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Sample records for downtown havana city

  1. PIXE Analysis and source identification of airborne particulate matter collected in Downtown Havana City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, G.; Pinnera, I; Ramos, M; Guibert, R; Molina, E.; Martinez, M.; Fernandez, A.; Aldape, F.; Flores, M.

    2009-01-01

    A set of samples containing airborne particulate matter (in two particle size fraction PM10 and PM2,5) collected during five months from November 2006 to April 2007 in a urban area of Havana City were analyzed by Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique and the concentrations of 14 elements (S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb) were determined consistently in both particle size fractions with minimum detection limits in the range of ng/m3. A Gent air sampler was used for the aerosol collection in PM10 and PM2,5 particles simultaneously and the PIXE elemental analysis were performed using a proton beam of 2.5 MeV from the 2 MV Van de Graff Tandetron Accelerator at the ININ PIXE Laboratory in Mexico. The analytical database provided by PIXE was statistically analyzed in order to determine the promising local pollution sources. The statistical techniques of Multivariate Factor Analysis in combination with the Principal Component Analysis methods were applied to this data and allowed identifying five main pollution sources of airborne particulate matter (PM10 and PM2,5) collected in this area. The main (local) identified sources were: soil dust, sea spray, industry, fossil fuel combustion from motor vehicles and burnings or incinerations of diverse materials. A general discussion about these results is presented in this work. (Author)

  2. Havana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.; Coyula, Mario; Segre, Roberto

    Awards & DistinctionsA 1998 Choice Outstanding Academic: One of the oldest and most celebrated cities in the Western Hemisphere, Havana is a fascinating metropolis where history has left its handprint on every corner. Here, an international trio of well-known architects and planners assesses near...

  3. Havana: aging in an aging city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyula, Miguel

    2010-10-01

    In Cuba, various factors have led to nearly zero population growth and a rapidly aging society. In a few years, the rush of baby-boomers reaching retirement will stand the population pyramid on its head, as the country's life expectancy already nears 80 years. Almost 20% of all Cubans live in Havana, demographically and structurally an aging city. Yet, the city is not prepared to offer its older inhabitants the spaces, services and housing options they require for a healthy quality of life. Studies must be undertaken to address this issue comprehensively, generating creative alternatives for wise use of limited resources to fulfill the material, social and spiritual needs of this growing population sector. KEYWORDS Aging, quality of life, social environment, urban health, housing for the elderly, Cuba.

  4. Havana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.; Coyula, Mario; Segre, Roberto

    five hundred years of development in the Cuban capital. They offer an insightful introduction to Havana's historic architecture and modern buildings, its social and economic fabric, its diverse people, and its contemporary challenges and opportunities.From the colonial and early republican periods...

  5. Agriculture in the City : A Key to Sustainability in Havana, Cuba ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Agriculture in the City : A Key to Sustainability in Havana, Cuba. Couverture du livre Agriculture in the City : A Key to Sustainability in Havana, Cuba. Auteur(s):. Maria Caridad Cruz et Roberto Sánchez Medina. Maison(s) d'édition: Ian Randle Publishers, CRDI. 29 septembre 2005. ISBN : 976637158X. 244 pages. e-ISBN :.

  6. Input doses for patients undergoing frequent X-rays tests at policlinics in Havana City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez, D.G.; Borroto, M.; De la Mora, R.; Borras, C.

    1998-01-01

    This work gives results from the input dose for a reference patient in eight radiographic projections frequently employed at policlinics from Havana City. Its determination was achieved by measuring free air exposure in the ionization chamber. It also shows results on image quality evaluations for one radiographic projection. The study integrated a quality control project on X-ray diagnostic equipment carried out at a municipality from Havana City

  7. Technology transfer from havana hospitals to primary care: yamila de armas, MD. Deputy director, provincial health department, havana city province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Gloria

    2009-01-01

    Dr Yamila de Armas has occupied an array of posts since finishing her residency in family medicine in her home province of Cienfuegos in 1992. She has served as a family doctor; polyclinic, municipal and provincial health director; medical school dean; and twice vice minister of public health. But few would doubt her toughest job is the one she has now: deputy director of the Havana City Provincial Health Department, in charge of medical services for the 2.2 million people living in Cuba's complex, sprawling capital. It was here in 2002-2003 that the program was launched to repair, refurbish and expand the country's nearly 500 community polyclinics. Key to the effort was equipping these facilities with a broader range of new and upgraded medical technology. Dr de Armas offers MEDICC Review her reflections on the results five years later.

  8. Sowing City Schools: Teachers and Garden Education in Havana and Philadelphia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Katie Ann

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines how pedagogies of sustainability are embedded in socio-cultural contexts and policy structures and driven by the localized actions of teachers. Through a comparative case study in two cities with extensive and varied school garden programs, Havana and Philadelphia, this dissertation analyzes the roles, understandings,…

  9. Characterization of municipal solid waste from the main landfills of Havana city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa Llorens, Ma. del C; Lopez Torres, Matilde; Alvarez, Haydee; Pellon Arrechea, Alexis; Garcia, Jorge Alejandro; Diaz Aguirre, Susana; Fernandez, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    The city of Havana, the political, administrative and cultural centre of Cuba, is also the centre of many of the economic activities of the nation: industries, services, scientific research and tourism. All of these activities contribute to the generation of municipal solid waste (MSW), which also impact other Cuban cities. Inadequate handling of waste and the lack of appropriate and efficient solutions for its final disposal and treatment increase the risk and possibility of contamination. The main difficulty in the development of a system of management of MSW lies in the lack of knowledge of the chemical composition of the waste that is generated in the country as a whole, and especially in Havana, where solid waste management decisions are made. The present study characterizes MSW in Havana city during 2004. The Calle 100, Guanabacoa and Ocho Vias landfills were selected for physical-chemical characterization of MSW, as they are the three biggest landfills in the city. A total of 16 indicators were measured, and weather conditions were recorded. As a result, the necessary information regarding the physical-chemical composition of the MSW became available for the first time in Cuba. The information is essential for making decisions regarding the management of waste and constitutes a valuable contribution to the Study on Integrated Management Plan of MSW in Havana

  10. Characterization of municipal solid waste from the main landfills of Havana city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa Lloréns, Ma Del C; Torres, Matilde López; Alvarez, Haydee; Arrechea, Alexis Pellón; García, Jorge Alejandro; Aguirre, Susana Díaz; Fernández, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    The city of Havana, the political, administrative and cultural centre of Cuba, is also the centre of many of the economic activities of the nation: industries, services, scientific research and tourism. All of these activities contribute to the generation of municipal solid waste (MSW), which also impact other Cuban cities. Inadequate handling of waste and the lack of appropriate and efficient solutions for its final disposal and treatment increase the risk and possibility of contamination. The main difficulty in the development of a system of management of MSW lies in the lack of knowledge of the chemical composition of the waste that is generated in the country as a whole, and especially in Havana, where solid waste management decisions are made. The present study characterizes MSW in Havana city during 2004. The Calle 100, Guanabacoa and Ocho Vías landfills were selected for physical-chemical characterization of MSW, as they are the three biggest landfills in the city. A total of 16 indicators were measured, and weather conditions were recorded. As a result, the necessary information regarding the physical-chemical composition of the MSW became available for the first time in Cuba. The information is essential for making decisions regarding the management of waste and constitutes a valuable contribution to the Study on Integrated Management Plan of MSW in Havana.

  11. Downtown Tenants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Downtown City Tenant Information: Includes tenant name, address, Business open date, close date, years in business, and independent vs. chain. Data provided by the...

  12. Application of PIXE analysis to study urban atmospheric aerosols from downtown Havana City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Zayas, Grizel; Pinnera Hernandez, Ibrahin; Ramos Aruca, Maridelin; Guibert Gala, Rolando; Molina Esquivel, Enrique; Martinez Varona, Miriam; Fernandez Arocha, Ariadna; Aldape Ugalde, Francisca; Flores Maldonado, Javier

    2010-01-01

    The present work reports, the results of a first study of elemental composition in airborne particulate matter (in fine and coarse particle size fractions) collected at the Atmospheric Monitoring Station in the Municipality of Centro Habana, using the Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. At present, there is not information available about elements contents in airborne particulate matter from this region. For this study, we carried out a sampling campaign during five months (November 14, 2006 to April 19, 2007). The samples were collected every second day during 24 h under an air flux of 20 l/min. The air sampler used was a Gent Sampler equipped with a Stacked Filter Unit (SFU) system which allows the aerosol collection in both size fractions simultaneously. A total of 144 aerosol samples were collected (72 correspond to the fine mass particle and 72 to the coarse mass particle). For PIXE analysis, the samples were irradiated by 2.5 MeV energy protons from the 2MV Van de Graff Tandetron Accelerator from the Laboratory of PIXE analysis at ININ, Mexico. A total of 14 elements (S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb) were consistently detected in both particle size fractions with minimum detection limits in the range of 1-10 ng/m3. The quantitative results obtained from PIXE elemental analysis for mass of particles in both fractions have revealed important information that has been used in a first attempt to understand and to characterize the atmospheric pollution of this area. A general discussion about these results is presented in this paper. (author)

  13. Application of PIXE analysis to study urban atmospheric aerosols from downtown Havana City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Zayas, Grizel; Pinnera Hernandez, Ibrahin; Ramos Aruca, Maridelin; Guibert Gala, Rolando; Molina Esquivel, Enrique; Martinez Varona, Miriam; Fernandez Arocha, Ariadna; Aldape Ugalde, Francisca; Flores Maldonado, Javier

    2009-01-01

    The present work reports, the results of a first study of elemental composition in airborne particulate matter (in fine and coarse particle size fractions) collected at the Atmospheric Monitoring Station in the Municipality of Centro Habana, using the Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. At present, there is not information available about elements contents in airborne particulate matter from this region. For this study, we carried out a sampling campaign during five months (November 14, 2006 to April 19, 2007). The samples were collected every second day during 24 h under an air flux of 20 l/min. The air sampler used was a Gent Sampler equipped with a Stacked Filter Unit (SFU) system which allows the aerosol collection in both size fractions simultaneously. A total of 144 aerosol samples were collected (72 correspond to the fine mass particle and 72 to the coarse mass particle). For PIXE analysis, the samples were irradiated by 2.5 MeV energy protons from the 2MV Van de Graff Tandetron Accelerator from the Laboratory of PIXE analysis at ININ, Mexico. A total of 14 elements (S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb) were consistently detected in both particle size fractions with minimum detection limits in the range of 1-10 ng/m3. The quantitative results obtained from PIXE elemental analysis for mass of particles in both fractions have revealed important information that has been used in a first attempt to understand and to characterize the atmospheric pollution of this area. A general discussion about these results is presented in this paper. (author)

  14. The changing face of inner-city Havana | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-14

    Jul 14, 2011 ... "It's so strong, the social capital that exists in that community. I found myself saying at one point: 'I wish I brought my kids up here'. And this is an inner-city community that's the most crowded community in all Cuba," says Yassi. The community and the Cuban government. Access to health care and education ...

  15. 76 FR 10028 - Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs 10,000 Havana Street Site, Commerce City...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9269-7] Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs 10,000 Havana Street Site, Commerce City, Adams County, CO AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice and request for public comment. SUMMARY: In accordance with the requirements of Section...

  16. Identifying sources of atmospheric fine particles in Havana City using Positive Matrix Factorization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnera, I.; Perez, G.; Ramos, M.; Guibert, R.; Aldape, F.; Flores M, J.; Martinez, M.; Molina, E.; Fernandez, A.

    2011-01-01

    In previous study a set of samples of fine and coarse airborne particulate matter collected in a urban area of Havana City were analyzed by Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. The concentrations of 14 elements (S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb) were consistently determined in both particle sizes. The analytical database provided by PIXE was statistically analyzed in order to determine the local pollution sources. The Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) technique was applied to fine particle data in order to identify possible pollution sources. These sources were further verified by enrichment factor (EF) calculation. A general discussion about these results is presented in this work. (Author)

  17. [Abundance variations of fishes from sites with different levels of pollution in the sublittoral sector of Havana City, Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Ivet Herández; Betancourt, Consuelo Aguilar; Sansón, Gaspar González

    2009-12-01

    The impact of human activity affects fish populations. We studied the abundance of three selected fish species (Stegastes partitus, Thalassoma bifasciatum and Halichoeres bivittatus) in four sites with different degrees of pollution in Havana City: 30th street and 16th street; Miramar; Red Boy of Havana Bay; and the ending ofAlmendares's River. The sites were divided into five zones depending on their bottom characteristics. The counts were made with the visual census technique with a 5m2 quadrat, from June-July 2003 to January 2004. Each time we made nine counts per zone. S. partitus and T. bifasciatum were more abundant in clean water areas, while Halichoeres bivittatus seems to resist the levels of pollution present in the area.

  18. Evaluation of the radius-226 doses incorporated with the consumption waters, which is receive by the City of Havana inhabitants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomas Zerquera, J.; Prendes Alonso, M.; Fernandez Gomez, I.M.; Martinez Ricardo, N.

    2001-01-01

    Because of the relatively good solubility of radium compounds contained in the crust of the earths, frequently is this possible to find in spring waters concentration of radium 226 which may be significant. Taking in account that person consumer important volumes of waters annually, it is necessary to assess the dose to population due to the intake of radium 226 by this pathway. Samples were taking in the principal water sources in Havana City and for each samples the radium 226 concentration was determined

  19. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the City of North Las Vegas (Downtown) and the Motor Speedway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotr Wasiolek

    2007-01-01

    As part of the proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey on December 11-12, 2007, with the purpose of mapping natural radiation background and locating any man-made radioactive sources. The survey covered 19.4 square miles (9.2 square miles over the downtown area of the City of North Las Vegas and 10.2 square miles over the Las Vegas Motor Speedway [LVMS]). The flight lines over the surveyed areas are presented in Figures 1 and 2. A total of four 2.5-hour-long flights were performed at an altitude of 150 ft above ground level (AGL) with 300 ft of flight line spacing. Water line and test line flights were conducted over the Lake Mead and Government Wash areas to ensure quality control of the data. The data were collected by the AMS data acquisition system-REDAR V using an array of twelve 2-inch x 4-inch x 16-inch sodium iodide (NaI) detectors flown on-board a twin-engine Bell 412 helicopter. Data in the form of gamma energy spectra were collected continually (every second) over the course of the survey and were geo-referenced using a differential Global Positioning System. Collection of spectral data allows the system to distinguish between ordinary fluctuations in natural background radiation levels and the signature produced by man-made radioisotopes sources. Spectral data can also be used to identify specific radioactive isotopes. As a courtesy service with the approval of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office, RSL-Nellis is providing this summary to the office of the Mayor of City of North Las Vegas and LVMS security along with the gross counts-based exposure rate and man-made counts maps

  20. [Tuberculin reactivity among ninth-grade schoolchildren in the city of Havana, Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroto Gutiérrez, Susana M; González Ochoa, Edilberto; Armas Pérez, Luisa; Urbino López-Chávez, Amelia; Martínez, Ana Maribel; Llanes, María Josefa; Sevy Court, José; Carreras Corzo, Libertad

    2003-09-01

    To determine the proportion of 14-year-old schoolchildren in the city of Havana, Cuba, with a positive tuberculin skin test, as an indicator of the prevalence of tuberculosis infection among them. Using single-stage cluster sampling, 1 936 Mantoux (tuberculin) tests were carried out with ninth-grade students (cohort born in 1985) during the 1999- 2000 school year in 20 basic high schools randomly selected in Havana. The tests were performed according to the standard technique recommended by the World Health Organization, and they were read after 72 hours. The percentage of skin tests that were positive and the average diameter of the indurations were calculated for the cohort overall and for the two genders. The means and the percentages were compared using the chi-square test, with 95% confidence intervals. The computer software used was Epi Info version 6.0. Of the tests read, 96% of them were negative (0-4 mm), 2.5% were doubtful (5-9 mm), and 1.5% were positive (>/=10 mm). The percentage of reactivity was 0.1% when a cutoff value of 15 mm was used. The mean diameter of the indurations was 0.41 mm. No statistically significant difference was found between the genders. In this study the proportion of schoolchildren with tuberculin reactivity, using an induration-diameter cutoff point of 10 mm, was very low (1.5%), and it was much lower (0.1%) when a cutoff point of 15 mm was used. The skin reactions with an induration diameter of >/=10 mm could be the expression of a natural infection if one takes into account the low frequency of bacillary tuberculosis in Cuba and that there is an inverse relationship between the time elapsed from the BCG vaccination and the intensity of the response to tuberculin. Therefore, that would mean that in this case (l)the point (.)prevalence of tuberculosis infection in this group of schoolchildren wou d be 1.5% ResumenObjetivos. Determinar la proporción de personas que reaccionan a la tuberculina como indicador de la prevalencia de

  1. Mental health outreach and street policing in the downtown of a large French city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, V; Bonin, J P; Tinland, A; Farnarier, C; Pelletier, J F; Delphin, M; Rowe, M; Simeoni, M C

    2014-01-01

    Marseille, the second largest city in France, has a large population of homeless persons. A mental health outreach team was created in 2005 as a response to high rates of mental illness among this group. In a national political context where security is a government priority, a new central police station was created in Marseille in 2006 to address robberies, violence and illegal traffic in the downtown area of the city. While not directly related to such crimes, police also are responsible for public safety or behavioral issues related to the presence of individuals who are homeless in this area. This report on a two-year pilot study (2009-2011) addresses collaborative work between a mental health outreach team and the police department responding to the clinical needs of persons who are homeless with serious psychiatric disorders. It also describes the homeless persons' interactions with, and perceptions of the presence of, police and mental health professionals on the streets. Investigators adopted a mixed-methods approach. Data were collected on 40 interactions using brief standardized report for each interaction. Focus groups were conducted with police officers, outreach team members, peer workers, and service users. Minutes of partnership meetings between police officers and outreach workers also served as a source of qualitative data. Outreach workers initiated just over half (n=21) of the encounters (n=40) between police and outreach workers. Interactions mainly involved persons with psychosis (77%), the vast majority (80%) of which involved persons in an acute phase of psychosis. Two key themes that emerged from data analysis included the violent nature of life on the streets and the high percentage of ethnic minorities among subjects of the interactions. In addition, it was found that the practices of the outreach workers are sometimes similar to those of the police, especially when outreach workers use coercive methods. "Users" (homeless persons

  2. HAVANA: SPACE THROUGH TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVIDEL RALUCA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Milton Santos, important Brazilian geographer, stated in his writings that space is a social production through time. The present work belongs to a series of studies of Latin-American cities based on Santos´ theories. Our case study is the city of Havana. Strategically situated in the Antilles, the city always played the role of a gate to the Spanish colonies in the Americas. After the Cuban independence (1898, the Caribbean city fell under the influence of the crescent power of the United States. At the turn of the XXth century, the city which during the colonial times based its economy on trade of commodities from the mainland like tobacco or sugar, turned to be funded mainly by North American tourism. The city attracted legal investment and mafia groups equally. Disparity and growing authoritarianism led to the well known Cuban Revolution and with its socialist reforms, the city froze in time. With the Soviet collapse, the government searched for economic alternatives facing a strong U.S. embargo. Tourism appeared once more as an important source of income. Yet, this new transition raises questions like: how is this reorientation going to change spatially Havana? Or, how are deeper changes in the socialist regime going to affect the heritage and identity of the city?

  3. Levels of cadmium, lead, cooper and zinc in vegetables cultivated in a highly urbanized area of La Havana city, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares R, S.; Garcia C, D.; Lima C, L.; Saborit S, I.; Llizo C, A.; Perez A, P.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we report levels of Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn in soils and vegetables grown in a highly urbanized area of La Havana city. We studied 17 farms dedicated to urban agriculture in an area of two kilometers around the landfill -Calle 100- during 2006 and 2007. For the study, samples of the soil and all the vegetables ready to harvest were taken from the farms. The heavy metals Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The levels of heavy metals in agricultural soils varied in the following ranges: Cd(0.24-2.1 mg/kg), Cu(38.4-81.3 mg/kg), Pb(18.1-138.5 mg/kg) and Zn(44.1-294.7 mg/kg). For Zn and Pb, some farm soils (35 and 52% respectively) exceeded the ranges in which these metals are found in Cuban agricultural soils. For Pb, 23% of the soils exceeded levels considered phyto toxic and limits in some international standards. The 12.5% of the samples of vegetables collected exceeded the maximum permissible levels of this pollutant in food for human consumption set by Cuban and international standards. The results indicate the need for strict crop monitoring in the area. (Author)

  4. A Cohesive Downtown from a Knowledge City Perspective - A Study in Urban Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobson, Alma

    2012-01-01

    The escalating urbanization process has given rise to various complications in the urban structure. One of the major issues is the one concerning urban cohesion. As modern cities are facing a transformation from industrial to knowledge societies, many aspects have to be taken into consideration in the planning of cities. This thesis aims to study the significance of a cohesive city centre from a social and spatial point of view, and to understand modern cities’ development towards innovative ...

  5. Agriculture in the City: A Key to Sustainability in Havana, Cuba ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As a result, food prices are increasing, free markets have been reinstated, production cooperatives have been linked with markets, land has been redistributed, and areas under export crops have been converted to domestic food crops. The Cuban government is now calling upon its cities to become more self-reliant for food ...

  6. Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) measured with the doubly labeled water technique in women from 60 to 70 years of age from Havana City, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Triana, M.H.; Porrata, C.; Estrada, G.; Diaz, M.E.; Martin, I.; Bayley, H.; McCormack, B.A.; Jones, P.J.H.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: With the purpose to measure the Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) and to validate the Cuban Dietary Energy Allowance for elderly subjects, energy expenditure was assessed by the doubly labeled water technique in 11 women aged 65.9 ± 2.8 y with a mean BMI of 21.4 ± 4.2 kg/m2 during 14 days under free-living conditions in their own environment in Havana City. Materials and Methods: After taking a basal urine sample, the women received an oral dose of 2.5 g H218O (10%) and 0.12 g 2H2O (99.8%) body weight and samples of saliva and urine were collected 14 days after. Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) was estimated by the Schofield equations proposed by the 1985 FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Committee Report and energy intake was measured by trained dietitians using the 3-day weighed dietary record. A mean value of the food quotient of 0.85 was used for the calculations of the CO2 production by the isotopic method. Results: In spite of the expected variability, the differences between TEE measured by the isotopic method (7.57 MJ/d) and estimated according to FAO/WHO/UNU, 1985 (7.24 MJ/d) were not significant (0.625). The recommended dietary allowance for energy valid for Cuban elderly subjects (7.66 MJ/d) was only slight over the value of the measured TEE. The value of energy expenditure measured in free-living elderly women from Havana City was in the range of acceptable values (6-8 MJ/d) for this group of age. Conclusions: The total energy expenditure of elderly women from Havana City was lower than reported values for women living in developed countries but coincident with those of women of the developing world. The differences between dietary energy intake and TEE measured by the isotopic method were around 27% and coincident with previous reports in elderly people. The Cuban allowance for dietary energy for elderly women was enough for covering their energy requirements

  7. Envision Downtown: Public Space Public Life Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Pedestrian and Bicycle counts, Stationary Activity Counts, and Age and Gender counts for 16 locations in Downtown Pittsburgh. Data was collected over a weekday (7am...

  8. VT Designated Downtown Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Downtown designation provides communities with financial incentives, training and technical assistance to support local efforts to restore historic buildings,...

  9. Contamination by Helicobacter pylori measured by the 13C-Urea-Breath-Test and nutritional status of children with chronic diarrhoea syndrome in Havana City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Triana, M.H.; Cabrera, A.; Sanchez, M. A.; Herrera, X.; Pawong, M.; Moreno, R.; Reyes, D.; Serrano, G.; Diaz, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    Diarrhoea morbidity shows a slow increasing tendency during the last 10 years in Cuba. In young children the compromise of the gastric acid barrier after a chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is discussed in pathogenic relation to gastritis, duodenal ulcer, chronic diarrhoea, short stature, malabsorption of the B-complex vitamins and malnutrition. The Hp contamination level of the population of the developing world is estimated to be considerably high. Endoscopic studies carried out in Cuban subjects with upper gastrointestinal symptoms show contamination values of 60 to 100%. The current treatment of chronic diarrhoea does not include the elimination of Hp. Cuban children with upper gastrointestinal symptoms show contamination values of more than 60%. There are not available data on the contamination level in apparently healthy Cuban children or those with chronic diarrhoea. In March-April 2000 the prevalence of Hp infection measured in serum by chromatographic immunoassay for detection of Hp IgG antibodies was found to be 94 % in 20 infants and young children with persistent chronic diarrhoea and 100% in 11 apparently healthy children in Havana City. Children with diarrhoea showed a more evident affection of their nutritional status and a higher percentage of positive personal or familiar history of parasitism, giardiasis, gastritis, ulcer, stomatitis and glositis. The validity of the immunological tests in infants is discussed from the point of view of the antibody transference with breast milk. In a sample of 16 different children studied by the 13C-Urea-Breath-Test the contamination level was 50% of the children not affected by diarrhoea and only one of the 6 children with diarrhoea showed positive values

  10. Urban revitalization at downtown areas: discussions on the case of the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Nigro

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This article: refers to the recent interventions and present revitalisation projects taking place at São Paulo city centre. It deals with the importance that has been attributed to the urban central areas through the years and the way in which these particular spaces are constant targets of public interventions. The case of São Paulo is treated through the process of "urban revitalisation". The text focuses on the need to speak about the context of this process within a wider one, that of "urban reestructuraron" - which leads to "gentrification" and spatial segregation phenomenon

  11. Contamination by Helicobacter pylori measured by the 13C-urea-breast-test and nutritional status of children with chronic diarrhoea syndrome in Havana city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera, A.; Hernandez-Triana, M.; Sanchez, M.; Herrera, X.; Pawong, M.; Moreno, R.; Reyes, D.; Serrano, G.; Diaz, M.E.; Valencia, M.

    2000-01-01

    Diarrhoea morbidity shows a slow increasing tendency during the last 10 years in Cuba. In young children the compromise of the gastric acid barrier after a chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori is discussed in pathogenic relation to gastritis, duodenal ulcer chronic diarrhoea, short stature, malabsorption of the B-complex vitamins and malnutrition. The Hp contamination level of the population of the developing world is estimated to be considerably high. Endoscopic studies carried out in Cuban subjects with upper gastrointestinal symptoms show contamination values of 60 to 100%. The current treatment of chronic diarrhoea does not include the elimination of Hp. Cuban children with upper gastrointestinal symptoms show contamination values of more than 60%. There are not available data on the contamination level in apparently healthy Cuban children or those with chronic diarrhoea. In March-April 2000 the prevalence of Hp infection measured in serum by chromatographic immunoassay for detection of Hp IgG antibodies was found to be 94% in 20 infants and young children with persistent chronic diarrhoea and 100% in 11 apparently healthy children in Havana City. Children with diarrhoea showed a more evident affection of their nutritional status and a higher percentage of positive personal or familiar history of parasitism, giardiasis, gastritis, ulcer stomatitis and glositis. The validity of the immunological tests in infants is discussed from the point of view of the antibody transference with breast milk. In a sample of 16 different children studied by the 13 C-Urea-Breath-Test the contamination level was 50% of the children not affected by diarrhoea and only one of the 6 children with diarrhoea showed positive values. This research contract proposes the study of contamination with Hp in Cuban children older than 2 years of age affected by chronic diarrhoea using the 13 C-Urea Breath Test and serological tests for detection of anti-Hp IgG antibodies. Their nutritional

  12. TEC variability over Havana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, B.; Alazo, K.; Rodriguez, M.; Calzadilla, A.

    2003-01-01

    The variability of total electron content (TEC) measured over Havana using ATS-6, SMS-1 and GOES-3 geosynchronous satellite signals has been investigated for low, middle and high solar activity periods from 1974 to 1982. The obtained results show that standard deviation is smooth during nighttime hours and maximum at noon or postnoon hours. Strong solar activity dependence of standard deviation with a maximum values during HSA has been found. (author)

  13. THE OLD HAVANA, A FEARLESS PRESENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysel Castillo García

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Havana, Cuba's capital city had its beginnings with the construction of the San Cristobal de la Habana village, which was consolidated from a city with a large urban development from architectural SXVI until today. The urban structure that will characterize the city is given by a system of square with different uses and functions which will develop the core business of the town, giving polycentric character. During its growth this character always prevailed and remains in the current city allowing the decentralization of functions. The presence of outstanding works of domestic architecture, with large central courtyard mansions and hallway with colorful stained glass, were symbols of economic development. Religious architecture, boomed equally important for the construction of buildings part of the skyline as milestones and the social life. The Church as an institution takes force within society itself to develop health functions, including education, thus exerting ideological control - cultural on different social groups. Today that village, Old Havana has experienced significant economic, cultural and social product integrated management model implemented. The of Historian´s of the city Office (Oficina del Historiador de la Ciudad and its directorates, has rescued an important part of the tangible and intangible heritage sample of Cuban culture in the oldest part of Havana, the historic center. The work of the Historians of the city office, with offices established directorates to carry out comprehensive management process, with a comprehensive development strategy developed and self-funded, achieving significant economic development to enhance their traditional components. The integrated management model of the old town, sees culture as main linchpin of development, and the human being the heart of the process. It's a livable historic center, where a high density of occupation, a considerable number of families, thus making the man as

  14. Hypercongestion in downtown metropolis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Engineering studies demonstrate that traffic in dense downtown areas obeys a stable functional relationship between average speed and density, including a region of ‘hypercongestion’, where flow decreases with density. This situation can be described as queuing behind a bottleneck whose capacity ...

  15. Memory and a Hard Place: Revisiting Central Havana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marivic Wyndham

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Raul and Manolo are two Cuban men in their late sixties. Manolo left soon after Castro’s triumph to become a television celebrity in Miami. He returned in 1991 to make a clandestine film about the city which once was his. Raul never left his decaying city. He applauded the revolution, but little by little his enthusiasm soured. The paper examines the relationship of the two men to what was once the ultra modern Central Havana of the mid-1950s. Manolo’s froze on the day he left: his filmed city is silent, immobile, full of ghosts, almost empty, ugly, ruined. Manolo’s Central Havana processes and changes, it is noisy, busy, - but also it is ugly and ruined. Both lament the city as it once was. Only Raul sees hope of reconciliation.

  16. "Vintage Nightlife": Gentrifying Lisbon downtown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Nofre

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Over last two decades, culture has played a very important role in large-scale urban transformations. In that sense, nightlife promotion has become one of the most important strategies for urban regeneration in post-industrial cities. This paper explores the newly emerged vintage-style nightlife in the former harbour quarter of Cais do Sodré (Lisbon downtown. To do this, I focus on a recently renewed hostel building called Pensão Amor – formerly frequented by sailors and prostitutes, and today considered the coolest nightlife venue in the Portuguese Capital. After presenting an updated state of the art exploration of gentrification and nightlife, I argue in the second part of my paper that Pensão Amor is currently playing a key role in the gentrification of the urban nightscape in the Cais do Sodré neighbourhood, where its traditional nightlife is today being supplanted by a vintage-style nightlife. Furthermore, I argue that the consumption of this recently promoted vintage nightlife as a new form of social distinction can be also seen as the (reproduction strategy of a socially and morally sanitized nightlife which marginalizes everyone who is seen as inappropriate, or in other words, socially perilous to the city branding of Lisbon.

  17. Clasificación del síndrome climatérico en mujeres de edad mediana, Ciudad de La Habana, 2003 (I Classification of the climaterium syndrome in women of middle-aged women. Havana City 2003 (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadna Corral Martín

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: el síndrome climatérico se presenta con variada frecuencia e intensidad en distintas poblaciones. OBJETIVO: identificar su intensidad en mujeres de 40 a 59 años de edad en Ciudad de La Habana. MÉTODOS: estudio descriptivo transversal en el que se estudió una muestra de 625 mujeres de estas edades, seleccionadas por muestreo estratificado polietápico. Se estimó de forma puntual y por intervalo de confianza del 95 %, el porcentaje de mujeres en cada nivel del síndrome climatérico y por subescala según el instrumento aplicado. Se caracterizó cada grupo de mujeres de dicha clasificación, de forma general y con variables biológicas. RESULTADOS: el 40,3 % y el 30,2 % de las mujeres estudiadas clasificaron como asintomáticas y con síndrome climatérico leve respectivamente, según el puntaje total. El grupo de edad de 40 a 49 años tuvo el 11,6 % de mujeres con síndrome muy molesto, el 56,8 % se encontraba en la posmenopausia y el 9,3 % en la perimenopausia. CONCLUSIONES: en la Ciudad de La Habana, tanto en la clasificación total como en las subescalas predominaron las mujeres clasificadas en el nivel asintomático/muy leve y leve. El intervalo más cercano a la mediana de la edad de la menopausia, la perimenopausia y el sobrepeso constituyeron las situaciones más desfavorables para el síndrome climatérico.INTRODUCTION: climateric syndrome has a varying frequency and intensity in different populations. AIM: to identify its intensity in women aged 40-59 in Havana City. METHODS: cross-sectional descriptive study in which a cohort of 625 women of these ages was studied, selected by multi-stage stratified sampling. In a detailed way and by 95 % confidence interval (CI, the percentage of women in each level of climateric syndrome, and by subscale according to applied instrument. Authors characterized each group of women of such classification en a general way and with biological variables. RESULTS: the 40,3 % and the 30

  18. Factors affecting the formation of sub-downtowns in various metropolitan areas around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukovsky, Roman; Pomorov, Sergey

    2017-01-01

    The paper is aimed at investigating and compiling systematic knowledge about the factors affecting formation and specificity of urban sub-downtowns (sub-centers). Sub-downtowns are autonomous territories, identical to the downtown and located within one metropolitan area with downtown. Objects corresponding to the concepts of "Edge City", "Edgeless City", "Secondary Business District", "Mixed-Use Development" were investigated as sub-downtowns. Terrestrial and satellite images, as well as functional zoning data of more than 250 metropolitan areas in all world's regions were explored. A special form of sub-downtowns characterized by direct commercial corridor connection with central business district was found and defined as "Total Business District" concept. Eight metropolitan area types were distinguished based on sub-downtown development level criterion. These types were found to have significant relation to the specific world regions. Sub-downtowns are more frequent and diverse in countries with higher level, pace and liberalization of economic development, as well as with higher motorization rate. The closer to the coast or state border the metropolitan area is, the more likely sub-downtowns within it will be developed. In the context of continental, desert, tropical, northern maritime climates sub-downtowns are less common than in subtropical, temperate and Mediterranean or Polynesian climates. In most cases, clustered (not just corridor-like) sub-downtowns are likely to be found in metropolitan areas with a population of more than 1.5-3.5 million people, depending on the geographic region of the world. The research results can improve forecasting the development and master planning of sub-downtowns in specific metropolitan areas.

  19. Efectos adversos asociados al tratamiento con factor de transferencia: Ciudad de La Habana, 2004 Adverse drug effects associated to the treatment of patients with transfer factor: City of Havana , 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aida Cruz Barrios

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available El factor de transferencia (Hebertrans constituye un inmunoestimulante que se emplea en una amplia gama de enfermedades. Su seguridad ha sido evaluada en los ensayos clínicos pre-registro, pero no así en investigaciones poscomercialización, por tal motivo se realizó un estudio observacional y multicéntrico de vigilancia activa, en pacientes tratados con factor de transferencia en 11 hospitales de la Ciudad de La Habana , para identificar los eventos presentados durante el tratamiento, así como clasificarlos según su causalidad y gravedad. La información fue recogida por el médico inmunólogo de cada hospital y supervisada por el farmacoepidemiólogo hospitalario. Durante el tratamiento se obtuvo información de 387 pacientes y se reportaron 133 eventos en 86 casos (22,2 %. Los más frecuentes fueron fiebre, dolor y eritema en el sitio de la inyección, cefalea y diarrea; el 92,5 % de los eventos observados fueron leves. El 27,8 % se clasificó como definitivamente provocados por el fármaco, estos últimos relacionados con la vía de administración. El factor de transferencia resultó un medicamento seguro en los pacientes observadosTransfer factor called Hebertrans is an immunostimulant used in a wide range of diseases. The safety of this drug has been assessed in several clinical assays prior to registration, but not in aftermarket research studies. Therefore, a multicenter observational study of active surveillance was carried out in patients treated with transfer factor in 11 hospitals located in the City of Havana to detect adverse events in the course of treatment, and then to classify them by cause and severity. Data was collected by the immunologist in each hospital and supervised by the pharmacological epidemiologist. During the treatment, information was gathered from 387 patients where 133 events were reported in 86 cases (22,2%. The most frequent were fever, pain, erythema at the site of injection, headache and diarrhea; 92

  20. Antecedentes de enfermedades maternas en pacientes con fisura de labio y/o paladar en Ciudad de La Habana Maternal disease backgrounds present in patients with cleft lip and palate or both in Havana City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulenia Cruz Rivas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Las malformaciones congénitas se definen como defectos estructurales genéticamente determinados presentes en el niño en el momento de nacer. Se han identificado miles de defectos congénitos. Las fisuras labio-palatinas constituyen deficiencias estructurales congénitas debidas a la falta de unión entre algunos procesos faciales embrionarios en formación. Este defecto es comúnmente encontrado en los nacidos vivos. En el presente estudio nos proponemos identificar el comportamiento de las fisuras de labio y/o paladar en madres enfermas durante el embarazo. Para ello se analizaron todos los niños nacidos vivos, con el diagnóstico de fisura de labio y/o paladar en el período de tiempo comprendido entre los años 2000 y 2006 en la provincia Ciudad de La Habana, donde se obtuvo un universo de estudio de 112 pacientes. El formulario estuvo dirigido a obtener información relacionada con el padecimiento de enfermedades por las madres de los pacientes en el momento de la gestación. La mayoría de las madres con niños fisurados se enfermaron durante el embarazo. El trimestre de mayor afectación fue el tercero y la enfermedad más común la hipertensión arterial.Congenital malformations are defined as genetically determined structural defects present in the child at birth. Thousand congenital defects have been identified. Lip-palate fissures are congenital structural deficiencies due to a faulty fusion of some developing embryonal facial process. This defect is usually found in live-born children. In present study we intended to identify behavior of lip, palate fissures, or both in sick mother during pregnancy. Thus, we analyzed all the live-born children diagnosed with lip, palate fissure, or both during 2000-2006 years in Havana City province, with a study sample of 112 patients. Form was designed to get the information related to diseases present in the patient's mothers during pregnancy. Most of mothers whose children had fissures had

  1. Havana: A Bike-Friendly City?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyula, Miguel

    2016-07-01

    The abrupt breakup of the USSR and socialist bloc in the early 1990s dealt a devastating blow to the island's economy. Almost overnight, beneficial aid and trade provided by the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance ground to a halt, including 80% of foreign trade previously conducted as barter and sales of 13 million tons of oil per year at preferential prices. When the Cuban economy bottomed out in 1993, oil imports had dropped from 13 to 4 million tons annually. At the time, Cuba depended almost entirely on imported oil and the dramatic decline in imports created massive blackouts, leaving most Cuban homes without electricity 12 hours a day.

  2. Prevención y diagnóstico tardío de SIDA en Ciudad de La Habana, 1986-2007 Late prevention and diagnosis of the AIDS present in Havana City, 1986-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Regla Bolaños Gutiérrez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar la ocurrencia de los diagnósticos tardíos en personas con VIH y posibles fallas de la prevención en la atención primaria. MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, de los 422 casos ocurridos en la Ciudad de La Habana, en el período comprendido entre 1986-2007. La información se obtuvo de la base de datos nacional de casos VIH/SIDA del Ministerio de Salud Pública. RESULTADOS: los casos de inicio clínico se incrementaron a partir de 1997, con un máximo en 2007, y los municipios con un mayor porcentaje de afectados son La Lisa, Plaza y Habana Vieja. Hubo un predominio del sexo masculino (91 % con orientación sexual de hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (85,3 %; el grupo de edad más afectado fue de 40-44 años (20,4 %, y el 53,3 % son diagnosticados por la pesquisa de ingresos. Las entidades más frecuentes son, el desgaste por VIH (34,4 %, adenopatías generalizadas con CD4 bajos (21,7 %, y neumonía por Pneomucystis jiroveci (16,0 %. En los últimos 10 años hubo un incremento de las defunciones y un 38,4 % fallecen el mismo año de su diagnóstico. CONCLUSIONES: existen dificultades en el trabajo de prevención del VIH/SIDA, en la Atención Primaria de Salud.OBJECTIVE: to characterize the occurrence of late diagnoses in HIV-persons, and the possible failures in primary care. METHODS: a cross-sectional and descriptive study was made of the 422 cases occurred in Havana City from 1986 to 2007. Information is from the national data-base of HIV/AIDS cases of Public Health Ministry. RESULTS: cases of clinical beginning were increased from 1997, with a peak in 2007, and the municipalities with greater percentage of diseased include La Lisa, Plaza, and Habana Vieja. There was a predominance of male sex (91 % with sexual intercourse from man to man (85,3 %; the more affected age group was that aged 40-44 (20,4 %, and the 53,3 % was that more diagnosed through admission inquiry. More frequent

  3. Control de la calidad del diagnóstico coproparasitológico en la provincia de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba External quality assessment in coproparasitology in Havana City Province, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidel Angel Núñez

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio sobre la calidad del diagnóstico coproparasitológico en 77 laboratorios de la red de salud pública de la provincia Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba. El procedimiento se basó en la entrega a cada jefe de laboratorio de un modelo de encuesta, y una bolsa de nylon conteniendo 10 viales plásticos con distintos especímenes parasitarios, preservados en formaldehído al 7%. Recogidos los resultados en las primeras 72 horas después de su entrega, se realizó la evaluación mediante una escala de puntuación establecida. La mayoría de los laboratorios aprobaron (70%; sin embargo aún existen centros, sobre todo policlínicas, con calificaciones deficientes. Los municipios con resultados más desfavorables fueron, Lisa, Marianao y Habana del Este, alcanzándose mejores resultados en los hospitales que en las policlínicas. En el análisis de Protozooarios, el mejor diagnosticado fué Giardia lamblia, con solo un centro que erró al identificarlo. Las mayores dificultades se presentaron en Blastocystis hominis con 61% de fallas, Endolimax nana, con 24,6%, y Entamoeba histolytica, con 22%. Entre los helmintos, la mayor aprobación fué en Trichuris trichiura y los errores diagnósticos predominaron con Fasciola hepatica y Taenia sp., ambos con 66,2% de fallas. Dados los resultados obtenidos, hemos organizado una intervención educativa en la red de laboratorios de la provincia.An external quality assessment in coproparasitology was carried out in 77 laboratories from Havana City. A questionnaire and ten plastic vials with different intestinal parasites in a small nylon bag, duly sealed, were sent to each laboratory. Answers were collected during the 72 hours after delivery. Results were analyzed by means of a computer program. The majority of the laboratories (70% passed the test; the municipalities with the worst scores in the province were Lisa, Marianao, and Habana del Este. Better results were obtained among technologists working

  4. Análisis de la mortalidad neonatal precoz en San Miguel del Padrón (La Habana Analysis of early neonatal mortality in San Miguel del Padrón municipality in Havana City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Vidal Borrás

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. Fueron objetivos de esta presentación caracterizar el comportamiento de la mortalidad neonatal precoz y su relación con la edad materna, gestacional, los factores de riesgo y las causas de muerte neonatal en el municipio San Miguel del Padrón, entre 1999 y 2008. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo y longitudinal del comportamiento de la mortalidad neonatal precoz en una muestra de 49 defunciones. Se analizaron variables maternas y del recién nacido, cuyos datos fueron obtenidos de la revisión de registros médicos de defunción e historias clínicas. RESULTADOS. Se encontró que la mortalidad neonatal precoz en el municipio fue de tendencia decreciente en el período estudiado. El año de mayor número de nacidos vivos (NV fue 1999, con 2146 nacimientos y una tasa de mortalidad infantil (TMI de 10,7 × 1 000 NV. La tasa de mortalidad neonatal precoz fue de 3,7 x 1000 NV, tanto en 1999 y como en 2002, con 7 defunciones en neonatos de menos de 7 días de vida. De las 129 defunciones, 49 correspondieron al componente neonatal precoz, en tanto que el parto pretérmino constituyó el 20,1 %. La principal causa de muerte fue la sepsis (48,9 %. CONCLUSIONES. Las principales causas de muerte fueron la sepsis, la asfixia y las malformaciones congénitas, mientras que los factores de riesgo más frecuentes relacionados con el embarazo fueron la moniliasis vaginal y las infecciones urinarias.INTRODUCTION. The objectives of this presentation were to characterize the behavior of early neonatal mortality and its relation to maternal and gestational age, risk factors, and the neonatal death causes in San Miguel del Padrón municipality in Havana City. METHODS: A descriptive, retrospective and longitudinal study was conducted on early neonatal mortality behavior in a sample of 49 deceases. Maternal and newborn variables were analyzed whose data were obtained from death medical records and clinical records. RESULTS: We

  5. Análisis del tratamiento quirúrgico del glaucoma en Ciudad de La Habana durante el año 2000 Analysis of the surgical treatment of Glaucoma the City of Havana in 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Zozaya Aldana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La trascendencia de cualquier enfermedad está en función de su gravedad y prevalencia. En el caso del glaucoma, la gravedad viene determinada por el hecho de que su evolución natural es hacia la ceguera, y en cuanto a su prevalencia se estima en un 2 % de la población mayor de 40 años. El glaucoma es el causante de entre 10 y 15 % de la ceguera mundial, y representa la segunda causa de ceguera en países en desarrollo. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo transversal del tratamiento quirúrgico del glaucoma en Ciudad de La Habana durante el año 2000. Se revisaron las historias clínicas e informes operatorios de 1 046 pacientes operados de glaucoma con diferentes técnicas. No se encontraron diferencias en cuanto al sexo, y sí un predominio de la raza blanca y de las edades entre 51 y 70 años. El tipo de glaucoma que más se intervino quirúrgicamente fue el glaucoma crónico simple. Se encontró, un descenso de los casos leves al intervenirse con respecto al momento del diagnóstico. La causa más frecuente para decidir el tratamiento quirúrgico fue el descontrol de la presión ocular, a pesar del tratamiento médico, la técnica más utilizada fue la trabeculectomía, y se encontró un porcentaje de cirugías con uso de antimetabolitos. Se observó como principal complicación el cierre de bulas; existió un bajo porcentaje de reintervenciones.The importance of any illness depends on its severity and prevalence. In the case of Glaucoma, severity is determined by its natural evolution into blindness, and as for prevalence, it is found in 2 % of the population aged over 40 years. Glaucoma accounts for 10 to 15 % of blindness worldwide and represents the second cause of blindness in developing countries. A retrospective cross-sectional and descriptive study about the surgical treatment of glaucoma in the City of Havana in 2000 was carried out. The medical histories and surgical reports of 1 046 patients operated on by several

  6. Metrics of Urban Sustainability: A Case Study of Changing Downtowns in Thunder Bay, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Randall

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Thunder Bay, a medium-sized city in Northern Ontario, has a twin downtown core model, arising from the merging of two former cities in 1970. Its north core, designated as the City’s Entertainment District has received considerable investment, notably a major waterfront renewal project undertaken in 2009 as part of an overall strategy towards downtown revitalization. Greater diversity of commercial functions and increasing residential capacity in downtowns are considered positive steps towards sustainable urban development. It is hoped the leadership taken by the City in its downtown capital investments can stimulate others (corporations and individuals to re-invest in both living and working in more central locations to the benefit of environmental sustainability indicators like journey-to-work (distance and mode selected and residential density. This article tracks changes in business composition and residential capacity during a five year period via the development of an intensive database of business and institutional activities. Urban sustainability metrics developed include residential capacity and density, business vacancy rates and business composition and turnover, which complement an existing measure of land-use diversity developed in earlier research. While major capital investments in downtown revitalization (such as the waterfront project have fairly long-term impact horizons, data suggest some positive trends in the developed metrics in the downtown north core since 2009. In particular, there have been notable investments in waterfront condos and downtown lofts and some diversification in the food retailing and restaurant sectors. However, overall trends in downtown commerce are currently flat, indicative of a struggling local economy and a continued suburbanization of key commercial sectors.

  7. Bicycle access to downtown Montreal : investing in a better future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolicoeur, M. [Velo Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The cycling community has long since expressed concern about the need to facilitate and encourage bicycle access to downtown Montreal. The municipality of Montreal in cooperation with Velo Quebec have initiated a process that responds to a specific need to improve safety for cyclists. A study was conducted to analyse the situation, including a portrait of the cycling situation downtown as well as a review of the best practices in ten comparable cities. Various scenarios were then outlined for facilitating bicycle access and mobility downtown. Guiding principles of this study are to include the comfort and safety of cyclists as well as respect for the priority of pedestrians and transit. The paper makes several recommendations and proposals including adding bike lanes on major arteries; ensuring wide bus and bike reserved lanes; as well as contra-flow bike lanes on residential one-way streets. The plan also proposes that racks be installed in numerous locations, including on sidewalks, on streets and at public and private buildings in order to address the shortage of bicycle parking. The paper concludes that only small adjustments to standards are required to put these measures in place. The greatest challenge lies in changing attitudes towards the bicycle as a preferred mode of transportation. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Tall-building development process in downtown Maringá-PR, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Machado

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the urbanization process taking place in the city of Maringá, in the context of the tallbuilding development at its main economic axis, the city center. This research aims to conduct an in-depth analysis of the role played by the housing industry in the development of tall buildings at downtown Maringá, the origin of the capital associated to such process, and the rationale for building them in Zone 1 (downtown. This is also analyzed considering local environmental information and infrastructural considerations involved in this process.

  9. Using a bicycle-pedestrian count to assess active living in downtown Wilkes-Barre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schasberger, Michele G; Raczkowski, Jessica; Newman, Lawrence; Polgar, Michael F

    2012-11-01

    Downtown Wilkes-Barre, a town of 40,000 residents in Northeast Pennsylvania, and the hub of a planned urban, suburban, and rural trail network, was the site of a number of changes to improve walkability during the Active Living by Design (ALbD) grant period. The Wyoming Valley Wellness Trails Partnership and Greater Wilkes-Barre Chamber of Business and Industry initiated the Wilkes-Barre Downtown Bicycle and Pedestrian Count (Bike-Ped Count) in order to pilot bicycle and pedestrian counting methods and to evaluate downtown built environment and policy changes. The Bike-Ped Count was conducted during nine 2-hour counting periods over 4 days in September using screen-line count methods at seven locations downtown and at River Common Park. During 18 hours of counting, staff noted 15,347 pedestrians and 773 bicyclists. The largest average number of pedestrians (512) was observed during lunch hours, whereas the largest numbers of bicyclists were observed during evening and weekend hours. The Bike-Ped Count illustrates patterns of bicycling and walking downtown and allows comparisons of bicycling and walking among locations, including different cities. In the future, counts will help show how ongoing changes to the downtown environment affect walking and bicycling. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Physics Studies at the University of Havana

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo Pereira, Osvaldo; Sánchez Colina, María

    The licenciatura en física degree course was created as part of the 1962 University Reform. It started at the Physics School within the Science Faculty of the University of Havana, also including the Schools of Mathematics, Chemistry, Biological Sciences, Geography and Psychology (Henriques Rodríguez, Daisy, R, Revista Cubana de Educación Superior XXI(8), 2001). The degree of licenciado had replaced that of baciller since 1880, but only the physico-mathematical sciences and physico-chemical sciences degree courses existed prior to the 1962 university reform. In this paper, we will analyze some data concerning the undergraduate and graduate studies during the 46 years elapsed since the creation of the physics degree course at the University of Havana. Several related issues, such as the development of scientific research and the influence of international collaboration, are dealt with in other contributions to this volume.

