Sample records for driveability

  1. A study on the role of powertrain system dynamics on vehicle driveability (United States)

    Castellazzi, Luca; Tonoli, Andrea; Amati, Nicola; Galliera, Enrico


    Vehicle driveability describes the complex interactions between the driver and the vehicle, mainly related to longitudinal vibrations. Today, a relevant part of the driveability process optimisation is realised by means of track tests, which require a considerable effort due to the number of parameters (such as stiffness and damping components) affecting this behaviour. The drawback of this approach is that it is carried on at a stage when a design iteration becomes very expensive in terms of time and cost. The objective of this work is to propose a light and accurate tool to represent the relevant quantities involved in the driveability analysis, and to understand which are the main vehicle parameters that influence the torsional vibrations transmitted to the driver. Particular attention is devoted to the role of the tyre, the engine mount, the dual mass flywheel and their possible interactions. The presented nonlinear dynamic model has been validated in time and frequency domain and, through linearisation of its nonlinear components, allows to exploit modal and energy analysis. Objective indexes regarding the driving comfort are additionally considered in order to evaluate possible driveability improvements related to the sensitivity of powertrain parameters.

  2. Evaluating the Impact of E15 on Snowmobile Engine Durability and Vehicle Driveability: September 22, 2010 - August 15, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miers, Scott A. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Blough, Jason R. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of E15 on current and legacy snowmobile engines and vehicles that could occur due to misfueling by the vehicle owner. Three test scenarios were conducted to evaluate the impact of E15, including cold-start performance and emissions, on-snow vehicle driveability, and laboratory exhaust emissions over the useful life of the engine. The eightengines tested represent current and legacy product that may exhibit sensitivity to increased ethanol blended in gasoline. Because a limited number of snowmobile engines were evaluated for this test program, the results are not statistically significant. However, the broad range of engine and mixture preparation technologies, combined with the various test scenarios provide preliminaryinformation to assess potential issues with E15 use in snowmobiles. Cold-start tests were performed at -6.7 degrees C (20 degrees F), -17.8 degrees C (0 degrees F), and -28.9 degrees C (-20 degrees F). The evaluation included time to start or number of pulls to start, engine speed, exhaust gas temperature, and start-up engine emissions concentrations. Statistically significant differences instarting times were not observed for most vehicles. Snowmobile driveability was analyzed using a subjective evaluation on a controlled test course. The drivers could not easily discern which fuel the snowmobiles were using during the subjective evaluation. Durability tests were conducted to measure the emissions and performance of the snowmobiles over the useful life of the vehicles (5,000miles). There were no fuel-related engine failures on E0 or E15. Carbon monoxide emissions were generally reduced by E15 relative to E0, by from 10% to 35%. Occasional misfueling of snowmobiles with E15 is not likely to cause noticeable or immediate problems for consumers. E15 is not approved for snowmobile use, and observations made during this study support the U.S. Environmental ProtectionAgency's decision to not

  3. Assessment and Correlation of Customer and Rater Response to Cold-Start and Warmup Driveability (United States)


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  4. Customer Perception of Hot-Weather Driveability in 1977-1981 Passenger Vehicles. (United States)


    than the normal butane more commonly used for RVP trim in motor gasoline (72.2 versus 51.6 psi RVP). When fresh fuel weathers in the course of refueling...then estimated by the correlation for fresh fuel blends: TV/L 20 = 205.741 - 8.23223 x RVP + 0.116978 x RVP 2 * CRC Report No. 400, 񓟎 CRC Motor ...1980 Mazda 626 122 25 A 1979 Mercury Bobcat 140 26 1981 Chevrolet Pickup 30 M 1980 Pontiac Sunbird 151 31 A 1980 Toyota Corona 122 32 A 1978 Ford Pinto

  5. Operation car for horizontal coke ovens. Bedienungswagen fuer waagrechte Verkokungsoefen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwasnik, H J; Piduch, H G


    An operation car which is driveable on the coke side of a coke oven battery is described. The operation car is equipped with a door lifter, a door and frame cleaner, a coke guiding grid and a collection hood for emissions developed on coke pushing. The car has a portal construction and it is driveable on both sides of the path of the coke receiving car. The operation has a considerable lower weight than usual cars. (HGOE).

  6. 49 CFR 538.7 - Petitions for reduction of minimum driving range. (United States)


    ... factors: (i) The purposes of 49 U.S.C. chapter 329, including encouraging the development and widespread use of electricity as a transportation fuel by consumers, and the production of passenger automobiles...) Economic practicability; (iv) Technology; (v) Environmental impact; (vi) Safety; (vii) Driveability; and...

  7. Towards Integrated Powertrain Control: exploiting synergy between a diesel hybrid and aftertreatment system in a distribution truck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foster, D.L.; Cloudt, R.P.M.; Willems, F.P.T.


    With the increasing demands on driveability, fuel efficiency and emissions, it becomes essential to optimize the overall performance of future powertrains. Therefore, a system approach is required. In this study, the Integrated Powertrain Control concept is presented, which exploits the synergy

  8. Towards Integrated Powertrain Control : exploiting synergy between a diesel hybrid and aftertreatment system in a distribution truck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foster, D.; Cloudt, R.P.M.; Willems, F.P.T.


    With the increasing demands on driveability, fuel efficiency and emissions, it becomes essential to optimize the overall performance of future powertrains. Therefore, a system approach is required. In this study, the Integrated Powertrain Control concept is presented, which exploits the synergy

  9. Concept design for hybrid vehicle power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, T.; Druten, van R.M.


    Hybridization implies adding a Secondary power source (e.g. electric motor and battery) (S) to a Primary power source (P) in order to improve the driving functions (e.g. fuel economy, driveability (performance)) of the vehicle. The fuel economy isstrongly determined by the energy management

  10. Parametric modeling of components for selection and specification of hybrid vehicle drivetrains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, T.; Steinbuch, M.; Druten, van R.M.; Serrarens, A.F.A.


    Drivetrain hybridization implies adding a Secondary power source to a Primary power source in order to improve a multiple of driving functions: Fuel economy, Emissions, Driveability, Comfort and Safety. Designing a hybrid vehicle drivetrain fulfilling the required vehicle driving functions is

  11. 40 CFR 610.52 - Maintenance. (United States)


    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT... only in those cases where a significant and obvious driveability problem has been reported by the driver of the vehicle. (1) Correction of the following problems will be made as soon as the problems...

