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Sample records for drinking habits predicted

  1. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may...... be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking...... and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men...

  2. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white...... men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence......, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1...

  3. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-06-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype. Furthermore, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1/1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1/1 genotype was 67 and 62% among the white population compared with 9 and 24% among the East Asian population.

  4. Women Reaching Equality in Dubious Habit: Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161640.html Women Reaching Equality in Dubious Habit: Drinking Females also ... 25, 2016 MONDAY, Oct. 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Women have made major strides towards equality with men, ...

  5. Tea-drinking habit among new university students: associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hsiu Chen; Wang, Chi-Jane; Cheng, Shu Hui; Sun, Zih-Jie; Chen, Po See; Lee, Chih-Ting; Lin, Shih-Hsien; Yang, Yen Kuang; Yang, Yi-Ching

    2014-02-01

    The habit of drinking tea is highly prevalent in Asian countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of tea drinking and to explore the correlated factors on tea drinking among young new students in the university, using a validated self-reported questionnaire. This study was carried out with 5936 new students in a university in Taiwan. It comprised a self-administered structured questionnaire, including items related to personal and medical history, and lifestyle habits, using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the 12-item Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ-12). Anthropometric measurements and laboratory tests were also performed. In total, 2065 (36.1%) students were in the tea-drinking group. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed the following factors were significant predictors of tea drinking: postgraduate students (p coffee drinking (p consumption (p consumption. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Kids' Sugary Drink Habits Start Early

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fruit juices and nectars with added sugars); sports drinks; energy drinks; sweetened coffee and tea; horchata and sugar cane ... diets high in phosphorous may have long-term effects on bone health," Sandon added. The calories from sugary drinks are "empty," and won't keep you feeling ...

  7. Tea-drinking habit among new university students: Associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu Chen Tseng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The habit of drinking tea is highly prevalent in Asian countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of tea drinking and to explore the correlated factors on tea drinking among young new students in the university, using a validated self-reported questionnaire. This study was carried out with 5936 new students in a university in Taiwan. It comprised a self-administered structured questionnaire, including items related to personal and medical history, and lifestyle habits, using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI and the 12-item Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ-12. Anthropometric measurements and laboratory tests were also performed. In total, 2065 (36.1% students were in the tea-drinking group. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed the following factors were significant predictors of tea drinking: postgraduate students (p < 0.001, coffee drinking (p < 0.001, alcohol drinking (p < 0.001, minor mental morbidity (p = 0.009, poorer sleepers (p = 0.037, higher body mass index (p = 0.004, and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (p < 0.001. Our data showed that the tea-drinking habit was correlated with higher body mass index, which was contrary to the findings of a previous study. In clinical practice, perhaps we could consider more tea-drinking-related factors when we suggest tea consumption.

  8. The theory of planned behavior and binge drinking among undergraduate students: assessing the impact of habit strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Paul

    2011-05-01

    The present study sought to apply the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to the prediction of binge drinking intentions and behavior among undergraduate students and to test whether habit strength explains additional variance in binge drinking behavior. Undergraduate students (N=137) completed measures of the TPB (i.e., attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, perceived control, and intention) and habit strength (Self-Report Habit Index) in relation to binge drinking. Frequency of binge drinking was assessed one month later (n=109). The TPB explained 75% of the variance in binge drinking intentions, with attitude and self-efficacy making significant contributions, and 35% of the variance in binge drinking behavior at one-month follow-up, with only intention making a significant contribution. Habit strength explained additional variance in binge drinking behavior (∆R(2)=.06), although intention remained as a significant predictor. The results suggest that binge drinking among undergraduate students is under the control of both intentional and habitual processes. Interventions to reduce binge drinking should therefore focus on the motivational determinants (e.g., perceived positive and negative consequences) of binge drinking as well as the environmental factors (i.e., contextual cues) that promote binge drinking. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Drinking to have fun and to get drunk: Motives as predictors of weekend drinking over and above usual drinking habits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntsche, E.N.; Cooper, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    Most evidence on the motives-alcohol use link has come from cross-sectional research using retrospective assessments. It remains also to be demonstrated whether motives predict drinking in particular circumstances. In the present study, drinking motives assessed 2 weeks prior to a diary study were u

  10. Predicting fruit consumption: cognitions, intention, and habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brug, Johannes; de Vet, Emely; de Nooijer, Jascha; Verplanken, Bas

    2006-01-01

    To study predictors of fruit intake in a sample of 627 adults. Potential predictors of fruit intake were assessed at baseline, and fruit intake was assessed at two-week follow-up with self-administered questionnaires distributed by e-mail. The study was conducted among Dutch adult members of an Internet research panel. A random sample of 627 adults aged 18-78. Attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy, expected pros and cons, habit strength, intention, and fruit intake. Fruit intake was assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Hierarchical linear and logistic regression analyses. Alpha strength were significantly associated with the intention to eat two or more servings of fruit per day. Age, intentions, and habit strength were significant predictors of consumption of two or more servings of fruit per day. The results confirm that Theory of Planned Behavior constructs predict fruit intake, and that habit strength and different self-efficacy expectations may be additional determinants relevant to fruit intake. Because habitual behavior is considered to be triggered by environmental cues, fruit promotion interventions should further explore environmental change strategies.

  11. Drinking to have fun and to get drunk: motives as predictors of weekend drinking over and above usual drinking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Cooper, M Lynne

    2010-08-01

    Most evidence on the motives-alcohol use link has come from cross-sectional research using retrospective assessments. It remains also to be demonstrated whether motives predict drinking in particular circumstances. In the present study, drinking motives assessed 2 weeks prior to a diary study were used to predict the number of drinks on weekend days as reported via short message service (SMS). Multilevel regression models were estimated based on 391 reports from 55 participants (mean age 22.7). The results revealed that enhancement motives but not gender, age, or social, coping, or conformity motives predicted weekend drinking over and above usual consumption. Consumption and motives together explained more than three-quarters of the inter-individual variance in weekend drinking. To conclude, this study points to a heavy episodic weekend drinking culture of young people who drink large quantities on Friday and Saturday nights apparently because they are seeking fun and excitement. Preventive measures should aim to counteract young people's drinking at peak times and in high-risk situations. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Genetic variations in alcohol dehydrogenase, drinking habits and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Rasmussen, S.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. By genotyping 9,080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow versus fast alcohol...... degradation drank approximately 30% more alcohol per week and had a higher risk of everyday and heavy drinking, and of alcoholism. Individuals with ADH1C slow versus fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy drinking Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8/25...

  13. BEVERAGES DRINKING HABITS AND TOOTH SENSITIVITY EXPERIENCE AMONG ADOLESCENT SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Tokumbo, Bamise Cornelius; Oluniyi, Olusile Adeyemi; Adebanke, Kolawole Kikelomo; Ozovehe, Peter Augustine

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The recent increase in consumption of acidic beverages is thought to be the leading cause of dental erosion observed among adolescents. The study assessed the drinking habits of Adolescent Secondary School Students and also evaluated their tooth sensitivity experience. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The survey was conducted among adolescent secondary school students. Purposely, students in boarding hostels were excluded. The sample was selected from twelve public and private secondary schools th...

  14. The association of ADH and ALDH gene variants with alcohol drinking habits and cardiovascular disease risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemoen, Lise Lotte; Fenger, Mogens; Friedrich, Nele

    2008-01-01

    . In a Caucasian population, we examined the association of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) genetic variants with alcohol drinking habits, biomarkers of alcohol exposure, and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1,216 Danish men and women......BACKGROUND: Genetic variation in ethanol metabolism may have an influence on both alcohol drinking habits and the susceptibility to health effects of alcohol drinking. Such influences are likely to bias exposure-disease associations in epidemiologic studies of health effects of alcohol drinking...... aged 15-77 years participating in a health examination in 1998. The health examination included a self-administered questionnaire (alcohol drinking habits), a physical examination (blood pressure), and various blood tests [alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume (E...

  15. Habit formation, surplus consumption and return predictability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Hyde, Stuart; Vinther Møller, Stig

    2010-01-01

    -varying risk-free rate. In addition, we analyze the predictive power of the surplus consumption ratio for future stock and bond returns. We find that, although there are important cross-country differences and economically significant pricing errors, for the majority of countries in our sample the model gets...... empirical support in a variety of different dimensions, including reasonable estimates of risk-free rates. Further, for the majority of countries the surplus consumption ratio captures time-variation in expected returns. Together with the price-dividend ratio, the surplus consumption ratio contains...... significant information about future stock returns, also during the 1990s. In addition, in most countries the surplus consumption ratio is also a powerful predictor of future bond returns. Thus, the surplus consumption ratio captures time-varying expected returns in both stock and bond markets....

  16. Smoking and drinking habits and attitudes to smoking cessation counselling among Tanzanian dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemori, M; Mumghamba, E G; Ruotoistenmäki, J; Murtomaa, H

    2011-03-01

    The present research was carried out at the School of Dentistry, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Tanzania. To assess smoking and drinking habits as well as attitudes towards smoking cessation counselling among dental students in Tanzania. A 28-item pretested and self-administered questionnaire was delivered to all dental students enrolled at the end of the 2006 academic year. The questionnaire covered socio-demographics, smoking and drinking habits, knowledge concerning health effects and attitudes towards smoking cessation counselling. Dental students enrolled at the end of the 2005/2006 academic year in the School of Dentistry, University of Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Self-reported smoking, alcohol use and attitudes to smoking cessation counselling. The response rate was 73.2% (109/149) and 76.1% of respondents were male. Smoking was reported by 12.8%, all being male. Alcohol use during the last 30 days was reported by 23.8% and binge drinking during the last two weeks by 11.8%. Both smoking and alcohol use were more common among clinical than basic science students. The majority (67.0%) reported that they had not received education on smoking cessation counselling although 86.2% considered that dentists and physicians should provide such counselling. Reported smoking and alcohol consumption are on a low level compared to dental students internationally. Willingness and need for cessation counselling training was expressed by the majority of Tanzanian dental students. This should be taken into consideration in dental curriculum development.

  17. Breast cancer and smoking, vodka drinking and dietary habits. A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlega, J

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between cigarette smoking, vodka drinking and consumption of 44 food items typical of the Polish diet were analysed in a case-control study in Cracow, Poland, among 127 cases of breast cancer and 250 controls randomly selected from the general population. Cigarette smoking was not significantly influencing the breast cancer risk. Compared with never-drinkers, the habit of vodka drinking 20 years earlier significantly increased breast cancer risk in women below 50 years of age (multivariate OR was 4.4 with 95% CI 1.6-12.4). Frequent consumption of boiled vegetables 20 years earlier (greater than 3 times per week) was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer in women aged 50 years and more (multivariate OR was 0.4 with 95% CI 0.2-0.8).

  18. Energy Drinks and Binge Drinking Predict College Students' Sleep Quantity, Quality, and Tiredness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E; Griffin, Jamie; Huntley, Edward D; Maggs, Jennifer L

    2016-05-16

    This study examines whether energy drink use and binge drinking predict sleep quantity, sleep quality, and next-day tiredness among college students. Web-based daily data on substance use and sleep were collected across four semesters in 2009 and 2010 from 667 individuals for up to 56 days each, yielding information on 25,616 person-days. Controlling for average levels of energy drink use and binge drinking (i.e., 4+ drinks for women, 5+ drinks for men), on days when students consumed energy drinks, they reported lower sleep quantity and quality that night, and greater next-day tiredness, compared to days they did not use energy drinks. Similarly, on days when students binge drank, they reported lower sleep quantity and quality that night, and greater next-day tiredness, compared to days they did not binge drink. There was no significant interaction effect between binge drinking and energy drink use on the outcomes.

  19. The Interactive Effects of Drinking Motives, Age, and Self-Criticism in Predicting Hazardous Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Kayla D; Veilleux, Jennifer C

    2016-08-23

    Individuals who disclose hazardous drinking often report strong motives to drink, which may occur to modulate views of the self. Investigating self-criticism tendencies in models of drinking motives may help explain who is more susceptible to drinking for internal or external reasons. As much of the research on drinking motives and alcohol use is conducted in young adult or college student samples, studying these relations in a wider age range is clearly needed. The current study examined the interactive relationship between drinking motives (internal: coping, enhancement; external: social, conformity), levels of self-criticism (internalized, comparative), and age to predict hazardous drinking. Participants (N = 427, Mage = 34.16, 54.8% female) who endorsed drinking within the last year completed an online study assessing these constructs. Results indicated internalized self-criticism and drinking to cope interacted to predict hazardous drinking for middle-aged adults. However, comparative self-criticism and conformity motives interacted to predict greater hazardous drinking for younger-aged adults. In addition, both social and conformity motives predicted less hazardous drinking for middle-aged adults high in comparative self-criticism. Interventions that target alcohol use could minimize coping motivations to drink while targeting comparative self-criticism in the context of social, and conformity motives.

  20. The Role of Drinking Alcohol, Coffee, Tea Habits, Fear of Gaining Weight and Treatment Methods in Smoking Cessation Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İzzet Fidancı1

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to evaluate the role of drinking alcohol, coffee and tea habits, fear of gaining weight and treatment methods in smoking cessation success. Methods: In our study, we applied a questionnaire and Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence to 128 participants consulting Family Medicine Smoking Cessation Outpatient Clinic of Ankara Training and Research Hospital. Among participants, 67 of them were people quitted smoking while the other 61 did not. With questionnaire, we investigated factors possibly affecting smoking cessation success like drinking alcohol, coffee and tea habits and also marital status and occupations of participants. By adding Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence to questionnaire we defined the dependence status of participants. Results: Study comprised of 128 participants, 50 of them being female and 78 being male. Mean age of participants was 34.01 (±12.24 in patients quitted smoking and 32.82 (±13.45 in patients still smoking. Tea and alcohol drinking habits were found to be higher in smoking group and difference was statistically significant (p<0,05. When examining smoking cessation success according to occupational groups, civil servants and unemployed people were more successful than other occupational groups, but there was no statistically significant difference. People having coffee drinking habits quitted smoking in a significantly higher rate (p<0,05. Among given treatments, although statistically insignificant, the most effective one was varenicline. Conclusion: According to our results, smoking cessation success is lower among people having tea and alcohol drinking habits. In smokers, we should investigate the relationship with additional substance usage and aim to decrease these additional substance usage habits for increasing smoking cessation success.

  1. Habit Formation, Surplus Consumption and Return Predictability: International Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Hyde, Stuart; Møller, Stig V.

    On an international post World War II dataset, we use an iterated GMM pro- cedure to estimate and test the Campbell-Cochrane (1999) habit formation model. In addition, we analyze the predictive power of the surplus consumption ratio for future asset returns. We find that, although there are impor......On an international post World War II dataset, we use an iterated GMM pro- cedure to estimate and test the Campbell-Cochrane (1999) habit formation model. In addition, we analyze the predictive power of the surplus consumption ratio for future asset returns. We find that, although...... there are important cross-country differences, for the majority of countries in our sample the model gets empirical support in a variety of diffrent dimensions, including reasonable estimates of risk- free rates, and the model dominates the time-separable power utility model in terms of pricing errors. Further......, for the majority of countries the surplus consumption ratio captures time-variation in expected returns. Together with the price-dividend ratio, the surplus consumption ratio contains significant information about future stock returns, also during the 1990s. Finally, in most countries the surplus con- sumption...

  2. Habit Formation, Surplus Consumption and Return Predictability: International Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Hyde, Stuart; Møller, Stig V.

    On an international post World War II dataset, we use an iterated GMM pro- cedure to estimate and test the Campbell-Cochrane (1999) habit formation model. In addition, we analyze the predictive power of the surplus consumption ratio for future asset returns. We find that, although there are impor......On an international post World War II dataset, we use an iterated GMM pro- cedure to estimate and test the Campbell-Cochrane (1999) habit formation model. In addition, we analyze the predictive power of the surplus consumption ratio for future asset returns. We find that, although...... there are important cross-country differences, for the majority of countries in our sample the model gets empirical support in a variety of diffrent dimensions, including reasonable estimates of risk- free rates, and the model dominates the time-separable power utility model in terms of pricing errors. Further......, for the majority of countries the surplus consumption ratio captures time-variation in expected returns. Together with the price-dividend ratio, the surplus consumption ratio contains significant information about future stock returns, also during the 1990s. Finally, in most countries the surplus con- sumption...

  3. The power of habits: Unhealthy snacking behaviour is primarily predicted by habit strength.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, A.A.C.; Adriaanse, M.A.; Evers, C.; De Ridder, D.T.D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Although increasing evidence shows the importance of habits in explaining health behaviour, many studies still rely solely on predictors that emphasize the role of conscious intentions. The present study was designed to test the importance of habit strength in explaining unhealthy snackin

  4. Validity of the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS): does craving predict drinking behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranzler, H R; Mulgrew, C L; Modesto-Lowe, V; Burleson, J A

    1999-01-01

    The Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS), a 14-item, self-report questionnaire, was developed to measure alcohol-related craving. The OCDS may provide a measure of the state of illness among alcohol-dependent individuals and may have value in predicting subsequent drinking behavior. The present study was conducted to evaluate the factor structure and the concurrent, construct, and predictive validity of the OCDS. Data on desire to drink and on drinking behavior were obtained from 127 alcohol-dependent subjects who participated in a 12-week outpatient pharmacotherapy trial and a 3-month posttreatment follow-up. Principal components analysis of the OCDS indicated that three factors best described its structure: obsessions, drinking control and consequences, and alcohol consumption. Data also supported the concurrent and discriminant validity of the OCDS. However, the OCDS total score showed limited validity in predicting drinking during a posttreatment follow-up period. Furthermore, the only empirically derived factor that predicted drinking during this period was the alcohol consumption factor. As might be expected, the OCDS questions on drinking behavior predict subsequent drinking behavior. However, the instrument does not appear to provide a general measure of alcohol-related illness. The utility of the OCDS in studies of alcoholism treatment outcome requires clearer definition.

  5. Habit, identity, and repetitive action: a prospective study of binge-drinking in UK students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardner, B.; de Bruijn, G.-J.; Lally, P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Repeated action can lead to the formation of habits and identification as ‘the kind of person’ that performs the behaviour. This has led to the suggestion that identity-relevance is a facet of habit. This study explores conceptual overlap between habit and identity, and examines where

  6. Habit, identity, and repetitive action: a prospective study of binge-drinking in UK students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardner, B.; de Bruijn, G.-J.; Lally, P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Repeated action can lead to the formation of habits and identification as ‘the kind of person’ that performs the behaviour. This has led to the suggestion that identity-relevance is a facet of habit. This study explores conceptual overlap between habit and identity, and examines where th

  7. Predicting active school travel: The role of planned behavior and habit strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtagh Shemane

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite strong support for predictive validity of the theory of planned behavior (TPB substantial variance in both intention and behavior is unaccounted for by the model’s predictors. The present study tested the extent to which habit strength augments the predictive validity of the TPB in relation to a currently under-researched behavior that has important health implications, namely children’s active school travel. Method Participants (N = 126 children aged 8–9 years; 59 % males were sampled from five elementary schools in the west of Scotland and completed questionnaire measures of all TPB constructs in relation to walking to school and both walking and car/bus use habit. Over the subsequent week, commuting steps on school journeys were measured objectively using an accelerometer. Hierarchical multiple regressions were used to test the predictive utility of the TPB and habit strength in relation to both intention and subsequent behavior. Results The TPB accounted for 41 % and 10 % of the variance in intention and objectively measured behavior, respectively. Together, walking habit and car/bus habit significantly increased the proportion of explained variance in both intention and behavior by 6 %. Perceived behavioral control and both walking and car/bus habit independently predicted intention. Intention and car/bus habit independently predicted behavior. Conclusions The TPB significantly predicts children’s active school travel. However, habit strength augments the predictive validity of the model. The results indicate that school travel is controlled by both intentional and habitual processes. In practice, interventions could usefully decrease the habitual use of motorized transport for travel to school and increase children’s intention to walk (via increases in perceived behavioral control and walking habit, and decreases in car/bus habit. Further research is needed to identify effective

  8. Predicting active school travel: the role of planned behavior and habit strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtagh, Shemane; Rowe, David A; Elliott, Mark A; McMinn, David; Nelson, Norah M

    2012-05-30

    Despite strong support for predictive validity of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) substantial variance in both intention and behavior is unaccounted for by the model's predictors. The present study tested the extent to which habit strength augments the predictive validity of the TPB in relation to a currently under-researched behavior that has important health implications, namely children's active school travel. Participants (N = 126 children aged 8-9 years; 59 % males) were sampled from five elementary schools in the west of Scotland and completed questionnaire measures of all TPB constructs in relation to walking to school and both walking and car/bus use habit. Over the subsequent week, commuting steps on school journeys were measured objectively using an accelerometer. Hierarchical multiple regressions were used to test the predictive utility of the TPB and habit strength in relation to both intention and subsequent behavior. The TPB accounted for 41 % and 10 % of the variance in intention and objectively measured behavior, respectively. Together, walking habit and car/bus habit significantly increased the proportion of explained variance in both intention and behavior by 6 %. Perceived behavioral control and both walking and car/bus habit independently predicted intention. Intention and car/bus habit independently predicted behavior. The TPB significantly predicts children's active school travel. However, habit strength augments the predictive validity of the model. The results indicate that school travel is controlled by both intentional and habitual processes. In practice, interventions could usefully decrease the habitual use of motorized transport for travel to school and increase children's intention to walk (via increases in perceived behavioral control and walking habit, and decreases in car/bus habit). Further research is needed to identify effective strategies for changing these antecedents of children's active school travel.

  9. Gender Effects in College Students' Drinking Habits and Their Perceptions of Intoxication of Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skacel, Robert K., Jr.; Merritt, Rebecca Davis

    Female (N=21) and male (N=21) college students were asked to estimate their amount of daily alcohol consumption via a modified version of the Drinking Practices Questionnaire. Males reported drinking significantly more alcohol than females. However, when subjects' body weights were used to compare estimated blood alcohol levels (BAC) rather than…

  10. Towards parsimony in habit measurement: Testing the convergent and predictive validity of an automaticity subscale of the Self-Report Habit Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner Benjamin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The twelve-item Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI is the most popular measure of energy-balance related habits. This measure characterises habit by automatic activation, behavioural frequency, and relevance to self-identity. Previous empirical research suggests that the SRHI may be abbreviated with no losses in reliability or predictive utility. Drawing on recent theorising suggesting that automaticity is the ‘active ingredient’ of habit-behaviour relationships, we tested whether an automaticity-specific SRHI subscale could capture habit-based behaviour patterns in self-report data. Methods A content validity task was undertaken to identify a subset of automaticity indicators within the SRHI. The reliability, convergent validity and predictive validity of the automaticity item subset was subsequently tested in secondary analyses of all previous SRHI applications, identified via systematic review, and in primary analyses of four raw datasets relating to energy‐balance relevant behaviours (inactive travel, active travel, snacking, and alcohol consumption. Results A four-item automaticity subscale (the ‘Self-Report Behavioural Automaticity Index’; ‘SRBAI’ was found to be reliable and sensitive to two hypothesised effects of habit on behaviour: a habit-behaviour correlation, and a moderating effect of habit on the intention-behaviour relationship. Conclusion The SRBAI offers a parsimonious measure that adequately captures habitual behaviour patterns. The SRBAI may be of particular utility in predicting future behaviour and in studies tracking habit formation or disruption.

  11. Perceived behavioral alcohol norms predict drinking for college students while studying abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R; LaBrie, Joseph W; Hummer, Justin F

    2009-11-01

    College students who study abroad may represent a subgroup at risk for increased drinking while living in foreign countries. The present study explores this idea as well as the extent to which students' pre-abroad perceptions of study-abroad student drinking are related to actual drinking while abroad. Ninety-one students planning to study abroad completed an online survey of demographics, pre-abroad drinking behavior, perceptions of study-abroad student drinking behavior while abroad, and intentions to drink while abroad. Halfway into their study-abroad experience, participants completed a follow-up survey assessing drinking while abroad. Pre-abroad intentions of drinking and pre-abroad perceptions of study-abroad drinking were associated with actual drinking while abroad. However, perceptions predicted actual drinking while abroad over and above intended drinking. In addition, although participants overall did not significantly increase their drinking while studying abroad, participants with higher pre-abroad perceived norms significantly increased their own drinking behavior while abroad. As in other samples of college students, perceived norms appear to be an important correlate of study-abroad student drinking behavior. Findings suggest that perceptions of study-abroad student-specific drinking predicted not only actual drinking while abroad but also increases in drinking from pre-abroad levels. Findings provide preliminary support for the idea that presenting prospective study-abroad students with accurate norms of study-abroad student-drinking behavior may help prevent increased or heavy drinking during this period.

  12. Sanctification of "the accursed". Drinking habits of the French existentialists in the 1940s (a case study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arppe, T

    1998-01-01

    The chapter deals with the drinking habits of the French existentialists during and after World War II (roughly from 1943 to 1948). It attempts to show that the phenomenon cannot be understood separately from their lifestyle as a whole, which in this case (as I claim) is primarily manifested through a certain (mythical) structure of meanings related to the category of the sacred. Jean-Paul Sartre's position as the leading intellectual figure of the time is also to be seen as a result of his ambiguous reputation as a "prophet" and a "criminal" in the yellow press. What is involved is a single mythical structure, where "decadent" life is precisely one aspect of sanctification. On the other hand, Sartre's "bohemian lifestyle" and his desire to break bourgeois habits can be seen as a variant of the bourgeois myth of the artistic lifestyle created in the 19th century. From this angle, existentialism can in a certain sense be considered the last hybrid expression of the "transgressive" myth of rebellion which this sort of lifestyle had crystallized.