  11. Levels of cadmium, lead, cooper and zinc in vegetables cultivated in a highly urbanized area of La Havana city, Cuba; Niveles de cadmio, plomo, cobre y zinc en hortalizas cultivadas en una zona altamente urbanizada de la ciudad de la Habana, Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares R, S.; Garcia C, D.; Lima C, L.; Saborit S, I.; Llizo C, A.; Perez A, P., E-mail: susana@instec.cu [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas, Laboratorio de Analisis Ambiental, Av. Salvador Allende y Luaces, Plaza, Ciudad Habana (Cuba)

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we report levels of Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn in soils and vegetables grown in a highly urbanized area of La Havana city. We studied 17 farms dedicated to urban agriculture in an area of two kilometers around the landfill -Calle 100- during 2006 and 2007. For the study, samples of the soil and all the vegetables ready to harvest were taken from the farms. The heavy metals Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The levels of heavy metals in agricultural soils varied in the following ranges: Cd(0.24-2.1 mg/kg), Cu(38.4-81.3 mg/kg), Pb(18.1-138.5 mg/kg) and Zn(44.1-294.7 mg/kg). For Zn and Pb, some farm soils (35 and 52% respectively) exceeded the ranges in which these metals are found in Cuban agricultural soils. For Pb, 23% of the soils exceeded levels considered phyto toxic and limits in some international standards. The 12.5% of the samples of vegetables collected exceeded the maximum permissible levels of this pollutant in food for human consumption set by Cuban and international standards. The results indicate the need for strict crop monitoring in the area. (Author)

  12. Exams for attribution of sevres porcelain by x-ray fluorescence in Havana museums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza Cuevas, Ariadna; Nazco Torres, Julio

    2010-01-01

    Analysis with X-ray fluorescence on Sevres porcelain was performed in order to determine criteria from the scientific examination that may support the attribution of special pieces. Multielemental chemical analyses of decorations colours, marks and glazed porcelain body were related to specific historic information about used materials and procedure of Sevres french manufactory. The used portable XRF spectrometer allows non destructive and in situ studies of Havana's collections with adequate sensibility for this application. Collections of Havana City Museum, Decorative Art Museum and Napoleonic Museum and some pieces of different background were studied. Non typical pigments used in Sevres allows to identify non genuine Sevres decorations while cluster analysis on porcelain body differentiates Sevres and 'surdecor' porcelains from Sevres style non genuine porcelains. (author)

  13. Exams for attribution of sevres porcelain by x-ray fluorescence in Havana museums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza Cuevas, Ariadna; Nazco Torres, Julio

    2009-01-01

    Analysis with X-ray fluorescence on Sevres porcelain was performed in order to determine criteria from the scientific examination that may support the attribution of special pieces. Multielemental chemical analyses of decorations colours, marks and glazed porcelain body were related to specific historic information about used materials and procedure of Sevres french manufactory. The used portable XRF spectrometer allows non destructive and in situ studies of Havana's collections with adequate sensibility for this application. Collections of Havana City Museum, Decorative Art Museum and Napoleonic Museum and some pieces of different background were studied. Non typical pigments used in Sevres allows to identify non genuine Sevres decorations while cluster analysis on porcelain body differentiates Sevres and 'surdecor' porcelains from Sevres style non genuine porcelains. (author)

  14. Market Potential of Downtown Cheyenne

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    Attorney General 3,500 1721 Carey State Fire Marshall 6,650 506 West 17th Health Department 10,240* 700 West 21st Livestock Board 2,545 113 East 20th...market. 1980 AND 1992 HOUSING STOCK CITY OF CHEYENNE 1980 Stock 1992 Stock 12 Year Increase Unit Type I % I % Total Avg Annual. Single- Famlly Detached... livestock are primarily sold in Colorado to feedlots; crops are traded internationally. Forecast Employment has not tracked national trends. Ranching

  15. Gamma Activation Analysis in the Havana Bay superficial sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, N.; Gelen, A.; Diaz Riso, O.; Manso, M.V.; Simon, M.J.; Maslov, A.G.; Gustova, M.V.; Beltran, J.; Soto, J.

    2003-01-01

    A preliminary study of 26 elements of Havana Bay superficial sediments were made using Gamma Activation Analysis. Samples from five zones of Havana Bay were analyzed. The results show a close interrelation between the concentration levels of the studied elements and the contaminant sources

  16. hmF2 variability over Havana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, B.; Alazo, K.; Rodriguez, M.; Calzadilla, A.

    2003-01-01

    The hmF2 variability over Havana station (Geo. Latitude 23 deg. N, Geo Longitude 278 deg. E; Dip 54.6 deg. N; Modip: 44.8 deg. N) is presented. In this study different solar and seasonal conditions are considered. The results show that, in general, standard deviation of hmF2 is quite irregular and reaches its values at nighttimes hours. Lower and upper quartiles variability has a similar behaviour to IQ variability, showing its higher values at nighttimes too. (author)

  17. [Factors influencing infant mortality. Havana Province, 1983].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell-florit Serrate, P; Portuondo Dustet, N; Suarez Rosas, L; Ovies Garcia, A; Alvarez Fernandez, R; Lima Perez, M T

    1986-01-01

    Questionnaires intended to determine the factors involved in deaths in infants under 1 year have been completed in the province of Havana, Cuba, since 1980. The questionnaires are completed by obstetricians and pediatricians of the municipal health areas and analyzed at the secondary care level. This work examines the factors present in the 133 infant deaths occurring in Havana Province in 1983. The infant mortality rate in the province in 1983 was 14.1/1000 live births, the lowest ever recorded in the province. 74 of the deaths occurred in the early neonatal period, 13 in the late neonatal, and 46 in the postneonatal period. 22 of the early neonatal deaths were due to intrapartum anoxia, 15 to hyaline membrane disease, 10 to prematurity, 7 to bronchoaspiration, 3 to sepsis, 1 to bronchial pneumonia, and 13 to malformations. In the late neonatal and postneonatal periods, 11 deaths were attributed to acute diarrheal disease, 6 to meningitis, and 5 to accidents. 8 of the mothers were under 17 years old, 30 were 18-20, 57 were 21-30, and 16 were 31 or over. Maternal age was unknown for 22. 22 of the mothers were overweight, 29 were malnourished, 55 were of normal nutritional status, and the status of 27 was unknown. 67.7% of the early neonatal deaths were in low birth weight babies. Low educational level and rural residence were social factors in infant mortality.

  18. Prevalencia de ceguera y limitación visual severa, en personas mayores de 50 años de Ciudad de La Habana Prevalence of blindness and severe visual shortage in over 50 years-old adults in the City of Havana province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Cabrera Martínez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, cuyo universo estuvo constituido por la población mayor de 50 años perteneciente a Ciudad de La Habana, en el período comprendido entre junio de 2004 a junio del 2005. Para la determinación del tamaño de la muestra se asumió como universo los 633 396 habitantes mayores de 50 años de Ciudad Habana, con una estimación de la prevalencia esperada de 4,0 %, un error aceptable del 3 % y un efecto de diseño de 70 %. Se efectuó un muestreo sistemático por conglomerados y se determinó como muestra 2 760 habitantes de Ciudad de La Habana, representada por 46 cluster de 60 individuos cada uno. Se definió como ceguera la agudeza visual con corrección, inferior a 20/400 y la deficiencia visual grave como la agudeza visual con corrección >20/400 y The universe of a cross-sectional descriptive study, which was carried out from June 2004 to June 2005, was made up of people aged over 50 years, who lived in the City of Havana. In order to determine the sample size, 633 396 over 50 years-old inhabitants were taken as the universe of study, with an expected prevalence estimation of 4.0 %, an allowable error of 3 % and a design effect of 70 %. On the basis of these data, systematic cluster sampling was made to determine a sample of 2 760 inhabitants from the City of Havana, represented by 46 clusters of 60 subjects each. Blindness was defined as corrected visual acuity lower than 20/400 and severe visual shortage as corrected visual acuity >20/400 and <20/200 in the best eye and with the best available correction. An inter-observer variation to reduce errors for this reason was also made. The study coverage was 98.4 % of the selected sample. The blindness prevalence by sex was 2.4 %. Prevalence of bilateral blind persons by age increases from 2.6 % at 50 years to 15,2 % at 80 years and over. The most important causes of bilateral blindness were cataract (50 %, glaucoma (26 % and diabetic

  19. Building an urban 'renaissance': fragmented services and the production of inequality in Greater Downtown Detroit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Brian; Smit, Edske

    2016-01-01

    Downtown Detroit has been undergoing a renaissance in recent years which is in stark contrast to the economic and social situation in much of the rest of the city. This renaissance has been taking place despite the city's ability to provide good municipal services such as streetlights, security, public space and transport. This article focuses on how four areas which constitute part of Greater Downtown Detroit have relied on different combinations of actors to create and provide the services and amenities deemed necessary for capital investment and middle-class consumption. Each area has its own initiatives and actors who implement them, further fragmenting the city between its core and periphery. Renewed public spaces, private police forces and resident initiatives in middle-class neighborhoods have been created to serve specific needs of the small areas they serve. Rather than being unique, Detroit is an extreme example of fragmented and polarized urbanism which is part and parcel of contemporary cities. We argue that rather than passively reflecting existing socio-spatial divides, these private initiatives in Greater Downtown Detroit actively contribute to the production of sociospatial inequalities across the city.

  20. Antenatal cytogenetic testing in Havana, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Rosado, Luis A; Quiñones, Olga; Molina, Odalys; González, Nereida; del Sol, Marylin; Maceiras, Luanda; Bravo, Yomisleidy

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Antenatal cytogenetic testing was started in Havana in 1984, as a diagnostic option for fetal chromosome complement. The techniques applied are amniocyte culture, chorionic villus sampling, cordocentesis and fluorescence in situ hybridization in interphase cells. OBJECTIVE Describe the results of antenatal cytogenetic testing in the cytogenetic laboratory of the Cuba's National Medical Genetics Center in Havana, from 1984 through 2012. METHODS A retrospective descriptive study was carried out of the 22,928 pregnant women who had antenatal testing with conclusive results during the period 1984-2012. Information was obtained from laboratory databases for four antenatal diagnostic techniques. Variables studied were: antenatal diagnostic method, indications for genetic testing, type of chromosomal abnormality detected and couple's decision concerning pregnancy continuation if hereditary disease was diagnosed. Results were reported in absolute numbers and percentages. RESULTS Overall positivity was 2.8% (641 cases). Of the total, 20,565 samples were from amniocyte culture (558 positive cases, 2.7%); 1785 chorionic villus sampling (38 positive, 2.1%); 407 cord blood culture (28 positive, 6.9%); and 171 fluorescence in situ hybridization in interphase cells (17 positive, 9.9%). Advanced maternal age was the predominant indication for amniocyte culture and chorionic villus sampling. Positivity was higher for the two less frequently used methods, cordocentesis (6.9% positivity) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (9.9%). The predominant chromosomal abnormality was Down syndrome, with 45.4% of cases detected (291/641; 279 pure lines and 12 mosaic trisomies), followed by Edward syndrome with 12% (77/641, 71 pure lines and 6 mosaics) and Patau syndrome 4.7% (30/641, 27 pure lines and 3 mosaics). Sexual aneuploidy with pure lines affected 6.9% of cases (44/641) and with mosaicism 4.7% (30/641). Structural chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 22.5% of cases

  1. Fecal indicator bacteria at Havana Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Perez, Lisse; Gomez D'Angelo, Yamiris; Beltran Gonzalez, Jesus; Alvarez Valiente, Reinaldo

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations were evaluated in Havana Bay. Methods: Concentrations of traditional fecal indicator bacteria were calculated between April 2010 and February 2011, by MPN methods. Concentrations of thermo tolerant coliform (CTT), Escherichia coli, fecal streptococci (EF), intestinal enterococci (ENT) in seawater, and Clostridium perfringens in sediment surface, were determined. Results: CTT and E. coli levels were far above Cuban water quality standard for indirect contact with water, showing the negative influence of sewage and rivers on the bay. The EF and ENT were measured during sewage spills at the discharge site and they were suitable indicators of fecal contamination, but these indicators didn't show the same behavior in other selected sites. This result comes from its well-known inactivation by solar light in tropical zones and the presumable presence of humid acids in the waters of the bay. Conclusion: Fecal indicator bacteria and its statistical relationships reflect recent and chronic fecal contamination at the bay and near shores.

  2. The Concept of “Icon Streets” on the Basis of Lisbon Downtown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Moreira Pinto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the article is to enrich the current discussion on “place icons” through a case study of the Lisbon street “Rua da Madalena” and its architecture illustrating the integrated design and marketing concept adopted by the whole city. The paper presents the interdisciplinary approach using significant contribution from the fields of tourism, business, history and memory of the past. The article argues that modern cities need the “icon streets” that are basing on the social innovation policy, branding concepts, architectural theory and practice. Moreover, the paper presents how an integrated design strategy is practically applied in Lisbon downtown, and how it can contribute to the successful promotion of the city. Throughout this research, there is used the direct reference into both tangible and intangible cultural heritage, in terms of renewing the old city street on the basis of the unique brand strategy, the historical perspective that should characterized the street and up-to-date marketing concepts. The case study of Lisbon downtown provides the example of such the integrated strategy that can be easily adopted by other cities to improve their images and increase both economic and social potential by attracting tourists and media interest.

  3. Dense downtown living more carbon intense due to higher consumption: a case study of Helsinki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinonen, Jukka; Kyroe, Riikka; Junnila, Seppo, E-mail: jukka.heinonen@aalto.fi, E-mail: riikka.kyro@aalto.fi, E-mail: seppo.junnila@aalto.fi [School of Engineering, Department of Surveying, Aalto University, PO Box 11200, 00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2011-07-15

    Hindering urban sprawl is one of the main goals for contemporary urban planning. Urban density is considered crucial in climate change mitigation since it reduces automobile dependence and decreases unit sizes, for example. This letter analyzes the effect of density in a city context. In the study the Finnish capital Helsinki is divided into two areas of different urban densities: the high density downtown area and the more scarcely populated suburbs. The study is a continuation of a recently published study on the implications of urban structure on carbon emissions, and analyzes further the main finding of the first study-that higher urban density might have negligible or even reverse effect on the per capita carbon emissions. Similarly to the previous study, a consumption based tiered hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) approach is employed in order to produce a comprehensive assessment, free of territorial boundaries and system cutoffs typical of traditional LCAs. Based on the findings of the previous study, it is hypothesized that when assessing city level carbon dioxide emissions from a wider, consumer oriented LCA perspective, increased urban density may not necessarily reduce carbon emissions. Surprisingly, the study finds that carbon dioxide equivalent (CO{sub 2}e) emissions are substantially higher in the dense downtown area than in the surrounding suburbs, which is suggested to imply that the increased consumption due to the higher standard of living increases emissions more than the higher density is able to reduce them. The results demonstrate that, while increasing urban density can be justified from a number of ecological, social and economic viewpoints, density is not necessarily a key parameter in the particular case of climate change. In cities like Helsinki, where wealth is concentrated in the downtown area, climate policies should give higher priority to the energy consumption of buildings, to alternative energy production and distribution modes

  4. Dense downtown living more carbon intense due to higher consumption: a case study of Helsinki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinonen, Jukka; Kyroe, Riikka; Junnila, Seppo

    2011-01-01

    Hindering urban sprawl is one of the main goals for contemporary urban planning. Urban density is considered crucial in climate change mitigation since it reduces automobile dependence and decreases unit sizes, for example. This letter analyzes the effect of density in a city context. In the study the Finnish capital Helsinki is divided into two areas of different urban densities: the high density downtown area and the more scarcely populated suburbs. The study is a continuation of a recently published study on the implications of urban structure on carbon emissions, and analyzes further the main finding of the first study-that higher urban density might have negligible or even reverse effect on the per capita carbon emissions. Similarly to the previous study, a consumption based tiered hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) approach is employed in order to produce a comprehensive assessment, free of territorial boundaries and system cutoffs typical of traditional LCAs. Based on the findings of the previous study, it is hypothesized that when assessing city level carbon dioxide emissions from a wider, consumer oriented LCA perspective, increased urban density may not necessarily reduce carbon emissions. Surprisingly, the study finds that carbon dioxide equivalent (CO 2 e) emissions are substantially higher in the dense downtown area than in the surrounding suburbs, which is suggested to imply that the increased consumption due to the higher standard of living increases emissions more than the higher density is able to reduce them. The results demonstrate that, while increasing urban density can be justified from a number of ecological, social and economic viewpoints, density is not necessarily a key parameter in the particular case of climate change. In cities like Helsinki, where wealth is concentrated in the downtown area, climate policies should give higher priority to the energy consumption of buildings, to alternative energy production and distribution modes, as

  5. Prevalencia de los trastornos temporomandibulares en la población de 15 años y más de la Ciudad de La Habana Prevalence of temporomandibular disorders in the 15 years and over population from the City of Havana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuilen Jiménez Quintana

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio en 1 201 personas de 15 años y más de Ciudad de La Habana con el objetivo de determinar la prevalencia de los trastornos temporomandibulares y el índice de severidad sintomatológica de estos, así como el conocimiento que presentaba la población sobre las alteraciones de la articulación temporomandibular. Se utilizó el muestreo por conglomerados polietápicos con asignación proporcional equiprobabilístico. La información se recogió por la anamnesis y examen clínico mediante un formulario confeccionado según los criterios de los Indices Anamnésico y Clínicos de Disfunción de Helkimo. Presentaron disfunción el 31,89 % de los examinados según índice anamnésico y el 47,33 % según índice clínico, lo que evidenció que el porcentaje de encuestados con signos clínicos de disfunción fue mayor que los que refirieron algún síntoma, con predominio del sexo femenino y proporcional con la edad, con mayor frecuencia de la disfunción leve tanto en el índice clínico como anamnésico. La sintomatología principal fueron los ruidos articulares durante los movimientos de abertura y cierre mandibular. Con respecto al nivel de conocimiento se evidenció escasa información sobre el tema.A study of 1 201 persons aged 15 years and over from the City of Havana was carried out to determine the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders and their symptom severity index as well as the knowledge of the population about the temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD. Multistage cluster sampling with equal probability proportional allocation was used. Data were collected through anamnesis and clinical examination on the basis of a form created according to Helkimo´s Anamnesic and Clinical Indexes of Dysfunction. Dysfunction affected 31.89% of the patients according to the anamnesic index whereas 47,33% according to the clinical index, which evidenced that the percentage of surveyed people with clinical signs of dysfunction was

  6. Downlight Demonstration Program: Hilton Columbus Downtown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Robert G.; Perrin, Tess E.

    2014-05-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that there were about 700 million downlight luminaires installed in residential and commercial buildings in the U.S. as of 2012, with light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires representing less than 1% of this installed base. Downlight luminaires using conventional incandescent, halogen, and compact fluorescent lamps have lower efficacies and shorter expected lifetimes than comparable LED systems, but the lower initial cost of the conventional technology and the uncertainties associated with the newer LED technology have restricted widespread adoption of LED downlight luminaires. About 278 tBtu of energy could be saved annually if LED luminaires were to saturate the downlight market, equating to an annual energy cost savings of $2.6 billion. This report summarizes an evaluation of LED recessed downlight luminaires in the guest rooms at the Hilton Columbus Downtown hotel in Columbus, OH. The facility opened in October of 2012, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducted a post-occupancy assessment of the facility in January–March of 2014. Each of the 484 guest rooms uses seven 15 W LED downlights: four downlights in the entry and bedroom and three downlights in the bathroom. The 48 suites use the seven 15 W LED downlights and additional fixtures depending on the space requirements, so that in total the facility has more than 3,700 LED downlights. The downlights are controlled through wall-mounted switches and dimmers. A ceiling-mounted vacancy sensor ensures that the bathroom luminaires are turned off when the room is not occupied.

  7. Factores asociados al uso de DIU en mujeres de 35 a 49 años en un policlínico de Ciudad de La Habana Factors associated with the use of IUD in women aged 35-49 in a polyclinic of Havana City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Jesús Perdomo Estrada

    2004-08-01

    among 375 women from "Moncada" Polyclinic, in Havana City. The analysis included non-conditioned logistical regression to determine the association among the sociodemographic, biological, reproductive and educative, or information variables and the use of IUDs. The measure of association used was the ratio of momios at a confidence interval of 95 %. As a result, it was observed that the IUD was used by 43.3 % of women using contraceptives; of them, 61.5 % had one or no child. The probability of use of the IUD was higher in women aged 35-39 (RM=286, CI: 95 % = 1.43 - 5.75 and 40-44 (RM = 2.42, CI: 95 % = 1.13 - 5.45 than in females aged 45-49. The use of the IUD was also greater in women having less than 2 children (RM = 3.33, CI: 95 % = 1.94 - 5.36, and it was even higher if they were informed (RM = 2.42, CI: 95 % = 2.27 - 12.03 or if they have received medical counselling (RM = 2.35, CI: 95 % = 1.16 -4.78. Other variables were associated with the use of IUDs, but only parity and the indication of the method by the physician maintained their significance in the multivariate analysis. It was concluded that the medical guidance is a variable that influences positively on the studied women aged 35-49 at the time of deciding whether to use the IUD, much more if parity is considered "satisfied" or "concluded".

  8. Behavioral significance of milieu: a consideration of two downtown settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas L. Robertson; Rowan A. Rowntree

    1977-01-01

    Behavior patterns in parks and plazas in downtown Syracuse, New York, are discussed. After an introduction of the spaces and their principal users, fundamental concepts borrowed from ecological psychology are defined. Then using these concepts, the behavioral significance of the environment is illustrated in a comparison of two case studies. The concepts employed here...

  9. Downtown People Mover (DPM) Winterization Test Demonstration : Otis Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The Otis Elevator Company Transportation Technology Division (OTIS-TTD) Downtown People Mover (DPM) Winterization Test Demonstration Final Report covers the 1978-79 and 1979-80 winter periods. Tests were performed at the Otis test track in Denver, Co...

  10. Turning over a new leaf? The Havana cigar revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Discusses the historical and contemporary context of the crisis and reforms in the Cuban cigar sector. Author focuses on developments in the period 1992-94 when Cuba sank to, and pulled out of, the depths of the post-1989 crisis. This was when competition from the post-1992 boom of cigars made with Havana seed leaf grown outside Cuba became fierce. She concludes by considering scholarly interpretations of the 1990s agrarian reforms and emphasizes the need to foreground the interplay between external and internal factors.

  11. Urban Sustainability Versus Green-Washing—Fallacy and Reality of Urban Regeneration in Downtown Seoul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Schuetze

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the planning paradigm shift related to the contested “urban renaissance” mega-project in Downtown Seoul (Korea. Similar to other global cities, over the last few decades, different mega-projects have been successfully implemented in Seoul. These projects have been considered engines for urban renewals and transformation. This paper builds on the analysis of the failure and re-framing planning strategy for the Green Corridor (GC mega-project, part of the “Urban Renaissance Master Plan for Downtown Seoul”. The GC case reveals various critical insights for urban sustainability: (i the current mega-projects’ sustainability fallacy, related to top-down, technocratic densification, and greening practices; and (ii the untapped potential of Asian traditional and irregular small scale urban patterns, and their related socio-cultural value in addressing the renaissance of the long term urban sustainability. In particular, the discussed research findings point out that urban renaissance enabling sustainability principles requires integrated, small scale, incremental, and adaptive (stepwise urban planning and design processes that go well beyond general strategies following the so-called “green growth” paradigm.

  12. Seismic investigations in downtown Copenhagen, Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, K.; Mendoza, J. A.; Olsen, H.

    2009-12-01

    Near surface geophysics are gaining widespread use in major infrastructure projects with respect to geotechnical and engineering applications. The development of data acquisition, processing tools and interpretation methods have optimized survey production, reduced logistics costs and increase results reliability of seismic surveys during the last decades. However, the use of geophysical methods under urban environments continues to face challenges due to multiple noise sources and obstacles inherent to cities. A seismic investigation was conducted in Copenhagen aiming to produce information needed for hydrological, geotechnical and groundwater modeling assessments related to the planned Cityringen underground metro project. The particular objectives were a) map variations in subsurface Quaternary and limestone properties b) to map for near surface structural features. The geological setting in the Copenhagen region is characterized by several interlaced layers of glacial till and meltwater sand deposits. These layers, which are found unevenly distributed throughout the city and present in varying thicknesses, overlie limestone of different generations. There are common occurrences of incised valley structures containing localized instances of weathered or fractured limestone. The surveys consisted of combined seismic reflection and refraction profiles accounting for approximately 13 km along sections of the projected metro line. The data acquisition was carried out using standard 192 channels arrays, receiver groups with 5 m spacing and a Vibroseis as a source at 5 m spacing. In order to improve the resolution of the data, 29 Walkaway-Vertical Seismic Profiles were performed at selected wells along the surface seismic lines. The refraction data was processed with travel-time tomography and the reflection data underwent standard interpretation. The refraction data inversion was performed twofold; a surface refraction alone and combined with the VSP data. Three

  13. Downtown and periphery in the post-war Marxism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Katz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Important studies of the downtown-periphery relationship were developed by four Marxist economists in the postwar. While Paul Baran and Paul Sweezy were precursors to this approach, Samir Amín and Ernest Mandel provided more elaborate developments of the same subject. All of them investigated in a post-war reconstruction and a capitalist expansion period, which widened the gap between theadvanced and the lagged economies. What was your vision of this asymmetry?.

  14. Guest Room Lighting at the Hilton Columbus Downtown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-06-30

    At the Hilton Columbus Downtown hotel in Ohio, DOE's Better Buildings Alliance conducted a demonstration of Next Generation Luminaires-winning downlights installed in all guest rooms and suites prior to the hotel's 2012 opening. After a post-occupancy assessment, the LED downlights not only provided the aesthetic appearance and dimming functionality desired, but also provided 50% energy savings relative to a comparable CFL downlight and enabled the lighting power to be more than 20% below that allowed by code. This document is a summary case study of the report.

  15. Next Generation Luminaire (NGL) Downlight Demonstration Project, Hilton Columbus Downtown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R. G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Perrin, T. E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    At the Hilton Columbus Downtown hotel in Ohio, DOE's Better Buildings Alliance conducted a demonstration of Next Generation Luminaires-winning downlights installed in all guest rooms and suites prior to the hotel's 2012 opening. After a post-occupancy assessment, the LED downlights not only provided the aesthetic appearance and dimming functionality desired, but also provided 50% energy savings relative to a comparable CFL downlight and enabled the lighting power to be more than 20% below that allowed by code.

  16. Development of Astronomy at the Planetarium of Havana. Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Oscar

    2015-08-01

    In December 2009 to celebrate the International Year of Astronomy was inaugurated in Havana with a great constructive effort the only Planetarium in regular public service, currently serving in Cuba.After 5 years of operation open to the public is time to propose a series of activities that raise its level of activity as a Cultural Center of Science and Technology.The establishment of a cathedra of Astronomy and Astrophysics attached to a center of Higher Education once the staff acquire sufficient capacity and experience to conduct research programs is proposed, and also, to provide scientific expertise to educators in supporting the national system of education and outreach of the Cultural Center.In addition to becoming a member of the International Association of Planetariums, its active members will participate to international and national events, will increase our national membership in the International Astronomical Union and its commissions, an also to the Red Pop UNESCO and other related groups of IberoamericaIn order to ensure the scientific life of its main technical staff, efforts will be made to establish agreements with Higher Education related centers such as the Faculty of Physics at the University of Havana, the Higher Institute of Applied Science and Technology and other schools allowing professional activities of staff in these institutions to the Cultural Centre as university extension. This includes the maintenance of university students of all specialties covering fixed shifts as guides / aids in attention to visitors.The Cultural Center is designed as a modern concept embedded in a Colonial architecture and traditional external environment. Exhibitions, shows the space and other facilities - will provide visitors a set of tools to bring back home, concepts and information about the universe before it was too remote and too complex for the average citizen. It is undoubtedly a unique educational opportunity in the country to demystify the

  17. Life-Cycle Energy Implications of Downtown High-Rise vs. Suburban Low-Rise Living: An Overview and Quantitative Case Study for Chicago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Du

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly accepted that the concentration of people in high-density urban city centers, which are typically dominated by medium- and high-rise buildings located close to public transit systems, offers greater overall energy efficiency and lower life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions than lower-density expanded suburbs, which are dominated by low-rise single-family buildings and larger per-person automobile travel requirements. However, few studies have combined quantitative analyses of the life-cycle energy use of both buildings and transportation in both urban and suburban areas, especially in American cities. This work uses a variety of data sources to provide a quantitative comparison of the life-cycle energy consumption associated with residential life (including buildings, transportation, and supporting infrastructure in prototypical downtown high-rises and suburban low-rises in and around Chicago, IL. We estimate that downtown high-rise living in Chicago, IL accounts for approximately 25% more life-cycle energy per person per year than suburban low-rise living, on average, contrary to some common beliefs (best estimates were ~141 and ~113 GJ/person/year, respectively. Building operational energy use was found to be the largest contributor of the total life-cycle energy in both the downtown high-rise and suburban low-rise cases, followed by vehicle operational energy.

  18. Dementia and other chronic diseases in older adults in Havana and Matanzas: the 10/66 study in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llibre, Juan de Jesús; Valhuerdi, Adolfo; Calvo, Marina; García, Rosa M; Guerra, Milagros; Laucerique, Tania; López, Ana M; Llibre, Juan Carlos; Noriega, Lisseth; Sánchez, Isis Y; Porto, Rudbeskia; Arencibia, Francis; Marcheco, Beatriz; Moreno, Carmen

    2011-10-01

    Chronic non-communicable diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide, except in Sub-Saharan Africa. Nonetheless, one of these conditions, dementia, is the major contributor to disability-adjusted life years in people aged ≥60 years. Few epidemiological studies exist of the prevalence and impact of dementia and selected chronic diseases in older adults in Latin America. Describe prevalence of dementia, other chronic vascular diseases and cardiovascular risk factors, as well as resulting disabilities and care needs generated in adults aged ≥65 years in Havana City and Matanzas provinces, Cuba. The 10/66 study is a prospective longitudinal study involving a cohort of 3015 adults aged ≥65 years in municipalities of Havana City and Matanzas provinces, divided into two phases: a cross-sectional door-to-door study conducted in 2003-2006, and a follow-up and assessment phase in 2007-2010. This article reports findings from the first phase. Hypertension diagnosis was based on criteria from the International Society for Hypertension; diabetes mellitus on American Diabetes Association criteria; stroke according to WHO definitions; and dementia according to criteria of the American Psychiatric Society's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV and the 10/66 International Dementia Research Group. Ischemic heart disease was defined by self-report of previous physician diagnosis. Study variables included age, sex, educational level, substance use (alcohol, tobacco) and dietary habits. A structured physical and neurological exam, including blood pressure measurement, was performed on all participants. Laboratory tests included complete blood count, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol and lipoprotein fractions, triglycerides and apolipoprotein E genotype. Prevalence and standardized morbidity ratios (crude and adjusted) were calculated for chronic diseases studied with 95% confidence intervals, using a Poisson regression model and indirect

  19. Cognitive Functioning and the Probability of Falls among Seniors in Havana, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Antonio J.; Hyder, Adnan A.; Steinhardt, Laura C.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the connection between cognitive functioning and falls among seniors (greater than or equal to 60 years of age) in Havana, Cuba, after controlling for observable characteristics. Using the SABE (Salud, Bienestar, and Envejecimiento) cross-sectional database, we used an econometric strategy that takes advantage of available…

  20. Mirta Yáñez's Dystopic Vision of Havana

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Flora M.

    2017-01-01

    In her 2010 novel "Sangra por la herida," the Cuban novelist, poet, and essayist Mirta Yáñez constructs a panoramic view of metropolitan Havana, following the model of Latin American fiction starting in the 1980s based on a revised version of the detective novel. "Sangra por la herida" functions best as a narrative that…

  1. Econometric analysis applied to urban property transactions in Havana between 1994-2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.N. Femández (Ricardo)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis research allows me to corroborate and demonstrate my judgment about urban transactions in Havana with more credible and consistent information. It is one thing to observe a process, and another to prove where the thinking was accurate or mistaken. The determination of the price per

  2. Neutron activation analysis to the profile surface sediments from several sites on the Havana Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Riso, O.; Gelen, A.; Lopez, N.; Gonzalez, H.; Manso, M.V.; Graciano, A.M.; Nogueira, C.A.; Beltran, J.; Soto, J.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique was employed to analyze the surface sediments from several sites on the Havana Bay, Cuba. Measurements of heavy and trace elements in the sediments are reported. The results show that the concentration of the elements is site dependent. The data suggest that an anthropogenic input into the bay from domestic sewage and industries occurred

  3. Saltwater intrusion in the Floridan aquifer system near downtown Brunswick, Georgia, 1957–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Gregory S.; Peck, Michael

    2017-02-16

    IntroductionThe Floridan aquifer system (FAS) consists of the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA), an intervening confining unit of highly variable properties, and the Lower Floridan aquifer (LFA). The UFA and LFA are primarily composed of Paleocene- to Oligocene-age carbonate rocks that include, locally, Upper Cretaceous rocks. The FAS extends from coastal areas in southeastern South Carolina and continues southward and westward across the coastal plain of Georgia and Alabama, and underlies all of Florida. The thickness of the FAS varies from less than 100 feet (ft) in aquifer outcrop areas of South Carolina to about 1,700 ft near the city of Brunswick, Georgia.Locally, in southeastern Georgia and the Brunswick– Glynn County area, the UFA consists of an upper water-bearing zone (UWBZ) and a lower water-bearing zone (LWBZ), as identified by Wait and Gregg (1973), with aquifer test data indicating the upper zone has higher productivity than the lower zone. Near the city of Brunswick, the LFA is composed of two permeable zones: an early middle Eocene-age upper permeable zone (UPZ) and a highly permeable lower zone of limestone (LPZ) of Paleocene and Late Cretaceous age that includes a deeply buried, cavernous, saline water-bearing unit known as the Fernandina permeable zone. Maslia and Prowell (1990) inferred the presence of major northeast–southwest trending faults through the downtown Brunswick area based on structural analysis of geophysical data, northeastward elongation of the potentiometric surface of the UFA, and breaches in the local confining unit that influence the area of chloride contamination. Pronounced horizontal and vertical hydraulic head gradients, caused by pumping in the UFA, allow saline water from the FPZ to migrate upward into the UFA through this system of faults and conduits.Saltwater was first detected in the FAS in wells completed in the UFA near the southern part of the city of Brunswick in late 1957. By the 1970s, a plume of groundwater

  4. Uso pesado de álcool por estudantes dos ensinos fundamental e médio de escolas centrais e periféricas de Campinas (SP: prevalência e fatores associados Heavy alcohol use among elementary and high-school students in downtown and outskirts of Campinas City - São Paulo: prevalence and related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Soldera

    2004-09-01

    : To determine the prevalence of heavy alcohol use and investigate the influence of sociodemographic, cultural and psychopathological variables on alcohol use among elementary and high-school students of public and private schools in Campinas, Brazil. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study using an intentional sampling technique. The questionnaire used was based on the CEBRID (Brazilian Information Center on Psychotropic Drugs questionnaire and filled out anonymously by the subjects. The sample consisted of 2,287 elementary and high-school students from public and private schools in Campinas, Brazil, during the year of 1998. According World Health Organization criteria (WHO, 1981, alcohol use for 20 days or more in the 30 days prior to the study was considered heavy alcohol use. The "Polytomic Logistic Regression - Generalized Logits Model" was applied to identify the factors that influenced heavy alcohol use. RESULTS: Heavy alcohol use was seen in 11.9% of the sample, being more frequent among students at the inner-city public school belonging to socioeconomic classes A and B, who held down jobs and attended school in the afternoons. These students felt that their families did not understand or support them and also showed lower academic performance at school. CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicates that factors such as availability of funds, work , delayed schooling performance and unfavorable personal and family situations were related to heavy alcohol use among adolescents.

  5. HIV/AIDS among women in Havana, Cuba: 1986-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Dinorah C; Viñas, Arturo L; Saavedra, Clarivel; Oliva, Maritza; González, Ciro; de la Torre, Caridad

    2013-10-01

    Women are being diagnosed with HIV infection in increasing numbers, and now account for 50% of cases worldwide. In Cuba, HIV is more frequent in men, but in recent years, a growing number of women have been diagnosed. Describe patterns of HIV among women in Havana, Cuba, 1986-2011. Descriptive study of women with HIV aged >14 years, residents of Havana, Cuba, who were diagnosed with HIV from 1 January 1986 through 31 December 2011. Information was obtained from the limited-access HIV/AIDS database of Cuba's Ministry of Public Health. Data were studied from all reported cases, a total of 1274 women. Variables selected were age at diagnosis, education, municipality of residence, screening group, year of HIV diagnosis, late presentation, AIDS-defining condition, year of diagnosis as AIDS case, vital status at the end of 2011, and year of death (if applicable). Incidence of HIV and AIDS, cumulative incidence by municipality of residence, and case fatality rates were calculated. Those aged 20-29 years were most affected by HIV. Almost half (46.7%) the women had completed middle school, and a further 35.4% had completed high school or middle-level technical studies. HIV incidence began to increase more steeply starting in 1998, as did AIDS incidence by year of diagnosis, though to a lesser extent. Central Havana and Old Havana municipalities had the highest cumulative incidence. Late presentation was seen in 7.4% of cases; mean age of those diagnosed late was 38.9 years. Wasting syndrome and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia were the most frequent AIDS-defining conditions. Case fatality rates started to decline in 1998. HIV infection in women is occurring in a predominantly young, relatively well-educated population. Increasing rates of HIV and AIDS in the past decade are a warning sign of the possible expansion of HIV infection in women, even though mortality is declining.

  6. Multielemental analysis of surface sediments in Havana bay (Cuba) using X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelen, A.; Corrales, Y.; Lopez, N.; Manso Guevara, M. V.; Casanova, A. O.; Alessandro, K. D'; Diaz, O.; Espen, P. Van; Beltran, J.; Soto, J.

    2006-01-01

    Multielemental Analysis was performed in Superficial Sediments in Havana Bay. Twenty one samples were analysed by Dispersive Energy X- Ray Fluorescence using an spectrometer based on Si (Li) semiconductor detector an a 109 Cd source. The results showed a similar behaviour in the levels of contamination related with neutron activation analysis. The data suggest that an anthropogenic input into the bay from domestic sewage and industries occurred. (Full text)

  7. An Extraordinary Partnership between Arizona State University and the City of Phoenix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Debra

    2009-01-01

    The Arizona State University Downtown Phoenix campus is a grand-scale exemplar of a city-university partnership. Its demonstrated impacts are economic, social, and educational, transforming both the city and the university. The magnitude of the investment of $223 million by the citizens of a city in a state university is unparalleled in higher…

  8. Scale Urban Agriculture in Havana and the Reproduction of the ‘New Man’ in Contemporary Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Premat

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on ethnographic data collected in the  city of Havana, from 1999 to 2001, this paper  interrogates the purported rise in ‘individualistic’  and ‘capitalistic’ practices in post-Soviet Bloc Cuba. Specifically, the paper focuses on a group  of sites associated with the post-1989 ‘privatization’ of agricultural land and agricultural production; namely, the parcelas or urban garden lots of  the city of Havana. An examination of these sites  as foci of individual activity and social interaction  and as meeting points of citizen and state reveals  a shifting landscape of power fraught with tensions between the private and the public domains,  tensions that, nevertheless, underscore the resilience of certain values and practices longespoused by the revolutionary government, such  as the right of all citizens to food and the ideal of  self-sacrifice for the greater good.  Resumen: Agricultura urbana en pequeña  escala en la Habana y la reproducción del ‘hombre nuevo’ en la Cuba contemporáneaEste artículo, basado en un estudio antropológico  llevado a cabo en la ciudad de La Habana, entre  los años 1999 y 2002, cuestiona el supuesto incremento en actitudes ‘individualistas’ y ‘capitalistas’ en Cuba a partir de la crisis desatada por la disolución del Bloque Soviético a inicios de 1989. Específicamente, el artículo se enfoca en un grupo  de espacios que en cierta medida ilustran la ‘privatización’ de la tierra y producción agrícolas que  ha caracterizado esta última década en dicho país.  Se trata de las parcelas o huertos urbanos de la  ciudad de La Habana. El estudio de los mismos como focos de actividad individual e interacción  social, y como puntos de encuentro entre el estado  y el ciudadano, revela cambios en la configuración del poder en dicho país expresados, entre  otras cosas, en tensiones entre las esferas privada  y pública. Tensiones que, ante todo, parecen

  9. Rodolfo's Casa Caribe in Cuba: Business, Law, and Ethics of Investing in a Start-Up in Havana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulkowski, Adam J.

    2017-01-01

    This case study presents the true story of Rodolfo--a former tailor and attorney from the provinces of Cuba--who moved to Havana to start a hospitality business. In 2016, the author (referred to as Adam throughout the case study), a business law professor from the United States, visited Havana to interview Rodolfo and learn about the factors for…

  10. Social Support and Social Network Ties among the Homeless in a Downtown Atlanta Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzes, Donald C.; Crimmins, Timothy J.; Yarbrough, Johanna; Parker, Josie

    2011-01-01

    This study applies a typology of social support with 3 categories of social networks to investigate social ties and their benefits for homeless people. Data were derived from a 2-year long series of participant observations of homeless or precariously housed people who came regularly to a downtown Atlanta public park. The findings are as follows:…

  11. Neurological Manifestations Among US Government Personnel Reporting Directional Audible and Sensory Phenomena in Havana, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Randel L; Hampton, Stephen; Green-McKenzie, Judith; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Grady, M Sean; Verma, Ragini; Biester, Rosette; Duda, Diana; Wolf, Ronald L; Smith, Douglas H

    2018-03-20

    From late 2016 through August 2017, US government personnel serving on diplomatic assignment in Havana, Cuba, reported neurological symptoms associated with exposure to auditory and sensory phenomena. To describe the neurological manifestations that followed exposure to an unknown energy source associated with auditory and sensory phenomena. Preliminary results from a retrospective case series of US government personnel in Havana, Cuba. Following reported exposure to auditory and sensory phenomena in their homes or hotel rooms, the individuals reported a similar constellation of neurological symptoms resembling brain injury. These individuals were referred to an academic brain injury center for multidisciplinary evaluation and treatment. Report of experiencing audible and sensory phenomena emanating from a distinct direction (directional phenomena) associated with an undetermined source, while serving on US government assignments in Havana, Cuba, since 2016. Descriptions of the exposures and symptoms were obtained from medical record review of multidisciplinary clinical interviews and examinations. Additional objective assessments included clinical tests of vestibular (dynamic and static balance, vestibulo-ocular reflex testing, caloric testing), oculomotor (measurement of convergence, saccadic, and smooth pursuit eye movements), cognitive (comprehensive neuropsychological battery), and audiometric (pure tone and speech audiometry) functioning. Neuroimaging was also obtained. Of 24 individuals with suspected exposure identified by the US Department of State, 21 completed multidisciplinary evaluation an average of 203 days after exposure. Persistent symptoms (>3 months after exposure) were reported by these individuals including cognitive (n = 17, 81%), balance (n = 15, 71%), visual (n = 18, 86%), and auditory (n = 15, 68%) dysfunction, sleep impairment (n = 18, 86%), and headaches (n = 16, 76%). Objective findings included cognitive (n

  12. Modelling the impact of land subsidence on urban pluvial flooding: A case study of downtown Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Yu, Dapeng; Wilby, Rob

    2016-02-15

    This paper presents a numerical analysis of pluvial flooding to evaluate the impact of land subsidence on flood risks in urban contexts using a hydraulic model (FloodMap-HydroInundation2D). The pluvial flood event of August 2011 in Shanghai, China is used for model calibration and simulation. Evolving patterns of inundation (area and depth) are assessed over four time periods (1991, 1996, 2001 and 2011) for the downtown area, given local changes in topography and rates of land subsidence of up to 27 mm/yr. The results show that land subsidence can lead to non-linear response of flood characteristics. However, the impact on flood depths is generally minor (subsidence and micro-topographic variations at the local scale. Nonetheless, the modelling approach tested here may be applied to other cities where there are more marked rates of subsidence and/or greater heterogeneity in the depressed urban surface. In these cases, any identified hot-spots of subsidence and focusing of pluvial flooding may be targeted for adaptation interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Simulation of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization management of maize under edaphic conditions of south of Havana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Seijas, Teresa; Cid, G.; Gonzalez, F.; Jorge, Y.; Chaterlan, Y.; Giralt, E.; Rodriguez, R.; Duennas, G.

    1999-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to validate the crop simulation model STICS for the soil and climate conditions of south of Havana, especially for the water and nitrogen balances on Maize crop on Ferralitic soil, For this purpose was used all the available information from field experiments carried out in the Experimental Stations of the Irrigation and Drainage and Soil Research Institutes, both on south of Havana, The comparison between the simulation and observed values showed a good fitness for the variables related to the crop water uptake, while for the soil water content when the root water uptake flux is minimum and the soil water redistribution flux is maximum wasn't good, The soil nitrogen balance was adjusted from the optimization of the parameters related to the mineralization velocity of soil organic nitrogen, Nevertheless is necessary to complete this study involving other climate conditions and water and nitrogen managements to define the optimum strategy for irrigation and fertilization of Maize crop on the studied conditions,

  14. Heavy metal determination by X-rays spectrometry in superficial sediments at Havana Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelen, Alina; Izquierdo, Walter; Lopez, Neivy; Corrales, Yasser; Casanova, Amaya O.; Diaz, Oscar; Manso, Maria V.; D' Alessandro, Katia [Institute for Applied Sciences and Technology, Havana (Cuba)], E-mail: alina@instec.cu; Reyes, Enma; Toledo, Carlos [Central Laboratory Criminology, Havana (Cuba); Beltran, Jesus; Perez, Marlen; Ramirez, Marta [Engineering Centre for Environmental Management of Bays and Coasts, Havana (Cuba)], E-mail: beltran@cimab.transnet.cu; Soto, Jesus [Universidad de Cantabria, Santander (Spain)], E-mail: sotoj@unican.es

    2007-07-01

    Havana Bay is a typical bag-type located in the Western-North Coast of the Republic of Cuba. Since 1980 it has been the object of a study for sea bottom rehabilitation and improvement of quality of the waters, where the final objective will be the recovery of the coastal and marine ecosystem. Thirteen surface samples of the Havana Bay (Cuba) were collected and analysed by X-Rays spectrometry. Some majority elements (Si, Ca, K, Na, S, Cl, Al, Fe, Mg, C and O) were measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with microanalysis to perform geomorphologic analysis. Nine elements (Ca, Fe, Ti, Mn, Cu, Zn, Sr, Zr and Pb) have been measured using an Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) with a Si(Li) detector. Multivariate statistical was used for the analysis. The concentration levels showed this bay as the most polluted in Cuba. The highest contents of Cu, Zn and Pb were obtained in Atares and Marimelena Cove; these elements are indicators of urban as well as industrial pollution. (author)

  15. Investigation of Winter Atmospheric Aerosol Particles in Downtown Katowice using XPS and SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawros, A.; Talik, E.; Pastuszka, J. S.

    2003-08-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to determine the surface chemical composition of atmospheric particles (PM-10 and PM-2.5), collected in downtown Katowice, Upper Silesia, Poland, in the winter season (November and December 2000). Carbon- and oxygen-containing species dominated the particulate surface with traces of N, S, Si, Cl, Na, Zn, Al, Cu, Fe, Ca, K, Mg, Pb, and P present. Additionally, the size, morphology, and chemical composition of about 300 of the individual atmospheric particles were analyzed by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis. A number of aluminosilicates and metallic elements such as Fe, K, Mg, Zn, as well as rare earth elements, were detected by SEM. The results obtained show that the analyzed aerosol is of natural and anthropogenic origin. Particles containing sulfur compounds as well as oxygen and sodium in downtown Katowice come mainly from the east and southeast sectors.

  16. CITY GROUND DESIGN AND THE IMAGE OF THE CITY: THE PORTUGUESE CALÇADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Remesar

    2014-10-01

    The pavement-form - including the "calçada-form"-is at the root of some of the flagship operations creating the image of the city (Havana, 1928; Alicante, 1957; the Ramblas in Barcelona, 1969; reform of the Avenida Atlantica in Rio by Burle Marx, 1970. However, these same operations show that the "form-calçada" does not meet many of the requirements of economy, security or universal accessibility required by the contemporary city. In the paper was to analyze the causes and reasons that hover over the announced death of calçada á Portugueza.

  17. Multielemental analysis to the profile sediments from several sites on the Havana Bay, by the Neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Riso, O.; Gelen, A.; Lopez, N.; Manso, M.V.; Graciano, A.M.; Nogueira, C.A.; Beltran, J.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique was employed to analyze the profile sediments from several sites on the Havana Bay, Cuba. Measurements of 24 heavy and trace elements in the sediments are reported. The results show the increment in the sediment pollution occurred in the 70-80 years of the last century. The data confirm that an anthropogenic input into the bay from domestic sewage and industries occurred

  18. Transmission of tuberculosis in Havana, Cuba: a molecular epidemiological study by IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism typing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz R

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of molecular and conventional epidemiological methods has improved the knowledge about the transmission of tuberculosis in urban populations. To examine transmission of tuberculosis in Havana, Cuba, with DNA fingerprinting, we studied 51 out of 92 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from tuberculosis patients who resided in Havana and whose infection was culture-confirmed in the period from September 1997 to March 1998. Isolates from 28 patients (55% had unique IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP patterns, while isolates from 23 others (45% had identical patterns and belonged to 7 clusters. Three clusters consisting of six, five and two cases were each related to small outbreaks that occurred in a closed setting. Three other clustered cases were linked to a large outbreak that occurred in another institution. Younger patients were more correlated to clustering than older ones. The finding that 45% of the isolates had clustered RFLP patterns suggests that recent transmission is a key factor in the tuberculosis cases in Havana. The IS6110 RFLP typing made it possible to define the occurrence of outbreaks in two closed institutions.

  19. Reconstruction of metal pollution and recent sedimentation processes in Havana Bay (Cuba): A tool for coastal ecosystem management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz-Asencio, M.; Alvarado, J.A. Corcho; Alonso-Hernández, C.; Quejido-Cabezas, A.; Ruiz-Fernández, A.C.; Sanchez-Sanchez, M.; Gómez-Mancebo, M.B.; Froidevaux, P.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Past metal pollution in the heavy polluted coastal ecosystem of Havana Bay. ► Effectiveness of pollution-reduction strategies. ► Dated environmental archives to reconstruct sedimentation and pollution trends. ► Impact of severe climatic events on sedimentation. - Abstract: Since 1998 the highly polluted Havana Bay ecosystem has been the subject of a mitigation program. In order to determine whether pollution-reduction strategies were effective, we have evaluated the historical trends of pollution recorded in sediments of the Bay. A sediment core was dated radiometrically using natural and artificial fallout radionuclides. An irregularity in the 210 Pb record was caused by an episode of accelerated sedimentation. This episode was dated to occur in 1982, a year coincident with the heaviest rains reported in Havana over the XX century. Peaks of mass accumulation rates (MAR) were associated with hurricanes and intensive rains. In the past 60 years, these maxima are related to strong El Niño periods, which are known to increase rainfall in the north Caribbean region. We observed a steady increase of pollution (mainly Pb, Zn, Sn, and Hg) since the beginning of the century to the mid 90s, with enrichment factors as high as 6. MAR and pollution decreased rapidly after the mid 90s, although some trace metal levels remain high. This reduction was due to the integrated coastal zone management program introduced in the late 90s, which dismissed catchment erosion and pollution.

  20. A STUDY ON THE DESIGN PRINCIPLES OF DOWNTOWN IN THE CASTLETOWN OF OSAKA AND EDO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takahiro; Shinohara, Osamu

    Castle towns in the modern era had unique urban fabric composed of well-developed infrastructure, such as streets, waterways and drainage. These elements have long interested researchers in the fields of urban history, architectural history and others. However, the principles of the design of the castle town have not been fully understood. Therefore, there has been a growing request to perform research on it in the field of history of civil engineering from the viewpoint of the infrastructure alignment of streets, waterways, drainage and others. The purpose of this study was to understand the design principles of downtown in the castle town of Osaka and Edo. In this study, first of all, the new methodology of the quantitative analysis to understand the design principles by using modern surveying maps has been shown. Then, based on the authors' previous research achievements, the design principles of downtown in Osaka and Edo have been reconsidered. Furthermore, characteristics of each design principles have been clarified by comparing Osaka with Edo.

