechanism and the Framework Processor and provide the 'glue' that ties the FPP together. Also discussed are the components that allow the platform to operate in a distributed, heterogeneous environment and to manage the development and evolution of software system artifacts.

  17. Research Ethics and Commercial Drug Development: When Integrity Threatens Profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bélisle Pipon, Jean-Christophe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This case, based on personal experiences and on those found in the literature, highlights the delicate tension faced by drug development companies having to balance research integrity and their profitability.

  18. Task 9. Deployment of photovoltaic technologies: co-operation with developing countries. The role of quality management, hardware certification and accredited training in PV programmes in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, M. C. [Institute for Sustainable Power, Highlands Ranch, CO (United States); Oldach, R.; Bates, J. [IT Power Ltd, The Manor house, Chineham (United Kingdom)

    2003-09-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the role of quality management, hardware certification and accredited training in PV programmes in developing countries. The objective of this document is to provide assistance to those project developers that are interested in implementing or improving support programmes for the deployment of PV systems for rural electrification. It is to enable them to address and implement quality assurance measures, with an emphasis on management, technical and training issues and other factors that should be considered for the sustainable implementation of rural electrification programmes. It is considered important that quality also addresses the socio-economic and the socio-technical aspects of a programme concept. The authors summarise that, for a PV programme, there are three important areas of quality control to be implemented: quality management, technical standards and quality of training.

  19. Investigational drugs in early development for treating dengue infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesetti, Hemalatha; Khanna, Navin; Swaminathan, Sathyamangalam

    2016-09-01

    Dengue has emerged as the most significant arboviral disease of the current century. A drug for dengue is an urgent unmet need. As conventional drug discovery efforts have not produced any promising clinical candidates, there is a shift toward re-positioning pre-existing drugs for dengue to fast-track dengue drug development. This article provides an update on the current status of recently completed and ongoing dengue drug trials. All dengue drug trials described in this article were identified from a list of >230 trials that were returned upon searching the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform web portal using the search term 'dengue' on December 31(st), 2015. None of the handful of drugs tested so far has yielded encouraging results. Early trial experience has served to emphasize the challenge of drug testing in the short therapeutic time window available, the need for tools to predict 'high-risk' patients early on and the limitations of the existing pre-clinical model systems. Significant investment of efforts and resources is a must before the availability of a safe, effective and inexpensive dengue drug becomes a reality. Currently, supportive fluid therapy remains the only option available for dengue treatment.

  20. A New Drug Release Method in Early Development of Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Cai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro drug release tests are a widely used tool to measure the variance between transdermal product performances and required by many authorities. However, the result cannot provide a good estimation of the in vivo drug release. In the present work, a new method for measuring drug release from patches has been explored and compared with the conventional USP apparatus 2 and 5 methods. Durogesic patches, here used as a model patch, were placed on synthetic skin simulator and three moisture levels (29, 57, 198 μL cm−2 were evaluated. The synthetic skin simulators were collected after 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 24 hours and extracted with pH 1.0 hydrochloric acid solution. The drug concentrations in the extractions were measured by isocratic reverse phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. The results showed that, with the increasing moisture level on the synthetic skin simulator, the drug release rate increased. In comparison with the conventional USP method, the drug release results performed by the new method were in more correlation to the release rate claimed in the product label. This new method could help to differentiate the drug release rates among assorted formulations of transdermal drug delivery systems in the early stage of development.

  1. The Development of Drugs against Acanthamoeba Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Aqeel, Yousuf; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    For the past several decades, there has been little improvement in the morbidity and mortality associated with Acanthamoeba keratitis and Acanthamoeba encephalitis, respectively. The discovery of a plethora of antiacanthamoebic compounds has not yielded effective marketed chemotherapeutics. The rate of development of novel antiacanthamoebic chemotherapies of translational value and the lack of interest of the pharmaceutical industry in developing such chemotherapies have been disappointing. O...

  2. Neutronic analyses and tools development efforts in the European DEMO programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, U., E-mail: ulrich.fischer@kit.edu [Association KIT-Euratom, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Bachmann, C. [European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA), Garching (Germany); Bienkowska, B. [Association IPPLM-Euratom, IPPLM Warsaw/INP Krakow (Poland); Catalan, J.P. [Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), Madrid (Spain); Drozdowicz, K.; Dworak, D. [Association IPPLM-Euratom, IPPLM Warsaw/INP Krakow (Poland); Leichtle, D. [Association KIT-Euratom, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Fusion for Energy (F4E), Barcelona (Spain); Lengar, I. [MESCS-JSI, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jaboulay, J.-C. [CEA, DEN, Saclay, DM2S, SERMA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lu, L. [Association KIT-Euratom, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Moro, F. [Associazione ENEA-Euratom, ENEA Fusion Division, Frascati (Italy); Mota, F. [Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Sanz, J. [Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), Madrid (Spain); Szieberth, M. [Budapest University of Technology and Economics (BME), Budapest (Hungary); Palermo, I. [Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Pampin, R. [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Barcelona (Spain); Porton, M. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre for Fusion Energy (CCFE), Culham (United Kingdom); Pereslavtsev, P. [Association KIT-Euratom, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Ogando, F. [Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), Madrid (Spain); Rovni, I. [Budapest University of Technology and Economics (BME), Budapest (Hungary); and others

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •Evaluation of neutronic tools for application to DEMO nuclear analyses. •Generation of a DEMO model for nuclear analyses based on MC calculations. •Nuclear analyses of the DEMO reactor equipped with a HCLL-type blanket. -- Abstract: The European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) recently launched a programme on Power Plant Physics and Technology (PPPT) with the aim to develop a conceptual design of a fusion demonstration reactor (DEMO) addressing key technology and physics issues. A dedicated part of the PPPT programme is devoted to the neutronics which, among others, has to define and verify requirements and boundary conditions for the DEMO systems. The quality of the provided data depends on the capabilities and the reliability of the computational tools. Accordingly, the PPPT activities in the area of neutronics include both DEMO nuclear analyses and development efforts on neutronic tools including their verification and validation. This paper reports on first neutronics studies performed for DEMO, and on the evaluation and further development of neutronic tools.

  3. Neutronic analyses and tools development efforts in the European DEMO programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.; Bachmann, C.; Bienkowska, B.; Catalan, J.P.; Drozdowicz, K.; Dworak, D.; Leichtle, D.; Lengar, I.; Jaboulay, J.-C.; Lu, L.; Moro, F.; Mota, F.; Sanz, J.; Szieberth, M.; Palermo, I.; Pampin, R.; Porton, M.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Ogando, F.; Rovni, I.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Evaluation of neutronic tools for application to DEMO nuclear analyses. •Generation of a DEMO model for nuclear analyses based on MC calculations. •Nuclear analyses of the DEMO reactor equipped with a HCLL-type blanket. -- Abstract: The European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) recently launched a programme on Power Plant Physics and Technology (PPPT) with the aim to develop a conceptual design of a fusion demonstration reactor (DEMO) addressing key technology and physics issues. A dedicated part of the PPPT programme is devoted to the neutronics which, among others, has to define and verify requirements and boundary conditions for the DEMO systems. The quality of the provided data depends on the capabilities and the reliability of the computational tools. Accordingly, the PPPT activities in the area of neutronics include both DEMO nuclear analyses and development efforts on neutronic tools including their verification and validation. This paper reports on first neutronics studies performed for DEMO, and on the evaluation and further development of neutronic tools

  4. Breaking barriers to novel analgesic drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekkirala, Ajay S; Roberson, David P; Bean, Bruce P; Woolf, Clifford J

    2017-08-01

    Acute and chronic pain complaints, although common, are generally poorly served by existing therapies. This unmet clinical need reflects a failure to develop novel classes of analgesics with superior efficacy, diminished adverse effects and a lower abuse liability than those currently available. Reasons for this include the heterogeneity of clinical pain conditions, the complexity and diversity of underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, and the unreliability of some preclinical pain models. However, recent advances in our understanding of the neurobiology of pain are beginning to offer opportunities for developing novel therapeutic strategies and revisiting existing targets, including modulating ion channels, enzymes and G-protein-coupled receptors.