  13. Alcohol drinking habits, alcohol dehydrogenase genotypes and risk of acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Hansen, J.L.; Gronbaek, M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The risk of myocardial infarction is lower among light-to-moderate drinkers compared with abstainers. Results from some previous studies, but not all, suggest that this association is modified by variations in genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). We aimed to test this hypothesis......). Results: Higher alcohol intake (measured as amount or drinking frequency) was associated with lower risk of acute coronary syndrome; however, there was no evidence that these finding were modified by ADH1B or ADH1C genotypes. Conclusions: The importance of functional variation in alcohol dehydrogenase......, including alcohol as both the amount of alcohol and the frequency of drinking. Methods: we conducted a nested case-cohort study within the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study, including 1,645 men (770 incident cases of acute coronary syndrome from 1993-1997 through 2004 and 875 randomly selected controls...

  14. Identifying Future Drinkers: Behavioral Analysis of Monkeys Initiating Drinking to Intoxication is Predictive of Future Drinking Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Erich J; Walter, Nicole A R; Salo, Alex; Rivas Perea, Pablo; Moore, Sharon; Gonzales, Steven; Grant, Kathleen A

    2017-03-01

    The Monkey Alcohol Tissue Research Resource (MATRR) is a repository and analytics platform for detailed data derived from well-documented nonhuman primate (NHP) alcohol self-administration studies. This macaque model has demonstrated categorical drinking norms reflective of human drinking populations, resulting in consumption pattern classifications of very heavy drinking (VHD), heavy drinking (HD), binge drinking (BD), and low drinking (LD) individuals. Here, we expand on previous findings that suggest ethanol drinking patterns during initial drinking to intoxication can reliably predict future drinking category assignment. The classification strategy uses a machine-learning approach to examine an extensive set of daily drinking attributes during 90 sessions of induction across 7 cohorts of 5 to 8 monkeys for a total of 50 animals. A Random Forest classifier is employed to accurately predict categorical drinking after 12 months of self-administration. Predictive outcome accuracy is approximately 78% when classes are aggregated into 2 groups, "LD and BD" and "HD and VHD." A subsequent 2-step classification model distinguishes individual LD and BD categories with 90% accuracy and between HD and VHD categories with 95% accuracy. Average 4-category classification accuracy is 74%, and provides putative distinguishing behavioral characteristics between groupings. We demonstrate that data derived from the induction phase of this ethanol self-administration protocol have significant predictive power for future ethanol consumption patterns. Importantly, numerous predictive factors are longitudinal, measuring the change of drinking patterns through 3 stages of induction. Factors during induction that predict future heavy drinkers include being younger at the time of first intoxication and developing a shorter latency to first ethanol drink. Overall, this analysis identifies predictive characteristics in future very heavy drinkers that optimize intoxication, such as having

  15. Do Parents’ Exercise Habits Predict 13–18-Year-Old Adolescents’ Involvement in Sport?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukys, Saulius; Majauskienė, Daiva; Cesnaitiene, Vida J.; Karanauskiene, Diana

    2014-01-01

    This study examined links between parents’ exercise habits and adolescents’ participation in sports activities, considering the aspects of gender and age. It was hypothesized that regular exercise by both parents would be related to children’s involvement in sport regardless of their gender and age. Moreover, it was hypothesized that children’s sports activities would be more strongly related to their father’s exercise activities. The study also examined the links between parents’ exercise habits and children’s motivation for sports. It was hypothesized that competition motives would be more important for children whose parents exercised regularly. The research sample included 2335 students from the seventh (n = 857), ninth (n = 960) and eleventh (n = 518) grades of various Lithuanian schools. The study used a questionnaire survey method, which revealed the links between parents’ exercise habits and their children’s participation in sport. Assessment of data for girls and boys showed that daughters’ participation in sport could be predicted by both their fathers’ and mothers’ exercise habits, but sons’ sports activities could be predicted only by the regular physical activities of their fathers. The assessment of children’s sporting activities according to age revealed links between parental exercising and the engagement of older (15–16 years old), but not younger adolescents (13–14 years old). Analysis of sports motivation showed that competition motives were more important for boys than for girls. Fitness, well-being and appearance motives were more important for older adolescents (15–18 years old), while competition motives were more important for younger adolescents (13–14 years old). Research revealed the relationship between children’s sport motives and fathers’ exercise habits, while examination of mothers’ exercise revealed no difference. Key points Parental exercising significantly predicts adolescents

  16. Do parents' exercise habits predict 13-18-year-old adolescents' involvement in sport?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukys, Saulius; Majauskienė, Daiva; Cesnaitiene, Vida J; Karanauskiene, Diana

    2014-09-01

    This study examined links between parents' exercise habits and adolescents' participation in sports activities, considering the aspects of gender and age. It was hypothesized that regular exercise by both parents would be related to children's involvement in sport regardless of their gender and age. Moreover, it was hypothesized that children's sports activities would be more strongly related to their father's exercise activities. The study also examined the links between parents' exercise habits and children's motivation for sports. It was hypothesized that competition motives would be more important for children whose parents exercised regularly. The research sample included 2335 students from the seventh (n = 857), ninth (n = 960) and eleventh (n = 518) grades of various Lithuanian schools. The study used a questionnaire survey method, which revealed the links between parents' exercise habits and their children's participation in sport. Assessment of data for girls and boys showed that daughters' participation in sport could be predicted by both their fathers' and mothers' exercise habits, but sons' sports activities could be predicted only by the regular physical activities of their fathers. The assessment of children's sporting activities according to age revealed links between parental exercising and the engagement of older (15-16 years old), but not younger adolescents (13-14 years old). Analysis of sports motivation showed that competition motives were more important for boys than for girls. Fitness, well-being and appearance motives were more important for older adolescents (15-18 years old), while competition motives were more important for younger adolescents (13-14 years old). Research revealed the relationship between children's sport motives and fathers' exercise habits, while examination of mothers' exercise revealed no difference. Key pointsParental exercising significantly predicts adolescents' engagement in sport. Daughter's engagement in sport is

  17. Salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase - temporal and population variability, correlations with drinking and smoking habits and activity towards aldehydes contained in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebułtowicz, Joanna; Dziadek, Marta; Wroczyński, Piotr; Woźnicka, Katarzyna; Wojno, Barbara; Pietrzak, Monika; Wierzchowski, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    Fluorimetric method based on oxidation of the fluorogenic 6-methoxy-2-naphthaldehyde was applied to evaluate temporal and population variability of the specific activity of salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and the degree of its inactivation in healthy human population. Analyzed was also its dependence on drinking and smoking habits, coffee consumption, and its sensitivity to N-acetylcysteine. Both the specific activity of salivary ALDH and the degree of its inactivation were highly variable during the day, with the highest activities recorded in the morning hours. The activities were also highly variable both intra- and interpersonally, and negatively correlated with age, and this correlation was stronger for the subgroup of volunteers declaring abstinence from alcohol and tobacco. Moderately positive correlations of salivary ALDH specific activity with alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking were also recorded (r(s) ~0.27; p=0.004 and r(s) =0.30; p=0.001, respectively). Moderate coffee consumption correlated positively with the inactivation of salivary ALDH, particularly in the subgroup of non-drinking and non-smoking volunteers. It was found that mechanical stimulation of the saliva flow increases the specific activity of salivary ALDH. The specific activity of the salivary ALDH was strongly and positively correlated with that of superoxide dismutase, and somewhat less with salivary peroxidase. The antioxidant-containing drug N-acetylcysteine increased activity of salivary ALDH presumably by preventing its inactivation in the oral cavity. Some food-related aldehydes, mainly cinnamic aldehyde and anisaldehyde, were excellent substrates of the salivary ALDH3A1 enzyme, while alkenals, particularly those with short chain, were characterized by lower affinity towards this enzyme but high catalytic constants. The protective role of salivary ALDH against aldehydes in food and those found in the cigarette smoke is discussed, as well as its participation in

  18. Do Parents’ Exercise Habits Predict 13–18-Year-Old Adolescents’ Involvement in Sport?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulius Sukys, Daiva Majauskienė, Vida J. Cesnaitiene, Diana Karanauskiene

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined links between parents’ exercise habits and adolescents’ participation in sports activities, considering the aspects of gender and age. It was hypothesized that regular exercise by both parents would be related to children’s involvement in sport regardless of their gender and age. Moreover, it was hypothesized that children’s sports activities would be more strongly related to their father’s exercise activities. The study also examined the links between parents’ exercise habits and children’s motivation for sports. It was hypothesized that competition motives would be more important for children whose parents exercised regularly. The research sample included 2335 students from the seventh (n = 857, ninth (n = 960 and eleventh (n = 518 grades of various Lithuanian schools. The study used a questionnaire survey method, which revealed the links between parents’ exercise habits and their children’s participation in sport. Assessment of data for girls and boys showed that daughters’ participation in sport could be predicted by both their fathers’ and mothers’ exercise habits, but sons’ sports activities could be predicted only by the regular physical activities of their fathers. The assessment of children’s sporting activities according to age revealed links between parental exercising and the engagement of older (15–16 years old, but not younger adolescents (13–14 years old. Analysis of sports motivation showed that competition motives were more important for boys than for girls. Fitness, well-being and appearance motives were more important for older adolescents (15–18 years old, while competition motives were more important for younger adolescents (13–14 years old. Research revealed the relationship between children’s sport motives and fathers’ exercise habits, while examination of mothers’ exercise revealed no difference.

  19. Perceived Behavioral Alcohol Norms Predict Drinking for College Students While Studying Abroad*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R.; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Hummer, Justin F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: College students who study abroad may represent a subgroup at risk for increased drinking while living in foreign countries. The present study explores this idea as well as the extent to which students' pre-abroad perceptions of study-abroad student drinking are related to actual drinking while abroad. Method: Ninety-one students planning to study abroad completed an online survey of demographics, pre-abroad drinking behavior, perceptions of study-abroad student drinking behavior while abroad, and intentions to drink while abroad. Halfway into their study-abroad experience, participants completed a follow-up survey assessing drinking while abroad. Results: Pre-abroad intentions of drinking and pre-abroad perceptions of study-abroad drinking were associated with actual drinking while abroad. However, perceptions predicted actual drinking while abroad over and above intended drinking. In addition, although participants overall did not significantly increase their drinking while studying abroad, participants with higher pre-abroad perceived norms significantly increased their own drinking behavior while abroad. Conclusions: As in other samples of college students, perceived norms appear to be an important correlate of study-abroad student drinking behavior. Findings suggest that perceptions of study-abroad student-specific drinking predicted not only actual drinking while abroad but also increases in drinking from pre-abroad levels. Findings provide preliminary support for the idea that presenting prospective study-abroad students with accurate norms of study-abroad student-drinking behavior may help prevent increased or heavy drinking during this period. PMID:19895769

  20. Use of NMR and NMR Prediction Software to Identify Components in Red Bull Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Andre J.; Shirzadi, Azadeh; Burrow, Timothy E.; Dicks, Andrew P.; Lefebvre, Brent; Corrin, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory experiment designed as part of an upper-level undergraduate analytical chemistry course is described. Students investigate two popular soft drinks (Red Bull Energy Drink and sugar-free Red Bull Energy Drink) by NMR spectroscopy. With assistance of modern NMR prediction software they identify and quantify major components in each…

  1. Use of NMR and NMR Prediction Software to Identify Components in Red Bull Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Andre J.; Shirzadi, Azadeh; Burrow, Timothy E.; Dicks, Andrew P.; Lefebvre, Brent; Corrin, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory experiment designed as part of an upper-level undergraduate analytical chemistry course is described. Students investigate two popular soft drinks (Red Bull Energy Drink and sugar-free Red Bull Energy Drink) by NMR spectroscopy. With assistance of modern NMR prediction software they identify and quantify major components in each…

  2. Proper tea drinking habits facilitate teenagers' healthy growth%科学饮茶有利于青少年健康成长

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭雅敏

    2011-01-01

    本文针对青少年大量饮用碳酸饮料的现状,阐述了科学饮茶有利于青少年身体健康、修身养性、培养高尚的道德情操,提出了青少年如何科学合理饮茶、泡好茶,并希望茶产业推出更多适合青少年口味、绿色而又时尚的茶饮品。%Based on the current situation that teenagers drinking too much carbonated beverages, the article illustrates the benefits of proper tea drinking habits to teenagers' mental and physical health. The paper introduces the healthy ways for tea brewing and drinking, and suggests that more teenager - targeted tea products be developed in the marketplace.

  3. Use of Fitness and Nutrition Apps: Associations With Body Mass Index, Snacking, and Drinking Habits in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, Nathalie; Vangeel, Jolien; Lachat, Carl; Beullens, Kathleen; Vervoort, Leentje; Goossens, Lien; Maes, Lea; Deforche, Benedicte; De Henauw, Stefaan; Braet, Caroline; Eggermont, Steven; Kolsteren, Patrick; Van Camp, John; Van Lippevelde, Wendy

    2017-04-25

    Efforts to improve snacking and drinking habits are needed to promote a healthy body mass index (BMI) in adolescents. Although commercial fitness and nutrition mobile phone apps are widely used, little is known regarding their potential to improve health behaviors, especially in adolescents. In addition, evidence on the mechanisms through which such fitness and nutrition apps influence behavior is lacking. This study assessed whether the use of commercial fitness or nutrition apps was associated with a lower BMI and healthier snacking and drinking habits in adolescents. Additionally, it explored if perceived behavioral control to eat healthy; attitudes to eat healthy for the good taste of healthy foods, for overall health or for appearance; social norm on healthy eating and social support to eat healthy mediated the associations between the frequency of use of fitness or nutrition apps and BMI, the healthy snack, and beverage ratio. Cross-sectional self-reported data on snack and beverage consumption, healthy eating determinants, and fitness and nutrition app use of adolescents (N=889; mean age 14.7 years, SD 0.8; 54.8% [481/878] boys; 18.1% [145/803] overweight) were collected in a representative sample of 20 schools in Flanders, Belgium. Height and weight were measured by the researchers. The healthy snack ratio and the healthy beverage ratio were calculated as follows: gram healthy snacks or beverages/(gram healthy snacks or beverages+gram unhealthy snacks or beverages)×100. Multilevel regression and structural equation modeling were used to analyze the proposed associations and to explore multiple mediation. A total of 27.6% (245/889) of the adolescents used fitness, nutrition apps or both. Frequency of using nutrition apps was positively associated with a higher healthy beverage ratio (b=2.96 [1.11], P=.008) and a higher body mass index z-scores (zBMI; b=0.13 [0.05], P=.008. A significant interaction was found between the frequency of using nutrition and for

  4. A Scientometric Prediction of the Discovery of the First Potentially Habitable Planet with a Mass Similar to Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Arbesman, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    The search for a habitable extrasolar planet has long interested scientists, but only recently have the tools become available to search for such planets. In the past decades, the number of known extrasolar planets has ballooned into the hundreds, and with it the expectation that the discovery of the first Earth-like extrasolar planet is not far off. Here we develop a novel metric of habitability for discovered planets, and use this to arrive at a prediction for when the first habitable planet will be discovered. Using a bootstrap analysis of currently discovered exoplanets, we predict the discovery of the first Earth-like planet to be announced in the first half of 2011, with the likeliest date being early May 2011. Our predictions, using only the properties of previously discovered exoplanets, accord well with external estimates for the discovery of the first potentially habitable extrasolar planet, and highlights the the usefulness of predictive scientometric techniques to understand the pace of scientific...

  5. QSPR for predicting chloroform formation in drinking water disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luilo, G B; Cabaniss, S E

    2011-01-01

    Chlorination is the most widely used technique for water disinfection, but may lead to the formation of chloroform (trichloromethane; TCM) and other by-products. This article reports the first quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) for predicting the formation of TCM in chlorinated drinking water. Model compounds (n = 117) drawn from 10 literature sources were divided into training data (n = 90, analysed by five-way leave-many-out internal cross-validation) and external validation data (n = 27). QSPR internal cross-validation had Q² = 0.94 and root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.09 moles TCM per mole compound, consistent with external validation Q2 of 0.94 and RMSE of 0.08 moles TCM per mole compound, and met criteria for high predictive power and robustness. In contrast, log TCM QSPR performed poorly and did not meet the criteria for predictive power. The QSPR predictions were consistent with experimental values for TCM formation from tannic acid and for model fulvic acid structures. The descriptors used are consistent with a relatively small number of important TCM precursor structures based upon 1,3-dicarbonyls or 1,3-diphenols.

  6. Drinking typography established by scheduled induction predicts chronic heavy drinking in a monkey model of ethanol self-administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Kathleen A; Leng, Xiaoyan; Green, Heather L; Szeliga, Kendall T; Rogers, Laura S M; Gonzales, Steven W

    2008-10-01

    We have developed an animal model of alcohol self-administration that initially employs schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) to establish reliable ethanol consumption under open access (22 h/d) conditions with food and water concurrently available. SIP is an adjunctive behavior that is generated by constraining access to an important commodity (e.g., flavored food). The induction schedule and ethanol polydipsia generated under these conditions affords the opportunity to investigate the development of drinking typologies that lead to chronic, excessive alcohol consumption. Adult male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were induced to drink water and 4% (w/v in water) ethanol by a Fixed-Time 300 seconds (FT-300 seconds) schedule of banana-flavored pellet delivery. The FT-300 seconds schedule was in effect for 120 consecutive sessions, with daily induction doses increasing from 0.0 to 0.5 g/kg to 1.0 g/kg to 1.5 g/kg every 30 days. Following induction, the monkeys were allowed concurrent access to 4% (w/v) ethanol and water for 22 h/day for 12 months. Drinking typographies during the induction of drinking 1.5 g/kg ethanol emerged that were highly predictive of the daily ethanol intake over the next 12 months. Specifically, the frequency in which monkeys ingested 1.5 g/kg ethanol without a 5-minute lapse in drinking (defined as a bout of drinking) during induction strongly predicted (correlation 0.91) subsequent ethanol intake over the next 12 months of open access to ethanol. Blood ethanol during induction were highly correlated with intake and with drinking typography and ranged from 100 to 160 mg% when the monkeys drank their 1.5 g/kg dose in a single bout. Forty percent of the population became heavy drinkers (mean daily intakes >3.0 g/kg for 12 months) characterized by frequent "spree" drinking (intakes >4.0 g/kg/d). This model of ethanol self-administration identifies early alcohol drinking typographies (gulping the equivalent of 6 drinks) that evolve into

  7. Predicting Binge Drinking in College Students: Rational Beliefs, Stress, or Loneliness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yixin; Feeley, Thomas Hugh

    2015-01-01

    We proposed a conceptual model to predict binge-drinking behavior among college students, based on the theory of planned behavior and the stress-coping hypothesis. A two-wave online survey was conducted with predictors and drinking behavior measured separately over 2 weeks' time. In the Wave 1 survey, 279 students at a public university in the United States answered questions assessing key predictors and individual characteristics. In the Wave 2 survey, 179 participants returned and reported their drinking behavior over 2 weeks' time. After conducting a negative binomial regression, we found that more favorable attitude toward drinking and less perceived control of drinking at Wave 1 were associated with more binge drinking at Wave 2; subjective norm at Wave 1 was not a significant predictor of binge drinking at Wave 2; students with higher stress at Wave 1 engaged in more binge drinking at Wave 2, but those with higher loneliness did not. Implications of findings are discussed.

  8. Implicitly positive about alcohol? Implicit positive associations predict drinking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, K.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Research using unipolar Implicit Association Tests (IATs) demonstrated that positive but not negative implicit alcohol associations are related to drinking behavior. However, the relative nature of the IAT with respect to target concepts (i.e., alcohol vs. soft drinks) obscures the interpretation of

  9. Implicitly positive about alcohol? Implicit positive associations predict drinking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, K.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Research using unipolar Implicit Association Tests (IATs) demonstrated that positive but not negative implicit alcohol associations are related to drinking behavior. However, the relative nature of the IAT with respect to target concepts (i.e., alcohol vs. soft drinks) obscures the interpretation of

  10. Towards parsimony in habit measurement: testing the convergent and predictive validity of an automaticity subscale of the Self-Report Habit Index

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gardner, Benjamin; Abraham, Charles; Lally, Phillippa; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan

    2012-01-01

    .... Drawing on recent theorising suggesting that automaticity is the 'active ingredient' of habit-behaviour relationships, we tested whether an automaticity-specific SRHI subscale could capture habit...

  11. Habit, information acquisition, and the prediction of travel mode choice behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verplanken, B.

    1996-01-01

    Three studies examined the role of habit in travel mode choices. Habit was measured by using mental representations of activities that may include the target behavior. Using behavioral process-tracing paradigms, it was found that habit attenuates not only the elaborateness of information acquisition

  12. Predicting Binge Drinking in College Students: Rational Beliefs, Stress, or Loneliness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yixin; Feeley, Thomas Hugh

    2015-01-01

    We proposed a conceptual model to predict binge-drinking behavior among college students, based on the theory of planned behavior and the stress-coping hypothesis. A two-wave online survey was conducted with predictors and drinking behavior measured separately over 2 weeks' time. In the Wave 1 survey, 279 students at a public university in the…

  13. Predicting Binge Drinking in College Students: Rational Beliefs, Stress, or Loneliness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yixin; Feeley, Thomas Hugh

    2015-01-01

    We proposed a conceptual model to predict binge-drinking behavior among college students, based on the theory of planned behavior and the stress-coping hypothesis. A two-wave online survey was conducted with predictors and drinking behavior measured separately over 2 weeks' time. In the Wave 1 survey, 279 students at a public university in the…

  14. Assessing phosphatidylethanol (PEth) levels reflecting different drinking habits in comparison to the alcohol use disorders identification test - C (AUDIT-C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröck, Alexandra; Wurst, Friedrich M; Thon, Natasha; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2017-09-01

    In addition to monitoring problematic or harmful alcohol consumption, drinking experiments indicated the potential of phosphatidylethanols (PEth) in abstinence monitoring. To date, no profound evaluation of thresholds for the differentiation of abstinence from moderate drinking and for detection of excessive consumption based on PEth homologues exists. Investigations with a large group of healthy volunteers (n=300) were performed to establish PEth reference values reflecting different drinking habits. Blood samples were analyzed for PEth 16:0/18:1 and 16:0/18:2 by online-SPE-LC-MS/MS method. Results were compared to AUDIT-C questionnaires, to the amounts of alcohol consumed during the two-weeks prior to blood sampling, and were statistically evaluated. PEth concentrations were significantly correlated with self-reported alcohol consumption (r>0.69) and with AUDIT-C scores (r>0.65). 4.0% of 300 volunteers reported abstinence (AUDIT-C score: 0), no PEth was detectable in their blood. PEth 16:0/18:1 concentrations below the limit of detection of 10.0ng/mL match with abstinence and light drinking habits (≤10g pure alcohol/day). However, some volunteers classified as "excessive alcohol consumers" had negative PEth results. In the group of volunteers classified as "moderate drinkers" (AUDIT-C score: 1-3 (women) and 1-4 (men)), 95% of the test persons had PEth 16:0/18:1 ranging from not detected to 112ng/mL, and PEth 16:0/18:2 ranging from not detected to 67.0ng/mL. Combination of self-reported alcohol consumption and AUDIT-C score showed that negative PEth results match with abstinence or light drinking. Moderate alcohol consumption resulted in PEth 16:0/18:1 from 0 to 112ng/mL and for PEth 16:0/18:2 ranged from 0 to 67.0ng/mL. Higher PEth concentrations indicated excessive alcohol consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A scientometric prediction of the discovery of the first potentially habitable planet with a mass similar to Earth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Arbesman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The search for a habitable extrasolar planet has long interested scientists, but only recently have the tools become available to search for such planets. In the past decades, the number of known extrasolar planets has ballooned into the hundreds, and with it, the expectation that the discovery of the first Earth-like extrasolar planet is not far off. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we develop a novel metric of habitability for discovered planets and use this to arrive at a prediction for when the first habitable planet will be discovered. Using a bootstrap analysis of currently discovered exoplanets, we predict the discovery of the first Earth-like planet to be announced in the first half of 2011, with the likeliest date being early May 2011. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our predictions, using only the properties of previously discovered exoplanets, accord well with external estimates for the discovery of the first potentially habitable extrasolar planet and highlight the the usefulness of predictive scientometric techniques to understand the pace of scientific discovery in many fields.

  16. 深圳市南山区居民饮水习惯调查%The survey on drinking water habits among residents in Nanshan District, Shenzhen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈忠伟; 王长义; 赵锦; 陈思韩; 胡小琪; 左娇蕾; 刘盛元

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the habits of drinking water among residuals in Shenzhen City. Methods Multirstage random sampling method was performed. The questionnaires on the residents were conducted by trained investigators face to face and data were input after verified correctly. Results Among 401 subjects, the average age was 39.6 + 10.8. The subjects were evenly divided between men and women by age groups. Most subjects were Han nationality with college education and 5 000~9 999 yuan/month. The findings showed that there were significant differences in intake of total drinking water by sex, family income and smoke; boiled water by education and sweating condition; bottled water by age, education, sweating condition and bowel evacuation style; barreled water by age; beverages by age, smoke, drink, BMI, sweating condition and bowel evacuation style; tea by age, sex, education, income, smoke, bowel evacuation style and urination habit; milk and dairy by age, sex, education, income, BMI, living in an air-condition environment, sweating condition, bowel evacuation style and urination habit; cafe by education, income, BMI, sweating condition. There were significant differences in people number in bottled water by age; barreled water by age and family income; beverages by age and drink; tea by education and smoke; milk and dairy by sex, education and drink; cafe by age and education; residents with standard BMI like drinking coffee; residents with regular urination habit had more drinking water intake and frequent boiled water intake. Most knew the daily water intake of at least reference 1 200 ml and understood the potential clinical manifestations associated with water deficiency. Conclusions The amount of drinking water intake was more than required 1 200 ml among residents in Nanshan District, Shenzhen City. Most people did not have drinking water-related symptoms and had rich drinking water-related knowledge.%目的 了解深圳市居民饮水习惯.方法 采用

  17. Drinking by University Dormitory Residents: Its Prediction and Amelioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall, Mathew; And Others

    1991-01-01

    College students (n=200) in 2 university dormitories completed alcohol and drug use survey in fall quarter and 130 students were readministered questionnaire at end of spring quarter after peer-directed alcohol awareness program was implemented in a particular dormitory. Retest results showed no difference in drinking behavior of residents in…

  18. Pipe failure predictions in drinking water systems using satellite observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsénio, André Marques; Dheenathayalan, Prabu; Hanssen, Ramon; Vreeburg, Jan; Rietveld, Luuk

    2015-01-01

    Soil deformation is believed to play a crucial role in the onset of failures in the underground infrastructure. This article describes a method to generate a replacement-prioritisation map for underground drinking water pipe networks using ground movement data. A segment of the distribution netwo

  19. Pipe failure predictions in drinking water systems using satellite observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsénio, André Marques; Dheenathayalan, Prabu; Hanssen, Ramon; Vreeburg, Jan; Rietveld, Luuk

    2015-01-01

    Soil deformation is believed to play a crucial role in the onset of failures in the underground infrastructure. This article describes a method to generate a replacement-prioritisation map for underground drinking water pipe networks using ground movement data. A segment of the distribution

  20. The utility of novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and expectancy in the prediction of drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galen, L W; Henderson, M J; Whitman, R D

    1997-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that two temperament scales (Novelty Seeking and Harm Avoidance) are differentially related to alcohol expectancies and drinking patterns, 140 adolescents from an inpatient psychiatric facility completed several self-report questionnaires measuring temperament, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol consumption. Moderated multiple regression analyses indicated that Novelty Seeking was significantly related to frequency of drinking and problem drinking, but that Harm Avoidance was not related to these variables. Results of the MANOVA indicated that high novelty seeking and low harm avoidant (Type 2) individuals had a significantly higher frequency of drinking than did individuals who were high on Harm Avoidance and low on Novelty Seeking (Type 1). Results also showed that expectancy and Novelty Seeking contributed significant independent and overlapping variance in the prediction of amount of drinking. Although Novelty Seeking was related to expectations of social functioning, other hypothesized relationships between temperament and expectancy were not supported.