  1. Foreign tourism in San Jose downtown: volume, areas and resources used and impact on the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Mora

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It presents the results of a study, conducted in 2011 and the first half of 2012, on some of the most important aspects of tourism in San Jose center: defining characteristics of tourists in this geographical space, activities carried out, areas and establishments that used and characteristics of these, major changes in land use in tourist areas and transformations -or inertia- in the landscape, hygiene, roads and transportation, safety and quality of public spaces. The collection of information was made in the field: GPS and “manual” inventories, scheduled observation, surveys and interviews. Mainly, it was concluded that since the late eighties, when tourist hatching occurred in Costa Rica, in small areas of San José downtown the establishments of interest and tourist use proliferated, but all of small dimensions (the relatively large are precedents. Consequently, the impact of tourism on the urban is not significant and is imperceptible in many ways, showing relevant only in a small area. In addition, tourism in San Jose downtown tends to decrease.

  2. Seasonal variations in antibiotic resistance gene transport in the Almendares River, Havana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W Knapp

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have quantified antibiotic resistance genes (ARG in rivers and streams around the world, and significant relationships have been shown that relate different pollutant outputs and increased local ARG levels. However, most studies have not considered ambient flow conditions, which can vary dramatically especially in tropical countries. Here, ARG were quantified in water-column and sediment samples during the dry-and wet-seasons to assess how seasonal and other factors influence ARG transport down the Almendares River (Havana, Cuba. Eight locations were sampled and stream flow estimated during both seasons; qPCR was used to quantify four tetracycline, two erythromycin, and three beta-lactam resistance genes. ARG concentrations were higher in wet-season versus dry-season samples, which combined with higher flows, indicated greater ARG transport downstream during the wet season. Water-column ARG levels were more spatially variable in the dry-season than the wet-season, with the proximity of waste outfalls strongly influencing local ARG levels. Results confirm that dry-season sampling provides a useful picture of the impact of individual waste inputs on local stream ARG levels, whereas, the majority of ARGs in this tropical river were transported downstream during the wet season, possibly due to re-entrainment of ARG from sediments.

  3. "Weak-Center" Gentrification and the Contradictions of Containment: deconcentrating poverty in downtown Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Ellen; DeVerteuil, Geoffrey; Thach, Leanne

    2010-01-01

    This case study of recent efforts to deconcentrate poverty within the Skid Row area of Los Angeles examines processes of "weak-center" gentrification as it applies to a "service dependent ghetto," thus filling two key gaps in prior scholarship. We document the collaboration between the government, business and development interests, and certain non-profit agencies in this process and identify two key mechanisms of poverty deconcentration: housing/service displacement and the criminalization of low income residents. Following Harvey, we argue that these efforts are driven by pressures to find a "spatial fix" for capital accumulation through Downtown redevelopment. This process has been hotly contested, however, illustrating the strength of counter-pressures to gentrification/poverty deconcentration within "weak-center" urban areas.

  4. [Upbringing and Sexuality in Children from Marginal Prostitute Women Downtown in Bogotá].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Javier Guillermo Díaz; Acosta, Miguel Barrios; Rojas, Rafael Vásquez

    2012-09-01

    Child upbringing of women engaged in prostitution has been little explored. Child upbringing beliefs, attitudes and practices regarding sexuality in prostitutes' children and adolescents were explored downtown in Bogota. Analytical-interpretive research included in-depth interviews and a focus group. There were ten women between 28 and 56 years of age. Core issues were their subjectivity as mothers, sexual development challenges, upbringing social and cultural conditions. Structural, symbolic and economic violence are the main determinants of parenting. Sexual abuse and the possibility of pregnancy in their adolescent daughters are the most important concerns. In general, the participants share the same values and reproduce traditional ideals in gender and sexuality, which are transmitted and modeled from upbringing. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. [Bodies and pleasures in male homosocial circuits of downtown Rio de Janeiro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Luis Felipe

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an ethnographic research investigating the cultural bases that guide the construction of corporeal events, especially those related to sex/eroticism, in the homosocial circuits of downtown Rio de Janeiro. Data were gathered by means of biographic narrative interviews, direct observations and research-interventions. The main argument presented in this paper is that the diverse corporeal events in the studied community are based on the same conceptual structure that focuses on transgression of the "body/flesh" in the sense of St. Paul's concept: an exaltation of forbidden 'tesão', erotic pleasure only admissible for the purpose of reproduction. 'Flesh' instead of sublimated being exalted, constantly inspired and attracted to more and more erotic pleasure.

  6. Detection of rotavirus and other enteropathogens in children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Havana, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, María de Los Angeles; Tejero, Yahisel; Cordero, Yanislet; de Los Angeles León, María; Rodriguez, Misladys; Perez-Lastre, Jorge; Triana, Thelma; Guerra, Mabel; Ayllón, Lucía; Escalante, Gladys; Hadad, Jorge

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to diagnose infections with rotavirus and other enteric pathogens in children under five years old with acute gastroenteritis and to identify the most common epidemiological and clinical characteristics of these pathogens. The study was conducted using 110 stool samples from the same number of children under five years old who were inpatients at three paediatric hospitals in Havana, Cuba, between October and December 2011. The samples were tested for rotavirus and other enteric pathogens using traditional and molecular microbiological methods. Pathogens were detected in 85 (77.3 %) of the children. Rotavirus was the most commonly found, appearing in 54.5 % of the children, followed by bacteria (29 %) and parasites (10.9 %). Other viral pathogens detected included adenovirus (6.4 %) and astrovirus (3.6 %). In rotavirus-positives cases, at least one other pathogen was detected, usually a bacterium (26.6 %). More than three episodes of watery diarrhea in 24 hours were observed in 78.3 % of the cases. Dehydration was found in 30 (50 %) rotavirus-positive children, of whom seven (11.6 %) were transferred to an intensive care unit due to complications of metabolic acidosis. Rotavirus was most commonly observed among children under 12 months old (65 %). The highest incidence of infection occurred in children who were under the care of a relative at home (78.3 %), had not been breastfed (65 %), or had been breastfed for less than six months (28.3 %). The genotype combinations most frequently found were G9P8 (28.3 %) and G1P8 (10 %). This study demonstrates the presence of rotavirus and other enteric pathogens as causes of gastroenteritis in hospitalized infants and young children in Cuba.

  7. Antibiotic Resistance Gene Abundances Associated with Waste Discharges to the Almendares River near Havana, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Considerable debate exists over the primary cause of increased antibiotic resistance (AR) worldwide. Evidence suggests increasing AR results from overuse of antibiotics in medicine and therapeutic and nontherapeutic applications in agriculture. However, pollution also can influence environmental AR, particularly associated with heavy metal, pharmaceutical, and other waste releases, although the relative scale of the “pollution” contribution is poorly defined, which restricts targeted mitigation efforts. The question is “where to study and quantify AR from pollution versus other causes to best understand the pollution effect”. One useful site is Cuba because industrial pollution broadly exists; antibiotics are used sparingly in medicine and agriculture; and multiresistant bacterial infections are increasing in clinical settings without explanation. Within this context, we quantified 13 antibiotic resistance genes (ARG; indicators of AR potential), 6 heavy metals, 3 antibiotics, and 17 other organic pollutants at 8 locations along the Almendares River in western Havana at sites bracketing known waste discharge points, including a large solid waste landfill and various pharmaceutical factories. Significant correlations (p < 0.05) were found between sediment ARG levels, especially for tetracyclines and β-lactams (e.g., tet(M), tet(O), tet(Q), tet(W), blaOXA), and sediment Cu and water column ampicillin levels in the river. Further, sediment ARG levels increased by up to 3 orders of magnitude downstream of the pharmaceutical factories and were highest where human population densities also were high. Although explicit links are not shown, results suggest that pollution has increased background AR levels in a setting where other causes of AR are less prevalent. PMID:21133405

  8. Lifestyle, Overweight and Obesity in a Population of Adolescents From Havana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Macías-Matos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The high prevalence of overweight and obesity is a health problem in Cuba, and there is a lack of information on adolescents. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between excessive weight and adiposity with physical activity, hours of television (TV, and eating habits in adolescents.Material and methods: A total of 604 adolescents (12 years from Havana were studied. The variables analysed included, body mass index, body composition, history of obesity in infancy, physical activity, hours watching television, eating habits and dietary preferences. A descriptive and correlation analysis was performed. In the logistic regression analysis, excess weight and adiposity were used as dependent variables.Results: Excess body weight was more common in boys. There was high prevalence of excess adiposity, 49.8% in girls and 37.8% in boys. The boys (61.7% were more active than the girls (33.6%. Just under half (46.7% of the boys, and 55.9% of the girls spent more than 2 hours/day watching television, which increased to more than 75% for both sexes on Saturdays and Sunday. Making less than 5-6 meals/day doubled the risk of being overweight. Body overweight in infancy was also a risk factor. Not having breakfast increased the risk of adiposity by almost double.Conclusions: Excess weight, and particularly excess adiposity, may be considered a health problem in the adolescents studied. A very high consumption of sugar, an excessive time watching TV, and insufficient physical activity was observed.

  9. Epidemiological studies on dengue virus type 3 in Playa municipality, Havana, Cuba, 2001-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Maria G; Alvarez, Angel; Vazquez, Susana; Alvarez, Mayling; Rosario, Delfina; Pelaez, Otto; Cruz, Guillermo; Rodriguez, Rosmari; Pavon, Alequis; Gonzalez, Annia; Morier, Luis; Ruiz, Dydie; Kouri, Gustavo; Halstead, Scott B

    2012-03-01

    Recognizing the uniqueness of secondary dengue virus (DENV)-1/3 dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS) cases at an interval of 24 years, we sought to estimate DENV infections as well as the ratios between mild disease and DHF/DSS by DENV infection sequence in Playa District (Havana, Cuba) during the 2001-2002 outbreak of dengue virus type 3 (DENV-3). A retrospective seroepidemiological study was conducted in 2003 in Playa District. Blood samples were collected from a 1% random sample of residents and were studied for the prevalence of dengue neutralizing antibodies. DENV-3 was found to have infected 7.2% (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 6.0-8.4%) of susceptible individuals (the entire cohort), the majority of whom experienced silent infections. Virtually every individual who had a secondary infection in the sequence DENV-1 then DENV-3 became ill, with a ratio of severe to mild cases of 1:35 (95% CI 1:67-1:23). Secondary infections in the sequence DENV-2/3 were less pathogenic than DENV-1/3. Mild disease accompanying secondary DENV2/3 occurred at a ratio of 1:4.49 infections (95% CI 1:5.77-1:3.42) secondary infections. The results obtained highlight the role of the infecting serotype and also the sequence of the viral infection in the clinical outcome of a dengue infection. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Caracterization of the HIV-AIDS descentralization office in centro Havana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Elena Hernández Rodríguez

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available It was carried out a descriptive, retrospective and longitudinal study of the medical records of 245 people who have been diagnosed as having HIV-aids and who have been treated at the municipal decentralization office of Centro Havana from January 2006 through June 2008. The study was aimed at making a characterization of the office. The statistical analysis consisted on the calculation of the absolute and relative frequencies of each of the variables under study, using the SPSS statistical package, version 11.5. The study revealed that the highest percentage of patients was between 20 to 39 years old, in both sexes, with a prevalence of people who have completed either secondary or pre-university education. 60 % are retired, 60. 4% live crammed and the majority of them live on houses in regular or bad conditions. 72,6% of the studied group has a homosexual orientation. Based on the HIV and aids classification, 149 were diagnosed as having HIV. The studied group of highest incidence was the one selected. 99% became infected via sexual transmission. The more frequent unhealthy habit was a sedentary lifestyle. The most frequently reported side effect of the three-therapy treatment was the hyperlipidemia. The most prevalent opportunist infectious disease was Pneumonia by Pneumocistis Carini. Depressive neurosis was the main diagnosis at the medical office, while the most prevalent non-transmissible chronic disease was hypertension. Fourteen patients have died; 1873 consultations and 674 home visits have been made. We recommend that a medical multidisciplinary team be put together at the HIV-AIDS office, and that a plan of action will be created to solve the detected problems.

  11. [Enabling intervention for active screening of respiratory symptomatic patients in two municipalities located in the City of Havana province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordán Severo, Tamine; Oramas González, René; Díaz Castrillo, Amparo Olga; Armas Pérez, Luisa; González Ochoa, Edilberto

    2010-01-01

    to evaluate the feasibility and immediate effect of an enabling intervention to improve the active screening of respiratory symptomatic patients in groups at risk of suffering tuberculosis and the quality of filling in lab records. a quasi-experimental-designed intervention study was conducted in two health areas of Boyeros municipality (Salvador Allende polyclinics and Federico Capdevila polyclinics). Two other areas were selected as controls in "10 de Octubre" municipality ("Turcios Lima" polyclinics and "Puente Uceda" polyclinics). Family physicians and nurses were then trained to identify patients with respiratory symptoms in the risk groups during home visits, finally sputum tests were indicated. A new model for lab recording was used. After 2 months, the ratio of detected respiratory symptomatic cases was estimated. The relative risk (95 % CI) was found. The percentage by type of screening, risk group and number of empty, misplaced and wrongly filled in items in the new model was calculated. after the intervention, the capabilities of physicians and nurses for detecting respiratory symptomatic patients in "Salvador Allende" health area was almost 2.5 times higher than before (RR= 2.4320) and in "Federico Capdevila" health area was almost 2 times higher (RR = 1.8112). Over 80 % of this improvement was due to active screening carried out almost completely (90 %) in risk groups. There were no misplaced or wrongly filled data, just empty items under 0.5%. the enabling intervention proved to be immediate and effective in order to raise the active screening of respiratory symptomatic patients in risk groups and to improve the quality of filling in lab records.

  12. Tuberculosis en la Ciudad de la Habana, 1995-1999 Tuberculosis in Havana City, 1995-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José I Sevy Court

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: La tuberculosis es un importante problema mundial de salud que recibe una atención priorizada del Sistema de Salud Cubano. Lo objetivo del trabajo es describir el comportamiento de los indicadores del Programa de Control de Tuberculosis cubano. MÉTODOS: A partir de una revisión de los documentos de la vigilancia de la tuberculosis en los registros del Centro Provincial de Higiene y Epidemiología se expone la infraestructura sanitaria, las estrategias del Programa de Control en la ciudad, se describen las tasas de incidencia, indicadores de localización, diagnóstico y manejo de casos. RESULTADOS: Se hallaron 8 sintomáticos respiratorios por cada mil consultantes de medicina general; la tasa de incidencia de tunerculosis en todas sus formas descendió de 16,4 (1995 a 12,0x105 habitantes (1999; la tuberculosis pulmonar descendió de 15,1 a 10,45 habitantes mientras la tuberculosis extrapulmonar ascendió de 1,3 a 1,6 x 105 habitantes, en igual período. Del total de los casos nuevos, el 40-50% fueron identificados en los policlínicos, el 67% fueron diagnosticados por baciloscopías, el 15,2% por cultivos, el 13.8% sólo por evidencias clínicas y radiológicas; el 0,9% y el 1,5%, respectivamente, fueron diagnosticados por biopsia o hallazgos de necropsia. Los grupos de 15-64 años incrementaron su incidencia en 1996-1997 y disminuyeron en 1998-1999; los casos >64 años de edad disminuyeron progresivamente de 1995 a 1999; en general, la tasa de incidencia de casos disminuyó. La demora promedio entre primeros síntomas y diagnóstico mejoró de 42 días en 1995 a 28,6 en 1999. CONCLUSIONES: La reversión de la tendencia de la notificación de casos nuevos parece haberse detenido en 1996. La situación de los indicadores de tuberculosis revelan cambios satisfactorios en el período analizado.OBJECTIVE: Tuberculosis is a worldwide health problem getting a prioritized attention by the Cuban National Health System. To describe the main indicators of the Cuban Tuberculosis Control Program. METHODS: Based on surveillance data from the Provincial Center of Hygiene and Epidemiology, the health care network and strategies of the tuberculosis control program were reviewed; incidence rates, case finding indicators, diagnosis and case management were described. RESULTS: Eight subjects with respiratory symptoms were found per 1,000 attending general medical care services. The incidence rates of all tuberculosis types declined from 16.4 in 1995 to 12.0 x 10(5 people in 1999. Pulmonary tuberculosis incidence rate was reduced from 15.1 in1995 to 10.4 x 10(5 in 1999, whereas extrapulmonary tuberculosis had an increment from 1.3 to 1.6 x 10(5 in the same period. Of all new cases, 40-50 % were diagnosed at multispecialty clinics, 67.6% were diagnosed by positive smears, 15.2 % by positive cultures, 13.8 % by clinical and X-rays evidences only; and 0.9 % and 1.5 % were respectively diagnosed by biopsy and necropsy. There was an increase in the incidence rate in the age group 15-64 years in 1996 and 1997 but it declined again in 1998 and 1999. The age group 64 years and over showed a rate reduction from 1995 to 1999. In general, incidence rates diminished in the overall period. The average delay between onset of symptoms and diagnosis improved from 42 days in 1995 to 28.6 days in 1999. CONCLUSIONS: There seems to be a halt in reporting trends of new cases in 1996. Tuberculosis indicators reveal satisfactory changes in the study period.

  13. Assessment of Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb levels in beach and dune sands from Havana resorts, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Rizo, Oscar; Buzón González, Fran; Arado López, Juana O

    2015-11-15

    Concentrations of nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in beach and dune sands from thirteen Havana (Cuba) resorts were estimated by X-ray fluorescence analysis. Determined mean metal contents (in mg·kg(-1)) in beach sand samples were 28±12 for Ni, 35±12 for Cu, 31±11 for Zn and 6.0±1.8 for Pb, while for dune sands were 30±15, 38±22, 37±15 and 6.8±2.9, respectively. Metal-to-iron normalization shows moderately severe and severe enrichment by Cu. The comparison with sediment quality guidelines shows that dune sands from various resorts must be considered as heavily polluted by Cu and Ni. Almost in every resort, the Ni and Cu contents exceed their corresponding TEL values and, in some resorts, the Ni PEL value. The comparison with a Havana topsoil study indicates the possible Ni and Cu natural origin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reconstruction of metal pollution and recent sedimentation processes in Havana Bay (Cuba): a tool for coastal ecosystem management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Asencio, M; Alvarado, J A Corcho; Alonso-Hernández, C; Quejido-Cabezas, A; Ruiz-Fernández, A C; Sanchez-Sanchez, M; Gómez-Mancebo, M B; Froidevaux, P; Sanchez-Cabeza, J A

    2011-11-30

    Since 1998 the highly polluted Havana Bay ecosystem has been the subject of a mitigation program. In order to determine whether pollution-reduction strategies were effective, we have evaluated the historical trends of pollution recorded in sediments of the Bay. A sediment core was dated radiometrically using natural and artificial fallout radionuclides. An irregularity in the (210)Pb record was caused by an episode of accelerated sedimentation. This episode was dated to occur in 1982, a year coincident with the heaviest rains reported in Havana over the XX century. Peaks of mass accumulation rates (MAR) were associated with hurricanes and intensive rains. In the past 60 years, these maxima are related to strong El Niño periods, which are known to increase rainfall in the north Caribbean region. We observed a steady increase of pollution (mainly Pb, Zn, Sn, and Hg) since the beginning of the century to the mid 90 s, with enrichment factors as high as 6. MAR and pollution decreased rapidly after the mid 90 s, although some trace metal levels remain high. This reduction was due to the integrated coastal zone management program introduced in the late 90 s, which dismissed catchment erosion and pollution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Petroleum hydrocarbon assessment in the sediments of the northeastern Havana littoral, Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Companioni Dams, Eloy Yordad; Nunez Clemente, Ana Catalina; Cora Medina, Miriam Odette [Laboratorio de Quimica Ambiental, Centro de Investigaciones del Petroleo, Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: elocompa@yahoo.com; Gonzalez Brovo, Luis [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear, Habana, (Cuba); Marbot Ramada, Rolando [Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica, Centro de Investigaciones del Petroleo, Habana (Cuba); Montes de Oca Porto, Rodny [Laboratorio Antidoping, Habana (Cuba); Rosabal Rodriguez, Maikel [Centro de Ingenieria y Manejo Ambiental de Bahias y Costas, Habana (Cuba); Diaz Diaz, Miguel angel [Laboratorio de Quimica Ambiental, Centro de Investigaciones del Petroleo, Habana (Cuba)

    2009-02-15

    As a part of a geochemical study, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in surficial sediments, from a Cuban coastal zone located in the Northeastern Havana Littoral. Sediment samples were collected at 15 sites in this area, and then extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass spectrometry detectors. Total concentration of both, aliphatic (AH) and aromatic (ArH) hydrocarbons, varied from 2.4 {+-} 0.2 to 105.1 {+-} 5.9 {mu}g/g (dry weight) and from 1.1 {+-} 0.2 to 38.4 {+-} 7.6 {mu}g/g (dry weight), respectively. The chromatography profile of AH was dominated by an unresolved complex mixture (UCM), and the presence of isoprenoid hydrocarbons, steranes and hopanes, indicated petroleum - related hydrocarbon inputs. The predominant concentration of phytoplanktonic molecular markers (pristane and nC17) in collected sediments, revealed the marine productivity in this sites. The anthropogenic contribution detected showed the impact of the petroleum exploration along this coastal area. [Spanish] Como parte de un estudio geoquimico se determinaron hidrocarburos alifaticos y aromaticos en sedimentos superficiales, de una zona costera situada en el Litoral Nordeste de La Habana. Las muestras de sedimento se colectaron en 15 estaciones de muestreo en esta area, y posteriormente se extrajeron y analizaron mediante cromatografia gaseosa con detectores de ionizacion a la llama y espectrometria de masas. Las concentraciones totales de hidrocarburos alifaticos (HA) e hidrocarburos aromaticos (HAr) variaron desde 2.4 {+-} 0.2 a 105.1 {+-} 5.9 {mu}g/g (peso eco) y desde 1.1 {+-} 0.2 a 38.4 {+-} 7.6 {mu}g/g (peso eco), respectivamente. El perfil cromatografico de los hidrocarburos alifaticos estuvo dominado por una mezcla compleja no resuelta (MCNR), y la presencia de hidrocarburos isoprenoides, esteranos y hopanos, indico el aporte de hidrocarburos derivados del petroleo. La concentracion predominante de marcadores moleculares

  16. Applicability assessment of concrete with recycled coarse aggregates in Havana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavón, E.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent viability studies carried out in Havana, Cuba, according to natural or recycled aggregates, exhibited high volume production of construction and demolition waste (CDW. The last well-known data of concrete waste generation reached to 1800 m3/month. This situation, together with the depletion of the quarry aggregates closed to the capital, requires the use of such debris as aggregate for concrete production. In this work, four origin recycled concrete aggregates (RCA were produced and characterized. Recycled aggregate concrete with 25%, 50% and 100% of RCA and 0.45, 0.50 and 0.55 of water-cement ratio were produced. Physical, mechanical and durabilidty properties of thoses concretes were determined and evaluated, and their applicability as structural material in different aggressive environments according to Cuban normative was defined.Los estudios de viabilidad realizados recientemente en La Habana, Cuba muestran elevadas cifras de producción de residuos de construcción y demolición (RCD. Los últimos datos conocidos de generación de escombros de hormigón alcanzan valores cercanos a los 1800m3/mensual. Esta situación unida al agotamiento de los áridos en las zonas cercanas a la capital hace necesaria la utilización de estos escombros como áridos en la fabricación de hormigones. En el trabajo realizado se trituraron escombros de hormigón de cuatro orígenes diferentes, después de su caracterización se fabricaron hormigones con 25%, 50% y 100% de árido reciclado y con relaciones agua-cemento de 0.45, 0.50 y 0.55. A partir de la evaluación de las propiedades físico-mecánicas y de durabilidad obtenidas por los hormigones reciclados, se define la aplicabilidad de los mismos como hormigón estructural para ser utilizados en los diferentes tipos de ambientes de agresividad que tiene definido la normativa cubana.

  17. Statistical distribution of building lot frontage: application for Tokyo downtown districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Hiroyuki

    2018-03-01

    The frontage of a building lot is the determinant factor of the residential environment. The statistical distribution of building lot frontages shows how the perimeters of urban blocks are shared by building lots for a given density of buildings and roads. For practitioners in urban planning, this is indispensable to identify potential districts which comprise a high percentage of building lots with narrow frontage after subdivision and to reconsider the appropriate criteria for the density of buildings and roads as residential environment indices. In the literature, however, the statistical distribution of building lot frontages and the density of buildings and roads has not been fully researched. In this paper, based on the empirical study in the downtown districts of Tokyo, it is found that (1) a log-normal distribution fits the observed distribution of building lot frontages better than a gamma distribution, which is the model of the size distribution of Poisson Voronoi cells on closed curves; (2) the statistical distribution of building lot frontages statistically follows a log-normal distribution, whose parameters are the gross building density, road density, average road width, the coefficient of variation of building lot frontage, and the ratio of the number of building lot frontages to the number of buildings; and (3) the values of the coefficient of variation of building lot frontages, and that of the ratio of the number of building lot frontages to that of buildings are approximately equal to 0.60 and 1.19, respectively.

  18. Geochemical and stable isotope characteristics of urban heavy rain in the downtown of Tokyo, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Ryunosuke; Okochi, Hiroshi; Ogata, Hiroko; Katsumi, Naoya; Asai, Daisuke; Nakano, Takanori

    2017-09-01

    In order to make clear the impact of air pollution on the formation of sudden and locally-distributed heavy rain in urban area (hereafter Urban Heavy Rain: UHR), we analyzed inorganic ion concentration and stable isotope ratio of water (δD and δ18O) in rainwater. Rainwater samples were collected in Shinjuku, which is a representative downtown of Tokyo, Japan, during four years from October 2012 to December 2015. The concentration and wet deposition fluxes of acidic components (H+, NH4+, NO3-, and nss-SO42 -) in UHR were especially higher than those in other types of rain events, i.e. normal rain, typhoon heavy rain, and frontal heavy rain. UHR had distinctly lower stable isotope ratios than those in other urban rains with same rainfall amount and summer precipitation systems. There was a high negative correlation between δ18O and the distances from the sampling point to the formation area of UHR within 10 km, while there were high positive correlations between δ18O and the concentration of acidic components in UHR. These findings indicate that UHR could effectively scavenge acidic substances within cloud and suggest the use of stable isotope ratios as tracers of an urban heavy rain's water and in-cloud scavenging process.

  19. Air pollution and vulnerability of exposed individuals: the case of downtown Medellín

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    Gabriel J. González

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of respiratory problems in high level pollution areas is linked to factors such as exposure, susceptibility, and social coping. Objective: To present statistical evidence regarding the relationship between the probability of experiencing symptoms or contracting a respiratory disease and factors such as exposure to pollution, susceptibility, and social coping among people inhabiting areas with particulate matter pollution. Methodology: The study used unique information collected from a survey conducted on 1000 people in downtown Medellin who were exposed to this problem. This information was used to perform a descriptive statistic analysis and to build 27 probit models. The dependent variables were: the patient has a symptom or disease –emf-, the patient has a symptom –leve-, and the patient has a respiratory disease –grave-. Results: The results evidence that exposure is a key variable affecting the presence of respiratory symptoms or diseases (vulnerability; however, exposed individuals may also experience health problems not only due to air pollution per se, but also to implicit personal and social conditions.

  20. Access and utilization of HIV treatment and services among women sex workers in Vancouver’s downtown eastside

    OpenAIRE

    Shannon, Kate; Bright, Vicki; Duddy, Janice; Tyndall, Mark W.

    2005-01-01

    Many HIV-infected women are not realizing the benefits of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) despite significant advancements in treatment. Women in Vancouver’s Downtown Eastside (DTES) are highly marginalized and struggle with multiple morbidities, unstable housing, addiction, survival sex, and elevated risk of sexual and drug-related harms, including HIV infection. Although recent studies have identified the heightened risk of HIV infection among women engaged in sex work and inje...

  1. Geotechnical characterization and seismic response of shallow geological formations in downtown Lisbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Teves-Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available  The geological and geotechnical characterization of shallow formations is one of the main steps in performing a microzonation study. This paper presents an example of the usefulness of the information compiled in a geological and geotechnical database for the estimation of the seismic response of the shallower formations of the Lisbon downtown area of Baixa. The geotechnical characterization of this area was performed based on the analysis of Standard Penetration Test (SPT data compiled in the geological and geotechnical database. This database, connected to a geoscientific information system (CGIS, allows, also, the definition of 2D geological profiles used for estimating the thickness of the shallower layers. The shear-wave velocities (VS for each layer were estimated from empirical correlations using mean SPT values computed from the statistical evaluation of the compiled data. These VS values were further calibrated with ambient vibration recording analysis. The seismic response of Baixa’s superficial deposits was estimated by applying a 1D equivalent linear method to a set of soil profiles, regularly distributed across the area, and using synthetic accelerograms to simulate input motions associated with probable earthquake occurrences in Lisbon. The results are presented in terms of maps of predominant frequencies, with the corresponding amplification level, as well as spectral amplification factors for 1 Hz and 2.5 Hz. The results show that the fundamental frequency of the Baixa area is between 1.2 Hz and 2 Hz, for the whole central valley, reaching 3 Hz near the edges where anthroprogenic and alluvial deposits have less expression. Amplification factors up to 5 were obtained. These results were achieved regardless of the considered input motion. The similarity of the obtained fundamental frequency with the natural frequency of Baixa’s old building stock increases the probability of resonance effects in future earthquakes.

  2. Telling our stories: heroin-assisted treatment and SNAP activism in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Susan; Murray, Dave; MacPherson, Donald

    2017-05-18

    This article highlights the experiences of a peer-run group, SALOME/NAOMI Association of Patients (SNAP), that meets weekly in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. SNAP is a unique independent peer- run drug user group that formed in 2011 following Canada's first heroin-assisted treatment trial (HAT), North America Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI). SNAP's members are now made up of former research participants who participated in two heroin-assisted trials in Vancouver. This article highlights SNAP members' experiences as research subjects in Canada's second clinical trial conducted in Vancouver, Study to Assess Longer-term Opioid Medication Effectiveness (SALOME), that began recruitment of research participants in 2011. This paper draws on one brainstorming session, three focus groups, and field notes, with the SALOME/NAOMI Association of Patients (SNAP) in late 2013 about their experiences as research subjects in Canada's second clinical trial, SALOME in the DTES of Vancouver, and fieldwork from a 6-year period (March 2011 to February 2017) with SNAP members. SNAP's research draws on research principles developed by drug user groups and critical methodological frameworks on community-based research for social justice. The results illuminate how participating in the SALOME clinical trial impacted the lives of SNAP members. In addition, the findings reveal how SNAP member's advocacy for HAT impacts the group in positive ways. Seven major themes emerged from the analysis of the brainstorming and focus groups: life prior to SALOME, the clinic setting and routine, stability, 6-month transition, support, exiting the trial and ethics, and collective action, including their participation in a constitutional challenge in the Supreme Court of BC to continue receiving HAT once the SALOME trial ended. HAT benefits SNAP members. They argue that permanent HAT programs should be established in Canada because they are an effective harm reduction

  3. Access and utilization of HIV treatment and services among women sex workers in Vancouver's Downtown Eastside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Kate; Bright, Vicki; Duddy, Janice; Tyndall, Mark W

    2005-09-01

    Many HIV-infected women are not realizing the benefits of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) despite significant advancements in treatment. Women in Vancouver's Downtown Eastside (DTES) are highly marginalized and struggle with multiple morbidities, unstable housing, addiction, survival sex, and elevated risk of sexual and drug-related harms, including HIV infection. Although recent studies have identified the heightened risk of HIV infection among women engaged in sex work and injection drug use, the uptake of HIV care among this population has received little attention. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the needs of women engaged in survival sex work and to assess utilization and acceptance of HAART. During November 2003, a baseline needs assessment was conducted among 159 women through a low-threshold drop-in centre servicing street-level sex workers in Vancouver. Cross-sectional data were used to describe the sociodemographic characteristics, drug use patterns, HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing and status, and attitudes towards HAART. High rates of cocaine injection, heroin injection, and smokeable crack cocaine use reflect the vulnerable and chaotic nature of this population. Although preliminary findings suggest an overall high uptake of health and social services, there was limited attention to HIV care with only 9% of the women on HAART. Self-reported barriers to accessing treatment were largely attributed to misinformation and misconceptions about treatment. Given the acceptability of accessing HAART through community interventions and women specific services, this study highlights the potential to reach this highly marginalized group and provides valuable baseline information on a population that has remained largely outside consistent HIV care.

  4. Use of the renewable wind and photovoltaic sources, for the recharge of a fleet of electric taxis in Havana, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez Torres, Yamir

    2017-01-01

    Electrification of the transportation sector seems to be one of the alternatives in terms of restriction of pollutant from that sector. However, it is necessary to study the GHG (Green House Gas) emissions from Generation Power Plants (EGPP) because could be more or less the same of that from the vehicles. Furthermore, Centralized GPP supply would result in distribution losses, bigger fuel consumption and more pollution. Thus, EVs development should be considered as a sustainable solution if powered by electricity systems with considerable share of Renewable Energy Sources (RES). In this paper, the study of the recharge of an EV taxi fleet during night, using photovoltaic and wind mills RES in Havana, Cuba, is analyzed. This work is aiming to find a feasible operational synergy between cited intermittent RES electricity generation and EVs taxi fleet recharge. (author)

  5. Arborização de vias púbicas em Nova Iguaçu, RJ: o caso dos bairros Rancho Novo e Centro Tree planting on public roads in Nova Iguaçu, RJ: the case of Novo Rancho and Downtown districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Tavares da Rocha

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram quantificar e qualificar a arborização de ruas dos Bairros Rancho Novo e Centro, na cidade de Nova Iguaçu, RJ. Através de inventário total, foram encontrados 560 indivíduos pertencentes a 46 espécies no Bairro Rancho Novo e, no Bairro Centro, 1.374 e 59, respectivamente. Em ambos os bairros, cerca de 91% das plantas pertenciam às 20 espécies mais freqüentes, sendo Ficus benjamina e Cássia siamea as predominantes em Rancho Novo (21,6% e Centro (19,1%, respectivamente. O Bairro Rancho Novo apresentou 18% de suas vias públicas arborizadas e o Bairro Centro, 13,5%. Cerca de 95% das espécies foram enquadradas como de pequeno e médio portes. As maiores médias de altura foram observadas em plantas de Cássia siamea, em Rancho Novo e amendoeira no Centro. As espécies plantadas sob rede aérea representaram 40% da população arbórea, sendo 45% desta com conflitos evidentes. No Bairro Centro, 62% das árvores necessitavam de poda, enquanto em Rancho Novo a poda é recomendada em 50% das plantas. Elevada discrepância foi constatada nas distâncias médias entre árvores, com valores médios de 56 m no Bairro Rancho Novo e 74 m no Bairro Centro. Recomenda-se a substituição gradativa de Cássia siamea, amendoeira, "flamboyant" e sombreiro por outras espécies mais adequadas à arborização urbana.The objectives of this work were to quantify and qualify the urban trees of Rancho Novo District and Downtown Area of Nova Iguaçu City, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Through the total inventory, 560 individuals distributed in 46 species were found in Rancho Novo District, in contrast to 1,374 individuals and 59 species in Downtown Area. In both areas, about 91% of the plants are among the 20 most frequent species, with Ficus benjamina and Cassia siamea predominating in Rancho Novo (21,6% and Downtown (19,1 %, respectively. Rancho Novo District presented 18% of arboured public areas against 13,5% of Downtown

  6. 500 Cities: City Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This city boundary shapefile was extracted from Esri Data and Maps for ArcGIS 2014 - U.S. Populated Place Areas. This shapefile can be joined to 500 Cities...

  7. Economic evaluation of the impact of cultural tourism in the city of Zacatecas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandrina De Sicilia Muñoz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay has the purpose of evaluating the economic impact of cultural tourism in the city of Zacatecas, giving special emphasis to its historic downtown. Therefore this work examines briefly the change recorded in the shift of the economic activities in the city, before and after its historic downtown was declared Cultural Human Heritage by the UNESCO. Moreover, the evolution of the city of Zacatecas as a touristic destiny is described, as well as the changes that have taken place in the expansion of the touristic services such as hotels, number of rooms, number of tourists, economically active population and the incomes inside the context of the tourist activity in the city of Zacatecas. Furthermore, tourism in México is discussed, initially aimed at promoting places with tourist tradition inside the country with the idea of exploiting the existent cultural resources; continuing with the geographical and historical context of the city of Zacatecas; and its touristic evolution as an historic downtown.

  8. Estimating Roof Solar Energy Potential in the Downtown Area Using a GPU-Accelerated Solar Radiation Model and Airborne LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy, as a clean and renewable resource is becoming increasingly important in the global context of climate change and energy crisis. Utilization of solar energy in urban areas is of great importance in urban energy planning, environmental conservation, and sustainable development. However, available spaces for solar panel installation in cities are quite limited except for building roofs. Furthermore, complex urban 3D morphology greatly affects sunlit patterns on building roofs, especially in downtown areas, which makes the determination of roof solar energy potential a challenging task. The object of this study is to estimate the solar radiation on building roofs in an urban area in Shanghai, China, and select suitable spaces for installing solar panels that can effectively utilize solar energy. A Graphic Processing Unit (GPU-based solar radiation model named SHORTWAVE-C simulating direct and non-direct solar radiation intensity was developed by adding the capability of considering cloud influence into the previous SHORTWAVE model. Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR data was used as the input of the SHORTWAVE-C model and to investigate the morphological characteristics of the study area. The results show that the SHORTWAVE-C model can accurately estimate the solar radiation intensity in a complex urban environment under cloudy conditions, and the GPU acceleration method can reduce the computation time by up to 46%. Two sites with different building densities and rooftop structures were selected to illustrate the influence of urban morphology on the solar radiation and solar illumination duration. Based on the findings, an object-based method was implemented to identify suitable places for rooftop solar panel installation that can fully utilize the solar energy potential. Our study provides useful strategic guidelines for the selection and assessment of roof solar energy potential for urban energy planning.

  9. The Second Factory of Havana before the War of Independence of the Thirteen Colonies 1760-1779. A Reading from the Spanish Estanco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago de LUXÁN MELÉNDEZ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our main objective is to verify the Spanish problems of Spanish estanco relative to its main supplier, the Island of Cuba. The return to direct management by the Monarchy of the production, sale and export of Cuban tobacco as a leading provider of Metropolitan estanco, once passed the accident of taking of Havana by the English, was accompanied by the expansion of culture in the Island, but not the increase in longterm consumption of the product in the Metropolitan estanco. Two types of tobacco, the Virginian, and especially the Brazilian one, continued to maintain a privileged position in the Spanish market. On the other hand, the more opening of Havana to American market coincides with the creation of estancos in the rest of America. According to the known estimations, at least until the period of the War of Independence of the Thirteen Colonies, the solution to the problems of excess production did not take place in the Antillean Island

  10. A longitudinal study of enterobiasis in three day care centers of Havana City Estudo longitudinal de enterobíase em três creches da cidade de Havana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidel Angel Núñez

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Pinworm infection was prospectively studied during one year in 469 children attending three day care centers. Each child was examined at six months intervals using up to three perianal swabs with adhesive tape. Those found infected were treated with mebendazole. At the beginning of the study we found a prevalence of 28% that dropped to 13% and 12% in the following study periods. The reinfection rate was twice the incidence rate in both study periods. We also found a small percentage (10% of the children reinfected in most or all study periods. There was a high correlation between reinfection and perianal itching. Our results add further knowledge to the epidemiology of intestinal parasites in day care centers.Infecção por oxiuros foi estudada prospectivamente durante um ano em 469 crianças de três creches. Cada criança foi examinada com intervalos de 6 meses usando até 3 esfregaços perianais com fita adesiva. As que estavam infectadas foram tratadas com mebendazole. No início do estudo foi encontrada prevalência de 28% que caiu para 13% e 12% nos períodos de estudo posteriores. A freqüência de reinfecção foi 2 vezes a incidência em ambos os períodos de estudo. Foi encontrada, também, pequena porcentagem (10% de crianças reinfectadas na maioria ou em todos os períodos de estudo. Existiu elevada correlação entre reinfecção e coceira perianal. Nossos resultados adicionam outros conhecimentos à epidemiología dos parásitos intestinais em creches.

  11. Revalorization Problems of the Down-Town Areas on the Example of Zielona Góra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kononowicz Wanda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the considerations presented in the article is to determine the developmental directions of the inner urban areas respecting and honouring the cultural heritage of Zielona Gora city. The formation of useful physical form of the urban lifestyle environment is particularly important in the process of urban regeneration. The article presents polemics with the planning documents and raises the issues related to urban green areas and street furniture. The design proposal shows one of the possibilities to bring the improperly developed areas back to the city. Every city is made of people and, therefore, it is essential for these people to have social awareness of individual influence on the shape of urban areas.

  12. Revalorization Problems of the Down-Town Areas on the Example of Zielona Góra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononowicz, Wanda; Sukienniczak, Joanna

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the considerations presented in the article is to determine the developmental directions of the inner urban areas respecting and honouring the cultural heritage of Zielona Gora city. The formation of useful physical form of the urban lifestyle environment is particularly important in the process of urban regeneration. The article presents polemics with the planning documents and raises the issues related to urban green areas and street furniture. The design proposal shows one of the possibilities to bring the improperly developed areas back to the city. Every city is made of people and, therefore, it is essential for these people to have social awareness of individual influence on the shape of urban areas.

  13. Bricks & Mortar, Heart & Soul: Saving a Landmark School in Downtown Boise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linik, Joyce Riha

    2001-01-01

    Recognizing its integral role in the community, Boise (Idaho) renovated its 100-year old high school instead of building a new one. The architect, contractor, principal, students, and teachers cooperated throughout the planning and construction. The city enacted a "smart code" to encourage the rehabilitation of historic buildings and a…

  14. Science, Passion & Compassion vs. Cancer: Tania Crombet MD PhD, Director of Clinical Research. Molecular Immunology Center, Havana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gory, Conner

    2016-10-01

    Soon after the Molecular Immunology Center (CIM) was established in 1994 (a founding institution of Havana's biotechnology and pharmaceutical campus known as the scientific pole), Dr Crombet completed her master's thesis there. She joined CIM's team in 1998 and in 2004 was designated Director of Clinical Research. She has participated in the research, development and clinical trials of some of Cuba's most innovative therapies and vaccines, including CIMAvax-EGF for non-small cell lung cancer patients. In 2015, this therapy completed Phase IV clinical trials in Cuba and is now used in primary health care services throughout the country's national health system. CIM and Roswell Park Cancer Institute (Buffalo, New York) received US Department of Treasury approval in 2015 to test CIMAvax-EGF and other CIM products in the United States, opening the way for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to consider joint ground-breaking Phase I and II clinical trials in the USA. Recent regulatory changes introduced by President Barack Obama may make applying for such licenses a thing of the past-at least that is what researchers hope. In any case, the work of Dr Crombet and the teams at CIM is making headway in cancer immunotherapy, within the broader goals of the institution's mandate…the subject of our interview.

  15. Reproductive pattern of Cuban women living in the municipality of Plaza de la Revolución, Havana, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Vanessa; Camargo, Ana M; Acosta, Marlen; Alonso, Verónica; Luna, Francisco

    2015-07-01

    This paper assesses the reproductive and abortion patterns of women living in Plaza de la Revolución, a municipality of Havana, Cuba, by studying the factors influencing birth and abortion rates. Socio-demographic data and female reproductive histories were collected in a survey of 1200 post-menopausal women living in the municipality. Average ages at menarche and at menopause were 12.71 and 48.39 years, respectively, thus yielding a potential long reproductive period of 35.68 years, indicating high fertility. Although the mean pregnancy rate was 3.81 pregnancies per woman, the live birth rate at time of delivery was only 1.89 due to the high rate of abortions: 40% of all pregnancies were voluntarily interrupted. Among the biological and socio-cultural variables that were found to influence the rate of live births were those related marriage pattern, especially age at first union. Demographic variables such as pregnancy order, maternal age and marital status were the main determinants of the abortion pattern, with abortion being used as a method of birth control in order to obtain the desired family size, and most women (75.2%) using contraceptives.

  16. Analysis of the Gulf of Mexico's Veracruz-Havana Route of La Flota de la Nueva España

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo-Fernández, A.; Ball, D. A.; Gravois, M.; Horrell, C.; Irion, J. B.

    2007-06-01

    During colonial times, an active maritime trade existed between Spain and the New World, with convoys sailing annually to and from Mexico and returning via Havana, Cuba, after wintering in America. A database constructed from secondary and open sources revealed that Spanish vessels were sailing over open waters along a northern path near Louisiana and a southern path across the central Gulf of Mexico. These routes were traversed in about one month and scheduling for the convoy was based on an understanding of the Americas’ meteorological and oceanographic climate. However, other factors may also have been involved in the directional layout of the routes. Today these ancient routes crisscross planning areas for oil and gas lease sales in the US Exclusive Economic Zone and the information presented in this article may aid in identifying areas where historic shipwrecks may lie. Maps and documents found during this study helped piece together the evolution of our understanding of the Gulf of Mexico surface circulation and how this knowledge influenced sailing during colonial times.

  17. The Cemetery, the State and the Exiles: A Study of Cementerio Colón, Havana, and Woodlawn Cemetery, Miami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marivic Wyndham

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the unsuspected costs of exile is the inability to care for the family tombs for which, especially in Latin American countries, one may feel a sharp personal responsibility. The desecration of such tombs renders the pain of exile sharper still. We examine the ways in which the Cuban State has abandoned responsibility for the care of the tombs of the exiles in the island’s largest cemetery, Cementerio Cristóbal Colón in Havana. Many exiles hope and plan to return to resume life in their former birthland. Perhaps to show their intentions, their cemeteries in the new countries are piecemeal and temporary. Little by little it becomes apparent that their state of exile has passed from medium term to long term to permanence. In Woodlawn Cemetery, Miami, some of the exiles’ dead remain in unworthy graves while the inscriptions on their tombs remind their descendants of the promise of permanent return which they never now will keep.

  18. Parameterized equation for the estimation of the hydraulic conductivity function not saturated in ferralsols south of Havana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González Robaina, Felicita; López Seijas, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    The modeling of the processes involved in the movement of water in soil solutions generally requires the general equation of water flow for the condition of saturation, or Darcy - Buckinghan approach. In this approach the hydraulic - soil moisture (K(0)) conductivity function is a fundamental property of the soil to determine for each field condition. Several methods reported in the literature for determining the hydraulic conductivity are based on simplifications of assuming unit gradient method or a fixed ratio K(0). In recent years related to the search for simple, rapid and inexpensive methods to measure this relationship in the field using a lot of work aftershocks reported. One of these methods is the parameterized equation proposed by Reichardt, using the parameters of the equations describing the process of internal drainage and explain the exponential nature of the relationship K(0). The objective of this work is to estimate the K(0), with the method of the parameterized equation. To do the test results of internal drainage on a Ferralsol area south of Havana will be used. The results show that the parameterized equation provides an estimation of K(0) for those similar to the methods that assume unit gradient conditions

  19. Radon levels inside residences in Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, G.

    1990-01-01

    Levels of radon were measured during winter and spring seasons inside 55 colonial and modern houses and 30 multi-family apartment buildings representative of middle and upper income families. The modern houses and apartment buildings in the southern section of the city had average radon levels exceeding 150 Bq.m -3 with a maximum single measurement of 458 Bq.m -3 . The colonial houses in the central downtown section had radon levels nearly all averaging below 100 Bq.m -3 . Between the ground and third floor of the apartment buildings, radon levels diminished tenfold, indicating that entry of radon-bearing soil gas was largely responsible for the elevated concentrations of radon. The radon levels in winter exceeded by about 30% the radon levels during spring. The potentially adverse health effects of these radon levels may be exacerbated by the quality of air in Mexico City which is often highly polluted during winter. (author)

  20. Radon levels inside residences in Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinoza, G.

    1989-01-01

    Levels of radon were measured during winter and spring seasons inside 55 colonial and modern houses and 30 multifamily apartment buildings representative of middle and upper income families. The modern houses and apartment buildings in the southern section of the city had average radon levels exceeding 150 Bq m -3 with a maximum single measurement of 458 Bq m -3 . The colonial houses in the central downtown section had radon levels nearly all averaging below 100 Bq m -3 . Between the ground and third floor of the apartment buildings, radon levels diminished by tenfold indicating that entry of radon-bearing soil gas was largely responsible for the elevated concentrations of radon. The radon levels in winter exceeded by about 30% the radon levels during spring. The potentially adverse health effects of these radon levels may be exacerbated by the quality of air in Mexico City which during winter is often highly polluted. 7 refs., 2 figs

  1. Architectural Ruins and Urban Imaginaries: Carlos Garaicoa’s Images of Havana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Kovach

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary Cuban artist Carlos Garaicoa juxtaposes photographic images of Havana’s architectural ruins with timidly articulated drawings that trace the outlines of the dilapidated buildings in empty urbanscapes. Each of these fragile drawings, often composed of delicate threads adhered to a photograph of a site after demolition, serves as a vestige of the sagging structure that the artist photographed prior to destruction. The dialogue that emerges from these photograph/drawing diptychs implies the unmooring of the radical utopian underpinnings of revolutionary ideology that persisted in the policies of Cuba’s Período especial (Special Period of the 1990s, and suggests a more complicated narrative of Cuba’s modernity, in which the ambiguous drawings—which could indicate construction plans or function as mnemonic images—represent empty promises of economic growth that must negotiate the real socio-economic crises of the present. This article proposes that Garaicoa’s critique of the goals and outcomes of the Special Period through Havana’s ruins suggests a new articulation of the baroque expression— one that calls to mind the anti-authoritative strategies of twentieth-century Neo-Baroque literature and criticism. The artist historically grounds the legacy of the Cuban Revolution’s modernizing project in the country’s real economic decline in the post-Soviet era, but he also takes this approach to representing cities beyond Cuba’s borders, thereby posing broader questions about the architectural symbolism of the 21st-century city in the ideological construction of modern globalizing society.

  2. Strategic planning and marketing research for older, inner-city health care facilities: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, V R; Robertson, K R

    1992-01-01

    Numerous health care facilities, located in downtown metropolitan areas, now find themselves surrounded by a decaying inner-city environment. Consumers may perceive these facilities as "old," and catering to an "urban poor" consumer. These same consumers may, therefore, prefer to patronize more modern facilities located in suburban areas. This paper presents a case study of such a health care facility and how strategic planning and marketing research were conducted in order to identify market opportunities and new strategic directions.

  3. Monitoring city wide patterns of cycling safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Darren; Nelson, Trisalyn; Winters, Meghan

    2018-02-01

    Many cities are making significant financial investments in cycling infrastructure with the aim of making cycling safer for riders of all ages and abilities. Methods for evaluating cycling safety tend to summarize average change for a city or emphasize change on a single road segment. Few spatially explicit approaches are available to evaluate how patterns of safety change throughout a city due to cycling infrastructure investments or other changes. Our goal is to demonstrate a method for monitoring changes in the spatial-temporal distribution of cycling incidents across a city. Using cycling incident data provided by the Insurance Corporation of British Columbia, we first compare planar versus network constrained kernel density estimation for visualizing incident intensity across the street network of Vancouver, Canada. Second, we apply a change detection algorithm explicitly designed for detecting statistically significant change in kernel density estimates. The utility of network kernel density change detection is demonstrated through the comparison of cycling incident densities following the construction of two cycle tracks in the downtown core of Vancouver. The methods developed and demonstrated for this study provide city planners, transportation engineers and researchers a means of monitoring city-wide change in the intensity of cycling incidents following enhancements to cycling infrastructure or other significant changes to the transportation network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Study to Determine the Involvement in Governance of Part-time Instructional Personnel at the Downtown Campus of Florida Junior College at Jacksonville.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Delphia; Shannon, Mary Louise

    The perceptions of part-time faculty at the Downtown Campus of Florida Junior College concerning what their role in college governance should be, what it actually was, their satisfaction with their governance role, and their general knowledge of how the governance process operated, were surveyed by means of a questionnaire sent to 112 part-time…

  5. Extreme Rainfall In A City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkemdirim, Lawrence

    Cities contain many structures and activities that are vulnerable to severe weather. Heavy precipitation cause floods which can damage structures, compromise transportation and water supply systems, and slow down economic and social activities. Rain induced flood patterns in cities must be well understood to enable effective placement of flood control and other regulatory measures. The planning goal is not to eliminate all floods but to reduce their frequency and resulting damage. Possible approaches to such planning include probability based extreme event analysis. Precipitation is normally the most variable hydrologic element over a given area. This variability results from the distribution of clouds and in cloud processes in the atmosphere, the storm path, and the distribution of topographical features on the ground along path. Some studies suggest that point rainfall patterns are also affected by urban industrial effects hence some agreement that cities are wetter than the country surrounding them. However, there are still questions regarding the intra- urban distribution of precipitation. The sealed surfaces, urban structures, and the urban heat anomaly increase convection in cities which may enhance the generation of clouds. Increased dust and gaseous aerosols loads are effective condensation and sublimation nuclei which may also enhance the generation of precipitation. Based on these associations, the greatest amount of convection type rainfall should occur at city center. A study of summer rainfall in Calgary showed that frequencies of trace amounts of rainfall and events under 0.2mm are highest downtown than elsewhere. For amounts greater than than 0.2 mm, downtown sites were not favored. The most compelling evidence for urban-industrial precipitation enhancement came from the Metromex project around St. Loius, Missouri where maximum increases of between 5 to 30 per cent in summer rainfall downwind of the city was linked to urbanization and

  6. Air quality impacts of a CicLAvia event in Downtown Los Angeles, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Shi; Batteate, Christina; Cole, Brian; Froines, John; Zhu, Yifang

    2016-01-01

    CicLAvia in Los Angeles, CA is the open streets program that closes streets to motorized vehicles and invites people to walk, run, play or ride their bicycles on these streets, allowing them to experience the city in a new way and get exercise at the same time. Since the events reduce the motorized traffic flow, which is a significant source of air pollution, on the streets, it is reasonable to hypothesize that the CicLAvia events can reduce the concentrations of traffic-emitted air pollutants during the road closure. This study is the first experiment to test this hypothesis. The on-road and community-wide ultrafine particle (UFP) and PM2.5 were measured on the Event-Sunday (October 5th, 2014) and the Pre- and Post- Sundays (September 28(th) and October 12(th), 2014). Data analysis results showed the on-road UFP and PM2.5 reduction was 21% and 49%, respectively, and the community-wide PM2.5 reduction was 12%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Image city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities.......Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities....