  5. Counterfeit drugs and medical devices in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glass BD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Beverley D GlassSchool of Pharmacy and Molecular Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, AustraliaAbstract: The World Health Organization has reported that counterfeit medicines potentially make up more than 50% of the global drug market, with a significant proportion of these fake products being encountered in developing countries. This occurrence is attributed to a lack of effective regulation and a weak enforcement capacity existing in these countries, with an increase in this trade resulting from the growing size and sophistication of drug counterfeiters. In addition, due to both cost and lack of availability of medicines, consumers in developing countries are more likely to seek out these inexpensive options. The World Health Organization is mindful of the impact of counterfeit drugs on consumer confidence in health care systems, health professionals, the supply chain, and genuine suppliers of medicines and medical devices. Antibiotics, antituberculosis drugs, and antimalarial and antiretroviral drugs are frequently targeted, with reports of 60% of the anti-infective drugs in Asia and Africa containing active pharmaceutical ingredients outside their pharmacopoeial limits. This has obvious public health implications of increasing drug resistance and negating all the efforts that have already gone into the provision of medicines to treat these life threatening conditions in the developing world. This review, while focusing on counterfeit medicines and medical devices in developing countries, will present information on their impact and how these issues can be addressed by regulation and control of the supply chain using technology appropriate to the developing world. The complexity of the problem will also be highlighted in terms of the definition of counterfeit and substandard medicines, including gray pharmaceuticals. Although this issue presents as a global public health problem, outcomes in developing countries where counterfeit

  6. Mathematical modeling for novel cancer drug discovery and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Brusic, Vladimir

    2014-10-01

    Mathematical modeling enables: the in silico classification of cancers, the prediction of disease outcomes, optimization of therapy, identification of promising drug targets and prediction of resistance to anticancer drugs. In silico pre-screened drug targets can be validated by a small number of carefully selected experiments. This review discusses the basics of mathematical modeling in cancer drug discovery and development. The topics include in silico discovery of novel molecular drug targets, optimization of immunotherapies, personalized medicine and guiding preclinical and clinical trials. Breast cancer has been used to demonstrate the applications of mathematical modeling in cancer diagnostics, the identification of high-risk population, cancer screening strategies, prediction of tumor growth and guiding cancer treatment. Mathematical models are the key components of the toolkit used in the fight against cancer. The combinatorial complexity of new drugs discovery is enormous, making systematic drug discovery, by experimentation, alone difficult if not impossible. The biggest challenges include seamless integration of growing data, information and knowledge, and making them available for a multiplicity of analyses. Mathematical models are essential for bringing cancer drug discovery into the era of Omics, Big Data and personalized medicine.

  7. Development of a gastroretentive pulsatile drug delivery platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thitinan, Sumalee; McConville, Jason T

    2012-04-01

    To develop a novel gastroretentive pulsatile drug delivery platform by combining the advantages of floating dosage forms for the stomach and pulsatile drug delivery systems. A gastric fluid impermeable capsule body was used as a vessel to contain one or more drug layer(s) as well as one or more lag-time controlling layer(s). A controlled amount of air was sealed in the innermost portion of the capsule body to reduce the overall density of the drug delivery platform, enabling gastric floatation. An optimal mass fill inside the gastric fluid impermeable capsule body enabled buoyancy in a vertical orientation to provide a constant surface area for controlled erosion of the lag-time controlling layer. The lag-time controlling layer consisted of a swellable polymer, which rapidly formed a gel to seal the mouth of capsule body and act as a barrier to gastric fluid ingress. By varying the composition of the lag-time controlling layer, it was possible to selectively program the onset of the pulsatile delivery of a drug. This new delivery platform offers a new method of delivery for a variety of suitable drugs targeted in chronopharmaceutical therapy. This strategy could ultimately improve drug efficacy and patient compliance, and reduce harmful side effects by scaling back doses of drug administered. © 2012 The Authors. JPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  8. Getting a remote grip on defence waste: a survey of the US DoE's Robotic Technology Development Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarbrough, L.W.

    1994-01-01

    Robots are being developed to work in various practical applications at US Department of Environment site clean-up projects. The sites involved contain large quantities of radioactive waste and contaminated facilities left from the nuclear weapons programme. Four areas of short-term applied robotics have been identified. The first of these is Tank Waste Retrieval which requires the use of long-reach robot manipulators. The second is the Contaminant Analysis Automation programme in which equipment to automate the characterization of chemical, biological and radiological samples is being developed. Developing systems to handle and pre-process mixed waste containers and their contents, and to deal with the final processed waste forms, is the object of the Mixed Waste Operations programme. Decontamination and dismantling is the fourth major robotics area. Linking all these projects together and directed at common areas of concern is the longer-term Cross Cutting and Advanced Technology programme. (UK)

  9. The cognitive processing potential of infants: Exploring the impact of an early childhood development programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Van Eeden

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many South African learners seem unprepared for formal education, and a need for intervention during early childhood has been identified. Aim: The present study explored the effect of infant exposure to an early childhood development programme aimed at the sensory developmental stage of the infant’s brain. Setting: Participants were recruited through local baby clinics and nursery schools in the Western Cape. Participants were from the middle-income sector and the sample consisted of 63 infants between the ages of 3 and 12 months – gender representation was approximately equal and 17% of the infants were of mixed race, 8% black and 75% white. Methods: A pretest–posttest design was used involving an intervention group (N = 29 and a control group (N = 34 of infants. There was no known bias in group allocation. Intervention was provided in the form of the Numbers in Nappies programme and cognitive performance was assessed with the BSID (III before and after the intervention for both groups. Results: The intervention group showed theory expectant increases, most notably on the Cognitive Scale and the Social-Emotional Scale of the BSID (III. The performance of the intervention and the control group on the cognitive subscales (Cognitive, Language and Motor was compared before and after the intervention. The only significant difference was on the Cognitive Scale after the intervention. Conclusion: The findings indicate that appropriate intervention taps into the cognitive processing potential of infants, thus increasing their cognitive ability and enhancing their social–emotional functioning. The stimulation provided by parents and primary caregivers is essential in enhancing this experience-dependent development and the Numbers in Nappies programme provides a cost-effective intervention suitable for a home environment.

  10. Evaluating fundamentals of care: The development of a unit-level quality measurement and improvement programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Jenny M; Bell, Jeanette; Koziol-McLain, Jane

    2018-06-01

    The project aimed to develop a unit-level quality measurement and improvement programme using evidence-based fundamentals of care. Feedback from patients, families, whānau, staff and audit data in 2014 indicated variability in the delivery of fundamental aspects of care such as monitoring, nutrition, pain management and environmental cleanliness at a New Zealand District Health Board. A general inductive approach was used to explore the fundamentals of care and design a measurement and improvement programme, the Patient and Whānau Centred Care Standards (PWCCS), focused on fundamental care. Five phases were used to explore the evidence, and design and test a measurement and improvement framework. Nine identified fundamental elements of care were used to define expected standards of care and develop and test a measurement and improvement framework. Four six-monthly peer reviews have been undertaken since June 2015. Charge Nurse Managers used results to identify quality improvements. Significant improvement was demonstrated overall, in six of the 27 units, in seven of the nine standards and three of the four measures. In all, 89% (n = 24) of units improved their overall result. The PWCCS measurement and improvement framework make visible nursing fundamentals of care in line with continuous quality improvement to increase quality of care. Delivering fundamentals of care is described by nurses as getting ?back to basics'. Patient and family feedback supports the centrality of fundamentals of care to their hospital experience. Implementing a unit-level fundamentals of care quality measurement and improvement programme clarifies expected standards of care, highlights the contribution of fundamentals of care to quality and provides a mechanism for ongoing improvements. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Development of Single-Event Upset hardened programmable logic devices in deep submicron CMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonacini, S.

    2007-11-01

    The electronics associated to the particle detectors of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), under construction at CERN, will operate in a very harsh radiation environment. Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components cannot be used in the vicinity of particle collision due to their poor radiation tolerance. This thesis is a contribution to the effort to cover the need for radiation-tolerant SEU-robust (Single Event Upset) programmable components for application in high energy physics experiments. Two components are under development: a Programmable Logic Device (PLD) and a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The PLD is a fuse-based, 10-input, 8-I/O general architecture device in 0.25 μm CMOS technology. The FPGA under development is a 32*32 logic block array, equivalent to ∼ 25 k gates, in 0.13 μm CMOS. The irradiation test results obtained in the CMOS 0.25 μm technology demonstrate good robustness of the circuit up to an LET (Linear Energy Transfer) of 79.6 cm 2 *MeV/mg, which make it suitable for the target environment. The CMOS 0.13 μm circuit has showed robustness to an LET of 37.4 cm 2 *MeV/mg in the static test mode and has increased sensitivity in the dynamic test mode. This work focused also on the research for an SEU-robust register in both the mentioned technologies. The SEU-robust register is employed as a user data flip-flop in the FPGA and PLD designs and as a configuration cell as well in the FPGA design

  12. [Development of new drugs: opportunities and benefits for Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayona, Andrés; Fajardo, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    The development of innovative drugs allows coming up with new medicines to prevent and better treat illnesses. This improves people's quality of life and makes it more productive. Therefore, the mission of pharmaceutical research is to develop safe and effective drugs. Clinical trials allow the evaluation of the safety and efficacy profiles of new medicines, medical devices and diagnostic tests. Research and development (R&D) of new drugs is a long and costly process, where out of every 5000 to 10000 new components that enter preclinical testing, only one is approved. Compared to 2011, drug development has increased by 7.6%. According to ClinicalTrials.gov, 5% of the trials take place in Latin America, and Peru is in the fifth position. On the other hand, according to the Global Competitiveness Report issued by the World Economic Forum, Peru ranks 61st, its biggest challenges being the functioning of its public institutions, investment in R&D and technological capacity. The complexity of drug R&D results in a search for competitive places to develop clinical trials. Clinical Research is a humanized industry due to its ethical platform, stated in the guidelines of good clinical practices. This industry demands our country to develop a differentiating value that contributes to the development of knowledge and its competitiveness.