  1. Modeling the Martian neutral particle radiation - predictions for ExoMars/IRAS and implications for Martian habitability during the Noachian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehresmann, Bent; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert; Burmeister, Soenke; Koehler, Jan; Kulkarni, Shri [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet, Kiel (Germany); Reitz, Guenther [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The exciting results of recent Mars exploration missions indicate that water existed on the Martian surface, which provides a possibility for life on Mars. Thus, there is an enhanced interest in analyzing the conditions for habitability on Mars, especially in the Noachian epoch. An important aspect of habitability is the radiation level of charged and neutral particles in possible habitats. Using Planetocosmics, we calculate particle radiation in the Martian atmosphere and at ground level for present-day conditions. These calculations allow us to make predictions for the measurements of the Ionizing Radiation Sensor (IRAS) on ExoMars. By changing atmosphere conditions and varying the water-content of the Martian soil, we can derive radiation levels expected during the Noachian period. We will discuss the implications of these model results in terms of Noachian habitability.

  2. Consuming energy drinks at the age of 14 predicted legal and illegal substance use at 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrense-Dias, Yara; Berchtold, André; Akre, Christina; Surís, Joan-Carles

    2016-11-01

    This study examined whether consuming energy drinks at the age of 14 predicted substance use at 16. We followed 621 youths from an area of Switzerland who completed a longitudinal online survey in both 2012 and 2014 when they were 14 and 16 years of age. At 14, participants, who were divided into nonenergy drink users (n = 262), occasional users (n = 183) and regular users (n = 176), reported demographic, health-related and substance use data. Substance use at 16 was assessed through logistic regression using nonusers as the reference group and controlling for significant variables at 14. At the bivariate level, energy drink consumption was associated with substance use at both 14 and 16. Energy drink consumers were also more likely to be male, older, less academic, sleep less on schooldays and live in an urban area. In the multivariate analysis, smokers, alcohol misusers and cannabis users at the age of 16 were significantly more likely to have been regular energy drink users at the age of 14. Consuming energy drinks at 14 years of age predicted using legal and illegal substances at 16. Health providers should screen young adolescents for energy drink use and closely monitor weekly users. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The unique contribution of attitudes toward non-alcoholic drinks to the prediction of adolescents' and young adults' alcohol consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roek, M.A.E.; Spijkerman, R.; Poelen, E.A.P.; Lemmers, A.C.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Attitudes toward alternative behaviors, such as drinking soda instead of alcohol, might contribute to the prediction of young people's drinking behavior. The current study explored the associations between late adolescents' and young adults' attitudes toward alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks and

  4. The unique contribution of attitudes toward non-alcoholic drinks to the prediction of adolescents' and young adults' alcohol consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roek, M.A.E.; Spijkerman, R.; Poelen, E.A.P.; Lemmers, A.C.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Attitudes toward alternative behaviors, such as drinking soda instead of alcohol, might contribute to the prediction of young people's drinking behavior. The current study explored the associations between late adolescents' and young adults' attitudes toward alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks and th

  5. Using behavioral theories of choice to predict drinking outcomes following a brief intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, James G; Correia, Christopher J; Colby, Suzanne M; Vuchinich, Rudy E

    2005-05-01

    Behavioral theories of choice predict that substance use is partly a function of the relative value of drugs in relation to other available reinforcers. This study evaluated this hypothesis in the context of predicting drinking outcomes following an alcohol abuse intervention. Participants (N = 54, 69% female, 31% male) were college student heavy drinkers who completed a single-session motivational intervention. Students completed a baseline measure of substance-related and substance-free activity participation and enjoyment. Only women showed a significant reduction in drinking at the 6-month follow-up, and the ratio of substance-related to substance-free reinforcement accounted for unique variance in their drinking outcomes. Women who at baseline derived a smaller proportion of their total reinforcement from substance use showed lower levels of follow-up drinking, even after the authors controlled for baseline drinking level. Male and female participants who reduced their drinking showed increased proportional reinforcement from substance-free activities. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Intake of Sweets, Snacks and Soft Drinks Predicts Weight Gain in Obese Pregnant Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renault, Kristina M; Carlsen, Emma M; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    significantly lowered their intakes of added sugars and saturated fat and increased their protein intake by ~1% of total energy compared to controls. Of these dietary variables only intakes of added sugar appeared to be related to GWG, while no association was observed for saturated fat or protein. Further...... analyses revealed that foods that contributed to intake of added sugars, including sweets, snacks, cakes, and soft drinks were strongly associated with weight gain, with women consuming sweets ≥2/day having 5.4 kg (95% CI 2.1-8.7) greater weight gain than those with a low (intake. The results...... for soft drinks were more conflicting, as women with high weight gain tended to favour artificially sweetened soft drinks. CONCLUSION: In our sample of obese pregnant women, craving for sweets, snacks, and soft drinks strongly predicts GWG. Emphasis on reducing intakes of these foods may be more relevant...

  7. Beyond self-reports: drinking motives predict grams of consumed alcohol in wine-tasting sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Kuendig, Hervé

    2012-08-01

    The link between drinking motives and alcohol-related outcomes has been investigated extensively, yet almost exclusively using retrospective self-reports that are subject to recall bias. This study overcomes this limitation using an experimental design to test whether the 4 drinking-motive dimensions (social, enhancement, coping and conformity, as measured in the baseline questionnaire) predict the quantity of alcohol actually ingested during 2 wine-tasting sessions conducted approximately 3 and 7 weeks after the baseline motive assessment. Regression modeling was based on an analog measurement of grams of pure alcohol among 123 young adults. Self-reported data at baseline concurred with the data collected during the experimental sessions, that is, alcohol consumption was high for males and enhancement drinkers and low for conformity drinkers. Coping drinkers significantly increased their consumption between the first and second sessions, while social drinkers tended to decrease theirs. Yet when separately considering data recorded during the first session, none of the drinking motives predicted the amounts of alcohol actually consumed. To conclude, this study demonstrates that motives predict actual alcohol consumption, which is consistent with evidence-based self-reports. Particularly, enhancement and coping drinkers seem to take advantage of the drinking situation probably because they usually appreciate the psychoactive properties of alcohol, either to maximize pleasurable sensations or to alleviate negative ones. However, if the setting is unusual (first tasting session), situational characteristics may "overrule" the effect of personal motives.

  8. Predictive value of readiness, importance, and confidence in ability to change drinking and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertholet, Nicolas; Gaume, Jacques; Faouzi, Mohamed; Gmel, Gerhard; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard

    2012-08-29

    associated with being a non-smoker, whereas high confidence (OR 3.29; 1.12, 9.62) was. High confidence in ability to change was associated with favorable outcomes for both drinking and smoking, whereas high importance was associated only with a favorable drinking outcome. This study points to the value of confidence as an important predictor of successful change for both drinking and smoking, and shows the value of importance in predicting successful changes in alcohol use. ISRCTN78822107.

  9. The Predictive Influence of Youth Assets on Drinking and Driving Behaviors in Adolescence and Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegerich, Tamara M; Shults, Ruth A; Oman, Roy F; Vesely, Sara K

    2016-06-01

    Drinking and driving among adolescents and young adults remains a significant public health burden. Etiological research is needed to inform the development and selection of preventive interventions that might reduce alcohol-involved crashes and their tragic consequences. Youth assets-that is, skills, competencies, relationships, and opportunities-can help youth overcome challenges, successfully transition into adulthood, and reduce problem behavior. We examined the predictive influence of individual, relationship, and community assets on drinking and driving (DD) and riding with a drinking driver (RDD). We assessed prospective relationships through analysis of data from the Youth Assets Study, a community-based longitudinal study of socio-demographically diverse youth. Results from calculation of marginal models using a Generalized Estimating Equation approach revealed that parent and peer relationship and school connectedness assets reduced the likelihood of both drinking and driving and riding with a drinking driver approximately 1 year later. The most important and consistent asset that influenced DD and RDD over time was parental monitoring, highlighting the role of parental influence extending beyond the immediate teen driving context into young adulthood. Parenting-focused interventions could influence factors that place youth at risk for injury from DD to RDD, complementing other evidence-based strategies such as school-based instructional programs and zero tolerance Blood Alcohol Concentration laws for young and inexperienced drivers.

  10. Drinking behavior of lactating dairy cows and prediction of their water intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardot, V; Le Roux, Y; Jurjanz, S

    2008-06-01

    The water intake of 41 lactating dairy cows managed according to current dairy farm practices was individually and continuously monitored to 1) investigate drinking behavior and 2) determine factors affecting water intake. The cows were housed in a free-stall barn and fed once daily with a corn silage and concentrate-based total mixed ration (48% dry matter content; 20.6 +/- 3.3 kg/d of dry matter intake). Cows were milked twice daily, with a yield of 26.5 +/- 5.9 kg/d. The daily free water intake (FWI) was 83.6 +/- 17.1 L, achieved during 7.3 +/- 2.8 drinking bouts. The drinking bout water intake was 12.9 +/- 5.0 L. Almost three-fourths of the FWI occurred during working hours (0600 to 1900 h). Consumption peaks corresponded to feeding and milking times. More than one quarter of the daily FWI was met during the 2 h after each milking. About 75% of the present cows visited the watering point at least once during the 2 h after the evening milking. It is probable that drinking behavior evolved with lactation, but further studies are required to identify the relationship between lactation stage and drinking behavior. The most relevant factors affecting the daily FWI of lactating cows were best combined according to the following predictive equation: (R(2) = 0.45; n = 41 cows, n = 1,837): FWI, L/d = 1.53 x dry matter intake (kg/d) + 1.33 x milk yield (kg/d) + 0.89 x dry matter content (%) + 0.57 x minimum temperature ( degrees C) - 0.30 x rainfall (mm/d) - 25.65. The results obtained using these equations were in agreement with the equations developed by other researchers.

  11. Risk factors that predicted problem drinking in Danish men at age thirty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Joachim; Penick, Elizabeth C; Jensen, Per

    2003-01-01

    30: low birth weight, number of life crises in childhood, ratings of childhood unhappiness and antisocial personality disorder. The regression model accounted for 46% of the drinking outcome variance. A father's alcoholism by itself no longer independently contributed to the prediction of his son...... matched sons whose biological fathers had no record of treatment for alcoholism (low-risk group). This sample has been thoroughly investigated with a variety of methods representing multiple domains that included perinatal records, pediatric records, school records, teacher ratings, school physician...... with DSM-III-R alcohol abuse/dependence at age 30. These 28 putative markers were reduced to 12 that were entered into a multiple regression analysis to search for the most powerful unique predictors of alcoholism. Four of the 28 putative markers were independently associated with problem drinking at age...

  12. Predictive value of readiness, importance, and confidence in ability to change drinking and smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertholet Nicolas

    2012-08-01

    longer smoking. Neither readiness nor importance was associated with being a non-smoker, whereas high confidence (OR 3.29; 1.12, 9.62 was. Conclusions High confidence in ability to change was associated with favorable outcomes for both drinking and smoking, whereas high importance was associated only with a favorable drinking outcome. This study points to the value of confidence as an important predictor of successful change for both drinking and smoking, and shows the value of importance in predicting successful changes in alcohol use. Trial registration number ISRCTN78822107

  13. The predictive validity of the Drinking-Related Cognitions Scale in alcohol-dependent patients under abstinence-oriented treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawayama Toru

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive factors associated with drinking behavior such as positive alcohol expectancies, self-efficacy, perception of impaired control over drinking and perception of drinking problems are considered to have a significant influence on treatment effects and outcome in alcohol-dependent patients. However, the development of a rating scale on lack of perception or denial of drinking problems and impaired control over drinking has not been substantial, even though these are important factors in patients under abstinence-oriented treatment as well as participants in self-help groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA. The Drinking-Related Cognitions Scale (DRCS is a new self-reported rating scale developed to briefly measure cognitive factors associated with drinking behavior in alcohol-dependent patients under abstinence-oriented treatment, including positive alcohol expectancies, abstinence self-efficacy, perception of impaired control over drinking, and perception of drinking problems. Here, we conducted a prospective cohort study to explore the predictive validity of DRCS. Methods Participants in this study were 175 middle-aged and elderly Japanese male patients who met the DSM-IV Diagnostic Criteria for Alcohol Dependence. DRCS scores were recorded before and after the inpatient abstinence-oriented treatment program, and treatment outcome was evaluated one year after discharge. Results Of the 175 participants, 30 were not available for follow-up; thus the number of subjects for analysis in this study was 145. When the total DRCS score and subscale scores were compared before and after inpatient treatment, a significant increase was seen for both scores. Both the total DRCS score and each subscale score were significantly related to total abstinence, percentage of abstinent days, and the first drinking occasion during the one-year post-treatment period. Therefore, good treatment outcome was significantly predicted by low

  14. Investigation and Analysis of Daily Tea-drinking Habit of Consumers in Qingdao City%青岛市消费者日常喝茶习惯调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳霞; 李含芬; 马春晖

    2016-01-01

    [目的]了解消费者日常饮茶习惯,为人们科学健康地饮茶提供参考依据。[方法]选择青岛市为调查地域,通过走访和问卷调查方法,对消费者的饮茶习惯进行了调查,并对结果进行统计分析。[结果]消费者日常泡茶器具主要以玻璃杯和瓷壶为主;泡茶水质以山泉水和纯净水居多;茶叶在壶中开水浸泡后再倒入茶碗饮用的人数占66%,茶叶直接放入茶杯中边浸泡边喝的人数占28%;喝茶时间主要选择在下午,一般在饭后饮茶;在对喝茶环境的选择上,主要以朋友一起喝茶的人数居多;消费者对茶叶的风味和香气关注度较高,认为茶叶的主要功效为消食化腻。[结论]消费者在饮茶上存在一些不良习惯,对茶叶的保健功效认识不足,应该提倡科学健康的饮茶观念。%Objective] To study the daily tea-drinking habits of consumers, and to provide a reference basis for scientific and health tea-drinking.[Method] Taking Qingdao City as the survey area, we investigated the tea-drinking habits of consumers through visiting and ques-tionnaire investigation.The results were statistically analyzed.[Result] The consumers usually used tea utensils for glass and porcelain pot. Tea was made by mountain spring and pure water.66%consumers firstly soaked tea in the teapot, and then transferred into the cup for drink-ing.28% consumers directly soak tea into the teacup.Most people liked to drink tea in the afternoon, generally after the meal.As for the se-lection of environment, most of them drunk tea with their friends.Consumers paid high attention to the flavour and aroma of tea, and believed that the main function of tea was to digest food.[Conclusion] The consumers have some bad habits in tea-drinking, and lacked the knowledge on tea health care efficacy.Therefore, the science health concept of tea-drinking should be advocated in the future.

  15. Do computer use, TV viewing, and the presence of the media in the bedroom predict school-aged children’s sleep habits in a longitudinal study?

    OpenAIRE

    Nuutinen, Teija; Ray, Carola; Roos, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Background Electronic media use is becoming an increasingly important part of life for today’s school-aged children. At the same time, concern of children’s sleep habits has arisen, and cross-sectional studies have shown that electronic media use is associated with short sleep duration and sleep disturbances. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to investigate whether baseline electronic media use and media presence in a child’s bedroom predicted sleep habits as well as changes in these...

  16. The reciprocal predictive relationship between high-risk personality and drinking: An 8-wave longitudinal study in early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Elizabeth N; Rukavina, Madeline; Smith, Gregory T

    2016-08-01

    In youth, maladaptive personality traits such as urgency (the tendency to act rashly when highly emotional) predict early onset alcohol consumption. In adults, maladaptive behaviors, including substance use, predict negative personality change. This article reports on a test of hypothesized maladaptive, reciprocal prediction between youth drinking and the trait of urgency. In a sample of 1,906 youth assessed every 6 months from the spring of 5th grade through the spring of 8th grade, and again in the spring of 9th grade, the authors found such reciprocal prediction. Over each 6 month and then 12 month time lag, urgency predicted increased subsequent drinking. In addition, over 6 of the 7 time lags, drinking behavior predicted subsequent increases in urgency. During early adolescence, maladaptive personality and dysfunctional behavior each led to increases in the other. The results of this process include cyclically increasing risk for youth drinking and may include increasing risk for the multiple maladaptive behaviors predicted by the trait of urgency. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Alcohol drinking in young adults: the predictive value of personality when peers come around.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schoor, Guido; Bot, Sander M; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether personality traits and peer drinking affect alcohol consumption in young adults. Data were analyzed from a study that was conducted in a 'bar laboratory' in which ad-lib drinking of peer groups was observed. The findings indicate that extroversion is moderately associated with self-reported daily drinking, while low emotional stability is modestly associated with alcohol-related problems. With regard to drinking in the observational drinking setting, personality is not associated with young adults' actual alcohol consumption. Further, peer drinking levels were strongly related to young adults' drinking. Besides, agreeableness interacted with the effects of peer drinking on young adults' drinking in such a way that agreeable individuals adapted their actual alcohol consumption more easily than others when socializing in a high- or a low-drinking peer group. We concluded that drinking in a peer context, irrespective of personality, played a major role in forming young adults' drinking. However, personality (i.e. agreeableness) definitely played a role to the extent of the individuals' adaptation to peer drinking norms.

  18. Validating a Hazardous Drinking Index in a Sample of Sexual Minority Women: Reliability, Validity and Predictive Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Barth B.; Hughes, Tonda L.; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Johnson, Timothy P.; Benson, Perry; Aranda, Frances

    2017-01-01

    Background Although sexual minority women (SMW) are at increased risk of hazardous drinking (HD), efforts to validate HD measures have yet to focus on this population. Objectives Validation of a 13-item Hazardous Drinking Index (HDI) in a large sample of SMW. Methods Data were from 700 adult SMW (age 18–82) enrolled in the Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women study. Criterion measures included counts of depressive symptoms and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, average daily and 30-day ethanol consumption, risky sexual behavior, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV) measures of alcohol abuse/dependence. Analyses included assessment of internal consistency, construction of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to predict alcohol abuse/dependence, and correlations between HDI and criterion measures. We compared the psychometric properties (diagnostic accuracy and correlates of hazardous drinking) of the HDI to the commonly used CAGE instrument. Results KR-20 reliability for the HDI was 0.80, compared to 0.74 for the CAGE. Predictive accuracy, as measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for alcohol abuse/dependence, was HDI: 0.89; CAGE: 0.84. The HDI evidenced the best predictive efficacy and tradeoff between sensitivity and specificity. Results supported the concurrent validity of the HDI measure. Conclusions The Hazardous Drinking Index is a reliable and valid measure of hazardous drinking for sexual minority women. PMID:27661289

  19. Predicting dyscontrolled drinking with implicit and explicit measures of alcohol attitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostafin, Brian D; Kassman, Kyle T; de Jong, Peter J; van Hemel-Ruiter, Madelon E

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A defining feature of alcohol addiction is dyscontrol - drinking despite intentions to restrain use. Given that dyscontrolled drinking involves an automatic (nonvolitional) element and that implicit measures are designed to assess automatic processes, it follows that implicit measures ma

  20. Paternal alcoholism predicts the occurrence but not the remission of alcoholic drinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, J; Penick, E C; Nickel, E J

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the effects of father's alcoholism on the development and remission from alcoholic drinking by age 40. METHOD: Subjects were selected from a Danish birth cohort that included 223 sons of alcoholic fathers (high risk; HR) and 106 matched controls (low risk; LR). Clinical...... examinations were performed at age 40 (n = 202) by a psychiatrist using structured interviews and DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: HR subjects were significantly more likely than LR subjects to develop alcohol dependence (31% vs. 16%), but not alcohol abuse (17% vs. 15%). More subjects with alcohol...... abuse were in remission at age 40 than subjects with alcohol dependence. Risk did not predict remission from either alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence. CONCLUSION: Familial influences may play a stronger role in the development of alcoholism than in the remission or recovery from alcoholism....

  1. Habit persistence, non-separability between consumption and leisure, or rule-of thumb consumers: which accounts for the predictability of consumption growth?

    OpenAIRE

    Michael T. Kiley

    2007-01-01

    Consumption growth is predictable, a basic violation of the permanent-income hypothesis. This paper examines three possible explanations: rule-of-thumb behavior, in which households allow consumption to track per-period income flows rather than permanent income; habit persistence; and non-separability in preferences over consumption and leisure. The data appear most consistent with non-separable preferences over consumption and leisure.

  2. Maternal Milk Consumption Predicts the Tradeoff between Milk and Soft Drinks in Young Girls’ Diets1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Mitchell, Diane C.; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Birch, Leann Lipps

    2008-01-01

    Milk intake constitutes an important source of dietary calcium for young girls but declines throughout childhood. Recent work shows that the intake of soft drinks may contribute to this decline. Influences on the apparent tradeoff between soft drinks and milk in young girls’ diets are not well described. The objective of this research was to test a model depicting maternal beverage choices as predictors of their daughters’ milk and soft drink intake. A structural equation model describing maternal influences on daughters’ milk, soft drink and calcium intakes was tested using data from 180 non-Hispanic, white families with 5-y-old daughters. Mothers’ calcium, milk and soft drink intakes were evaluated as predictors of their daughters’ intakes. Mothers’ and daughters’ soft drink intakes were also examined as predictors of their own milk and calcium intakes. The model provided a good fit to the data, revealing mother-daughter similarities in beverage intake. Mothers who drank milk more frequently had daughters who drank milk more frequently and drank fewer soft drinks. For both mothers and daughters, soft drink consumption was negatively related to both milk and calcium intake. This research provides evidence that mothers’ beverage choices influence the tradeoff between milk and soft drinks in their daughters’ diets. In particular, mothers’ milk and soft drink intakes may affect their daughters’ calcium adequacy in early childhood by influencing the frequency with which their daughters consume those beverages. PMID:11160541

  3. Predicted pH at the domestic and public supply drinking water depths, Central Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosecrans, Celia Z.; Nolan, Bernard T.; Gronberg, Jo Ann M.

    2017-03-08

    This scientific investigations map is a product of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) project modeling and mapping team. The prediction grids depicted in this map are of continuous pH and are intended to provide an understanding of groundwater-quality conditions at the domestic and public supply drinking water zones in the groundwater of the Central Valley of California. The chemical quality of groundwater and the fate of many contaminants is often influenced by pH in all aquifers. These grids are of interest to water-resource managers, water-quality researchers, and groundwater modelers concerned with the occurrence of natural and anthropogenic contaminants related to pH. In this work, the median well depth categorized as domestic supply was 30 meters below land surface, and the median well depth categorized as public supply is 100 meters below land surface. Prediction grids were created using prediction modeling methods, specifically boosted regression trees (BRT) with a Gaussian error distribution within a statistical learning framework within the computing framework of R (http://www.r-project.org/). The statistical learning framework seeks to maximize the predictive performance of machine learning methods through model tuning by cross validation. The response variable was measured pH from 1,337 wells and was compiled from two sources: USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) database (all data are publicly available from the USGS: http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ca/nwis/nwis) and the California State Water Resources Control Board Division of Drinking Water (SWRCB-DDW) database (water quality data are publicly available from the SWRCB: http://www.waterboards.ca.gov/gama/geotracker_gama.shtml). Only wells with measured pH and well depth data were selected, and for wells with multiple records, only the most recent sample in the period 1993–2014 was used. A total of 1,003 wells (training dataset) were used to train the BRT

  4. Habitable Trinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Dohm

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Habitable Trinity is a newly proposed concept of a habitable environment. This concept indicates that the coexistence of an atmosphere (consisting largely of C and N, an ocean (H and O, and a landmass (supplier of nutrients accompanying continuous material circulation between these three components driven by the Sun is one of the minimum requirements for life to emerge and evolve. The life body consists of C, O, H, N and other various nutrients, and therefore, the presence of water, only, is not a sufficient condition. Habitable Trinity environment must be maintained to supply necessary components for life body. Our Habitable Trinity concept can also be applied to other planets and moons such as Mars, Europa, Titan, and even exoplanets as a useful index in the quest for life-containing planetary bodies.