  8. Education Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaked, Haim

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several cities in Israel have labeled themselves "Education Cities," concentrating on education as their central theme. Employing qualitative techniques, this article aims to describe, define, and conceptualize this phenomenon as it is being realized in three such cities. Findings show that Education Cities differ from…

  9. Hydrometer method: influence of the times of readings in the determination of the size distribution of particles in soil of Havana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Coronado, Jorge; Medina Gonzalez, Hanoi; Nunnez Acosta, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Full text: One of the most widespread is based on Stokes law, hydrometer method worldwide for textural analysis of soils. The objective of this study is to assess the influence of the hydrometer reading times, associated with various simplifications of the method in the determination of the distribution of the size of particles of soil belonging to the Havana province. It is based on 101 property measurements, starting from the I am at 51 points at two depths, 10-15 cm and 35-40 cm. The distribution of points It responds to a wider project aimed at evaluating different physical properties, chemical and water in the province of Havana, through the design of a non-aligned stratified sampling. It was determined the effect of the variation of time of registration of the readings of the hydrometer in the results obtained from evaluating different methodologies of calculation. It was found that the limitation of the measurement time to an hour, as it is done usually in several laboratories of agronomic studies of Cuba, you can change completely the textural classification of soils, with a marked over-estimation of the clay content. (author)

  10. Air quality impacts of a CicLAvia event in Downtown Los Angeles, CA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Shi; Batteate, Christina; Cole, Brian; Froines, John; Zhu, Yifang

    2016-01-01

    CicLAvia in Los Angeles, CA is the open streets program that closes streets to motorized vehicles and invites people to walk, run, play or ride their bicycles on these streets, allowing them to experience the city in a new way and get exercise at the same time. Since the events reduce the motorized traffic flow, which is a significant source of air pollution, on the streets, it is reasonable to hypothesize that the CicLAvia events can reduce the concentrations of traffic-emitted air pollutants during the road closure. This study is the first experiment to test this hypothesis. The on-road and community-wide ultrafine particle (UFP) and PM 2.5 were measured on the Event-Sunday (October 5th, 2014) and the Pre- and Post- Sundays (September 28 th and October 12 th , 2014). Data analysis results showed the on-road UFP and PM 2.5 reduction was 21% and 49%, respectively, and the community-wide PM 2.5 reduction was 12%. - Highlights: • A natural experiment on air quality impacts of one CicLAvia event was conducted. • The CicLAvia event reduced traffic flow from 1,100 vehicles h −1 to zero. • On-road ultrafine particle and PM 2.5 reduction was 21% and 49% respectively. • Community-wide PM 2.5 reduction was 12%. - This study showed the CicLAvia event on October 5th, 2014 had reduced the on-road and community-wide concentrations of ultrafine particles and PM 2.5 .

  11. Compensatory lengthening in the Spanish of Havana, Cuba: Acoustic analyses of word-internal, post-nuclear /l/ and /r/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kristin M.

    Given the geographic, demographic, and historical importance of Cuba vis-a-vis the dissemination of language and culture throughout the Hispanic Caribbean, one would naturally anticipate a larger corpus of scientifically-noteworthy linguistic publications on Cuban Spanish, which is far from the actual case. Moreover, the gemination of an onset positionally subsequent to the deletion of a syllable-final liquid (generally termed liquid gemination in the literature) has been repeatedly claimed yet remarkably unsubstantiated as a pervasive characteristic of Cuban Spanish, particularly of the western dialect region (cf. Alfaraz (2000, 2007, 2008), Casanellas and Alamo (1985), Choy Lopez (1985, 1988, 1989), Costa Sanchez (1987), Darias Concepcion (2001, 2005), Dohotaru (2002, 2007), Figueroa Esteva and Dohotaru (1994), Garcia Perez (2006), Garcia Riveron (1991), Haden and Matluck (1973, 1974, 1977), Isbǎsescu (1965, 1968), Lamb (1968), Levina (1970), Montero Bernal (1990, 2002, 2007a, b), Ringer Uber (1986), Ruiz Hernandez (1978), Sosa (1974), Terrell (1976), Trista and Valdes (1978), Valdes Acosta (1980), and Vera Riveron (2000)). As a result, in the interest of supplementing all antecedent work concerning the allophony of final liquids as well as affording a more descriptively-precise account of the allophony of word-internal, post-nuclear /l/ and /[Special character omitted]/ in Cuban Spanish in addition to expressly addressing the need for empirical data-collection and analysis processes, the present investigation was specifically designed and implemented to acoustically investigate the phenomenon of gemination as it is purported to occur in the Spanish of the region of Havana, Cuba: more specifically, (1) to acoustically examine the qualitative and quantitative patternings of post-nuclear /l/ and /[Special character omitted]/ within the word; and (2) to statistically evaluate the relationship between gemination and eight independent variables: gender, age group

  12. Environmental Impact Assessment of a Flood Control Channel in Sfax City, Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Noura Dahri; Abdelfattah Atoui; Habib Abida

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate water and sediment quality in the southern branch of a flood control channel in Sfax city, as well as its neighboring sites.  This artificial channel, located 4km away from downtown Sfax, was implemented in 1984 to protect the city against floods. Even though it contributed to reduce the harmful flood effects, this channel also resulted in new environmental problems that may cause a public health threat. Indeed, artificial surfaces pose a greater ri...

  13. Sustaining the challenge from the outskirts: city centre retail viability in Ljubljana, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Pahor

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Like many other cities, Ljubljana is no exception to changes in its retail landscape. With retail suburbanisation, the city centre's monopoly as a shopping district has been lost. Our paper studies customer-perceived shopping area attributes and their impacts on patronage. The conceptual framework is set up to investigate factors that draw consumers to different shopping areas. The model was tested on a sample of consumers to evaluate the importance of various shopping area attributes and their performance in two decentralised shopping areas and the downtown shopping area in Ljubljana, Slovenia.

  14. New information on regional subsidence and soil fracturing in Mexico City Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Auvinet

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, updated information about regional subsidence in Mexico City downtown area is presented. Data obtained by R. Gayol in 1891, are compared with information obtained recently from surveys using the reference points of Sistema de Aguas de la Ciudad de México (2008 and on the elevation of a cloud of points on the ground surface determined using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR technology. In addition, this paper provides an overview of recent data obtained from systematic studies focused on understanding soil fracturing associated with regional land subsidence and mapping of areas susceptible to cracking in Mexico City Valley.

  15. New information on regional subsidence and soil fracturing in Mexico City Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvinet, G.; Méndez-Sánchez, E.; Juárez-Camarena, M.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, updated information about regional subsidence in Mexico City downtown area is presented. Data obtained by R. Gayol in 1891, are compared with information obtained recently from surveys using the reference points of Sistema de Aguas de la Ciudad de México (2008) and on the elevation of a cloud of points on the ground surface determined using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology. In addition, this paper provides an overview of recent data obtained from systematic studies focused on understanding soil fracturing associated with regional land subsidence and mapping of areas susceptible to cracking in Mexico City Valley.

  16. Validation of Simplified Urban-Canopy Aerodynamic Parametrizations Using a Numerical Simulation of an Actual Downtown Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, N.; Afshari, Afshin; Norford, L.

    2018-02-01

    A steady-state Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stoke computational fluid dynamics (CFD) investigation of boundary-layer flow over a major portion of downtown Abu Dhabi is conducted. The results are used to derive the shear stress and characterize the logarithmic region for eight sub-domains, where the sub-domains overlap and are overlaid in the streamwise direction. They are characterized by a high frontal area index initially, which decreases significantly beyond the fifth sub-domain. The plan area index is relatively stable throughout the domain. For each sub-domain, the estimated local roughness length and displacement height derived from CFD results are compared to prevalent empirical formulations. We further validate and tune a mixing-length model proposed by Coceal and Belcher (Q J R Meteorol Soc 130:1349-1372, 2004). Finally, the in-canopy wind-speed attenuation is analysed as a function of fetch. It is shown that, while there is some room for improvement in Macdonald's empirical formulations (Boundary-Layer Meteorol 97:25-45, 2000), Coceal and Belcher's mixing model in combination with the resolution method of Di Sabatino et al. (Boundary-Layer Meteorol 127:131-151, 2008) can provide a robust estimation of the average wind speed in the logarithmic region. Within the roughness sublayer, a properly parametrized Cionco exponential model is shown to be quite accurate.

  17. Proceedings on 10th National Congress on Oncology. 1st National Congress on Mastology. 5th International Meeting of Oncological Nursing. 3rd International Congress of Nuclear Oncology. 3rd International Conference of Medical Physics. (Oncology Havana 2009)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The aim of Oncology Havana 2009 is to propitiate the exchange with the delegates of all continents, focusing on issues such as advances and controversial aspects of oncology and current research and discussion of new diagnostic-therapeutic possibilities of cancer. About 240 scientific works are presented: 11 about medicine, 42 on mastology, 43 in medical physics, 143 on oncology.

  18. City PLANTastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , any attempt to create a green city is motivated by certain ecological, political and esthetical perspectives. Therefore the role of plants in tomorrows cities is everything but straightforward. Rather, a broad range of possibilities unfolds. City PLANTastic is the title of the 8th World in Denmark...... and urbanism, who reflect upon the multiple roles of plants in the future city through their most recent projects. The theme for the 2012 World in Denmark conference is City PLANTastic, which will also be explored by researchers through their works.......The city is going green. From New York to Copenhagen vegetables are enthusiastically planted on city squares, and buildings are turning green everywhere . The word “plant” is on everyone’s lips, reflecting a growing desire to solve ecological, technical and social challenges in the city. Hovever...

  19. Sin City?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael; Gautier, Pieter A.; Teulings, Coen n.

    , the ones who stay in the city have significant higher divorce rates. Similarly, for the couples who married outside the city, the ones who move to the city are more likely to divorce. This correlation can be explained by both a causal and a sorting effect. We disentangle them by using the timing...

  20. "I love having benzos after my coke shot": The use of psychotropic medication among cocaine users in downtown Montreal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta-Ochoa, Rossio; Bertrand, Karine; Arruda, Nelson; Jutras-Aswad, Didier; Roy, Élise

    2017-11-01

    Cocaine abuse is a major public health issue due to its role in the HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemics in North America. A significant area of concern among people who use cocaine (PWUC), injected or smoked, is their frequent misuse of prescription drugs, particularly psychotropic medication (PM), such as tranquilizers, sedatives, stimulants, and antipsychotics. This paper aims to describe and understand practices of PM use among PWUC in downtown Montreal. Ethnographic methods including participant observation and semi-structured interviews were used in an iterative manner. Two thirds of the 50 participants were male. They ranged in age from 20 to 60 and most were homeless. A significant proportion of them reported polydrug use patterns that included frequent concomitant opioid use (heroin and/or prescription opioids (PO)). Benzodiazepine-based tranquilizers and the atypical antipsychotic quetiapine were the most frequently used PM. Routes of PM administration were oral, nasal and, to a lesser degree, intravenous. Five main PM use practices were identified: 1) "downers" from cocaine high (benzodiazepines and quetiapine); 2) enhancers of heroin/PO effects (benzodiazepines); 3) reducers or suppressors of heroin/PO withdrawal symptoms (benzodiazepines); 4) enablers of a different type of "trip" (benzodiazepines); and 5) treatment for mental and physical problems (benzodiazepines and quetiapine). PM use practices showed several complementary functions that PM fulfill in a context of polydrug use. The soothing and stimulating effects of PM reinforce the patterns of drug use among participants, posing various risks including overdose, HIV/HCV transmission, PM dependence and accidents. The results highlight the need for clinicians to assess clients' substance use patterns when prescribing PM and to question PWUC about PM use. The findings also underline certain unmet service needs in relation to overdose, HIV/HCV and mental health prevention/treatment among cocaine

  1. Lead isotope ratios in lichen samples evaluated by ICP-ToF-MS to assess possible atmospheric pollution sources in Havana, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Alfredo Montero; Estévez Alvarez, Juan R; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo; González, Iván Pupo; Rizo, Oscar Díaz; Carzola, Lázaro Lima; Torres, Roberto Ayllón; Pascual, Jorge Gómez

    2017-01-01

    Epiphytic lichens, collected from 119 sampling sites grown over "Roistonea Royal Palm" trees, were used to assess the spatial distribution pattern of lead (Pb) and identify possible pollution sources in Havana (Cuba). Lead concentrations in lichens and topsoils were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) atomic emission spectrometry, respectively, while Pb in crude oils and gasoline samples were measured by ICP-time of flight mass spectrometry (ICP-ToF-MS). Lead isotopic ratios measurements for lichens, soils, and crude oils were obtained by ICP-ToF-MS. We found that enrichment factors (EF) reflected a moderate contamination for 71% of the samples (EF > 10). The 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratio values for lichens ranged from 1.17 to 1.20 and were a mixture of natural radiogenic and industrial activities (e.g., crude oils and fire plants). The low concentration of Pb found in gasoline (Cuba.

  2. City PLANTastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The city is going green. From New York to Copenhagen vegetables are enthusiastically planted on city squares, and buildings are turning green everywhere . The word “plant” is on everyone’s lips, reflecting a growing desire to solve ecological, technical and social challenges in the city. Hovever......, any attempt to create a green city is motivated by certain ecological, political and esthetical perspectives. Therefore the role of plants in tomorrows cities is everything but straightforward. Rather, a broad range of possibilities unfolds. City PLANTastic is the title of the 8th World in Denmark...... conference, which invites you to discuss the contemporary tendencies for a greener city. Come and listen to five international key note speakers, whose projects have showed new directions for planting in urban spaces: The conference presents key note speakers from landscape architecture, urban design...

  3. A Case Study: Analyzing City Vitality with Four Pillars of Activity-Live, Work, Shop, and Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Matt; Nordstrom, Blake W; Scholes, Jon; Joncas, Kate; Gordon, Patrick; Krivenko, Elliott; Haynes, Winston; Higdon, Roger; Stewart, Elizabeth; Kolker, Natali; Montague, Elizabeth; Kolker, Eugene

    2016-03-01

    This case study evaluates and tracks vitality of a city (Seattle), based on a data-driven approach, using strategic, robust, and sustainable metrics. This case study was collaboratively conducted by the Downtown Seattle Association (DSA) and CDO Analytics teams. The DSA is a nonprofit organization focused on making the city of Seattle and its Downtown a healthy and vibrant place to Live, Work, Shop, and Play. DSA primarily operates through public policy advocacy, community and business development, and marketing. In 2010, the organization turned to CDO Analytics ( cdoanalytics.org ) to develop a process that can guide and strategically focus DSA efforts and resources for maximal benefit to the city of Seattle and its Downtown. CDO Analytics was asked to develop clear, easily understood, and robust metrics for a baseline evaluation of the health of the city, as well as for ongoing monitoring and comparisons of the vitality, sustainability, and growth. The DSA and CDO Analytics teams strategized on how to effectively assess and track the vitality of Seattle and its Downtown. The two teams filtered a variety of data sources, and evaluated the veracity of multiple diverse metrics. This iterative process resulted in the development of a small number of strategic, simple, reliable, and sustainable metrics across four pillars of activity: Live, Work, Shop, and Play. Data during the 5 years before 2010 were used for the development of the metrics and model and its training, and data during the 5 years from 2010 and on were used for testing and validation. This work enabled DSA to routinely track these strategic metrics, use them to monitor the vitality of Downtown Seattle, prioritize improvements, and identify new value-added programs. As a result, the four-pillar approach became an integral part of the data-driven decision-making and execution of the Seattle community's improvement activities. The approach described in this case study is actionable, robust, inexpensive

  4. Characterization of aerosol particles from Buenos Aires City and its subway system: PIXE and SEM/EDX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murruni, L. G.; Debray, M. E.; Minsky, D.; Kreiner, A. J.; Burlon, A.; Davidson, M.; Davidson, J.; Ozafran, M.; Vazquez, M. E.; Rosenbusch, M.; Ulke, A. G.; Solanes, V.

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzes total suspended particle (TSP) samples collected at two sites of Buenos Aires City (34S, 58W). One site (San Martin) placed 17 km from city center, and the other one at an underground subway station (Diagonal Norte) in downtown Buenos Aires. In both cases, gravimetric analysis has been performed, while elemental analysis using PIXE has been only carried out in the first case. To the best our knowledge, this is the first airborne particle measurement perform at a Buenos Aires underground subway station

  5. The Marks of the Oriental Cities of Cuba at the End of the XIX Century: Between the Art and the Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoilo Rafael Fernández-Hernández

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the XIX century, in a city like Santiago de Cuba and others; then called as the Oriental Department of the country, there also existed trademarks not only linked to the tobacco, as those famous ones carried out in the lithography shops of Havana. Those recently located in the oriental files are also related with other products like the rum, vinegar, chocolate, liquors and wax matches, among others. This mark constituted for their coloring, the precision of their drawing and the appropriate artistic conception and design, valuable exponents of the history of the art and the Cuban publicity.

  6. The Marks of the Oriental Cities of Cuba at the End of the XIX Century: Between the Art and the Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Zoilo Rafael Fernández-Hernández

    2016-01-01

    At the end of the XIX century, in a city like Santiago de Cuba and others; then called as the Oriental Department of the country, there also existed trademarks not only linked to the tobacco, as those famous ones carried out in the lithography shops of Havana. Those recently located in the oriental files are also related with other products like the rum, vinegar, chocolate, liquors and wax matches, among others. This mark constituted for their coloring, the precision of their drawing and the ...

  7. The washing effect of precipitation on particulate matter and the pollution dynamics of rainwater in downtown Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wei; Guo, Bobo; Cai, Guanqing; Li, Qing; Han, Sheng; Liu, Bin; Liu, Xingang

    2015-02-01

    The particulate matter (PM) pollution of Beijing fluctuated significantly before and after precipitation events during the rainy period. The rainwater samples were continually collected at five-minute intervals on the roof of a building in downtown Beijing. The PM₂.₅ was also monitored at same temporal scale. The pH and concentrations of ammonia-N, nitrate-N, phosphorus, sulfur, and heavy metals (Cd, Mn, Fe, Zn, and Cu) in the rainwater samples were measured, and the values were used to assess the effect of washing on PM₂.₅ and determine the characteristics of the rainwater pollutants. The PM₂.₅ was negatively correlated to the quantity of accumulated rainfall (R(2) value ranged from 0.668 to 0.974), which identified the function of the washing process on PM₂.₅ pollution. The washing process of rainfall strongly affects PM₂.₅, which decreased to 10-30 μg m(-3) with 5mm of rainfall. The analysis of the temporal patterns of ten pollutants in rainwater demonstrated that most of the pollution load was contributed by the first 5 to 10 min of the washing process. The event mean concentration (EMC) of nine inorganic pollutants was used to evaluate the pollution load and identify sources of particle pollution. Sulfur was the primary inorganic element detected in PM, and the average EMC of twelve rainfall events was 8.92 mg L(-1). The EMC of ammonia-N, nitrate-N, and phosphorus after significant PM₂.₅ pollution was 11.57 mg L(-1), 1.72 mg L(-1), and 0.019 mg L(-1), respectively. The total pollution load of the rainwater collecting area during the rainy reason was also calculated, and the largest heavy metal load of 3.11 mg was attributed to Zn. The pollution loads of heavy metals and the stable relationship between the pollutants indicate the potential urban environmental management policies in Beijing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Spatial variation in diesel-related elemental and organic PM2.5 components during workweek hours across a downtown core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunno, Brett J; Shmool, Jessie L C; Michanowicz, Drew R; Tripathy, Sheila; Chubb, Lauren G; Kinnee, Ellen; Cambal, Leah; Roper, Courtney; Clougherty, Jane E

    2016-12-15

    Capturing intra-urban variation in diesel-related pollution exposures remains a challenge, given its complex chemical mix, and relatively few well-characterized ambient-air tracers for the multiple diesel sources in densely-populated urban areas. To capture fine-scale spatial resolution (50×50m grid cells) in diesel-related pollution, we used geographic information systems (GIS) to systematically allocate 36 sampling sites across downtown Pittsburgh, PA, USA (2.8km 2 ), cross-stratifying to disentangle source impacts (i.e., truck density, bus route frequency, total traffic density). For buses, outbound and inbound trips per week were summed by route and a kernel density was calculated across sites. Programmable monitors collected fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) samples specific to workweek hours (Monday-Friday, 7 am-7 pm), summer and winter 2013. Integrated filters were analyzed for black carbon (BC), elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), elemental constituents, and diesel-related organic compounds [i.e., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hopanes, steranes]. To our knowledge, no studies have collected this suite of pollutants with such high sampling density, with the ability to capture spatial patterns during specific hours of interest. We hypothesized that we would find substantial spatial variation for each pollutant and significant associations with key sources (e.g. diesel and gasoline vehicles), with higher concentrations near the center of this small downtown core. Using a forward stepwise approach, we developed seasonal land use regression (LUR) models for PM 2.5 , BC, total EC, OC, PAHs, hopanes, steranes, aluminum (Al), calcium (Ca), and iron (Fe). Within this small domain, greater concentration differences were observed in most pollutants across sites, on average, than between seasons. Higher PM 2.5 and BC concentrations were found in the downtown core compared to the boundaries. PAHs, hopanes, and steranes displayed different spatial

  9. Eating Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Fisker, Anna Marie; Clausen, Katja Seerup

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzed the development of a city based sustainable food strategy for the city of Aalborg. It’s based on 3 cases of food service: food for the elderly as operated by the Municipality, food the hospital patients as operated by the region and food for defense staff as operated...

  10. Atypical Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this creative challenge, Surrealism and one-point perspective combine to produce images that not only go "beyond the real" but also beyond the ubiquitous "imaginary city" assignment often used to teach one-point perspective. Perhaps the difference is that in the "atypical cities challenge," an understanding of one-point perspective is a means…

  11. INSTANT CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses Roskilde Festival as an Instant City. For more than 40 years, Roskilde Festival has had many thousands participants for a weeklong festival on music, performances and cultural experiences in a layout designed as an urban environment. During the last ten years, in- creasing...... emphasis has been laid on creating a vivid, and engaging social environment in order to create a lab for social, and architectural experi- ments. These goals challenge the city planning as well as the urban sce- nography. The article addresses the research questions: What kind of city life and social...... experiments are taking place in ‘the instant city’, and how can it be characterized? It also emphasizes the relation between city life, urban design, and the aesthetics of architecture and urban spaces. The question here is, in what way architecture and urban scenography are used as tools to support the goal...

  12. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction. ...... and a potential application. We believe that it could become a new medium for creativity, and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance in the context of the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or language impairments....

  13. Drone City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper address the phenomenon of drones and their potential relationship with the city from the point of view of the so-called “mobilities turn”. This is done in such a way that turns attention to a recent redevelopment of the “turn” towards design; so the emerging perspective of “mobilities...... design” will be used as a background perspective to reflect upon the future of drones in cities. The other perspective used to frame the phenomenon is the emerging discourse of the “smart city”. A city of proliferating digital information and data communication may be termed a smart city as shorthand...... for a new urban condition where cities are networked and connected (as well as disconnected) from the local block to global digital spheres. In the midst of many of the well-known data-creating devices (e.g. Bluetooth, radio-frequency identification (RFID), GPS, smartphone applications) there is a “new kid...

  14. Oral health among the elderly in 7 Latin American and Caribbean cities, 1999-2000: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Hema; Maharaj, Rohan G; Naidu, Rahul

    2015-04-09

    To describe the prevalence of missing teeth, use of bridges and dentures and unmet dental needs among those aged 60 years and above. The associations of these conditions with socio-demographics, type 2 diabetes mellitus and depression were also studied. The work was carried out in 7 Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) cities in 1999-2000. A secondary analysis was conducted on the Survey of Health and Well-Being of Elders (SABE) dataset. The 7 cities were Buenos Aires, Bridgetown, São Paulo, Santiago, Havana, Mexico City and Montevideo. This survey did not employ any oral examinations. Descriptive statistics, chi-square and regression analysis were used to test for associations. Data for 10 902 persons were analyzed. Females made up 62% of the population. Across the SABE population, between 93.7% (Mexico City) to 99.9% (Santiago) reported missing teeth, with an average of 97.5%. Of those with missing teeth, between 55.1% (Mexico City) and 82.4% (São Paulo) reported having bridges or dentures, with an average of 70.1% across all SABE cities. The proportion of the SABE population with 'unmet dental needs' ranged from 85.8% (Santiago) to 98.4% (Havana), with an average of 94.5%. Bridgetown, São Paulo and Mexico City demonstrated a statistically significant association between aging and tooth loss. Generally a greater proportion of females (97.6%) reported tooth loss compared with males (96.8%), but in only São Paulo and Montevideo was there a statistically significant association between sex and tooth loss. Generally those with higher education reported less tooth loss, primary education (97.6% had tooth loss), secondary (96.8%) and tertiary (94.7%). All the SABE cities except Buenos Aires demonstrated a statistically significant association between tooth loss and education. The prevalence of missing teeth, use of bridges and dentures and unmet dental needs were high in the SABE cities in 1999-2000. In general across the SABE cities, the elderly with the most

  15. Vatican City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    Vatican City, the administrative and spiritual capital of the Roman catholic Church, has a population of 1000. Citizenship is generally accorded only to those who reside in Vatican City for reasons of office of employment. Supreme legislative, executive, and judicial power is currentily exercised by Pope John Paul II, the 1st non-italian pope in 5 centuries. The State of Vatican City is recognized by many nations as an independent sovereign state under the temporal jurisdiction of the Pope. By 1984, 108 countries had established diplomatic relations with the Holy See, most of which are not Roman Catholic. Third World countries comprise a large proportion of countries that have recently established relations with the Holy See. The US re-established relations with the Vatican in 1984 and there is frequent contact and consultation between the 2 states on key international issues.

  16. Expanding cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Lasse

    A number of cities in Africa experience very rapid spatial growth without the benefit of a systematic process of planning and implementation of planning decisions. This process has challenged the road and transport system, created high levels of congestion, and hampered mobility and accessibility...... to both central and new peripheral areas. This paper reports on studies carried out in Accra and Dar es Salaam to address and link 1) mobility practices of residents, 2) local strategies for ‘post-settlement’ network extension, and 3) the city-wide performance of the transport system. The studies draw...... in advance. However, such solutions are often impeded by costly and cumbersome land-acquisition processes, and because of the reactive and often piecemeal approach to infrastructure extensions, the development will often be more costly. Moreover, the lack of compliance to a city-wide development plan...

  17. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    of providing a tangible correspondence between the two spaces. This interaction mean has proved to suit the artistic expression well but it also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from speech activity, a new medium for creativity and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance......The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property...

  18. Vacant city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Marzot

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abandoned places that the crisis has multiplied, unaware wrecks of a project of civilization that has consumed its thrust and life-giving function, are waiting for new desirable interpretations, they are an expression of a possible city in opposition to the existing, even if  not recognized by any instrument. It is the Vacant city, magmatic, formless, pervasive and widespread, marginal and interstitial. Its spaces express, in their programmatic essence, those conditions of re-colonization of the territory intended to minimum investment  of financial capital and maximum return in terms of social value as a result of a transformation. 

  19. City 2020+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  20. FUN CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    down the consquences of these developments, to elocidate the interplay between funscapes and fear culture, and to account for the meaning of new concepts and new phenomena such as "event culture", "urban scenography", "experience economy","city branding" and "cultural planning"....

  1. Fun City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    down the consquences of these developments, to elocidate the interplay between funscapes and fear culture, and to account for the meaning of new concepts and new phenomena such as "event culture", "urban scenography", "experience economy","city branding" and "cultural planning"....

  2. City Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Stigel, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    with their relatively concrete dimensions are absent when the main question is one of values. Furthermore, when  the relatively straightforward identification and power structures of corporations and consumers are replaced by the more diversified structures of city government, their poplulations, and potential visitors...

  3. Excite City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper takes its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun and cult......This paper takes its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun...... and cultural experience are emerging. The physical, cultural and democratic consequences of this development are discussed in the paper, which concludes with a presentation of a new field of research that highlights the problems and the new opportunities with which "the experience city" is faced. Special...... attention is put on a new research project called "Experience City - hybrid cultural projects and performative urban spaces". The thesis and research themes are presented and related to the general framework of present cultural planning and post industrial urban transformation....

  4. Vacant city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marzot, N.

    2013-01-01

    Abandoned places that the crisis has multiplied, unaware wrecks of a project of civilization that has consumed its thrust and life-giving function, are waiting for new desirable interpretations, they are an expression of a possible city in opposition to the existing, even if not recognized by any

  5. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003......), urban design competitions are understudied mechanisms for bringing about field level changes. Drawing on actor network theory, this paper examines how urban design competitions may bring about changes within the professional field through the use of intermediaries such as a sustainable planning....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  6. Sharing City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This magazine offers an insight into the growing commercial innovation, civic movements, and political narratives surrounding sharing economy services, solutions and organisational types. It presents a cross-section of the manifold sharing economy services and solutions that can be found in Denmark....... Solutions of sharing that seeks to improve our cities and local communities in both urban and rural environments. 24 sharing economy organisations and businesses addressing urban and rural issues are being portrayed and seven Danish municipalities that have explored the potentials of sharing economy....... Moreover, 15 thought leading experts - professionals and academic - have been invited to give their perspective on sharing economy for cities. This magazine touches upon aspects of the sharing economy as mobility, communities, sustainability, business development, mobility, and urban-rural relation....

  7. Modeling Green Infrastructure Land Use Changes on Future Air Quality—Case Study in Kansas City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Bash, J. O.; Roselle, S. J.; Gilliland, A. B.; Shatas, A.; DeYoung, R.; Piziali, J.

    2016-12-01

    Green infrastructure can be a cost-effective approach for reducing stormwater runoff and improving water quality as a result, but it could also bring co-benefits for air quality: less impervious surfaces and more vegetation can decrease the urban heat island effect, and also result in more removal of air pollutants via dry deposition with increased vegetative surfaces. Cooler surface temperatures can also decrease ozone formation through the increases of NOx titration; however, cooler surface temperatures also lower the height of the boundary layer resulting in more concentrated pollutants within the same volume of air, especially for primary emitted pollutants (e.g. NOx, CO, primary particulate matter). To better understand how green infrastructure impacts air quality, the interactions between all of these processes must be considered collectively. In this study, we use a comprehensive coupled meteorology-air quality model (WRF-CMAQ) to simulate the influence of planned land use changes that include green infrastructure in Kansas City (KC) on regional meteorology and air quality. Current and future land use data was provided by the Mid-America Regional Council for 2012 and 2040 (projected land use due to population growth, city planning and green infrastructure implementation). We found that the average 2-meter temperatures (T2) during summer (June, July and August) are projected to slightly decrease over the downtown of KC and slightly increase over the newly developed regions surrounding the urban core. The planetary boundary layer (PBL) height changes are consistent with the T2 changes: the PBL height is somewhat lowered over the downtown and raised over the newly developed areas. We also saw relatively small decreases in O3 in the downtown area for the mean of all hours as well as for the maximum 8 hour average (MDA8), corresponding with the changes in T2 and PBL height. However, we also found relatively small PM2.5 concentration increases over KC, especially

  8. Solar cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roaf, S.; Fuentes, M.; Gupta, R.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decade, climate change has moved from being the concern of few to a widely recognized threat to humanity itself and the natural environment. The 1990s were the warmest decade on record, and ever-increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/), could, if left unchecked lead to serious consequences globally, including increased risks of droughts, floods and storms, disruption to agriculture, rising sea levels and the spread of disease. The contribution of anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide has been recognized as the principal cause of the atmospheric changes that drive these climate trends. Globally, buildings are the largest source of indirect carbon emissions. In 2000, the UK Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution estimated that in order to stabilise carbon emissions at levels, which avoid catastrophic alterations in the climate, we would have to reduce emissions from the built environment by at least 60% by 2050 and 80% by 2100 relative to 1997 levels. Studies of the Oxford Ecohouse have demonstrated that it is not difficult to reduce carbon emissions from houses by 60% or more through energy efficiency measures, but it is only possible to reach the 90% level of reductions required by using renewable energy technologies. Solar energy technologies have been the most successfully applied of all renewable to date largely because they are the only systems that can be incorporated easily into the urban fabric. In addition, the short fossil fuel horizons that are predicted (c. 40 years left for oil and 65 years for gas) will drive the markets for solar technologies. For these reasons, the cities of the future will be powered by solar energy, to a greater or lesser extent, depending on the city form and location. In recognition of the need to move rapidly towards a renewable energy future, a group of international cities, including Oxford, have started the Solar City Network. In this paper we outline the

  9. [Commercial sexual exploitation of children: Meanings and practices of people who work and reside in downtown Medellin (Colombia), 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossa-Estrada, Diego Alejandro; Muñoz-Echeverri, Iván Felipe

    2017-01-01

    The commercial sexual exploitation of children is a public health problem and a serious violation of the rights of children and adolescents. The response to this problem has been affected by the meanings and practices of the actors involved. In order to contribute to a better understanding of the problem, a qualitative social study using a grounded theory approach was carried out between 2014 and 2015. The aim was to understand the meanings and practices regarding this issue of people who spend time in an area of the city center with a high presence of commercial sexual exploitation of children and adolescents. The techniques used were participant observation and semi-structured interviews. We found that the predominate conceptions lead to practices that aggravate and perpetuate rights violations. Although practices of protection towards victims were identified, these were limited to critical aspects of the context. Actions to eradicate commercial sexual exploitation should work with the community and the meanings within the community regarding sexual exploitation so as to potentiate the victim protection practices carried out and reduce barriers to such practices.

  10. Three Cases of West Nile Encephalitis over an Eight-Day Period at a Downtown Los Angeles Community Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Puchalski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction in New York City in 1999, the virus has spread throughout the entire North American continent and continues to spread into Central and Latin America. Our report discusses the signs and symptoms, diagnostics, and treatment of West Nile disease. It is important to recognize the disease quickly and initiate appropriate treatment. We present three cases of West Nile encephalitis at White Memorial Medical Center in East Los Angeles that occurred over the span of eight days. All three patients live within four to six miles from the hospital and do not live or work in an environment favorable to mosquitoes including shallow bodies of standing water, abandoned tires, or mud ruts. All the patients were Hispanic. Physicians and other health care providers should consider West Nile infection in the differential diagnosis of causes of aseptic meningitis and encephalitis, obtain appropriate laboratory studies, and promptly report cases to public health authorities. State governments should establish abatement programs that will eliminate sources that allow for mosquito reproduction and harboring. The public needs to be given resources that educate them on what entails the disease caused by the West Nile virus, what the symptoms are, and, most importantly, what they can do to prevent themselves from becoming infected.

  11. Analysis of the division of the urban-rural ecotone in the city of Zhuhai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Nan; Zhou, Sulong; Guo, Luo

    2018-02-01

    In this study, a high-resolution remote sensing image of downtown Zhuhai (2010) was used to analyze the division of the urban-rural ecotone. Based on the information entropy theory, the study analyzed the characteristics of the ecotone’s land use and entropy value distribution, the break entropy values of the inner and outer boundary, as determined by mutation detection, were 0.51 and 0.46, respectively, providing a range for the rough classification of the rural-urban ecotone. The results showed that the boundaries of the ecotone were dynamic and the landscape turbulence of the urban fringe in the section between rural and urban areas was greater than that of the core area and imagery area of Zhuhai city. We concluded that this study provided technical support for urban planning and administration in the city of Zhuhai.

  12. Welcoming Diversity? Symbolic Boundaries and the Politics of Normativity in Kansas City's LGBTQ Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Using document analysis and ethnographic field work, this article examines the debate within the LGBTQ community of Kansas City over the decision to hold its Pride festival in the Power and Light District (P&L), a renewed downtown area with a controversial dress code. Despite the developers' and city's goals of creating a cosmopolitan urban space that welcomed diverse populations, the P&L acquired a reputation as an anti-Black, anti-queer space due to its dress code and redevelopment history. I argue that the debate surrounding this controversy reveals limits to notions of diversity and diverging approaches to sexual politics within the LGBTQ community that are normally obscured by political actors within the movement but that work to create symbolic boundaries that exclude "non-respectable" members of the LGBTQ population. Recovering queer perspectives allows us to imagine a more capacious definition of diversity and inclusion, both within the LGBTQ movement and in urban space.

  13. Migration to the Downtown Eastside neighbourhood of Vancouver and changes in service use in a cohort of mentally ill homeless adults: a 10-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Julian M; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Rezansoff, Stefanie N

    2016-01-06

    Little research has investigated the role of migration as a potential contributor to the spatial concentration of homeless people with complex health and social needs. In addition, little is known concerning the relationship between possible migration and changes in levels of service use over time. We hypothesised that homeless, mentally ill individuals living in a concentrated urban setting had migrated from elsewhere over a 10-year period, in association with significant increases in the use of public services. Recruitment was concentrated in the Downtown Eastside neighbourhood of Vancouver, Canada. Participants (n=433) met criteria for chronic homelessness and serious mental illness, and provided consent to access administrative data. Linked administrative data were used to retrospectively examine geographic relocation as well as rates of health, justice, and social welfare service utilisation in each of the 10 years prior to recruitment. Generalised estimating equations were used to estimate the effect of migration on service use. Over a 10-year period there was significant movement into Vancouver's Downtown Eastside neighbourhood (from 17% to 52% of the cohort). During the same period, there were significant annual increases in community medical services (adjusted rate ratio (ARR) per year=1.08; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.10), hospital admissions (ARR=1.08; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.11), criminal convictions (ARR=1.08; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.13), and financial assistance payments (ARR=1.04; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.06). Migration was significantly associated with financial assistance, but not with other types of services. Significant increases in service use over a 10-year period coincided with significant migration into an urban area where relevant services were concentrated. These results highlight opportunities for early intervention in spatially diverse neighbourhoods to interrupt trajectories marked by worsening health and extremely high service involvement. Further research is urgently

  14. An exploration of the attitudinal and perceptual dimensions of body image among male and female adolescents from six Latin American cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Laura H; Holbert, Donald; Peña, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Using survey methodology, this exploratory study examined the attitudinal and perceptual dimensions of body image among 1,272 eighth- and ninth-grade males and females from higher and lower socioeconomic backgrounds in Buenos Aires, Argentina (n = 195), Guatemala City, Guatemala (n = 212), Havana, Cuba (n = 213), Lima, Peru (n = 218), Panama City, Panama (n = 195), and Santiago, Chile (n = 239). The two dimensions of body image were assessed by showing the participants nine male and nine female silhouettes depicting body sizes ranging from extremely thin (#1) to extremely obese (#9). Approximately 50% of the male and female adolescents chose silhouette #3 as best depicting the attractive male body. Silhouette #2 was chosen by 45% of the females as best depicting feminine attractiveness, while 45% of the males chose silhouette #3. When identifying the silhouette that best depicted the healthy male body, 26% of the participants chose silhouette #2, 41% chose #3, and 19% chose #4. Silhouette #2 was selected by 33% of the adolescents as best depicting the healthy female body, 38% chose #3, and 14% chose #4. In all cities, the effect of body mass index (BMI) on body satisfaction was highly significant (p cities, a significantly higher (p < 0.05) percentage of females than males desired to be thinner, the exception being Havana, where the distribution of desired change in body size was almost identical for males and females. Findings suggest a need for culturally sensitive, age- and gender-specific preventive interventions focusing on the importance of achieving a healthy weight during adolescence to promote body size acceptance among adolescents who are at a healthy weight.

  15. Whose city?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Die Stadt als Beute. But where most of these films follow the money and dissect the power relations in today’s urban planning, Whose city? instead moves back in time to the almost forgotten, but defining architectural disputes of the 1990s. With the fall of the Berlin Wall and the rest of the Iron...... the fundamental question was no longer asked: Who are we building for? The film represents a meditative journey through Berlin, from Potsdamer Platz in the West to Alexanderplatz in the East, and from the male-dominated conservative urban planning of the early 1990s to the more open-minded, women-led urban...

  16. Heat and Humidity in the City: Neighborhood Heat Index Variability in a Mid-Sized City in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Alisa L; Ellis, Kelsey N; Reyes Mason, Lisa; Hathaway, Jon M; Howe, David A

    2016-01-11

    Daily weather conditions for an entire city are usually represented by a single weather station, often located at a nearby airport. This resolution of atmospheric data fails to recognize the microscale climatic variability associated with land use decisions across and within urban neighborhoods. This study uses heat index, a measure of the combined effects of temperature and humidity, to assess the variability of heat exposure from ten weather stations across four urban neighborhoods and two control locations (downtown and in a nearby nature center) in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. Results suggest that trees may negate a portion of excess urban heat, but are also associated with greater humidity. As a result, the heat index of locations with more trees is significantly higher than downtown and areas with fewer trees. Trees may also reduce heat stress by shading individuals from incoming radiation, though this is not considered in this study. Greater amounts of impervious surfaces correspond with reduced evapotranspiration and greater runoff, in terms of overall mass balance, leading to a higher temperature, but lower relative humidity. Heat index and relative humidity were found to significantly vary between locations with different tree cover and neighborhood characteristics for the full study time period as well as for the top 10% of heat index days. This work demonstrates the need for high-resolution climate data and the use of additional measures beyond temperature to understand urban neighborhood exposure to extreme heat, and expresses the importance of considering vulnerability differences among residents when analyzing neighborhood-scale impacts.

  17. Los diálogos de la habana y las perspectivas de una paz duradera en Colombia (Talks with havana and the perspectives of a lasting peace in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oto Higuita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Este artículo de investigación, presenta rutas de análisis histórico en torno a los alcances y falencias que dejaron los diálogos de Paz en Colombia entre las Frac-Ep y el Gobierno Nacional durante el siglo XX, el papel que han jugado los medios de comunicación en dichos procesos y una descripción analítica de los discursos de Oslo y la Habana, que dan inicio al actual proceso de Negociación en la Habana; se resalta el profundo alcance que este proceso de negociaciones marca en la última década en Colombia, en lo que concierne a la posible terminación del conflicto armado y la construcción de una paz estable y duradera. ABSTRACT This research article presents routes of historical analysis over the scope and shortcomings left by the talks of peace in Colombia between FARC-EP and the National government during the twentieth century, as well as the role played by the mass media in those processes and an analytical description of the discourses in Oslo and Havana, initiating the current process of negotiations at Havana; the deep scope of this process of negotiations marks in the last decade in Colombia, is highlighted with regard to the possible termination of the armed conflict and the construction of a stable and lasting peace.

  18. DISEÑO DEL PROCESO DE IMPLEMENTACIÓN DE SOFTWARE EN DESOFT HABANA / DESIGN OF THE SOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS AT DESOFT HAVANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Isasi-Genix

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En Cuba, el proceso de Informatización de la Sociedad ha propiciado el aumento del uso de herramientas informáticas, dirigidas a la gestión de dirección en los órganos de gobierno, la administración y las empresas. La empresa DESOFT desempeña un rol protagónico en tal sentido, implementando varios productos de la cartera de la empresa en clientes de todos los municipios del país, lo que hace del servicio de implementación, uno de los más importantes para dicha entidad. Actualmente, la división DESOFT Habana cuenta con una metodología de implementación de herramientas informáticas; sin embargo, el servicio no se gestiona de forma eficiente, por lo que es necesario diseñar el proceso de implementación adaptado a las condiciones reales de los proyectos en la provincia. Se utilizó el enfoque a procesos, para realizar el diseño, lo que permite brindar un servicio de excelencia y garantizar la calidad de los procesos. In Cuba, the process of computerization of the society has led to increasing the use of software tools aimed at the management of direction in the government´s bodies, administration and businesses. DESOFT company plays a leading role in this regard, implementing several products of the company's portfolio on clients of all country´s municipalities, which turns the implementation service into one of the most important for this entity. Nowadays, the Havana DESOFT division has a methodology for the implementation of software tools; however, the service is not efficiently managed, so it is necessary to design the implementation process adapted to the actual conditions of the projects in the province. For the design, it was used the process approach, which allows to provide an excellence service and to ensure the quality of the processes.

  19. Personal exposure to particulate matter in commuters using different transport modes (bus, bicycle, car and subway) in an assigned route in downtown Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Liliana; Mesías, Stephanie; Iglesias, Verónica; Silva, Claudio; Cáceres, Dante D; Ruiz-Rudolph, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare personal exposure to particulate matter (fine and ultrafine particles) in commuters using different transport modes (bicycle, bus, car and subway) in a busy, assigned route in downtown Santiago, Chile. Volunteers carrying personal samplers completed scheduled commutes during the morning rush hours, while central site measurements were conducted in parallel. A total of 137 valid commutes were assessed. The impact of central site, traffic and other variables was explored with regression models. PM2.5 personal concentrations were equal to or slightly above central site measurements, while UFP personal concentrations were above them. Regression models showed impacts of both background levels and traffic emissions on personal PM2.5 and UFP exposure. Traffic impacts varied with transport modes. Estimates of traffic impacts on personal PM2.5 exposure were 2.0, 13.0, 16.9 and 17.5 μg m(-3), for car, bicycle, subway and bus, respectively; while for UFP exposure were 8400, 16 200, 25 600 and 30 100 counts per cm(3), for subway, car, bicycle and bus, respectively. After controlling the central site and transport mode, higher temperatures increased PM2.5 exposure and decreased UFP ones, while the wind direction affected UFP personal exposure. In conclusion, we found significant impacts of both central site background measurements and traffic emissions on personal exposure of volunteer commuters in an assigned route in Santiago, with impacts varying with transport modes.

  20. District heating and cooling systems for communities through power-plant retrofit and distribution network. Volume 2. Tasks 1-3. Final report. [Downtown Toledo steam system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watt, J.R.; Sommerfield, G.A.

    1979-08-01

    Each of the tasks is described separately: Task 1 - Demonstration Team; Task 2 - Identify Thermal Energy Source(s) and Potential Service Area(s); and Task 3 - Energy Market Analysis. The purpose of the project is to establish and implement measures in the downtown Toledo steam system for conserving scarce fuel supplies through cogeneration, by retrofit of existing base- or intermediate-loaded electric-generating plants to provide for central heating and cooling systems, with the ultimate purpose of applying the results to other communities. For Task 1, Toledo Edison Company has organized a Demonstration Team (Battelle Columbus Laboratories; Stone and Webster; Ohio Dept. of Energy; Public Utilities Commission of Ohio; Toledo Metropolitan Area Council of Governments; and Toledo Edison) that it hopes has the expertise to evaluate the technical, legal, economic, and marketing issues related to the utilization of by-product heat from power generation to supply district heating and cooling services. Task 2 gives a complete technical description of the candidate plant(s), its thermodynamic cycle, role in load dispatch, ownership, and location. It is concluded that the Toledo steam distribution system can be the starting point for developing a new district-heating system to serve an expanding market. Battelle is a member of the team employed as a subcontractor to complete the energy market analysis. The work is summarized in Task 3. (MCW)

  1. Experiences of Trans Women and Two-Spirit Persons Accessing Women-Specific Health and Housing Services in a Downtown Neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Tara; Krüsi, Andrea; Pierre, Leslie; Smith, Adrienne; Small, Will; Shannon, Kate

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about trans womens' experiences accessing gender-segregated health and housing services, particularly services for marginalized individuals living in poverty. As such, we conducted a qualitative investigation into experiences of accessing women-specific health and housing services among trans women and two-spirit persons in a downtown neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada. Between June 2012 and May 2013 interviews were conducted with 32 trans women and two-spirit individuals who had accessed women-specific health and/or housing services. Participants were recruited from four open prospective cohorts of sex workers and individuals who use drugs. Interview data were analyzed using a participatory analysis approach with two participants who were hired as research assistants. Participants were generally able to access women-specific services in the neighborhood. However, there were reports of discrimination related to gender identity, discrimination based on gender expression (e.g., requirement of a feminine gender expression), and lack of staff intervention in harassment from other service users. Trans women and two-spirit persons in our study relied upon services for their health and safety and, therefore, exclusion from women-specific services had potentially severe adverse consequences such as homelessness and sexual violence. Recommendations to improve accessibility, including policy development and procedural recommendations, are put forth.

  2. Spatial and temporal disaggregation of the on-road vehicle emission inventory in a medium-sized Andean city. Comparison of GIS-based top-down methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, C. D.; González, C. M.; Osses, M.; Aristizábal, B. H.

    2018-04-01

    Emission data is an essential tool for understanding environmental problems associated with sources and dynamics of air pollutants in urban environments, especially those emitted from vehicular sources. There is a lack of knowledge about the estimation of air pollutant emissions and particularly its spatial and temporal distribution in South America, mainly in medium-sized cities with population less than one million inhabitants. This work performed the spatial and temporal disaggregation of the on-road vehicle emission inventory (EI) in the medium-sized Andean city of Manizales, Colombia, with a spatial resolution of 1 km × 1 km and a temporal resolution of 1 h. A reported top-down methodology, based on the analysis of traffic flow levels and road network distribution, was applied. Results obtained allowed the identification of several hotspots of emission at the downtown zone and the residential and commercial area of Manizales. Downtown exhibited the highest percentage contribution of emissions normalized by its total area, with values equal to 6% and 5% of total CO and PM10 emissions per km2 respectively. These indexes were higher than those obtained in residential-commercial area with values of 2%/km2 for both pollutants. Temporal distribution showed strong relationship with driving patterns at rush hours, as well as an important influence of passenger cars and motorcycles in emissions of CO both at downtown and residential-commercial areas, and the impact of public transport in PM10 emissions in the residential-commercial zone. Considering that detailed information about traffic counts and road network distribution is not always available in medium-sized cities, this work compares other simplified top-down methods for spatially assessing the on-road vehicle EI. Results suggested that simplified methods could underestimate the spatial allocation of downtown emissions, a zone dominated by high traffic of vehicles. The comparison between simplified methods

  3. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  4. Branding Cities, Changing Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City...... brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city...... branding campaign does not just present the city, it may change the city. The relationships between the branding exercise and the city are intertwined in the evolution of the place....

  5. Branding Cities, Changing Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city......Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City...... branding campaign does not just present the city, it may change the city. The relationships between the branding exercise and the city are intertwined in the evolution of the place....

  6. Smart City project

    KAUST Repository

    Al Harbi, Ayman

    2018-01-24

    A \\'smart city\\' is an urban region that is highly advanced in terms of overall infrastructure, sustainable real estate, communications and market viability. It is a city where information technology is the principal infrastructure and the basis for providing essential services to residents. Yanbu Industrial City- Smart City Project - First large scale smart city in The kingdom.