  13. Development of a brazilian nanoencapsulated drug for schistosomiasis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Bastos da Fonseca

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease that, according to the World Health Organization, constitutes a major public health problem associated with severe morbidity, mostly children in preschool age. The administration of drugs in children always constitutes a difficult task, especially when formulations are not developed specifically for pediatric use, when high doses of drug are required and the drug has a bitter taste, as in the case of praziquantel. Polymer nanoparticles are promising systems for development of encapsulated drugs with low water solubility and bitter taste, due to the good physical and chemical stability, adequate biocompatibility and simple manufacturing processes. Moreover, they can enhance the bioavailabili-ty and reduce variability of treatment among patients. Poly (methyl methacrylate doped with praziquantel was produced through a miniemulsion polymerization pro-cess to compose a pediatric pharmaceutical suspension. Nanoparticles were cha-racterized in terms of physico-chemical properties, toxicological properties and biological activity in mice, being concluded that obtained results were satisfactory. The results were encapsulation rate around 90%, absence of chemical interaction drug - polymer and the presence of biological activity. A collaborative approach was used for this development, involving national partnerships and independent funding mechanisms, a powerful pathway for development of drugs for neglected diseases.

  14. Use of biomarkers in ALS drug development and clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkar, Nadine; Boehringer, Ashley; Bowser, Robert

    2015-05-14

    The past decade has seen a dramatic increase in the discovery of candidate biomarkers for ALS. These biomarkers typically can either differentiate ALS from control subjects or predict disease course (slow versus fast progression). At the same time, late-stage clinical trials for ALS have failed to generate improved drug treatments for ALS patients. Incorporation of biomarkers into the ALS drug development pipeline and the use of biologic and/or imaging biomarkers in early- and late-stage ALS clinical trials have been absent and only recently pursued in early-phase clinical trials. Further clinical research studies are needed to validate biomarkers for disease progression and develop biomarkers that can help determine that a drug has reached its target within the central nervous system. In this review we summarize recent progress in biomarkers across ALS model systems and patient population, and highlight continued research directions for biomarkers that stratify the patient population to enrich for patients that may best respond to a drug candidate, monitor disease progression and track drug responses in clinical trials. It is crucial that we further develop and validate ALS biomarkers and incorporate these biomarkers into the ALS drug development process. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ALS complex pathogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Integration of Antibody Array Technology into Drug Discovery and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Whittaker, Kelly; Zhang, Huihua; Wu, Jian; Zhu, Si-Wei; Huang, Ruo-Pan

    Antibody arrays represent a high-throughput technique that enables the parallel detection of multiple proteins with minimal sample volume requirements. In recent years, antibody arrays have been widely used to identify new biomarkers for disease diagnosis or prognosis. Moreover, many academic research laboratories and commercial biotechnology companies are starting to apply antibody arrays in the field of drug discovery. In this review, some technical aspects of antibody array development and the various platforms currently available will be addressed; however, the main focus will be on the discussion of antibody array technologies and their applications in drug discovery. Aspects of the drug discovery process, including target identification, mechanisms of drug resistance, molecular mechanisms of drug action, drug side effects, and the application in clinical trials and in managing patient care, which have been investigated using antibody arrays in recent literature will be examined and the relevance of this technology in progressing this process will be discussed. Protein profiling with antibody array technology, in addition to other applications, has emerged as a successful, novel approach for drug discovery because of the well-known importance of proteins in cell events and disease development.

  16. The intersection of stress, drug abuse and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thadani, Pushpa V

    2002-01-01

    Use or abuse of licit and illicit substances is often associated with environmental stress. Current clinical evidence clearly demonstrates neurobehavioral, somatic growth and developmental deficits in children born to drug-using mothers. However, the effects of environmental stress and its interaction with prenatal drug exposure on a child's development is unknown. Studies in pregnant animals under controlled conditions show drug-induced long-term alterations in brain structures and functions of the offspring. These cytoarchitecture alterations in the brain are often associated with perturbations in neurotransmitter systems that are intimately involved in the regulation of the stress responses. Similar abnormalities have been observed in the brains of animals exposed to other adverse exogenous (e.g., environmental stress) and/or endogenous (e.g., glucocorticoids) experiences during early life. The goal of this article is to: (1) provide evidence and a perspective that common neural systems are influenced during development both by perinatal drug exposure and early stress exposure; and (2) identify gaps and encourage new research examining the effects of early stress and perinatal drug exposure, in animal models, that would elucidate how stress- and drug-induced perturbations in neural systems influence later vulnerability to abused drugs in adult offspring.

  17. Development and perceived effects of an educational programme on quality and safety in medication handling in residential facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mygind, Anna; El-Souri, Mira; Rossing, Charlotte; Thomsen, Linda Aagaard

    2018-04-01

    To develop and test an educational programme on quality and safety in medication handling for staff in residential facilities for the disabled. The continuing pharmacy education instructional design model was used to develop the programme with 22 learning objectives on disease and medicines, quality and safety, communication and coordination. The programme was a flexible, modular seven + two days' course addressing quality and safety in medication handling, disease and medicines, and medication supervision and reconciliation. The programme was tested in five Danish municipalities. Municipalities were selected based on their application for participation; each independently selected a facility for residents with mental and intellectual disabilities, and a facility for residents with severe mental illnesses. Perceived effects were measured based on a questionnaire completed by participants before and after the programme. Effects on motivation and confidence as well as perceived effects on knowledge, skills and competences related to medication handling, patient empowerment, communication, role clarification and safety culture were analysed conducting bivariate, stratified analyses and test for independence. Of the 114 participants completing the programme, 75 participants returned both questionnaires (response rate = 66%). Motivation and confidence regarding quality and safety in medication handling significantly improved, as did perceived knowledge, skills and competences on 20 learning objectives on role clarification, safety culture, medication handling, patient empowerment and communication. The programme improved staffs' motivation and confidence and their perceived ability to handle residents' medication safely through improved role clarification, safety culture, medication handling and patient empowerment and communication skills. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. Polymeric drugs: Advances in the development of pharmacologically active polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Yu, Fei; Chen, Yi; Oupický, David

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic polymers play a critical role in pharmaceutical discovery and development. Current research and applications of pharmaceutical polymers are mainly focused on their functions as excipients and inert carriers of other pharmacologically active agents. This review article surveys recent advances in alternative pharmaceutical use of polymers as pharmacologically active agents known as polymeric drugs. Emphasis is placed on the benefits of polymeric drugs that are associated with their macromolecular character and their ability to explore biologically relevant multivalency processes. We discuss the main therapeutic uses of polymeric drugs as sequestrants, antimicrobials, antivirals, and anticancer and anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:26410809

  19. A national public health programme on gambling policy development in New Zealand: insights from a process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolandai-Matchett, Komathi; Landon, Jason; Bellringer, Maria; Abbott, Max

    2018-03-06

    In New Zealand, a public health programme on gambling policy development is part of a national gambling harm reduction and prevention strategy mandated by the Gambling Act 2003. Funded by the Ministry of Health, the programme directs workplace/organisational gambling policies, non-gambling fundraising policies, and local council policies on electronic gaming machines (EGMs). We carried out a process evaluation of this programme to identify practical information (e.g. advocacy approaches; challenges and ameliorating strategies) that can be used by programme planners and implementers to reinforce programme effectiveness and serve to guide similar policy-focused public health initiatives elsewhere. Evaluation criteria, based on the programme's official service specifications, guided our evaluation questions, analysis and reporting. To identify informative aspects of programme delivery, we thematically analysed over 100 six-monthly implementer progress reports (representing 3 years of programme delivery) and transcript of a focus group with public health staff. Identified output-related themes included purposeful awareness raising to build understanding about gambling harms and the need for harm-reduction policies and stakeholder relationship development. Outcome-related themes included enhanced community awareness about gambling harms, community involvement in policy development, some workplace/organisational policy development, and some influences on council EGM policies. Non-gambling fundraising policy development was not common. The programme offers an unprecedented gambling harm reduction approach. Although complex (due to its three distinct policy focus areas targeting different sectors) and challenging (due to the extensive time and resources needed to develop relationships and overcome counteractive views), the programme resulted in some policy development. Encouraging workplace/organisational policy development requires increased awareness of costs to

  20. DEVELOPING AN EXCELLENT SEDIMENT RATING CURVE FROM ONE HYDROLOGICAL YEAR SAMPLING PROGRAMME DATA: APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preksedis M. Ndomba

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary findings on the adequacy of one hydrological year sampling programme data in developing an excellent sediment rating curve. The study case is a 1DD1 subcatchment in the upstream of Pangani River Basin (PRB, located in the North Eastern part of Tanzania. 1DD1 is the major runoff-sediment contributing tributary to the downstream hydropower reservoir, the Nyumba Ya Mungu (NYM. In literature sediment rating curve method is known to underestimate the actual sediment load. In the case of developing countries long-term sediment sampling monitoring or conservation campaigns have been reported as unworkable options. Besides, to the best knowledge of the authors, to date there is no consensus on how to develop an excellent rating curve. Daily-midway and intermittent-cross section sediment samples from Depth Integrating sampler (D-74 were used to calibrate the subdaily automatic sediment pumping sampler (ISCO 6712 near bank point samples for developing the rating curve. Sediment load correction factors were derived from both statistical bias estimators and actual sediment load approaches. It should be noted that the ongoing study is guided by findings of other studies in the same catchment. For instance, long term sediment yield rate estimated based on reservoir survey validated the performance of the developed rating curve. The result suggests that excellent rating curve could be developed from one hydrological year sediment sampling programme data. This study has also found that uncorrected rating curve underestimates sediment load. The degreeof underestimation depends on the type of rating curve developed and data used.

  1. Challenges in the clinical development of new antiepileptic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Valentina; French, Jacqueline A; Perucca, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Despite the current availability in the market of over two dozen antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), about one third of people with epilepsy fail to achieve complete freedom from seizures with existing medications. Moreover, currently available AEDs have significant limitations in terms of safety, tolerability and propensity to cause or be a target for clinically important adverse drug interactions. A review of the evidence shows that there are many misperceptions about the viability of investing into new therapies for epilepsy. In fact, there are clear incentives to develop newer and more efficacious medications. Developing truly innovative drugs requires a shift in the paradigms for drug discovery, which is already taking place by building on greatly expanded knowledge about the mechanisms involved in epileptogenesis, seizure generation, seizure spread and development of co-morbidities. AED development can also benefit by a review of the methodology currently applied in clinical AED development, in order to address a number of ethical and scientific concerns. As discussed in this article, many processes of clinical drug development, from proof-of-concept-studies to ambitious programs aimed at demonstrating antiepileptogenesis and disease-modification, can be facilitated by a greater integration of preclinical and clinical science, and by application of knowledge acquired during decades of controlled epilepsy trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of Drug Metabolism/Pharmacokinetics and Their Relevance upon Taxus-based Drug Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Da-Cheng; Ge, Guang-Bo; Wang, Ping; Yang, Ling

    2018-05-22

    Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic (DMPK) studies of Taxus natural products, their semi-synthetic derivatives and analogs are indispensable in the optimization of lead compounds and clinical therapy. These studies can lead to development of new drug entities with improved absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADME/T) profiles. To date, there have been no comprehensive reviews of the DMPK features of Taxus derived medicinal compounds.Natural and semi-synthetic taxanes may cause and could be affected by drug-drug interaction (DDI). Hence ADME/T studies of various taxane-containing formulations are important; to date these studies indicate that the role of cytochrome p450s and drug transporters is more prominent than phase II drug metabolizing enzymes. Mechanisms of taxane DMPK mediated by nuclear receptors, microRNAs, and single nucleotide polymorphisms are being revealed. Herein we review the latest knowledge on these topics, as well as the gaps in knowledge of the DMPK issues of Taxus compounds. DDIs significantly impact the PK/pharmacodynamics performance of taxanes and co-administered chemicals, which may inspire researchers to develop novel formula. While the ADME/T profiles of some taxanes are well defined, DMPK studies should be extended to more Taxus compounds, species, and Taxus -involved formulations, which would be streamlined by versatile omics platforms and computational analyses. Further biopharmaceutical investigations will be beneficial tothe translation of bench findings to the clinical applications. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. A computer programme for use in the development of multi-element x-ray-fluorescence methods of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    A computer programme (written in BASIC) is described for the evaluation of spectral-line intensities in X-ray-fluorescence spectrometry. The programme is designed to assist the analyst while he is developing new analytical methods, because it facilitates the selection of the following evaluation parameters: calculation models, spectral-line correction factors, calibration curves, calibration ranges, and point deletions. In addition, the programme enables the analyst to undertake routine calculations of data from multi-element analyses in which variable data-reduction parameters are used for each element

  4. European research and development programme for water-cooled lithium-lead blankets: present status and future work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giancarli, L.; Leroy, P.; Proust, E.; Raepsaet, X.

    1992-01-01

    The European R and D programme in support of the development of water-cooled Pb-17Li blankets for DEMO aims at improving the data base concerning tritium behaviour and compatibility between blanket materials. The four main areas of the experimental programme are structural material corrosion by Pb-17Li, tritium extraction and permeation control.=, Pb-17Li physico-chemistry, and water/Pb-17Li interaction. This paper describes the most significant results obtained to date in the various experiments performed in Europe and the future programme required to complete the data base by 1994. 28 refs

  5. The national immunisation programme in the Netherlands: current status and potential future developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink F; Al MJ; Berbers GAM; Binnendijk RS van; Boot HJ; Duynhoven YTHP van; Gageldonk-Lafeber AB van; Greeff SC de; Kimman TG; Meijer LA; Mooi FR; Oosten M van; Plas SM van der; Schouls LM; Soolingen D van; Vermeer-de Bondt PE; Vliet JA van; Melker HE de; Hahne SJM; Boer IM de; CIE

    2005-01-01

    The national immunisation programme in the Netherlands is very effective and safe. To improve the success and effectiveness of the immunisation programme, vaccination of other (age)groups is indicated. Extension of the programme with new target diseases can result in considerable health gain for

  6. Engaging with Leadership Development in Irish Academic Libraries: Some Reflections of the Future Leaders Programme (FLP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Helen; Maxwell, Jane; McCaffrey, Ciara; McMahon, Seamus

    2011-01-01

    Four librarians from Irish university libraries completed the U.K. Future Leaders Programme (FLP) in 2010. In this article they recount their experience and assess the effect of the programme on their professional practice and the value for their institutions. The programme is explored in the context of the Irish higher education environment,…

  7. Indigenous development of integrated medical Linac system for cancer therapy - Jai Vigyan programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, G.S.; Sehgal, Vijay

    2012-01-01

    6 MV integrated medical LINAC system was developed for cancer therapy jointly by CSIR-CSIO Chandigarh and SAMEER Mumbai under the Jai Vigyan Programme of the Government of India. Six machines were originally planned to be commissioned in six cancer hospitals in the country. Two machines, namely SIDDARTH I and SIDDARTH II, have already been developed and deployed at MGIMS, Sevagram, Wardha (Maharashtra) and at Cancer Institute (WIA), Adyar, Chennai. These machines are working satisfactorily since their installation. Four more machines namely SIDDARTH III-IV, are underway which will be commissioned in four national cancer institutes by the end of next year. This paper describes in brief the scientific principles of LINAC machines and technological challenges involved in the design and development of such a system of multi-disciplinary activities. (author)

  8. The role of the nuclear programme in the development of the Romanian power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobos, I.; Popescu, A.; Popovici, D.

    2000-01-01

    The power system, major component of the Romanian development, is strictly related to the social-economic and technological policy and to the external factors influencing this development. Taking into consideration the future evolution of the electricity demand in Romania over the period 2000-2020, it is necessary to devise an optimized strategy for electricity generation in order to ensure the economic development of the country and to achieve a high standard of living. For these reasons presented are the role of the nuclear programme for different patterns of electricity consumption evolution, taking into account the present situation of Romanian power system, the evolution of the domestic primary energy resources, the fuel prices evolution, the technologies of the electric and thermal power generation and the environmental requirements. The analysis is achieved in the context of the new political and economic trends facing European countries, related to the Joint Agreement with European Community and to the requirements of the single energy market. (author)

  9. Screening for depression: integrating training into the professional development programme for low vision rehabilitation staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Gwyneth; Holloway, Edith E; Craig, Graeme; Hepi, Niky; Coad, Samantha; Keeffe, Jill E; Lamoureux, Ecosse L

    2012-12-01

    To describe the integration of depression screening training into the professional development programme for low vision rehabilitation staff and report on staff evaluation of this training. Pre-post intervention study, in a single population of low vision rehabilitation staff. Three hundred and thirty-six staff from Australia's largest low vision rehabilitation organization, Vision Australia. Staff completed the depression screening and referral training as part of a wider professional development programme. A pre-post-training questionnaire was administered to all staff. Descriptive and non-parametric statistics were used to determine differences in self-reported knowledge, confidence, barriers to recognition and management of depression between baseline and post training. One hundred and seventy-two participants completed both questionnaires. Following training, participants reported an increased knowledge of depression, were more likely to respond to depression in their clients and reported to be more confident in managing depression (P training incorporating more active and 'hands-on' sessions are likely to be required. This training is a promising first step in integrating a depression screening tool into low vision rehabilitation practice. Further work is needed to determine the barriers and facilitators to implementation in practice and to assess clients' acceptability and outcomes. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2012 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  10. Impact of biomarker development on drug safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrer, Estelle; Dieterle, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Drug safety has always been a key aspect of drug development. Recently, the Vioxx case and several cases of serious adverse events being linked to high-profile products have increased the importance of drug safety, especially in the eyes of drug development companies and global regulatory agencies. Safety biomarkers are increasingly being seen as helping to provide the clarity, predictability, and certainty needed to gain confidence in decision making: early-stage projects can be stopped quicker, late-stage projects become less risky. Public and private organizations are investing heavily in terms of time, money and manpower on safety biomarker development. An illustrative and 'door opening' safety biomarker success story is the recent recognition of kidney safety biomarkers for pre-clinical and limited translational contexts by FDA and EMEA. This milestone achieved for kidney biomarkers and the 'know how' acquired is being transferred to other organ toxicities, namely liver, heart, vascular system. New technologies and molecular-based approaches, i.e., molecular pathology as a complement to the classical toolbox, allow promising discoveries in the safety biomarker field. This review will focus on the utility and use of safety biomarkers all along drug development, highlighting the present gaps and opportunities identified in organ toxicity monitoring. A last part will be dedicated to safety biomarker development in general, from identification to diagnostic tests, using the kidney safety biomarkers success as an illustrative example.

  11. Accessing external innovation in drug discovery and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufféry, Pierre

    2015-06-01

    A decline in the productivity of the pharmaceutical industry research and development (R&D) pipeline has highlighted the need to reconsider the classical strategies of drug discovery and development, which are based on internal resources, and to identify new means to improve the drug discovery process. Accepting that the combination of internal and external ideas can improve innovation, ways to access external innovation, that is, opening projects to external contributions, have recently been sought. In this review, the authors look at a number of external innovation opportunities. These include increased interactions with academia via academic centers of excellence/innovation centers, better communication on projects using crowdsourcing or social media and new models centered on external providers such as built-to-buy startups or virtual pharmaceutical companies. The buzz for accessing external innovation relies on the pharmaceutical industry's major challenge to improve R&D productivity, a conjuncture favorable to increase interactions with academia and new business models supporting access to external innovation. So far, access to external innovation has mostly been considered during early stages of drug development, and there is room for enhancement. First outcomes suggest that external innovation should become part of drug development in the long term. However, the balance between internal and external developments in drug discovery can vary largely depending on the company strategies.

  12. Actors of Columbian drug trade : development and transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Smolíková

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to portray the main shifts which have been taking place in Colombian drug scene since the 70’s up to the present especially in relation to actors of this business and form of their activity. At first the development of Colombian drug trade till the 80’s when two big cartels centered in Medellín and Cali arose will be briefly outlined. These cartels were able to control a great part of domestic drug trade and due to their enormous power represented serious threat to Colombian state. Thus the cartels declared open warfare with the state in the 80’s. After the cartels’ elimination in the middle of 90’s new actors represented by small drug organizations arose in Colombian drug scene. These small groups were dependent upon cooperation with foreign partners, especially with Mexican cartels. Ever more important role in drug business is played by Colombian left-wing guerilla groups which will be described in the next part of the article. The problem of right-wing paramilitary groups and their participation in Colombian drug trade will be mentioned as well.

  13. Nano-formulations of drugs: Recent developments, impact and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevanandam, Jaison; Chan, Yen San; Danquah, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    Nano-formulations of medicinal drugs have attracted the interest of many researchers for drug delivery applications. These nano-formulations enhance the properties of conventional drugs and are specific to the targeted delivery site. Dendrimers, polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, nano-emulsions and micelles are some of the nano-formulations that are gaining prominence in pharmaceutical industry for enhanced drug formulation. Wide varieties of synthesis methods are available for the preparation of nano-formulations to deliver drugs in biological system. The choice of synthesis methods depend on the size and shape of particulate formulation, biochemical properties of drug, and the targeted site. This article discusses recent developments in nano-formulation and the progressive impact on pharmaceutical research and industries. Additionally, process challenges relating to consistent generation of nano-formulations for drug delivery are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  14. Drug Design, Development, and Delivery: An Interdisciplinary Course on Pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prausnitz, Mark R.; Bommarius, Andreas S.

    2011-01-01

    We developed a new interdisciplinary course on pharmaceuticals to address needs of undergraduate and graduate students in chemical engineering and other departments. This course introduces drug design, development, and delivery in an integrated fashion that provides scientific depth in context with broader impacts in business, policy, and ethics.…

  15. Nuclear process heat at high temperature: Application, realization and development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammeck, K.H.; Fischer, R.

    1976-01-01

    Studies in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), the USA and the United Kingdom have shown that high-temperature helium energy from an HTR can advantageously be utilized for coal gasification and other fossil fuel conversion processes, and that a substantial demand for substitute natural gas (SNG) can be expected in the future. These results are based on plant design studies, economic assessments and basic development efforts in the field of coal gasification with nuclear heat, which in the FRG were carried out by Arbeitsgemeinschaft Nukleare Prozesswaerme (ANP)-members, HRB and KFA Juelich. Nuclear process plants are based on different gasification processes, resulting in different concepts of the nuclear heat system. In the case of hydro-gasification it is expected that steam reformers, arranged within the primary circuit of the reactor, will be heated directly by the primary helium. In the case of steam gasification, the high-temperature energy must be transferred to the gasification process via an intermediate circuit which is coupled to a gasifier outside the containment. In both cases the design of the nuclear reactor resembles an HTR for electricity generation. The main objectives of the development of nuclear process heat are to increase the helium outlet temperature of the reactor up to 950 0 C, to develop metallic alloys for high-temperature components such as heat exchangers, to design and construct a hot-gas duct, a steam reformer and a helium-helium heat exchanger and to develop the gasification processes. The nuclear safety regulations and the interface problems between the reactor, the process plant and the electricity generating plant have to be considered thoroughly. The Arbeitsgemeinschaft Nukleare Prozesswaerme and HRB started a development programme, in close collaboration with KFA Juelich, which will lead to the construction of a prototype plant for coal gasification with nuclear heat within 5 to 5 1/2 years. A survey of the main objectives

  16. Development of a wheelchair maintenance training programme and questionnaire for clinicians and wheelchair users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Maria Luisa; Bird, Emily; Oyster, Michelle; Worobey, Lynn; Lain, Michael; Bucior, Samuel; Cooper, Rory A; Pearlman, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    Purpose of state: The aims of this study were to develop a Wheelchair Maintenance Training Programme (WMTP) as a tool for clinicians to teach wheelchair users (and caregivers when applicable) in a group setting to perform basic maintenance at home in the USA and to develop a Wheelchair Maintenance Training Questionnaire (WMT-Q) to evaluate wheelchair maintenance knowledge in clinicians, manual and power wheelchair users. The WMTP and WMT-Q were developed through an iterative process. A convenience sample of clinicians (n = 17), manual wheelchair (n ∞ 5), power wheelchair users (n = 4) and caregivers (n = 4) provided feedback on the training programme. A convenience sample of clinicians (n = 38), manual wheelchair (n = 25), and power wheelchair users (n = 30) answered the WMT-Q throughout different phases of development. The subscores of the WMT-Q achieved a reliability that ranged between ICC(3,1) = 0.48 to ICC(3,1) = 0.89. The WMTP and WMT-Q were implemented with 15 clinicians who received in-person training in the USA using the materials developed and showed a significant increase in all except one of the WMT-Q subscores after the WMTP (p users. This training complements the World Health Organization basic wheelchair service curriculum, which only includes training of the clinicians, but does not include detailed information to train wheelchair users and caregivers. This training program offers a time efficient method for providing education to end users in a group setting that may mitigate adverse consequences resulting from wheelchair breakdown. This training program has significant potential for impact among wheelchair users in areas where access to repair services is limited.

  17. Estimation of content of anti-TB drugs supplied at centres of the Revised National TB Control Programme in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Geetha; Chandrasekaran, Vedachalam; Hemanth Kumar, Agibothu Kupparam; Dewan, Puneet; Swaminathan, Soumya; Thomas, Aleyamma

    2013-09-01

    To determine the content of certain antituberculosis (TB) drugs supplied at TB treatment centres of the Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. Eight districts across the state were selected, and the following drugs were collected from five settings (District TB centre, TB unit, designated microscopy centres, DOT providers) in each district: rifampicin (150 and 450 mg), isoniazid (300 mg), pyrazinamide (500 and 750 mg), ethambutol (400 and 600 mg), ethionamide (250 mg), levofloxacin (500 mg) and cycloserine (250 mg). A maximum of 10 tablets/capsules were collected from each setting. The drugs were coded prior to analysis. All drugs were assayed by validated spectrophotometric methods. The acceptable limits for drug content were taken as 90-110% of the stated content. More than 90% of tablets of rifampicin 450 mg, isoniazid 300 mg, pyrazinamide 500 and 750 mg, ethambutol 400 and 600 mg and ethionamide 250 mg were within acceptable limits. Eighty per cent of rifampicin 150 mg, 21% of cycloserine 250 mg and 87% of levofloxacin 500 mg were within acceptable limits. The mean cycloserine content was below the acceptable limit in all districts, the mean drug content being 200 mg (range: 108-245 mg). This systematic study showed that the stated drug content of cycloserine was not reached in all districts. Deterioration of cycloserine could be minimised by storing the drug in refrigerators. The geographical location of the districts had no influence on the drug content. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Development of novel small molecules for imaging and drug release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yanting

    Small organic molecules, including small molecule based fluorescent probes, small molecule based drugs or prodrugs, and smart multifunctional fluorescent drug delivery systems play important roles in biological research, drug discovery, and clinical practices. Despite the significant progress made in these fields, the development of novel and diverse small molecules is needed to meet various demands for research and clinical applications. My Ph.D study focuses on the development of novel functional molecules for recognition, imaging and drug release. In the first part, a turn-on fluorescent probe is developed for the detection of intracellular adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) levels based on multiplexing recognitions. Considering the unique and complicated structure of ATP molecules, a fluorescent probe has been implemented with improved sensitivity and selectivity due to two synergistic binding recognitions by incorporating of 2, 2'-dipicolylamine (Dpa)-Zn(II) for targeting of phospho anions and phenylboronic acid group for cis-diol moiety. The novel probe is able to detect intracellular ATP levels in SH-SY5Y cells. Meanwhile, the advantages of multiplexing recognition design concept have been demonstrated using two control molecules. In the second part, a prodrug system is developed to deliver multiple drugs within one small molecule entity. The prodrug is designed by using 1-(2-nitrophenyl)ethyl (NPE) as phototrigger, and biphenol biquaternary ammonium as the prodrug. With controlled photo activation, both DNA cross-linking agents mechlorethamine and o-quinone methide are delivered and released at the preferred site, leading to efficient DNA cross-links formation and cell death. The prodrug shows negligible cytotoxicity towards normal skin cells (Hekn cells) with and without UV activation, but displays potent activity towards cancer cells (HeLa cells) upon UV activation. The multiple drug release system may hold a great potential for practical application. In the

  19. The basics of preclinical drug development for neurodegenerative disease indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Karen L; Spack, Edward G

    2009-06-12

    Preclinical development encompasses the activities that link drug discovery in the laboratory to initiation of human clinical trials. Preclinical studies can be designed to identify a lead candidate from several hits; develop the best procedure for new drug scale-up; select the best formulation; determine the route, frequency, and duration of exposure; and ultimately support the intended clinical trial design. The details of each preclinical development package can vary, but all have some common features. Rodent and nonrodent mammalian models are used to delineate the pharmacokinetic profile and general safety, as well as to identify toxicity patterns. One or more species may be used to determine the drug's mean residence time in the body, which depends on inherent absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion properties. For drugs intended to treat Alzheimer's disease or other brain-targeted diseases, the ability of a drug to cross the blood brain barrier may be a key issue. Toxicology and safety studies identify potential target organs for adverse effects and define the Therapeutic Index to set the initial starting doses in clinical trials. Pivotal preclinical safety studies generally require regulatory oversight as defined by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Good Laboratory Practices and international guidelines, including the International Conference on Harmonization. Concurrent preclinical development activities include developing the Clinical Plan and preparing the new drug product, including the associated documentation to meet stringent FDA Good Manufacturing Practices regulatory guidelines. A wide range of commercial and government contract options are available for investigators seeking to advance their candidate(s). Government programs such as the Small Business Innovative Research and Small Business Technology Transfer grants and the National Institutes of Health Rapid Access to Interventional Development Pilot Program provide funding and

  20. The basics of preclinical drug development for neurodegenerative disease indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spack Edward G

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Preclinical development encompasses the activities that link drug discovery in the laboratory to initiation of human clinical trials. Preclinical studies can be designed to identify a lead candidate from several hits; develop the best procedure for new drug scale-up; select the best formulation; determine the route, frequency, and duration of exposure; and ultimately support the intended clinical trial design. The details of each preclinical development package can vary, but all have some common features. Rodent and nonrodent mammalian models are used to delineate the pharmacokinetic profile and general safety, as well as to identify toxicity patterns. One or more species may be used to determine the drug's mean residence time in the body, which depends on inherent absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion properties. For drugs intended to treat Alzheimer's disease or other brain-targeted diseases, the ability of a drug to cross the blood brain barrier may be a key issue. Toxicology and safety studies identify potential target organs for adverse effects and define the Therapeutic Index to set the initial starting doses in clinical trials. Pivotal preclinical safety studies generally require regulatory oversight as defined by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA Good Laboratory Practices and international guidelines, including the International Conference on Harmonisation. Concurrent preclinical development activities include developing the Clinical Plan and preparing the new drug product, including the associated documentation to meet stringent FDA Good Manufacturing Practices regulatory guidelines. A wide range of commercial and government contract options are available for investigators seeking to advance their candidate(s. Government programs such as the Small Business Innovative Research and Small Business Technology Transfer grants and the National Institutes of Health Rapid Access to Interventional Development Pilot

  1. Improving clinical drug development regulatory procedures for anticonvulsants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clinical development of antiepileptic drugs is demanding due to complex character of the disorder and to diversity of its forms and etiologies. Objective: The aim of this review was to suggest improvements in regulatory procedures for clinical development of antiepileptic drugs. Methods: The following databases of scientific articles were searched: MEDLINE, SCOPUS and SCINDEKS. In total 558 publications were retrieved. The types of articles selected were reviews, reports on clinical trials and letters to the Editor. Results: There are several changes of regulatory documents necessary for improving process of clinical development of antiepileptic drugs: preference of parallel groups design for add-on trials should be explicit; the noninferiority design for monotherapy clinical trials should be acceptable; restrictive formulations when trials of antiepileptic drugs in children are in question should be avoided; requirements in regard to the efficacy measures should be harmonized among the regulatory bodies; proactive attitude towards discovery of adverse events; and precise requirements for clinical trials specifically designed to prove anti-epileptogenic effects should be made clear. Conclusion: Current regulatory documents are incomplete in many aspects; an international effort to improve and harmonize guidelines for clinical development of antiepileptic drugs is necessary for improvement of this process.

  2. Intimate partner violence against women: experiences from a woman-focused development programme in Matlab, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed Masud

    2005-03-01

    This paper explores the association between microcredit-based development programmes and domestic violence against women perpetrated by their husbands. A sub-set of cross-sectional data collected in 1999 from 60 BRAC-ICDDR,B study villages in Matlab, Bangladesh, was used. Data were analyzed to characterize group-level differences among study women regarding the reported occurrence of violence (physical and/or mental) and to identify its predictors. About 17.5% of women had experienced violence from their husbands in the past four months, the proportion being greater among BRAC households (p = 0.05). Results of logistic regression identified age, schooling, age of household head, and self-rated poverty status of household as important predictors of violence, but not level of BRAC membership. The study concludes that the greater level of domestic violence reported during the initial stages of BRAC membership subsided with the introduction of skill-development training among participant women over time.

  3. [Alternatives to the drug research and development model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, Germán

    2015-03-01

    One-third of the global population lacks access to medications; the situation is worse in poor countries, where up to 50% of the population lacks access. The failure of current incentive systems based in intellectual property to offer the necessary pharmaceutical products, especially in the global south, is a call to action. Problems related to drug access cannot be solved solely through improvements or modifications in the existing incentive models. The intellectual property system model does not offer sufficient innovation for developing countries; new mechanisms that effectively promote innovation and drug access simultaneously are needed. A binding international agreement on research and development, negotiated under the auspices of the World Health Organization, could provide an adequate framework for guaranteeing priority-setting, coordination, and sustainable financing of drugs at reasonable prices for developing countries.

  4. The Use of Social Media in Orphan Drug Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Christopher-Paul; Ni, Wendi

    2017-11-01

    Social media has transformed how people interact with one another through the Internet, and it has the potential to do the same for orphan drug development. Currently, social media influences the orphan drug development process in the following three ways: assisting the study of orphan diseases, increasing the awareness of orphan disease, and playing a vital role in clinical trials. However, there are some caveats to the utilization of social media, such as the need to protect patient privacy by adequately de-identifying personal health information, assuring consistent quality and representativeness of the data, and preventing the unblinding of patient group assignments. Social media has both potential for improving orphan drug development and pitfalls, but with proper oversight on the part of companies, support and participation of patients and their advocacy groups, and timely guidance from regulatory authorities, the positives outweigh the negatives for this powerful and patient-centric tool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. radiation safety culture for developing country: Basis for s minimum operational radiation protection programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozental, J. J.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present a methodology for an integrated strategy aiming at establishing an adequate radiation Safety infrastructure for developing countries, non major power reactor programme. Its implementation will allow these countries, about 50% of the IAEA's Member States, to improve marginal radiation safety, specially to those recipients of technical assistance and do not meet the Minimum radiation Safety Requirements of the IAEA's Basic Safety Standards for radiation protection Progress in the implementation of safety regulations depends on the priority of the government and its understanding and conviction about the basic requirements for protection against the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. There is no doubt to conclude that the reasons for the deficiency of sources control and dose limitation are related to the lack of an appropriate legal and regulatory framework, specially considering the establishment of an adequate legislation; A minimum legal infrastructure; A minimum operational radiation safety programme; Alternatives for a Point of Optimum Contact, to avoid overlap and conflict, that is: A 'Memorandum of Understanding' among Regulatory Authorities in the Country, dealing with similar type of licensing and inspection

  6. Equipping students to contribute to development through a geohazards education and research programme (Ladakh, India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Joel; Tostevin, Rosalie

    2014-05-01

    Here we present a geohazards education and engagement project in the Indian region of Ladakh, used as an opportunity to train geoscience students in a number of important ethical, cultural and professional considerations. Located in the Indian Himalaya, Ladakh is home to historically-disadvantaged and endangered indigenous groups. It is also an area of extreme topography, climate and vulnerability, with a growing tourist industry. This combination of factors makes it an important region to improve geohazards understanding and observe the complex interactions between nature, society, and culture. Specific aims of this project are to (i) support community education through an interactive natural hazards programme (delivered in conjunction with a range of partners), training school-aged students from multiple socio-economic backgrounds; and (ii) increase the effectiveness of disaster risk reduction programmes, through research into the perception of natural hazards and environmental change. At all stages of this work, we are seeking to engage young geoscientists, helping them to better understand the skills and knowledge-base required to make a long-term, effective contribution to interdisciplinary research and professional practice. Through presenting an overview of this project and associated opportunities, we seek to emphasise the importance of developing practical opportunities for students to consider aspects of geoethics, social responsibility and cross-cultural understanding.

  7. Breeding programme for developing new sweet cherry cultivars in the Fruit Growing Institute, Plovdiv, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Malchev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Sweet cherry is a major structural species in Bulgaria. According to the Ministry of Agriculture and Food, in 2010 it occupied 21% of the fruit tree areas, which defined it as a leading fruit crop. It represents 16% of the total fruit production in the country, as is the relative share of peach, being surpassed only by apple and plum production. The increased interest in establishing new cherry plantations necessitates the provision of new market-oriented cultivars with a better sensory profile of the fruits, resistant to biotic and abiotic stress factors, suitable for creating modern intensive cherry plantations. The Bulgarian sweet cherry cultivars are chronologically discussed and a thorough description of the development of the sweet cherry breeding programme, launched at the Fruit Growing Institute in Plovdiv in 1987, is presented. Current objectives comply with the world's major breeding trends and the changing market requirements. The paper reflects the main objectives of the programme and the finalized products obtained in the last twenty years of the past century and first decade of the new millennium, i.e. the new cultivars 'Kossara', 'Rosita', 'Rozalina' and 'Thrakiiska hrushtyalka' and some promising hybrids.

  8. The European programme to develop the Wells air turbine for applications in wave energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, P.R.S.

    1996-01-01

    The European Wave Energy Pilot Plants currently under construction are utilising Wells air turbines to convert oscillating pneumatic energy within the converters to unidirectional energy of rotation for direct coupling to electrical generators. The Wells turbine has also been proposed for future off shore wave energy converters (eg SEA CLAM). The European research programme was to produce Recommendations for selecting the most appropriate air turbine for a given wave power application. The work concentrated on collating existing work on the Wells turbine, and extending it to examine rotor aerodynamics, the effect and practicality of variable pitch rotor blades, the effect on performance of interaction with the converter, and the preparation of design guide lines. A comparison between the output of a Wells turbine and a conventional air turbine with rectifying valves when subjected to the same random reversing air flow was also conducted. This paper gives a brief outline of the programme of work, and concludes that at this stage of development the Wells turbine is the preferred choice of prime mover for pneumatic wave energy converters. (Author)

  9. Programme and current status of fast breeder reactor development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suita, T.; Oyama, A.

    1977-01-01

    In 1967 the Japan Atomic Energy Commission revised her long term programme after a two year study for giving principles to her nuclear energy development programme, which indicated the dominant role of nuclear energy mid 1980's in the electric power generation and stressed the necessity of developing fast breeder reactors. It also recommended to organize a nucleus to undertake this nation-wide project, bringing together the total capability available throughout the country. Accordingly, the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) was established in 1967 to develop two sodium-cooled fast reactors, an experimental fast reactor of about 100 MW thermal and a prototype fast breeder reactor of about 300 MW electrical, both using mixed oxide fuels. Construction of the experimental fast reactor started in 1970 and was essentially completed at the end of in 1974. The precommissioning test was followed in parallel with re-evaluating quality assurance of all systems. Physics test will be initiated around the end of 1976. The conceptual design of the prototype fast breeder reactor is now toward its final stage. Surveys on its proposed site have just started. Construction will start in 1978. Beside R and D works conducted by many organizations in Japan as well as under the international cooperation, several key test facilities were installed by PNC itself to conduct in-sodium test of full-size prototype components including 50 MW steam generators and post-irradiation-examination of fuels and materials. Recently an interim report was issued to an ad-hoc committee organized by JAEC to evaluate future prospect of the fuel cycle and power reactors. This recommended start of construction of the prototype reactor as scheduled and the large demonstration reactor to be followed to the prototype. Thus the fast breeder reactor is indicated as the most indispensable in 1990's

  10. Low hanging fruit in infectious disease drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Carl N

    2008-10-01

    Cost estimates for developing new molecular entities (NME) are reaching non-sustainable levels and coupled with increasing regulatory requirements and oversight have led many pharmaceutical sponsors to divest their anti-microbial development portfolios [Projan SJ: Why is big Pharma getting out of anti-bacterial drug discovery?Curr Opin Microbiol 2003, 6:427-430] [Spellberg B, Powers JH, Brass EP, Miller LG, Edwards JE, Jr: Trends in antimicrobial drug development: implications for the future.Clin Infect Dis 2004, 38:1279-1286]. Operational issues such as study planning and execution are significant contributors to the overall cost of drug development that can benefit from the leveraging of pre-randomization data in an evidence-based approach to protocol development, site selection and patient recruitment. For non-NME products there is even greater benefit from available data resources since these data may permit smaller and shorter study programs. There are now many available open source intelligence (OSINT) resources that are being integrated into drug development programs, permitting an evidence-based or 'operational epidemiology' approach to study planning and execution.

  11. Diabetes mellitus: Exploring the challenges in the drug development process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius A Vaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions and continues to be a major burden on society globally. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF estimated the global burden of diabetes to be 366 million in 2011 and predicted that by 2030 this will have risen to 552 million. In spite of newer and effective treatment options, newer delivery and diagnostic devices, stricter glycaemic targets, better treatment guidelines and increased awareness of the disease, baseline glycosylated hemoglobin remains relatively high in subjects diagnosed and treated with type 2 diabetes. The search continues for an ideal anti diabetic drug that will not only normalize blood glucose but also provide beta cell rest and possibly restoration of beta cell function. The development of anti diabetic drugs is riddled with fundamental challenges. The concept of beta cell rest and restoration is yet to be completely understood and proven on a long term. The ideal therapeutic approach to treating type 2 diabetes is not yet determined. Our understanding of drug safety in early clinical development is primarily limited to "Type A" reactions. Until marketing authorization most drugs are approved based on the principle of confirming non-inferiority with an existing gold standard or determining superiority to a placebo. The need to obtain robust pharmaco-economic data prior to marketing authorization in order to determine appropriate pricing of a new drug remains a major challenge. The present review outlines some of the challenges in drug development of anti-diabetic drugs citing examples of pulmonary insulin, insulin analogues, thiazolidinediones and the GLP1 analogues.

  12. Diabetes mellitus: Exploring the challenges in the drug development process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Julius A; Patnaik, Ashis

    2012-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions and continues to be a major burden on society globally. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) estimated the global burden of diabetes to be 366 million in 2011 and predicted that by 2030 this will have risen to 552 million. In spite of newer and effective treatment options, newer delivery and diagnostic devices, stricter glycaemic targets, better treatment guidelines and increased awareness of the disease, baseline glycosylated hemoglobin remains relatively high in subjects diagnosed and treated with type 2 diabetes. The search continues for an ideal anti diabetic drug that will not only normalize blood glucose but also provide beta cell rest and possibly restoration of beta cell function. The development of anti diabetic drugs is riddled with fundamental challenges. The concept of beta cell rest and restoration is yet to be completely understood and proven on a long term. The ideal therapeutic approach to treating type 2 diabetes is not yet determined. Our understanding of drug safety in early clinical development is primarily limited to "Type A" reactions. Until marketing authorization most drugs are approved based on the principle of confirming non-inferiority with an existing gold standard or determining superiority to a placebo. The need to obtain robust pharmaco-economic data prior to marketing authorization in order to determine appropriate pricing of a new drug remains a major challenge. The present review outlines some of the challenges in drug development of anti-diabetic drugs citing examples of pulmonary insulin, insulin analogues, thiazolidinediones and the GLP1 analogues.

  13. Quantitative PET Imaging in Drug Development: Estimation of Target Occupancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganawa, Mika; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Rossano, Samantha; Carson, Richard E

    2017-12-11

    Positron emission tomography, an imaging tool using radiolabeled tracers in humans and preclinical species, has been widely used in recent years in drug development, particularly in the central nervous system. One important goal of PET in drug development is assessing the occupancy of various molecular targets (e.g., receptors, transporters, enzymes) by exogenous drugs. The current linear mathematical approaches used to determine occupancy using PET imaging experiments are presented. These algorithms use results from multiple regions with different target content in two scans, a baseline (pre-drug) scan and a post-drug scan. New mathematical estimation approaches to determine target occupancy, using maximum likelihood, are presented. A major challenge in these methods is the proper definition of the covariance matrix of the regional binding measures, accounting for different variance of the individual regional measures and their nonzero covariance, factors that have been ignored by conventional methods. The novel methods are compared to standard methods using simulation and real human occupancy data. The simulation data showed the expected reduction in variance and bias using the proper maximum likelihood methods, when the assumptions of the estimation method matched those in simulation. Between-method differences for data from human occupancy studies were less obvious, in part due to small dataset sizes. These maximum likelihood methods form the basis for development of improved PET covariance models, in order to minimize bias and variance in PET occupancy studies.

  14. Potential drug development candidates for human soil-transmitted helminthiases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Olliaro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Few drugs are available for soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH; the benzimidazoles albendazole and mebendazole are the only drugs being used for preventive chemotherapy as they can be given in one single dose with no weight adjustment. While generally safe and effective in reducing intensity of infection, they are contra-indicated in first-trimester pregnancy and have suboptimal efficacy against Trichuris trichiura. In addition, drug resistance is a threat. It is therefore important to find alternatives.We searched the literature and the animal health marketed products and pipeline for potential drug development candidates. Recently registered veterinary products offer advantages in that they have undergone extensive and rigorous animal testing, thus reducing the risk, cost and time to approval for human trials. For selected compounds, we retrieved and summarised publicly available information (through US Freedom of Information (FoI statements, European Public Assessment Reports (EPAR and published literature. Concomitantly, we developed a target product profile (TPP against which the products were compared.The paper summarizes the general findings including various classes of compounds, and more specific information on two veterinary anthelmintics (monepantel, emodepside and nitazoxanide, an antiprotozoal drug, compiled from the EMA EPAR and FDA registration files.Few of the compounds already approved for use in human or animal medicine qualify for development track decision. Fast-tracking to approval for human studies may be possible for veterinary compounds like emodepside and monepantel, but additional information remains to be acquired before an informed decision can be made.

  15. Recent developments in drug eluting devices with tailored interfacial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Rexach, Eva; Meaurio, Emilio; Sarasua, Jose-Ramon

    2017-11-01

    Drug eluting devices have greatly evolved during past years to become fundamental products of great marketing importance in the biomedical field. There is currently a large diversity of highly specialized devices for specific applications, making the development of these devices an exciting field of research. The replacement of the former bare metal devices by devices loaded with drugs allowed the sustained and controlled release of drugs, to achieve the desired local therapeutic concentration of drug. The newer devices have been "engineered" with surfaces containing micro- and nanoscale features in a well-controlled manner, that have shown to significantly affect cellular and subcellular function of various biological systems. For example, the topography can be structured to form an antifouling surface mimicking the defense mechanisms found in nature, like the skin of the shark. In the case of bone implants, well-controlled nanostructured interfaces can promote osteoblast differentiation and matrix production, and enhance short-term and long-term osteointegration. In any case, the goal of current research is to design implants that induce controlled, guided, and rapid healing. This article reviews recent trends in the development of drug eluting devices, as well as recent developments on the micro/nanotechnology scales, and their future challenges. For this purpose medical devices have been divided according to the different systems of the body they are focused to: orthopedic devices, breathing stents, gastrointestinal and urinary systems, devices for cardiovascular diseases, neuronal implants, and wound dressings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Drugs' development in acute heart failure: what went wrong?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teneggi, Vincenzo; Sivakumar, Nithy; Chen, Deborah; Matter, Alex

    2018-05-08

    Acute heart failure (AHF) is a major burden disease, with a complex physiopathology, unsatisfactory diagnosis, treatment and a very poor prognosis. In the last two decades, a number of drugs have progressed from preclinical to early and late clinical development, but only a few of them have been approved and added to a stagnant pharmacological armamentarium. We have reviewed the data published on drugs developed for AHF since early 2000s, trying to recognise factors that have worked for a successful approval or for the stoppage of the program, in an attempt to delineate future trajectories for AHF drug development. Our review has identified limitations at both preclinical and clinical levels. At the preclinical level, the major shortcoming is represented by animal models looking at short-term endpoints which do not recapitulate the complexity of the human disease. At the clinical level, the main weakness is given by the disconnect between short-term endpoints assessed in the early stage of drug development, and medium-long-term endpoints requested in Phase 3 for regulatory approval. This is further amplified by the lack of validation and standardisation of short- and long-term endpoints; absence of predictive biomarkers; conduct of studies on heterogeneous populations; and use of different eligibility criteria, time of assessments, drug schedules and background therapies. Key goals remain a better understanding of AHF and the construction of a successful drug development program. A reasonable way to move forward resides in a strong collaboration between main stakeholders of therapeutic innovation: scientific community, industry and regulatory agencies.

  17. Improvement of Pediatric Drug Development: Regulatory and Practical Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Katusra; Carroll, Kelly A; Onishi, Taku; Matsumaru, Naoki; Brasseur, Daniel; Nakamura, Hidefumi

    2016-03-01

    A dearth in pediatric drug development often leaves pediatricians with no alternative but to prescribe unlicensed or off-label drugs with a resultant increased risk of adverse events. We present the current status of pediatric drug development and, based on our data analysis, clarify the problems in this area. Further action is proposed to improve the drug development that has pediatric therapeutic orphan status. We analyzed all Phase II/III and Phase III trials in ClinicalTrials.gov that only included pediatric participants (Performance index, an indicator of pediatric drug development, was calculated by dividing the annual number of pediatric clinical trials by million pediatric populations acquired from Census.gov. Effects of the 2 Japanese premiums introduced in 2010, for the enhancement of pediatric drug development, were analyzed by comparing mean performance index prepremiums (2006-2009) and postpremiums (2010-2014) among Japan, the European Union, and the United States. The European Union Clinical Trials Register and published reports from the European Medicines Agency were also surveyed to investigate the Paediatric Committee effect on pediatric clinical trials in the European Union. Mean difference of the performance index in prepremiums and postpremiums between Japan and the European Union were 0.296 (P 15% after 2008. Recruitment and ethical obstacles make conducting pediatric clinical trials challenging. An improved operational framework for conducting clinical trials should mirror the ever-improving regulatory framework that incentivizes investment in pediatric clinical trials. Technological approaches, enhancements in electronic medical record systems, and community approaches that actively incorporate input from physicians, researchers, and patients could offer a sustainable solution to recruitment of pediatric study participants. The key therefore is to improve pediatric pharmacotherapy collaboration among industry, government, academia, and

  18. THE MAIN DEFICIENCIES IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SECTORAL OPERATIONAL PROGRAMME HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pautu Sorina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The absorption of EU funds for Romania is a necessity in the nowadays context. The slow pace of absorption of these structural funds earmarked for Romania as EU member state is a deficiency with negative effects on the economic and social development of our country. Their low absorption shows deficiencies in their coordination and implementation at central level and also at the level of beneficiaries. Their coordinative authorities, in particular the Managing Authority of Structural Instruments, together with its subordinated institutions presents deficiencies in their coordination and implementation as having negative effects on their absorption. The main weaknesses identified on national level mainly consist in the lack of specialized personnel, in excessive bureaucracy and a mismatch of national legislation with the European one. The lack of transparency and change is specific to these structural funds, representing deficiencies that lead to beneficiaries’ discouragement to implement projects financed from structural funds. In the Sectoral Operational Programme, the Human Resources Development Program is a leader in the rate of absorption but it also has the largest number of problems and deficiencies in implementation. Due to the deficiencies identified by the auditing European Commission of the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development, payments were suspended for a period of four months. Following this situation, it was necessary to implement the necessary corrective measures at the level of POSDRU, leading to its release. Taking action and removing the deficiencies at the POSDRU level, and also at the level of other operational programs, it is a necessity and a priority to increase the absorption of these funds. The main measures that need to be taken mainly consist of training the personnel involved in the management of these funds, reimbursements release funds to the final beneficiaries, creating a more transparent

  19. Use of radiopharmaceuticals in the development of drug delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frier, M.

    1997-01-01

    Full text. Nuclear medicine imaging techniques have great potential in the study of the behaviour of drug formulations and drug delivery systems in human subjects. No other technique can locate so precisely the site of disintegration of a tablet in the Gl tract, the depth of penetration of a nebulized solution into the lung, or the residence time of a drug on the cornea. By using the gamma camera to image the in vivo distribution of pharmaceutical formulations radio labelled with a suitable gamma emitting radionuclide, images may be used to quantify the biodistribution, release and kinetics of drug formulations and delivery from novel carrier systems and devices. Radionuclide tracer techniques allow correlation between the observed pharmacological effects and the precise site of delivery. The strength of the technique lies in the quantitative nature of radionuclide images. Example will be shown of studies which examine the rate of transit of orally-administered formulations through the GI tract, as well as describing the development of devices for specific targeting of drugs to the colon. Data will also demonstrate the effectiveness of devices such as spacers in pulmonary drug delivery, in both normal volunteers, and in asthmatic subjects. Such studies not only provide data on the nature and characteristics of a product, such as reliability and reproducibility but, may also be used in submission to Regulatory Authorities in product registration dossiers

  20. Optimization and Simulation in Drug Development - Review and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjødt-Eriksen, Jens; Clausen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    We give a review of pharmaceutical R&D and mathematical simulation and optimization methods used to support decision making within the pharmaceutical development process. The complex nature of drug development is pointed out through a description of the various phases of the pharmaceutical develo...... development process. A part of the paper is dedicated to the use of simulation techniques to support clinical trials. The paper ends with a section describing portfolio modelling methods in the context of the pharmaceutical industry....