  5. Habitable Trinity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James M. Dohm; Shigenori Maruyama

    2015-01-01

    Habitable Trinity is a newly proposed concept of a habitable environment. This concept indicates that the coexistence of an atmosphere (consisting largely of C and N), an ocean (H and O), and a landmass (supplier of nutrients) accompanying continuous material circulation between these three components driven by the Sun is one of the minimum requirements for life to emerge and evolve. The life body consists of C, O, H, N and other various nutrients, and therefore, the presence of water, only, is not a sufficient condition. Habitable Trinity environment must be maintained to supply necessary components for life body. Our Habitable Trinity concept can also be applied to other planets and moons such as Mars, Europa, Titan, and even exoplanets as a useful index in the quest for life-containing planetary bodies.

  6. Self-control predicts exercise behavior by force of habit, a conceptual replication of Adriaanse et al.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillebaart, Marleen; Adriaanse, Marieke A.

    2017-01-01

    A recent study suggests that habits play a mediating role in the association between trait self-control and eating behavior, supporting a notion of effortless processes in trait self-control (Adriaanse et al., 2014). We conceptually replicated this research in the area of exercise behavior,

  7. Predicting dyscontrolled drinking with implicit and explicit measures of alcohol motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostafin, Brian D.; Kassman, Kyle T.; de Jong, Peter J.; van Hemel-Ruiter, Madelon E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background A defining feature of alcohol addiction is dyscontrol – drinking despite intentions to restrain use. Given that dyscontrolled drinking involves an automatic (nonvolitional) element and that implicit measures are designed to assess automatic processes, it follows that implicit mea

  8. Self-efficacy and motivation for controlling drinking and drinking/driving: an investigation of changes across a driving under the influence (DUI) intervention program and of recidivism prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells-Parker, E; Kenne, D R; Spratke, K L; Williams, M T

    2000-01-01

    Measures of (a) self-efficacy and (b) motivation to change (stage) for controlling drinking and drinking/driving were examined at the beginning and the end of a four-week intervention in a sample of 670 Driving Under the Influence (DUI) offenders in a court-mandated program. Hypotheses regarding stability of stage classifications over the course of intervention, and the relation between stage classification, stage scores, self-efficacy, and DUI recidivism were examined. Based on results of an earlier study it was expected that most offenders would be classified into the action stage at entry and that classifications would tend to remain stable from pretest to posttest. Action was the most frequent stage classification in both drinking and drinking/driving domains at both test periods, with precontemplation being the least frequent classification. When tracked over the four weeks, stage classifications for drinking and drinking/driving were stable for 74 to 89% of offenders in the two domains, respectively. As predicted, higher action and self-efficacy scores were related to lower recidivism, and action scores in the drinking/driving domain were the best early recidivism predictors among a predictor set that included traditional recidivism indicators. Drinking contemplators (i.e., those with the highest stage score on the contemplation scale) had higher recidivism rates than other drinking stage classifications. Implications for DUI intervention programs are discussed.

  9. 云南傣族生活习惯对饮水砷健康危害的影响%Effect of Living Habits of Dai People on Health Hazards of Arsenic in Drinking Water in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常利涛; 李娟; 伏晓庆; 李琼芬

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] To study the principle of protective effect of Dai people's special living habits which included drinking raw water, eating raw vegetable and meat on health hazards of arsenic, provide the theoretical basis for control and prevention of arsenism. [ Methods] The method from qualitative to quantitative analysis was applied: two protective factors (drinking raw water and eating raw vegetable and meat ) which were screened by multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis on health hazards of arsenic in drinking water were quantitatively detected in laboratory. [ Results ] After water, vegetable and meat were heated, the arsenic contents increased, and it increased with the increasing heating time. The arsenic contents in vegetable and meat which were cooked with high- arsenic water increased obviously. [ Conclusion ] The principle of protective effect of Dai people's special living habits which included drinking raw water, eating raw vegetable and meat is the low arsenic contents in raw water, vegetable and meat, so as to reduce the arsenic intakes. Therefore, in other high-arsenic area where cannot carry out the water improvement in time, to reduce heating time and promote fast cooking method may be an economical and practical measure for control and prevention of arsenism. It is scientific and reasonable that the arsenic standard in drinking water was revised as 0.01 mg/L in china.%目的 了解云南傣族人喝生水、吃生菜、生肉对砷健康危害保护作用的原理,为地砷病的防治提供理论依据.方法 采用定性到定量的研究方法:将高砷饮水健康危害影响的多因素条件logisitic回归分析研究中发现的2个保护因素:喝生水、吃生菜做实验室定量检测分析.结果 经加热后,水、蔬菜、肉中的砷含量增加,并且随着加热时间的增加,砷含量也在增加,用砷含量高的水煮沸后的蔬菜、肉,砷含量增加的速度更快.结论 傣族喝生水、吃生菜、生

  10. [Comparison of eating habits among students according to sex and level of physical activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łagowska, Karolina; Woźniewicz, Małgorzata; Jeszka, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate nutritional habits of high school students, depending on their sex and physical activity. The investigated population included 147 students in age of 17.5 +/- 1.5 y (girls DZ = 98, boys CH = 49) with different level of physical activity (athletes SPO, moderate physical activity UAF, low physical activity NAF). Nutritional data were obtained by FFQ and calculated for selected food-groups and generally as young healthy eating index YHEI. International IPAQ was used to determine the level of physical activity and anthropometric measured were conducted to estimated BMI and body fat status. It was indicated the YHEI in athletes was significantly higher (p students. Moreover, a significant difference (p consumption of red meat, vegetable oil and sweetned drinks was revealed between DZ and CH adolescents. The frequency of consumption of vegetable oil, fast - foods, sweets, alcoholic drinks, energy drinks and isotonic drinks varied with the level of physical activity. Frequency of consumption of sweets negatively correlated with skinfold thickness in DZ, whereas positive correlation between consumption frequency of energy drinks, BMI and skinfold thickness was found in CH. The results show, that nutritional habits of the athletes was most approached to nutritional guidelines. CH, nutritional habits may predicted to overweight and obesity in CH group more distinctly than in DZ group.

  11. Impulsivity and drinking motives predict problem behaviours relating to alcohol use in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Katy A; Chryssanthakis, Alexandra; Groom, Madeleine J

    2014-01-01

    This study used a four-factor model of impulsivity to investigate inter-relationships between alcohol consumption, impulsivity, motives for drinking and the tendency to engage in alcohol-related problem behaviours. 400 University students aged 18-25 completed an online survey consisting of the following measures: Urgency, Premeditation, Perseverance and Sensation Seeking Scale (UPPS) to measure impulsivity; Student Alcohol Questionnaire to assess drinking quantity, frequency and rates of problem behaviours; Drinking Motives Questionnaire to assess motives for drinking. The majority of the sample (94.5%) drank alcohol at least monthly. Path analysis revealed direct effects of urgency, sensation seeking and premeditation, as well as the quantity of alcohol consumed, on the tendency to engage in risky behaviours with negative consequences. The effect of urgency was mediated by drinking for coping motives and by a combined effect of drinking for social motives and consumption of wine or spirits. Conversely the effect of sensation seeking was mediated by the quantity of alcohol consumed, irrespective of drink type, and the effect of premeditation was mediated by the consumption of wine and spirits, in combination with enhancement motives. Sensation seeking, urgency and lack of premeditation are related to different motives for drinking and also demonstrate dissociable relationships with the consumption of specific types of alcohol (beer, wine and spirits) and the tendency to engage in risky behaviours associated with alcohol consumption. Screening for high levels of urgency and for severe drinking consequences may be useful predictors of alcohol-related problems in UK University students aged 18 to 25 years. © 2013.

  12. Parenting Practices and Adolescent Risk Behavior: Rules on Smoking and Drinking Also Predict Cannabis Use and Early Sexual Debut

    OpenAIRE

    de Looze, Margaretha; van den Eijnden, Regina; Verdurmen, Jacqueline; Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien; Schulten, Ingrid; Vollebergh, Wilma; ter Bogt, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has provided considerable support for idea that increased parental support and control are strong determinants of lower prevalence levels of adolescent risk behavior. Much less is known on the association between specific parenting practices, such as concrete rules with respect to smoking and drinking and adolescent risk behavior. The present paper examined whether such concrete parental rules (1) have an effect on the targeted behaviors and (2) predict other, frequently co-...

  13. Longitudinal prediction of early childhood discipline styles among heavy drinking parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ellen P; Homish, Gregory G; Eiden, Rina D; Grohman, Kerry K; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to examine predictors of parenting trajectories in a sample of heavy drinking and abstaining/light drinking parents. Mixture modeling was used to estimate trajectories of parental discipline styles over time. Two dimensions of parenting were examined: laxness and overreactivity. Changes in these dimensions were examined for each parent. Trajectories for mothers and fathers were very similar and were generally stable from 18 months to 5-6 years child age. Fathers' binge drinking was associated with high levels of both paternal and maternal overreactivity. Mothers with depressed affect had the highest levels of overreactivity, whereas fathers reporting depressed affect were more likely to have moderate levels of laxness. Mothers with high levels of marital satisfaction were more likely to have partners in the stable low overreactivity group. Findings begin to elucidate the nature of early family processes that may contribute to maladaptive child outcomes in heavy drinking families.

  14. Predicting cyanobacterial abundance, microcystin, and geosmin in a eutrophic drinking-water reservoir using a 14-year dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ted D.; Graham, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms degrade water quality in drinking water supply reservoirs by producing toxic and taste-and-odor causing secondary metabolites, which ultimately cause public health concerns and lead to increased treatment costs for water utilities. There have been numerous attempts to create models that predict cyanobacteria and their secondary metabolites, most using linear models; however, linear models are limited by assumptions about the data and have had limited success as predictive tools. Thus, lake and reservoir managers need improved modeling techniques that can accurately predict large bloom events that have the highest impact on recreational activities and drinking-water treatment processes. In this study, we compared 12 unique linear and nonlinear regression modeling techniques to predict cyanobacterial abundance and the cyanobacterial secondary metabolites microcystin and geosmin using 14 years of physiochemical water quality data collected from Cheney Reservoir, Kansas. Support vector machine (SVM), random forest (RF), boosted tree (BT), and Cubist modeling techniques were the most predictive of the compared modeling approaches. SVM, RF, and BT modeling techniques were able to successfully predict cyanobacterial abundance, microcystin, and geosmin concentrations secondary metabolites.

  15. Global sensitivity analysis for model-based prediction of oxidative micropollutant transformation during drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Marc B; Gujer, Willi; von Gunten, Urs

    2009-03-01

    This study quantifies the uncertainty involved in predicting micropollutant oxidation during drinking water ozonation in a pilot plant reactor. The analysis is conducted for geosmin, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), isopropylmethoxypyrazine (IPMP), bezafibrate, beta-cyclocitral and ciprofloxazin. These compounds are representative for a wide range of substances with second order rate constants between 0.1 and 1.9x10(4)M(-1)s(-1) for the reaction with ozone and between 2x10(9) and 8x10(9)M(-1)s(-1) for the reaction with OH-radicals. Uncertainty ranges are derived for second order rate constants, hydraulic parameters, flow- and ozone concentration data, and water characteristic parameters. The uncertain model factors are propagated via Monte Carlo simulation and the resulting probability distributions of the relative residual micropollutant concentrations are assessed. The importance of factors in determining model output variance is quantified using Extended Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Testing (Extended-FAST). For substances that react slowly with ozone (MTBE, IPMP, geosmin) the water characteristic R(ct)-value (ratio of ozone- to OH-radical concentration) is the most influential factor explaining 80% of the output variance. In the case of bezafibrate the R(ct)-value and the second order rate constant for the reaction with ozone each contribute about 30% to the output variance. For beta-cyclocitral and ciprofloxazin (fast reacting with ozone) the second order rate constant for the reaction with ozone and the hydraulic model structure become the dominating sources of uncertainty.

  16. Habit persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther Møller, Stig

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses an iterated GMM approach to estimate and test the consumption based habit persistence model of Campbell and Cochrane (1999) on the US stock market. The empirical evidence shows that the model is able to explain the size premium, but fails to explain the value premium. Further...

  17. Do habits always override intentions? Pitting unhealthy snacking habits against snack-avoidance intentions

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Benjamin; Corbridge, Sharon; McGowan, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Background Habit is defined as a process whereby an impulse towards behaviour is automatically initiated upon encountering a setting in which the behaviour has been performed in the past. A central tenet of habit theory is that habit overrides intentional tendencies in directing behaviour, such that as habit strength increases, intention becomes less predictive of behaviour. Yet, evidence of this effect has been methodologically limited by modelling the impact of positively-correlated habits ...

  18. Association between smoking and the risk of heavy drinking among young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Bové, Kira Bang; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine;

    2008-01-01

    To address the association between smoking habits and the risk of later heavy drinking among young women.......To address the association between smoking habits and the risk of later heavy drinking among young women....

  19. Solitary Alcohol Use in Teens Is Associated With Drinking in Response to Negative Affect and Predicts Alcohol Problems in Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Kasey G; Chung, Tammy; Clark, Duncan B; Martin, Christopher S

    2014-09-01

    Adolescent solitary drinking may represent an informative divergence from normative behavior, with important implications for understanding risk for alcohol-use disorders later in life. Within a self-medication framework, we hypothesized that solitary alcohol use would be associated with drinking in response to negative affect and that such a pattern of drinking would predict alcohol problems in young adulthood. We tested these predictions in a longitudinal study in which we examined whether solitary drinking in adolescence (ages 12-18) predicted alcohol-use disorders in young adulthood (age 25) in 466 alcohol-using teens recruited from clinical programs and 243 alcohol-using teens recruited from the community. Findings showed that solitary drinking was associated with drinking in response to negative affect during adolescence and predicted alcohol problems in young adulthood. Results indicate that drinking alone is an important type of alcohol-use behavior that increases risk for the escalation of alcohol use and the development of alcohol problems.

  20. Mothers' Maximum Drinks Ever Consumed in 24 Hours Predicts Mental Health Problems in Adolescent Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Stephen M.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The maximum number of alcoholic drinks consumed in a single 24-hr period is an alcoholism-related phenotype with both face and empirical validity. It has been associated with severity of withdrawal symptoms and sensitivity to alcohol, genes implicated in alcohol metabolism, and amplitude of a measure of brain activity associated with…

  1. Distribution of perfluorooctane sulfonate isomers and predicted risk of thyroid hormonal perturbation in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nanyang; Wang, Xiaoxiang; Zhang, Beibei; Yang, Jingping; Li, Meiying; Li, Jun; Shi, Wei; Wei, Si; Yu, Hongxia

    2015-06-01

    We documented the distribution of seven perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) isomers in drinking water in Jiangsu Province, China. Compared to the 30% proportion of branched PFOS in technical PFOS, the levels of branched PFOS in drinking water increased to 31.8%-44.6% of total PFOS. Because of previous risk assessment without considering the PFOS isomer profile and the toxicity of individual PFOS isomers, here we performed a new health risk assessment of PFOS for thyroid hormonal perturbation in drinking water with the contribution from individual PFOS isomers. The risk quotients (RQs) of individual PFOS isomers indicated that linear PFOS contributed most to the risk among all the target PFOS isomers (83.0%-90.2% of the total PFOS RQ), and that risk from 6m-PFOS (5.2%-11.9% of the total PFOS RQ) was higher than that from other branched PFOS isomers. We found that the risks associated with PFOS in drinking water would be overestimated by 10.0%-91.7% if contributions from individual PFOS isomers were not considered. The results revealed that the PFOS isomer profile and the toxicity of individual PFOS isomers were important factors in health risk assessment of PFOS and should be considered in the future risk assessments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Parenting practices and adolescent risk behavior: rules on smoking and drinking also predict cannabis use and early sexual debut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Looze, Margaretha; van den Eijnden, Regina; Verdurmen, Jacqueline; Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien; Schulten, Ingrid; Vollebergh, Wilma; ter Bogt, Tom

    2012-12-01

    Previous research has provided considerable support for idea that increased parental support and control are strong determinants of lower prevalence levels of adolescent risk behavior. Much less is known on the association between specific parenting practices, such as concrete rules with respect to smoking and drinking and adolescent risk behavior. The present paper examined whether such concrete parental rules (1) have an effect on the targeted behaviors and (2) predict other, frequently co-occurring, risk behaviors (i.e., cannabis use and early sexual intercourse). These hypotheses were tested in a nationally representative sample of 12- to 16-year-old adolescents in the Netherlands. We found that both types of rules were associated with a lower prevalence of the targeted behaviors (i.e., smoking and drinking). In addition, independent of adolescent smoking and drinking behaviors, parental rules on smoking predicted a lower prevalence of cannabis use and early sexual intercourse, and parental rules on alcohol use also predicted a lower prevalence of early sexual intercourse. This study showed that concrete parental rule setting is more strongly related to lower levels of risk behaviors in adolescents compared to the more general parenting practices (i.e., support and control). Additionally, the effects of such rules do not only apply to the targeted behavior but extend to related behaviors as well. These findings are relevant to the public health domain and suggest that a single intervention program that addresses a limited number of concrete parenting practices, in combination with traditional support and control practices, may be effective in reducing risk behaviors in adolescence.

  3. Exoplanet habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, Sara

    2013-05-01

    The search for exoplanets includes the promise to eventually find and identify habitable worlds. The thousands of known exoplanets and planet candidates are extremely diverse in terms of their masses or sizes, orbits, and host star type. The diversity extends to new kinds of planets, which are very common yet have no solar system counterparts. Even with the requirement that a planet's surface temperature must be compatible with liquid water (because all life on Earth requires liquid water), a new emerging view is that planets very different from Earth may have the right conditions for life. The broadened possibilities will increase the future chances of discovering an inhabited world.

  4. Exoplanet Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, Sara

    2013-05-01

    The search for exoplanets includes the promise to eventually find and identify habitable worlds. The thousands of known exoplanets and planet candidates are extremely diverse in terms of their masses or sizes, orbits, and host star type. The diversity extends to new kinds of planets, which are very common yet have no solar system counterparts. Even with the requirement that a planet’s surface temperature must be compatible with liquid water (because all life on Earth requires liquid water), a new emerging view is that planets very different from Earth may have the right conditions for life. The broadened possibilities will increase the future chances of discovering an inhabited world.

  5. Nutritional habits in Italian university students

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Dietary habits have been indicated by research as key elements in both disease pathogenesis and prevention and health promotion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed data collected from Italian university students regarding consumption of fruits, vegetables, fast-foods, sweets, energizing drinks, and coffee, average number of eating episodes per day and regularity of breakfast habits. RESULTS: 44% of the university student population eats in average at least 1 portion of fruit per...

  6. FKBP5 genotype interacts with early life trauma to predict heavy drinking in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Richard; Armeli, Stephen; Scott, Denise M; Kranzler, Henry R; Tennen, Howard; Covault, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is debilitating and costly. Identification and better understanding of risk factors influencing the development of AUD remain a research priority. Although early life exposure to trauma increases the risk of adulthood psychiatric disorders, including AUD, many individuals exposed to early life trauma do not develop psychopathology. Underlying genetic factors may contribute to differential sensitivity to trauma experienced in childhood. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is susceptible to long-lasting changes in function following childhood trauma. Functional genetic variation within FKBP5, a gene encoding a modulator of HPA axis function, is associated with the development of psychiatric symptoms in adulthood, particularly among individuals exposed to trauma early in life. In the current study, we examined interactions between self-reported early life trauma, past-year life stress, past-year trauma, and a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs1360780) in FKBP5 on heavy alcohol consumption in a sample of 1,845 college students from two university settings. Although we found no effect of early life trauma on heavy drinking in rs1360780*T-allele carriers, rs1360780*C homozygotes exposed to early life trauma had a lower probability of heavy drinking compared to rs1360780*C homozygotes not exposed to early life trauma (P stress or past-year trauma, and FKBP5 genotype on heavy drinking suggests that there exists a developmental period of susceptibility to stress that is moderated by FKBP5 genotype. These findings implicate interactive effects of early life trauma and FKBP5 genetic variation on heavy drinking. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Media and technology use predicts ill-being among children, preteens and teenagers independent of the negative health impacts of exercise and eating habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, L D; Lim, A F; Felt, J; Carrier, L M; Cheever, N A; Lara-Ruiz, J M; Mendoza, J S; Rokkum, J

    2014-06-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends no screen time for children under the age of 2 and limited screen time for all children. However, no such guidelines have been proposed for preteens and teenagers. Further, research shows that children, preteens, and teenagers are using massive amounts of media and those with more screen time have been shown to have increased obesity, reduced physical activity, and decreased health. This study examined the impact of technology on four areas of ill-being-psychological issues, behavior problems, attention problems and physical health-among children (aged 4-8), preteens (9-12), and teenagers (13-18) by having 1030 parents complete an online, anonymous survey about their own and their child's behaviors. Measures included daily technology use, daily food consumption, daily exercise, and health. Hypothesis 1, which posited that unhealthy eating would predict impaired ill-being, was partially supported, particularly for children and preteens. Hypothesis 2, which posited that reduced physical activity would predict diminished health levels, was partially supported for preteens and supported for teenagers. Hypothesis 3, that increased daily technology use would predict ill-being after factoring out eating habits and physical activity, was supported. For children and preteens, total media consumption predicted illbeing while for preteens specific technology uses, including video gaming and electronic communication, predicted ill-being. For teenagers, nearly every type of technological activity predicted poor health. Practical implications were discussed in terms of setting limits and boundaries on technology use and encouraging healthy eating and physical activity at home and at school.

  8. Media and technology use predicts ill-being among children, preteens and teenagers independent of the negative health impacts of exercise and eating habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, L.D.; Lim, A.F.; Felt, J.; Carrier, L.M.; Cheever, N.A.; Lara-Ruiz, J.M.; Mendoza, J.S.; Rokkum, J.

    2015-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends no screen time for children under the age of 2 and limited screen time for all children. However, no such guidelines have been proposed for preteens and teenagers. Further, research shows that children, preteens, and teenagers are using massive amounts of media and those with more screen time have been shown to have increased obesity, reduced physical activity, and decreased health. This study examined the impact of technology on four areas of ill-being–psychological issues, behavior problems, attention problems and physical health–among children (aged 4–8), preteens (9–12), and teenagers (13–18) by having 1030 parents complete an online, anonymous survey about their own and their child's behaviors. Measures included daily technology use, daily food consumption, daily exercise, and health. Hypothesis 1, which posited that unhealthy eating would predict impaired ill-being, was partially supported, particularly for children and preteens. Hypothesis 2, which posited that reduced physical activity would predict diminished health levels, was partially supported for preteens and supported for teenagers. Hypothesis 3, that increased daily technology use would predict ill-being after factoring out eating habits and physical activity, was supported. For children and preteens, total media consumption predicted illbeing while for preteens specific technology uses, including video gaming and electronic communication, predicted ill-being. For teenagers, nearly every type of technological activity predicted poor health. Practical implications were discussed in terms of setting limits and boundaries on technology use and encouraging healthy eating and physical activity at home and at school. PMID:25717216

  9. The Predictive Impact of Biological and Sociocultural Factors on Executive Processing: The Role of Age, Education, and Frequency of Reading and Writing Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotrena, Charles; Branco, Laura D; Cardoso, Caroline O; Wong, Cristina Elizabeth I; Fonseca, Rochele P

    2016-01-01

    Although the impact of education and age on executive functions (EF) has been widely studied, the influence of daily cognitive stimulation on EF has not been sufficiently investigated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the age, education, and frequency of reading and writing habits (FRWH) of healthy adults could predict their performance on measures of inhibition and cognitive flexibility. Inhibition speed, inhibitory control, and set shifting were assessed using speed, accuracy, and discrepancy scores on the Trail-Making Test (TMT) and Hayling Test. Demographic characteristics and the FRWH were assessed using specialized questionnaires. Regression analyses showed that age and the FRWH predicted speed and accuracy on the TMT. The FRWH predicted both speed and accuracy on the Hayling Test, for which speed and accuracy scores were also partly explained by age and education, respectively. Surprisingly, only the FRWH was associated with Hayling Test discrepancy scores, considered one of the purest EF measures. This highlights the importance of regular cognitive stimulation over the number of years of formal education on EF tasks. Further studies are required to investigate the role of the FRWH so as to better comprehend its relationship with EF and general cognition.

  10. Governing Adolescent Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvinen, Margaretha; Ostergaard, Jeanette

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between the drinking habits of Danish adolescents and the upbringing ideals and alcohol rules of their parents. It is based on three different data sets: a survey of 2,000 Danish young people born in 1989, a survey with the parents of these young people, and two waves of focus group interviews (in all 28)…

  11. Pathways Towards Habitable Moons

    CERN Document Server

    Kipping, David M; Campanella, Giammarco; Schneider, Jean; Tinetti, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    The search for life outside of the Solar System should not be restricted to exclusively planetary bodies; large moons of extrasolar planets may also be common habitable environments throughout the Galaxy. Extrasolar moons, or exomoons, may be detected through transit timing effects induced onto the host planet as a result of mutual gravitational interaction. In particular, transit timing variations (TTV) and transit duration variations (TDV) are predicted to produce a unique exomoon signature, which is not only easily distinguished from other gravitational perturbations, but also provides both the period and mass of an exomoon. Using these timing effects, photometry greater or equal to that of the Kepler Mission is readily able to detect habitable-zone exomoons down to 0.2 Earth masses and could survey up to 25,000 stars for 1 Earth-mass satellites. We discuss future possibilities for spectral retrieval of such bodies and show that transmission spectroscopy with JWST should be able to detect molecular species...

  12. Romanian young people’s drinking habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bucur Pálma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Alcohol use can cause social problems. Beside alcoholism the “binge drinking” and the “pre-drinking” could be a harmful form of alcohol use based on scientific literature data. In this study the alcohol use behaviors and associated problems were evaluated among young people aged between 14-30 years.

  13. THE SODIUM PREVALENCE IN CARBONATED SOFT DRINKS SOLD IN BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Fernanda Nunes; Sonia Maria Freire; Maria Margarida Castel-Branco; Isabel Vitória Figueiredo

    2012-01-01

    The carbonated soft drinks intake has changed the children eating habits. This factor may be directly associated with arterial hypertension due the high consumption of sodium present in foods and drinks industrialized. This study was to compare sodium levels between two different types of carbonated soft drinks, carbonated sugar drinks and diet drinks to define what type of drink has the lowest sodium content and alerting healthcare professionals about the presence of sodium in industrialized...