  7. Managing Traffic Flows for Cleaner Cities: The Role of Green Navigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiamma Perez-Prada

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cities worldwide suffer from serious air pollution problems and are main contributors to climate change. Green Navigation systems have a great potential to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions from traffic. This research evaluates the impacts of different percentages of green drivers on traffic, CO2, and NOx over the entire Madrid Region. A macroscopic traffic model was combined with an enhanced macroscopic emissions model and a GIS (Geographic Information Systems to simulate emissions on the basis of average vehicle speeds and traffic intensity at the link level. NOx emissions are evaluated, taking into account not only the exhaust emissions produced by transport activity, but also the amount of the population exposed to these air pollutants. Results show up to 10.4% CO2 and 13.8% NOx reductions in congested traffic conditions for a 90% penetration of green drivers; however, the population’s exposure to NOx increases up to 20.2%. Moreover, while traffic volumes decrease by 13.5% for the entire region, they increase by up to 16.4% downtown. Travel times also increase by 28.7%. Since green drivers tend to choose shorter routes through downtown areas, eco-routing systems are an effective tool for fighting climate change, but are ineffective to reduce air pollution in dense urban areas.

  8. City Revenues and Expenses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — City Revenues and Expenses from the Operating Budget from 2012 to Present, updated every night from the City's JD Edwards ledger.

  9. Pittsburgh City Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Pittsburgh City FacilitiesIncludes: City Administrative Buildings, Police Stations, Fire Stations, EMS Stations, DPW Sites, Senior Centers, Recreation Centers, Pool...

  10. Corpos e prazeres nos circuitos de homossociabilidade masculina do Centro do Rio de Janeiro Bodies and pleasures in male homosocial circuits of Downtown Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Rios

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta resultados de pesquisa etnográfica sobre as bases culturais que orientam a formação de eventos corporais, em especial os relacionados ao sexo-erotismo, no circuito de homossociabilidade do Centro do Rio de Janeiro. A coleta de dados envolveu a realização de observações participantes, entrevistas com enfoque biográfico e pesquisa-intervenção entre integrantes do circuito mencionado. O principal argumento apresentado neste texto é que os diferentes eventos corporais da comunidade investigada se alicerçam em uma mesma estrutura conceptual, que foca numa transgressão ao "corpo-carne", nos moldes da filosofia de São Paulo. Uma exaltação do 'tesão', o prazer erótico proibido, que só deveria ser "utilizado" para fins reprodutivos. 'Carne' que, em vez de sublimada, é exaltada; constantemente insuflada e encantada por acréscimos de mais 'tesão'.This paper presents the results of an ethnographic research investigating the cultural bases that guide the construction of corporeal events, especially those related to sex/eroticism, in the homosocial circuits of downtown Rio de Janeiro. Data were gathered by means of biographic narrative interviews, direct observations and research-interventions. The main argument presented in this paper is that the diverse corporeal events in the studied community are based on the same conceptual structure that focuses on transgression of the "body/flesh" in the sense of St. Paul's concept: an exaltation of forbidden 'tesão', erotic pleasure only admissible for the purpose of reproduction. 'Flesh' instead of sublimated being exalted, constantly inspired and attracted to more and more erotic pleasure.

  11. Impact of trash burning on air quality in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodzic, A; Wiedinmyer, C; Salcedo, D; Jimenez, J L

    2012-05-01

    Air pollution experienced by expanding urban areas is responsible for serious health effects and death for millions of people every year. Trash burning is a common disposal method in poor areas, yet it is uncontrolled in many countries, and its contribution to air pollution is unclear due to uncertainties in its emissions. Here we develop a new trash burning emission inventory for Mexico City based on inverse socioeconomic levels and recently measured emission factors, and apply a chemistry-transport model to analyze the effects on pollutant concentrations. Trash burning is estimated to emit 25 tons of primary organic aerosols (POA) per day, which is comparable to fossil fuel POA emissions in Mexico City, and causes an increase in average organic aerosol concentrations of ∼0.3 μg m(-3) downtown and up to 2 μg m(-3) in highly populated suburbs near the sources of emission. An evaluation using submicrometer antimony suggests that our emission estimates are reasonable. Mitigation of trash burning could reduce the levels of organic aerosols by 2-40% and those of PM(2.5) by 1-15% over the metropolitan area. The trash burning contributions to carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organic compounds were found to be very small (organic aerosols are also very small. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  12. Retardo en el neurodesarrollo en niños de la Habana Vieja Retardation in the neurodevelopment of children in Old Havana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Moreno Mora

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: evaluar un programa dirigido a los niños con retardo del neurodesarrollo. MÉTODOS: estudio retrospectivo analítico de casos y controles, de la consulta de neurodesarrollo de La Habana Vieja. El universo y muestra estuvo constituido por 170 pacientes con retardo del neurodesarrollo entre los años 2000 y 2006. Se seleccionó aleatoriamente un grupo estudio constituido por 52 niños bajo peso con retraso del desarrollo sicomotor, y un grupo control formado por 118 niños normopesos con retraso del desarrollo sicomotor. Fueron evaluados por un equipo interdisciplinario, y se les realizó seguimiento trimestral, aplicándoles estimulación integral, fisiátrica, sicomotora, logopédica y en el hogar. Se aplicaron programas de estimulación como Isidoro Candell, Bobath y Vojta. RESULTADOS: el grupo estudio presentó el menor por ciento de nivel escolar medio superior (42,31 % y el mayor por ciento de lactancia materna no exclusiva (20,08 %. Además, presentó hipertonía (10,91 %, trastornos de conducta (10,91 % y epilepsia-Down (3,64 %. La evaluación motora presentó en el grupo estudio en la categoría normal, un ascenso a un 59 %. El grupo estudio presentó el mayor por ciento de evolución agravada (12 % y el grupo control presentó un mayor por ciento de evolución favorable (39 %. CONCLUSIONES: la esfera motora presentó una respuesta más positiva que la esfera mental, y la evolución agravada se relacionó con los niños bajo peso con retardo del desarrollo sicomotor, aunque en general la evolución de los niños estimulados en nuestro programa presentó tendencia a la evolución favorable y superada.OBJECTIVE: to evaluate a program directed to children with neurodevelopment retardation. METHODS: a retrospective analytical case-control study was conducted at the neurodevelopment department of Old Havana. The universe and the sample were composed of 170 patients with neurodevelopment retardation from 2000 to 2006. A study group

  13. Factores de riesgo de la infección por Giardia lamblia en niños de guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba Risk factors for Giardia lamblia in children in daycare centers in Havana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidel Ángel Núñez

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available En un estudio longitudinal sobre giardiasis desarrollado durante 18 meses en tres guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, describimos un grupo de niños con tendencia o "predisposición" a la infección por Giardia lamblia; a los que se les encontró con síntomas clínicos más asociados a las diarreas. Este estudio de casos y controles se desarrolló para conocer si algunos factores socioeconómicos y hábitos higiénicos estaban asociados con este fenómeno. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en las tasas de hacinamiento, el índice de personas por cama, en la carencia de determinados equipos eléctricos, en el nivel escolar de las madres, y en el promedio del ingreso familiar; sin embargo, predominó una frecuencia mayor de padres con nivel escolar menor de 12 grado en los casos que en los controles. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en cuanto a la ausencia de lavado de manos antes de comer y después de defecar, pero se encontró un mayor porcentaje de lavado incorrecto de vegetales, y una menor frecuencia del hábito de hervir el agua de consumo en las familias de los casos. Estos resultados demuestran el papel del agua como vehículo de transmisión en la giardiasis y la importancia de algunos factores epidemiológicos.We conducted a longitudinal study on giardiasis in three daycare centers in Havana City for a period of 18 months and described a group of children with a "predisposition" or tendency towards re-infection with Giardia lamblia. This group was found to be more frequently associated with clinical symptoms such as diarrhea. A case-control study was designed to determine whether socioeconomic factors and hygiene were associated with this phenomenon. We found no differences between the groups with regard to overcrowding rates, number of persons per bed, absence of certain electric appliances, mother's schooling, or mean family income. However, there were proportionally more fathers with less

  14. Water changed the cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    An improvement in water infrastructure and cleaning up the waters changed many harbour cities in Denmark at the beginning of the 90s. The harbour cities changed from drity, run-down industrial harbours to clean and attractive harbour dwelling creating new city centres and vital city areas...

  15. An Attack on Duffer's Downtown

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glenn, Russell

    2001-01-01

    This recalling of an extended series of dreams will, if successful, serve to foment thoughts regarding what is, what could be, and what should be when a nation's soldiers and marines are once again...

  16. Portraits of Urban Transformation: the use of photography as visual record of the “before” and “after” of the law Cidade Limpa in the city of Londrina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Grosse Bressan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This work demonstrates the importance of the photographic registers for the documentation of the urban transformations and preservation of the memory. The object of study is the city of Londrina (Paraná State and the time periods cover its downtown before and after the Municipal Law nº 10.966, sanctioned by the mayor of the city on August 2, 2010. The law became known as “Cidade Limpa” (Clean City and regulates the use of outdoor advertising and shopfronts, factories, stores and service firms, including the medical field. Shopkeepers and merchants had 180 days to adapt their advertisings to the new law, which promised to transform the urban landscape and give back to the citizens the vision of the historical architecture fronts of the city. The work uses theoretical references of photography and memory; it also registers moments from Londrina’s downtown in the period of changes and brings interviews with characters who lived the changes because of their presence in locations that passed through transformations.

  17. Determinants of single family residential water use across scales in four western US cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Heejun; Bonnette, Matthew Ryan; Stoker, Philip; Crow-Miller, Britt; Wentz, Elizabeth

    2017-10-15

    A growing body of literature examines urban water sustainability with increasing evidence that locally-based physical and social spatial interactions contribute to water use. These studies however are based on single-city analysis and often fail to consider whether these interactions occur more generally. We examine a multi-city comparison using a common set of spatially-explicit water, socioeconomic, and biophysical data. We investigate the relative importance of variables for explaining the variations of single family residential (SFR) water uses at Census Block Group (CBG) and Census Tract (CT) scales in four representative western US cities - Austin, Phoenix, Portland, and Salt Lake City, - which cover a wide range of climate and development density. We used both ordinary least squares regression and spatial error regression models to identify the influence of spatial dependence on water use patterns. Our results show that older downtown areas show lower water use than newer suburban areas in all four cities. Tax assessed value and building age are the main determinants of SFR water use across the four cities regardless of the scale. Impervious surface area becomes an important variable for summer water use in all cities, and it is important in all seasons for arid environments such as Phoenix. CT level analysis shows better model predictability than CBG analysis. In all cities, seasons, and spatial scales, spatial error regression models better explain the variations of SFR water use. Such a spatially-varying relationship of urban water consumption provides additional evidence for the need to integrate urban land use planning and municipal water planning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Geothermal District Heating System City of Klamath Falls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, Paul J.; Rafferty, Kevin

    1991-12-01

    The city of Klamath Falls became interested in the possibility of a establishing geothermal district heating system for downtown government buildings in January 1977. Since that time, the project has undergone some controversial and interesting developments that may be of educational value to other communities contemplating such a project. The purpose and content of this article is to identify the historical development of the project; including the design of the system, well owner objections to the project, aquifer testing, piping failure, and future expansion and marketing incentives. The shallow geothermal reservoir in Klamath falls extends for at least 6.8 miles in a northwest-southeast direction, as shown on Figure 1, with a width of about 2 miles. More than 550 thermal wells ranging in depth from about 10 to 2,000 ft, and obtaining or contacting water from 70 to 230oF, have been drilled into the reservoir. The system is not geologically homogeneous. Great variations in horizontal permeability and many vertical discontinuities exist because of stratigraphy and structure of the area. Basalt flows, eruptive centers, fluvial and lacustrine deposits, diatomite and pyroclastic materials alternate in the rock column. Normal faults with large throw (estimated up to 1,700 ft) are spaced less than 3,300 ft apart and appear to be the main avenue of vertical movement of hot fluids. In order to more effectively utilize this resource, the city of Klamath Falls decided in 1978 to apply for a federal grant (Program Opportunity Notice to cost share field experiment projects) to construct a geothermal district heating system that would deliver geothermal fluids to areas not located on the resource. In 1977, several Geo-Heat Center staff members visited Reykjavik, Iceland, to study the design of their geothermal district heating systems. This was in part the basis for the conceptual design and feasibility study (Lund, 1979) of a downtown commercial district. The main difference

  19. Application of sol-gel based sensors to environmental monitoring of Mauméjean stained glass windows housed in two different buildings at downtown Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña-Poza, J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of historical stained glass windows is mainly caused by acid attack enhanced by humidity and pollutants. Accordingly, their preventive conservation should include environmental evaluation. Mauméjean’s stained glass windows (c 1940 of two buildings located at downtown Madrid have been monitored by sol-gel sensors of acidity and temperature. The philosophy was the application of innovative glassy sol-gel sensors to assess the conservation conditions of stained glass windows, i.e. modern materials for preservation of historical materials. Conservation conditions (environmental acidity and temperature of restored and non-restored stained glass windows have been recorded throughout 13 months. The main contributing parameter to outdoor acidity is proximity to road traffic, which produces acid species able to diminish two units of pH with respect to neutral conditions. This acid environment affects both sides of stained glass windows, even in those protected with a glazing system, which allows natural ventilation. Other contributing parameters to increase the air acidity were façade orientation, sensor position, distance to pollutants sources, human interaction and uncontrolled ventilation.La degradación de vidrieras históricas se debe fundamentalmente al ataque ácido favorecido por la humedad y los contaminantes. Por tanto, su conservación preventiva debe incluir una evaluación ambiental. Se han evaluado vidrieras de Mauméjean (c 1940 de dos edificios del centro de Madrid mediante sensores sol-gel de acidez y de temperatura. La filosofía consistió en aplicar dichos sensores basados en materiales vítreos para tasar las condiciones de conservación de vidrieras del patrimonio, es decir materiales modernos para la preservación de materiales históricos. Las condiciones de conservación (acidez ambiental y temperatura de vidrieras restauradas y no restauradas se han registrado durante 13 meses. El principal parámetro que

  20. MERCURY IN ATMOSPHERE OVER RURAL, URBAN AND INDUSTRIAL PARTS OF ZAGREB CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav A. Palinkaš

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years Zagreb city encounters severe pollution problems in aquatic, terrrestrial and atmospheric environment. A random or permanent monitoring of some inorganic gaseous pollutants in atmosphere has already been organized and published alsewhere. By means of a sophisticated mercury vapor analyser with a Zeeman effect background corrector, however, continuous registration along two traverses (monitoring routes over rural, urban and industrial parts of Zagreb has been elaborated for the first lime. Data show strong anthropogenic influence in the Žitnjak industrial area. The anomaly high 105 ngm Hg, on the 22 October moved slightly to downtown by change of wind direction on the 31 October. Intensity raised as much as 155 ngm Hg, 13 times augmented in comparison to a background value on the Medvednica mountain. Explanation should be sought in denser public traffic, change of wind direction and lowering of atmospheric pressure.

  1. Urban climate modifications in hot desert cities: The role of land cover, local climate, and seasonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarini, Michele; Molini, Annalisa; Marpu, Prashanth R.; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.; Ghedira, Hosni

    2015-11-01

    Urban climate modifications like the urban heat island (UHI) have been extensively investigated in temperate regions. In contrast, the understanding of how urbanization relates to climate in hot, hyperarid environments is still extremely limited, despite the growing socioeconomic relevance of arid lands and their fast urbanization rate. We explore here the relationship between land cover and temperature regime in hot desert cities (HDCs) based on estimates of land surface temperature, normalized difference vegetation index, and impervious surface areas inferred from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and Landsat satellite products. Our analysis shows that HDCs display common climatic patterns, with downtown areas on average cooler than suburbs during the daytime (urban cool island) and warmer at night (classical UHI). The observed diurnal cool island effect can be largely explained by relative vegetation abundance, percentage of bare soil, and local climatic conditions and calls for a more in deep investigation of the physical processes regulating boundary layer dynamics in arid regions.

  2. Smart City Services over a Future Internet Platform Based on Internet of Things and Cloud: The Smart Parking Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Lanza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing the effectiveness of city services and assisting on a more sustainable development of cities are two of the crucial drivers of the smart city concept. This paper portrays a field trial that leverages an internet of things (IoT platform intended for bringing value to existing and future smart city infrastructures. The paper highlights how IoT creates the basis permitting integration of current vertical city services into an all-encompassing system, which opens new horizons for the progress of the effectiveness and sustainability of our cities. Additionally, the paper describes a field trial on provisioning of real time data about available parking places both indoor and outdoor. The trial has been carried out at Santander’s (Spain downtown area. The trial takes advantage of both available open data sets as well as of a large-scale IoT infrastructure. The trial is a showcase on how added-value services can be created on top of the proposed architecture.

  3. City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)

  4. What Is Clean Cities?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-01

    This Clean Cities Program fact sheet describes the purpose and scope of this DOE program. Clean Cities facilitates the use of alternative and advanced fuels and vehicles to displace petroleum in the transportation sector.

  5. Cities spearhead climate action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Following President Trump's withdrawal from the Paris Agreement, cities worldwide have pledged support to combat climate change. Along with a growing coalition of businesses and institutions, cities represent a beacon of hope for carbon reduction in politically tumultuous times.

  6. City of Pittsburgh Trees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Trees cared for and managed by the City of Pittsburgh Department of Public Works Forestry Division. Tree Benefits are calculated using the National Tree Benefit...

  7. Revisiting city connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mans, U.

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces a new perspective on city connectivity in order to analyze non-hub cities and their position in the world economy. The author revisits the different approaches discussed in the Global Commodity Chains (GCC), Global Production Networks (GPN) and World City Network (WCN)

  8. Smart city analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Casper; Hansen, Christian; Alstrup, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    is very useful when full records are not accessible or available. Smart city analytics does not necessarily require full city records. To our knowledge this preliminary study is the first to predict large increases in home care for smart city analytics....

  9. Imagineering the city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, M.; Paddison, R.; Hutton, T.

    2015-01-01

    Cities today are products. The urban experience is commodified into marketable items by urban entrepreneurs. Urban administrations, city marketers, politicians, local businesses and other actors all over the world are developing entrepreneurial strategies to sell their city. From "‘I ♥ New York"’ to

  10. Doble parálisis de los elevadores y su comportamiento clínico-quirúrgico en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba Double elevador palsy and its clinical surgical behavior in the City of Havana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresita de Jesús Méndez Sánchez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir los resultados clínico-quirúrgicos de los pacientes con doble parálisis de los elevadores. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo a 16 pacientes que acudieron al servicio de oftalmología pediátrica y estrabismo del Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer", desde septiembre de 2004 hasta septiembre de 2006, en el que se analizaron las siguientes variables: etiología, motilidad ocular, ausencia de signo de Bell, ptosis o pseudoptosis palpebral, resultados de la técnica quirúrgica aplicada. La técnica utilizada fue la transposición completa de los rectos horizontales al recto superior. RESULTADOS: La etiología fue congénita en todos los pacientes. El 100 % de la muestra presentó hipotropía en posición primaria de mirada con marcada limitación de la elevación activa, tanto en aducción como abducción, con elevación del mentón y signo de Bell ausente. El 62,5 presentaba pseudoptosis y el 37,5 ptosis. Alcanzaron ortotropia 14 pacientes y dos quedaron con hipotropía menor de 15 dioptrías prismáticas. CONCLUSIONES: Se obtuvieron buenos resultados quirúrgicos en casi la totalidad de los pacientes.OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical surgical outcomes of patients with double elevator palsy. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study of 16 patients, who went to the ophthalmologic pediatric strabismus service at "Ramón Pando Ferrer" Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology from September 2004 to September 2006, was carried out based on the following variables: etiology, ocular motility, lack of Bell´s sign, palpebral pstosis or pseudoptosis, and results of the applied surgical technique. The surgical method was the complete transposition of horizontal recti to upper rectus. RESULTS: There was congenital etiology in all the patients. The whole sample presented with hypotropia in the primary position of the look, with significant restriction of active elevation both in adduction and abduction, rise of chin and lack of Bell´s sign. Pseudoptosis was seen in 62,5% of patients whereas 37,5% showed ptosis. Fourteen patients managed to reach orthotropia and only two remained with hypotropia under 15 prismatic dioptres CONCLUSIONS: Surgical results were satisfactory in most of the patients.

  11. Heat and Humidity in the City: Neighborhood Heat Index Variability in a Mid-Sized City in the Southeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa L. Hass

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Daily weather conditions for an entire city are usually represented by a single weather station, often located at a nearby airport. This resolution of atmospheric data fails to recognize the microscale climatic variability associated with land use decisions across and within urban neighborhoods. This study uses heat index, a measure of the combined effects of temperature and humidity, to assess the variability of heat exposure from ten weather stations across four urban neighborhoods and two control locations (downtown and in a nearby nature center in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. Results suggest that trees may negate a portion of excess urban heat, but are also associated with greater humidity. As a result, the heat index of locations with more trees is significantly higher than downtown and areas with fewer trees. Trees may also reduce heat stress by shading individuals from incoming radiation, though this is not considered in this study. Greater amounts of impervious surfaces correspond with reduced evapotranspiration and greater runoff, in terms of overall mass balance, leading to a higher temperature, but lower relative humidity. Heat index and relative humidity were found to significantly vary between locations with different tree cover and neighborhood characteristics for the full study time period as well as for the top 10% of heat index days. This work demonstrates the need for high-resolution climate data and the use of additional measures beyond temperature to understand urban neighborhood exposure to extreme heat, and expresses the importance of considering vulnerability differences among residents when analyzing neighborhood-scale impacts.

  12. Surface albedo measurements in Mexico City metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, T; Mar, B; Longoria, R; Ruiz Suarez, L. G [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Morales, L [Instituto de Geografia, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-04-01

    Optical and thermal properties of soils are important input data for the meteorological and photochemical modules of air quality models. As development of these models increase on spatial resolution good albedo data become more important. In this paper measurements of surface albedo of UV (295-385 nm) and visible (450-550 nm) radiation are reported for different urban and rural surfaces in the vicinity of Mexico City. It was found for the downtown zone and average albedo value of 0.05 which is in very good agreement with reported values for urban surfaces. Our albedo values measured in UV region for grey cement and green grass are of 0.10 and 0.009, respectively, and quite similar to those found at the literature of 0.11 and 0.008 for those type of surfaces. [Spanish] Las propiedades opticas y termicas de suelos son datos importantes para los modulos meteorologicos y fotoquimicos de los modelos de calidad del aire. Conforme aumenta la resolucion espacial del modelo se vuelve mas importante contar con buenos datos de albedo. En este articulo se presentan mediciones de albedo superficial de radiacion Ultravioleta (295-385 nm) y visible (450-550 nm) para diferentes superficies urbanas. Los valores medidos de albedo en la region UV para cemento gris y pasto verde son de 0.10 y 0.009, respectivamente, y son muy similares a los reportados en la literatura, 0.11 y 0.008 para este tipo de superficies.

  13. Marriage and the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gautier, Pieter; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen

    Do people move to cities because of marriage market considerations? In cities singles can meet more potential partners than in rural areas. Singles are therefore prepared to pay a premium in terms of higher housing prices. Once married, the marriage market benefits disappear while the housing...... premium remains. We extend the model of Burdett and Coles (1997) with a distinction between efficient (cities) and less efficient (non-cities) search markets. One implication of the model is that singles are more likely to move from rural areas to cities while married couples are more likely to make...

  14. Estimating Roof Solar Energy Potential in the Downtown Area Using a GPU-Accelerated Solar Radiation Model and Airborne LiDAR Data

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yan; Chen, Zuoqi; Wu, Bin; Chen, Liang; Mao, Weiqing; Zhao, Feng; Wu, Jianping; Wu, Junhan; Yu, Bailang

    2015-01-01

    Solar energy, as a clean and renewable resource is becoming increasingly important in the global context of climate change and energy crisis. Utilization of solar energy in urban areas is of great importance in urban energy planning, environmental conservation, and sustainable development. However, available spaces for solar panel installation in cities are quite limited except for building roofs. Furthermore, complex urban 3D morphology greatly affects sunlit patterns on building roofs, espe...

  15. Detection of Urban-Induced Rainfall Anomalies in a Major Coastal City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; Burian, Steven J.

    2002-01-01

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) are caused by the heat-retaining properties of surfaces usually found in urban cities like asphalt and concrete. The UHI can typically be observed on the evening TV weather map as warmer temperatures over the downtown of major cities and cooler temperatures in the suburbs and surrounding rural areas. The UHI has now become a widely acknowledged, observed, and researched phenomenon because of its broad environmental and societal implications. Interest in the UHI will intensify in the future as existing urban areas expand and rural areas urbanize. By the year 2025, more than 60% of the world s population will live in cities, with higher percentages expected in developed nations. The urban growth rate in the United States, for example, is estimated to be 12.5%, and the recent 2000 Census found that more than 80% of the population currently lives in urban areas. Furthermore, the U.S. population is not only growing but is tending to concentrate more in urban areas within the environmentally sensitive coastal zones. Urban growth creates unique and often contentious issues for policymakers related to land use zoning, transportation planning, agricultural production, housing and development, pollution, and natural resources protection. Urban expansion and its associated TJHIs also have measurable impacts on weather and climate processes. The UHI has been documented to affect local and regional temperature, wind patterns, and air quality

  16. Algunos datos estadísticos de la Facultad de Farmacia en la Real Universidad de La Habana: Período 1880-1898 Some statistical data on the Pharmacy Faculty from the Havana Real University (1880-1898

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Marchante Castellanos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Los cambios introducidos en los planes de estudio de la Facultad de Farmacia en la Real Universidad de La Habana y sus cuadros docentes en el período 1880-1898 fueron ya descritos en trabajos anteriores. En el presente artículo se presentan los requisitos de ingreso, las cifras de matrícula oficial y privada, los resultados docentes por asignatura, el total de graduados por curso, las tarifas que se fijaron para diversos derechos universitarios, así como otros aspectos de interés relacionados con la vida académica en esa Facultad desde que se comenzó a aplicar el plan de 1880 hasta que finalizó la soberanía española en Cuba en 1898.Changes made in study plans from Pharmacy Faculty in Havana Real University and their teaching staff over 1880-1898 were already described in prior papers. In present article are included the entry requirements, figures of the official and private registration, teaching results by subject, total graduates by course, charges fixed for diverse university rights, as well as other interesting features related to academic life in that Faculty from beginning to apply the 1880 plan up to finalization of Spanish sovereignty in Cuba in 1898.

  17. Space Radar Image of Salt Lake City, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image of Salt Lake City, Utah, illustrates the different land use patterns that are present in the Utah Valley. Salt Lake City lies between the shores of the Great Salt Lake (the dark area on the left side of the image) and the Wasatch Front Range (the mountains in the upper half of the image). The Salt Lake City area is of great interest to urban planners because of the combination of lake, valley and alpine environments that coexist in the region. Much of the southern shore of the Great Salt Lake is a waterfowl management area. The green grid pattern in the right center of the image is Salt Lake City and its surrounding communities. The Salt Lake City airport is visible as the brown rectangle near the center of the image. Interstate Highway 15 runs from the middle right edge to the upper left of the image. The bright white patch east of Interstate 15 is the downtown area, including Temple Square and the state capitol. The University of Utah campus is the yellowish area that lies at the base of the mountains, east of Temple Square. The large reservoir in the lower left center is a mine tailings pond. The semi-circular feature in the mountains at the bottom edge of the image is the Kennecott Copper Mine. The area shown is 60 kilometers by 40 kilometers (37 miles by 25 miles) and is centered at 40.6 degrees north latitude, 112.0 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper left. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 10, 1994. The colors in this image represent the following radar channels and polarizations: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  18. City Carbon Footprint Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwu Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Progressive cities worldwide have demonstrated political leadership by initiating meaningful strategies and actions to tackle climate change. However, the lack of knowledge concerning embodied greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of cities has hampered effective mitigation. We analyse trans-boundary GHG emission transfers between five Australian cities and their trading partners, with embodied emission flows broken down into major economic sectors. We examine intercity carbon footprint (CF networks and disclose a hierarchy of responsibility for emissions between cities and regions. Allocations of emissions to households, businesses and government and the carbon efficiency of expenditure have been analysed to inform mitigation policies. Our findings indicate that final demand in the five largest cities in Australia accounts for more than half of the nation’s CF. City households are responsible for about two thirds of the cities’ CFs; the rest can be attributed to government and business consumption and investment. The city network flows highlight that over half of emissions embodied in imports (EEI to the five cities occur overseas. However, a hierarchy of GHG emissions reveals that overseas regions also outsource emissions to Australian cities such as Perth. We finally discuss the implications of our findings on carbon neutrality, low-carbon city concepts and strategies and allocation of subnational GHG responsibility.

  19. [Healthy Cities projects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Takehito

    2002-05-01

    This is a review article on "Healthy Cities". The Healthy Cities programme has been developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) to tackle urban health and environmental issues in a broad way. It is a kind of comprehensive policy package to carry out individual projects and activities effectively and efficiently. Its key aspects include healthy public policy, vision sharing, high political commitment, establishment of structural organization, strategic health planning, intersectoral collaboration, community participation, setting approach, development of supportive environment for health, formation of city health profile, national and international networking, participatory research, periodic monitoring and evaluation, and mechanisms for sustainability of projects. The present paper covered the Healthy Cities concept and approaches, rapid urbanization in the world, developments of WHO Healthy Cities, Healthy Cities developments in the Western Pacific Region, the health promotion viewpoint, and roles of research.

  20. Procedural semantic cities

    OpenAIRE

    Roglà Pujalt, Otger; Pelechano Gómez, Núria; Patow, Gustavo Ariel

    2017-01-01

    Procedural modeling of virtual cities has achieved high levels of realism with little effort from the user. One can rapidly obtain a large city using off-the-shelf software based on procedural techniques, such as the use of CGA. However in order to obtain realistic virtual cities it is necessary to include virtual humanoids that behave realistically adapting to such environment. The first step towards achieving this goal requires tagging the environment with semantics, which is a time consumi...

  1. Investigating the Influence of Tree Coverage on Property Crime: a Case Study in the City of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yifei; Li, Yuenan; Li, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    With the development of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), crime mapping becomes an effective approach to investigate the spatial pattern of crime in a defined area. Understanding the relationship between crime and its surrounding environment can reveal possible strategies that can reduce crime in a neighbourhood. The relationship between vegetation density and crime has been under debate for a long time. This research is conducted to investigate the impacts of tree coverage on property crime in the City of Vancouver. High spatial resolution airborne LiDAR data collected in 2013 was used for the extraction of tree covered area for cross-sectional analysis. The independent variables were put into Ordinary Least-Squares (OLS) regression, Spatial Lag regression, and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) models to examine their influences on property crime rates. According to the results, the cross-sectional analysis demonstrated statistical evidences that property crime rates had negative correlations with tree coverage, with greater influences occurred around Downtown Vancouver.

  2. Papeleros urbanos vs aseo del centro de Santiago de Chile.Impacto de las variables formales de los papeleros urbanos existentes en los paseos peatonales Ahumada y Huérfanos. /Waste containers vs. cleaning in downtown Santiago, Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Peralta, Osvaldo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El diseño que presentan los papeleros urbanos de los paseos peatonales del centro de Santiago no facilita su uso adecuado, lo que contribuye a la suciedad de sus calles peatonales. Como elementos de mobiliario urbano en el espacio público, deberían tener un mejor diseño en orden a mejorar su función y facilitar su uso. /The urban trash cans design, on pedestrian walks in Santiago downtown, doesn't facilitate its appropriate use, what contributes to the dirt of its pedestrian streets. As part of urban furniture in public space, they should have a better design in order to improve their function and to facilitate their use.

  3. ESTUDIO SOCIOECONÓMICO SOBRE LOS VENDEDORES ESTACIONARIOS DEL SECTOR UNO DEL CENTRO HISTÓRICO DE BARRANQUILLA - SOCIOECONOMICAL RESEARCH ABOUT THE PERMANENT SELLERS FROM SECTOR ONE IN BARRANQUILLA’S HISTORICAL DOWNTOWN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YOLANDA ROSA MORALES CASTRO

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The document talks about the information related to the socioeconomical research about the permanent sellers from sector one in Barranquilla’s historical downtown. This research comes from a previous study “Knowledge Dialogue: a strengthtening strategy for the people interested in the recovering of the historical downtown”, applied from the family and human development group in Universidad Simon Bolivar. The study variable includes the demography, family, economy, housing, environmental and legal dimmensions, which allows to analyze and identify the socioeconomical profile of the permanent sellers from sector one in Barranquilla’s distrit. In this text is also introduced relevant topics, interesting so they can help to clearly understand the growing development of the informal economy in Colombia, because they mean a challenge and clamis attention from the leaders in charge on the country’s economic way

  4. Public health impact assessment of a proposed cogeneration plant in the Quebec city metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lajoie, P.; Bolduc, D.; Gauvin, D.; Guerrier, P.; Gauthier, R. [Quebec Public Health Center, Ste-Foy (Canada); Laflamme, P. [Laval Univ. (Canada). Dept. of Preventive Medicine

    1995-12-31

    In 1994, public hearings were held in Quebec city concerning a 120 megawatt (MW) gas cogeneration project that was to be coupled with an already existing pulp and paper mill in the downtown area. Cogeneration plants are often described as highly beneficial from the point of view of local environment. It is well known that the burning of natural gas emits far less sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and particulate matters (PM) than the combustion of oil or coal. The proposed plant would use high pressure vapour from a nearby incinerator plant and natural gas to produce low pressure vapor for the paper mill industry as well as electricity. The cogeneration plant would allow the paper mill to stop burning heavy oil. By using natural gas instead of heavy oil, the new cogeneration-paper mill complex (CPC) is expected to reinforce the recent trend and willingness towards improving downtown air quality. On the other hand, the CPC would emit more CO{sub 2}, due to the production of additional electricity. According to the Rio de Janeiro Agreement ratified in 1988, Canada is committed to stabilize its greenhouse gas emissions by the year 2000. Nevertheless, the cogeneration file is a new option considered by the Quebec Provincial Governement in its last energy triennal plan. However, it must be specified that the Province of Quebec contributes to less than 15 % of the total Canadian CO{sub 2} production although it represents more than 25 % of its population. Furthermore the maximum production of electricity by this file has been set to 250 MW. It is a very small fraction of the total production of electricity in Quebec, which is 200 TW

  5. EU Smart City Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years European Commission has developed a set of documents for Members States tracing, directly or indirectly, recommendations for the transformation of the European city. The paper wants to outline which future EU draws for the city, through an integrated and contextual reading of addresses and strategies contained in the last documents, a future often suggested as Smart City. Although the three main documents (Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 of European Community, Digital Agenda for Europe and European Urban Agenda face the issue of the future development of European cities from different points of view, which are respectively cohesion social, ICT and urban dimension, each of them pays particular attention to urban and territorial dimension, identified by the name of Smart City. In other words, the paper aims at drawing the scenario of evolution of Smart Cities that can be delineated through the contextual reading of the three documents. To this end, the paper is divided into three parts: the first part briefly describes the general contents of the three European economic plan tools; the second part illustrates the scenarios for the future of the European city contained in each document; the third part seeks to trace the evolution of the Smart Cities issue developed by the set of the three instruments, in order to provide the framework of European Community for the near future of our cities

  6. Theme city or gated community - images of future cities

    OpenAIRE

    Helenius-Mäki, Leena

    2002-01-01

    The future of the cities has been under discussion since the first city. It has been typical in every civilisation and era to hope for a better city. Creek philosopher Platon created image of future city where all men were equal and the city was ruled by philosophers minds. Many philosopher or later social scientist have ended up to similar "hope to be city". The form and type of the better city has depended from creators of those future city images. The creators have had their future city im...

  7. Big data, smart cities and city planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, Michael

    2013-11-01

    I define big data with respect to its size but pay particular attention to the fact that the data I am referring to is urban data, that is, data for cities that are invariably tagged to space and time. I argue that this sort of data are largely being streamed from sensors, and this represents a sea change in the kinds of data that we have about what happens where and when in cities. I describe how the growth of big data is shifting the emphasis from longer term strategic planning to short-term thinking about how cities function and can be managed, although with the possibility that over much longer periods of time, this kind of big data will become a source for information about every time horizon. By way of conclusion, I illustrate the need for new theory and analysis with respect to 6 months of smart travel card data of individual trips on Greater London's public transport systems.

  8. New City Logistics Paradigm: From the “Last Mile” to the “Last 50 Miles” Sustainable Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Faccio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of goods in urban areas, together with private traffic flows, are among the main sources of energy consumption, air pollution and noise. As a consequence, in the 2000s, several EU cities started to implement logistical solutions for the sustainable city. In this context, this study addresses the implementation of a new eco-logistic system, which serves multiple adjacent cities by using electric vehicles to deliver goods of any type within their urban areas. This paper describes the results of a project developed in the province of Vicenza (northern Italy and covering the main cities (Bassano del Grappa, Thiene, Schio and Valdagno in the foothills (the so-called Pedemontana Veneta zone. The eco-logistic system aims to cover the last 50 miles of distribution (typical area of an Italian province with a centralised platform that performs green deliveries with electric vehicles from/to the downtown areas. A preliminary and extensive “on field” analysis by means of door-to-door questionnaires was conducted to identify the performance required by the eco-logistic system. Therefore, the design of such a distribution system is performed to assess and define the conditions that make this solution profitable from both the economic and the environmental perspective.

  9. TIPOLOGI DAN POLA PENANGANAN PERMUKIMAN KUMUH DI KOTA BONTANG (The Typology and Patterns of Slum Improvement Management in Bontang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Setiadi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Started as a fishing settlement area in Bontang Kuala Village, the City of Bontang has been growing very rapidly. However, despite this growth people's standard of living has been decreasing in terms of environmental quality, income as well as sheltering with the emergence of slum areas. These conditions greatly affect the physical, social, cultural and economic aspects of life. The management of slum areas in Bontang City becomes strategic because slums are integrated with the rest of the city including the downtown area and urban growth centers, as well as with the other areas in the vicinity, such as industrial, commercial, warehousing, and office areas. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the characteristics of the slum areas. The identification methods do not discriminate the distribution of slum areas. The criteria used include non-economic vitality, regional economic vitality, land ownership status, infrastructure and facility conditions, local government’s commitment, and handling priorities. Environmental assessment of the slums was done by assigning a weighting system to each of the above criteria. The determination of the weights of the criteria is relative and depends on the individual and group preferences in looking at the influence of each criterion. The improvement or treatment patterns appropriate to be applied in Bontang City should be in accordance with the site characteristics. Locations with high-scale slum category (HS requires the curative pattern while those with moderate category (MS should take reductive treatment, and slum areas with low-scale category (LS will require preventive treatment.

  10. Retail Marijuana Purchases in Designer and Commercial Markets in New York City: Sales Units, Weights, and Prices per Gram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifaneck, Stephen J.; Ream, Geoffrey L.; Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise

    2007-01-01

    This paper documents the bifurcation of the market for commercial marijuana from the market for designer marijuana in New York City. Commercial marijuana is usually grown outdoors, imported to NYC, and of average quality. By contrast, several strains of designer marijuana are usually grown indoors from specially-bred strains and carefully handled for maximum quality. The mechanisms for selling include street/park sellers, delivery services, private sales, and storefronts. Retail sales units vary from $5 to $50 and more, but the actual weights and price per gram of retail marijuana purchases lacks scientific precision. Ethnographic staff recruited marijuana purchasers who used digital scales to weigh a purposive sample of 99 marijuana purchases. Results indicate clear differences in price per gram between the purchases of commercial (avg. $8.20/gram) and designer (avg. $18.02/gram) marijuana. Designer purchases are more likely to be made by whites, downtown (Lower East Side/Union Square area), via delivery services, and in units of $10 bags, $50 cubes, and eighth and quarter ounces. Commercial marijuana purchases are more likely to be made by blacks, uptown (Harlem), via street dealers, and in units of $5 and $20 bags. Imported commercial types Arizona and Chocolate were only found uptown, while designer brand names describing actual strains like Sour Diesel and White Widow were only found downtown. Findings indicate clear divisions between commercial and designer marijuana markets in New York City. The extent that these differences may be based upon different THC potencies is a matter for future research. PMID:17055670

  11. The City at Stake:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Esmann Andersen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the city have been addressed from many different approaches such as law, political science, art history and public administration, in which the eco-nomic, political and legal status of the city have played a major role. However, a new agenda for conceptualizing the city has emerged, in which the city assumes new roles. By using stakeholder theory as a framework for conceptualizing the city, we argue that the city assumes a political-economic agenda-setting role as well as providing a stage for identity constructions and relational performances for consumers, organizations, the media, politicians and other stakeholders. Stakeholder theory allows us to conceptualize the city as being constituted by stakes and relationships between stakeholders which are approached from three analytical positions (modern, postmodern and hypermodern, respectively, thereby allowing us to grasp different stakes and types of relationships, ranging from functional and contractual relationships to individualized and emotionally driven or more non-committal and fluid forms of relationships. In order to support and illustrate the analytical potentials of our framework for conceptualizing urban living, we introduce a project which aims to turn the city of Aarhus into a CO2-neutral city by the year 2030, entitled Aarhus CO2030. We conclude that applying stakeholder theory to a hyper-complex organization such as a city opens up for a reconceptualization of the city as a web of stakes and stakeholder relations. Stakeholder theory contributes to a nuanced and elaborate understanding of the urban complexity and web of both enforced and voluntary relationships as well as the different types of relationships that characterize urban life.

  12. Governing the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornberger, Martin

    2012-01-01

    cities. This theoretical curiosity is reflected in the rising interest in urban strategy from practice. For instance, the World Bank regularly organizes an Urban Strategy Speaker Series, while the powerful network CEOs for Cities lobbies for a strategic approach to urban development. Critical scholars...

  13. Feeding the Sustainable City

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    , many Southern cities are now re-examining their attitude to urban agriculture. The challenge they face is how to control agricultural activity so that it can be integrated into the city environment for the benefit of the urban farmers and the rest of ...

  14. Walkout in Crystal City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Greg

    2009-01-01

    When students take action, they create change that extends far beyond the classroom. In this article, the author, who was a former teacher from Crystal City, Texas, remembers the student walkout that helped launch the Latino civil rights movement 40 years ago. The Crystal City student walkout remains a high point in the history of student activism…

  15. Innovation in City Governments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Jenny M; Ricard, Lykke Margot; Klijn, Erik Hans

    project in Copenhagen, Barcelona and Rotterdam. The book provides major new insights on how structures, networks and leadership in city governments shape the social innovation capacity of cities. It provides ground-breaking analyses of how governance structures and local socio-economic challenges...

  16. Smart networked cities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tranos, E.; Gertner, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to critically assess the lack of a global inter-urban perspective in the smart city policy framework from a conceptual standpoint. We argue here that the smart city policy agenda should be informed by and address the structure of transnational urban networks as this can affect the

  17. Innovation and the City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Neil; Forman, Adam; Ko, Jae; Giles, David; Bowles, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    With Washington trapped in budget battles and partisan gridlock, cities have emerged as the best source of government innovation. Nowhere is this more visible than in New York City. Since taking office in 2002, Mayor Bloomberg has introduced a steady stream of innovative policies, from a competition to recruit a new applied sciences campus and a…

  18. Distance Estimation in Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canter, David; Tagg, Stephen K.

    1975-01-01

    The results of eleven distance estimation studies made in seven cities and five countries are reported. Distances were estimated between various points within the cities in which the subjects were resident. In general, undergraduate residents' distance estimates correlated highly with actual distance, but the nonundergraduate group's did not.…

  19. Preface (to Playable Cities)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unknown, [Unknown; Nijholt, A.; Nijholt, Antinus

    In this book, we address the issue of playfulness and playability in intelligent and smart cities. Playful technology can be introduced and authorized by city authorities. This can be compared and is similar to the introduction of smart technology in theme and recreational parks. However, smart

  20. in benin city, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CURRENT PRACTICES IN INFANT NUTRITION. IN BENIN CITY, NIGERIA. U.H. Oparaocha, O.M.Ibadin, C.D. Muogbo. The Roding Medical Centre, Victoria Island, Lagos and Departments of Child Health,. University of Benin/Teaching Hospital, Benin City,. ABSTRACT. A community based prospective study was carried out ...

  1. City Bug Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Henrik; Brynskov, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the wider contexts of digital policy, transparency, digitisation and how this changes city administration and the role of the (digital) publics, using City Bug Report as a design case. Employing a mix between design research and action research, the authors exemplify and analy...

  2. Cities, knowledge and innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oort, Frank|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/107712741; Lambooy, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of current theories and empirical research on cities and the knowledge economy. Two recent and interrelated streams of literature are discussed: the first focusing on agglomeration economies related to increasing returns and knowledge spillovers of firms in cities

  3. City profile: Paramaribo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrest, H.J.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Paramaribo, the largest and only significant urban area in Suriname, is a typical primate city. The majority of the countries’ population resides here and the majority of political, social and economic functions is clustered in the urban zone. In the course of the 20th century, the city changed

  4. Sustainability for Shrinking Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrinking cities are widespread throughout the world despite the rapidly increasing global urban population. These cities are attempting to transition to sustainable trajectories to improve the health and well-being of urban residents, to build their capacity to adapt to changing...

  5. The Flickering Global City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Slater

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores new dimensions of the global city in light of the correlation between hegemonic transition and the prominence of financial centers. It counterposes Braudel’s historical sequence of dominant cities to extant approaches in the literature, shifting the emphasis from a convergence of form and function to variations in history and structure. The marked increase of finance in the composition of London, New York and Tokyo has paralleled each city’s occupation of a distinct niche in world financial markets: London is the principal center of currency exchange, New York is the primary equities market, and Tokyo is the leader in international banking. This division expresses the progression of world-economies since the nineteenth century and unfolds in the context of the present hegemonic transition. By combining world-historical and city-centered approaches, the article seeks to reframe the global city and overcome the limits inherent in the paradigm of globalization.

  6. Smart City Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Ulrik

    2018-01-01

    This article reflects on the challenges for urban planning posed by the emergence of smart cities in network societies. In particular, it reflects on reductionist tendencies in existing smart city planning. Here the concern is with the implications of prior reductions of complexity which have been...... undertaken by placing primacy in planning on information technology, economical profit, and top-down political government. Rather than pointing urban planning towards a different ordering of these reductions, this article argues in favor of approaches to smart city planning via complexity theory....... Specifically, this article argues in favor of approaching smart city plans holistically as topologies of organized complexity. Here, smart city planning is seen as a theory and practice engaging with a complex adaptive urban system which continuously operates on its potential. The actualizations in the face...

  7. 2008 City of Baltimore Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the spring of 2008, the City of Baltimore expressed an interest to upgrade the City GIS Database with mapping quality airborne LiDAR data. The City of Baltimore...

  8. @City: technologising Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rojas

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the concept of the contemporary city - the influence that technology has when one thinks about, plans and lives in a city. The conjunction of  technology and city reformulates customs and social practices; it can even determine the way one constitutes one's own identity. One can see how close the relation is between technology (specifically, TICS and the structures of the city in a wide variety of situations: in social interactions on the street, in transport, and in ways of buying, of working and entertainment. "@City" is a concept that very well reflects  the emergent properties of a current city, that is, the coexistence of a physical and a virtual urban space. The "22@Barcelona" project attempts to bring together different types of spaces. By combining the physical with the virtual, 22@Barcelona, as a neighborhood of @City,  creates an uncertain and blurred border between both spaces.The article also examines the impact that these spaces have on the psycho-social processes involved in the daily life of a traditionally working-class neighborhood, now strongly limited by technological boundaries.

  9. @City: technologising Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas, Jesús

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the concept of the contemporary city - the influence that technology has when one thinks about, plans and lives in a city. The conjunction of technology and city reformulates customs and social practices; it can even determine the way one constitutes one's own identity. One can see how close the relation is between technology (specifically, TICS and the structures of the city in a wide variety of situations: in social interactions on the street, in transport, and in ways of buying, of working and entertainment. "@City" is a concept that very well reflects the emergent properties of a current city, that is, the coexistence of a physical and a virtual urban space. The "22@Barcelona" project attempts to bring together different types of spaces. By combining the physical with the virtual, 22@Barcelona, as a neighborhood of @City, creates an uncertain and blurred border between both spaces.The article also examines the impact that these spaces have on the psycho-social processes involved in the daily life of a traditionally working-class neighborhood, now strongly limited by technological boundaries.

  10. Smart city – future city? smart city 20 as a livable city and future market

    CERN Document Server

    Etezadzadeh, Chirine

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a livable smart city presented in this book highlights the relevance of the functionality and integrated resilience of viable cities of the future. It critically examines the progressive digitalization that is taking place and identifies the revolutionized energy sector as the basis of urban life. The concept is based on people and their natural environment, resulting in a broader definition of sustainability and an expanded product theory. Smart City 2.0 offers its residents many opportunities and is an attractive future market for innovative products and services. However, it presents numerous challenges for stakeholders and product developers.

  11. A liveable city:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2014-01-01

    There are over 20 cities world-wide with a population of over 10 million people. We have entered ‘The Millennium of the City’. The growth of urban populations has been accompanied by profound changes of the cities’ economic and social profile and of the cities themselves. The world economy...... on experience. We will argue for a human turn in the research on liveabil- ity and urbanisation, and debates the concept of liveability. We will take Copenhagen as our main case and compare with other cities from around the world....

  12. Making the Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the latest research into cultural planning and architectural branding in Denmark based on the ‘Experience City' research project located at Aalborg University. The paper explores the implication of the turn towards culture and experience in the contemporary Danish city. It thus...... makes an investigation into the complex relationship between the words and policies of the ‘Experience Economy' and the actual urban transformations made in cities with reference to these changes. The paper discusses the cases researched in relation to the state, market, civil society framework as well...

  13. The guide to greening cities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnston, Sadhu Aufochs

    2013-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 CHAPTER 3. Leading in the Community: Using City Assets, Policy, Partnerships, and Persuasion . . Case in Point: Returning to Green City Roots and Loving El...

  14. CA-Markov Analysis of Constrained Coastal Urban Growth Modeling: Hua Hin Seaside City, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Shrestha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Thailand, a developing country in Southeast Asia, is experiencing rapid development, particularly urban growth as a response to the expansion of the tourism industry. Hua Hin city provides an excellent example of an area where urbanization has flourished due to tourism. This study focuses on how the dynamic urban horizontal expansion of the seaside city of Hua Hin is constrained by the coast, thus making sustainability for this popular tourist destination—managing and planning for its local inhabitants, its visitors, and its sites—an issue. The study examines the association of land use type and land use change by integrating Geo-Information technology, a statistic model, and CA-Markov analysis for sustainable land use planning. The study identifies that the land use types and land use changes from the year 1999 to 2008 have changed as a result of increased mobility; this trend, in turn, has everything to do with urban horizontal expansion. The changing sequences of land use type have developed from forest area to agriculture, from agriculture to grassland, then to bare land and built-up areas. Coastal urban growth has, for a decade, been expanding horizontally from a downtown center along the beach to the western area around the golf course, the southern area along the beach, the southwest grassland area, and then the northern area near the airport.

  15. OpenCities Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Open Cities Project aims to catalyze the creation, management and use of open data to produce innovative solutions for urban planning and resilience challenges...

  16. The Sustainable City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangloff, Deborah

    1995-01-01

    Focuses on methods to make cities more sustainable through the processes of energy efficiency, pollution and waste reduction, capture of natural processes, and the merger of ecological, economic, and social factors. (LZ)

  17. Simulacrum City / Triin Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojari, Triin, 1974-

    2000-01-01

    Veneetsia 7. arhitektuuribiennaali Eesti ekspositsiooni kataloogist Simulacrum City. Tallinn : Eesti Arhitektide Liit, 2000. Teksti autorid Anders Härm, Tarmo Maiste, Andres Kurg, Harry Charrington, kujundaja Jaanus Tamme, fotod Arne Maasik

  18. SmartCityWare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Nader; Al-Jaroodi, Jameela; Jawhar, Imad

    2017-01-01

    rely heavily on utilizing various software, hardware, and communication technologies to improve the operations in areas, such as healthcare, transportation, energy, education, logistics, and many others, while reducing costs and resources consumption. One of the promising technologies to support...... such efforts is the Cloud of Things (CoT). CoT provides a platform for linking the cyber parts of a smart city that are executed on the cloud with the physical parts of the smart city, including residents, vehicles, power grids, buildings, water networks, hospitals, and other resources. Another useful...... services and components involved in smart city applications as services accessible through the service-oriented model. This enhances integration and allows for flexible inclusion and utilization of the various services needed in a smart city application. In addition, we discuss the implementation...