  12. Study of fuel control strategy based on an fuel behavior model for starting conditions; Nenryo kyodo model ni motozuita shidoji no nenryo hosei hosho ni tsuite no kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Y; Uchida, M; Iwano, H; Oba, H [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    We have applied a fuel behavior model to a fuel injection system which we call SOFIS (Sophisticated and Optimized Fuel Injection System) so that we get air/fuel ratio control accuracy and good driveability. However the fuel behavior under starting conditions is still not clear. To meet low emission rules and to get better driveability under starting conditions, better air/fuel ratio control is necessary. Now we have understood the ignition timing, injection timing, and injection pulse width required in such conditions. In former days, we analyzed the state of the air/fuel mixture under cold conditions and made a new fuel behavior model which considered fuel loss such as hydrocarbons and dissolution into oil and so on. Al this time, we have applied this idea to starting. We confirm this new model offers improved air/fuel ratio control. 6 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Demonstration of Heavy Hybrid Diesel Fleet Vehicles (United States)


    resort to alternative sources (i.e., tar sands , oil shale, and bitumen) to keep up with demand. These alternative sources are more costly to recover and...Along Event Category Comment Driveability - Abrupt transition from electric motor to engine - Limited acceleration - Engine may stall when driving up...hydraulic system is transparent to the operator, and is relatively maintenance free for the service team. Service training requirements are minimal due

  14. Fuel saving type power plant for automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, N; Katsumoto, T; Shimizu, T; Hiramatsu, T; Fujita, Y


    Mitsubishi Motors Corporation has developed a modulated displacement engine named ''Orion MD'' and an electronically controlled damper clutch automatic transmission named ''ELC Automatic'' and has installed them on the new ''Mirage'' series and ''Cordia'' series, respectively, which were put on sale in February, 1982. They improve fuel economy to a great extent especially at low vehicle speed, and provide good driveability and high reliability. An outline of the ''Orion MD'' and ''ELC Automatic'' is presented.

  15. Advanced nonlinear engine speed control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterholm, Thomas; Hendricks, Elbert


    Several subsidiary control problems have turned out to be important for improving driveability and fuel consumption in modern spark ignition (SI) engine cars. Among these are idle speed control and cruise control. In this paper the idle speed and cruise control problems will be treated as one......: accurately tracking of a desired engine speed in the presence of model uncertainties and severe load disturbances. This is accomplished by using advanced nonlinear control techniques such as input/output-linearization and sliding mode control. These techniques take advantage of a nonlinear model...... of the engine dynamics, a mean value engine model....

  16. Nanoporous carbon actuator and methods of use thereof (United States)

    Biener, Juergen [San Leandro, CA; Baumann, Theodore F [Discovery Bay, CA; Shao, Lihua [Karlsruhe, DE; Weissmueller, Joerg [Stutensee, DE


    An electrochemically driveable actuator according to one embodiment includes a nanoporous carbon aerogel composition capable of exhibiting charge-induced reversible strain when wetted by an electrolyte and a voltage is applied thereto. An electrochemically driven actuator according to another embodiment includes a nanoporous carbon aerogel composition wetted by an electrolyte; and a mechanism for causing charge-induced reversible strain of the composition. A method for electrochemically actuating an object according to one embodiment includes causing charge-induced reversible strain of a nanoporous carbon aerogel composition wetted with an electrolyte to actuate the object by the strain.

  17. Evaluation of fuel cell hybrid electric light commercial vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, G.M.


    This report summarised the results of tests both in the laboratory and in operation on the roads in London carried out to determine the performance of the Zetek Fuel Cell Vehicle operated by Westminster County Council. Details are given of the vehicle's data logging system, and measurement of its acceleration and power, driveability, vehicle range, and the energy efficiency of the fuel cell, and its environmental performance. The frequent shutdowns of the fuel cell system and the problems with the DC/DC converter are discussed.

  18. ロータリ・エンジンのL.P.G. 駆動(第3報) : 空燃比について




    As one process of developing the Rotary engine with low fuel consumption,we made an experiment on the air-fuel ratio. And we tried to seek the air-fuel ratio for good fuel efficiency,for little dropping in torque and for good driveability without misfire at full load. The main results are as follows. For the fuel of Rotary engine,L.P.G. can be used in leaner air-fuel ratio than Gasoline. And Rotary engine using L.P.G. for fuel have better fuel consumption than using Gasoline. Especially, the ...

  19. Assessment and preliminary design of an energy buffer for regenerative braking in electric vehicles (United States)

    Buchholz, R.; Mathur, A. K.


    Energy buffer systems, capable of storing the vehicle energy during braking and reusing this stored energy during acceleration, were examined. Some of these buffer systems when incorporated in an electric vehicle would result in an improvement in the performance and range under stop and go driving conditions. Buffer systems considered included flywheels, hydropneumatic, pneumatic, spring, and regenerative braking. Buffer ranking and rating criteria were established. Buffer systems were rated based on predicted range improvements, consumer acceptance, driveability, safety, reliability and durability, and initial and life cycle costs. A hydropneumatic buffer system was selected.

  20. The electric supercharger. Improved transient behavior and reduced CO{sub 2} as well as NO{sub x} emissions at the same time?; Die elektrische Zusatzaufladung. Verbessertes transientes Verhalten sowie reduzierte CO{sub 2} und NO{sub x}-Emissionen zur gleichen Zeit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forissier, Michel; Zechmair, Derrick; Weber, Olaf; Criddle, Mark; Durrieu, David; Picron, Vanessa; Menegazzi, Pascal; Surbled, Kevin; Wu, Yiming [Valeo Powertrain Systems, Creteil (France)


    The Valeo Electric Supercharger allows improved engine transient behavior and fuel consumption as well as lower NO{sub x} emissions. The extra electric boosting enables an improvement in the air loop response time by an accelerated boost pressure build-up in both diesel and gasoline engines. This improved dynamic behavior can be converted into fuel consumption through extreme engine downsizing or/and downspeeding. Extreme downsizing and very long transmission gear ratios degrade vehicle driveability. The electric supercharger is a key enabler to overcome this issue and even provide far better dynamics. On Diesel engines, control of the NO{sub x} emissions and the EGR system in transient operation will have to be addressed particularly with the new driving cycle regulation (WLTC, RDE). The boosting of the air loop in combination with the EGR in transient operation improves NO{sub x} emissions while maintaining driveability. The presented benefits can be realized with an evolved 12V electrical architecture and are fully compliant with more capable, higher voltage architectures. (orig.)

  1. Feedback controlled fuel injection system can accommodate any alcohol-gasoline blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pefley, R K; Pullman, J B; Suga, T P; Espinola, S


    A fuel metering system has been adapted and permits operation on all blends of alcohols and gasoline ranging from pure gasoline to pure ethanol and methanol. It is a closed loop electronic feedback controlled fuel injection system (EFI) with exhaust oxygen sensor. The system is used by Toyota Motor Company in their Supra and Cressida models in conjunction with a 3-way catalytic exhaust system. These models meet California exhaust and evaporative emission standards. An unmodified model has been tested on alcohol gasoline blends from pure gasoline to 50% ethanol-50% gasoline and 30% methanol-70% gasoline and found to meet all exhaust and evaporative emissions standards. A Cressida with modified EFI system is currently being tested. It is capable of operating on pure gasoline, pure methanol or ethanol and all intermediate blends. The testing to date shows that the vehicle meets all exhaust emissions standards while operating over the blend range from pure gasoline to pure ethanol while maintaining driveability and energy based fuel economy. The paper will present the total test evidence for all gasoline-alcohol blends. This will include exhaust and evaporative emissions, fuel economy and driveability as determined in accordance with United States Federal Test Procedures. Additionally, the paper will report experiences accumulated from road operation of the vehicle over a six-month period.

  2. Benefits of a parallel hybrid electric architecture on medium commercial vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boot, Marco Aimo; Consano, Ludovico [Iveco S.p.A, Turin (Italy)


    Hybrid electric technology is becoming an increasingly interesting solution for medium and heavy trucks involved in urban and suburban missions. The increasing demand for gas and oil, consequent price rises and environmental concerns are driving a market that is in need of alternative solutions. For these reasons, the growth in the global hybrid market significantly exceeded all the hybrid sales forecasts. The parallel hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) employs an additional power source (electric motogenerator) in combination with the conventional diesel engine. This architecture exploits the benefits of both power sources in order to reduce the fuel consumption, increase the overall power, and above all, decrease CO2 emissions. Moreover, the emissions reduction target is lead by EU Regulations and local initiatives for traffic limitations, but the real drivers for the growth in the market are demonstrable fuel economy improvements and productivity costs optimization (global efficiency). This paper presents the results achieved by Iveco in the development and testing of parallel hybrid systems applied to medium range commercial vehicles, with the intent to evaluate the functionality, driveability performance and leading the best reduction in terms of fuel consumption and emissions in different real-world missions. The system architecture foresees one electric motor/generator and a single clutch unit. An external electrical power source for the battery recharging it is not necessary. The chosen configuration allows to implement the following functional modes: Stop and Start with Electric Launch, Hybrid Mode, Regenerative Braking Mode, Inertial Start and Creeping Mode. The software contained in the supervisor control unit has been tuned to the customer specific missions, taking in account on road data acquisition in order to demonstrate the reliability, driveability and the overall efficiency of the hybrid system. The field tests carried out in collaboration with

  3. The electric powertrain of the R8 e-tron. A sportive experience of electromobility; Der elektrische Antrieb im R8 e-tron. Elektromobilitaet sportlich erfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiser, A.; Enzinger, M.; Werner, M.; Wierl, U.; Kruse, A.; Westermaier, C.; Felkel, T. [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany)


    This article presents the electric powertrain for the new Audi R8 e-tron. The special feature of this sports car is its high-performance electric powertrain, providing a fully usable stand-alone vehicle propulsion system. At the heart of the system are two permanent-magnet synchronous motors which drive the left and right rear wheels separately. The motors were developed specially for use in the R8 e-tron to feature maximum power density, sporty performance and optimum power utilisation. Based on the latest Audi networking technologies, Flex-Ray communication has been extended to the drive components. The application and balancing of vehicle characteristics, functional reliability and drive-ability was tested in parallel on the real vehicle from the very beginning, which meant that the development was completed in an outstandingly short time. (orig.)

  4. Common Rail System for GDI Engines Modelling, Identification, and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Fiengo, Giovanni; Palladino, Angelo; Giglio, Veniero


    Progressive reductions in vehicle emission requirements have forced the automotive industry to invest in research and development of alternative control strategies. Continual control action exerted by a dedicated electronic control unit ensures that best performance in terms of pollutant emissions and power density is married with driveability and diagnostics. Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine technology is a way to attain these goals. This brief describes the functioning of a GDI engine equipped with a common rail (CR) system, and the devices necessary to run test-bench experiments in detail. The text should prove instructive to researchers in engine control and students are recommended to this brief as their first approach to this technology. Later chapters of the brief relate an innovative strategy designed to assist with the engine management system; injection pressure regulation for fuel pressure stabilization in the CR fuel line is proposed and validated by experiment. The resulting control scheme ...

  5. Development of a BMW flexible fuel vehicle. Entwicklung eines BMW-Fahrzeuges fuer flexiblen Benzin-Methanol-Mischbetrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhl, W; Petra, H


    A standard BMW 6-cylinder engine with 4 valves was converted for methanol flexible fuel operation. New performance characteristics of air/fuel mixture and ignition timing were determined for different methanol concentrations (M20, M50, M85). The recognition of the methanol concentration was made by means of a capacitive alcohol sensor and the adaptive Lambda Control. Without any modification of the catalyst the HC emission was reduced about 40% in US-test cycle. The efficiency of M85 was upgraded about 8% under vehicle operation conditions. Under any method concentration the driveability of the car was as well as operated with pure gasoline. Operating with M85 the engine increased torque and power by 11%. (orig.).

  6. Engine modeling and control modeling and electronic management of internal combustion engines

    CERN Document Server

    Isermann, Rolf


    The increasing demands for internal combustion engines with regard to fuel consumption, emissions and driveability lead to more actuators, sensors and complex control functions. A systematic implementation of the electronic control systems requires mathematical models from basic design through simulation to calibration. The book treats physically-based as well as models based experimentally on test benches for gasoline (spark ignition) and diesel (compression ignition) engines and uses them for the design of the different control functions. The main topics are: - Development steps for engine control - Stationary and dynamic experimental modeling - Physical models of intake, combustion, mechanical system, turbocharger, exhaust, cooling, lubrication, drive train - Engine control structures, hardware, software, actuators, sensors, fuel supply, injection system, camshaft - Engine control methods, static and dynamic feedforward and feedback control, calibration and optimization, HiL, RCP, control software developm...

  7. Alternative surfacing materials for weed control at BC Hydro substations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, T.C.; Shrimpton, G.M.


    A two year study was conducted by BC Hydro in which a variety of surfacing materials were tested for their suitability for use in substations. Ideally, surfacing materials should have the following characteristics: high electrical resistivity in both dry and wet conditions, resistance to invasion by weeds, good driveability, good drainage, non-flammable, reasonably priced, no dust to foul conductors, and be aesthetically pleasing. Trials at Vernon Koksilah, and Ingledow substations were conducted to test the materials. A qualitative estimate of the amount of weed control provided by each material was recorded. The trials were meant to provide operational recommendations and screening information to allow for future testing of promising materials or combination of materials. Results showed that no single material meets all the desired criteria. The surfaces that best combined good weed control, electrical resistance and surface stability was a 15 cm deep layer of crushed gravel, especially if underlain by a layer of geotextile. 4 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig

  8. Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non‑Road Engines, Report 1 - Updated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, Keith [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); West, Brian H [ORNL; Clark, Wendy [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Graves, Ronald L [ORNL; Orban, John [Battelle, Columbus; Przesmitzki, Steve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL


    In summer 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program is to assess the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals in the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20--gasoline blended with 15 and 20% ethanol--on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This first report provides the results available to date from the first stages of a much larger overall test program. Results from additional projects that are currently underway or in the planning stages are not included in this first report. The purpose of this initial study was to quickly investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the following: (1) Regulated tailpipe emissions for 13 popular late model vehicles on a drive cycle similar to real-world driving and 28 small non-road engines (SNREs) under certification or typical in use procedures. (2) Exhaust and catalyst temperatures of the same vehicles under more severe conditions. (3) Temperature of key engine components of the same SNREs under certification or typical in-use conditions. (4) Observable operational issues with either the vehicles or SNREs during the course of testing. As discussed in the concluding section of this report, a wide range of additional studies are underway or planned to consider the effects of intermediate ethanol blends on materials, emissions, durability, and driveability of vehicles, as well as impacts on a wider range of nonautomotive engines, including marine applications, snowmobiles, and motorcycles. Section 1 (Introduction) gives background on the test program and describes collaborations with industry and agencies to date. Section 2

  9. A cost analysis of Colorado's 1991-92 oxygenated fuels program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manderino, L.A.; Bowles, S.L.


    This paper discusses the methodology used to conduct a cost analysis of Colorado's 1991-92 Oxygenated Fuels Program. This program requires the use of oxygenated fuels during the winter season in Denver and surrounding areas. The cost analysis was conducted as part of an overall cost-effectiveness study of the 1991-92 program conducted by PRC Environmental Management, Inc. (PRC). The paper, however, focuses on cost analysis and does not consider potential benefits of the program. The study analyzed costs incurred by different segments of society, including government, industry, and consumers. Because the analysis focused on a specific program year, neither past nor future costs were studied. The discussion of government costs includes the agencies interviewed and the types of costs associated with government administration and enforcement of the program. The methodology used to calculate costs to private industry is also present. The study examined the costs to fuel refineries, pipelines, and blenders, as well as fuel retailers and automobile fleet operators. Finally, the paper discusses the potential costs incurred by the consumer purchasing oxygenated fuels. Costs associated with issues such as vehicle driveability, automobile parts durability and performance, and fuel economy are also examined. A summary of all costs by category is presented along with an analysis of the major cost components. These include costs which are sensitive to specific circumstances and which may vary among programs

  10. Road salt application planning tool for winter de-icing operations (United States)

    Trenouth, William R.; Gharabaghi, Bahram; Perera, Nandana


    Road authorities, who are charged with the task of maintaining safe, driveable road conditions during severe winter storm events are coming under increasing pressure to protect salt vulnerable areas (SVAs). For the purpose of modelling urban winter hydrology, the temperature index method was modified to incorporate ploughing and salting considerations and was calibrated using winter field data from two sites in Southern Ontario and validated using data collected from a section of Highway 401 - Canada's busiest highway. The modified temperature index model (MTIM) accurately predicted salt-induced melt (R2 = 0.98 and 0.99, RMSE = 19.9 and 282.4 m3, CRM = -0.003 and 0.006 for calibration and validation sites respectively), and showed a demonstrable ability to calculate the Bare Pavement Regain Time (BPRT). The BPRT is a key factor on road safety and the basis for many winter maintenance performance standards for different classes of highways. Optimizing salt application rate scenarios can be achieved using the MTIM with only two meteorological forecast inputs for the storm event - readily available on-line through the Road Weather Information System (RWIS) - and can serve as a simple yet effective tool for winter road maintenance practitioners seeking to optimize salt application rates for a given storm event in salt vulnerable areas.

  11. System Design and Analysis of a Directly Air-Assisted Turbocharged SI Engine with Camshaft Driven Valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Guzzella


    Full Text Available The availability of compressed air in combination with downsizing and turbocharging is a promising approach to improve the fuel economy and the driveability of internal combustion engines. The compressed air is used to boost and start the engine. It is generated during deceleration phases by running the engine as a piston compressor. In this paper, a camshaft-driven valve is considered for the control of the air exchange between the tank and the combustion chamber. Such a valve system is cost-effective and robust. Each pneumatic engine mode is realized by a separate cam. The air mass transfer in each mode is analyzed. Special attention is paid to the tank pressure dependence. The air demand in the boost mode is found to increase with the tank pressure. However, the dependence on the tank pressure is small in the most relevant operating region. The air demand of the pneumatic start shows a piecewise continuous dependence on the tank pressure. Finally, a tank sizing method is proposed which uses a quasi-static simulation. It is applied to a compact class vehicle, for which a tank volume of less than 10 L is sufficient. A further reduction of the tank volume is limited by the specifications imposed on the pneumatic start.

  12. Toyota's new single-chip microcomputer based engine and transmission control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, T.; Kawai, M.; Aoki, K.; Tamaki, K.; Sugawara, M.


    Toyota succeeded in the fall of 1984 in manufacturing a complex engine and transmission control system using a newly developed single-chip microcomputer. This microcomputer, equipped with an 8K-byte ROM (Read Only Memory) and a 256-byte RAM (Random Access Memory), a powerful real time processing function, and a high-speed optimum instruction set, is better suited for automobiles. Application of the latest CMOS technology has enabled lower power consumption and improved noise immunity. The new system, which includes a new function; the electronic spark advance with knock control in addition to the conventional sophisticated system, has greatly improved the performance and driveability of vehicles. The newly designed electronic control unit (ECU) has been greatly improved in reliability and has not changed in its size with the adoption of the highly integrated new microcomputer, which is due to the fact that it uses fewer LSIs (Large Scale Integrated circuits) than the conventional ECU, although it includes the great additional function.

  13. Combustion pressure-based engine management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, R.; Hart, M. [DaimlerChrysler, Stuttart (Germany); Truscott, A.; Noble, A. [Ricardo, Shoreham-by-Sea (United Kingdom); Kroetz, G.; Richter, C. [DaimlerChrysler, Munchen (Germany); Cavalloni, C. [Kistler Instruments AG, Winterthur (Switzerland)


    In order to fulfill future emissions and OBD regulations, whilst meeting increasing demands for driveability and refinement, new technologies for SI engines have to be found in terms of sensors and algorithms for engine control units. One promising way, explored in the AENEAS collaborative project between DaimlerChrysler, Kistler, Ricardo and the European Commission, is to optimize the behavior of the system by using in-cylinder measurements and analysing them with modern control algorithms. In this paper a new engine management system based on combustion pressure sensing is presented. The pressure sensor is designed to give a reliable and accurate signal of the full pressure trace during a working cycle. With the application of new technologies low cost manufacturing appears to be achievable, so that an application in mass production can be considered. Furthermore, model-based algorithms were developed to allow optimal control of the engine based on the in-cylinder measurements. The algorithms incorporate physical principles to improve efficiency, emissions and to reduce the parameterisation effort. In the paper, applications of the combustion pressure signal for air mass estimation, knock detection, ignition control cam phase detection and diagnosis are discussed. (author)

  14. Research on optimization of test cycles for comfort to the special vehicles (United States)

    Mitroi, Marian; Chiru, Anghel


    The comfort of vehicles, regardless of their type is represent a requirement to by fulfilled in the context of current technological developments special vehicles generally move under different soil, time, or season conditions, and the land in which the vehicles move is complex and varied in the physical structure. Due to the high level of involvement in the driveability, safety and comfort of automotive, suspension system is a key factor with major implications for vibration and noise, affecting the human body. The objective of the research is related to determining the test cycles of special vehicles that are approaching real situations, to determine the level of comfort. The evaluate of the degree of comfort will be realized on acceleration values recorded, especially the vertical ones that have the highest influence on the human body. Thus, in this way the tests can be established needed to determine the level of comfort required for each particular type of special vehicle. The utility of the test cycles to optimize comfort is given to the accurate identification of the specific test needs, depending on the each vehicle.

  15. Using gasoline in an advanced compression ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cracknell, R.F.; Ariztegui, J.; Dubois, T.; Hamje, H.D.C.; Pellegrini, L.; Rickeard, D.J.; Rose, K.D. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium); Heuser, B. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Combustion Engines; Schnorbus, T.; Kolbeck, A.F. [FEV GmbH, Aachen (Germany)


    Future vehicles will be required to improve their efficiency, reduce both regulated and CO{sub 2} emissions, and maintain acceptable driveability, safety, and noise. To achieve this overall performance, they will be configured with more advanced hardware, sensors, and control technologies that will also enable their operation on a broader range of fuel properties. Fuel flexibility has already been demonstrated in previous studies on a compression ignition bench engine and a demonstration vehicle equipped with an advanced engine management system, closed-loop combustion control, and air-path control strategies. An unresolved question is whether engines of this sort can also operate on market gasoline while achieving diesel-like efficiency and acceptable emissions and noise levels. In this study, a compression ignition bench engine having a higher compression ratio, optimised valve timing, advanced engine management system, and flexible fuel injection could be operated on a European gasoline over full to medium part loads. The combustion was sensitive to EGR rates, however, and optimising all emissions and combustion noise was a considerable challenge at lower loads. (orig.)

  16. Adaptive Multi-Sensor Perception for Driving Automation in Outdoor Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Milella


    Full Text Available In this research, adaptive perception for driving automation is discussed so as to enable a vehicle to automatically detect driveable areas and obstacles in the scene. It is especially designed for outdoor contexts where conventional perception systems that rely on a priori knowledge of the terrain's geometric properties, appearance properties, or both, is prone to fail, due to the variability in the terrain properties and environmental conditions. In contrast, the proposed framework uses a self-learning approach to build a model of the ground class that is continuously adjusted online to reflect the latest ground appearance. The system also features high flexibility, as it can work using a single sensor modality or a multi-sensor combination. In the context of this research, different embodiments have been demonstrated using range data coming from either a radar or a stereo camera, and adopting self-supervised strategies where monocular vision is automatically trained by radar or stereo vision. A comprehensive set of experimental results, obtained with different ground vehicles operating in the field, are presented to validate and assess the performance of the system.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. TYAGI


    Full Text Available The Spark Ignition engine has been extensively used in multifaceted sectors, viz. Automobiles, Industry engineering, etc. due to their exceptional driveability, performance and minimal maintenance. However, gasoline engines have their share of complications as they release a variety of air pollutants, viz. CO, NOx, HC and CO2 etc. and other harmful emissions. In this paper a comparison of these gases with the Government policies or norms have been studied and the parameters which are responsible for increasing the more Air pollution have been minimised using innovative engineering solutions. This paper depicts research done on inlet manifolds and their modifications to achieve exemplary fuel-air swirl. During subsequent analysis at idle condition (1300 rpm, it has been concluded that the venturi-based intake manifold has shown remarkable results in decreasing the HC levels from 180 ppm to 60 ppm (66.6 % at Idle Range. The work is also complementary to the various other designs of inlet manifolds, viz. Inlet manifold Modified 1 and Inlet Manifold Modified 2 out of which it is concluded that the Inlet manifold Modified 2 results in better reduction of pollutants.

  18. Preliminary study on the control of direct injection diesel engine for better fuel flexibility and emissions control. Pt. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egnell, R.; Kassem, N.; Bohlin, T.


    This report summarizes the results of a preliminary study on turbocharged direct injection diesel engines. The objectives and scope of this study are: 1. To explore the potential of using electronic control systems based on dynamic models of the engine in order to reduce fuel consumption, while maintaining good driveability. 2. To analyze the transient response of a turbocharged diesel engine based on experimental data collected from one of SAAB-SCANIA's test cells. 3. To survey the hardware components that would satisfy the requirements of the electronic control systems mentioned above. Part III discusses the transient response measurements obtained from two sets of experiments conducted on a six-cylinder motor working under varying conditions of load and speed. The objective of the first set of experiments was to quantify the difference in ignition delay between the transient and steady state operating conditions. The second set of experiments were aimed to provide a basis on which the engine efficiency obtained under transient conditions can be compared to that obtained from a single-cylinder motor working under steady state conditions.

  19. A model-based gain scheduling approach for controlling the common-rail system for GDI engines (United States)

    di Gaeta, Alessandro; Montanaro, Umberto; Fiengo, Giovanni; Palladino, Angelo; Giglio, Veniero


    The progressive reduction in vehicle emission requirements have forced the automotive industry to invest in research for developing alternative and more efficient control strategies. All control features and resources are permanently active in an electronic control unit (ECU), ensuring the best performance with respect to emissions, fuel economy, driveability and diagnostics, independently from engine working point. In this article, a considerable step forward has been achieved by the common-rail technology which has made possible to vary the injection pressure over the entire engine speed range. As a consequence, the injection of a fixed amount of fuel is more precise and multiple injections in a combustion cycle can be made. In this article, a novel gain scheduling pressure controller for gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine is designed to stabilise the mean fuel pressure into the rail and to track demanded pressure trajectories. By exploiting a simple control-oriented model describing the mean pressure dynamics in the rail, the control structure turns to be simple enough to be effectively implemented in commercial ECUs. Experimental results in a wide range of operating points confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control method to tame efficiently the mean value pressure dynamics of the plant showing a good accuracy and robustness with respect to unavoidable parameters uncertainties, unmodelled dynamics, and hidden coupling terms.