  14. Prediction of plasma caffeine concentrations in young adolescents following ingestion of caffeinated energy drinks: a Monte Carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Woo; Kim, Yookyung; Perera, Vidya; McLachlan, Andrew J; Bae, Kyun-Seop

    2015-12-01

    The fast-growing consumption of caffeinated energy drinks (CEDs) is linked to increasing reports of caffeine intoxication in adolescents. There is limited data available regarding plasma caffeine concentrations in this population after CED intake and the potential implications for caffeine-related toxicity. This study was an in silico population pharmacokinetic analysis of caffeine. Population pharmacokinetic model of oral caffeine was derived from a previous study of healthy male volunteers. Maximal plasma caffeine concentration (C max) profiles following ingestion of one or two servings of popular CEDs were predicted using Monte Carlo simulation and available population body weight data of 10-15-year-old Korean adolescents. Caffeine C max values were positively correlated with the amount of caffeine ingested in CEDs and negatively correlated with body weight. The median (range) C max profiles varied from a low of 1.2 (0.5-2.6) mg/L to a concentration that is potentially associated with harmful caffeine-related effects of 25.4 (8.1-55.6) mg/L. A subgroup of female 10-11-year-old subjects exhibited the highest caffeine exposure profiles. These data indicate that CED ingestion can increase the risk of serious caffeine intoxication in young adolescents, particularly those with low body mass. • Excessive consumption of caffeine can lead to serious caffeine intoxication. • The risk of potential harmful caffeine intoxication after ingestion of caffeinated energy drinks (CED) has not been adequately evaluated in adolescents. • Predicted maximal plasma caffeine concentration profiles of adolescents with lower body weights showed an overlap with the ingested caffeine concentrations obtained from documented fatalities. • The present simulation-based pharmacokinetic analysis demonstrates that CED ingestion could lead to potentially serious caffeine intoxication in this cohort.

  15. Prediction of alcohol drinking in adolescents: Personality-traits, behavior, brain responses, and genetic variations in the context of reward sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Angela; Müller, Kathrin U; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Papadopoulos, Dimitri; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Smolka, Michael; Ströhle, Andreas; Rietschel, Marcella; Flor, Herta; Schumann, Gunter; Nees, Frauke

    2016-07-01

    Adolescence is a time that can set the course of alcohol abuse later in life. Sensitivity to reward on multiple levels is a major factor in this development. We examined 736 adolescents from the IMAGEN longitudinal study for alcohol drinking during early (mean age=14.37) and again later (mean age=16.45) adolescence. Conducting structural equation modeling we evaluated the contribution of reward-related personality traits, behavior, brain responses and candidate genes. Personality seems to be most important in explaining alcohol drinking in early adolescence. However, genetic variations in ANKK1 (rs1800497) and HOMER1 (rs7713917) play an equal role in predicting alcohol drinking two years later and are most important in predicting the increase in alcohol consumption. We hypothesize that the initiation of alcohol use may be driven more strongly by personality while the transition to increased alcohol use is more genetically influenced.

  16. Association between soft drink consumption, oral health and some lifestyle factors in Swedish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselkvist, Agneta; Johansson, Anders; Johansson, Ann-Katrin

    2014-11-01

    The aim was to investigate the relationship between soft drink consumption, oral health and some lifestyle factors in Swedish adolescents. A clinical dental examination and a questionnaire concerning lifestyle factors, including drinking habits, oral hygiene, dietary consumption, physical activity and screen-viewing habits were completed. Three hundred and ninety-two individuals completed the study (13-14 years, n = 195; 18-19 years, n = 197). The material was divided into high and low carbonated soft drink consumption groups, corresponding to approximately the highest and the lowest one-third of subjects in each age group. Differences between the groups were tested by the Mann-Whitney U-test and logistic regression. Intake of certain dietary items, tooth brushing, sports activities, meal patterns, screen-viewing behaviors, BMI and parents born outside Sweden differed significantly between high and low consumers in one or both of the two age groups. Dental erosion (both age groups) and DMFT/DMFS (18-19 years group) were significantly higher in the high consumption groups. Logistic regression showed predictive variables for high consumption of carbonated soft drinks to be mainly gender (male), unhealthy dietary habits, lesser physical activity, higher BMI and longer time spent in front of TV/computer. High soft drink consumption was related to poorer oral health and an unhealthier lifestyle.

  17. Positive drinking consequences among hazardous drinking college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capron, Daniel W; Schmidt, Norman B

    2012-05-01

    Negative drinking consequences in college students have been well studied, but emerging evidence points to a role for positive drinking consequences in predicting alcohol related problems. Positive drinking consequences appear to be distinct from other drinking constructs such as drinking expectancies and drinking motives. However, no work has evaluated the role of positive drinking consequences in hazardous drinking college students, a population at high risk for alcohol related problems. The goal of the current study was to examine the effect of positive drinking consequences on problem drinking and alcohol problem recognition in a hazardous drinking college sample. Participants (N=222) were hazardous drinking undergraduate students completing a battery of self-report measures about alcohol use. Findings indicated that positive drinking consequences predicted problem drinking above and beyond other related constructs including positive drinking motives (i.e. enhancement and social). However, positive drinking consequences did not appear to play a significant role in alcohol problem recognition. Future research directions and implications for interventions with hazardous drinking college students are discussed.

  18. Breaking car use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Møller, Berit Thorup

    2008-01-01

    and consider using-or at least trying-public transport instead. About 1,000 car drivers participated in the experiment either as experimental subjects, receiving a free one-month travelcard, or as control subjects. As predicted, the intervention had a significant impact on drivers' use of public transport...... and it also neutralized the impact of car driving habits on mode choice. However, in the longer run (i.e., four months after the experiment) experimental subjects did not use public transport more than control subjects. Hence, it seems that although many car drivers choose travel mode habitually, their final...

  19. Predicting Arsenic in Drinking Water Wells of the Central Valley, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte, Joseph D; Nolan, Bernard T; Gronberg, Jo Ann

    2016-07-19

    Probabilities of arsenic in groundwater at depths used for domestic and public supply in the Central Valley of California are predicted using weak-learner ensemble models (boosted regression trees, BRT) and more traditional linear models (logistic regression, LR). Both methods captured major processes that affect arsenic concentrations, such as the chemical evolution of groundwater, redox differences, and the influence of aquifer geochemistry. Inferred flow-path length was the most important variable but near-surface-aquifer geochemical data also were significant. A unique feature of this study was that previously predicted nitrate concentrations in three dimensions were themselves predictive of arsenic and indicated an important redox effect at >10 μg/L, indicating low arsenic where nitrate was high. Additionally, a variable representing three-dimensional aquifer texture from the Central Valley Hydrologic Model was an important predictor, indicating high arsenic associated with fine-grained aquifer sediment. BRT outperformed LR at the 5 μg/L threshold in all five predictive performance measures and at 10 μg/L in four out of five measures. BRT yielded higher prediction sensitivity (39%) than LR (18%) at the 10 μg/L threshold-a useful outcome because a major objective of the modeling was to improve our ability to predict high arsenic areas.

  20. Peering into the brain to predict behavior: Peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness links threat-related amygdala activity to future problem drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Johnna R; Knodt, Annchen R; Radtke, Spenser R; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2017-02-01

    Personality traits such as conscientiousness as self-reported by individuals can help predict a range of outcomes, from job performance to longevity. Asking others to rate the personality of their acquaintances often provides even better predictive power than using self-report. Here, we examine whether peer-reported personality can provide a better link between brain function, namely threat-related amygdala activity, and future health-related behavior, namely problem drinking, than self-reported personality. Using data from a sample of 377 young adult university students who were rated on five personality traits by peers, we find that higher threat-related amygdala activity to fearful facial expressions is associated with higher peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness. Moreover, higher peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness predicts lower future problem drinking more than one year later, an effect specific to men. Remarkably, relatively higher amygdala activity has an indirect effect on future drinking behavior in men, linked by peer-reported conscientiousness to lower future problem drinking. Our results provide initial evidence that the perceived conscientiousness of an individual by their peers uniquely reflects variability in a core neural mechanism supporting threat responsiveness. These novel patterns further suggest that incorporating peer-reported measures of personality into individual differences research can reveal novel predictive pathways of risk and protection for problem behaviors.

  1. Preserving drinking water quality in geotechnical operations: predicting the feedback between fluid injection, fluid flow, and contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Frank R.

    2014-05-01

    Not only in densely populated areas the preservation of drinking water quality is of vital interest. On the other side, our modern economies request for a sustained energy supply and a secure storage of waste materials. As energy sources with a high security of supply, oil, natural gas, and geothermal energy cover ca. 60% of Europe's energy demand; together with coal more than 75% (IEA 2011). Besides geothermal energy, all of the resources have a high greenhouse gas footprint. All these production activities are related to fluid injection and/or fluid production. The same holds true for gas storage operations in porous reservoirs, to store natural gases, oil, or greenhouse gases. Different concerns are discussed in the public and geoscientific community to influence the drinking water quality: - wastewater discharges from field exploration, drilling, production, well treatment and completion - wastewater sequestration - gas storage - tight gas and tight oil production (including hydraulic fracturing) - Shale gas production (including hydraulic fracturing) - mine drainage This overview contribution focusses on strategies to systematically reduce the risk of water pollution in geotechnical operations of deep reservoirs. The principals will be exemplarily revealed for different geotechnical operations. - How to control hydraulic fracturing operations to reduce the risk of enhanced seismic activity and avoiding the connection of originally separated aquifers. The presented approach to quantitatively predict the impact of stimulation activities is based on petrophysical models taking the feedback of geomechanical processes and fluid flow in porous media, fissures and faults into account. The specific flow patterns in various rock types lead to distinguished differences in operational risk. - How can a proper planning of geotechnical operations reduce the involved risks. A systematic risk reduction strategy will be discussed. On selected samples the role of exploration

  2. Predicting alcohol consumption and binge drinking in company employees: an application of planned behaviour and self-determination theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, Martin S; Lonsdale, Adam J; Hein, Vello; Koka, Andre; Lintunen, Taru; Pasi, Heidi; Lindwall, Magnus; Rudolfsson, Lisa; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D

    2012-05-01

    This study tested an integrated model of the psychosocial determinants of alcohol-related behaviour among company employees from four nations. A motivational sequence was proposed in which motivational orientations from self-determination theory influenced intentions to consume alcohol within guideline limits and alcohol-related behaviour via the mediation of the theory of planned behaviour variables of attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control (PBC). A three-wave prospective design using self-reported psychological and behavioural measures. Company employees (N= 486, males = 225, females = 261; M age = 30.41, SD= 8.31) from four nations (Estonia, Finland, Sweden, and UK) completed measures of autonomous and controlled motivation from self-determination theory, attitudes, subjective norms, PBC, intentions from the theory of planned behaviour, and self-reported measures of past alcohol consumption and binge-drinking occasions at the first time point (time 1). Follow-up psychological and behavioural measures were taken one month later (time 2) and follow-up behavioural measures taken a further 2 months later (time 3). Path analyses supported the motivational sequence with identified regulation (time 1), predicting intentions (time 1), and alcohol units consumed (time 2). The effects were indirect via the mediation of attitudes and PBC (time 1). A similar pattern of effects was found for the effect of time 2 psychological variables on time 3 units of alcohol consumed. There was little support for the effects of the psychological variables on binge-drinking behaviour. Findings provide new information on the psychosocial determinants of alcohol behaviour in company employees and the processes involved. Results may provide impetus for the development of interventions to reduce alcohol consumption. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Development of predictive models for geosmin-related taste and odor in Kansas, USA, drinking water reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzialowski, Andrew R; Smith, Val H; Huggins, Donald G; Denoyelles, Frank; Lim, Niang-Choo; Baker, Debbie S; Beury, Jason H

    2009-06-01

    The presence of taste and odor compounds can greatly reduce the quality of drinking water supplies. Because the monetary costs associated with the removal of these compounds can be high, it is impractical for most facilities to continuously treat their raw water. Instead, new tools are needed to help predict when taste and odor events may be most likely to occur. Water quality data were collected between June and October in 2006-2007 from five Kansas (USA) reservoirs in order to develop predictive models for geosmin, a major taste and odor compound; two of these reservoirs were also sampled during specific taste and odor events in December 2006 and January 2007. Lake trophic state alone was not a good predictor of geosmin concentrations as the highest average geosmin concentration was observed in the reservoir with the lowest nutrient and chlorophyll a concentrations. In addition, taste and odor events were not confined to summer months; elevated geosmin concentrations were observed in several reservoirs during the winter. Growth limitation by inorganic phosphorus appeared to be the primary determinant of geosmin production by algal cells in these reservoirs.

  4. Prediction of powdered activated carbon doses for 2-MIB removal in drinking water treatment using a simplified HSDM approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianwei; Yang, Fong-Chen; Hung, Wei-Nung; Liu, Chia-Ling; Yang, Min; Lin, Tsair-Fuh

    2016-08-01

    The addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC) is an effective measure to cope with seasonal taste and odor (T&O) problems caused by 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB) and trans-1, 10-dimethyl-trans-9-decalol (geosmin) in drinking water. Some T&O problems are episodic in nature, and generally require rapid responses. This paper proposed a simplified approach for the application of the homogenous surface diffusion model (HSDM) to predict the appropriate PAC doses for the removal of 2-MIB. Equilibrium and kinetic experiments were performed for 2-MIB adsorption onto five PACs in three source waters. The simplified HSDM approach was compared with the experimental data, by assigning the Freundlich 1/n value in the range of 0.1-1.0 and obtaining the Freundlich equilibrium parameter K value through a 6-hr adsorption kinetic test. The model describes the kinetic adsorption data very well for all of the tested PACs in different source waters. The results were validated using the data obtained from one full scale water treatment plant, and the differences between the predicted and observed results were within 10% range. This simplified HSDM approach may be applied for the rapid determination of PAC doses for water treatment plants when faced with 2-MIB episodes in source waters.

  5. Lifetime Prediction of Polyethylene Pipes Transporting Drinking Water in the Presence of Chlorine Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, X.; Audouin, L.; Verdu, J.

    2008-08-01

    A kinetic model for lifetime prediction of polyethylene pipes transporting pressurized water disinfected by chlorine dioxide (DOC) has been elaborated. This model is composed of three sub-models: —A system of differential equations, derived from a realistic mechanistic scheme for radical chain oxidation in the presence of DOC of stabilized polyethylene (PE), giving access to the spatial distribution of structural changes in the pipe wall and its evolution against time of exposure; —The classical Saito's equation to predict the profiles of average molar masses from the spatial distribution of chain scissions and crosslinking events; —An empirical creep equation and an empirical fracture criterion derived from regression curves obtained in pure water. It is assumed that chemical degradation modifies only the time to transition tc between ductile and brittle regimes of failure, and that tc is linked to the weight average molar mass by a power law. By combining these three sub-models, it is possible to predict the time to failure tF under the coupled effects of pressure and chemical degradation. In current use conditions (under 3-12 bars water pressure, at 15 °C, in the presence of 0.15 mg of DOC per liter of water), the model predicts a tF of the order of 15 years against more than 50 years expected lifetime, that agrees well with experimental results.

  6. Predicting total organic halide formation from drinking water chlorination using quantitative structure-property relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luilo, G B; Cabaniss, S E

    2011-10-01

    Chlorinating water which contains dissolved organic matter (DOM) produces disinfection byproducts, the majority of unknown structure. Hence, the total organic halide (TOX) measurement is used as a surrogate for toxic disinfection byproducts. This work derives a robust quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) for predicting the TOX formation potential of model compounds. Literature data for 49 compounds were used to train the QSPR in moles of chlorine per mole of compound (Cp) (mol-Cl/mol-Cp). The resulting QSPR has four descriptors, calibration [Formula: see text] of 0.72 and standard deviation of estimation of 0.43 mol-Cl/mol-Cp. Internal and external validation indicate that the QSPR has good predictive power and low bias (‰<‰1%). Applying this QSPR to predict TOX formation by DOM surrogates - tannic acid, two model fulvic acids and two agent-based model assemblages - gave a predicted TOX range of 136-184 µg-Cl/mg-C, consistent with experimental data for DOM, which ranged from 78 to 192 µg-Cl/mg-C. However, the limited structural variation in the training data may limit QSPR applicability; studies of more sulfur-containing compounds, heterocyclic compounds and high molecular weight compounds could lead to a more widely applicable QSPR.

  7. Personality, Alcohol Use, and Drinking Motives: A Comparison of Independent and Combined Internal Drinking Motives Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Abby L.; Flett, Gordon L.

    2009-01-01

    It is well-established that coping and enhancement drinking motives predict college student drinking and that personality traits predict drinking motives. Little is known, however, about personality and drinking patterns among individuals who drink for both enhancement and coping reasons. University students in the current study completed…

  8. Comparative Habitability of Transiting Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rory; Meadows, Victoria S.; Evans, Nicole

    2015-12-01

    Exoplanet habitability is traditionally assessed by comparing a planet’s semimajor axis to the location of its host star’s “habitable zone,” the shell around a star for which Earth-like planets can possess liquid surface water. The Kepler space telescope has discovered numerous planet candidates near the habitable zone, and many more are expected from missions such as K2, TESS, and PLATO. These candidates often require significant follow-up observations for validation, so prioritizing planets for habitability from transit data has become an important aspect of the search for life in the universe. We propose a method to compare transiting planets for their potential to support life based on transit data, stellar properties and previously reported limits on planetary emitted flux. For a planet in radiative equilibrium, the emitted flux increases with eccentricity, but decreases with albedo. As these parameters are often unconstrained, there is an “eccentricity-albedo degeneracy” for the habitability of transiting exoplanets. Our method mitigates this degeneracy, includes a penalty for large-radius planets, uses terrestrial mass-radius relationships, and, when available, constraints on eccentricity to compute a number we call the “habitability index for transiting exoplanets” that represents the relative probability that an exoplanet could support liquid surface water. We calculate it for Kepler objects of interest and find that planets that receive between 60% and 90% of the Earth’s incident radiation, assuming circular orbits, are most likely to be habitable. Finally, we make predictions for the upcoming TESS and James Webb Space Telescope missions.

  9. COMPARATIVE HABITABILITY OF TRANSITING EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Rory; Meadows, Victoria S.; Evans, Nicole, E-mail: rory@astro.washington.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 951580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Exoplanet habitability is traditionally assessed by comparing a planet’s semimajor axis to the location of its host star’s “habitable zone,” the shell around a star for which Earth-like planets can possess liquid surface water. The Kepler space telescope has discovered numerous planet candidates near the habitable zone, and many more are expected from missions such as K2, TESS, and PLATO. These candidates often require significant follow-up observations for validation, so prioritizing planets for habitability from transit data has become an important aspect of the search for life in the universe. We propose a method to compare transiting planets for their potential to support life based on transit data, stellar properties and previously reported limits on planetary emitted flux. For a planet in radiative equilibrium, the emitted flux increases with eccentricity, but decreases with albedo. As these parameters are often unconstrained, there is an “eccentricity-albedo degeneracy” for the habitability of transiting exoplanets. Our method mitigates this degeneracy, includes a penalty for large-radius planets, uses terrestrial mass–radius relationships, and, when available, constraints on eccentricity to compute a number we call the “habitability index for transiting exoplanets” that represents the relative probability that an exoplanet could support liquid surface water. We calculate it for Kepler objects of interest and find that planets that receive between 60% and 90% of the Earth’s incident radiation, assuming circular orbits, are most likely to be habitable. Finally, we make predictions for the upcoming TESS and James Webb Space Telescope missions.

  10. Predicted intake of trace elements and minerals via household drinking water by 6-year-old children from Krakow, Poland. Part 5: Zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, H

    2010-03-01

    Zinc (Zn) exposure in pre-school children via household drinking water collected by a double sampling method (morning, evening) was evaluated in a sample of the Polish population. Zn concentration was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Rural and suburban Krakow sites were non-distinguishable in respect of Zn concentrations. However, significantly lower Zn was found in urban as compared with non-urban sites [geometric mean (95% confidence interval) 0.14 (0.01-1.95) mg l(-1) versus 0.52 (0.03-10.2) mg l(-1), p water standing overnight in pipelines were higher in all sites by 0.36 mg l(-1) on average, but observed really contaminations were higher. The Zn limit based on the taste and colour of drinking water (3 mg l(-1)) was exceeded in 1% and 10% of households from urban and non-urban sites, respectively. The Zn intake predictions for evening water samples for 6-year-old children averaged between 2% and 9% of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA, 10 mg day(-1)) for urban and non-urban sites, respectively. Mean Zn intake prediction for the exceedance fraction was 64% of RDA. In conclusion, overnight contamination of drinking water from in-house pipelines was significant and common to all sites investigated. Secondly, drinking water can be considered a significant contributor to dietary Zn intake by children in non-urban sites and may shift the population borderline of deficiency.

  11. Psychology of Habit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Wendy; Rünger, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    As the proverbial creatures of habit, people tend to repeat the same behaviors in recurring contexts. This review characterizes habits in terms of their cognitive, motivational, and neurobiological properties. In so doing, we identify three ways that habits interface with deliberate goal pursuit: First, habits form as people pursue goals by repeating the same responses in a given context. Second, as outlined in computational models, habits and deliberate goal pursuit guide actions synergistically, although habits are the efficient, default mode of response. Third, people tend to infer from the frequency of habit performance that the behavior must have been intended. We conclude by applying insights from habit research to understand stress and addiction as well as the design of effective interventions to change health and consumer behaviors.

  12. Healthy Sleep Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sleep Apnea Testing CPAP Healthy Sleep Habits Healthy Sleep Habits Your behaviors during the day, and especially ... team at an AASM accredited sleep center . Quick Sleep Tips Follow these tips to establish healthy sleep ...

  13. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of human exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid suggests historical non drinking-water exposures are important for predicting current serum concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Rachel Rogers; Yang, Xiaoxia; Fisher, Jeffrey

    2017-09-01

    Manufacturing of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a synthetic chemical with a long half-life in humans, peaked between 1970 and 2002, and has since diminished. In the United States, PFOA is detected in the blood of >99% of people tested, but serum concentrations have decreased since 1999. Much is known about exposure to PFOA in drinking water; however, the impact of non-drinking water PFOA exposure on serum PFOA concentrations is not well characterized. The objective of this research is to apply physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling and Monte Carlo analysis to evaluate the impact of historic non-drinking water PFOA exposure on serum PFOA concentrations. In vitro to in vivo extrapolation was utilized to inform descriptions of PFOA transport in the kidney. Monte Carlo simulations were incorporated to evaluate factors that account for the large inter-individual variability of serum PFOA concentrations measured in individuals from North Alabama in 2010 and 2016, and the Mid-Ohio River Valley between 2005 and 2008. Predicted serum PFOA concentrations were within two-fold of experimental data. With incorporation of Monte Carlo simulations, the model successfully tracked the large variability of serum PFOA concentrations measured in populations from the Mid-Ohio River Valley. Simulation of exposure in a population of 45 adults from North Alabama successfully predicted 98% of individual serum PFOA concentrations measured in 2010 and 2016, respectively, when non-drinking water ingestion of PFOA exposure was included. Variation in serum PFOA concentrations may be due to inter-individual variability in the disposition of PFOA and potentially elevated historical non-drinking water exposures. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Breaking car use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Møller, Berit Thorup

    2008-01-01

    Based on calls for innovative ways of reducing car traffic and research indicating that car driving is often the result of habitual decision-making and choice processes, this paper reports on a field experiment designed to test a tool aimed to entice drivers to skip the habitual choice of the car...... and consider using-or at least trying-public transport instead. About 1,000 car drivers participated in the experiment either as experimental subjects, receiving a free one-month travelcard, or as control subjects. As predicted, the intervention had a significant impact on drivers' use of public transport...... and it also neutralized the impact of car driving habits on mode choice. However, in the longer run (i.e., four months after the experiment) experimental subjects did not use public transport more than control subjects. Hence, it seems that although many car drivers choose travel mode habitually, their final...

  15. Underage Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 10/17. Drinking patterns vary by age and gender As adolescents get older, they tend to drink ... clear rules against drinking, as well as improve communication between children and parents about alcohol. The Role ...

  16. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) Injury, Violence & Safety Featured Videos Binge Drinking Binge Drinking A ... Safe Teen Drivers Break the Silence: Stop the Violence Break the Silence: Stop the Violence Binge Drinking ...

  17. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Binge Drinking (4:23) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Binge Drinking Binge Drinking Transcript [23 KB, 2 pages] High resolution [27. ...

  18. Prediction of ground water quality index to assess suitability for drinking purposes using fuzzy rule-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorai, A. K.; Hasni, S. A.; Iqbal, Jawed

    2016-11-01

    Groundwater is the most important natural resource for drinking water to many people around the world, especially in rural areas where the supply of treated water is not available. Drinking water resources cannot be optimally used and sustained unless the quality of water is properly assessed. To this end, an attempt has been made to develop a suitable methodology for the assessment of drinking water quality on the basis of 11 physico-chemical parameters. The present study aims to select the fuzzy aggregation approach for estimation of the water quality index of a sample to check the suitability for drinking purposes. Based on expert's opinion and author's judgement, 11 water quality (pollutant) variables (Alkalinity, Dissolved Solids (DS), Hardness, pH, Ca, Mg, Fe, Fluoride, As, Sulphate, Nitrates) are selected for the quality assessment. The output results of proposed methodology are compared with the output obtained from widely used deterministic method (weighted arithmetic mean aggregation) for the suitability of the developed methodology.