  19. Towards Intelligently - Sustainable Cities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Salvati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the quest for achieving sustainable cities, Intelligent and Knowledge City Programmes (ICPs and KCPs represent cost-efficient strategies for improving the overall performance of urban systems. However, even though nobody argues on the desirability of making cities “smarter”, the fundamental questions of how and to what extent can ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement of urban sustainability lack a precise answer. In the attempt of providing a structured answer to these interrogatives, this paper presents a methodology developed for investigating the modalities through which ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement or urban sustainability. Results suggest that ICPs and KCPs efficacy lies in supporting cities achieve a sustainable urban metabolism through optimization, innovation and behavior changes.

  20. Ecological city planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Rueda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A territory, a city, a neighbourhood are all ecosystems; a mixture of chemico-physical and organic elements related to each other. That which defines an ecological system is the set of rules and characteristics which condition its relationships, and its duration in time is guaranteed by its efficiency and internal organization which applied to the city is translated in the reduction of the use of natural resources and in the increase of social organization. To increase the efficiency of the urban systems is the necessary condition for the formulation of ecological city planning favouring the maximum liveability of sites. Liveability is directly correlated to the optimization of numerous elements (public space, equipment, services, building techniques, innovative technology, social cohesion, biodiversity. To carry out such objectives, ecological city planning proposes a new model of town planning on three levels (subsoil, ground level, and upper level.

  1. Futures of cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogen dokumenterer resultater fra den internationale kongres Futures of Cities arrangeret af IFHP International Federation of Housing and Planning, Realdania, Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole og City of Copenhagen. Kongressen blev afholdt i september 2007 i Øksnehallen og på Kunstakademiets Arkitekt......Bogen dokumenterer resultater fra den internationale kongres Futures of Cities arrangeret af IFHP International Federation of Housing and Planning, Realdania, Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole og City of Copenhagen. Kongressen blev afholdt i september 2007 i Øksnehallen og på Kunstakademiets....... Competition: Ranko Radovic Student Competition, 193 projekter fra alle verdensdele indleveret til studenterkonkurrencen. I bogen er indlagt en cd-rom med en 4 minutter lang film udgivet af bogens forfattere og redigeret af Squint/Opera Ltd, UK. Musik af Martin Bennebo og Karen Duelund Mortensen, produceret af...

  2. WE LOVE THE CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    WE LOVE THE CITY Byen i bygningen, bygningen i byen Lasse Andersson, Ph.d., arkitekt maa, adjunkt ved Aalborg Universitet Med udstillingen WE LOVE THE CITY vil vi formidle mødet mellem urban design oog arkitektur. Disciplinen ’at bygge by’ har de seneste 20 år ikke tændt hjerterne hos...... fjern og ’usexet’ for unge arkitekter in spe. Det kan fremtidens by ikke være tjent med, og WE LOVE THE CITY vil derfor gerne vise alle, der færdes i byen og bruger dens arkitektur, at her er et potentiale. Med udstillingen WE LOVE THE CITY ønsker Utzon Centeret, LasseVegas Kontoret ApS og ADEPT...

  3. Smart Sustainable Cities

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Technology, Municipality of Montevideo, Uruguay) and Lark Yang Tan (Director, Infocomm Development ...... Since the last century and particularly since the industrial revolution when people started to move to cities ...... Engineering; Arts and Humanities; Economics, Econometrics and Finance; Psychology; Biochemistry,.

  4. the city otherwise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2017-06-01

    Irkutsk sociologists Mikhail Rozhansky and Elena Korkina, the ideologists of The City Otherwise Project, show the readers of PB how young citizens view their city. These views are expressed in their reflections and photos. Against common beliefs about modern youth, these young people are not obsessed with their gadgets. They use them quite well to take a fresh look at the environment. It should be noted that the project has attracted, among others, starting architects, especially those who have experience in participatory design. It is an interesting attempt to get in tune with the pulse of the city, with the common rhythm of images, which makes the city and its inhabitants a single whole.

  5. Environment, gas and city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Here are given all the advantages of natural gas among the others energies sources to avoid air pollution in cities. Pollution, energy economy, energy control are actions of environmental policy of natural gas industry in France

  6. Postsovkhoz City & Postsovkhoz Person

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Põlvamaal Moostes mõtte- ja keskkonnakunstitalgud "Postsovkhoz City" ja "Postsovkhoz Person". Näha saab endistesse tööstushoonetesse ülespandud näitusi ja installatsioone. 11. VIII esinejad, ettekanded.

  7. Keys to the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monsson, Christian Kjær

    2014-01-01

    Review of: Keys to the City: How Economics, Institutions, Social Interaction, and Politics Shape Development / Michael Storper Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2013, 288 pp., $39.95/£27.95 (cloth), ISBN 9780691143118......Review of: Keys to the City: How Economics, Institutions, Social Interaction, and Politics Shape Development / Michael Storper Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2013, 288 pp., $39.95/£27.95 (cloth), ISBN 9780691143118...

  8. AmpaCity. Superconducting cables and fault current limiters for the energy supply in conurbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merschel, F.; Noe, M.; Stemmle, M.; Hobl, A.; Sauerbach, O.

    2013-01-01

    In 2013 RWE Germany is working jointly with cable manufacturer Nexans and with the scientific support of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) to install world's longest superconducting cable in the downtown area electricity grid of Essen. The AmpaCity project is partly funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology and is playing an exemplary role in the further development of electricity grids in major cities worldwide. The project consortium presents AmpaCity as a convincing system solution especially with respect to economics and security of supply. Components of the system are a superconducting three-phase AC cable with two terminations and one connection joint in combination with a fault current limiter, which is also based on superconducting materials. The superconducting system is designed for 10 kV nominal voltage and 40 MW nominal power. It will replace a 110 kV cable system of equal capacity. At the same time, the project partners are paving the way for high failsafe performance, as the cable in conjunction with the fault current limiter cannot be overloaded by short circuit currents in the event of faults in the grid. Planning and follow up on the civil works in Essen posed a major challenge. Cable laying in the inner city, with various crossings of major highways, tramways, as well as already dense cable routes necessitated very thorough preparation and coordination. The civil works in Essen started in April 2013. At around the same time, after the cable had passed the type test, it went into production. Cable laying is scheduled for late summer. After commissioning, planned for the end of 2013, the field trial will run for at least two years under real grid conditions, to demonstrate this technology's suitability for wider deployment.

  9. Violence in Advertisements in New York City Subway Stations: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Fullwood, M D; LeBlanc, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Violence has become a public health concern in the United States. Violent visually stimulating content encompasses various techniques such as fear, humor, shock, or violence, to stimulate a response or appeal toward awareness of human emotion. Exposing impressionable youth to violent advertisements can be particularly problematic. This is especially true in places like New York City where violent crime is a prevalent problem. With annual ridership reaching over 1.7 billion in 2014, the New York City subway system is abundant with advertisements. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the frequency and type of violent advertising on the Lexington Avenue/East Side Line in New York City, running through the Bronx and Manhattan to represent the lower and higher median income earning boroughs. There were no statistically different findings in median household income at site of station by number of ads or source of violent. Destruction was the most common form of violence (n = 32, 42.7 %) followed by intent to strike (n = 18, 24 %), showing a weapon (n = 15, 20 %) and horror (n = 10, 13.3 %). Most ads (n = 46, 61.3 %) were found in stations heading uptown toward and through the Bronx, the borough where median household income is lowest, whereas 29 (38.7 %) were found in stations heading downtown. Future studies could focus on additional boroughs and subways lines, and could be collected at multiple points in time to determine of how prevalent violent advertising is throughout New York City and at different time frames.

  10. Schizophrenia and city life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, G; David, A; Andréasson, S; Allebeck, P

    1992-07-18

    Prevalence of schizophrenia and rates of first admission to hospital for this disorder are higher in most modern industrialised cities, and in urban compared with rural areas. The "geographical drift" hypothesis (ie, most schizophrenics tend to drift into city areas because of their illness or its prodrome) has remained largely unchallenged. We have investigated the association between place of upbringing and the incidence of schizophrenia with data from a cohort of 49,191 male Swedish conscripts linked to the Swedish National Register of Psychiatric Care. The incidence of schizophrenia was 1.65 times higher (95% confidence interval 1.19-2.28) among men brought up in cities than in those who had had a rural upbringing. The association persisted despite adjustment for other factors associated with city life such as cannabis use, parental divorce, and family history of psychiatric disorder. This finding cannot be explained by the widely held notion that people with schizophrenia drift into cities at the beginning of their illness. We conclude that undetermined environmental factors found in cities increase the risk of schizophrenia.

  11. City of Phoenix - Energize Phoenix Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laloudakis, Dimitrios J.

    2014-09-29

    Energize Phoenix (EPHX) was designed as an ambitious, large-scale, three-year pilot program to provide energy efficiency upgrades in buildings, along Phoenix’s new Light Rail Corridor – part of a federal effort to reduce energy consumption and stimulate job growth, while simultaneously reducing the country’s carbon footprint and promoting a shift towards a green economy. The program was created through a 2010 competitive grant awarded to the City of Phoenix who managed the program in partnership with Arizona State University (ASU), the state’s largest university, and Arizona Public Service (APS), the state’s largest electricity provider. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP) and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 provided $25M in funding for the EPHX program. The Light Rail Corridor runs through the heart of downtown Phoenix, making most high-rise and smaller commercial buildings eligible to participate in the EPHX program, along with a diverse mix of single and multi-family residential buildings. To ensure maximum impact and deeper market penetration, Energize Phoenix was subdivided into three unique parts: i. commercial rebate program, ii. commercial financing program, and iii. residential program Each component was managed by the City of Phoenix in partnership with APS. Phoenix was fortunate to partner with APS, which already operated robust commercial and residential rebate programs within its service territory. Phoenix tapped into the existing utility contractor network, provided specific training to over 100 contracting firms, and leveraged the APS rebate program structure (energy efficiency funding) to launch the EPHX commercial and residential rebate programs. The commercial finance program was coordinated and managed through a contract with National Bank of Arizona, NBAZ, which also provided project capital leveraging EPHX finance funds. Working in unison, approved contractors

  12. Its System to Manage Parking Supply: Considerations on Application to the “Ring” in the City of Brescia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Bulferetti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Brescia’s downtown is outlined by link roads built up at the Venetian walls, known as “Ring. The “Ring” is characterized by high traffic flows, as well as by the presence of several paid parking lots located on and off street. Furthermore, several facilities are located on these link roads. Nowadays city of Brescia is equipped with an ITS system able to manage off street parking spaces, allowing the share of information about parking availability to potential users, through the use of variable message panels. The parking supply issue and its management are strongly felt by citizens, as well as many other cities communities, whether European or not. This contribution aims to encourage an integration of the existing ITS system for the off street parking management with additional devices, which allow to manage also the on street paid parking supply located on “Ring” roads. The minimization of so-called “shared traffic” component of traffic flows, as well as the increase of road safety, in the context of a medium-sized Italian city are the main objectives of the ITS system integration. ITS asset chosen for the Brescia case study springs from the analysis of some non-European experiences about on street parking management (for example, San Francisco and Boston and certainly can be considered suitable for the parking supply management of the whole city. It could become the main starting point in Italian cities for the application of performance based parking pricing, widely experienced in many U.S. cities.

  13. In situ monitoring of mutagenicity of air pollutants in São Paulo City using Tradescantia-SHM bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Maria Izildinha

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tradescantia stamen hair mutation assay (Trad-SHM was employed for assessing the environmental mutagenesis in two areas of São Paulo City. The study sites were defined as follows: 1 Celso Garcia Avenue, an industrial area on the outskirts of the urban center (Belém neighborhood, with an average daily traffic volume of 8,750 vehicles; 2 Doutor Arnaldo Avenue, in downtown area (Pinheiros neighborhood, with a mostly residential and business offices occupation, with an average daily traffic volume of 46,125 vehicles. The negative control (background site is located in the city of Jaguariúna, 138 km from São Paulo, in an area of low atmospheric pollution. The mutation frequency observed for Belém was similar to the background for clone 4430, whereas plants exposed in Pinheiros showed significant increases in mutation rate. Positive correlation was observed between mutation frequency and the levels of particulate matter in the atmosphere. This indicated a relationship between mutation frequency and the amount of atmospheric pollution present at the exposure sites in São Paulo City, with special reference to vehicular emissions.

  14. City marketing: online communication plan for the city of Lisbon

    OpenAIRE

    Altrichter, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Mestrado em Marketing City Marketing represents marketing efforts of cities in order to attract more visitors. Today, we are confronted everyday with marketing campaigns in all different communication media promoting countries, cities or events. Cities are competing for visitors on a global scale, forcing them to adapt successful marketing strategies for gaining and retaining costumers. Yet, City Marketing still remains an unknown chapter for a big part of the general public an...

  15. Learning Cities on the Move

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The modern Learning City concept emerged from the work of OECD on lifelong learning with streams of Learning Cities and Educating Cities having much in common but having little contact with each other. While the early development of Learning Cities in the West has not been sustained, the present situation is marked by the dynamic development of…

  16. The Joint Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Fistola

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The new connections, which high speed train allows to activate among the metropolitan systems, seem to be able to give life to new urban macro-structures for which the transfer time, among the main poles of the railway segment, becomes comparable to an inside moving into the city and therefore considered as an inter-functional mobility. The tunnel effect generated by the high speed connection seems to be able to allow a new temporal and functional joint among the metropolitan systems consequently supporting the possibility, for the users, to move themselves among the different urban functions belonging to the different cities. The birth of these urban aggregations seems to drive towards new megalopolis, which we can define for the first time with the term: joint-city. For this new metropolitan settlement it seems to be very interesting to investigate the constitutive peculiarities, the systemic articulation, its relational structures, the evolutionary scenarios, and so on. The urban functions (activities can be considered as structures of relationships between people that allows to define "organizational links" inside the community; the urban functions are located in specific places inside urban container or in open spaces. The urban functions represent the urban engines and the functional system can be thought as the “soul of the city", abstract but essential to its survival. In the definition set out here the analysis is carried out for many interconnected urban functional system points (specifically those in Rome and Naples. The new high speed railway has to be considered not only as a new channel of mobility between cities, but as a real possibility of joint between the functional systems of the two centres. A final consideration can be carried out in relation to the possibility of implementing new measures of governance of urban transformations considering the new macro-city: the "Joint City".

  17. Waist circumference, BMI and the prevalence of self-reported diabetes among the elderly of the United States and six cities of Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barceló, A; Gregg, E W; Pastor-Valero, M; Robles, S C

    2007-12-01

    Using data from the Salud Bienestar y Envejecimiento (SABE) project and the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2004), we examined the prevalence of obesity and diagnosed diabetes among older adults in the Americas; we also examined the association of age, sex, level of education, weight status, waist circumference, smoking, and race/ethnicity with diabetes among older adults. The prevalence of diagnosed diabetes was highest in the US Blacks and Mexican Americans, followed by Bridgetown and Mexico City (22% for each) and lowest in Santiago, Montevideo, Havana, and US Whites (13-15%). Diagnosed diabetes was significantly associated with BMI among participants from Bridgetown, Sao Paulo, and the three US ethnic groups, while it was associated with waist circumference in all sites except Mexico City. Our findings suggest major geographical and ethnic variation in the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes among older adults. Waist circumference was more consistently associated with the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes than BMI. Higher prevalences of diabetes are found among the elderly of African or Mexican descent in the United States and in other countries of the Americas when compared to the prevalence among whites in the United States and in other Latin American countries with populations of predominant Western European descent.

  18. Geothermal energy systems plan for Boise City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This is a plan for development of a downtown Boise geothermal district space heating system incorporating legal, engineering, organizational, geological, and economic requirements. Topics covered include: resource characteristics, system design and feasibility, economic feasibility, legal overview, organizational alternatives, and conservation. Included in appendices are: property ownership patterns on the Boise Front, existing hot well data, legal briefs, environmental data, decision point communications, typical building heating system retrofit schematics, and background assumptions and data for cost summary. (MHR)

  19. Earth's City Lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Earth's city lights was created with data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS). Originally designed to view clouds by moonlight, the OLS is also used to map the locations of permanent lights on the Earth's surface. The brightest areas of the Earth are the most urbanized, but not necessarily the most populated. (Compare western Europe with China and India.) Cities tend to grow along coastlines and transportation networks. Even without the underlying map, the outlines of many continents would still be visible. The United States interstate highway system appears as a lattice connecting the brighter dots of city centers. In Russia, the Trans-Siberian railroad is a thin line stretching from Moscow through the center of Asia to Vladivostok. The Nile River, from the Aswan Dam to the Mediterranean Sea, is another bright thread through an otherwise dark region. Even more than 100 years after the invention of the electric light, some regions remain thinly populated and unlit. Antarctica is entirely dark. The interior jungles of Africa and South America are mostly dark, but lights are beginning to appear there. Deserts in Africa, Arabia, Australia, Mongolia, and the United States are poorly lit as well (except along the coast), along with the boreal forests of Canada and Russia, and the great mountains of the Himalaya. The Earth Observatory article Bright Lights, Big City describes how NASA scientists use city light data to map urbanization. Image by Craig Mayhew and Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC, based on DMSP data

  20. Universities scale like cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Raan, Anthony F J

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross university income' in terms of total number of citations over 'size' in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities--the top-100 European universities--we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

  1. Network cities and externalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Boix Domènech

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of «agglomeration economies» explains the existence of advantages derived from the concentration of population and activity. However, it does not explain the existence of spatially dynamic external economies. Network economies generated in networks of cities correspond to this last type, since they are generated from the interaction between urban units, linked by a network relationship. The objective of this research is to advance in the study of the relationship between the networks of cities and the generation of external economies. The research is divided in four parts: first we expose the link between networks of cities and external economies. The second part outlines a model for the combined measuring of the concentration and network economies. The third part explains the results of applying the model to a case of study: the network of cities of Catalonia. The results suggest that there is a causal relationship between the organization of the urban units forming networks of cities and the generation of external economies that affect growth and economic development. Finally, conclusions and policy implications are drawn up.

  2. Universities scale like cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony F J van Raan

    Full Text Available Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross university income' in terms of total number of citations over 'size' in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities--the top-100 European universities--we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

  3. Hamilton : the electric city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.

    2006-01-01

    The City of Hamilton has launched an extensive energy planning exercise that examines the possibility of steep increases in oil and natural gas prices. This report examined and illustrated the issue of oil and gas price points. The report also examined and presented the city's role in an era of energy constraints, focusing on the city's transit system and its vehicle fleet. In addition, in response to City Council's direction, the report presented the aerotropolis proposal and discussed freight transport issues. Specific topics of discussion included oil and natural gas prospects; prospects for high oil and natural gas prices; impacts of fuel price increases; strategic planning objectives for energy constraints; reducing energy use by Hamilton's transport and in buildings; and land-use planning for energy constraints. Energy production opportunities involve the use of solar energy; wind energy; deep lake water cooling (DLWC); hydro-electric power; energy from waste; biogas production; district energy; and local food production. Economic and social development through preparing for energy constraints and matters raised by city council were also presented. The report also demonstrated how an energy-based strategy could be paid for and its components approved. The next steps for Hamilton were also identified. refs., tabs., figs

  4. ANÁLISIS DE LA CADENA DE VALOR HORTOFRUTÍCOLA DEL MUNICIPIO MARIANAO EN LA HABANA, CUBA / FRUITS AND VEGETABLES SUPPLY CHAIN ANALYSIS IN MARIANAO MUNICIPALITY AT HAVANA, CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Acevedo-Suárez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available En Cuba, el funcionamiento de las redes hortofrutícolas se rigen por la estructura del Ministerio de la Agricultura denominada Operación Producción-Acopio-Comercialización, que va desde un Puesto de Dirección Nacional hasta los municipales. De manera que, de la semilla al plato, las futas y vegetales fluyen por redes que reflejan su eficiencia en la disponibilidad en los mercados municipales. El objetivo general que plantea este estudio es analizar la estructura y funcionamiento de la cadena de valor hortofrutícola del municipio Marianao en La Habana, Cuba. La investigación abordará la identificación de eslabones y actores de esta cadena, la evaluación con los Modelos de Referencia de la Logística y Red de Valor y un análisis causa-efecto de los problemas de esta red. El resultado permite identificar la problemática municipal para proponer estrategias de mejoramiento en función de los elementos de las redes de valor.AbstractIn Cuba, the fruits and vegetables supply chain works with the structure established by the Ministry of Agriculture, named Production-Distribution-Sale Operation, which includes national directions to municipal management. So from the plant to the plate, fruits and vegetables flow through chains that reflect their efficiency on the availability in municipality markets. The general objective of this study is to analyze the structure and operation of the fruits and vegetables supply chain in Marianao municipality at Havana, Cuba. This investigation deals with the identification of the different links and members of this supply chain, its evaluation based on the Reference Models of Logistic and Value Chain and a cause-effect analysis about the problems in the above mentioned chain. The results permit to identify the problems of this municipality and to propose strategies in order to improve the situation, based on the elements of the supply chain.

  5. Urban Stage 2014: Navigating Relationships during a Collaboration between Local Businesses, Nonprofits, a Large University, and a Mid-Sized City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Driskill

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Urban Stage was constructed as a temporary urbanism project to demonstrate environmental, cultural, economic and social sustainability in an urban environment. One block of Avenue J in downtown Lubbock, Texas was constructed and activated between October 30 and November 7, 2014. This paper will focus on the collaboration and decision making processes between the City of Lubbock, Texas Tech University, and community organizations that enabled this project to take place. The collaborative process between these diverse entities was inherently complex by virtue of the existing organizational structures and complicated further by bureaucratic inertia, the bureaucratic avoidance of responsibility. Leadership actions at various levels of organizational structure were required in order to overcome this bureaucratic inertia and install the Urban Stage.

  6. The Meat City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the emergence of the Copenhagen slaughterhouse, called the Meat City, during the late nineteenth century. This slaughterhouse was a product of a number of heterogeneous components: industrialization and new infrastructures were important, but hygiene and the significance...... of Danish bacon exports also played a key role. In the Meat City, this created a distinction between rising production and consumption on the one hand, and the isolation and closure of the slaughtering facility on the other. This friction mirrored an ambivalent attitude towards meat in the urban space: one...... where consumers demanded more meat than ever before, while animals were being removed from the public eye. These contradictions, it is argued, illustrate and underline the change of the city towards a ‘post-domestic’ culture. The article employs a variety of sources, but primarily the Copenhagen...

  7. Mobilities, Futures & the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freudendal-Pedersen, Malene; Kesselring, Sven

    2016-01-01

    significant attention to these shifts in societies’ discursive patterns and structures. For making up powerful and strong visions and policies for sustainable cities, ‘collaborative storytelling’ plays a key role. The theoretical outset for the research project ‘Mobilities, Futures & the City’, which grounds......The future of cities and regions will be strongly shaped by the mobilities of people, goods, modes of transport, waste and information. In many ways, the ‘why and ‘for what’ often get lost in discourses on planning and designing mobilities. The predominant planning paradigm still conceptualizes...... the future of cities and mobilities as a matter of rather more efficient technologies than of social cohesion, integration and connectivity. Sustainable mobility needs the mobilities of ideas and concepts and the reflexivity of policies. Communicative planning theory and the ‘argumentative turn’ have given...

  8. Mapping the gendered city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almahmood, Mohammed Abdulrahman M; Scharnhorst, Eric; Carstensen, Trine Agervig

    2017-01-01

    Walking is a mode of perceiving the city which also contributes to health and social benefits. This paper studies the influence of the socio-cultural aspects on the practice of walking and the meaning of walkscapes in Riyadh, one of the most auto-dependent and gender-segregated cities on the Arab....... The results of mapping where the respondents walk show a city consisting of gender-specific walkscapes. Indoor environments, such as shopping malls, function as ‘urban shelters’ for women, so they use such spaces for walking. On the other hand, young men mainly walk in urban streets, which provide greater...... opportunities for gender interaction. However, streets are socially conceived as men’s walkscapes, which limits women’s presence, especially at certain times of the day. This paper reveals how walking experience, tempo-rhythm, sense of place and range of walkscapes are not only determined by ‘universal’ spatial...

  9. Ultrafine particles in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Morawska, Lidia; Birmili, Wolfram; Paasonen, Pauli; Hu, Min; Kulmala, Markku; Harrison, Roy M; Norford, Leslie; Britter, Rex

    2014-05-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFPs; diameter less than 100 nm) are ubiquitous in urban air, and an acknowledged risk to human health. Globally, the major source for urban outdoor UFP concentrations is motor traffic. Ongoing trends towards urbanisation and expansion of road traffic are anticipated to further increase population exposure to UFPs. Numerous experimental studies have characterised UFPs in individual cities, but an integrated evaluation of emissions and population exposure is still lacking. Our analysis suggests that the average exposure to outdoor UFPs in Asian cities is about four-times larger than that in European cities but impacts on human health are largely unknown. This article reviews some fundamental drivers of UFP emissions and dispersion, and highlights unresolved challenges, as well as recommendations to ensure sustainable urban development whilst minimising any possible adverse health impacts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Meat City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    where consumers demanded more meat than ever before, while animals were being removed from the public eye. These contradictions, it is argued, illustrate and underline the change of the city towards a ‘post-domestic’ culture. The article employs a variety of sources, but primarily the Copenhagen......This article investigates the emergence of the Copenhagen slaughterhouse, called the Meat City, during the late nineteenth century. This slaughterhouse was a product of a number of heterogeneous components: industrialization and new infrastructures were important, but hygiene and the significance...... of Danish bacon exports also played a key role. In the Meat City, this created a distinction between rising production and consumption on the one hand, and the isolation and closure of the slaughtering facility on the other. This friction mirrored an ambivalent attitude towards meat in the urban space: one...

  11. Cities as development drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Bjørn; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Hansen, Jens Aage

    2011-01-01

    possible for modern European cities to contribute to greenhouse gas emission reduction by 15% through up to date technology and integrated waste management systems for material and energy recovery. Going from being part of the problem to providing solutions; however, is not an easy endeavour. It requires....... It is shown that the cities have the potential to significantly contribute to a more sustainable development through increased material recycling and energy recovery. Waste prevention may increase this potential. For example, instead of constituting 3% of the total greenhouse gas emission problem, it seems...

  12. Visions of the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    Visions of the City is a dramatic account of utopian urbanism in the twentieth century. It explores radical demands for new spaces and ways of living, and considers their effects on planning, architecture and struggles to shape urban landscapes. Such visions, it shows, have played a crucial role...... to transform urban space and everyday life. He addresses in particular Constant's vision of New Babylon, finding within his proposals for future spaces produced through nomadic life, creativity and play a still powerful challenge to imagine cities otherwise. The book not only recovers vital moments from past...

  13. Prototyping a Smart City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Henrik; Brynskov, Martin

    In this paper, we argue that by approaching the so-called Smart City as a design challenge, and an interaction design perspective, it is possible to both uncover existing challenges in the interplay between people, technology and society, as well as prototype possible futures. We present a case...... in which we exposed data about the online communication between the citizens and the municipality on a highly visible media facade, while at the same time prototyped a tool that enabled citizens to report ‘bugs’ within the city....

  14. City of open works

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riesto, Svava; Søberg, Martin; Braae, Ellen Marie

    2012-01-01

    Cities change – and so do the tasks and agendas of landscapes architects. New types of urban schemes are increasingly arising. On the one hand, new sorts of commissions have emerged in recent years – on the other hand, traditional commissions have been interpreted in radically new ways. These con......Cities change – and so do the tasks and agendas of landscapes architects. New types of urban schemes are increasingly arising. On the one hand, new sorts of commissions have emerged in recent years – on the other hand, traditional commissions have been interpreted in radically new ways...

  15. Temporal distribution and insecticide resistance profile of two major arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Yaoundé, the capital city of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamgang, Basile; Yougang, Aurelie P; Tchoupo, Micareme; Riveron, Jacob M; Wondji, Charles

    2017-10-10

    Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are the major epidemic vectors of several arbovirus diseases such as yellow fever, dengue, Zika and chikungunya worldwide. Both Aedes vectors are presents in Cameroon; however, knowledge on the dynamic of the distribution of these species across cities and their resistance profile to insecticide are limited. Here, we assessed the current distribution of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in Yaoundé, the Capital City, established the resistance profile to insecticides and explored the resistance mechanisms involved. Immature stages of Aedes were sampled in several breeding sites in December 2015 (dry season) and June 2016 (rainy season) in three central neighborhoods and four peripheral neighborhoods and reared to adult stage. The G0 adults were used for molecular identification and genotyping of F1534C mutation in Ae. aegypti. Bioassays and piperonyl butoxide (PBO) assays were carried out according to WHO guidelines. Analysis revealed that both species Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus are present in all prospected sites in Yaounde. However, in the dry season Ae. aegypti is most abundant in neighborhoods located in downtown. In contrast, Ae. albopictus was found most prevalent in suburbs whatever the season and in downtown during the rainy season. Bioassay analysis showed that both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, are resistant to 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.1% bendiocarb and 4% dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). A decreased of susceptibility to 0.75% permethrin and a full susceptibility to malathion 5% was observed. The mortality rate was increased after pre-exposure to synergist PBO. None of Ae. aegypti assayed revealed the presence of F1534C mutation. These findings are useful to planning vector control programme against arbovirus vectors in Cameroon and can be used as baseline in Africa where data on Aedes resistance is very scarce to plan further works.

  16. Cities and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruebner, Oliver; Rapp, Michael A; Adli, Mazda; Kluge, Ulrike; Galea, Sandro; Heinz, Andreas

    2017-02-24

    More than half of the global population currently lives in cities, with an increasing trend for further urbanization. Living in cities is associated with increased population density, traffic noise and pollution, but also with better access to health care and other commodities. This review is based on a selective literature search, providing an overview of the risk factors for mental illness in urban centers. Studies have shown that the risk for serious mental illness is generally higher in cities compared to rural areas. Epidemiological studies have associated growing up and living in cities with a considerably higher risk for schizophrenia. However, correlation is not causation and living in poverty can both contribute to and result from impairments associated with poor mental health. Social isolation and discrimination as well as poverty in the neighborhood contribute to the mental health burden while little is known about specific interactions between such factors and the built environment. Further insights on the interaction between spatial heterogeneity of neighborhood resources and socio-ecological factors is warranted and requires interdisciplinary research.

  17. WHO Healthy Cities Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, G; Kickbusch, I

    1996-03-01

    This article identifies some urban health challenges and discusses World Health Organization (WHO) concepts of public health, a Municipal Health Plan, and the WHO Healthy Cities Program (HCP). A healthy city is defined as one that continually creates and improves the physical and social environment and expands community resources for enabling the mutual support among population groups for living. Urbanization is advancing rapidly, but government resources are not keeping pace with people's needs. By 1990, at least 600 million urban people in developing countries faced life and health threats. There is poverty, inadequate food and shelter, insecure tenure, physical crowding, poor waste disposal, unsafe working conditions, inadequate local government services, overuse of harmful substances, and environmental pollution. Poor people in cities frequently must satisfy all their basic needs in health, welfare, and employment. There is exposure to early sexual activity of adolescents, transient relationships, high levels of prostitution, and limited birth control. Unsustainable use of natural resources and environmental destruction pose threats to urban productivity and restrict future development options. The WHO launched a "Health for All" campaign in 1978, based on 4 basic principles. The HCP, which is based on these principles, has expanded to many cities. It measures the health burden and makes health issues relevant and understandable to local agencies through analysis and policy advocacy. The Municipal Health Plan facilitates awareness of environmental and health problems in schools, work and marketplaces, health services, and among other organizations.

  18. The City Street

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.C. van der Wouden

    1999-01-01

    Original title: De stad op straat. The city street; the public space in perspective (De stad op straat; de openbare ruimte in perspectief) by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP is intended to contribute to the formation of new ideas about the public space and the future of

  19. Transport for smart cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Buus; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2011-01-01

    ’ activities can be reached within the relative close distances of the city. However, urbanisation has also led to significant disadvantages, of which transport accounts for some of the most severe. Traffic accidents and emissions of air pollutants and noise take heavy tolls in terms of people killed...

  20. Benin City, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    24-48 hours after DAMA, 20.7% of cases were re-adrnitted. Parental fear of accumulation of hospital bills was the commonest reason for DAMA. Mean duration of ..... more health decision—making role in Ilesha than in. Benin City. The reason for this difference is not clear. However, our finding is in consonance with what.

  1. Different Creative Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mark; Vaarst Andersen, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    This article uses a mixed-method study of Denmark to investigate whether and how Richard Florida's creative class theory should be adapted to small welfare economies. First, we carry out an econometric analyses showing that like in North America, the Danish creative class propels economic growth ...... challenges associated with these different cities....

  2. Sound propagation in cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.; Polinder, H.; Lohman, W.; Zhou, H.; Borst, H.

    2009-01-01

    A new engineering model for sound propagation in cities is presented. The model is based on numerical and experimental studies of sound propagation between street canyons. Multiple reflections in the source canyon and the receiver canyon are taken into account in an efficient way, while weak

  3. Airport as city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, M.

    2011-01-01

    The airport city is a two-fold phenomenon: the areas surrounding the airport develop due to their proximity and accessibility to the terminal complex, and the terminal complex itself develops in to a pseudo-urban centre. This situation is manifest to varying extents in all major airports of the

  4. WE LOVE THE CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    With a point of departure in amongst others the Danish office of ADEPT’s approach, ‘The city in the building and the building in the city’ (ADEPT 2012), it is consequently the aim of this article to show how workshops can help shape and develop a spatial and architectural approach to form finding...

  5. Inequalities in European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musterd, S.; Ostendorf, W.; Smith, S.J.; Elsinga, M.; Eng, O.S.; Fox O’Mahony, L.; Wachter, S.

    2012-01-01

    The consequences of inequalities in European cities are a big fear for many governments at the state and urban levels. Journalists, as well as many scholars who are dealing with urban issues, express their fears about the development of social, ethnic, and spatial divisions. Population categories

  6. City of layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2007-01-01

    mobility practices are played out in a relational space where the potential for movement is shifted in favour of the elite and the tourists. The Sky Train reconfigures the mobility patterns of the inner city of Bangkok in ways that are more than planning policies to overcome congestion and traffic jams...

  7. The Emerging City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    ” – urban furniture that was originally part of an election campaign for the cultural minister of Denmark, will illustrate how both political and artistic signatures become deterritorialized through urban space, time and every day social use. The second example is taken from corporate city development...

  8. That City is Mine!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijendijk, Cordula

    2005-01-01

    This thesis is about urban ideal images. It is about dreams - not fictitious beliefs, but dreams that humankind can realize tomorrow. It is about images from intellectuals, pastry cooks, urban planners and firemen. About people who deeply care about their cities, about their hopes, frustrations,

  9. Cities Feeding People

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Above all, UA more generally emerges as the efforts, replicated on a massive scale, of space-starved urbanizing people of developing nations to obtain the very basic, without which there can be no sustainable city, economy, or government: reliable and sufficient supplies of good-quality food affordable by the majority of ...

  10. Cigarette butt littering in city streets: a new methodology for studying and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vimal; Thomson, George W; Wilson, Nick

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the present work were to (a) develop a relatively simple single-observer method for data collection on cigarette butt discarding; and (b) quantify cigarette butt discarding behaviour in city streets. A method was developed, piloted and refined (with interobserver assessment). Cigarette butt discarding was systematically observed by a single data collector while walking a continuous circuit of busy downtown streets in a capital city (Wellington, New Zealand). The final method appeared feasible in this setting and seemed efficient (at 5.5 discarding events observed per hour). A clear majority (76.7%; 95% CI 70.8 to 82.0%) of the 219 smokers observed littered their cigarette butts. Butt littering was more common for those who did not extinguish their cigarette (94.4% vs 4.5%, p=0.003). Butt littering was more common in the evening versus lunchtime periods of observation (85.8% vs 68.1%, p=0.002, logistic regression analysis). Overall, most smokers (73.5%) did not extinguish their butts and some placed lit butts in bins (constituting a risk of bin fires). The context for this littering was a high density of rubbish bins on this circuit with a mean of 3.5 bins being in view and with a bin every 24 m on average. Butt littering behaviour appears to be the norm among smokers in this urban setting, even though rubbish bins were ubiquitous. One solution is stronger enforcement of littering laws. Nevertheless, in a society with a national smokefree goal (by year 2025 for New Zealand), it would probably be more logical and cost effective to move to smokefree policies for major city streets, which are used in a number of jurisdictions internationally.

  11. Sinking coastal cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkens, Gilles; Bucx, Tom; Dam, Rien; De Lange, Ger; Lambert, John

    2014-05-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs. This effects roads and transportation networks, hydraulic infrastructure - such as river embankments, sluice gates, flood barriers and pumping stations -, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. Excessive groundwater extraction after rapid urbanization and population growth is the main cause of severe land subsidence. In addition, coastal cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. Because of ongoing urbanization and population growth in delta areas, in particular in coastal megacities, there is, and will be, more economic development in subsidence-prone areas. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by extreme weather events (short term) and rising sea levels (long term).Consequently, detrimental impacts will increase in the near future, making it necessary to address subsidence related problems now. Subsidence is an issue that involves many policy fields, complex technical aspects and governance embedment. There is a need for an integrated approach in order to manage subsidence and to develop appropriate strategies and measures that are effective and efficient on both the short and long term. Urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management and related spatial planning strategies are just examples of the options available. A major rethink is needed to deal with the 'hidden' but urgent

  12. Less Smart More City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Papa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Smart is an expression used in recent years in science, and it refers to someone or something that shows a lively intelligence, with a quick learning curve and a fast response to external stimuli. The present scenario is dominated by the accelerated technological development that involves every aspect of life, enhancing the everyday tools through the use of information and digital processing: everything is smart, even cities. But when you pair the term smart to a complex organism such as the city the significance of the two together is open to a variety of interpretations, as shown by the vast and varied landscape of definitions that have occurred in recent years. Our contribution presents the results of research aimed at analyzing and interpreting this fragmented scene mainly, but not exclusively, through lexical analysis, applied to a textual corpus of 156 definitions of smart city. In particular, the study identified the main groups of stakeholders that have taken part in the debate, and investigated the differences and convergences that can be detected: Academic, Institutional, and Business worlds. It is undeniable that the term smart has been a veritable media vehicle that, on the one hand brought to the center of the discussion the issue of the city, of increasing strategic importance for the major challenges that humanity is going to face,  and on the other has been a fertile ground on which to pour the interests of different groups and individuals. In a nutshell we can say that from the analysis the different approaches that each group has used and supported emerge clearly and another, alarming, consideration occurs: of the smart part of “Smart City” we clearly grasp the tools useful to the each group of stakeholders, and of the city part, as a collective aspiration, there is often little or nothing.

  13. Hackable Cities : From Subversive City Making to Systemic Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, M.L.; de Waal, Martijn; Foth, Marcus; Verhoeff, Nanna; Martin, Brynskov

    2015-01-01

    The DC9 workshop takes place on June 27, 2015 in Limerick, Ireland and is titled "Hackable Cities: From Subversive City Making to Systemic Change". The notion of "hacking" originates from the world of media technologies but is increasingly often being used for creative ideals and practices of city

  14. The Emergence of City Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Britta; Aastrup, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    . The study aims at understanding the social processes towards reduced congestion and greenhouse gas emissions from goods transport in inner cities. Originality/value: By better understanding the organization processes leading to implementation of city logistics, other projects in other cities may learn from......Purpose: Many city logistics projects in Europe have failed. The purpose of this article is to increase understanding of how city logistics emerge. A better understanding of the complex organizational processes with many actors and stakeholders in city logistics projects may prevent further...... failures. Design/methodology/approach: Theory on organizational change is applied to capture the processes leading to emergence of city logistics. The methodology is process analysis on a single longitudinal case. Findings: The emergence of the Copenhagen city logistics project can be understood...

  15. The Emergence of City Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Britta; Aastrup, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Many city logistics projects in Europe have failed. The purpose of this article is to increase understanding of how city logistics emerge. A better understanding of the complex organizational processes with many actors and stakeholders in city logistics projects may prevent further...... failures. Design/methodology/approach: Theory on organizational change is applied to capture the processes leading to emergence of city logistics. The methodology is process analysis on a single longitudinal case. Findings: The emergence of the Copenhagen city logistics project can be understood....... The study aims at understanding the social processes towards reduced congestion and greenhouse gas emissions from goods transport in inner cities. Originality/value: By better understanding the organization processes leading to implementation of city logistics, other projects in other cities may learn from...

  16. Clean Cities National Partner Awards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-05-01

    U. S. DOE Clean Cities Program has awarded its National Partner awards for 2002, and the awards will be presented at the Clean Cities Conference in May 2002. This fact sheets describe the winners and their contributions.

  17. Peculiarities of city brand communication

    OpenAIRE

    Pilkauskaitė, Dovilė

    2016-01-01

    Peculiarities of City Brand Communication Kaunas city has developed its own brand in 2014, but what communication channels was used are not clear, also unknown internal brand awareness. The paper describes what is a brand, branding, city branding and peculiarities of city brand communication. The aim of this work to investigate Kaunas brand communication peculiarities. The key objectives of the research were: • Extract the essential elements of Kaunas brand (a brand); • Figure out Kaunas bran...

  18. Spatial and temporal variability of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Thornhill

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of the Megacities Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO study in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area in March 2006, we measured particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and other gaseous species and particulate properties, including light absorbing carbon or effective black carbon (BC, at six locations throughout the city. The measurements were intended to support the following objectives: to describe spatial and temporal patterns in PAH concentrations, to gain insight into sources and transformations of PAHs and BC, and to quantify the relationships between PAHs and other pollutants. Total particulate PAHs at the Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo (T0 supersite located near downtown averaged 50 ng m−3, and aerosol active surface area averaged 80 mm2 m−3. PAHs were also measured on board the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory, which visited six sites encompassing a mixture of different land uses and a range of ages of air parcels transported from the city core. A combination of analyses of time series, back trajectories, concentration fields, pollutant ratios, and correlation coefficients supports the concept of T0 as an urban source site, T1 as a receptor site with strong local sources, Pedregal and PEMEX as intermediate sites, Pico Tres Padres as a vertical receptor site, and Santa Ana as a downwind receptor site. Weak intersite correlations suggest that local sources are important and variable and that exposure to PAHs and BC cannot be represented by a single regional-scale value. The relationships between PAHs and other pollutants suggest that a variety of sources and ages of particles are present. Among carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides (NOx, and carbon dioxide, particulate PAHs are most strongly correlated with NOx. Mexico City's PAH/BC mass ratio of 0.01 is similar to that found on a freeway loop in the Los Angeles area and approximately 8–30

  19. Spatial and temporal variability of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, D. A.; de Foy, B.; Herndon, S. C.; Onasch, T. B.; Wood, E. C.; Zavala, M.; Molina, L. T.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Marr, L. C.

    2008-06-01

    As part of the Megacities Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) study in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area in March 2006, we measured particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other gaseous species and particulate properties, including light absorbing carbon or effective black carbon (BC), at six locations throughout the city. The measurements were intended to support the following objectives: to describe spatial and temporal patterns in PAH concentrations, to gain insight into sources and transformations of PAHs and BC, and to quantify the relationships between PAHs and other pollutants. Total particulate PAHs at the Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo (T0 supersite) located near downtown averaged 50 ng m-3, and aerosol active surface area averaged 80 mm2 m-3. PAHs were also measured on board the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory, which visited six sites encompassing a mixture of different land uses and a range of ages of air parcels transported from the city core. A combination of analyses of time series, back trajectories, concentration fields, pollutant ratios, and correlation coefficients supports the concept of T0 as an urban source site, T1 as a receptor site with strong local sources, Pedregal and PEMEX as intermediate sites, Pico Tres Padres as a vertical receptor site, and Santa Ana as a downwind receptor site. Weak intersite correlations suggest that local sources are important and variable and that exposure to PAHs and BC cannot be represented by a single regional-scale value. The relationships between PAHs and other pollutants suggest that a variety of sources and ages of particles are present. Among carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides (NOx), and carbon dioxide, particulate PAHs are most strongly correlated with NOx. Mexico City's PAH/BC mass ratio of 0.01 is similar to that found on a freeway loop in the Los Angeles area and approximately 8 30 times higher than that found in other cities. Evidence also suggests that primary

  20. [Simulation of air pollution characteristics and estimates of environmental capacity in Zibo City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wen-Bo; Wang, Jin-Nan; Yang, Jin-Tian; Lei, Yu; Yan, Li; He, Jin-Yu; Han, Bao-Ping

    2013-04-01

    To develop a new pattern of air pollution control that is based on the integration of "concentration control, total amount control, and quality control", and in the context of developing national (2011-2015 air pollution control plan for key areas) and (Environmental protection plan of Zibo municipality for the "12th Five-Year Plan" period), a simulation of atmospheric dispersion of air pollutants in Zibo City and its peripheral areas is carried out by employing CALPUFF model, and the atmospheric environmental capacity of SO2, NO(x) and PM10 is estimated based on the results of model simulation and using multi-objective linear programming optimization. The results indicates that the air pollution in Zibo City is significantly related to the pollution sources outside of Zibo City, which contributes to the annual average concentration of SO2, NO2 and PM10 in Zibo City by 26.34%, 21.23%, and 14.58% respectively. There is a notable interaction between districts and counties of Zibo municipality, in which the contribution of SO2, NO(x) and PM10 emissions in surrounding counties and districts to the annual average concentrations of SO2, NO2 and PM10 in downtown area are 35.96%, 43.17%, and 17.69% respectively. There is a great variation in spatial sensitivity of air pollutant emission, and the environmental impact of unit pollutant emissions from Zhoucun, Huantai, Zhangdian and Zichuan is greater than that released from other districts/counties. To meet the requirement of (Ambient air quality standard) (GB 3095-2012), the environmental capacities of SO2, NO(x) and PM10 of Zibo City are only 8.03 x 10(4) t, 19.16 x 10(4) t and 3.21 x 10(4) t, respectively. Therefore, it is imperative to implement regional air pollution joint control in Shandong peninsula in order to ensure the achievement of air quality standard in Zibo City.

  1. The City as a Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    on flow and connections. Like the flow of the city – traffic, streets, cables, rivers – has always been a net, it is proposed that the city itself takes the form of a net so as to optimize urban, dense city relations and transportation lengthwise and, crosswise, to optimize green area relations....

  2. Deconstructing Rotterdam's modern city centre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Hoeven, F.D.

    2013-01-01

    In the 20th century, the Dutch city of Rotterdam was radically transformed from a historic town into a modern city, becoming the selfacclaimed 'city of architecture', home to international architectural design offices, publishers and institutions. Although it is already 60 years after the

  3. The city of the merchant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnow, Niels Finn

    The City of the Merchant deals with cities, towns and villages in the European medieval period - i.e. in post-antique and pre-industrial Europe. In actual fact, the book mainly deals with Denmark and Northern Italy (the City States), with digressions to other "feudal" localities in France on Sicily...

  4. Smart City trends and ambitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wijs, Lisanne; Witte, P.A.; de Klerk, Daniel; Geertman, S.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Research into smart city projects and applications has been increasing in recent years (Meijer & Bolivar, 2015). The smart city concept is mostly considered from a technology-oriented perspective that stresses the usage of data technologies, big data and ICT to ‘smarten up’ cities. In contrast,

  5. Smart mobility in smart cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baucells, Aleta N.

    2016-07-01

    Cities are currently undergoing a transformation into the Smart concept, like Smartphones or SmartTV. Many initiatives are being developed in the framework of the Smart Cities projects, however, there is a lack of consistent indicators and methodologies to assess, finance, prioritize and implement this kind of projects. Smart Cities projects are classified according to six axes: Government, Mobility, Environment, Economy, People and Living. (Giffinger, 2007). The main objective of this research is to develop an evaluation model in relation to the mobility concept as one of the six axes of the Smart City classification and apply it to the Spanish cities. The evaluation was carried out in the 62 cities that made up in September 2015 the Spanish Network of Smart Cities (RECI- Red Española de Ciudades Inteligentes). This research is part of a larger project about Smart Cities’ evaluation (+CITIES), the project evaluates RECI’s cities in all the axes. The analysis was carried out taking into account sociodemographic indicators such as the size of the city or the municipal budget per inhabitant. The mobility’s evaluation in those cities has been focused in: sustainability mobility urban plans and measures to reduce the number of vehicles. The 62 cities from the RECI have been evaluated according to their degree of progress in several Smart Cities’ initiatives related to smart mobility. The applied methodology has been specifically made for this project. The grading scale has different ranks depending on the deployment level of smart cities’ initiatives. (Author)

  6. Funding Sustainable Cities in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhan, C.

    2018-01-01

    Currently, more and more people live in cities, and this leads to an enormous increase in global GHG emissions. Cities are blamed for the cause of environmental problems. Therefore, countries over the world aim to approach these problems by launching sustainable city programs. On April 22, 2016,

  7. The Carbon City Index (CCI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Straatman, Bas; Mangalagiu, Diana

    This paper presents a consumption-based Carbon City Index for CO2 emissions in a city. The index is derived from regional consumption and not from regional production. It includes imports and exports of emissions, factual emission developments, green investments as well as low carbon city...

  8. Hellenistic Cities in the Levant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Eva

    2011-01-01

    By far the most of our knowledge on the Hellenistic cities of the Levant comes from the written sources - often combined with numismatic evidence - whereas archaeological discoveries of the Hellenistic layers of the cities are scarce. However, in Beirut excavations have shown interesting results...... in the last decades, for which reason this city is examined further in the article....

  9. Cities at Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke; Elming, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a community-driven science gaming project where students in collaboration with urban planners and youth project workers in the City of Copenhagen used Minecreaft to redesign their neighbourhood to generate solutions to problems in their local area. The project involved 25...... administrated by the City of Copenhagen. Resources were allocated for one of these projects to recondition the subsidized housing for this area. A community-driven science gaming process was designed in which overall challenges for redesign, defined by urban planners, were given to the students to highlight...... their local knowledge about living conditions and solutions for the problems identified. As part of the process students were introduced to central concepts in urban planning defined by leading Danish architects. Over four days, the students defined problems and potentials of the area, constructing models...

  10. URBAN DISPLACEMENT AND LOW-INCOME COMMUNITIES: THE CASE OF THE AMERICAN CITY FROM THE LATE TWENTIETH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Knight

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available How can urban redevelopment benefit existing low-income communities? The history of urban redevelopment is one of disruption of poor communities. Renewal historically offered benefits to the place while pushing out the people. In some cases, displacement is intentional, in others it is unintentional. Often, it is the byproduct of the quest for profits. Regardless of motives, traditional communities, defined by cultural connections, are often disrupted. Disadvantaged neighborhoods include vacant units, which diminish the community and hold back investment. In the postwar period, American cities entered into a program of urban renewal. While this program cleared blight, it also drove displacement among the cities’ poorest and was particularly hard on minority populations clustered in downtown slums. The consequences of these decisions continue to play out today. Concentration of poverty is increasing and American cities are becoming more segregated. As neighborhoods improve, poorer residents are uprooted and forced into even more distressed conditions, elsewhere. This paper examines the history of events impacting urban communities. It further reviews the successes and failures of efforts to benefit low-income communities.

  11. THE USE OF GIS TECHNOLOGY TO IDENTIFY THE SHORTEST TRAVEL PATHS. CASE STUDY: THE CITY OF CRAIOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL SIMULESCU

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In a city with a population of 298.928 inhabitants (January 2009, about 278.7 km of road (without the northern ring road and a road density of 3.1 km/km2, identifying the optimal routes for moving vehicles is a necessary operation under the temporary removal of use (28 months, from March 2011 of some street sectors in the downtown area, which is currently the subject of an infrastructure modernization work, in order to streamline the cars traffic.The optimal routes were identified using Network Analyst extension of ArcGIS Desktop 9.2 software, which calculated the shortest paths between a point of departure and an arrival one, using distance as impedance. In this case the points between which it was intended to identify the shortest routes were selected taking into account the fact that much of the Craiova’s population located in the north – western neighborhoods, faces traffic problems while they are moving toward the center of city. Therefore, this material is intended to be a support, resulted in some maps, in order to identity and choose the best travel route.