  20. Cognitive compatibility of motorcyclists and car drivers. (United States)

    Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Salmon, Paul M


    Incompatibility between different types of road user is a problem that previous research has shown to be resistant to a range of interventions. Cars and motorcycles are particularly prone to this. Insight is provided in this paper by a naturalistic method using concurrent verbal protocols and an automatic, highly reliable semantic network creation tool. The method shows how the same road situation is interpreted differently by car drivers and motorcyclists in ways congruent with wider accident rates. Analysis of the structure and content of the semantic networks reveals a greater degree of cognitive compatibility on faster roads such as motorways, but evidence of more critical incompatibilities on country roads and junctions. Both of these road types are implicated in helping to activate cognitive schema which in turn generate stereotypical behaviors unfavourable to the anticipation of motorcyclists by car drivers. The results are discussed in terms of practical measures such as road signs which warn of events behind as well as in front, cross-mode training and the concept of route driveability. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Emulsification as an approach to the introduction of methanol/gasoline blends as a motor fuel in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report summarizes the work on a phase of a program which concentrates on the utilization of methanol-gasoline mixtures in spark-ignition engines. A fuel system having components for a 2.5 liter engine equipped with an oxygen sensor controlled carburetor, described in another report, was further developed. Extended cold start tests were carried out and the maximum amount of methanol that could be tolerated by the fuel system , without imparing engine operation, was 30% methanol in gasoline on a volume basis. The engine was installed in an automobile and road tests were conducted concentrating on cold starts and warm-up, fuel system performance, fuel economy and materials compatibility of components exposed to the methanol-gasoline blend. A second phase separation control system was developed for a 2.1 liter displacement engine equipped with a mechanical fuel injection system. The proportioning and pick-up components for the tank were incorporated in the existing fuel system. Cold start tests were performed and 20% methanol was found to be the upper limit. The engine was installed and the vehicle were road tested. Minor shortcomings identified during road testing were corrected. Overall performance and driveability of both vehicles were found acceptable. However, testing under low ambient temperature conditions remains to be done. 2 refs., 37 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Investigation of the Behavior of Fuel in the Intake Manifold and its Relation to S. I. Engines, 1980-1983 (United States)

    Servati, Hamid Beyragh

    A liquid fuel film formation on the walls of an intake manifold adversely affects the engine performance and alters the overall air/fuel ratio from that scheduled by a fuel injector or carburetor and leads to adverse effects in vehicle driveability, exhaust emissions, and fuel economy. In this dissertation, the intake manifold is simulated by a horizontal circular duct. A model is provided to predict the rate of deposition and evaporation of the droplets in the intake manifold. The liquid fuel flow rate into the cylinders, mean film velocity and film thickness are determined as functions of engine parameters for both steady and transient operating conditions of the engine. A mathematical engine model is presented to simulate the dynamic interactions of the various engine components such as the air/fuel inlet element, intake manifold, combustion, dynamics and exhaust emissions. Inputs of the engine model are the intake manifold pressure and temperature, throttle angle, and air/fuel ratio. The observed parameters are the histories of fuel film thickness and velocity, fuel consumption, engine speed, engine speed hesitation time, and histories of CO, CO(,2), NO(,x), CH(,n), and O(,2). The effects of different air/fuel ratio control strategies on engine performance and observed parameters are also shown.

  3. Modelling of agricultural combination driver behaviour from the aspect of safety of movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Szczepaniak


    Full Text Available Statistics show that the travel of agricultural machinery to a work area and their movement during labour is the source of many serious accidents. The most dangerous in consequences prove to be those that occur during transport and associated with maneuvering tractors and machinery (about 30% of all fatal accidents. It can be assumed that at least some of these accidents were caused indirectly by the specific design features of agricultural machines which adversely affect the driveability. The single- and multi-loop structures of the driver-vehicle system models are formulated to study the contributions of various preview and prediction strategies to the path tracking and dynamic performance of the articulated vehicle. In the presented study the compensatory model of driver utilizes the lateral acceleration of the tractor, roll angle of trailer sprung mass and the articulation rate as the internal motion feedback variables. The control model of steering of an agricultural set has been implemented in the Matlab/Simulink environment. The model has been constructed with the use of stochastic methods and operational transmittances describing the various components of the system. The model operational transmittances has been estimated using Box-Jenkins and continuous-time process models from input-output data. The model has been tested using experimental data from road investigation of the agricultural set.

  4. RENAULT Energy TCe 90. The first RENAULT gasoline 3 cylinder turbocharged engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ser, Antoine; Covin, Bruno; Levasseur, Denis [Renault SAS, Rueil-Malmaison (France); Boiarciuc, Andrei [Renault SAS, Lardy (France)


    This paper describes the characteristics of a new 0.9 l, 3 cylinder gasoline turbocharged engine. This new 'downsized' engine will be the core of the B and entry segment for Renault. As part of the Energy TCe family, this engine will offer a power level of 66kW close to a naturally aspirated 1.4 l, with very low CO{sub 2} emissions and reduced costs of ownership. The Energy TCe 90 is both segment leader for real life fuel consumption on Clio 4, and among the best gasoline engines regarding CO{sub 2} emissions with only 99 g CO{sub 2}/km. Based on Renault's experience in turbocharged gasoline engines, this engine features optimized combustion in order to obtain a significantly reduced fuel consumption combined with good driveability. This new product in Renault's powertrain line up offers an attractive Total Cost of Ownership for many customers. It is an intermediate offer between diesel and traditional gasoline, a clever solution for mid distance drivers. To meet all customer requirements, the main improvement features are: - Global design for consumption reduction with optimized combustion system based on high tumble motion and intake VTC. Friction reduction, introducing DLC and a new generation of controlled oil pump has been developed. - A compact exhaust system, introducing convergent exhaust ports, an integrated turbo-manifold system and a closed coupled catalyst converter for thermodynamic optimisation, providing benefits for fast warm up and high dynamic response. - Stop and Start by reinforced starter system and regenerative breaking controlled by ESM. Cost competitiveness, a constant preoccupation for Renault, is ensured by the carry-over of industrial facilities and efficient use of the Renault-Nissan Alliance's worldwide supplier base. (orig.)

  5. Intermediate Ethanol Blends Catalyst Durability Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Brian H; Sluder, Scott; Knoll, Keith; Orban, John; Feng, Jingyu


    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends (also known as mid-level blends) on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program was to develop information important to assessing the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals for the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20 - gasoline blended with 15% and 20% ethanol - on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This report provides the results of the catalyst durability study, a substantial part of the overall test program. Results from additional projects will be reported separately. The principal purpose of the catalyst durability study was to investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the durability of catalysts and other aspects of the emissions control systems of vehicles. Section 1 provides further information about the purpose and context of the study. Section 2 describes the experimental approach for the test program, including vehicle selection, aging and emissions test cycle, fuel selection, and data handling and analysis. Section 3 summarizes the effects of the ethanol blends on emissions and fuel economy of the test vehicles. Section 4 summarizes notable unscheduled maintenance and testing issues experienced during the program. The appendixes provide additional detail about the statistical models used in the analysis, detailed statistical analyses, and detailed vehicle specifications.

  6. The CO{sub 2} challenge. Aggressive downsizing for HSDI diesel - engine concept definition; Herausforderung CO{sub 2}. Aggessives Downsizing fuer HSDI-Diesel - Motorkonzeptdefinition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorger, Helfried; Howlett, Michael; Schnider, Wolfgang; Ausserhoffer, Norbert; Bartsch, Peter; Weissbaeck, Michael [AVL List GmbH, Graz (Austria); Soustelle, Olivier [Le Moteur Moderne, Palaiseau (France); Ragot, Patrick; Mallet, Philippe [Renault S.A.S., Rueil Malmaison (France)


    Against a background of consumer demand for low fuel consumption vehicles, as well as legislative pressure to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, the automotive industry is currently developing solutions to significantly improve the efficiency of ICE-based powertrains. One answer to this challenge is the engine downsizing approach. A clear trend can be observed on the market already today: engines of 2.0L swept volume are replaced by engines with a size of about 1.6L. This paper describes the concept for an even more extreme downsizing approach for the next generation of powertrains by further reducing the engine size to 1.0L using a 3 cylinder concept with a specific power rating of 80 kW/L. AVL and Renault worked closely together to define a suitable diesel hybrid powertrain concept for EU6 emission limits. The consequences for the base engine design of such an aggressive downsizing approach were established by means of a design study supported by simulation. Key criteria for such a powertrain are to satisfy customer expectations for performance and driveability, as well as keep the NVH behaviour of the selected 3 cylinder engine configuration close to that of the traditional 4 cylinder engine reference base. The structural concept of this high power engine is based on a peak firing pressure limit of 190 bar. 2- and 4-valve per cylinder concepts are evaluated with regard to their effects on performance, emissions, fuel consumption and cost. The combustion- and EGR-system is defined with respect to EU6 emission compliance, taking into consideration DPF and NOx aftertreatment technologies. (orig.)

  7. Experimental–theoretical methodology for determination of inertial pressure drop distribution and pore structure properties in wall-flow diesel particulate filters (DPFs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payri, F.; Broatch, A.; Serrano, J.R.; Piqueras, P.


    Wall-flow particulate filters have been placed as a standard technology for Diesel engines because of the increasing restrictions to soot emissions. The inclusion of this system within the exhaust line requires the development of computational tools to properly simulate its flow dynamics and acoustics behaviour. These aspects become the key to understand the influence on engine performance and driveability as a function of the filter placement. Since the pressure drop and the filtration process are strongly depending on the pore structure properties – permeability, porosity and pore size – a reliable definition of these characteristics is essential for model development. In this work a methodology is proposed to determine such properties based on the combination of the pressure drop rement in a steady flow test rig and two theoretical approaches. The later are a lumped model and a one-dimensional (1D) unsteady compressible flow model. The purpose is to simplify the integration of particulate filters into the global engine modelling and development processes avoiding the need to resort to specific and expensive characterisation tests. The proposed methodology was validated against measurements of the response of an uncoated diesel particulate filter (DPF) under different flow conditions as cold steady flow, impulsive flow and hot pulsating flow. -- Highlights: ► Experimental and modelling tools to characterise wall-flow DPFs pressure drop. ► Decomposition of inertial pressure drop contributions in canned DPFs. ► Methodology to define pore structure properties in clean wall-flow DPFs. ► Evaluation of specific permeability, porosity and mean pore diameter. ► Significant influence of slip-flow effect on uncoated wall-flow DPFs.

  8. Development of a waste dislodging and retrieval system for use in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory gunite tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randolph, J.D.; Lloyd, P.D.; Burks, B.L.


    As part of the Gunite And Associated Tanks (GAAT) Treatability Study the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a tank waste retrieval system capable of removing wastes varying from liquids to thick sludges. This system is also capable of scarifying concrete walls and floors. The GAAT Treatability Study is being conducted by the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Environmental Restoration Program. Much of the technology developed for this project was cosponsored by the DOE Office of Science and Technology through the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) and the Robotics Technology Development Program. The waste dislodging and conveyance (WD ampersand C) system was developed jointly by ORNL and participants from the TFA. The WD ampersand C system is comprised of a four degree-of-freedom arm with back driveable motorized joints. a cutting and dislodging tool, a jet pump and hose management system for conveyance of wastes, confined sluicing end-effector, and a control system, and must be used in conjunction with a robotic arm or vehicle. Other papers have been submitted to this conference describing the development and operation of the arm and vehicle positioning systems. This paper will describe the development of the WD ampersand C system and its application for dislodging and conveyance of ORNL sludges from the GAAT tanks. The confined sluicing end-effector relies on medium pressure water jets to dislodge waste that is then pumped by the jet pump through the conveyance system out of the tank. This paper will describe the results of cold testing of the integrated system. At the conference presentation there will also be results from the field deployment. ORNL has completed fabrication of the WD ampersand C system for waste removal and is full-scale testing, including testing of the confined sluicing end-effector

  9. Dispersants in an organic medium: synthesis and physicochemical study of dispersants for fuels and lubricants; Dispersants en milieu organique: synthese et etude physicochimique de dispersants pour carburants et lubrifiants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois-Clochard, M.C.


    Carbonaceous deposits coming from the fuel and the lubricant are known to form over time at critical locations in an engine. In general, the deposits have an adverse effect on four functional areas which are the fuel metering system, the intake system, the lubrication system and the combustion chambers. These deposits can degrade vehicle performance and drive-ability, reduce fuel economy, increase fuel consumption and pollutant emissions and may lead to the destruction of the engine. In order to remedy these problems, detergent-dispersant additives are used in fuels and lubricants to avoid or decrease deposit adhesion on metallic surfaces and prevent from deposit aggregation. These products are mainly polymer surfactants and in this work, poly-iso-butenyl-succinimide of different structures have been studied. Firstly, 'comb like' polymers have been synthesized. Then they have been compared to classical di-bloc additives in terms of performance and action mechanism. These additives are adsorbed from their hydrophilic polyamine part on the acidic functions of the carbon black surface chosen as an engine deposit model and on the aluminium oxide function of an aluminium powder chosen as an engine wall model. The adsorption increases with temperature on the two solids. Their affinity with the solid surface increases with the length of the hydrophilic part. In the same way, changing the di-bloc structure for a comb like one lead to a better adsorption. At low concentration, it has been shown that the adsorption phenomenon was irreversible, due to the polymer structure of the polar part. Depending on the space required by the hydrophilic part on the solid surface, a more of less dense monolayer is formed. At higher concentrations, an important increase of the adsorbed amount appears. This phenomenon is totally reversible showing that the interactions additive / additive are weak. The dispersing efficiency of a comb like structure is better than a di-bloc one as

  10. Diesel Emission Control- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program- Phase II Summary Report: NOx Adsorber Catalysts; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The investigations performed in this project demonstrated the ability to develop a NO(sub x) regeneration strategy including both an improved lean/rich modulation cycle and rich engine calibration, which resulted in a high NO(sub x) conversion efficiency over a range of operating temperatures. A high-temperature cycle was developed to desulfurize the NO(sub x) absorber catalyst. The effectiveness of the desulfurization process was demonstrated on catalysts aged using two different sulfur level fuels. The major findings of this project are as follows: (1) The improved lean/rich engine calibration achieved as a part of this test project resulted in NO(sub x) conversion efficiencies exceeding 90% over a catalyst inlet operating temperature window of 300 C-450 C. This performance level was achieved while staying within the 4% fuel economy penalty target defined for the regeneration calibration. (2) The desulfurization procedure developed showed that six catalysts, which had been exposed to fuel sulfur levels of 3-, 16-, and 30-ppm for as long as 250 hours, could be recovered to greater than 85% NO(sub x) conversion efficiency over a catalyst inlet operating temperature window of 300 C-450 C, after a single desulfurization event. This performance level was achieved while staying within the 4% fuel economy penalty target defined for the regeneration calibration. (3) The desulfurization procedure developed has the potential to meet in-service engine operating conditions and provide acceptable driveability conditions. (4) Although aging with 78-ppm sulfur fuel reduced NO(sub x) conversion efficiency more than aging with 3-ppm sulfur fuel as a result of sulfur contamination, the desulfurization events restored the conversion efficiency to nearly the same level of performance. However, repeatedly exposing the catalyst to the desulfurization procedure developed in this program caused a continued decline in the catalyst's desulfurized performance. Additional work will be

  11. Development of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, Craig; Gonzalez, Manual; Russell, Durrett


    This report summarizes activities related to the revised STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated June 2010 for the Development of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines (COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-05NT42415) project. In both the spark- (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) development activities covered in this program, the goal was to develop potential production-viable internal combustion engine system technologies that both reduce fuel consumption and simultaneously met exhaust emission targets. To be production-viable, engine technologies were also evaluated to determine if they would meet customer expectations of refinement in terms of noise, vibration, performance, driveability, etc. in addition to having an attractive business case and value. Prior to this activity, only proprietary theoretical / laboratory knowledge existed on the combustion technologies explored The research reported here expands and develops this knowledge to determine series-production viability. Significant SI and CI engine development occurred during this program within General Motors, LLC over more than five years. In the SI program, several engines were designed and developed that used both a relatively simple multi-lift valve train system and a Fully Flexible Valve Actuation (FFVA) system to enable a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion process. Many technical challenges, which were unknown at the start of this program, were identified and systematically resolved through analysis, test and development. This report documents the challenges and solutions for each SOPO deliverable. As a result of the project activities, the production viability of the developed clean combustion technologies has been determined. At this time, HCCI combustion for SI engines is not considered production-viable for several reasons. HCCI combustion is excessively sensitive to control variables

  12. Vehicle transmission gear 2009; Getriebe in Fahrzeugen 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    with single dry clutch and electric torque support (G. Hellenbroich); (37) New solutions to increase cost-effectiveness of city bus drive lines with modern automatic powershift transmissions (P. Wunderlich); (38) Evaluation of the gearchanging comfort at commercial vehicles (W. Wessel); (39) New structure-optimised transmission systems for advanced commercial vehicles (R. Resch); (40) Depth of details of powertrain models for depocting driveability effects (F. Matthies); (41) A nonlinear transmission approach for dual mass flywheels (C. Benatzky); (42) Clattering and rattling is still a challenge for vehicle transmission developers (M. Dally); (43) Study on the effect of driving cycles on energy efficiency of electric vehicles (J. Fenzhu); (44) Modular modelling and simulation of hybrid power trains (G. Kelz); (45) The integration of electrical axle drives in hybrid vehicle and electric vehicles (H. Schaefer); (46) Energy balance of the optimized CVT hybrid driveline (B.-R. Hoehm); (47) Functional efficiency comparison between split- and parallel-hybrid using advanced energy flow analysis methods (P. Guttenberg); (48) Simulation of the fuel consumption benefits of various transmission arrangements and control strategies within a flywheel based mechanical hybrid system (W. Body); (49) Ideal test specifications for transmissions (T. Kassel); (50) The 'Hybrid Effect': Influence of hybridisation on the durability of automatic transmissions (T. Lavall); (51) Schaeffler lightweight differentials (R. Malik); (52) Integrated all wheel drive in the ZF eight-speed automatic gear (D. Baasch); (53) Optimized structures for amplifying torque vectoring systems (A. Sue); (54) The new sport differential in the Audi S4 (U. Pinschmidt).

  13. Urban Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Gil


    Full Text Available This thesis proposes a framework for evaluating the mobility potential and performance of urban areas in the city region, as an instrument to support urban development that contributes positively to regional sustainable mobility objectives. The research takes a quantitative approach, modelling and measuring the characteristics of a city-region and of its individual urban areas, in terms of travel patterns and socioeconomic characteristics of the resident population, and in terms of built environment characteristics. It then explores how the built environment defines the affordances of urban areas for travelling by particular modes of transport, i.e. its walk-ability, cycleability, drive-ability and transit-ability, by developing a typology of what I call their ‘urban modality’. And finally the work combines this typology with the socio-economic characteristics of urban areas to determine their sustainable mobility potential and performance. It focuses on the case of the Randstad region of the Netherlands and its VINEX neighbourhoods, which are an emblematic example of new urban areas created under a policy programme with sustainable mobility objectives. A key stance in this work is the understanding that the location of an urban area in the region can be indicative of its population’s travel patterns, because the built environment (infrastructural and socio-economic characteristics are interrelated and present strong regional spatial patterns. What types of urban areas support sustainable travel patterns, and what are their spatial characteristics? How do new neighbourhoods compare to the best performing urban areas, and to other areas of the same ‘modality’ type? These are some of the questions addressed in this study. There are two main contributions of this research: the methods for building and analysing integrated multimodal network models, and the framework for contextual performance evaluation using urban area typologies. The

  14. Transmissions in vehicles 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    method (R.A. Lloyd); (18) Trends of market and technology for agricultural machinery from the view of a vehicle manufacturer (H. Reiter); (19) Shifting comfort improvement on a powershift transmission using objective driveability evaluation (G. Stein); (20) Development trends on construction machinery drive trains (H. Beck); (21) Electrification and hybridisation of powertrains for off-highway machines (M. Mohr); (22) Infinitely variable PTO transmission - Development and test results of an IV-PTO transmission (R. Gugel); (23) Transmission for tractors - requirements, technical solutions and development trends (K. Grad); (24) New hydrostatic-mechanical powersplit CVT-transmission for construction machines (W. Rebholz); (25) AMT today and for the future (M. Hochrein); (26) Efficiency-optimized manual transmission featuring high performance density and excellent shift comfort (J. Patzner); (27) reduction of the gear-rattle noise level of automotive transmissions using innovative gear lubricants (A. Baumann); (28) AWD differential (B.-R. Hoehn); (28) Road-lab-math strategy and implementation in thedevelopment of manual transmission systems (T. Hahne); (29) Fluorescence-based investigations into the contact of wet-disc clutches - Optical investigations into the flat friction contact of multi-disc clutches (N. Weber); (30) The real test drive on the powertrain testbed of maneuver based training (F. Illmeier); (31) Experience of AUTOSAR-compliant development of a power-shift-transmission-control and outlook to future standards including ISO 26262 and EAST-ADL2 - Standards supporting development efficiency (G. Stempfer); (32) The impact of peripheral component on gear development concerning investigation of comfort relevant manoeuvres (A. Albers); (33) Comfort and dynamics of manual gearshifts - definition and experience at the simulator with real-time models for synchronizer and powertrain (U. Schreiber); (34) The eClutch - A new world for manual transmissions (P. Kelly); (35