  19. Similarity in romantic couples' drinking motivations and drinking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehayes, Ivy-Lee L; Mackinnon, Sean P; Sherry, Simon B; Leonard, Kenneth E; Stewart, Sherry H

    2017-07-20

    Research suggests that enhancement, conformity, social, coping-with-anxiety, and coping-with-depression drinking motives are linked to specific drinking outcomes in a theoretically expected manner. Social learning theory suggests that people who spend more time together emulate each other's behavior to acquire reinforcing outcomes. The present study sought to integrate drinking motives theory and social learning theory to investigate similarity in drinking behaviors and drinking motives in romantic couples. We hypothesized that couples would be more similar than chance in their drinking behaviors and motives. We also hypothesized that demographics reflecting time around and interactions with romantic partners (e.g., days spent drinking together) would positively correlate with similarity in drinking behaviors and motivations. The present study tested hypotheses in 203 romantic couples. Participants completed a Timeline Follow-Back measure and the Modified Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised to track their alcohol use and drinking motives. Similarity profiles were calculated using McCrae's (J Pers Assess. 2008;90:105-109) coefficient of profile agreement, rpa. Couples were more similar in their drinking behavioral and motivational profiles than could be explained by chance. Days spent drinking together and days with face-to-face contact predicted increased similarity in drinking behavior profiles, but not similarity in drinking motives profiles. Results are partially consistent with social learning theory and suggest that social influences within couples could be important intervention targets to prevent escalations in drinking.

  20. Drinking Patterns and Their Gender Differences in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grittner, Ulrike; Mäkelä, Pia; Gmel, Gerhard;

    2006-01-01

    Aims: To compare drinking habits and to examine differences between drinking cultures in different regions and countries in Europe; to examine gender differences in drinking habits and to compare them over countries. Methods: Data consisted of independently conducted, centrally analysed surveys...... in the general population aged 20-64 years in 14 European countries. Central measures were abstention, frequency and volume of drinking overall and by beverage type, amounts drunk per drinking day, and heavy episodic drinking. Results: There were clear gender differences in all drinking measures, except for wine...... drinking. Differences between genders were often smaller than average in northern Europe. Gender ratios did not show systematic changes by age, with the exception that young men and women differed less than older men and women in the frequency of heavy episodic drinking. The results on beverage preferences...

  1. Drinking Among Rural Youth with Implications for Rural Institutional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassey, Marie; And Others

    During a 3-month period ending in January 1977, questionnaires were given to 889 eighth and twelfth grade students to determine the extent of drinking among rural teenagers in Idaho, and the sociological and psychological factors affecting their drinking habits. At least 16% of 8th graders and 34% of 12th graders drink frequently. A much higher…

  2. Vulnerability of shallow ground water and drinking-water wells to nitrate in the United States: Model of predicted nitrate concentration in U.S. ground water used for drinking (simulation depth 50 meters) -- Model output data set (gwava-dw_out)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents predicted nitrate concentration in ground water used for drinking, in milligrams per liter, in the conterminous United States, and was...

  3. 海军某核潜艇官兵口腔健康状况与不良烟酒嗜好相关性初探%The relationship between smoking and drinking alcohol habits and oral health status in nuclear-powered submarine officers and soldiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚君; 罗琳; 刘亚平

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine ihe oral hygiene slalus of some marine soldiers and Lo analyze ihe polenlial relationship belween iheir oral hygiene and smoking and drinking alcohol. Methods According Lo WHO basic melhods for oral heallh surveys, oral heallh examination and questionnaire were conducted in 816 marine soldiers. The debris index, plaque index, calculus index, gingival index and CPI index were recorded in the clinical examination. Data was statistically analyzed. Results The oral hygiene and periodontal health status in the group without harmful habits were significantly better than those of the groups with smoking and drinking habits( P < 0. 01) . There was no significant difference between smoking and drinking groups. Conclusion Smoking and drinking alcohol were related to oral hygiene status of marine soldiers.%目的 调查和分析海军某核潜艇官兵的口腔卫生及牙周健康状况与不良烟酒嗜好间可能存在的相关性,为其口腔卫生保健提供科学依据.方法 根据1997年世界卫生组织口腔健康调查基本方法,对816名某核潜艇官兵进行口腔健康状况和问卷调查,按官兵的烟酒嗜好分组进行数据统计和分析.结果 无烟酒嗜好组官兵的软垢、菌斑及牙石指数均数都明显低于吸烟嗜好组和烟酒嗜好组,统计学检验差异有显著性(P<0.01),吸烟嗜好组和烟酒嗜好组官兵间差异数据无统计学意义.结论 烟酒不良嗜好与核潜艇官兵口腔卫生状况密切相关.

  4. Eating habits, body image and health and behavioural problems of adolescents : The role of school and family context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holubcikova, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Healthy eating habits in adolescence support optimal health, growth and intellectual development of the individual. In Slovakia, the prevalence of unhealthy eating habits among adolescents is rather high. During the last decade, regular consumption of soft drinks and energy drinks has become very

  5. Eating habits, body image and health and behavioural problems of adolescents : The role of school and family context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holubcikova, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Healthy eating habits in adolescence support optimal health, growth and intellectual development of the individual. In Slovakia, the prevalence of unhealthy eating habits among adolescents is rather high. During the last decade, regular consumption of soft drinks and energy drinks has become very co

  6. Habit and Heterogeneity in the Youthful Demand for Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Michael J.; Philip J. Cook

    1995-01-01

    Observed patterns of youthful drinking indicate substantial persistence. This paper analyzes how much of that persistence reflects the actual development of a habit, and how much is due to unobserved aspects of the individual and the environment. The role of restrictions on alcohol availability, both in the current period and in adolescence, is also explored. We find that much of the observed persistence represents habit formation, and not unobserved characteristics. Consequently, restriction...

  7. Nutritional habits and cognitive performance of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallidou, Anastasia; Cartie, Mario

    2015-06-01

    Healthy nutritional habits, including drinking plenty of water and maintaining hydration, are fundamental components for sustaining life, health and wellbeing. Evidence has suggested that certain dietary patterns and lifestyles could help delay the ageing process and reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease. This article explores the potential association between nutritional habits and the cognitive performance of older adults and identifies research gaps that could be filled by future studies on healthy ageing.

  8. Nutritional knowledge and dietary habits survey in high school population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosavljević, Dragana; Mandić, Milena L; Banjari, Ines

    2015-03-01

    During adolescence, young people are in a sensitive transition period when they gradually take over the responsibility for their own eating habits, health attitudes and behaviours and create lifelong habits so it is essential that they adopt healthy habits according to dietary recommendations. Knowledge is one of the factors necessary for the changes in dietary habits. The'objective of this study was to gain insight in nutritional knowledge and dietary habits of adolescents. The sample included 117 adolescents aged 17-19 years. Self-administered, anonymous questionnaire, representing modified version of General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire was used to assess general characteristics, nutritional knowledge about nutrients, dietary recommendations, sources of nutrients, diet-disease relationship, and dietary habits. Less than one third of adolescents showed satisfactory knowledge, but boys, adolescents from rural environment and overweight adolescents showed significantly lower knowledge unlike others. Meal skipping was present habit, especially for breakfast consumption. Especially high consumption of meat and meat products was noted for boys, while fruit and vegetables for girls. Fad dieting was quite practiced habit, especially in girls and overweight adolescents. Among girls, high consumption of sweets was confirmed, while boys showed high consumption of soft drinks. Television presents the main source of infor- mation about nutrition for adolescents. Collected data shows similarity with other research in Europe and North America that confirm strong influence of globalization and fast spread of unhealthy habits. The results pointed out weak spots in nutritional knowledge and revealed unhealthy eating habits. This information is necessary for the development of new approaches to modulate their knowledge and consequently act on their behaviour. Behavioral changes would include higher number of meals per day, regular breakfast consumption, higher intake of fish

  9. Drinking Motives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Rosendahl, Jacob; Andronikidis, Andreas I.

    2013-01-01

    , and quenching one’s thirst. The non-alcoholic products scoring low on functionality are coffee, tea, soft drinks, and energy drinks. Analysis of socio-demographic differences resulted in only a few effects. Men, lower education groups, and lower income groups are more likely to drink alcohol for reasons other......This chapter presents an analysis of what consumer in Europe drink and why they drink what they drink. The concept of drinking motives is developed and defined, and analysis of data on drinking motives shows that these can be grouped into two major classes: self-expressive and functional....... This distinction is universal and henceapplies across Europe. However, the importance of self-expressive as compared to functional motives, as well as the way in which these relate to different beverages, does differ across Europe. Both dimensions are relevant for the motives for drinking non-alcoholic drinks...

  10. Evolution of galaxy habitability

    OpenAIRE

    Gobat, R.; Hong, S. E.

    2016-01-01

    We combine a semi-analytic model of galaxy evolution with constraints on circumstellar habitable zones and the distribution of terrestrial planets to probe the suitability of galaxies of different mass and type to host habitable planets, and how it evolves with time. We find that the fraction of stars with terrestrial planets in their habitable zone (known as habitability) depends only weakly on galaxy mass, with a maximum around 4e10 Msun. We estimate that 0.7% of all stars in Milky Way type...

  11. Model-based prediction of fluid bed state in full-scale drinking water pellet softening reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, O.; Jobse, M.A.; Baars, E.T.; van der Helm, A.W.C.; Colin, M.G.; Kors, L...J...; van Vugt, W.H.

    2015-01-01

    Softening at drinking water treatment plants is often realised by fluidised bed pellet reactors. Generally, sand is used as seeding material and pellets are produced as a by-product. To improve to sustainability, research has been carried out to replace the seeding material by re-using grained and s

  12. Effects of Climate Change on Drinking Water Distribution Network Integrity: Predicting Pipe Failure Resulting from Differential Soil Settlement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wols, B.A.; Van Daal, K.; Van Thienen, P.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change may result in lowering of ground water levels and consolidation of the soil. The resulting (differential) settlements, associated with soil property transitions, may damage underground pipe infrastructure, such as drinking water distribution sys- tems. The work presented here offers a

  13. Effects of Climate Change on Drinking Water Distribution Network Integrity: Predicting Pipe Failure Resulting from Differential Soil Settlement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wols, B.A.; Van Daal, K.; Van Thienen, P.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change may result in lowering of ground water levels and consolidation of the soil. The resulting (differential) settlements, associated with soil property transitions, may damage underground pipe infrastructure, such as drinking water distribution sys- tems. The work presented here offers

  14. Effects of Climate Change on Drinking Water Distribution Network Integrity: Predicting Pipe Failure Resulting from Differential Soil Settlement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wols, B.A.; Van Daal, K.; Van Thienen, P.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change may result in lowering of ground water levels and consolidation of the soil. The resulting (differential) settlements, associated with soil property transitions, may damage underground pipe infrastructure, such as drinking water distribution sys- tems. The work presented here offers a

  15. Does intrinsic motivation strengthen physical activity habit? Modeling relationships between self-determination, past behaviour, and habit strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Benjamin; Lally, Phillippa

    2013-10-01

    Habit formation is thought to aid maintenance of physical activity, but little research is available into determinants of habit strength aside from repeated performance. Previous work has shown that intrinsically motivated physical activity, underpinned by inherent satisfaction derived from activity, is more likely to be sustained. We explored whether this might reflect a tendency for self-determined activity to become more strongly habitual. A sample of 192 adults aged 18-30 completed measures of motivational regulation, intention, behaviour, and habit strength. Results showed that self-determined regulation interacted with past behaviour in predicting habit strength: prior action was more predictive of habit strength among more autonomously motivated participants. There was an unexpected direct effect of self-determined regulation on habit strength, independently of past behaviour. Findings offer possible directions for future habit formation work.

  16. On the Habitability of Aquaplanets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Cardenas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An Aquatic Habitability Index is proposed, based on Quantitative Habitability Theory, and considering a very general model for life. It is a primary habitability index, measuring habitability for phytoplankton in the first place. The index is applied to some case studies, such as the habitability changes in Earth due to environmental perturbations caused by asteroid impacts.

  17. Teenagers Media Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Laurence R.

    This study attempted to determine what media most effectively communicated to teenagers, how the media habits of Florida teenagers compared with those in other states, and how the media habits of journalism students compared with those not in journalism. A total of 430 students from Florida high schools and 457 from high schools in other states…

  18. Changing circumstances, disrupting habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Wendy; Witt, Melissa Guerrero; Tam, Leona

    2005-06-01

    The present research investigated the mechanisms guiding habitual behavior, specifically, the stimulus cues that trigger habit performance. When usual contexts for performance change, habits cannot be cued by recurring stimuli, and performance should be disrupted. Thus, the exercising, newspaper reading, and TV watching habits of students transferring to a new university were found to survive the transfer only when aspects of the performance context did not change (e.g., participants continued to read the paper with others). In some cases, the disruption in habits also placed behavior under intentional control so that participants acted on their current intentions. Changes in circumstances also affected the favorability of intentions, but changes in intentions alone could not explain the disruption of habits. Furthermore, regardless of whether contexts changed, nonhabitual behavior was guided by intentions.

  19. Will personal values predict the development of smoking and drinking behaviors? A prospective cohort study of children and adolescents in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieh, Hsi-Ping; Wu, Wen-Chi; Luh, Dih-Ling; Yen, Lee-Lan; Hurng, Baai-Shyun; Chang, Hsing-Yi

    2016-12-01

    This study examined how personal values predict the development of smoking and drinking behaviors in adolescence. The longitudinal data of 1545 adolescents over a 6-year period were analyzed. The results showed that adolescents who valued health and academics had similarly lower odds of reporting cigarette and alcohol use and those who valued friends had significantly higher odds. While the odds increased over time, the trend on alcohol use lessened for adolescents who valued academics, while the trend accelerated for those who valued friends. The finding suggests the important role that personal values play in adolescent risk behavioral development.

  20. Does morphology predict trophic niche differentiation? Relationship between feeding habits and body shape in four co-occurring juvenile species (Pisces: Perciformes, Sparidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Daniele; Bonhomme, Vincent; Colangelo, Paolo; Bonifazi, Andrea; Jona Lasinio, Giovanna; Ardizzone, Giandomenico

    2017-05-01

    Feeding habits, diet overlap and morphological correlates of four juvenile species of the genus Diplodus were investigated during their settlement periods, along the Tyrrhenian coast. Stomach content analysis showed that the diets of D. sargus and D. puntazzo mainly comprised benthic prey such as harpacticoid copepods, amphipods and polychaetes. On the other hand, D. vulgaris and D. annularis fed mainly on planktonic prey such as ciclopoids, calanoids copepods and fish larvae. A biologically significant diet overlap, calculated using the Schoener index, was recorded between D. sargus and D. puntazzo and between D. vulgaris and D. annularis. Morphological characters related to feeding such as gape height and gut length with their relative growth patterns suggested that different trophic preferences have led to a morphological diversification of feeding structures. Therefore, a geometric morphometric outline method, namely Elliptic Fourier Analysis (EFA) was used to examine shape modification of the head and body regions. The multivariate analyses performed on shape descriptors demonstrated that the four species were morphologically distinct due to different feeding habits: the two species which feed mainly on benthic prey presented a discoidal shape, with broad profiles and rounded head; by contrast, the other two species which relied mostly on planktonic prey, presented a streamlined and more elongated body shape.

  1. Implicit alcohol attitudes predict drinking behaviour over and above intentions and willingness in young adults but willingness is more important in adolescents: Implications for the Prototype Willingness Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Emma L; Paltoglou, Aspasia E; Foxcroft, David R

    2017-05-01

    Dual process models, such as the Prototype Willingness Model (PWM), propose to account for both intentional and reactive drinking behaviour. Current methods of measuring constructs in the PWM rely on self-report, thus require a level of conscious deliberation. Implicit measures of attitudes may overcome this limitation and contribute to our understanding of how prototypes and willingness influence alcohol consumption in young people. This study aimed to explore whether implicit alcohol attitudes were related to PWM constructs and whether they would add to the prediction of risky drinking. The study involved a cross-sectional design. The sample included 501 participants from the United Kingdom (Mage 18.92; range 11-51; 63% female); 230 school pupils and 271 university students. Participants completed explicit measures of alcohol prototype perceptions, willingness, drunkenness, harms, and intentions. They also completed an implicit measure of alcohol attitudes, using the Implicit Association Test. Implicit alcohol attitudes were only weakly related to the explicit measures. When looking at the whole sample, implicit alcohol attitudes did not add to the prediction of willingness over and above prototype perceptions. However, for university students implicit attitudes added to the prediction of behaviour, over and above intentions and willingness. For school pupils, willingness was a stronger predictor of behaviour than intentions or implicit attitudes. Adding implicit measures to the PWM may contribute to our understanding of the development of alcohol behaviours in young people. Further research could explore how implicit attitudes develop alongside the shift from reactive to planned behaviour. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Young people's drinking tends to occur in social situations and is driven in part by social reactions within these contexts. The Prototype Willingness Model (PWM) attempts to explain such reactive behaviour as

  2. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) Injury, Violence & Safety Featured Videos Binge Drinking A Time To ... Safe Teen Drivers Break the Silence: Stop the Violence More Information Vital Signs Binge Drinking Information Alcohol & ...

  3. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... car crashes, violence and HIV/AIDS – and discusses effective community prevention strategies such as increasing alcohol excise ... Drinking Information Alcohol & Public Health Binge Drinking Factsheet Effective Prevention Strategies Send Us Feedback What do you ...

  4. Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It ... water supplier must give you annual reports on drinking water. The reports include where your water came from ...

  5. Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... W X Y Z Energy Drinks Share: © Thinkstock Energy drinks are widely promoted as products that increase alertness and enhance physical and mental performance. Marketing targeted at young people has been quite ...

  6. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... discusses effective community prevention strategies such as increasing alcohol excise taxes. The video also features experts who ... Violence More Information Vital Signs Binge Drinking Information Alcohol & Public Health Binge Drinking Factsheet Effective Prevention Strategies ...

  7. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) Injury, Violence & Safety Featured Videos Binge Drinking Binge Drinking A Time To Act A Time To Act Injury Prevention Research Injury Prevention Research In the Swim ...

  8. College Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Harmful and Underage College Drinking Drinking affects college students, their families, and college communities at large. Researchers estimate that ... heavy drinking and alcohol-related consequences because of student expectations and social pressures at the start of the academic year. How ...

  9. Etiology of oral habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayardo, R E; Mejia, J J; Orozco, S; Montoya, K

    1996-01-01

    The pedodontic admission histories of 1600 Mexican children were analyzed, to determine general epidemiologic factors or oral habits, as well as their relationship with identifiable biopsychosociologic factors. Fifty-six percent of the children gave evidence of an oral habit, with significant predisposition among female patients, single children, subjects in poor physical health (particularly from allergies), as well as children with histories of chronic health problems. Oral habits should be considered a major health hazard because of their high incidence. Successful treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach to the basic cause of the problem.

  10. Habitability Assessment at Gale Crater: Implications from Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Pamela G.; Archer, D.; Atreya, S.; Blake, D.; Coll, P.; delaTorre, M.; Edgett, K.; Eigenbrode, J.; Fisk, M.; Freissent, C.; Franz, H.; Glavin, D. P.; Gomez, F.; Haberle, R.; Hamilton, V.; Jones, J.; Kah, L.; Leshin, L.; Mchaffy, P. M.; McAdam, A.; McKay, C.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Steele, A.; Stern, J.; Treiman, A.

    2013-01-01

    Mars Science Laboratory has made measurements that contribute to our assessment of habitability potential at Gale Crater. Campaign organization into a consistent set of measurable parameters allows us to rank the relative habitability potential of sites we study, ultimately laying a foundation for a global context inclusive of past and future Mars mission observations. Chemical, physical, geological and geographic attributes shape environments. Isolated measurements of these factors may be insufficient to deem an environment habitable, but the sum of measurements can help predict locations with greater or lesser habitability potential. Metrics for habitability assessment based on field work at sites sharing features analogous to Mars have previously been suggested. Grouping these metrics helps us to develop an index for their application to habitability assessment. The index is comprised of the weighted values for four groups of parameters, the habitability threshold for each is to be determined.

  11. Combined heavy smoking and drinking predicts overall but not disease-free survival after curative resection of locoregional esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun P

    2016-07-01

    neither-users (95% CI =1.020–1.901, P=0.037.Conclusion: We identified that combined heavy smoking and drinking might predict poor prognosis in ESCC patients. Keywords: esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, smoking, drinking, survival, prognosis

  12. Future-oriented emotions in the prediction of binge-drinking intention and expectation: the role of anticipated and anticipatory emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Pilar; Caballero, Amparo; Muñoz, Dolores

    2012-06-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) offers a parsimonious explanation of purposive behavior, but in the study of healthy and risk behaviors its sufficiency may be questioned. Working with binge-drinking, a very common risk behavior in Spanish undergraduate students, we used two strategies for improving predictions from TPB: using behavioral intention (BI) and behavioral expectation (BE) as proximal antecedents of behaviors and adding as new predictors two future-oriented emotions (anticipated and anticipatory). Hierarchical regression analyses show that while anticipated emotions improved TPB explanations of BI, anticipatory emotions improved the explanations of BE. The present results show the influence of future emotions in the prediction of behavioral intention and behavioral expectation.

  13. What Do You Say Before You Relapse? How Language Use in a Peer-to-peer Online Discussion Forum Predicts Risky Drinking among Those in Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfield, Rachel; Toma, Catalina L; Shah, Dhavan V; Moon, Tae Joon; Gustafson, David H

    2017-08-09

    Increasingly, individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) seek and provide support for relapse prevention in text-based online environments such as discussion forums. This paper investigates whether language use within a peer-to-peer discussion forum can predict future relapse among individuals treated for AUD. A total of 104 AUD sufferers who had completed residential treatment participated in a mobile phone-based relapse-prevention program, where they communicated via an online forum over the course of a year. We extracted patterns of language use on the forum within the first four months on study using Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC), a dictionary-based text analysis program. Participants reported their incidence of risky drinking via a survey at 4, 8, and 12 months. A logistic regression model was built to predict the likelihood that individuals would engage in risky drinking within a year based on their language use, while controlling for baseline characteristics and rates of utilizing the mobile system. Results show that all baseline characteristics and system use factors explained just 13% of the variance in relapse, whereas a small number of linguistic cues, including swearing and cognitive mechanism words, accounted for an additional 32% of the total 45% of variance in relapse explained by the model. Effective models for predicting relapse are needed. Messages exchanged on AUD forums could provide an unobtrusive and cost-effective window into the future health outcomes of AUD sufferers, and their psychological underpinnings. As online communication expands, models that leverage user-submitted text toward predicting relapse will be increasingly scalable and actionable.

  14. Your Child's Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as before falling to sleep or quietly listening to music. Some habits may be leftovers from ... THIS TOPIC First Aid: Nosebleeds Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Teaching Your Child Self-Control Temper Tantrums How Can ...

  15. Habitability: CAMELOT 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alequin, W.; Barragan, A.; Carro, M.; Garcia, F.; Gonzalez, I.; Mercado, J. A.; Negron, N.; Lopez, D.; Rivera, L. A.; Rivera, M.

    1990-01-01

    During 1988 to 1989 the NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program sponsored research and design efforts aimed at developing habitability criteria and at defining a habitability concept as a useful tool in understanding and evaluating dwellings for prolonged stays in extraterrestrial space. The Circulating Auto sufficient Mars-Earth Luxurious Orbital Transport (CAMELOT) was studied as a case in which the students would try to enhance the quality of life of the inhabitants by applying architectural design methodology. The study proposed 14 habitability criteria considered necessary to fulfill the defined habitability concept, which is that state of equilibrium that results from the interaction between components of the Individual Architecture Mission Complex, which allows a person to sustain physiological homeostatis, adequate performance, and acceptable social relationships. Architecture, design development, refinements and revisions to improve the quality of life, new insights on artificial gravity, form and constitution problems, and the final design concept are covered.

  16. Damaging oral habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdar, Rajesh J; Al-Shahrani, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Oral habits, if persist beyond certain developmental age, can pose great harm to the developing teeth, occlusion, and surrounding oral tissues. In the formative years, almost all children engage in some non-nutritive sucking habits. Clinicians, by proper differential diagnosis and thorough understanding of natural growth and developmental processes, should take a decision for intervening. This article describes case series reports of thumb sucking, finger sucking, and tongue thrusting habits, which have been successfully treated by both removable and fixed orthodontic appliances. The cases shown are ranging from the age group of 9-19 years presenting combination of both mixed and permanent dentition development. All cases show satisfactory correction of habits and stable results.

  17. Food Habits Database (FHDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Food Habits Database has two major sources of data. The first, and most extensive, is the standard NEFSC Bottom Trawl Surveys Program. During these...

  18. Consumption Habits and Humps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus; Seifried, Frank Thomas

    We show that the optimal consumption of an individual over the life cycle can have the hump shape (inverted U-shape) observed empirically if the preferences of the individual exhibit internal habit formation. In the absence of habit formation, an impatient individual would prefer a decreasing...... consumption path over life. However, because of habit formation, a high initial consumption would lead to high required consumption in the future. To cover the future required consumption, wealth is set aside, but the necessary amount decreases with age which allows consumption to increase in the early part...... of life. At some age, the impatience outweighs the habit concerns so that consumption starts to decrease. We derive the optimal consumption strategy in closed form, deduce sufficient conditions for the presence of a consumption hump, and characterize the age at which the hump occurs. Numerical examples...

  19. Consumption Habits and Humps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus; Seifried, Frank Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We show that the optimal consumption of an individual over the life cycle can have the hump shape (inverted U-shape) observed empirically if the preferences of the individual exhibit internal habit formation. In the absence of habit formation, an impatient individual would prefer a decreasing...... consumption path over life. However, because of habit formation, a high initial consumption would lead to high required consumption in the future. To cover the future required consumption, wealth is set aside, but the necessary amount decreases with age which allows consumption to increase in the early part...... of life. At some age, the impatience outweighs the habit concerns so that consumption starts to decrease. We derive the optimal consumption strategy in closed form, deduce sufficient conditions for the presence of a consumption hump, and characterize the age at which the hump occurs. Numerical examples...