  12. NLOS Correction/Exclusion for GNSS Measurement Using RAIM and City Building Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ta Hsu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, global navigation satellite system (GNSS receivers can provide accurate and reliable positioning service in open-field areas. However, their performance in the downtown areas of cities is still affected by the multipath and none-line-of-sight (NLOS receptions. This paper proposes a new positioning method using 3D building models and the receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM satellite selection method to achieve satisfactory positioning performance in urban area. The 3D building model uses a ray-tracing technique to simulate the line-of-sight (LOS and NLOS signal travel distance, which is well-known as pseudorange, between the satellite and receiver. The proposed RAIM fault detection and exclusion (FDE is able to compare the similarity between the raw pseudorange measurement and the simulated pseudorange. The measurement of the satellite will be excluded if the simulated and raw pseudoranges are inconsistent. Because of the assumption of the single reflection in the ray-tracing technique, an inconsistent case indicates it is a double or multiple reflected NLOS signal. According to the experimental results, the RAIM satellite selection technique can reduce by about 8.4% and 36.2% the positioning solutions with large errors (solutions estimated on the wrong side of the road for the 3D building model method in the middle and deep urban canyon environment, respectively.

  13. NLOS Correction/Exclusion for GNSS Measurement Using RAIM and City Building Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Li-Ta; Gu, Yanlei; Kamijo, Shunsuke

    2015-07-17

    Currently, global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers can provide accurate and reliable positioning service in open-field areas. However, their performance in the downtown areas of cities is still affected by the multipath and none-line-of-sight (NLOS) receptions. This paper proposes a new positioning method using 3D building models and the receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) satellite selection method to achieve satisfactory positioning performance in urban area. The 3D building model uses a ray-tracing technique to simulate the line-of-sight (LOS) and NLOS signal travel distance, which is well-known as pseudorange, between the satellite and receiver. The proposed RAIM fault detection and exclusion (FDE) is able to compare the similarity between the raw pseudorange measurement and the simulated pseudorange. The measurement of the satellite will be excluded if the simulated and raw pseudoranges are inconsistent. Because of the assumption of the single reflection in the ray-tracing technique, an inconsistent case indicates it is a double or multiple reflected NLOS signal. According to the experimental results, the RAIM satellite selection technique can reduce by about 8.4% and 36.2% the positioning solutions with large errors (solutions estimated on the wrong side of the road) for the 3D building model method in the middle and deep urban canyon environment, respectively.

  14. Limerick, City and County

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Postcard. Colour drawings of maps of Limerick city and county and Foynes - transatlantic air base flying boat, Dromore Castle, Glenstal Abbey, Ardagh Chalice, Askeaton; the Abbey, Gate Loge Adare Manor, Newcastlewest, King John's Castle, St. Mary's Cathedral (Church of Ireland), The Old Custom House, The Hunt Museum, The Old Mill and Bridge croom, The Coll (de Valera) Cottage Buree, Town Gate Kilmallock, Lough Gur Interpretive Centre, Hospital Ancient hostelry and The Treaty Stone. Copyright ...

  15. Practicing the Generic (City)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2010-01-01

    Flanagan proposes that most locative media artworks neglect the particularities of spaces, their historical and political layers. Koolhaas, on the other hand, states that all urban areas are alike, that we are facing a global Generic City. The paper analyses digital media artist Esther Polak......’s NomadicMILK project in light of the generic and particular properties of space as laid out by Flanagan and Koolhaas in order to discuss the possible reconfiguring practices of locative media....

  16. alien city. Grad u toku / alien city. The City In Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Smolińska

    2012-12-01

    the threshold of the city. alien city could be compared with the so-called ideal, perfectly laid out cities (for example Sforzinda by Filarete and its dynamic structure could be juxtaposed with a monad, proposed by G.W. Leibnitz. It is processual, unstable, elusive and limitless. As a delocalized and nomadic structure alien city cannot have any stable history — in contrary, it’s history is changeable, indefi nite and, in fact, unpredictable.

  17. Subpoblaciones con perfiles epidemiológicos y de riesgo singulares en La Habana, Cuba: diabetes, hipertensión y tabaquismo Subpopulations with particular epidemiologic profiles and risks in Havana, Cuba: diabetes, hypertension, and tobacco-related illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Díaz-Perera

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar y caracterizar grupos poblacionales con perfiles de mayor riesgo y morbilidad para la diabetes de tipo II, la hipertensión y el tabaquismo. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio transversal en 840 familias asistidas en 12 consultorios del médico y la enfermera de la familia en La Habana, Cuba. Se aplicó un análisis de conglomerados basado en modelos (model-based cluster analysis para identificar subpoblaciones con perfiles de morbilidad y riesgo singulares. Las subpoblaciones se compararon con respecto a indicadores clave. RESULTADOS: Se identificó y caracterizó una subpoblación con alta carga de morbilidad y un perfil particular de riesgo. La variable determinante en su definición es la percepción subjetiva de la situación económica. Las familias de este grupo tienen mayor densidad por vivienda de diabetes, hipertensión y tabaquismo y se distribuyen entre todos los consultorios. En promedio son familias más pequeñas, y tienen entre dos y tres años menos de escolaridad, una percepción peor de su situación económica y una edad promedio mayor. CONCLUSIONES: Se identificaron subpoblaciones con niveles más altos de concentración de la carga de morbilidad y con perfiles de riesgo propios. Estas subpoblaciones exhiben ciertos rasgos consistentes con las tendencias en la arquitectura social de las familias cubanas, que se han ido consolidando en los dos últimos decenios.OBJECTIVE: Identify and describe population groups with greater risk and morbidity profiles for type II diabetes, hypertension, and tobacco-related illnesses. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out of 840 families under the care of 12 family doctors and nurses in Havana, Cuba. A model-based cluster analysis was used to identify subpopulations with specific morbidity and risk profiles. Key indicators of the subpopulations were compared. RESULTS: A subpopulation with a high disease burden and a particular risk profile was identified and

  18. 78 FR 23869 - Safety Zone; Redwood City 4th of July Fireworks Show; Port of Redwood City, Redwood City, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Redwood City 4th of July Fireworks Show; Port of Redwood City, Redwood City, CA... establish a temporary safety zone in the navigable waters of the Port of Redwood City near Redwood City, CA in support of the Redwood City 4th of July Fireworks Show on July 4, 2013. This safety zone is...

  19. Deconstructing Rotterdam's modern city centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank van der Hoeven

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the 20th century, the Dutch city of Rotterdam was radically transformed from a historic town into a modern city, becoming the selfacclaimed 'city of architecture', home to international architectural design offices, publishers and institutions. Although it is already 60 years after the destruction of the Rotterdam inner city, the city still struggles to be the vibrant, rigorous urban environment it needs to be in order to attract the so-called creative class.This article provides a contextual overview of the transformations of a number of key public spaces that are symbolic for the challenges the city faces. After the post-war reconstruction the city continue to transform itself beyond modernism.

  20. Towards what kind of city?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Coletta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The virtual city exists in “time” whereas the real city exists in “space”. The first one is an expression of our imagination, the second one of our ability to create. Time has articulated the images of cities as artisan philosophers, historians, artists, dreamers and even poets have given it to us. Space has generated cities which have been worked upon by geographers, geologists, surveyors, and finally urban planners. Space and time however live together in both cities, even if with alternating states of subordination. The culture of thinking, of decision making and of working is the unifying center of both the cities; it is the generating element both of the crises and the prosperity of the cities and it works towards an overcoming of the first and for the pursuit of the second (prosperity using the experience of the past for the making of a better future.

  1. Energy and the city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Martinico

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial planning should have a key role in creating urban environments that support less energy-intense lifestyles. A wise consideration of energy in urban land use policies should play an important role considering that, in spite of having a land occupation of 2% and accommodating 50% of the world population, cities produce 80% of GHG emissions and consume 80 % of the world’s resources.In the building industry, the green economy is already part of the designers’ approach. This has already produced several energy efficient buildings that also feature high architectural quality. Now is the turn of cities to take the same direction in developing the capacity of formulating sounded urban policies. This will contribute to develop adequate new tools for achieving the energy efficiency goal.Climate change concern, the dominating environmental paradigm, is permeating the political scenario worldwide, producing a plethora of formal documents. The most recent one is the COP21 agreed in Paris in December 2015, after the failure of the Copenhagen summit in 2009, and formally signed in April 2016 in New York. The challenge for land use planning now is to translate these general commitments into actions that modify planning practices at all levels, from cities to regions.In this field, the current situation is extremely varied. EU has issued several documents focussed mainly at building level but also sustainable transports are considered a key issue. However, a further step is needed in order to increase the level of integration among all land use approaches, including the idea of green infrastructure as a key component of any human settlement. (European Commission, 2013. The relationship between urbanisation and climate change has become key worldwide but looking at it from a Mediterranean perspective arises some specificities, considering also the political strain that this part of the world is facing. Both Southern Europe and Middle East and North

  2. Water for cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajumulo Tibaijuka, A.

    2003-01-01

    Africa has entered the new Millennium with a sense of hope and renewed confidence. With widening and deepening of political reforms, economic liberalization and a strengthened civil society, an increasing number of African countries are striving towards economic recovery and sustainable development. But also Africa is a continent of paradox. Home to the world's longest river, the Nile, and the second largest freshwater lake, Lake Victoria. Africa has abundant water resources contributed by large rivers, vast stretches of wetlands and limited, but widely spread, groundwater. Yet only a limited number of countries are beneficiaries of this abundance. Fourteen African countries account for 80% of the total water available on the continent, while 12 of the countries together account for only 1% of water availability. Some 400 million people are estimated to be living in water-scarce condition today. Indeed my home country, Tanzania, claims over 40% of Africa's water resources from Lake Victoria, Lake Tanganaika and other major water bodies. Water in Africa is not only unfairly distributed by nature but, due to backward technology and underdevelopment, it remains also inadequately allocated by man. At the turn of the new Millennium, over 300 million people in Africa still do not have access to safe water. But perhaps nowhere is the challenge more complex and demanding than in the rapidly growing African cities. With an average growth rate of 5% per annum, Africa is the fastest urbanizing region in the world today. Between 1990 and 2020, in many of our life times, urban populations in Africa will rise fourfold from 138 to 500 million. The 'Water for African Cities Programme' is demonstrating, in seven African countries (Cote d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Senegal, South Africa and Zambia), how to put in place an integrated urban water resource management strategy that could bring three key sectors -- urban, environment and water -- to work together. Tanzania is the

  3. Playable cities the city as a digital playground

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses the topic of playable cities, which use the ‘smartness’ of digital cities to offer their citizens playful events and activities. The contributions presented here examine various aspects of playable cities, including developments in pervasive and urban games, the use of urban data to design games and playful applications, architecture design and playability, and mischief and humor in playable cities. The smartness of digital cities can be found in the sensors and actuators that are embedded in their environment. This smartness allows them to monitor, anticipate and support our activities and increases the efficiency of the cities and our activities. These urban smart technologies can offer citizens playful interactions with streets, buildings, street furniture, traffic, public art and entertainment, large public displays and public events.

  4. A study of the Oklahoma City urban heat island using ground measurements and remote sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M. J. (Michael J.); Ivey, A. (Austin); McPherson, T. N. (Timothy N.); Boswell, D. (David); Pardyjak, E. R. (Eric R.)

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of temperature and position were collected during the night from an instrumented van on routes through Oklahoma City and the rural outskirts. The measurements were taken as part of the Joint URBAN 2003 Tracer Field Experiment conducted in Oklahoma City from June 29, 2003 to July 30, 2003 (Allwine et al., 2004). The instrumented van was driven over four primary routes that included legs from the downtown core to four different 'rural' areas. Each route went through residential areas and most often went by a line of permanently fixed temperature probes (Allwine et al., 2004) for cross-checking purposes. Each route took from 20 to 40 minutes to complete. Based on seven nights of data, initial analyses indicate that there was a temperature difference of 0.5-6.5 C between the urban core and nearby 'rural' areas. Analyses also suggest that there were significant fine scale temperature differences over distances of tens of meters within the city and in the nearby rural areas. The temperature measurements that were collected are intended to supplement the meteorological measurements taken during the Joint URBAN 2003 Field Experiment, to assess the importance of the urban heat island phenomenon in Oklahoma City, and to test new urban canopy parameterizations that have been developed for regional scale meteorological codes (e.g., Chin et al., 2000; Holt and Shi, 2004). In addition to the ground measurements, skin temperature measurements were also analyzed from remotely sensed images taken from the Earth Observing System's Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). A surface kinetic temperature thermal infrared image captured by the ASTER of the Oklahoma City area on July 21, 2001 was analyzed within ESRI's ArcGIS 8.3 to correlate variations in temperature with land use type. Analysis of this imagery suggests distinct variations in temperature across different land use categories. Through the use of

  5. Large cities are less green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Erneson A; Andrade, José S; Makse, Hernán A

    2014-02-28

    We study how urban quality evolves as a result of carbon dioxide emissions as urban agglomerations grow. We employ a bottom-up approach combining two unprecedented microscopic data on population and carbon dioxide emissions in the continental US. We first aggregate settlements that are close to each other into cities using the City Clustering Algorithm (CCA) defining cities beyond the administrative boundaries. Then, we use data on CO2 emissions at a fine geographic scale to determine the total emissions of each city. We find a superlinear scaling behavior, expressed by a power-law, between CO2 emissions and city population with average allometric exponent β = 1.46 across all cities in the US. This result suggests that the high productivity of large cities is done at the expense of a proportionally larger amount of emissions compared to small cities. Furthermore, our results are substantially different from those obtained by the standard administrative definition of cities, i.e. Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). Specifically, MSAs display isometric scaling emissions and we argue that this discrepancy is due to the overestimation of MSA areas. The results suggest that allometric studies based on administrative boundaries to define cities may suffer from endogeneity bias.

  6. Energy and the city

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Martinico

    2017-01-01

    Spatial planning should have a key role in creating urban environments that support less energy-intense lifestyles. A wise consideration of energy in urban land use policies should play an important role considering that, in spite of having a land occupation of 2% and accommodating 50% of the world population, cities produce 80% of GHG emissions and consume 80 % of the world’s resources.In the building industry, the green economy is already part of the designers’ approach. This has already pr...

  7. Experience City.DK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans; Jensen, Ole B.

    om en stribe af kulturelle begivenheder. Kulturnætter, karneval, festuger og events med i udgangspunkt i så forskellige temaer som historie, poesi, lys, naturvidenskab og musik mv. Der er tale om en "kulturel podning af byen" - både aktivitesmæssigt, fysisk og arkitektonisk som gør, at de centrale...... bydele omtales som "oplevelsesbyen". Den kulturelle podning stiller krav til de fysiske omgivelser, til arkitekturen og til design af byrum. Experience City.DK undersøger betingelser for og konsekvenser af nye hybride kulturprojekter og performative byrum i danske byer....

  8. New city spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehl, Jan; Gemzøe, Lars

    2001-01-01

    2. rev. udg. engelsk udgave af 'Nye byrum'. This book presents an overview of the developments in the use and planning of public spaces, and offers a detailed description of 9 cities with interesting public space strategies: Barcelona, Lyon, Strasbourg, Freiburg and Copenhagen in Europe, Portland...... in North America, Curitiba and Cordoba in South America and Melbourne in Australia. It also portrays 39 selected public space projects from all parts of the World. The strategies and projects are extensively illustrated by drawings, plans and photographs....

  9. Futures of cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkitektskole. Bogen  har 3 dele. Principles: Copenhagen Agenda for Sustainable Living, 10 principper udviklet af Ugebrevet Mandag Morgen illustreret af arkitektstuderende. Congress: Futures of Cities, Emerging Urbanisms- Emerging Practices, oplæg fra unge tegnestuer til temaet fremlagt på Student Congress....... Competition: Ranko Radovic Student Competition, 193 projekter fra alle verdensdele indleveret til studenterkonkurrencen. I bogen er indlagt en cd-rom med en 4 minutter lang film udgivet af bogens forfattere og redigeret af Squint/Opera Ltd, UK. Musik af Martin Bennebo og Karen Duelund Mortensen, produceret af...

  10. Towards Smart City Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Stan, Catalin; Wøldike, Niels Peter

    2015-01-01

    We present an approach to geometry learning that is based on a didactic theory, which builds on play in order to discover and learn about geometry. Inspired by this theory, a mobile and location-aware game has been developed that aims at embodying geometric concepts in the real world. To this end......, the concept of smart city learning is exploited to situate learning about geometric shapes in concrete buildings and thus make them more accessible for younger children. In close collaboration with a local school a game for 3rd graders was developed and tested on a field trip and in class. A mixed measures...

  11. Playing with the city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosca, Susana; Marquez, Israel

    2017-01-01

    that street art encapsulates the act of playing videogames in a visual form. Digital play spills out of our computer screens and occupies the urban space with the explicit intention of involving spectators, who are invited to play in symbolic ways that actualize nostalgic memories of gaming and can be related......In this paper we introduce and describe the phenomenon of videogame street art as a specific kind of street art. We consider its materiality and significance, and conceptualize it in the light of a double manifestation of play: the playful appropriation of the city by the artist and the fact...

  12. Deturned City Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2012-01-01

    . It draws lines back to the artistic and architectural avant-garde in the 1960s, where the Situationist Movement criticized the absence of atmosphere in modernistic architecture and suburban cities. Along this line they promoted mapping tools and artistic ‘construction of situations’ s that could evoke...... of ‘constructed situations’ which mirror and reflect the present poverty of our urban environment and give way for other experiences in public spaces. It advocates for development of ‘relate architecture’ in permanent architecture as well in temporal urban installations and the conclusion is, that this kind...

  13. City of Epitaphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Hicks

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The pavement lies like a ledger-stone on a tomb. Buried underneath are the remains of fertile landscapes and the life they once supported. Inscribed on its upper side are epitaphic writings. Whatever their ostensible purpose, memorial plaques and public artworks embedded in the pavement are ultimately expressions of civic bereavement and guilt. The pavement's role as both witness and accomplice to fatality is confirmed by private individuals who publicize their grief with death notices graffitied on the asphalt. To walk the city is to engage in a dialogue about death.

  14. Responsive City Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Esben Skouboe; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper presents and discusses perspectives extracted from two interviews conducted during the experiments Urban Responsive Lighting. The two experts embody two different fields related to city lighting: architecture & public lighting industry. The representatives were invited to the test......-site, where 15 LED RGB Park lamps, controlled driven by a wind sensor, mobile phone applications or by thermal camera tracking. According to the specialists are the social and aesthetical dimensions more interesting than the energy use cases and efficiency. This motivates an interdisciplinary discussion...

  15. Playable Cities: The City as a Digital Playground

    OpenAIRE

    Nijholt, Anton

    2017-01-01

    The first book to exhaustively review key recent research into playability in smart and digital cities. - Addresses pervasive games and the relation between gameful and gamified applications and the design of playful architecture - Includes special chapters on playful civic hacking applications and the use of urban data for playful applications This book addresses the topic of playable cities, which use the ‘smartness’ of digital cities to offer their citizens playful events and activities. T...

  16. Going Downtown: The Need for Precision Mout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-17

    expanding urban complexes especially in Western Europe and mainland Asia . Large conurbations like Rhein-Main in Germany are a serious obstacle to maneuver...future battlefield in Europe and Asia . The urban growth in all areas of the world has changed the face of the battlefield. It includes all man-made...Vietnam, U.S. - Communist Confrontation in Southeast Asia , Volume 3, 1968, New York Facts on File, Inc., 1993, pp. 33-51. Milton, T.R. Jr., Urban

  17. Danish Downtown Redevelopment and Transformation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagnby, Bo

    A long view of how Danish town centres have been planned and redeveloped from the time when spaces of capital and consumption established themselves in Danish towns after the Second World War, and when the former market and tradings centres had to adapt to a new reality characterized by economic...

  18. The Trading Axis in Irkutsk Downtown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals a linear concentration of the trading function in the historical center of Irkutsk. It features historical prerequisites and continuation of the tradition in the post-Soviet period, given the conversion of plants and factories. The article analyses the current state and prospects of modernization of the trading axis with its transformation into a modern public space.

  19. CityGML - Interoperable semantic 3D city models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröger, Gerhard; Plümer, Lutz

    2012-07-01

    CityGML is the international standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) for the representation and exchange of 3D city models. It defines the three-dimensional geometry, topology, semantics and appearance of the most relevant topographic objects in urban or regional contexts. These definitions are provided in different, well-defined Levels-of-Detail (multiresolution model). The focus of CityGML is on the semantical aspects of 3D city models, its structures, taxonomies and aggregations, allowing users to employ virtual 3D city models for advanced analysis and visualization tasks in a variety of application domains such as urban planning, indoor/outdoor pedestrian navigation, environmental simulations, cultural heritage, or facility management. This is in contrast to purely geometrical/graphical models such as KML, VRML, or X3D, which do not provide sufficient semantics. CityGML is based on the Geography Markup Language (GML), which provides a standardized geometry model. Due to this model and its well-defined semantics and structures, CityGML facilitates interoperable data exchange in the context of geo web services and spatial data infrastructures. Since its standardization in 2008, CityGML has become used on a worldwide scale: tools from notable companies in the geospatial field provide CityGML interfaces. Many applications and projects use this standard. CityGML is also having a strong impact on science: numerous approaches use CityGML, particularly its semantics, for disaster management, emergency responses, or energy-related applications as well as for visualizations, or they contribute to CityGML, improving its consistency and validity, or use CityGML, particularly its different Levels-of-Detail, as a source or target for generalizations. This paper gives an overview of CityGML, its underlying concepts, its Levels-of-Detail, how to extend it, its applications, its likely future development, and the role it plays in scientific research. Furthermore, its

  20. Urban remote sensing applications: TIMS observations of the City of Scottsdale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Philip R.; Melendrez, David E.; Anderson, Donald L.; Hamilton, Victoria E.; Wenrich, Melissa L.; Howard, Douglas

    1995-01-01

    A research program has been initiated between Arizona State University and the City of Scottsdale, Arizona to study the potential applications of TIMS (Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner) data for urban scene classification, desert environmental assessment, and change detection. This program is part of a long-term effort to integrate remote sensing observations into state and local planning activities to improve decision making and future planning. Specific test sites include a section of the downtown Scottsdale region that has been mapped in very high detail as part of a pilot program to develop an extensive GIS database. This area thus provides excellent time history of the evolution of the city infrastructure, such as the timing and composition of street repavement. A second area of study includes the McDowell intensive study by state and local agencies to assess potential sites for urban development as well as preservation. These activities are of particular relevance as the Phoenix metropolitan area undergoes major expansion into the surrounding desert areas. The objectives of this study in urban areas are aimed at determining potential applications of TIMS data for classifying and assessing land use and surface temperatures. Land use centers on surface impermeability studies for storm runoff assessment and pollution control. These studies focus on determining the areal abundance of urban vegetation and undeveloped soil. Highly experimental applications include assessment and monitoring of pavement condition. Temperature studies focus on determining swimming pool area and temperature for use in monitoring evaporating and urban water consumption. These activities are of particular relevance as the Phoenix metropolitan area undergoes major expansion into the surrounding desert area.

  1. Práticas e comportamento alimentar no meio urbano: um estudo no centro da cidade de São Paulo Eating practices and behavior in the urban environment: a study in downtown São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Wanda Diez Garcia

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho explora a dimensão da comida no modo de vida urbano, tendo em vista as implicações que este modo de vida tem nos hábitos alimentares e nas representações simbólicas envolvidas. Utilizamos como referencial teórico os conceitos de representação social e de habitus para abordarmos a experiência alimentar. A metodologia utilizada foi a análise qualitativa do discurso de 21 funcionários administrativos e o estudo de observação em estabelecimentos comerciais, como lanchonetes e restaurantes na região central de São Paulo. O estudo do comportamento alimentar foi exposto em dois planos: o dos alimentos e preparações consumidos e o dos desejados. Por sua origem no universo doméstico, os aspectos simbólicos associados à alimentação têm uma forte matriz afetiva. As condições concretas do meio urbano associadas aos limites financeiros do sujeito estabelecem um arcabouço de valores e sentimentos compatíveis com suas possibilidades. A abreviação dos rituais alimentares e suas implicações no comportamento alimentar são abordados bem como as características do atual padrão de alimentação urbano.This study focuses on the implications of urban life style on eating habits and the related symbolic representations. Theoretical references used to approach the food experience are the concepts of social representation and habitus. The methodology consisted of a qualitative analysis of interviews with 21 administrative employees and field observations made at commercial establishments in downtown São Paulo, such as snack bars and restaurants. Study of eating behavior and practices was developed along two planes: food actually eaten and food desired. Results were classified into three segments: "ingesting and digesting affection", "determinants of social representations of eating practices", and "rituals in eating practices". Due to their origin in a domestic universe, symbolic aspects associated with food have a

  2. in Beirut City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. El Khoury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of nutritional supplements among exercisers in gyms has been never investigated in the Middle East. The aim of the current study was to assess the prevalence intake of nutritional supplements and the potential influencing factors among people exercising in gyms in Beirut city. In this cross-sectional study, 512 exercisers, aged between 20 and 50 years, were randomly selected from gyms. The intake of nutritional supplements was reported among 36.3% (95% confidence interval 32.2–40.5 of participants, with a weak presence of medical supervision. Patterns of supplement use differed by gender and age. Men and younger exercisers were found to focus on supplements associated with performance enhancement and muscle building, while women and older exercisers were more concerned with health-promoting products such as vitamins, minerals, and herbal supplements. An appropriate dissemination of accurate and scientifically sound information regarding the benefits and side effects of nutritional supplements is highly recommended in the sports environment in Beirut city.

  3. Biophilic Cities and Healthy Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Beatley

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Biophilia holds that as a species humans are innately drawn to nature and to living things. Mounting research confirms the many positive health benefits of contact with nature, and the need for daily (and hourly contact with the natural environment in order to live happy, healthy, meaningful lives. A new vision of Biophilic Cities is put forward here: cities that are nature-abundant, that seek to protect and grow nature, and that foster deep connections with the natural world. This article describes the emergence of this global movement, the new and creative ways that cities are restoring, growing and connecting with nature, and the current status and trajectory of a new global Biophilic Cities Network, launched in 2013. There remain open questions, and significant challenges, to advancing the Biophilic Cities vision, but it also presents unusual opportunities to create healthier, livable cities and societies.

  4. The Emergence of City Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Britta

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: – Many city logistics projects in Europe have failed. A better understanding of the complex organizational change processes in city logistics projects with many stakeholders may expand city logistics capabilities and thereby help prevent future failures. The purpose of this paper...... is therefore to increase understanding of how city logistics emerge, and secondarily, to investigate whether such processes can be managed at all. Design/methodology/approach: – A paradigm shift in urban planning creates new ways of involving stakeholders in new sustainability measures such as city logistics....... Organizational change theory is applied to capture the social processes leading to emergence of city logistics. The methodology is a qualitative processual analysis of a single longitudinal case. Findings: – The change process took different forms over time. At the time of concluding the analysis, positive...

  5. City project and public space

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The book aims at nurturing theoretic reflection on the city and the territory and working out and applying methods and techniques for improving our physical and social landscapes. The main issue is developed around the projectual dimension, with the objective of visualising both the city and the territory from a particular viewpoint, which singles out the territorial dimension as the city’s space of communication and negotiation. Issues that characterise the dynamics of city development will be faced, such as the new, fresh relations between urban societies and physical space, the right to the city, urban equity, the project for the physical city as a means to reveal civitas, signs of new social cohesiveness, the sense of contemporary public space and the sustainability of urban development. Authors have been invited to explore topics that feature a pluralism of disciplinary contributions studying formal and informal practices on the project for the city and seeking conceptual and operative categories capab...

  6. The dynamics of city formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, J Vernon; Venables, Anthony J

    2009-04-01

    This paper examines city formation in a country whose urban population is growing steadily over time, with new cities required to accommodate this growth. In contrast to most of the literature there is immobility of housing and urban infrastructure, and investment in these assets is taken on the basis of forward-looking behavior. In the presence of these fixed assets cities form sequentially, without the population swings in existing cities that arise in current models, but with swings in house rents. Equilibrium city size, absent government, may be larger or smaller than is efficient, depending on how urban externalities vary with population. Efficient formation of cities with internalization of externalities involves local government intervention and borrowing to finance development. The paper explores the institutions required for successful local government intervention.

  7. Host City Contract operational requirements

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Host City Contract - Operational Requirements (the “HCC Operational Requirements”) are an important part of the Host City Contract, detailing a set of core elements for the project, which provide Olympic quality conditions for the athletes and all participants, while at the same time allowing potential host cities to responsibly match their Games concepts to their own sport, economic, social, and environmental long-term planning needs.

  8. [Chronic diseases and functional limitation in older adults: a comparative study in seven cities of Latin America and the Caribbean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, Jesús; Guevara, Adialys; Arcia, Néstor; León Díaz, Esther María; Marín, Clara; Alfonso, Juan C

    2005-01-01

    To identify the relationship between selected chronic diseases and the presence of disability in inhabitants 60 years old or older in seven cities of Latin America and the Caribbean. In 2000 and 2001 a descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 10 891 persons 60 or older in seven cities: Bridgetown, Barbados; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Havana, Cuba; Mexico City, Mexico; Montevideo, Uruguay; Santiago, Chile; and São Paulo, Brazil. This research was part of the Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento (Health, Well-Being, and Aging) project (known as the "SABE project"). The dependent variables in the study were difficulty in performing basic activities of daily living, and difficulty in performing instrumental activities of daily living. Compiled from self-reports, the independent variables were: age, sex, educational level, living alone or with other person(s), self-assessed health, and the presence or not of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular diseases, and osteoarthritis. The presence of depression and cognitive impairment in the participants was evaluated, and body mass index was also calculated. To compare the degree of influence of the different variables on disability, a standardized coefficient for each association was calculated. In the seven cities studied, the variables that showed a direct association with difficulty in carrying out basic activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living were: suffering from a higher number of noncommunicable diseases, from cerebrovascular diseases, from osteoarthritis, or from depression; being older; being female; rating one's own health as bad; and experiencing cognitive impairment. In general the strongest associations were between difficulty in carrying out instrumental activities of daily living and depression, being older, reporting one's health as bad, and the presence of cerebrovascular diseases

  9. CAPITAL, SUBJECT, AND CITY. READINGS OF THE CITY AND THE HUMANISTIC CRISIS: THE MEDELLIN CASE. CAPITAL, SUJETO Y CIUDAD. LECTURAS DE LA CIUDAD Y LA CRISIS HUMANISTA. EL CASO MEDELLÍN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Insuasty Rodriguez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This current text presents a result of analysis of the resulting information of the First Urban Counter-Hegemonic Forum, held in the city of Medellin, as a culmination of a series of city discussions carried out during the year 2013. It deals with an input that was thought in four sections, where downtown is the relationship among city, capitalism, war, and subjects in the city of Medellin. Likewise, it emphasizes the presence of the war more explicitly and it exposes how the capitalism that enters in a forceful way, undergoes transformations linked to the model of the city marketing, the city of the services, and the strong presence of a globalizing discourse, that also has effects on the urban screen and the social classes, subjects, and / or popular sectors. The text ends up trying to characterize the subjects, that in the previous dynamics, produce as being alienated, exploited, or oppressed, but also as resistance and/or emancipation in order to close with approaches - challenges, corresponding to the social research. RESUMEN: El presente texto presenta un resultado del análisis de la información resultante del I Foro Contra-Hegemónico Urbano, realizado en la ciudad de Medellín, culmen de una serie de conversatorios de ciudad realizados durante el año 2013, se trata de un insumo que se pensó en cuatro apartes donde el centro es la relación entre ciudad, capitalismo, guerra y sujetos en la ciudad de Medellín, así mismo, se enfatiza en la presencia de la guerra de manera más explícita y se expone cómo el capitalismo que ingresa de manera contundente, sufre trasformaciones ligadas al modelo de las city marketing, la ciudad de los servicios y la fuerte presencia de un discurso globalizador, que también tiene efectos en la retícula urbana y las clases sociales, sujetos y/o sectores populares. Finaliza el texto intentando una caracterización de los sujetos que las dinámicas anteriores producen como alienados, explotados u

  10. Influence of exposure differences on city-to-city heterogeneity ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-city population-based epidemiological studies have observed heterogeneity between city-specific fine particulate matter (PM2.5)-mortality effect estimates. These studies typically use ambient monitoring data as a surrogate for exposure leading to potential exposure misclassification. The level of exposure misclassification can differ by city affecting the observed health effect estimate. The objective of this analysis is to evaluate whether previously developed residential infiltration-based city clusters can explain city-to-city heterogeneity in PM2.5 mortality risk estimates. In a prior paper 94 cities were clustered based on residential infiltration factors (e.g. home age/size, prevalence of air conditioning (AC)), resulting in 5 clusters. For this analysis, the association between PM2.5 and all-cause mortality was first determined in 77 cities across the United States for 2001–2005. Next, a second stage analysis was conducted evaluating the influence of cluster assignment on heterogeneity in the risk estimates. Associations between a 2-day (lag 0–1 days) moving average of PM2.5 concentrations and non-accidental mortality were determined for each city. Estimated effects ranged from −3.2 to 5.1% with a pooled estimate of 0.33% (95% CI: 0.13, 0.53) increase in mortality per 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5. The second stage analysis determined that cluster assignment was marginally significant in explaining the city-to-city heterogeneity. The health effe

  11. U.S. Geological Survey Georgia Water Science Center and City of Brunswick- Glynn County Cooperative Water Program-Summary of Activities, July 2005 through June 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Gregory S.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1959, the U.S. Geological Survey has conducted a cooperative water resources program (CWP) with the City of Brunswick and Glynn County in the Brunswick, Georgia, area. Since the late 1950s, the salinity of ground water in the Upper Floridan aquifer near downtown Brunswick, Georgia, has been increasing, and its occurrence has been detected across an area of increasing size. Pumping of the Upper Floridan aquifer near downtown Brunswick has lowered water levels in the aquifer and resulted in an upward hydraulic gradient between the highly saline parts of the Lower Floridan aquifer and the normally fresh Upper Floridan aquifer. Saltwater likely enters the Upper Floridan aquifer through localized, vertically oriented conduits of relatively high permeability and moves laterally in response to the distribution of stresses within the aquifer. The Brunswick-Glynn County CWP for fiscal year 2006 includes the operation and maintenance of 12 continuous water-level recorders. In addition, water-level data were collected from 52 wells and water from 70 wells was analyzed for chloride concentration during June 2005. Geophysical logs were obtained from one well to assess whether the cause of elevated chloride concentration could be due to leaky well casing. A summary of the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Environmental Protection Division (GaEPD) Georgia Coastal Sound Science Initiative (CSSI) activities that directly benefit the CWP-Brunswick-Glynn County is included in this report. The GaEPD CSSI is a program of scientific and feasibility studies to support development of a final strategy to protect the Upper Floridan aquifer from saltwater contamination. These data presented in this report are needed by State and local authorities to manage water resources effectively in the coastal area of Georgia.

  12. Smart Cities Will Need Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru WOINAROSCHY

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A smart city is a sustainable and efficient urban centre that provides a high quality of life to its inhabitants through optimal management of its resources. Chemical industry has a key role to play in the sustainable evolution of the smart cities. Additionally, chemistry is at the heart of all modern industries, including electronics, information technology, biotechnology and nano-technology. Chemistry can make the smart cities project more sustainable, more energy efficient and more cost effective. There are six broad critical elements of any smart city: water management systems; infrastructure; transportation; energy; waste management and raw materials consumption. In all these elements chemistry and chemical engineering are deeply involved.

  13. CREATIVE ECONOMY AND CREATIVE CITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Marta-Christina Suciu

    2009-01-01

    The paper sets out why creativity has become so important to urban and regional economics. It focuses on the role of creativity, creative industries, creative economy, creative class and creative cities for the modern urban economics. It points out the idea that the power of the future economy lays within the development of the creative city. The aim of a creative city is to make us to think of our city as a living work of art, where citizens can involve and engage themselves in the creation ...

  14. Surface energy balance measurements in the Mexico City: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejeda Martinez, A. [Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico); Jauregui Ostos, E. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-01-01

    During the last decade of the 20th Century, diverse campaigns for measuring the atmospheric energy balance were performed in downtown Mexico City (School of Mines and Preparatory School No. 7), in the southern suburbs (University Reserve) and in the surrounding rural areas (Plan Texcoco), in addition to a campaign carried out in 1985 in the Tacubaya district, a suburban western peripheral site. The objective was to obtain data for a better understanding of the climatic alterations due to urbanization, particularly to describe the role that the modification of the natural ground cover has played as a result of paving and the construction of urban canyons. In this paper, a review of these campaigns is presented. Energy partitioning in some areas (Tacubaya and Preparatory School No.7) is similar to that observed in urban centers of middle latitudes, whereas the major contrast was observed between Texcoco, with maximum energy consumption through evaporation, and School of Mines, where the latent heat is as low as in a desert. From the values of the correlations among the different components of energy balance, it may be possible to attempt the modeling of the diverse components of energy balance by means of regression equations starting from the net radiation. Those same coefficients distinguish the type of environment: urban, suburban or rural. [Spanish] Las primeras mediciones de balance energetico en la Ciudad de Mexico se realizaron en 1985 en un suburbio al poniente de la ciudad (el observatorio de Tacubaya). Ya en la decada de los anos noventa del siglo XX, dichas observaciones se multiplicaron tanto en el centro historico (antigua Escuela de Minas y en el edificio de la Preparatoria No. 7), como en otros sitios al sur (en terrenos de Ciudad Universitaria) y en la periferia rural (Plan Texcoco). El proposito de estas mediciones ha sido tener un mejor entendimiento de las alteraciones climaticas debidas a la urbanizacion. En este trabajo se presenta una revision

  15. A Study of the Oklahoma City Urban Heat Island Effect Using a WRF/Single-Layer Urban Canopy Model, a Joint Urban 2003 Field Campaign, and MODIS Satellite Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengyue Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The urban heat island effect (UHI for inner land regions was investigated using satellite data, ground observations, and simulations with an Single-Layer Urban Canopy Parameterization (SLUCP coupled into the regional Weather Research Forecasting model (WRF, http://wrf-model.org/index.php. Specifically, using the satellite-observed surface skin temperatures (Tskin, the intensity of the UHI was first compared for two inland cities (Xi’an City, China, and Oklahoma City (OKC, which have different city populations and building densities. The larger population density and larger building density in Xi’an lead to a stronger skin-level UHI by 2 °C. However, the ground observed 2 m surface air temperature (Tair observations showed an urban cooling island effect (UCI over the downtown region in OKC during the daytime of 19 July 2003, from a DOE field campaign (Joint Urban 2003. To understand this contrast between satellite-based Tskin and ground-based Tair, a sensitivity study using WRF/SLUCP was analyzed. The model reproduced a UCI in OKC. Furthermore, WRF/Noah/SLUCM simulations were also compared with the Joint Urban 2003 ground observations, including wind speeds, wind directions, and energy fluxes. Although the WRF/SLUCM model failed to simulate these variables accurately, it reproduced the diurnal variations of surface temperatures, wind speeds, wind directions, and energy fluxes reasonably well.

  16. Diagnosis of downtown shopping centers in tourist-historical cities. The case of the world heritage cities in Spain = Diagnóstico de los centros comerciales abiertos en las ciudades históricas. El caso de las Ciudades Patrimonio de la humanidad en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Blanco Callejo

    2017-12-01

    Resumen La realización de un diagnóstico del grado de madurez en el desarrollo de los Centros Comerciales Abiertos (CCA de las Ciudades Patrimonio de la Humanidad permite plantear nuevas propuestas, así como potenciales líneas de acción para su optimización y dinamización. Con este objeto, el trabajo plantea el uso de un Modelo de Evaluación contrastado que, siguiendo una metodología razonada y lógica, permite la evaluación y el análisis en profundidad del estado actual del CCA e identificar sus fortalezas y debilidades. La aplicación concreta del modelo a los CCA de Ciudades Patrimonio ha permitido obtener sus rasgos más característicos, así como sus peculiaridades. A partir de los resultados obtenidos se proponen recomendaciones para mejorar los puntos débiles identificados y se definen las principales líneas estratégicas que se recomendarían incluir en un plan de dinamización del comercio en los cascos históricos, lo que aportaría mayor competitividad y capacidad de creación de valor a esta forma de organización comercial. El trabajo pone de manifiesto que los “Centro Comercial Abiertos” presentan dos problemas fundamentales: dificultades de financiación y falta de representatividad. En este sentido, se propone emplear el modelo de los Business Improvement Districts (BID o Áreas para la Promoción de Iniciativa Empresarial (APIE como una fórmula de carácter público-privada interesante que permitiría solventar y reforzar los CCA agilizando los ritmos y las dinámicas de funcionamiento de las agrupaciones de comerciantes, y creando un marco estable para negociar y ejecutar las propuestas de los actores privados.

  17. Smart cities of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, M.; Axhausen, K. W.; Giannotti, F.; Pozdnoukhov, A.; Bazzani, A.; Wachowicz, M.; Ouzounis, G.; Portugali, Y.

    2012-11-01

    Here we sketch the rudiments of what constitutes a smart city which we define as a city in which ICT is merged with traditional infrastructures, coordinated and integrated using new digital technologies. We first sketch our vision defining seven goals which concern: developing a new understanding of urban problems; effective and feasible ways to coordinate urban technologies; models and methods for using urban data across spatial and temporal scales; developing new technologies for communication and dissemination; developing new forms of urban governance and organisation; defining critical problems relating to cities, transport, and energy; and identifying risk, uncertainty, and hazards in the smart city. To this, we add six research challenges: to relate the infrastructure of smart cities to their operational functioning and planning through management, control and optimisation; to explore the notion of the city as a laboratory for innovation; to provide portfolios of urban simulation which inform future designs; to develop technologies that ensure equity, fairness and realise a better quality of city life; to develop technologies that ensure informed participation and create shared knowledge for democratic city governance; and to ensure greater and more effective mobility and access to opportunities for urban populations. We begin by defining the state of the art, explaining the science of smart cities. We define six scenarios based on new cities badging themselves as smart, older cities regenerating themselves as smart, the development of science parks, tech cities, and technopoles focused on high technologies, the development of urban services using contemporary ICT, the use of ICT to develop new urban intelligence functions, and the development of online and mobile forms of participation. Seven project areas are then proposed: Integrated Databases for the Smart City, Sensing, Networking and the Impact of New Social Media, Modelling Network Performance

  18. Transformation of a City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trenessa L. Williams

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gentrification changes the landscape and the cultural makeup of a city by increasing property values and changing consumption patterns. Since the late 1980s, gentrification has challenged the residential and small business community of Harlem, New York. Guided by the rent gap theory and the consumption-side theory, the purpose of this case study was to explore how small business leaders can compete with demographical changes brought by gentrification. A purposive sample of 20 Harlem small business owners operating during the city’s gentrification participated in interviews. Interview interpretations were triangulated with government documents and periodicals to bolster the trustworthiness of the final report. These findings may contribute to positive social change by informing the strategies employed by small business owners who are currently facing gentrification.

  19. Essay: city on steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison, Steve

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It was love at first sight, an ancient town surrounded in oriental mystery, serene, enchanted and most importantly untouched by the advances and ravages of time. Frozen in the past with a lazy river and a way of life that brought back happy childhood memories of an innocent simplicity, her people laid back, content and satisfied. The surrounding countryside with thatched bamboo huts, farm cottages and slow easy-going country folk riding rusty bicycles. In 2003 I bought a house in Hoi An on that slow flowing river and settled back to watch the days of my life drift past at a snails pace, savouring the sweetness of every lazy moment. Content in the thought that nothing could ever disturb these tranquil days, that flowed without a care like that slow moving river. Travelling every week to Da Nang was a dull but necessary chore and one I would postpone as often as possible. 28 kilometres north the big city was a deserted metropolis, a throng of urban industrial sprawl. The city looked like the war with America had finished only yesterday, dull, lifeless and beaten. My wife and I would venture there along a rutted ill kept excuse for a road over a rusting crusty bridge to see her family and to buy provisions unobtainable in sleepy Hoi An. Getting back home to Hoi An was just that, getting Home to our safe haven. So that was only 12 years ago. Now every direction you turn is a construction site, everywhere and everyone and I mean everyone is building new glamorous homes. Roads literally appear out of nowhere overnight to newer and grander developments. Da Nang, well, the city has shaken the sands of war off her dusty back and become an indescribably beautiful city. Golden beaches and cloud kissed mountains, new wide roads, bridges, parks, round-a-bouts, shopping malls, theatres, entertainment centres and five star international resorts abound. Every square meter is being bought up and developed, high-rise apartments spring up overnight and the horizon

  20. Safe in the city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Norma R

    2008-10-01

    Workplace danger and violence are complex problems that affect nurses more often than is recognized. The home healthcare work environment is challenging enough without the additional risks associated with working out in the open or within a client's home. Every clinician working in home health today understands the demands of visits or extended care in the home and often reluctantly accepts the involved risk. The clinician working in the rural setting may experience similar challenges, but in large metropolitan cities, it has become increasingly frightening as crime, drug use, gangs, violence, homelessness, and transportation issues have made the clinician's job much tougher. It is important to renew awareness and remind clinicians to maintain constant vigilance for personal safety.

  1. Building the Bicycle City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Tokyo - Upcoming City of Cyclists Japan is often hit by natural disasters such as earthquakes, typhoons, tsunamis and heavy rain- and snowfall. Earthquakes often causes break downs in electricity and communication lines and makes public transportation come to a halt. Stations are shut down...... will most likely be able to ride home. After the March 11th earthquake The Japan Cycling Association (JCA) has said that the number of cyclist in Tokyo might be five times as high today as it was before March 2011. But the worry is the safety of the new cyclists. Government statistics in 2010, showed...... during the ride. Finally it gives the cyclists of the future - children and youngsters - a good opportunity to know their local neighbourhood, learn how to manage in the traffic, a fresh start of the day, and hopefully make them continue to prefer the bike, when they grow up for the benefit of both...

  2. Cities and Refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Bruce; Noring, Luise; Garrelts, Nantke

    In the midst of a global refugee crisis, the influx of refugees into Europe presents unique challenges. The large scale of the migration, the extent of the human suffering driving it, and the political complexities of resolving it come on top of substantial existing strains on the European project....... Managing this fraught situation is of paramount importance not just for the families seeking better lives away from conflict, but also for European stability as a whole amid a period of economic and political uncertainty. While much public focus has been on the role of national and supranational...... institutions, it is municipalities across Europe in general and Germany in particular who are responsible for planning, delivering, and, in some cases, financing the housing, education, and full integration of new arrivals. “Cities and Refugees: The European Response” is a collaboration of the Brookings...

  3. City under the Ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    conflict that gave impetus to the camp’s construction. Presented to the public as a scientific station and a technologically-advanced, under-ice extension of the American way of life, while situated in the titanic struggle between West and East, Camp Century took on a number of closed-world meanings...... military conflicts are taking place. Studying the wealth of public representations of Camp Century, established 1959-60 by the US Army 128 miles east of the Thule Air Base and often referred to as the “City under the Ice”, we find a sharp contrast between the domesticated interior and the superpower......: The public image of Camp Century was one of technological comfort and military-scientific control. Amidst the raging Cold War and up against the harsh environment, the construction of the camp would prove to the public that the combined forces of the US military-technology-science complex would prevail...

  4. Biometeorology for cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondula, David M; Balling, Robert C; Andrade, Riley; Scott Krayenhoff, E; Middel, Ariane; Urban, Aleš; Georgescu, Matei; Sailor, David J

    2017-09-01

    Improvements in global sustainability, health, and equity will largely be determined by the extent to which cities are able to become more efficient, hospitable, and productive places. The development and evolution of urban areas has a significant impact on local and regional weather and climate, which subsequently affect people and other organisms that live in and near cities. Biometeorologists, researchers who study the impact of weather and climate on living creatures, are well positioned to help evaluate and anticipate the consequences of urbanization on the biosphere. Motivated by the 60th anniversary of the International Society of Biometeorology, we reviewed articles published in the Society's International Journal of Biometeorology over the period 1974-2017 to understand if and how biometeorologists have directed attention to urban areas. We found that interest in urban areas has rapidly accelerated; urban-oriented articles accounted for more than 20% of all articles published in the journal in the most recent decade. Urban-focused articles in the journal span five themes: measuring urban climate, theoretical foundations and models, human thermal comfort, human morbidity and mortality, and ecosystem impacts. Within these themes, articles published in the journal represent a sizeable share of the total academic literature. More explicit attention from urban biometeorologists publishing in the journal to low- and middle-income countries, indoor environments, animals, and the impacts of climate change on human health would help ensure that the distinctive perspectives of biometeorology reach the places, people, and processes that are the foci of global sustainability, health, and equity goals.

  5. Biometeorology for cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondula, David M.; Balling, Robert C.; Andrade, Riley; Scott Krayenhoff, E.; Middel, Ariane; Urban, Aleš; Georgescu, Matei; Sailor, David J.

    2017-09-01

    Improvements in global sustainability, health, and equity will largely be determined by the extent to which cities are able to become more efficient, hospitable, and productive places. The development and evolution of urban areas has a significant impact on local and regional weather and climate, which subsequently affect people and other organisms that live in and near cities. Biometeorologists, researchers who study the impact of weather and climate on living creatures, are well positioned to help evaluate and anticipate the consequences of urbanization on the biosphere. Motivated by the 60th anniversary of the International Society of Biometeorology, we reviewed articles published in the Society's International Journal of Biometeorology over the period 1974-2017 to understand if and how biometeorologists have directed attention to urban areas. We found that interest in urban areas has rapidly accelerated; urban-oriented articles accounted for more than 20% of all articles published in the journal in the most recent decade. Urban-focused articles in the journal span five themes: measuring urban climate, theoretical foundations and models, human thermal comfort, human morbidity and mortality, and ecosystem impacts. Within these themes, articles published in the journal represent a sizeable share of the total academic literature. More explicit attention from urban biometeorologists publishing in the journal to low- and middle-income countries, indoor environments, animals, and the impacts of climate change on human health would help ensure that the distinctive perspectives of biometeorology reach the places, people, and processes that are the foci of global sustainability, health, and equity goals.

  6. Tourism and City. Reflections about Tourist Dimension of Smart City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Anna La Rocca

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The city of the future seems to be necessarily “intelligent” both in its physical and in functional features.This paper starts from the consideration that the diffusion of new communication technologies (ICTs is significantly changing the urban supply system of tourist services giving rise to new ways of enjoying the city.As tourism can be assumed as an urban activity, by a town planning point of view, the study of tourism is meaningful to identify development trajectories of the present cities targeted to sustainable and smarter models.As a matter of fact, almost all the projects to get a “smart city” are based on the idea of joining the potentialities of ICTs and the needs of urban management through people living or using the city.In such a vision, “tourist dimension” of the city becomes fundamental in promoting urban image as well as in improving efficiency of the city. This efficiency also depends on the capability of each city to share historical and cultural heritage as “common good”.As tourist demand has deeply changed also driven by technological development, this paper tries to investigate how the urban supply will change in order to meet the rising demand of quality and efficiency. The transition to smart tourist destination currently seems to be strongly connected with the number and the variety of apps to improve the “experiential component”. A lack of interest there seems to be in finding strategies and policies oriented to plan the urban supply of services tourist or not.This consideration, if shared, opens up new perspectives for research and experimentation in which city planning could have a key-role also in proposing an holistic approach to city development towards smart city.

  7. Globalization : Countries, Cities and Multinationals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip; Acs, Zoltan J.

    2011-01-01

    McCann P. and Acs Z. J. Globalization: countries, cities and multinationals, Regional Studies. This paper explores the relationship between the size of a country, the size of its cities, and the importance of economies of scale in the modern era of globalization. In order to do this, it integrates

  8. 75 FR 11580 - Florida Power Corporation, City of Alachua, City of Bushnell, City of Gainesville, City of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ..., City of Ocala, Orlando Utilities Commission and City of Orlando, Seminole Electric Cooperative, Inc... building not only meet but exceed its original design basis as delineated in the FSAR. The PRB discussed the petitioner's request during internal meetings and made the initial PRB recommendation. The PRB's...

  9. Building the food secure city

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC

    Seen on a map, the four arterial roads that connect Dar es. Salaam's city centre to the urban fringe and the hinterland beyond resemble a giant spider's web. The vast majority of the city's inhabitants — seven out of every 10 — live in a warren of unplanned settlements that are scattered between the principal byways outside ...

  10. Magical Landscapes and Designed Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2008-01-01

    with “something special,” a feel-good, (almost spiritual) healing power (just moments away from the bustling city). In Melanesia, such a spiritual force goes by the name of “mana”. Århus’ mana landscapes are only invested with this huge, floating quality because they are near the city. Furthermore, they are seen...

  11. Privacy concerns in smart cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. van Zoonen (Liesbet)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper a framework is constructed to hypothesize if and how smart city technologies and urban big data produce privacy concerns among the people in these cities (as inhabitants, workers, visitors, and otherwise). The framework is built on the basis of two recurring dimensions in

  12. Malmo: A city in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Tessa Kate

    2014-01-01

    become a multicultural city with vibrant neighbourhoods and successful new developments such as the Western Harbour. The Øresund bridge has increased its linkages with Denmark and Europe providing easy access for employment and residential opportunities. The success of the city will be measured in its...

  13. Example from Ilorin City, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2013-01-28

    Jan 28, 2013 ... Abstract. Ilorin is one of the major cities in Nigeria today and its growing strength in both socio-economic affiliations is admirable. However, the city is potently tainted with traffic bottleneck which occasionally results into traffic dilemma accidents and clogging, stampede and free-fight between and among ...

  14. Dubai: a City of Hope?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Abirafeh

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The City of Hope is an organisation offering refuge for abused women in Dubai, the largest city of the United Arab Emirates. Dubai has started to acknowledge the social problems accompanying its phenomenal economic growth but is it doing enough to tackle the scourge of human trafficking?

  15. Broken Cities: Liberalism's Urban Legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Steven

    1998-01-01

    Argues how the nation's inner-city population exodus and economic decay is a result of modern liberal social policy. Three failures of liberalism regarding inner cities are examined: the failure to nurture the sources of economic growth; the failure to understand urban neighborhoods; and the failure to appreciate the importance of a strong moral…

  16. Educating Cities in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Graciela; Valdés-Cotera, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the development of educating cities from a political perspective, illustrating in detail the diversity of organisations and individuals involved and the challenges they are facing. Bearing in mind that educating cities were established from the 1990s onwards in Europe and spread to other continents from there, the purpose of…

  17. Cities and Climate Change : An Urgent Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    The report discusses the link between climate change and cities, why cities should be concerned about climate change and adopt early preventative policies, and how the World Bank and other organizations can provide further support to cities on climate change issues. The report is one in a series of activities that explore the nexus of cities and climate change. This report, cities and clim...

  18. Big City Education: Its Challenge to Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskew, Laurence D.

    This chapter traces the migration from farms to cities and the later movement from cities to suburbs and discusses the impact of the resulting big city environment on the governance of big city education. The author (1) suggests how local, State, and Federal governments can improve big city education; (2) discusses ways of planning for the future…

  19. From Playable to Playful : The Humorous City

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edirisinghe, Chamari; Nijholt, Anton; Cheok, Adrian David

    2017-01-01

    This writing is focusing on the concept of play in the city. In pursuit of ideal city, the concept of play has been neglected, pushed to labelled corners, assigned to certain age bracket. Playable city movement has brought the play in to the dialogue on city, the contemporary smart city, underlining

  20. Our cities, our future: cities, interagency cooperation, and sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigen, J

    1995-11-01

    Cities are the most important sites of socioeconomic development, offering significant economies of scale in providing jobs, housing and services, and are important centers of productivity and social advancement. Cities also absorb two thirds of developing countries' population growth; the developing world's cities will absorb more than 75% of total world population increase during 1990-2000. Urban environmental problems, however, seriously threaten the full realization of cities' potential socioeconomic contributions. Environmental degradation has many costs, leads to significant inefficiencies in the use of local resources, compounds inequities, and threatens the sustainability of development achievements. Urban development and environmental management therefore cannot be considered separately. Actions in the city affect the environment, and the environment in turn affects the city. Agenda 21, a global agenda for cooperation which emerged from the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development emphasizing cross-sectoral coordination, the decentralization of decision making, and broad-based participatory approaches to development management, and the Sustainable Cities Program are discussed.

  1. CITIES: Centre for IT-Intelligent Energy Systems in Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg; O'Connell, Niamh; Heller, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    This extended abstract provides an introduction to an interdisciplinary strategic research project, CITIES which has been funded with an excess of € 7 million from a wide range of industrial and academic partners, and the Danish Council for Strategic Research. CITIES was launched January 1, 2014...... between operations and planning. This extended abstract outlines the challenges to be met by city and energy planning bodies in an energy efficient future. The necessity of novel, data driven and IT intelligent solutions is stressed. A focus is placed on energy system planning in systems with high...

  2. 2015 Resident Survey (City and County)

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  3. 2016 Resident Survey (City and County)

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  4. Cities Changing Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Andersen, Gregers Stig; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    The Rule of Halves (RoH), stating that half of those with diabetes are diagnosed, half of those diagnosed receive care, half of those receiving care achieve treatment targets, and finally that half of those achieving targets also achieve desired outcomes, has not previously been assessed for diab......The Rule of Halves (RoH), stating that half of those with diabetes are diagnosed, half of those diagnosed receive care, half of those receiving care achieve treatment targets, and finally that half of those achieving targets also achieve desired outcomes, has not previously been assessed...... for diabetes in Copenhagen. As part of the quantitative mapping phase of the Cities Changing Diabetes project in Copenhagen, a RoH analysis was conducted. The results of this analysis are summarized below. The figure shows that the ‘Halves’ rule does not generally apply for Copenhagen. On most of the levels......, Copenhagen is doing better than simple halves. For example, the results indicate that almost three quarters of the true diabetes population are diagnosed and that almost all of those diagnosed with diabetes receive some form of care. Although the analysis indicates that Copenhagen is doing better than...

  5. Cities Changing Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Clare Kristensen, Elisabeth; Malling, Gritt Marie Hviid

    The overall objectives of the Vulnerability Assessmentis to gain in-depth information on what attributes the most to vulnerability seen from the perspectives of vulnerable diabetes patients and citizens at risk. In Copenhagen, we focused on how everyday life influences the perceptions and experie......The overall objectives of the Vulnerability Assessmentis to gain in-depth information on what attributes the most to vulnerability seen from the perspectives of vulnerable diabetes patients and citizens at risk. In Copenhagen, we focused on how everyday life influences the perceptions...... and experiences of health risks and illness among fifty vulnerable patients and citizens at risk in the city. We aimed at investigating how the local environment and practices influence individual practices and behavior, and how the management of diabetes is influenced by social factors. Also, the analysis...... of diabetes or health issues in general. Vulnerability was closely associated with the Danish term “manglende overskud”, in English ‘lack of reserves of energy’. Due to a range of issues and worries in everyday life, such as comorbidity, unemployment, economic problems, major life events and loneliness...

  6. Lighting the city. First poetic representations of Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Kerik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The first impressions that caused the changes made in Mexico City in its process of transformation into a modern city were captured by its poets drawing attention to different aspects of life in the capital. While from the popular poetry the record of the entrance of the electricity in the public road was left, from the official poetry was tried to witness the new cosmopolitan status of the Mexico City in the Porfirian era, through the fashion and the customs that were revealed in one of the main streets of the city. Comparing these poems allows us to know the initial strategies of poetic figuration of urban space that will continue to develop along different paths throughout the twentieth century until we reach our days.

  7. The Lake and the City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers relations between the city of Irkutsk and Lake Baikal in terms of cultural geography. Baikal is included in the UNESCO world heritage list. Unlike the majority of lakes also included in this list, Baikal’s coast is inhabited, especially its southern part. Similar situation is, for example, in the cluster “the city of Bergen – Geiranger village – Geirangerfjord” in Norway. The comparative analysis shows how Norway’s positive experience of the system “a city – a village – a natural phenomenon” could be used in order to make Irkutsk more attractive for tourists and citizens.

  8. The city of the merchant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnow, Niels Finn

    The City of the Merchant deals with cities, towns and villages in the European medieval period - i.e. in post-antique and pre-industrial Europe. In actual fact, the book mainly deals with Denmark and Northern Italy (the City States), with digressions to other "feudal" localities in France on Sici......, in the middle East, the Crusades, in Germany (the Hansatic League) and, finally, as far a field as the Danish West Indies. The book is part of a larger project that comprises other historical environments....

  9. Cluster of cities versus city region in regional planning

    OpenAIRE

    S Krakover

    1987-01-01

    In this study the hypothesis, that patterns of spatial centralization and decentralization vary between single-centered urban regions and regions characterized by clusters of cities, is examined. The hypothesis is tested by comparing the dispersion of growth of employment in retail trade in the Philadelphia urban field with that in the area covered by the North Carolina Piedmont dispersed city. The results obtained by using a distance - temporal regression model support the hypothesis that th...

  10. Use of portable exposure meters for comparing mobile phone base station radiation in different types of areas in the cities of Basel and Amsterdam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbinello, Damiano; Huss, Anke; Beekhuizen, Johan; Vermeulen, Roel; Röösli, Martin

    2014-01-15

    Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) are highly variable and differ considerably within as well as between areas. Exposure assessment studies characterizing spatial and temporal variation are limited so far. Our objective was to evaluate sources of data variability and the repeatability of daily measurements using portable exposure meters (PEMs). Data were collected at 12 days between November 2010 and January 2011 with PEMs in four different types of urban areas in the cities of Basel (BSL) and Amsterdam (AMS). Exposure from mobile phone base stations ranged from 0.30 to 0.53 V/m in downtown and business areas and in residential areas from 0.09 to 0.41 V/m. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that measurements from various days were highly reproducible (measurement duration of approximately 30 min) with only 0.6% of the variance of all measurements from mobile phone base station radiation being explained by the measurement day and only 0.2% by the measurement time (morning, noon, afternoon), whereas type of area (30%) and city (50%) explained most of the data variability. We conclude that mobile monitoring of exposure from mobile phone base station radiation with PEMs is useful due to the high repeatability of mobile phone base station exposure levels, despite the high spatial variation. © 2013.

  11. The Role of Rail Transit Systems in Reducing Energy and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: The Case of The City of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Sanches de Andrade

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, has established, by municipal law, a goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions of the transport system by 20% until 2020 compared to 2005. In order to reach this goal, the city’s public transport has been restructured with an emphasis on rail transit systems. The city will host the 2016 Olympic Games and this has encouraged the transformation of public transportation. One of the new projects is the construction of a new metro line, Line 4, to connect the downtown area to the city’s fastest growing part, the western region, which will also be a venue for many events during the Olympic Games. This article presents and applies a procedure for calculating energy use and emissions avoided by Line 4 by attracting users from other transport modes in the period from 2016 to 2040. The procedure uses a detailed demand forecast for this period and considers the local transport profile and the different fuels used. The net amount of carbon dioxide avoided was 55,449 tonnes per year and 44.53 grams per passenger kilometer. The avoided energy reached 0.76 MJ per passenger kilometer.

  12. INVESTIGATING THE INFLUENCE OF TREE COVERAGE ON PROPERTY CRIME: A CASE STUDY IN THE CITY OF VANCOUVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With the development of Geographic Information Systems (GIS, crime mapping becomes an effective approach to investigate the spatial pattern of crime in a defined area. Understanding the relationship between crime and its surrounding environment can reveal possible strategies that can reduce crime in a neighbourhood. The relationship between vegetation density and crime has been under debate for a long time. This research is conducted to investigate the impacts of tree coverage on property crime in the City of Vancouver. High spatial resolution airborne LiDAR data collected in 2013 was used for the extraction of tree covered area for cross-sectional analysis. The independent variables were put into Ordinary Least-Squares (OLS regression, Spatial Lag regression, and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR models to examine their influences on property crime rates. According to the results, the cross-sectional analysis demonstrated statistical evidences that property crime rates had negative correlations with tree coverage, with greater influences occurred around Downtown Vancouver.

  13. Mitigation: Decarbonization unique to cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nadine

    2017-10-01

    Strategies that reduce fossil-fuel use can achieve both global carbon mitigation and local health-protection goals. Now research shows the dual benefits of compact urban design and circular economy policies in Chinese cities.

  14. Cities lead on climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancost, Richard D.

    2016-04-01

    The need to mitigate climate change opens up a key role for cities. Bristol's year as a Green Capital led to great strides forward, but it also revealed that a creative and determined partnership across cultural divides will be necessary.

  15. Global cities and cultural experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas Gaviria, Pilar; Emontspool, Julie

    2015-01-01

    to the important role of global cities for cultural experimentation. Such cities are not only an interesting market for culturally diverse products, but also learning hubs. Managers willing to address multicultural marketplaces might target these markets with dynamic cultural offers that ensure a balance between......Purpose: Studying the cultural dynamics of expatriate amateur theater in Brussels, this paper investigates multicultural marketplace development in contemporary global cities. Design/methodology/approach: The paper performs an interpretive analysis of the expatriate amateur scene in Brussels from...... an ethnographic perspective, combining observations of rehearsals and performances, in-depth interviews with actors, directors and audience, and secondary data. Findings: The fluidity of global cities allows their inhabitants to engage in collective creative processes of cultural experimentation, performing...

  16. Urban Landsat: Cities from Space

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Urban Landsat: Cities from Space dataset contains images for 66 urban areas and the raw, unerlying data for 28 of these places. Each image shows a Landsat false...

  17. Urban Landsat: Cities from Space

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Urban Landsat: Cities from Space data set contains images for 66 urban areas and the raw, underlying data for 28 of these places. Each image shows a Landsat...

  18. City Walks and Tactile Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Diaconu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to develop categories of the pedestrian’s tactile and kinaesthetic experience of the city. The beginning emphasizes the haptic qualities of surfaces and textures, which can be “palpated” visually or experienced by walking. Also the lived city is three-dimensional; its corporeal depth is discussed here in relation to the invisible sewers, protuberant profiles, and the formal diversity of roofscapes. A central role is ascribed in the present analysis to the formal similarities between the representation of the city by walking through it and the representation of the tactile form of objects. Additional aspects of the “tactile” experience of the city in a broad sense concern the feeling of their rhythms and the exposure to weather conditions. Finally, several aspects of contingency converge in the visible age of architectural works, which record traces of individual and collective histories.

  19. Planning for resource efficient cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian; Groth, Niels Boje

    2016-01-01

    development from energy consumption are crucial for a city’s future vulnerability and resilience against changes in general resource availability. The challenge gets further complex, as resource and energy efficiency in a city is deeply interwoven with other aspects of urban development such as social...... structures and the geographical context. As cities are the main consumer of energy and resources, they are both problem and solution to tackle issues of energy efficiency and saving. Cities have been committed to this agenda, especially to meet the national and international energy targets. Increasingly......, cities act as entrepreneurs of new energy solutions acknowledging that efficient monitoring of energy and climate policies has become important to urban branding and competitiveness. This special issue presents findings from the European FP7 project ‘Planning for Energy Efficient Cities’ (PLEEC...

  20. A tale of three cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prochaska, J. [Stewart and Stevenson, Houston, TX (United States); Schubert, R. [General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY (United States); Westerkamp, D. [General Electric Co., Cincinnati, OH (United States). Marine and Industrial Engines

    1995-05-01

    This article examines the use of gas turbines in municipal power generation at Cane Island in Florida, City of Hutchinson in Minnesota, and Ponca City in Oklahoma. Details are given of the customer base, development of the power plants, power generation technology, and environmental considerations. The choice of LM6000 gas turbines, and the start-up of the first commercial LM6000 in 1992 are discussed. (UK)

  1. City Governments Need Deliberative Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricard, Lykke Margot; Lewis, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Innovation in the public sector has become an important focus for governments, which are facing a growing inability to address difficult policy challenges. In the context of city governments, innovation capacity is boosted by the involvement of ‘outsiders’......Innovation in the public sector has become an important focus for governments, which are facing a growing inability to address difficult policy challenges. In the context of city governments, innovation capacity is boosted by the involvement of ‘outsiders’...

  2. Constructing a modern city machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Hanne; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    1998-01-01

    Based on the Copenhagen sewers debates and constructions the role of changing perceptions of water, hygiene and environment is discussed in relation to the modernisation of cities by machinating flows and infrastructures.......Based on the Copenhagen sewers debates and constructions the role of changing perceptions of water, hygiene and environment is discussed in relation to the modernisation of cities by machinating flows and infrastructures....

  3. Smart energy city critical infrastructures

    OpenAIRE

    Lara, Topol

    2014-01-01

    Smart energy cities have a potential to lead the transition from fossil age into the age of renewables. After a theoretical background is presented, of why the transition is necessary and what steps need to be taken in that direction, this paper brings insight into the paradigm of smart cities. The focus is set on the smart building as its fundamental building block. Fifteen cases of turning Norwegian and Croatian households into smart ones have been analyzed. Those are various combinations o...

  4. Cities and Climate - What Visions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haentjens, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Given the difficulty of achieving a global agreement to cope with the challenges of climate change or even a national resilience programme, an increasing number of initiatives are coming up from the local level for preemptively implementing policies to adapt to climate change or combat it. There are several towns and cities across the world that have taken this line (Copenhagen, Totnes, Vaexjoe, Bristol, etc.) but, as Jean Haentjens shows here, an effective response to climate change requires the development of a genuine strategic vision capable of mobilizing all the actors concerned. For the moment, the towns and cities that have managed to come up with such a vision are few and far between. After a -largely historical- review of the importance of vision in changes of urban paradigm, Jean Haentjens stresses how much twenty-first century eco-urbanism broadens the range of possible solutions to the many issues facing our towns and cities today. But, though digital innovations in fact offer new opportunities at the local level, we should nonetheless be wary of 'technological solutionism': the new technologies are tools which towns and cities can use to their advantage, but to become really 'smart' they have to develop a vision. After presenting a series of established or emerging urban models (the frugal city, the creative city, the leisure city and the eco-metropolis), along with the values and imaginative conceptions that underpin them, this article shows - without being unaware of the potential obstacles - how a town or city can produce and renew its strategic vision to reinvent itself and meet the challenges of today

  5. Analysis Matrix for Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo E. Branchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current digital revolution has ignited the evolution of communications grids and the development of new schemes for productive systems. Traditional technologic scenarios have been challenged, and Smart Cities have become the basis for urban competitiveness. The citizen is the one who has the power to set new scenarios, and that is why a definition of the way people interact with their cities is needed, as is commented in the first part of the article. At the same time, a lack of clarity has been detected in the way of describing what Smart Cities are, and the second part will try to set the basis for that. For all before, the information and communication technologies that manage and transform 21st century cities must be reviewed, analyzing their impact on new social behaviors that shape the spaces and means of communication, as is posed in the experimental section, setting the basis for an analysis matrix to score the different elements that affect a Smart City environment. So, as the better way to evaluate what a Smart City is, there is a need for a tool to score the different technologies on the basis of their usefulness and consequences, considering the impact of each application. For all of that, the final section describes the main objective of this article in practical scenarios, considering how the technologies are used by citizens, who must be the main concern of all urban development.

  6. Green city Banda Aceh: city planning approach and environmental aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, A. A.

    2017-02-01

    Banda Aceh as the capital of Aceh Province is the region with the tsunami disaster that occurred on December 26, 2004 the most severe of which over 60% of the city area were destroyed mainly coastal region and settlements. One product plan for rehabilitation and reconstruction of Banda Aceh is made of Banda Aceh as Green City. To realize the Green City Banda Aceh, urban development process should be conducted in a planned and integrated way with attention to spatial and environmental aspects to ensure an efficient urban management and to create a healthy, beautiful and comfortable environment. There is a weakness of the process in urban planning and development that occurred at present where cities tend to minimize the development of green open space and land conversion into a commercial district, residential areas, industrial areas, transport networks and infrastructure and facilities for other cities. Another tendency that occurs is urban environment only developed economically but not ecologically, whereas ecological balance is as important as the development of the economic value of urban areas. Such conditions have caused unbalance of urban ecosystems including increased air temperature, air pollution, declining water table, flooding, salt water intrusion and increased content of heavy metals in the soil. From an ecological perspective, unfavorable microclimate, high-temperature increase due to the lack of trees as a sieve / filter against heavy rain, can cause flooding. These conditions result in inconvienient, arid and less beautiful urban areas. The author identifies the elements contained in the Green City Banda Aceh and how the efforts and approaches must be made toward Green City Banda Aceh.

  7. For the Smarter Good of Cities? On Cities, Complexity and Slippages in the Smart City Discourse’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Henriette; Veel, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Cities for Smart Environmental and Energy Futures presents works written by eminent international experts from a variety of disciplines including architecture, engineering and related fields. Due to the ever-increasing focus on sustainable technologies, alternative energy sources......, and global social and urban issues, interest in the energy systems for cities of the future has grown in a wealth of disciplines. Some of the special features of this book include new findings on the city of the future from the macro to the micro level. These range from urban sustainability to indoor...... urbanism, and from strategies for cities and global climate change to material properties. The book is intended for graduate students and researchers active in architecture, engineering, the social and computational sciences, building physics and related fields....

  8. City Marketing: Towards an Integrated Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Braun (Erik)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis PhD thesis deals with city marketing: cities making use of marketing ideas, concepts and tools. Marketing has proved its value in the business environment, but what about applying marketing in the context of cities? How can cities make effective use of the potential of marketing?

  9. Mischief Humor in Smart and Playable Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Nijholt, Anton

    2017-01-01

    In smart cities we can expect to witness human behavior that is not be different from human behavior in present-day cities. There will be demonstrations, flash mobs, and organized events to provoke the smart city establishment. Smart cities will have bugs that can be exploited by hackers. Smart

  10. Sustainable Development of the Learning City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juceviciene, Palmira

    2010-01-01

    Kaunas is the second largest city in Lithuania and has strong links with its large rural hinterland. Working from the ideas and examples in "Learning Cities for a Learning Century," (Longworth, 1999) and through contact with other cities that have already implemented lifelong learning concepts, the city has, since 2001, started out on…

  11. Architecture and Stages of the Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents more than 41 articles on ‘Architecture and Stages of the Experience City'. The aim of the book is to investigate current challenges related to architecture, art and city life in the ‘Experience City' and it is presenting cutting edge knowledge and experiences within the following...... themes: Experience City Making Digital Architecture Stages in the Experience City The City as a Learning Lab Experience City Architecture Performative Architecture Art and Performance Urban Catalyst and Temporary Use...

  12. From the network city to the neo-liberal city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    Network Cities: Globalization and Urban Transformation in Oslo, Stockholm and Copenhagen aims to probe relationships between planning discourses, planning practices and urban transformations. By bringing together practitioners and academics we aim at focussing the discussion on developments...... in the three Schandinavian capitals, namely Oslo, Stockholm and Copenhagen. Relationships between urban transformations and global networks (economic, cultural, informational), are closely related to considerations by planners, decision makers and academics about themes such as the competition between cities......-mentioned themes. What concrete issues are they facing in their day-to-day practice? What is the impact of global economies on urban development and planning in each of these cities? How are urban transformations taking place, such as urban restructuring, the implementation of new infrastructure and key urban...

  13. The Contribution of Festivals to City Branding

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, H.

    2016-01-01

    The economic contribution of festivals and events has been widely acknowledged, but the relationship between a festival and city branding has received little attention. This thesis explores the role of festival stakeholders in the development of a city brand, providing a detailed account of city branding and festival sponsorship. The research focuses particular attention on cultural festivals by examining their role in the city branding process. To this end, one city (Seoul) and two festivals...

  14. CULTURAL HERITAGE IN SMART CITY ENVIRONMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    M. Angelidou; E. Karachaliou; T. Angelidou; E. Stylianidis

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates how the historical and cultural heritage of cities is and can be underpinned by means of smart city tools, solutions and applications. Smart cities stand for a conceptual technology-and-innovation driven urban development model. By becoming ‘smart’, cities seek to achieve prosperity, effectiveness and competitiveness on multiple socio-economic levels. Although cultural heritage is one of the many issues addressed by existing smart city strategies, and despite the docum...

  15. From city marketing to city branding : An interdisciplinary analysis with reference to Amsterdam, Budapest and Athens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavaratzis, M.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis deals with the theory and practice of city marketing. It describes the transition from city marketing to city branding by identifying the roots of city marketing in general marketing theory, by adapting the concept of corporate-level marketing for the needs of cities and by analysing in

  16. Within city limits: nature and children's books about nature in the city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard S. Marcus

    1977-01-01

    Many children's books give the impression that we must leave the city to be "in nature.'' This is a review of children's books about nature found within city limits. The books include a natural history of New York City; a guide to city wildflowers and other weeds; a book about city trees; a delightful inquiry into the true nature of the roach;...

  17. 77 FR 29932 - Safety Zone; Nautical City Festival Air Show, Rogers City, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Nautical City Festival Air Show, Rogers City, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... City Festival will be celebrating Calcite's 100th Anniversary. As part of that celebration, an air show... posed by the Nautical City Festival air show near Rogers City, MI, the Captain of the Port Sault Sainte...

  18. 77 FR 40798 - Safety Zone; Nautical City Festival Air Show, Rogers City MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Nautical City Festival Air Show, Rogers City MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...; Nautical City Festival Air Show, Rogers City MI; in the Federal Register (77 FR 29932). We received no... Nautical City Festival will be celebrating Calcite's 100th Anniversary. As part of that celebration, an air...

  19. Tourism and City. Reflections about Tourist Dimension of Smart City

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Anna La Rocca

    2013-01-01

    The city of the future seems to be necessarily “intelligent” both in its physical and in functional features.This paper starts from the consideration that the diffusion of new communication technologies (ICTs) is significantly changing the urban supply system of tourist services giving rise to new ways of enjoying the city.As tourism can be assumed as an urban activity, by a town planning point of view, the study of tourism is meaningful to identify development trajectories of the present cit...

  20. Smart governance for smart city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutiara, Dewi; Yuniarti, Siti; Pratama, Bambang

    2018-03-01

    Some of the local government in Indonesia claimed they already created a smart city. Mostly the claim based of IT utilization for their governance. In general, a smart city definition is to describe a developed urban area that creates sustainable economic development and high quality of life by excelling in multiple key; economy, mobility, environment, people, living, and government. For public services, the law guarantees good governance by setting the standard for e-government implicitly including for local government or a city. Based on the arguments, this research tries to test the condition of e-government of the Indonesian city in 34 provinces. The purpose is to map e-government condition by measuring indicators of smart government, which are: transparent governance and open data for the public. This research is departing from public information disclosure law and to correspond with the existence law. By examining government transparency, the output of the research can be used to measure the effectiveness of public information disclosure law and to determine the condition of e-government in local government in which as part of a smart city.

  1. Green Technology for Smart Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casini, M.

    2017-08-01

    In view of the enormous social and environmental changes at the global level, more and more cities worldwide have directed their development strategies towards smart policies aimed at sustainable mobility, energy upgrading of the building stock, increase of energy production from renewable sources, improvement of waste management and implementation of ICT infrastructures. The goal is to turn into Smart Cities, able to improve the quality of life of their inhabitants by offering a lasting opportunity for cultural, economic and social growth within a healthy, safe, stimulating and dynamic environment. After an overview of the role of cities in climate changes and environmental pollution worldwide, the article provides an up to date definition of Smart City and of its main expected features, focussing on technology innovation, smart governance and main financing and support programs. An analysis of the most interesting initiatives at the international level pursued by cities investigating the three main areas of Green Buildings, Smart grid-Smart lighting, and Smart mobility is given, with the objective to offer a broad reference for the identification of development sustainable plans and programs at the urban level within the current legislative framework.

  2. Energy management in Lucknow city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zia, Hina; Devadas, V.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, an attempt is made to prepare an energy management model for Lucknow city along with policy recommendations for optimal energy utilization and management. At the outset, the authors have reviewed the related literature on energy management in the urban system. The entire collected literature is divided into the following sections, such as, energy resource assessment, energy consumption, energy and economy, energy and environment, energy and transportation, forecasting the energy demand and supply, alternate energy sources and technologies, energy conservation and demand-side management and energy management measures in India, and are reviewed thoroughly and presented. Subsequently, an attempt is made to establish the importance of energy in urban development by using Systems concept. Lucknow city has been chosen for investigation in this study. A detailed methodology is developed for organizing the survey at the grassroots level to evolve feasible strategies for optimal energy management in the study area. An attempt is further made to assess the available energy resource in the city, and the energy consumption by source wise in the city and estimating the energy gap in the year 2011. The paper concludes with preparation of a detailed energy management model for Lucknow city to reduce the expected energy gap for the year 2011. The recommendations are made for supply augmentation, demand-side management and policy measures to be taken by the government authorities

  3. Brigham City Hydro Generation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammons, Tom B. [Energy Conservation Specialist, Port Ewen, NY (United States)

    2015-10-31

    Brigham City owns and operates its own municipal power system which currently includes several hydroelectric facilities. This project was to update the efficiency and capacity of current hydro production due to increased water flow demands that could pass through existing generation facilities. During 2006-2012, this project completed efficiency evaluation as it related to its main objective by completing a feasibility study, undergoing necessary City Council approvals and required federal environmental reviews. As a result of Phase 1 of the project, a feasibility study was conducted to determine feasibility of hydro and solar portions of the original proposal. The results indicated that the existing Hydro plant which was constructed in the 1960’s was running at approximately 77% efficiency or less. Brigham City proposes that the efficiency calculations be refined to determine the economic feasibility of improving or replacing the existing equipment with new high efficiency equipment design specifically for the site. Brigham City completed the Feasibility Assessment of this project, and determined that the Upper Hydro that supplies the main culinary water to the city was feasible to continue with. Brigham City Council provided their approval of feasibility assessment’s results. The Upper Hydro Project include removal of the existing powerhouse equipment and controls and demolition of a section of concrete encased penstock, replacement of penstock just upstream of the turbine inlet, turbine bypass, turbine shut-off and bypass valves, turbine and generator package, control equipment, assembly, start-up, commissioning, Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA), and the replacement of a section of conductors to the step-up transformer. Brigham City increased the existing 575 KW turbine and generator with an 825 KW turbine and generator. Following the results of the feasibility assessment Brigham City pursued required environmental reviews with the DOE and

  4. Urban Networking vs. Smart City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Păuna Carmen Beatrice

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration that the development of strong partnerships involving local citizens, civil society, the local economy and the various levels of government is an indispensable element for an Integrated Sustainable Urban Development, our paper is focusing on the role of an appropriate urban networking in the relationship with the objectives of a smart city. In this context, the Romanian good practices - as Oradea city - are worth to mention. In compliance with Europe 2020 Strategy’s objectives there will be discussed the particularities of urban networking in order to strengthen the resilience of cities, and to ensure synergies amongst the investments supported by European Structural and Investment (ESI funds. According to economic literature the urban network is not a funding instrument but a way for cities to share feedback on the use of these new approaches. The estimated results of our research are related to the conclusion that the urban networks act as a forum for capacity building and exchange between the cities pioneering new techniques and developing integrated investments.

  5. The Copper Balance of Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Ulrich; Lin, Chih-Yi; Kellner, Katharina; Ma, Hwong-wen; Brunner, Paul H

    2014-01-01

    Material management faces a dual challenge: on the one hand satisfying large and increasing demands for goods and on the other hand accommodating wastes and emissions in sinks. Hence, the characterization of material flows and stocks is relevant for both improving resource efficiency and environmental protection. This article focuses on the urban scale, a dimension rarely investigated in past metal flow studies. We compare the copper (Cu) metabolism of two cities in different economic states, namely, Vienna (Europe) and Taipei (Asia). Substance flow analysis is used to calculate urban Cu balances in a comprehensive and transparent form. The main difference between Cu in the two cities appears to be the stock: Vienna seems close to saturation with 180 kilograms per capita (kg/cap) and a growth rate of 2% per year. In contrast, the Taipei stock of 30 kg/cap grows rapidly by 26% per year. Even though most Cu is recycled in both cities, bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration represents an unused Cu potential accounting for 1% to 5% of annual demand. Nonpoint emissions are predominant; up to 50% of the loadings into the sewer system are from nonpoint sources. The results of this research are instrumental for the design of the Cu metabolism in each city. The outcomes serve as a base for identification and recovery of recyclables as well as for directing nonrecyclables to appropriate sinks, avoiding sensitive environmental pathways. The methodology applied is well suited for city benchmarking if sufficient data are available. PMID:25866460

  6. City planning as preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corburn, Jason

    2015-08-01

    The health and well-being of rapidly growing urban populations is a global health issue. Cities in the global north and south are faced with rising health inequities - or avoidable differences in health determinants and outcomes based on place, social status and ethnicity. This commentary suggests that focusing only on treatment interventions in cities is likely to fail because populations will be forced to go back into the urban living and working conditions that likely made them sick in the first place. City planning as preventive medicine includes taking a relational and systems approach to urban health, requiring health assessments for all urban policy making, promoting neighborhood health centers as engines of community economic development and gathering place-based health indicator data to track progress and adapt interventions over time as conditions change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Microsensing networks for sustainable cities

    CERN Document Server

    Lambrechts, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    This book explores the microsensing technologies and systems now available to monitor the quality of air and water within the urban environment and examines their role in the creation of sustainable cities against the background of the challenges posed by rapid urbanization. The opening section addresses the theoretical and conceptual background of microsensing networks. The coverage includes detailed description of microsensors, supported by design-specific equations, and clear explanation of the ways in which devices that harvest energy from ambient sources can detect and quantify pollution. The practical application of such systems in addressing environmental impacts within cities and in sustainable urban planning is then discussed with the aid of case studies in developing countries. The book will be of interest to all who wish to understand the benefits of microsensing networks in promoting sustainable cities through better delivery of information on health hazards and improved provision of data to envir...

  8. The city as a sign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharlamov, Nikita

    2012-01-01

    The galloping urbanization of the world simultaneously transforms human society into a thoroughly urban society and dismantles the traditional “rural-urban” dichotomy. It is increasingly recognized in urban studies that human spatiality entails a complex pattern of settlements and dwellings. I...... propose a developmental-experiential theoretical framework for addressing what Stanley Milgram called the experience of living in cities. This framework particularly focuses on the atmosphere of living in cities. Founded on organismic-developmental axiomatic base introduced by Jacob von Uexküll, Heinz...... of meaningful places as the outcome of experiencing space. The concept of encounter introduced by Ash Amin and Nigel Thrift is used to locate the experience of the banal, everyday city life. Following Erving Goffman, the central question for the framework becomes the question of organization of experience...

  9. Shrinking Cities or Urban Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lea Louise Holst

    Shrinking Cities or Urban Transformation is a PhD-thesis conducted at the Department of Architecture and Design, Aalborg University in the period 2004-2008. The PhD concerns the spatial changes that emerge in contemporary urbanity. Contemporary urbanity can among others be characterized as both...... growing and declining. On the one hand, a concentration of the urban into a highly urbanized nodal point is happening and on the other a deconcentration of the urban fabric in declining territories is taking place. The starting point for the dissertation is the term shrinking cities, which has been...... investigation of the cases Baltimore and Denmark is conducted. This shall shed light upon whether the theoretical assumptions correspond to what is happening in the real world. The introduction of the term urban transformation is the result of these investigations and a response to shrinking cities. Urban...

  10. Sustainable development indicators for cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Nikolayevich Bobylev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of urban population’s life quality implies an investigation of all factors defining it: economic, social and ecological. The development of the corresponding indicators of sustainable urban development is necessary. The majority of the cities in the world and this country show unsustainable development at present time. In the article, the world and Russian experience of development of indicators of sustainable urban development is considered. In the article, opportunities of adaptation of approaches to these indicators’ development on the basis of Human Development Index developed by United Nations Development Program and an index of Adjusted Net Savings of the World Bank for Russia are considered. The authors propose a new integrated index of sustainability for Russian cities. It is based on the concept and methodology of the Adjusted Net Savings index. In order to evaluate the sustainability of urban development taking into account economic, social, and ecological factors, the authors propose applying three corresponding sub-indexes: gross capital, expenses on human capital development, and damage from environmental pollution in the cities. In the article, the authors’ set of indicators for Russian cities is proposed. It reflects the most acute problems of sustainable urban development in Russia and the quality of life in cities; also it corresponds to Russian statistics. 21 key indicators reflecting important economic, social, and ecological urban priorities are proposed. Indicators are divided into nine groups: economic indicators; energy efficiency; transport; social and institutional indicators; air and climate; water resources; waste; especially protected natural territories; noise influence. Proposed indicators for cities allow more adequately assess trends of urbanized space shaping and quality of life

  11. The post-secular city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anni

    Spaces of post-secular engagement Session for the Association of American Geographers (AAG) Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., United States, 14-18 April 2010 The post-secular city: An emergent international culture? Anni Greve, Abstract The post-secular city is an emergent intellectual field which...... in research on trans-national identity making (Fortier 2002). This paper suggests a displacement of focus from trans-national to international identity making and the possible role of religious societies. It is argued that an international culture is not mainstream culture however there are (universal...

  12. The city of the landowner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnow, Niels Finn

    The City of the Landowner deals with urban systems and urban architecture in the Antique Greek World and the Roman Empire. Although it is a part og a wider context, the book can perfectly well be read separatly as its texts, drawings and photographs describe a subject which is abundant and challe......The City of the Landowner deals with urban systems and urban architecture in the Antique Greek World and the Roman Empire. Although it is a part og a wider context, the book can perfectly well be read separatly as its texts, drawings and photographs describe a subject which is abundant...

  13. The green city guidelines : techniques for a healthy liveable city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roo, M.; Kuypers, V.H.M.; Lenzholzer, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Green City Guidelines is an international book that provides information on the social and economic advantages of green spaces in urban environments. The book focuses on decision-makers and people practically involved in the field concerned. It provides tips and advice on ways of using plants,

  14. Smart cities, smart lights. Digital signane and the city experience

    OpenAIRE

    Fiori, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    This article is about the experience of light in the smart and digital city or, in other words, the existing and widening use of visual digital signane in the urban environment, open air and in public places. This research focuses on where in towns this digital "contamination" is more visible and accessible, i.e. in shopping districts.

  15. LOCAL IDENTITY MEETING WITH CITY: CITTASLOW-SLOW CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugba Ustun Topal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cities are characterised by local identities, which have been shaped by natural and cultural values. Constituting elements of local identity are settlement pattern bearing the traces of past, local music, traditional taste, handicrafts and life story. Besides, there has been a fast pace of life owing to globalization, and globally standardized cities, where local identities are ignored, have been emerged in planning-design-implementation process. From this viewpoint, Cittaslow movement has become a major turning point for liveable and sustainable cities that emphasize the local character. In this context, in the study, it is aimed to raise awareness about Cittaslow which is an example of an urban model for sustainability. In line with this purpose, the importance of Cittaslow approach and the criteria that are needed to be met for being a member of the Association of Cittaslow have been revealed. In line with these criteria Cittaslow cities in Turkey were discussed comparatively in terms of their features were considered. Examples from our country have been evaluated together with the international Cittaslow examples. In addition, proposals have been made by developing strategies in planning- designing and implementation process for the Cittaslow approach.

  16. Focus Cities : Urban Waste Management in the City of Cochabamba ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The city of Cochabamba produces 400 tons of solid waste per day, which is transported 10 km to the K'ara K'ara (KK) dump. Solid waste services in Cochabamba are inadequate and the operational conditions of the KK dump constitute a serious health risk for the poor working in and living around the dump due to air, land ...

  17. From the Garden City to the Smart City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Hügel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been a century since the first Garden Cities at Welwyn and Letchworth were founded and, in the eyes of many, we have entered the age of the Smart City. This commentary briefly reflects upon the origins of Ebenezer Howard’s vision in the slums of overcrowded, filthy London and the fire-traps of early 20th century Chicago before outlining some of the main contributing factors to its ultimate failure as an approach: the lack of a robust theory underpinning his ideas, a finance model which was unacceptable to the banks—leading to a compromise which robbed the more idealistic participants of any real power over their schemes—and finally, a dilution of Howard’s vision by architects who were more focused on population density than on social reform. A parallel is then drawn between the weaknesses which afflicted the Garden City vision, and those which afflict current Smart City visions, a loose agglomeration of ahistorical techno-utopian imaginaries, whose aims almost invariably include optimising various measures of efficiency using large-scale deployments of networked sensors and cameras, linked to monolithic control rooms from which our shared urban existence is overseen. The evolution (or perhaps more accurately: alteration of these concepts in response to criticism is then detailed, before some of the less well-known ideas which are now emerging are briefly discussed.

  18. Playable Cities : The City as a Digital Playground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton

    2017-01-01

    The first book to exhaustively review key recent research into playability in smart and digital cities. - Addresses pervasive games and the relation between gameful and gamified applications and the design of playful architecture - Includes special chapters on playful civic hacking applications and

  19. Gamification in the context of smart cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zica, M. R.; Ionica, A. C.; Leba, M.

    2018-01-01

    The recent emergence of smart cities is highly supported by the development of IT and IoT technologies. Nevertheless, a smart city needs to be built to meet the needs and requirements of its citizens. In order to build a smart city it is necessary to understand the benefits of such a city. A smart city is, beyond technology, populated by people. A smart city can be raised by its citizens’ contribution, and gamification is the means to motivate them. In this paper we included gamification techniques in the stage of capturing the citizens’ requirements for building a smart city. The system proposed in the paper is to create an application that allows the building of a virtual smart city customized by each user. From this virtual city, the most relevant features are extracted.

  20. Avaliação das Boas Práticas através de check-list aplicado em restaurantes self-service da região central de Maringá, Estado do Paraná - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v27i2.1415 Good practices evaluation through check-list applied in self-service restaurants to the downtown population of Maringá, Paraná State - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v27i2.1415

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciette Matioli

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O número de pessoas que se alimenta fora de suas residências é cada vez maior, devido a vários fatores como crescimento das cidades, inserção da mulher no mercado de trabalho e tempo indisponível para o preparo das refeições. Para garantir a segurança dos alimentos oferecidos, é necessária a implantação das Boas Práticas, procedimentos padronizados que devem ser adotados com o objetivo de evitar as Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos. O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi avaliar as condições de higiene no preparo de alimentos em restaurantes do tipo self-service da região central do município de Maringá. Foi aplicado um check-list (guia de verificação baseado na legislação vigente no país, de forma a verificar o nível de Não-conformidades apresentadas pelos estabelecimentos. Os resultados mostraram uma variação de 10,8 a 60,9% de Não-conformidade. Conclui-se que a maioria dos restaurantes pesquisados possui condições de higiene insatisfatórias e não atendem a legislação vigente no país no que diz respeito às Boas Práticas para a produção de alimentos segurosThe number of people who eat out of their residences is becoming bigger, due to several factors: the growth of the cities, the woman's insert in the job market and the unavailable time for meals preparation. To guarantee the safety of the supplied foods, it is necessary to adopt the Good Practices, that are, standardized procedures followed with the objective of avoiding the Diseases Transmitted by Foods. This work aimed to evaluate the hygienic-sanitary conditions in the foods preparation provided by restaurants of the type self-service to the downtown population of Maringá. A check-list was applied (verification guide based on the current legislation in the country, in order to verify the Non-Conformities level presented by the establishments. The results showed a variation from 10.8 to 60.9% of Non-Conformities and that most of the researched

  1. Sustainability and Cities as Systems of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Bjørn; Lehmann, Martin

    Cities often constitute relevant environments for interactive learning and innovation potentially capable of tackling sustainability problems. In this paper we ask if the concept of systems of innovation can increase our understanding of city dynamics and help promoting the sustainable development...... of cities. Through a combination of the innovation system approach and the perspective of creative cities, we argue that a slightly modified concept – sustainable city systems of innovation – may be helpful in this context. To underline this, we discuss certain ‘city-traits’ of sustainability and conclude...... that the new concept may be of special use for urban quality development and management....

  2. Landscape planning for a safe city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ishikawa

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available To create a safe city free from natural disasters has been one of the important criteria in city planning. Since large cities have suffered from large fires caused by earthquakes, the planning of open spaces to prevent the spread of fires is part of the basic structure of city planning in Japan. Even in the feudal city of Edo, the former name of Tokyo, there had been open spaces to prevent fire disasters along canals and rivers. This paper discusses the historical evolution of open space planning, that we call landscape planning, through the experiences in Tokyo, and clarifies the characteristics and problems for achieving a safe city.

  3. A Tale of Two Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    A Tale of Two Cities is one of Dickens's most exciting books, set against the backdrop of the French revolution, in which two generations struggle against the injustices of first a corrupt aristocracy and then the mindless rule of the mob.

  4. Shifting fortunes of neighbouring cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, E.J.; Lambregts, B.W.

    2009-01-01

    Polycentricity is often conceived to be the product of “a long process of very extended decentralization from big central cities to adjacent smaller ones, old and new” (Hall and Pain, 2006: 3). Accordingly, polycentric spatial development (as a process) is usually identified with a development

  5. Market solutions for sustainable cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursem, Thomas; Nijkamp, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Sustainable development has become a globally accepted policy objective. It is however, increasingly recognized that the implementation of sustainability strategies has to take place at a decentralized level. This has also provoked the idea of urban sustainability. The notion of sustainable city is

  6. Heritage contribution in sustainable city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostami, R; Khoshnava, S M; Lamit, H

    2014-01-01

    The concept of sustainability has been an integral part of development work since the late 1970s. Sustainability is no longer a buzzword but a reality that must be addressed by cities all over the world. Increasing empirical evidence indicates that city sustainability is not just related to technical issues, such as carbon emissions, energy consumption and waste management, or on the economic aspects of urban regeneration and growth, but also it covers social well-being of different groups living within increasingly cosmopolitan towns and cities. Heritage is seen as a major component of quality of life, features that give a city its unique character and provide the sense of belonging that lies at the core of cultural identity. In other words, heritage by providing important social and psychological benefits enrich human life with meanings and emotions, and raise quality of life as a key component of sustainability. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to examine the role that built cultural heritage can play within sustainable urban development

  7. Smart Cities for Smart Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Jensen, Martin Lynge; Wøldike, Niels Peter

    This position paper presents the concept of smart cities for smart children before highlighting three concrete projects we are currently running in order to investigate different aspects of the underlying concept like social-relational interaction and situated and experiential learning....

  8. Foodscape gastropolis New York City

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der A.J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Men slurp banana pudding from the hips of a black-latex-clad woman lying on atable in a room filled with liquid nitrogen smoke. This is just a single episode inthe culinary life of New York City (Parasecoli, 2009). Elsewhere, a long queue ofAfrican-Americans is patiently waiting for a soup kitchen

  9. Wasted cities in urbanizing China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Guizhen; Mol, A.P.J.; Lu, Yonglong

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization is a characteristic of the 21st century, especially in countries with developing economies and a large amount of rural-to-urban migration. In China, the emergence of "wasted cities and towns" has paralleled urban expansion; large newly built areas that remain unpopulated and have

  10. Miami, Florida: The Magic City

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2008-01-01

    With its subtropical climate and intimate ties to Latin America, Miami is like no other city in the United States. More than 65 percent of its population is Hispanic, and Spanish is the most commonly heard language. Situated at the southern tip of the 500-mile-long Florida peninsula, Miami is the largest urban area in the southeastern United…

  11. causes, jimma city, southwest ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RESULT: A total of 566 cases were seen in different health facilities in Jimma City in a period 29 days, Two hundred ninety nine (52.8%) of the cases were students from Jimma University and 56 (11.7%) were residents of Kefitegna 3. Shigella flexinneri was identified from some of the stool specimens investigated.

  12. Autobiography of a Chinese City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the evolution of gazetteer [a peculiar Chinese genre of officially supervised local history writing] work in the Northeastern city of Harbin. It is a study of the interaction of politics, bureaucracy, and historical work at the local level in contemporary China, and it points...

  13. Designing cities to minimise crime

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Saville, G

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available or environmental aspects are disproportionately favoured in the public discourse. The sustainability of a city, as a complex system, involves much more. The authors contend that attention should also be paid to social and economic aspects, and more consideration...

  14. City of West Liberty, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the City of West Liberty, Iowa, a municipality with a mailing address of 409 North Calhoun Street, West Liberty, IA 52776, for alleged violations of the Clean Water Act.

  15. The city of the landowner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnow, Niels Finn

    The City of the Landowner deals with urban systems and urban architecture in the Antique Greek World and the Roman Empire. Although it is a part og a wider context, the book can perfectly well be read separatly as its texts, drawings and photographs describe a subject which is abundant...

  16. Towards Playful and Playable Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Nijholt, Antinus

    2017-01-01

    Smart cities have inspired the introduction of various viewpoints, usually concerning the introduction of digital technology by governance bodies and its use by service providers and other economic stakeholders to allow a more efficient use of resources, transportation infrastructure, and an

  17. Spatial distribution of traffic induced noise exposures in a US city: an analytic tool for assessing the health impacts of urban planning decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Edmund Yet Wah; Holt, Ashley; Rivard, Tom; Bhatia, Rajiv

    2007-06-21

    Vehicle traffic is the major source of noise in urban environments, which in turn has multiple impacts on health. In this paper we investigate the spatial distribution of community noise exposures and annoyance. Traffic data from the City of San Francisco were used to model noise exposure by neighborhood and road type. Remote sensing data were used in the model to estimate neighborhood-specific percentages of cars, trucks, and buses on arterial versus non-arterial streets. The model was validated on 235 streets. Finally, an exposure-response relationship was used to predict the prevalence of high annoyance for different neighborhoods. Urban noise was found to increase 6.7 dB (p < 0.001) with 10-fold increased street traffic, with important contributors to noise being bus and heavy truck traffic. Living along arterial streets also increased risk of annoyance by 40%. The relative risk of annoyance in one of the City's fastest growing neighborhoods, the South of Market Area, was found to be 2.1 times that of lowest noise neighborhood. However, higher densities of exposed individuals were found in Chinatown and Downtown/Civic Center. Overall, we estimated that 17% of the city's population was at risk of high annoyance from traffic noise. The risk of annoyance from urban noise is large, and varies considerably between neighborhoods. Such risk should be considered in urban areas undergoing rapid growth. We present a relatively simple GIS-based noise model that may be used for routinely evaluating the health impacts of environmental noise.

  18. Basic statistics of PM2.5 and PM10 in the atmosphere of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, E; Reyes, E; Sánchez, G; Ortiz, E; Ruiz, M; Chow, J; Watson, J; Edgerton, S

    2002-03-27

    The high levels of fine particulate matter in Mexico City are of concern since they may induce severe public health effects as well as the attenuation of visible light. Sequential filter samplers were used at six different sites from 23 February to 22 March 1997. The sampling campaign was carried out as part of the project 'Investigación sobre Materia Particulada y Deterioro Atmosferico-Aerosol and Visibility Evaluation Research'. This research was a cooperative project sponsored by PEMEX and by the US Department of Energy. Sampling sites represent the different land uses along the city, the northwest station, Tlalnepantla, is located in a mixed medium income residential and industrial area. The northeast station, Xalostoc, is located in a highly industrialized area, Netzahualcoyotl is located in a mixed land use area, mainly commercial and residential. Station La Merced is located in the commercial and administrative district downtown. The southwest station is located in the Pedregal de San Angel, in a high-income neighborhood, and the southeast station located in Cerro de la Estrella is a mixed medium income residential and commercial area. Samples were collected four times a day in Cerro de la Estrella (CES), La Merced (MER) and Xalostoc (XAL) with sampling periods of 6 h. In Pedregal (PED), Tlalnepantla (TLA) and Netzahualcoyot1 (NEZ) sampling periods were every 24 h. In this paper the basic statistics of PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentrations are presented. The average results showed that 49, 61, 46, 57, 51 and 44% of the PM10 consisted of PM2.5 for CES, MER, XAL, PED, TLA and NEZ, respectively. The 24-h average highest concentrations of PM25 and PM10 were registered at NEZ (184 and 267 microg/m3) and the lowest at PED (22 and 39 microg/m3). The highest PM10 correlations were between XAL-CES (0.79), PED-TLA (0.80). In contrast, the highest PM2.5 correlations were between CES-PED (0.74), MER-CES (0.73) and TLA-PED (0.72), showing a lower correlation than the PM10

  19. Creativity and tourism in the city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, G.W.

    2014-01-01

    Creativity has become increasingly important for the development of tourism in cities in recent years. As competition between cities grows, they increasingly seek to distinguish themselves through creative strategies. In the field of tourism, however, such strategies may arguably be

  20. Clean Cities Program Contacts (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet provides contact information for program staff of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program, as well as contact information for the nearly 100 local Clean Cities coalitions across the country.