  20. Policy-Relevant Behaviors Predict Heavier Drinking in Both On and Off Premises and Mediate the Relationship Between Heavier Alcohol Consumption and Age, Gender, and Socioeconomic Status-Analysis from the International Alcohol Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casswell, Sally; Huckle, Taisia; Wall, Martin; Parker, Karl

    2016-02-01

    Our goal was to investigate the role of behaviors amenable to policy change in mediating the relationship between alcohol consumption in off and on premises, age, and 2 measures of socioeconomic status (education and income). A cross-sectional general population survey was analyzed by using Bayesian path analysis to understand direct and mediating pathways. A total of 1,900 drinkers (past 6 months), aged 18 to 65 years, living in households with landline phones participated in the study. Measures were as follows: typical quantities of alcohol consumed per occasion, frequency of drinking, both off and on premise; gender, age groups; and years of education, personal income, prices paid, time of purchase, and liking for alcohol advertisements. Later times of purchase predicted larger quantities consumed (on and off premise) and more frequent drinking (on premise only). Younger people and males purchased later, and this mediated their heavier consumption. Lower prices paid predicted larger quantities consumed (on premise) and higher frequency of drinking (off premise). Younger and male respondents paid lower prices, and this mediated larger quantities consumed on premise and more frequent drinking off premise. Less well educated paid lower prices, and this mediated drinking more frequently off premise among this group. Liking for alcohol ads predicted drinking larger quantities and higher frequency both off and on premise. Younger and male respondents reported greater liking for ads, and this mediated their consumption of larger quantities and more frequent drinking both on and off premise. Those with higher income drank larger amounts on premise and more frequently on and off, but there were no mediating effects from the policy-relevant variables. Heavier drinking patterns by young people and those less well educated could be ameliorated by attention to alcohol policy. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  1. High on habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica R. F Hilário

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The neural circuits involved in learning and executing goal-directed actions, which are governed by action-outcome contingencies and sensitive to changes in the expected value of the outcome, have been shown to be different from those mediating habits, which are less dependent on action-outcome relations and changes in outcome value. Extended training, different reinforcement schedules, and substances of abuse have been shown to induce a shift from goal-directed performance to habitual performance. This shift can be beneficial in everyday life, but can also lead to loss of voluntary control and compulsive behavior, namely during drug seeking in addiction. Although the brain circuits underlying habit formation are becoming clearer, the molecular mechanisms underlying habit formation are still not understood. Here, we review a recent study where Hilario et al. established behavioral procedures to investigate habit formation in mice in order to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying habit formation. Using those procedures, and a combination of genetic and pharmacological tools, the authors showed that endocannabinoid signaling is critical for habit formation.

  2. Comparing the AUDIT and 3 Drinking Indices as Predictors of Personal and Social Drinking Problems in Freshman First Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The current study of 376 college freshman adjudicated the first time for breaking university drinking rules tested the predictive power of four alcohol consumption and problem drinking indices--recent changes in drinking (the Alcohol Change Index: ACI), heavy drinking, binge drinking index, and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)…

  3. Comparing the AUDIT and 3 Drinking Indices as Predictors of Personal and Social Drinking Problems in Freshman First Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The current study of 376 college freshman adjudicated the first time for breaking university drinking rules tested the predictive power of four alcohol consumption and problem drinking indices--recent changes in drinking (the Alcohol Change Index: ACI), heavy drinking, binge drinking index, and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)…

  4. Drinking pattern and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppä, K; Laippala, P; Sillanaukee, P

    1994-03-01

    Large amounts of alcohol are known to increase blood pressure. There is little evidence about the effect of binge drinking of alcohol on blood pressure, although this is the dominant style of alcohol drinking in several countries. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between binge drinking and blood pressure using daily heavy drinkers as a reference group. We examined 260 consecutive nonalcoholic 40- and 45-year-old men participating in a health screening. There were 37 teetotalers, 147 social drinkers, 62 weekend heavy drinkers attending the health screening 2 to 7 days after binge drinking, and 14 men who drank heavily every day. Group division was made using self-reported alcohol consumption and a structured alcohol questionnaire. Blood pressure was measured manually by a mercury manometer. BMDP statistical software was used in the statistical analysis of the material. The diastolic blood pressure of weekend heavy drinkers (mean intake during the weekend, 289 g) did not differ from that found in teetotalers but systolic blood pressure was slightly higher (5 mm Hg, P = .04). In contrast, daily heavy drinkers (mean intake during the weekend [Friday to Saturday], 151 g) had significantly higher systolic (8 mm Hg, P = .04) and diastolic (6 mm Hg, P = .05) blood pressure values than teetotalers. We conclude that different drinking habits seem to have different effects on blood pressure, those of daily heavy drinking being more prominent than those of weekend heavy drinking.

  5. Modelling characteristics to predict Legionella contamination risk - Surveillance of drinking water plumbing systems and identification of risk areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völker, Sebastian; Schreiber, Christiane; Kistemann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    For the surveillance of drinking water plumbing systems (DWPS) and the identification of risk factors, there is a need for an early estimation of the risk of Legionella contamination within a building, using efficient and assessable parameters to estimate hazards and to prioritize risks. The precision, accuracy and effectiveness of ways of estimating the risk of higher Legionella numbers (temperature, stagnation, pipe materials, etc.) have only rarely been empirically assessed in practice, although there is a broad consensus about the impact of these risk factors. We collected n = 807 drinking water samples from 9 buildings which had had Legionella spp. occurrences of >100 CFU/100mL within the last 12 months, and tested for Legionella spp., L. pneumophila, HPC 20°C and 36°C (culture-based). Each building was sampled for 6 months under standard operating conditions in the DWPS. We discovered high variability (up to 4 log(10) steps) in the presence of Legionella spp. (CFU/100 mL) within all buildings over a half year period as well as over the course of a day. Occurrences were significantly correlated with temperature, pipe length measures, and stagnation. Logistic regression modelling revealed three parameters (temperature after flushing until no significant changes in temperatures can be obtained, stagnation (low withdrawal, qualitatively assessed), pipe length proportion) to be the best predictors of Legionella contamination (>100 CFU/100 mL) at single outlets (precision = 66.7%; accuracy = 72.1%; F(0.5) score = 0.59).

  6. THE SODIUM PREVALENCE IN CARBONATED SOFT DRINKS SOLD IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fernanda Nunes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The carbonated soft drinks intake has changed the children eating habits. This factor may be directly associated with arterial hypertension due the high consumption of sodium present in foods and drinks industrialized. This study was to compare sodium levels between two different types of carbonated soft drinks, carbonated sugar drinks and diet drinks to define what type of drink has the lowest sodium content and alerting healthcare professionals about the presence of sodium in industrialized beverages. The study included labels of carbonated soft drinks n = 33 – sugar drinks (n = 21 or diet drinks (n = 12 – of five different flavors.All carbonated soft drinks evaluated have sodium in its composition. However, the sodium presence in carbonated sugar drinks was significantly lower when compared with carbonated diet drinks (69.05 ± 16.55 vs. 145.30 ± 47.36mg Na/l, respectively.Studies to identify children's eating habits related with increased consumption of foods and drinks manufactured are needed to identify, reduce and prevent high blood pressure.

  7. Age aspects of habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonova, M.; Murthy, J.; Shchekinov, Yu. A.

    2016-04-01

    A `habitable zone' of a star is defined as a range of orbits within which a rocky planet can support liquid water on its surface. The most intriguing question driving the search for habitable planets is whether they host life. But is the age of the planet important for its habitability? If we define habitability as the ability of a planet to beget life, then probably it is not. After all, life on Earth has developed within only ~800 Myr after its formation - the carbon isotope change detected in the oldest rocks indicates the existence of already active life at least 3.8 Gyr ago. If, however, we define habitability as our ability to detect life on the surface of exoplanets, then age becomes a crucial parameter. Only after life had evolved sufficiently complex to change its environment on a planetary scale, can we detect it remotely through its imprint on the atmosphere - the so-called biosignatures, out of which the photosynthetic oxygen is the most prominent indicator of developed (complex) life as we know it. Thus, photosynthesis is a powerful biogenic engine that is known to have changed our planet's global atmospheric properties. The importance of planetary age for the detectability of life as we know it follows from the fact that this primary process, photosynthesis, is endothermic with an activation energy higher than temperatures in habitable zones, and is sensitive to the particular thermal conditions of the planet. Therefore, the onset of photosynthesis on planets in habitable zones may take much longer time than the planetary age. The knowledge of the age of a planet is necessary for developing a strategy to search for exoplanets carrying complex (developed) life - many confirmed potentially habitable planets are too young (orbiting Population I stars) and may not have had enough time to develop and/or sustain detectable life. In the last decade, many planets orbiting old (9-13 Gyr) metal-poor Population II stars have been discovered. Such planets had had

  8. Ascii grids of predicted pH in depth zones used by domestic and public drinking water supply depths, Central Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Celia; Nolan, Bernard T.; Gronberg, JoAnn M.

    2017-01-01

    The ascii grids associated with this data release are predicted distributions of continuous pH at the drinking water depth zones in the groundwater of Central Valley, California. The two prediction grids produced in this work represent predicted pH at the domestic supply and public supply drinking water depths, respectively and are bound by the alluvial boundary that defines the Central Valley. A depth of 46 m was used to stratify wells into the shallow and deep aquifer and were derived from depth percentiles associated with domestic and public supply in previous work by Burow et al. (2013). In this work, the median well depth categorized as domestic supply was 30 meters below land surface and the median well depth categorized as public supply is 100 meters below land surface. Prediction grids were created using prediction modeling methods, specifically Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) with a gaussian error distribution within a statistical learning framework within R's computing framework (http://www.r-project.org/). The statistical learning framework seeks to maximize the predictive performance of machine learning methods through model tuning by cross validation. The response variable was measured pH from 1337 wells, and was compiled from two sources: US Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Information System (NWIS) Database (all data are publicly available from the USGS: http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ca/nwis/nwis) and the California State Water Resources Control Board Division of Drinking Water (SWRCB-DDW) database (water quality data are publicly available from the SWRCB: http://www.waterboards.ca.gov/gama/geotracker_gama.shtml). Only wells with measured pH and well depth data were selected, and for wells with multiple records, only the most recent sample in the period 1993-2014 was used. A total of 1003 wells (training dataset) were used to train the BRT model and 334 wells (hold-out dataset) were used to validate the prediction model. The training r-squared was

  9. Drink refusal self-efficacy and implicit drinking identity: an evaluation of moderators of the relationship between self-awareness and drinking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Dawn W; Neighbors, Clayton; Young, Chelsie M

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the roles of drink refusal self-efficacy (DRSE), implicit drinking identity, and self-awareness in drinking. Self-awareness (assessed by public and private self-consciousness), DRSE, and implicit drinking identity (measured via an implicit association test; IAT) were expected to interact in predicting self-reported drinking. This research was designed to consider mixed findings related to self-awareness and drinking. Hypotheses were: 1) alcohol-related outcomes would be negatively associated with self-awareness; 2) implicit drinking identity would moderate the association between self-awareness and alcohol consumption; and 3) this association would depend on whether participants were higher or lower in drink refusal self-efficacy. Participants included 218 undergraduate students. Results revealed that drinking behavior was not associated with self-awareness but was positively associated with implicit drinking identity. Of the four drinking variables (peak drinking, drinking frequency, drinks per week, and alcohol-related problems), only alcohol-related problems were positively associated with self-awareness. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction emerged between private (but not public) self-consciousness and drinking identity to predict drinking. Consistent with expectations, three-way interactions emerged between self-awareness, implicit drinking identity, and DRSE in predicting drinking. For participants low in DRSE: 1) high implicit drinking identity was associated with greater drinking frequency when private self-consciousness was low; and 2) high implicit drinking identity was associated with greater drinks per week and peak drinks when public self-consciousness was low. This suggests that alcohol-related IATs may be useful tools in predicting drinking, particularly among those low in self-awareness and DRSE. © 2013.

  10. College Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drink often do so because their parents discussed alcohol use and its adverse consequences with them. Nighttime restrictions on young drivers and strict license suspension policies, interventions focused ...

  11. Problematic Drinking Among Postgraduate Students: Binge Drinking, Prepartying, and Mixing Alcohol With Energy Drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Patricia C; Bestrashniy, Jessica R B M; Nelson, Toben F

    2016-07-02

    Although problematic alcohol use has been studied extensively in undergraduate students, little is known about problematic drinking among postgraduate students. This study examined binge drinking, prepartying, and mixing alcohol with energy drinks to determine: (1) the extent to which postgraduate students engage in these drinking behaviors, (2) how postgraduate students differ from undergraduate students in these behaviors, and (3) the demographic risk factors for these behaviors in postgraduate (and undergraduate) students. This study utilized data from n = 695 students (n = 298 postgraduate; n = 397 undergraduate) who participated in the Healthy Minds Study at a large, public university in the Midwestern US. Past-two-week binge drinking, past-year and past-30-day prepartying, and past-30-day mixing alcohol with energy drinks were reported by 26.2%, 28.6%, 14.9%, and 8.1% of postgraduate students, respectively. Multivariate analyses indicated that postgraduate status was a significant negative predictor of binge drinking and prepartying, and that status interacted with age in predicting prepartying such that the effect of age on prepartying was negative for postgraduate students and nonsignificant for undergraduates. Age was a significant negative predictor of mixing alcohol with energy drinks for all students. This study makes a unique contribution to the literature by providing information on problematic drinking in postgraduate students. Although there was evidence of "maturing out," a substantial number of postgraduate students were found to engage in binge drinking and prepartying, and a not insubstantial number of them were found to mix alcohol with energy drinks.

  12. Exercise habit formation in new gym members: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Navin; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2015-08-01

    Reasoned action approaches have primarily been applied to understand exercise behaviour for the past three decades, yet emerging findings in unconscious and Dual Process research show that behavior may also be predicted by automatic processes such as habit. The purpose of this study was to: (1) investigate the behavioral requirements for exercise habit formation, (2) how Dual Process approach predicts behaviour, and (3) what predicts habit by testing a model (Lally and Gardner in Health Psychol Rev 7:S137-S158, 2013). Participants (n = 111) were new gym members who completed surveys across 12 weeks. It was found that exercising for at least four bouts per week for 6 weeks was the minimum requirement to establish an exercise habit. Dual Process analysis using Linear Mixed Models (LMM) revealed habit and intention to be parallel predictors of exercise behavior in the trajectory analysis. Finally, the habit antecedent model in LLM showed that consistency (β = .21), low behavioral complexity (β = .19), environment (β = .17) and affective judgments (β = .13) all significantly (p < .05) predicted changes in habit formation over time. Trainers should keep exercises fun and simple for new clients and focus on consistency which could lead to habit formation in nearly 6 weeks.

  13. Prepartying, drinking games, and extreme drinking among college students: a daily-level investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairlie, Anne M; Maggs, Jennifer L; Lanza, Stephanie T

    2015-03-01

    Daily data collected over 14 consecutive days were used to examine whether extreme drinking was more likely on days college students reported prepartying (i.e., drinking before going out) or playing drinking games in a multi-ethnic sample of college seniors (analysis subsample: N=399; 57% women; M age=21.48years, SD=.40). Multilevel modeling with drinking occasions at Level 1 (1265 drinking days) nested within persons at Level 2 (399 drinkers) was used to predict four extreme drinking behavior outcomes at the daily level: consuming at least 8/10 (women/men) drinks, reaching an estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) of .16% or greater, drinking enough to stumble, and drinking enough to pass out. Prepartying only (29% of drinking days) was more common than playing drinking games only (10%) or engaging in both behaviors on the same day (13%). Odds of extreme drinking were greater among students who frequently engaged in prepartying (ORs: 1.86-2.58) and drinking games (ORs: 1.95-4.16), except prepartying frequency did not predict drinking enough to pass out. On days students prepartied (ORs: 1.58-2.02) and on days they played drinking games (ORs: 1.68-1.78), odds of extreme drinking were elevated, except drinking games did not predict eBAC of .16% or greater. Extreme drinking is attributable to both person-level characteristics (e.g., preparty frequency) and specific drinking behaviors on a given day. Prepartying and drinking games confer elevated risk of extreme drinking and are important targets in alcohol interventions for college seniors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of living habits such as smoking, alcohol drinking, and green tea drinking on osteoporosis in the elderly%吸烟、饮酒、喝绿茶等生活习惯对老年人骨质疏松的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小华; 王宇强; 陈长香; 魏茂提; 张杰

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析吸烟、饮酒、喝绿茶等生活习惯对老年人骨质疏松的影响。方法选取2012年9月到2013年5月在天津武警后勤学院附属医院老年门诊就诊的老年人群728例,使用双能骨密度仪进行骨密度测定,同时,自行设计调查表收集资料,有效问卷703例,其中将确诊的303例骨质疏松老年人群作为病例组,未发生骨质疏松400例的老年人群作为对照组进行研究。结果吸烟、饮酒、喝绿茶等生活习惯对老年人骨质疏松的影响:①单因素分析结果显示:吸烟、吸烟年数、饮酒、饮酒量、喝绿茶、喝咖啡与老年人骨质疏松的发生有关,差异有统计学意义(P<0�05),饮酒类型与饮酒年数与老年人骨质疏松的发生无关,差异无统计学意义(P>0�05);②多因素Logistic回归分析结果显示:吸烟、喝绿茶与老年骨质疏松发生有关(P<0�05)。结论老年人骨质疏松的发生情况与吸烟与否、喝茶与否有关,吸烟是老年人骨质疏松的危险因素,喝绿茶是老年人骨质疏松的保护因素。%Objective To analyze the effect of smoking, alcohol drinking, and green tea drinking on osteoporosis in elderly people. Methods A total of 728 elder people, who attended to the outpatients in the Affiliated Hospital of Tianjin Armed Police Logistics College from September 2012 to May 2013, were selected. Bone mineral density was measured using of DXA. Meanwhile, a self⁃designed questionnaire was used to gather the related information. Among the 703 cases, 303 cases were confirmed with osteoporosis as the case group, and the other 400 cases were not confirmed as the contrast group. Results The result of Chi square test showed that osteoporosis in elderly people was related to smoking, alcohol drinking, and tea or coffee drinking, and the differences were significant (P0�05). The result of multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that

  15. Binge Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinking. When someone drinks too much and gets alcohol poisoning, it affects the body's involuntary reflexes — including breathing and the ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Alcohol Coping ... College Prom Pressure Abusive Relationships Dealing With Addiction I Think I May Have ...

  16. Underage Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... friends Less interest in activities and/or appearance Alcohol on a young person's breath Slurred speech Coordination problems Memory and/or concentration problems The Role Parents Play Parents can help their children avoid alcohol problems by: Discussing the dangers of drinking Drinking ...

  17. Evaluating the relationship between explicit and implicit drinking identity centrality and hazardous drinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen P. Lindgren

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: These studies provide preliminary evidence that drinking identity centrality may be an important factor for predicting hazardous drinking. Future research should improve its measurement and evaluate implicit and explicit centrality in experimental and longitudinal studies.

  18. Changing your sleep habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... effects they may have on your sleep. Find ways to manage stress. Learn about relaxation techniques, such as guided imagery, listening to music, or practicing yoga or meditation. Listen to your body when it tells you to slow down or take a break. Change Your Bedtime Habits Your bed is for sleeping. ...

  19. FIRST HABITABLE PLANET DISCOVEREO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    20 light years away from our solar system, there is a planet called "Gliese 581d" which has conditions that could support Earth-like life, including possible oceans and rainfall. On May. 19, 20l 1, the planet has been the first to be officially declared habitable by French scientists.

  20. Car-use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Berit Thorup; Thøgersen, John

    2008-01-01

    It is often claimed that many drivers use their private car rather habitually. The claim gains credibility from the fact that travelling to many everyday destinations fulfils all the prerequisites for habit formation: it is recurring, performed under stable circumstances and produces rewarding co...

  1. Evolution of the binge drinking pattern in college students: neurophysiological correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Caneda, Eduardo; Rodríguez Holguín, Socorro; Corral, Montserrat; Doallo, Sonia; Cadaveira, Fernando

    2014-08-01

    It is well known that alcohol impairs response inhibition and that adolescence is a critical period of neuromaturation where cognitive processes such as inhibitory control are still developing. In recent years, growing evidence has shown the negative consequences of alcohol binge drinking on the adolescent and young human brain. However, the effects of cessation of binge drinking on brain function remain unexplored. The objective of the present study was to examine brain activity during response execution and inhibition in young binge drinkers in relation to the progression of their drinking habits over time. Event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by a Go/NoGo task were recorded twice within a 2-year interval in 57 undergraduate students (25 controls, 22 binge drinkers, and 10 ex-binge drinkers) with no personal or family history of alcoholism or psychopathological disorders. The results showed that the amplitude of NoGo-P3 over the frontal region correlated with an earlier age of onset of regular drinking as well as with greater quantity and speed of alcohol consumption. Regression analysis showed that NoGo-P3 amplitude was significantly predicted by the speed of alcohol intake and the age of onset of regular drinking. The group comparisons showed that, after maintaining a binge drinking pattern for at least 2 years, binge drinkers displayed significantly larger NoGo-P3 amplitudes than controls, whereas ex-binge drinkers were in an intermediate position between the two other groups (with no significant differences with respect to controls or binge drinkers). These findings suggest that binge drinking in young people may impair the neural functioning related to inhibitory processes, and that the cessation of binge drinking may act as a brake on the neurophysiological impairments related to response inhibition.

  2. Nutritional habits in Italian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teleman, Adele Anna; de Waure, Chiara; Soffiani, Valentina; Poscia, Andrea; Di Pietro, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Dietary habits have been indicated by research as key elements in both disease pathogenesis and prevention and health promotion. We analyzed data collected from Italian university students regarding consumption of fruits, vegetables, fast-foods, sweets, energizing drinks, and coffee, average number of eating episodes per day and regularity of breakfast habits. 44% of the university student population eats in average at least 1 portion of fruit per day. 22.5% eats at least 2 portions of vegetables per day. 8.5% eats in average 5 times per day with 48.6% declaring an average of 3 eating episodes per day. 11.3% consumes eccessive amounts of caffeine. 49.1% of the females reaches the recommended consumption of fruit, compared to only 33.8% of males (p coffee drinkers pass from 8.9% in the 18-21 age group to 16% in the 25-30 year old age group (p students eats at least 1 portion of fruit per day and less than 1 out of 4 eats at least 2 portions of vegetables per day. Less than 10% of the students eats in average 5 times per day and more than 1 out of 3 does not have breakfast regularly every morning. Interventions targeting university students are required in order to increase their knowledge on healthy eating habits and to ameliorate their dietary behaviours.

  3. Healthy habits for weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000733.htm Healthy habits for weight loss To use the sharing features on this page, ... to think about it. People who succeed at weight loss, turn healthy eating into a habit. These healthy ...

  4. Eating habits, body image and health and behavioural problems of adolescents: The role of school and family context

    OpenAIRE

    Holubcikova, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Healthy eating habits in adolescence support optimal health, growth and intellectual development of the individual. In Slovakia, the prevalence of unhealthy eating habits among adolescents is rather high. During the last decade, regular consumption of soft drinks and energy drinks has become very common in adolescents. This consumption has been found to be strongly associated with a wide range of health and behavioural problems in adolescents. To date only a few studies have explored this rel...

  5. Socioeconomic status and dietary habits as predictors of home breakfast skipping in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hamid Hussein, Rania Abd

    2014-08-01

    Breakfast skipping is prevalent among adolescents and young women, and deprives the body of important nutrients. This study was conducted to assess the correlation between breakfast eating and sociodemographic and lifestyle criteria. A cross-sectional study was carried out on a convenient sample of 400 female students selected from the female sector of King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Home breakfast habit and other lifestyle characteristics were studied using a standardized questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between home breakfast habit and different predictors. Home breakfast skippers constituted 71.75% of the whole sample. Breakfast eaters had a significantly higher BMI compared with breakfast skippers (22.66±4.88 vs. 21.58±4.09 in home breakfast skippers; P=0.025). Irrespective of other sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, fathers' education lower than university level negatively predicted home breakfast eating [Exp B=0.40, confidence interval (CI)=0.21-0.77], and being employed positively predicted breakfast eating (Exp B=2.31, CI=1.04-5.15). Likewise, consuming less amount of junk food and fewer soft drinks (Exp B=2.57, CI=1.54-4.28, and Exp B=2.59, CI=1.39-4.81, respectively) and consuming more milk and dairy products (Exp B=1.91, CI=1.16-3.15) correlated positively with home breakfast eating. Breakfast skipping was prevalent among adolescents and young women in the studied sample. Unhealthy dietary habits, father's education lower than university level, and father being unemployed positively predicted breakfast skipping of daughters at home. This implies that breakfast eating can be encouraged by approaching parents in addition to their daughters.

  6. Identification and assessment of potential water quality impact factors for drinking-water reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qing; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke; Lin, Yi; Li, Jun; Gan, Muye; Ma, Ligang; Hong, Yang

    2014-06-10

    Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART) method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate), were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources.

  7. [EXPERIMENTAL GROUNDS ON POSSIBILITY TO MAKE AND TO USE PREDICTION MODELS OF PESTICIDES DESIGN STANDARD IN THE WATER OF PONDS USED FOR HOUSEHOLD AND DRINKING WATER SUPPLY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavrinevych, O P; Omel'chuk, S T

    2015-01-01

    Taking into account the fact that current calculation methods for substantiation of standards in the water of water reservoirs valid in Ukraine are outdated the aim of our research was to scientifically substantiate the possibility to make and to use prediction models of pesticides design standard in the water of ponds used for household and drinking water supply. Array of experimentally substantiated and approved to use in Ukraine maximum allowable concentrations (MAC) of organic pesticides active ingredients in the water was analyzed (n = 201). Analysis of dependence between MAC value of pesticides in the water and its physical and chemical properties, indices of ecotoxicological hazard and persistency in the water was carried out using correlation and regression analysis methods. Twelve regression equations to establish design value of pesticides MAC in the water were proposed on the grounds of performed analysis. The results of reliability testing of proposed procedure on pesticides design tentatively allowable levels (TAL) in the water indicate on needs to apply the least value of TAL obtained in the process of calculations using proposed equations. It was proved that mathematical models proposed for prediction of pesticide design standard in the water are adequate and significant by Fisher's test (P water for new pesticides.

  8. The Habitable Zone Gallery

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Stephen R

    2012-01-01

    The Habitable Zone Gallery (www.hzgallery.org) is a new service to the exoplanet community which provides Habitable Zone (HZ) information for each of the exoplanetary systems with known planetary orbital parameters. The service includes a sortable table with information on the percentage of orbital phase spent within the HZ, planetary effective temperatures, and other basic planetary properties. In addition to the table, we also plot the period and eccentricity of the planets with respect to their time spent in the HZ. The service includes a gallery of known systems which plot the orbits and the location of the HZ with respect to those orbits. Also provided are animations which aid in orbit visualization and provide the changing effective temperature for those planets in eccentric orbits. Here we describe the science motivation, the under-lying calculations, and the structure of the web site.

  9. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... problem among youth. Release Date: 4/13/2010 Source: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion ... More Information Vital Signs Binge Drinking Information Alcohol & Public Health ...

  10. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Drivers Life Stages & Populations A Killer in Indian Country Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early. Dangerous ... allowfullscreen> The video explores the health risks of binge drinking – including unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted ...

  11. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... A Time To Act Binge Drinking Break the Silence: Stop the Violence Injury Prevention Research In the ... Swim of Things Safe Teen Drivers Break the Silence: Stop the Violence More Information Vital Signs Binge ...

  12. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... the health risks of binge drinking – including unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, injury, car crashes, violence and HIV/AIDS – and discusses effective community prevention strategies such ...

  13. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... 27.9 MB] Open Captioned [12.6 MB] Request a higher resolution file Copy the code below ... Drivers Break the Silence: Stop the Violence More Information Vital Signs Binge Drinking Information Alcohol & Public Health ...

  14. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... captioning. Videos are prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Binge Drinking ( ... captioning. Videos are prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > File Formats ...

  15. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Improve Systemic Analysis (10:45) Take 3 Teen Pregnancy The Immunization Baby Book The Story of Folic ... the health risks of binge drinking - including unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, injury, car crashes, violence and ...

  16. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Way to Go Way to Go: Many Healthy Returns (4:00) Way to Go: Passport To Health ( ... allowfullscreen> The video explores the health risks of binge drinking – including unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted ...

  17. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Break the Silence: Stop the Violence Injury Prevention Research In the Swim of Things Safe Teen Drivers ... Binge Drinking A Time To Act Injury Prevention Research In the Swim of Things Safe Teen Drivers ...

  18. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) Injury, Violence & Safety Featured Videos Binge Drinking A Time To Act Injury Prevention Research In the Swim of Things Safe ...

  19. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... To Health (4:17) Vital Signs High Blood Pressure Spanish Diseases & Conditions Hablemos de la Influenza Influenza ... Videos are prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Binge Drinking (4: ...

  20. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... and HIV/AIDS – and discusses effective community prevention strategies such as increasing alcohol excise taxes. The video ... Alcohol & Public Health Binge Drinking Factsheet Effective Prevention Strategies Send Us Feedback What do you think of ...

  1. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Please Parents Want To Do What′s Best The Obesity Epidemic Outbreaks CDC: Protecting Americans through Global Health ... captioning. Videos are prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Binge Drinking ( ...

  2. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... and HIV/AIDS - and discusses effective community prevention strategies such as increasing alcohol excise taxes. The video ... Alcohol & Public Health Binge Drinking Factsheet Effective Prevention Strategies Send Us Feedback What do you think of ...

  3. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Passport To Health (4:17) Vital Signs High Blood Pressure Spanish ... video explores the health risks of binge drinking – including unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted ...

  4. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Streep (:30) Version B Your Wake-Up Call Common Conditions A Change for Life Arthritis Pain Reliever ... taxes. The video also features experts who debunk common myths including the belief that binge drinking is ...

  5. Acculturation stress and drinking problems among urban heavy drinking Latinos in the Northeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christina S; Colby, Suzanne M; Rohsenow, Damaris J; López, Steven R; Hernández, Lynn; Caetano, Raul

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the level of acculturation and acculturation stress and the extent to which each predicts problems related to drinking. Hispanics who met criteria for hazardous drinking completed measures of acculturation, acculturation stress, and drinking problems. Sequential multiple regression was used to determine whether the levels of self-reported acculturation stress predicted concurrent alcohol problems after controlling for the predictive value of the acculturation level. Acculturation stress accounted for a significant variance in drinking problems, while adjusting for acculturation, income, and education. Choosing to drink in response to acculturation stress should be an intervention target with Hispanic heavy drinkers.

  6. Acculturation Stress and Drinking Problems Among Urban Heavy Drinking Latinos in the Northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christina S.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; López, Steven R.; Hernández, Lynn; Caetano, Raul

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between level of acculturation and acculturation stress, and the extent to which each predicts problems related to drinking. Hispanics who met criteria for hazardous drinking completed measures of acculturation, acculturation stress, and drinking problems. Sequential multiple regression was used to determine whether levels of self-reported acculturation stress predicted concurrent alcohol problems after controlling for the predictive value of acculturation level. Acculturation stress accounted for significant variance in drinking problems while adjusting for acculturation, income, and education. Choosing to drink in response to acculturation stress should be an intervention target with Hispanic heavy drinkers. PMID:24215224

  7. Nutritional habits in Italian university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Anna Teleman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dietary habits have been indicated by research as key elements in both disease pathogenesis and prevention and health promotion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed data collected from Italian university students regarding consumption of fruits, vegetables, fast-foods, sweets, energizing drinks, and coffee, average number of eating episodes per day and regularity of breakfast habits. RESULTS: 44% of the university student population eats in average at least 1 portion of fruit per day. 22.5% eats at least 2 portions of vegetables per day. 8.5% eats in average 5 times per day with 48.6% declaring an average of 3 eating episodes per day. 11.3% consumes eccessive amounts of caffeine. 49.1% of the females reaches the recommended consumption of fruit, compared to only 33.8% of males (p < 0.05. 27.7% of females eats at least 2 portions of vegetables per day, compared to 12.0% of males (p < 0.05. Eccessive coffee drinkers pass from 8.9% in the 18-21 age group to 16% in the 25-30 year old age group (p < 0.05. DISCUSSION: This study showed that the eating habits of young adults do not follow national recommendations. Less than 50% of university students eats at least 1 portion of fruit per day and less than 1 out of 4 eats at least 2 portions of vegetables per day. Less than 10% of the students eats in average 5 times per day and more than 1 out of 3 does not have breakfast regularly every morning. CONCLUSION: Interventions targeting university students are required in order to increase their knowledge on healthy eating habits and to ameliorate their dietary behaviours.

  8. Binge Drinking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-05

    This podcast is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.  Created: 10/5/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/5/2010.

  9. Effective Physics Study Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettili, Nouredine

    2011-04-01

    We discuss the methods of efficient study habits and how they can be used by students to help them improve learning physics. In particular, we deal with ideas pertaining to the most effective techniques needed to help students improve their physics study skills. These ideas were developed as part of Project IMPACTSEED (IMproving Physics And Chemistry Teaching in SEcondary Education), an outreach grant funded by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education. This project is motivated by a major pressing local need: A large number of high school physics teachers teach out of field. In the presentation, focus on topics such as the skills of how to develop long term memory, how to improve concentration power, how to take class notes, how to prepare for and take exams, how to study scientific subjects such as physics. We argue that the student who conscientiously uses the methods of efficient study habits will be able to achieve higher results than the student who does not; moreover, a student equipped with the proper study skills will spend much less time to learn a subject than a student who has no good study habits. The underlying issue here is not the quantity of time allocated to the study efforts by the student, but the efficiency and quality of actions. This work is supported by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education as part of IMPACTSEED grant.

  10. Do Deterrence and Social-Control Theories Predict Driving after Drinking 15 years after a DWI Conviction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapham, Sandra C.; Todd, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study investigates the utility of deterrence and social-control theories for prospective prediction of driving-while-impaired (DWI) outcomes of first-time DWI offenders. Method The sample consisted of a subset of 544 convicted first-time DWI offenders (n = 337 females) who were interviewed 5 and 15 years after referral to a screening program in Bernalillo County, New Mexico. Variables collected at the 5-year (initial) interview were used in structural equation models to predict past 3-months, self-reported DWI at the 15-year follow-up (follow-up) interview. These variables represented domains defined by deterrence and social-control theories of DWI behavior, with one model corresponding to deterrence theory and one to social-control theory. Results Both models fit the data. DWI jail time was positively related to perceived enforcement, which was negatively but not significantly related to self-reported DWI. Neither jail time for DWI nor perceived likelihood of arrest was linearly related to self-reported DWI at follow-up. Interactions between jail time and prior DWI behavior indicated relatively weaker associations between initial and 15-year DWI for those reporting more jail time. Conclusion Our prospective study demonstrated that for this convicted DWI offender cohort, classic formulations of deterrence and social-control theories did not account for DWI. However, results suggest that punishment may decrease the likelihood of DWI recidivism. PMID:22269495

  11. Habit formation: implications for alcoholism research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Tousa, David; Grahame, Nicholas

    2014-06-01

    Characteristics of individuals with severe alcohol use disorders include heightened cue sensitivity, compulsive seeking, craving, and continued alcohol use in the face of negative consequences. Animal models are useful for understanding behavioral and neurological mechanisms underlying problematic alcohol use. Seeking of operant reinforcers including alcohol is processed by two mechanisms, commonly referred to as "goal-directed" (action-outcome) and "habitual" (stimulus-response). As substance use disorders are characterized by continued use regardless of unfavorable outcomes, it is plausible that drug use causes an unnatural disruption of these mechanisms. We present a critical analysis of literature pertaining to behavioral neuroscience alcoholism research involving habit formation. Traditionally, when operant behavior is unaffected by a loss of subjective value of a reinforcer (devaluation), the behavior is considered habitual. Acquisition of instrumental behavior requires corticostriatal mechanisms that depend heavily on the prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum, whereas practiced behavior is more predominantly controlled by the dorsal striatum. Dopaminergic signaling is necessary for the neurological adaptations involved in stimulus-response action, and drugs of abuse appear to facilitate habitual behavior through high levels of dopamine release. Evidence suggests that the use of alcohol as a reinforcer expedites habit formation, and that a history of alcohol use produces alterations in striatal morphology, aids habit learning for non-psychoactive reinforcers, and promotes alcohol drinking despite aversive adulterants. In this review, we suggest directions for future alcoholism research that seeks to measure action made despite a devalued outcome, including procedural modifications and genotypic, pharmacological, or neurological manipulations. Most alcoholism models currently in use fail to reach substantial blood ethanol concentrations, a shortcoming that

  12. Family meal traditions. Comparing reported childhood food habits to current food habits among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Charlotte J S

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if reported childhood food habits predict the food habits of students at present. Questions addressed are: does the memory of childhood family meals promote commensality among students? Does the memory of (grand)parents' cooking influence students' cooking? And, is there still a gender difference in passing on everyday cooking skills? Using a cross-sectional survey, 104 students were asked about their current eating and cooking habits, and their eating habits and the cooking behavior of their (grand)parents during their childhood. Results show that frequencies in reported childhood family meals predict frequencies of students' commensality at present. The effects appear for breakfast and dinner, and stay within the same meal: recalled childhood family breakfasts predict current breakfast commensality, recalled childhood family dinners predict current dinner commensality. In terms of recalled cookery of (grand)parents and the use of family recipes a matrilineal dominance can be observed. Mothers are most influential, and maternal grandmothers outscore paternal grandmothers. Yet, fathers' childhood cooking did not pass unnoticed either. They seem to influence male students' cookery. Overall, in a life-stage of transgression students appear to maintain recalled childhood food rituals. Suggestions are discussed to further validate these results.

  13. Daily ratings measures of alcohol craving during an inpatient stay define subtypes of alcohol addiction that predict subsequent risk for resumption of drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oslin, David W; Cary, Mark; Slaymaker, Valarie; Colleran, Carol; Blow, Frederic C

    2009-08-01

    Both depressive symptoms and alcohol craving have been postulated as important predictors of relapse in patients with addictive disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine the course of affective symptoms and cravings for alcohol use during the initial 25 days of residential treatment for middle aged and older adults addicted to alcohol and the relationship between these symptoms and recovery outcomes. 95 alcohol-dependent subjects were enrolled in this observational study. Participants completed a daily diary of alcohol craving, positive affect, and negative affect during residential treatment. Participants were interviewed 1 and 6 months after discharge to assess clinical symptoms of relapse and functioning. Latent class analysis identified three groups of individuals for each of the three daily measures. For alcohol craving, 17 subjects reported elevated cravings during the entire treatment stay, 37 subjects reported initially elevated but then a slight improvement in craving, and 41 subjects reported relatively low craving from the time of admission to the end of residential treatment. Alcohol craving class was associated with negative affect but not positive affect. Alcohol craving class but not affective class was predictive of time to relapse to any drinking in the 6 months after residential treatment (pcraving may define a subtype of alcohol dependence that is less responsive to treatment and may explain heterogeneity in treatment outcomes. These results also may suggest a role for differential treatment programming to address high states of craving for alcohol.

  14. RUSSIAN DRINKING: TOO LATE FOR EMERGENCY MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Evgenjevich Kuznetsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Russian drinking for the first time demonstrates weakening of specialization in spirits drinking and stabilization of amount drunk. This suggests expectations of drinking qualitative turn, i.e. to consumer’s choice oriented to quality of drinking rather than to quantity, and further to lessening the drinking norm. Experience of wine-drinking countries of Europe and influence of pan-European homogenization of patterns of drinking, favor such a perspective. The marked decrease of drinking norm in wine-drinking countries was achieved with the minimal state intervention. Survey data (n=904 is provided to corroborate the claim that Russian drinking is able to self-regulate. The data witness weak support for government’s measures taken to restrict access to beverages sale in terms of age, time, place, and price; customers are likely to value freedom of choice unbridled. Governmental pursuance of simplistic access-and-pricing restrictive policies recently undertaken, may force Russian drinking back to another cycle of alcoholisation within the old ‘northern’ model. Bootlegging expansion, formerly progressive specialization in spirits drinking, habit of making gross purchases in population are explained by former experiences of coping with deficits, dry campaigns, and traditional culture of religious and secular abstinences. Scarcity of modes of compensatory behaviors and low concern for health also back up the special cultural status of alcohol. Government should seek for positive measures, viz. wider sporting involvement for students and inclusion for disabled to revive the nation’s regard for health and awareness of health-related risks.

  15. ERICA: prevalence of healthy eating habits among Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Augusta Barufaldi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of eating habits considered healthy in adolescents according to sex, age, education level of the mother, school type, session of study, and geographic region. METHODS The assessed data come from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA, a cross-sectional, national and school-based study. Adolescents of 1,247 schools of 124 Brazilian municipalities were evaluated using a self-administered questionnaire with a section on aspects related to eating behaviors. The following eating behaviors were considered healthy: consuming breakfast, drinking water, and having meals accompanied by parents or legal guardians. All prevalence estimates were presented proportionally, with their respective 95% confidence intervals. The Chi-square test was used to evaluate the differences in healthy eating habits prevalences according to other variables. The module survey of the Stata program version 13.0 was used to analyze complex data. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents (72.9% of the eligible students. Of these, 55.2% were female, average age being 14.6 years (SD = 1.6. Among Brazilian adolescents, approximately half of them showed healthy eating habits when consuming breakfast, drinking five or more glasses of water a day, and having meals with parents or legal guardians. All analyzed healthy eating habits showed statistically significant differences by sex, age, type of school, session of study, or geographic region . CONCLUSIONS We suggest that specific actions of intersectoral approach are implemented for the dissemination of the benefits of healthy eating habits. Older female adolescents (15 to 17 years old who studied in public schools, resided in the Southeast region, and whose mothers had lower education levels, should be the focus of these actions since they present lower frequencies concerning the evaluated healthy habits.

  16. ERICA: prevalence of healthy eating habits among Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Oliveira, Juliana Souza; dos Santos, Debora França; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary Lima; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes; Tavares, Bruno Mendes

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of eating habits considered healthy in adolescents according to sex, age, education level of the mother, school type, session of study, and geographic region. METHODS The assessed data come from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, national and school-based study. Adolescents of 1,247 schools of 124 Brazilian municipalities were evaluated using a self-administered questionnaire with a section on aspects related to eating behaviors. The following eating behaviors were considered healthy: consuming breakfast, drinking water, and having meals accompanied by parents or legal guardians. All prevalence estimates were presented proportionally, with their respective 95% confidence intervals. The Chi-square test was used to evaluate the differences in healthy eating habits prevalences according to other variables. The module survey of the Stata program version 13.0 was used to analyze complex data. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents (72.9% of the eligible students). Of these, 55.2% were female, average age being 14.6 years (SD = 1.6). Among Brazilian adolescents, approximately half of them showed healthy eating habits when consuming breakfast, drinking five or more glasses of water a day, and having meals with parents or legal guardians. All analyzed healthy eating habits showed statistically significant differences by sex, age, type of school, session of study, or geographic region . CONCLUSIONS We suggest that specific actions of intersectoral approach are implemented for the dissemination of the benefits of healthy eating habits. Older female adolescents (15 to 17 years old) who studied in public schools, resided in the Southeast region, and whose mothers had lower education levels, should be the focus of these actions since they present lower frequencies concerning the evaluated healthy habits.

  17. Acculturation Stress and Drinking Problems Among Urban Heavy Drinking Latinos in the Northeast

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Christina S.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Rohsenow, Damaris J; López, Steven R.; Hernández, Lynn; Caetano, Raul

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between level of acculturation and acculturation stress, and the extent to which each predicts problems related to drinking. Hispanics who met criteria for hazardous drinking completed measures of acculturation, acculturation stress, and drinking problems. Sequential multiple regression was used to determine whether levels of self-reported acculturation stress predicted concurrent alcohol problems after controlling for the predictive value of accultura...

  18. Acculturation Stress and Drinking Problems Among Urban Heavy Drinking Latinos in the Northeast

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Christina S.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; López, Steven R.; Hernández, Lynn; Caetano, Raul

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between level of acculturation and acculturation stress, and the extent to which each predicts problems related to drinking. Hispanics who met criteria for hazardous drinking completed measures of acculturation, acculturation stress, and drinking problems. Sequential multiple regression was used to determine whether levels of self-reported acculturation stress predicted concurrent alcohol problems after controlling for the predictive value of accultura...

  19. Computer codes for evaluation of control room habitability (HABIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stage, S.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the Computer Codes for Evaluation of Control Room Habitability (HABIT). HABIT is a package of computer codes designed to be used for the evaluation of control room habitability in the event of an accidental release of toxic chemicals or radioactive materials. Given information about the design of a nuclear power plant, a scenario for the release of toxic chemicals or radionuclides, and information about the air flows and protection systems of the control room, HABIT can be used to estimate the chemical exposure or radiological dose to control room personnel. HABIT is an integrated package of several programs that previously needed to be run separately and required considerable user intervention. This report discusses the theoretical basis and physical assumptions made by each of the modules in HABIT and gives detailed information about the data entry windows. Sample runs are given for each of the modules. A brief section of programming notes is included. A set of computer disks will accompany this report if the report is ordered from the Energy Science and Technology Software Center. The disks contain the files needed to run HABIT on a personal computer running DOS. Source codes for the various HABIT routines are on the disks. Also included are input and output files for three demonstration runs.

  20. MAGNETIC SHIELDING OF EXOMOONS BEYOND THE CIRCUMPLANETARY HABITABLE EDGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, René [McMaster University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Zuluaga, Jorge I., E-mail: rheller@physics.mcmaster.ca, E-mail: jzuluaga@fisica.udea.edu.co [FACom - Instituto de Física - FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2013-10-20

    With most planets and planetary candidates detected in the stellar habitable zone (HZ) being super-Earths and gas giants rather than Earth-like planets, we naturally wonder if their moons could be habitable. The first detection of such an exomoon has now become feasible, and due to observational biases it will be at least twice as massive as Mars. However, formation models predict that moons can hardly be as massive as Earth. Hence, a giant planet's magnetosphere could be the only possibility for such a moon to be shielded from cosmic and stellar high-energy radiation. Yet, the planetary radiation belt could also have detrimental effects on exomoon habitability. Here we synthesize models for the evolution of the magnetic environment of giant planets with thresholds from the runaway greenhouse (RG) effect to assess the habitability of exomoons. For modest eccentricities, we find that satellites around Neptune-sized planets in the center of the HZ around K dwarf stars will either be in an RG state and not be habitable, or they will be in wide orbits where they will not be affected by the planetary magnetosphere. Saturn-like planets have stronger fields, and Jupiter-like planets could coat close-in habitable moons soon after formation. Moons at distances between about 5 and 20 planetary radii from a giant planet can be habitable from an illumination and tidal heating point of view, but still the planetary magnetosphere would critically influence their habitability.

  1. SMEs’ Purchasing Habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre S. Ozmen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Although micro companies overpower the small and medium enterprise (SME segment, generalizations are often with medium size companies, and therefore, there are many unknowns, especially when it comes to its buying behavior. Conformist studies and industry practices assume SMEs to be “normative” or “conservative” buyers; however, this hypothesis is untested. This article aims to scrutinize the reality, and proposes a unified model that rejects pre-containerization in buying behavior typologies, as well as selectiveness in terms of audience type, whether it is corporate, SME, or consumer. While replacing researchers’ perceptions with the audience’s, the model yields actual knowledge that can lead to audience’s beliefs in lieu of the opposite, which is used to mislead stakeholders. The study shows that SMEs also buy like individuals and spend in a similar way to consumers’, including not only “normative” and “conservative” but also “negligent” and “impulse” zones. From the research-implications perspective, future studies by behaviorists can explore why SMEs purchase in this way. Marketers may benefit from the finding that SMEs buy like individuals. In addition, SMEs may want to be conscious of their purchasing habits, and—utilizing the newly introduced “risk score” frontier—policymakers should assess the consequences of these habits at the macro level.

  2. Circumbinary Habitability Niches

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, Paul A; Cuartas-Restrepo, Pablo A; Clark, Joni M

    2014-01-01

    Binaries could provide the best niches for life in the galaxy. Though counterintuitive, this assertion follows directly from stellar tidal interaction theory and the evolution of lower mass stars. There is strong evidence that chromospheric activity of rapidly rotating young stars may be high enough to cause mass loss from atmospheres of potentially habitable planets. The removal of atmospheric water is most critical. Tidal breaking in binaries could help reduce magnetic dynamo action and thereby chromospheric activity in favor of life. We call this the Binary Habitability Mechanism (BHM), that we suggest allows for water retention at levels comparable to or better than Earth. We discuss novel advantages that life may exploit, in these cases, and suggest that life may even thrive on some circumbinary planets. We find that while many binaries do not benefit from BHM, high quality niches do exist for various combinations of stars between 0.55 and 1.0 solar masses. For a given pair of stellar masses, BHM operate...

  3. Habitable planet finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditto, Thomas D.

    2012-09-01

    A notional space telescope configuration is presented that addresses issues of angular resolution, spectral bandwidth and rejection of host star glare by means of a double dispersion architecture. The telescope resolves angle by wavelength. In an earlier embodiment for surveys, a primary objective grating telescope architecture was shown to acquire millions of objects in one observation cycle, one wave length at a time. The proposed HPF can detect exquisite spectral signatures out of millions of wavelengths in albedos - one exoplanetary system at a time. Like its predecessor, the new HPF telescope has a ribbon-shaped flat gossamer membrane primary objective that lends itself to space deployment, but the preferred embodiment uses a holographic optical element rather than a plane grating. The HOE provides an improvement in efficiency at select wavelength bands. The considerable length of the membrane can be in the 100 meter class providing angular resolution sufficient to resolve planets in the habitable zone and also spectral resolution sufficient to earmark habitability. A novel interferometric secondary spectrograph rejects host star glare. However, the architecture cannot disambiguate multiple stellar sources and may require unprecedented focal lengths in the primary objective to isolate one system at a time.

  4. Habits, action sequences and reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfouli, Amir; Balleine, Bernard W

    2012-04-01

    It is now widely accepted that instrumental actions can be either goal-directed or habitual; whereas the former are rapidly acquired and regulated by their outcome, the latter are reflexive, elicited by antecedent stimuli rather than their consequences. Model-based reinforcement learning (RL) provides an elegant description of goal-directed action. Through exposure to states, actions and rewards, the agent rapidly constructs a model of the world and can choose an appropriate action based on quite abstract changes in environmental and evaluative demands. This model is powerful but has a problem explaining the development of habitual actions. To account for habits, theorists have argued that another action controller is required, called model-free RL, that does not form a model of the world but rather caches action values within states allowing a state to select an action based on its reward history rather than its consequences. Nevertheless, there are persistent problems with important predictions from the model; most notably the failure of model-free RL correctly to predict the insensitivity of habitual actions to changes in the action-reward contingency. Here, we suggest that introducing model-free RL in instrumental conditioning is unnecessary, and demonstrate that reconceptualizing habits as action sequences allows model-based RL to be applied to both goal-directed and habitual actions in a manner consistent with what real animals do. This approach has significant implications for the way habits are currently investigated and generates new experimental predictions.

  5. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Improve Systemic Analysis (10:45) Take 3 Teen Pregnancy The Immunization Baby Book The Story of Folic ... the health risks of binge drinking - including unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, injury, car ... Teen Drivers Safe Teen Drivers Break the Silence: Stop ...

  6. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Go: Passport To Health (4:17) Vital Signs High Blood Pressure Spanish Diseases & Conditions Hablemos de la Influenza Influenza ... allowfullscreen> The video explores the health risks of binge drinking – including unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted ...

  7. Binge Drinking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-13

    This podcast explores the health risks of binge drinking and discusses effective community strategies to prevent it.  Created: 4/13/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/13/2010.

  8. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this video: