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Sample records for downtown havana city

  1. PIXE Analysis and source identification of airborne particulate matter collected in Downtown Havana City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, G.; Pinnera, I; Ramos, M; Guibert, R; Molina, E.; Martinez, M.; Fernandez, A.; Aldape, F.; Flores, M.

    2009-01-01

    A set of samples containing airborne particulate matter (in two particle size fraction PM10 and PM2,5) collected during five months from November 2006 to April 2007 in a urban area of Havana City were analyzed by Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique and the concentrations of 14 elements (S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb) were determined consistently in both particle size fractions with minimum detection limits in the range of ng/m3. A Gent air sampler was used for the aerosol collection in PM10 and PM2,5 particles simultaneously and the PIXE elemental analysis were performed using a proton beam of 2.5 MeV from the 2 MV Van de Graff Tandetron Accelerator at the ININ PIXE Laboratory in Mexico. The analytical database provided by PIXE was statistically analyzed in order to determine the promising local pollution sources. The statistical techniques of Multivariate Factor Analysis in combination with the Principal Component Analysis methods were applied to this data and allowed identifying five main pollution sources of airborne particulate matter (PM10 and PM2,5) collected in this area. The main (local) identified sources were: soil dust, sea spray, industry, fossil fuel combustion from motor vehicles and burnings or incinerations of diverse materials. A general discussion about these results is presented in this work. (Author)

  2. Havana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.; Coyula, Mario; Segre, Roberto

    , through the 1959 revolution, and into the post-Soviet era and today, the authors trace Havana's physical evolution and place it in the context of important political, economic, and cultural developments. This new edition--which has been completely revised, redesigned, and updated since the book's original...... five hundred years of development in the Cuban capital. They offer an insightful introduction to Havana's historic architecture and modern buildings, its social and economic fabric, its diverse people, and its contemporary challenges and opportunities.From the colonial and early republican periods...

  3. Agriculture in the City: A Key to Sustainability in Havana, Cuba ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This book presents the results of a 3-year research project on the history and ... of Havana, as well as in city-wide environmental management programs. ... IDRC congratulates first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science ... Innovation.

  4. Technology transfer from havana hospitals to primary care: yamila de armas, MD. Deputy director, provincial health department, havana city province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Gloria

    2009-01-01

    Dr Yamila de Armas has occupied an array of posts since finishing her residency in family medicine in her home province of Cienfuegos in 1992. She has served as a family doctor; polyclinic, municipal and provincial health director; medical school dean; and twice vice minister of public health. But few would doubt her toughest job is the one she has now: deputy director of the Havana City Provincial Health Department, in charge of medical services for the 2.2 million people living in Cuba's complex, sprawling capital. It was here in 2002-2003 that the program was launched to repair, refurbish and expand the country's nearly 500 community polyclinics. Key to the effort was equipping these facilities with a broader range of new and upgraded medical technology. Dr de Armas offers MEDICC Review her reflections on the results five years later.

  5. Changes On the Housing Market of the Downtown Area in Selected Polish Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rącka Izabela

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Large Polish cities are currently dealing with an increasing significance of downtown areas, extending outside of the city centers (meaning the area directly surrounding the city square. The downtown alone seems to influence the fate of entire cities, facilitating their success or contributing to their failure. A good demographic, social and economic condition of a downtown, its positive image and the dynamic development of the part of the city perceived as the business and administration centre and a meeting place of residents and tourists, contribute to the image and potential of the whole city to a great extent. Changes in urban surroundings, the signs of which may be observed in spatial, aesthetic, architectural, urban-planning and socio-economic aspects, determine the functioning and condition of local real estate markets. Whether potential buyers consider the real estate attractive depends on the assessment of its significant features, of which transaction price is representative. The main research objective of the article is the identification, assessment and interpretation of differences in prices registered in the years 2009-2014 in downtown residential real estate markets. These considerations have been referred to analogical phenomena within the entire cities under examination. The detailed research objective is an attempt to explain the sources of individual reactions of the analyzed real estate markets in downtown areas. The cities under research include: Bydgoszcz, Kalisz, Toruń and Wrocław. The authors applied quantitative analysis (statistical, comparative to transaction data registered in local residential real estate markets.

  6. Characterization of municipal solid waste from the main landfills of Havana city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa Lloréns, Ma Del C; Torres, Matilde López; Alvarez, Haydee; Arrechea, Alexis Pellón; García, Jorge Alejandro; Aguirre, Susana Díaz; Fernández, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    The city of Havana, the political, administrative and cultural centre of Cuba, is also the centre of many of the economic activities of the nation: industries, services, scientific research and tourism. All of these activities contribute to the generation of municipal solid waste (MSW), which also impact other Cuban cities. Inadequate handling of waste and the lack of appropriate and efficient solutions for its final disposal and treatment increase the risk and possibility of contamination. The main difficulty in the development of a system of management of MSW lies in the lack of knowledge of the chemical composition of the waste that is generated in the country as a whole, and especially in Havana, where solid waste management decisions are made. The present study characterizes MSW in Havana city during 2004. The Calle 100, Guanabacoa and Ocho Vías landfills were selected for physical-chemical characterization of MSW, as they are the three biggest landfills in the city. A total of 16 indicators were measured, and weather conditions were recorded. As a result, the necessary information regarding the physical-chemical composition of the MSW became available for the first time in Cuba. The information is essential for making decisions regarding the management of waste and constitutes a valuable contribution to the Study on Integrated Management Plan of MSW in Havana.

  7. Characterization of municipal solid waste from the main landfills of Havana city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa Llorens, Ma. del C; Lopez Torres, Matilde; Alvarez, Haydee; Pellon Arrechea, Alexis; Garcia, Jorge Alejandro; Diaz Aguirre, Susana; Fernandez, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    The city of Havana, the political, administrative and cultural centre of Cuba, is also the centre of many of the economic activities of the nation: industries, services, scientific research and tourism. All of these activities contribute to the generation of municipal solid waste (MSW), which also impact other Cuban cities. Inadequate handling of waste and the lack of appropriate and efficient solutions for its final disposal and treatment increase the risk and possibility of contamination. The main difficulty in the development of a system of management of MSW lies in the lack of knowledge of the chemical composition of the waste that is generated in the country as a whole, and especially in Havana, where solid waste management decisions are made. The present study characterizes MSW in Havana city during 2004. The Calle 100, Guanabacoa and Ocho Vias landfills were selected for physical-chemical characterization of MSW, as they are the three biggest landfills in the city. A total of 16 indicators were measured, and weather conditions were recorded. As a result, the necessary information regarding the physical-chemical composition of the MSW became available for the first time in Cuba. The information is essential for making decisions regarding the management of waste and constitutes a valuable contribution to the Study on Integrated Management Plan of MSW in Havana

  8. Concentrations of heavy metals in urban soils of Havana city, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Rizo, O.; Echevarria Castillo, F.; Arado Lopez, J. O.; Hernandez Merlo, M.

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb and Fe in the top-soils (0-10 cm) of Havana city urbanized and un-urbanized areas were measured by X-ray fluorescence analysis. The mean Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb contents in the urban topsoil samples from Havana City (151 ± 90, 13.9 ± 4.1, 66 ± 26, 101 ± 51, 240 ± 132 and 101 ± 61 mg.kg -1 , respectively) were compared with mean concentrations for other cities around the world. The results revealed higher concentrations of heavy metals in topsoil samples from industrial sites. Lowest heavy metal contents were determined in the un-urbanized areas. The comparison with Dutch soil quality guidelines showed a slightly contamination with Cr, Co, Ni Cu and Zn in all studied sites and with Pb in industrial soils. On the other hand, the metal-to-iron normalisation using Earth crust contents as background showed that soils from urbanized areas in Havana city (industrial sites, parks and school grounds) are moderately enriched by zinc, moderately to severe enriched (city parks and school grounds) and severe enriched (industrial sites) by lead. (Author)

  9. Downtown Tenants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Downtown City Tenant Information: Includes tenant name, address, Business open date, close date, years in business, and independent vs. chain. Data provided by the...

  10. Application of PIXE analysis to study urban atmospheric aerosols from downtown Havana City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Zayas, Grizel; Pinnera Hernandez, Ibrahin; Ramos Aruca, Maridelin; Guibert Gala, Rolando; Molina Esquivel, Enrique; Martinez Varona, Miriam; Fernandez Arocha, Ariadna; Aldape Ugalde, Francisca; Flores Maldonado, Javier

    2010-01-01

    The present work reports, the results of a first study of elemental composition in airborne particulate matter (in fine and coarse particle size fractions) collected at the Atmospheric Monitoring Station in the Municipality of Centro Habana, using the Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. At present, there is not information available about elements contents in airborne particulate matter from this region. For this study, we carried out a sampling campaign during five months (November 14, 2006 to April 19, 2007). The samples were collected every second day during 24 h under an air flux of 20 l/min. The air sampler used was a Gent Sampler equipped with a Stacked Filter Unit (SFU) system which allows the aerosol collection in both size fractions simultaneously. A total of 144 aerosol samples were collected (72 correspond to the fine mass particle and 72 to the coarse mass particle). For PIXE analysis, the samples were irradiated by 2.5 MeV energy protons from the 2MV Van de Graff Tandetron Accelerator from the Laboratory of PIXE analysis at ININ, Mexico. A total of 14 elements (S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb) were consistently detected in both particle size fractions with minimum detection limits in the range of 1-10 ng/m3. The quantitative results obtained from PIXE elemental analysis for mass of particles in both fractions have revealed important information that has been used in a first attempt to understand and to characterize the atmospheric pollution of this area. A general discussion about these results is presented in this paper. (author)

  11. Application of PIXE analysis to study urban atmospheric aerosols from downtown Havana City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Zayas, Grizel; Pinnera Hernandez, Ibrahin; Ramos Aruca, Maridelin; Guibert Gala, Rolando; Molina Esquivel, Enrique; Martinez Varona, Miriam; Fernandez Arocha, Ariadna; Aldape Ugalde, Francisca; Flores Maldonado, Javier

    2009-01-01

    The present work reports, the results of a first study of elemental composition in airborne particulate matter (in fine and coarse particle size fractions) collected at the Atmospheric Monitoring Station in the Municipality of Centro Habana, using the Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. At present, there is not information available about elements contents in airborne particulate matter from this region. For this study, we carried out a sampling campaign during five months (November 14, 2006 to April 19, 2007). The samples were collected every second day during 24 h under an air flux of 20 l/min. The air sampler used was a Gent Sampler equipped with a Stacked Filter Unit (SFU) system which allows the aerosol collection in both size fractions simultaneously. A total of 144 aerosol samples were collected (72 correspond to the fine mass particle and 72 to the coarse mass particle). For PIXE analysis, the samples were irradiated by 2.5 MeV energy protons from the 2MV Van de Graff Tandetron Accelerator from the Laboratory of PIXE analysis at ININ, Mexico. A total of 14 elements (S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb) were consistently detected in both particle size fractions with minimum detection limits in the range of 1-10 ng/m3. The quantitative results obtained from PIXE elemental analysis for mass of particles in both fractions have revealed important information that has been used in a first attempt to understand and to characterize the atmospheric pollution of this area. A general discussion about these results is presented in this paper. (author)

  12. Biomonitoring of the atmospheric pollution in Havana City during 2004-2005 survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estevez Alvarez, J.; Montero Alvarez, A.; Lopez Sanchez, D.; Pupo Gonzalez, I.; Hernandez Torres, D.; Perez Arriba, O.; Iglesias Brito, H.; Wolterbeek, B.

    2011-01-01

    An epiphytic lichen (physcia alba sp.) grown over Royal Palm (Roystonea regia) tree was used as bioindicator of air quality in Havana City. A total of 225 lichens samples were collected in 181 selected sites according to traffic and industry conditions. The concentrations for 15 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Cd and Pb) were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry, Total Reflection X Ray Fluorescence and Anodic Stripping Voltammetry. Principal Component Analysis was applied to analytical results and some factors were obtained. Maps with lichen elemental contents and factors patterns are presented. Several possible pollution sources were identified.(author)

  13. Heavy metals in eichhornia crassipes in the vicinity of a landfill in Havana city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares Rieumnot, Susana; Lima Cazorla, Lazaro; Columbie, Isaida; De La Rosa Medero, Daniel; Sanchez, Maria J.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the levels of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr and Cd in roots of EC which grow in a river near an important landfill in Havana City are assessed. This landfill, known as street 100 receives daily 1,600 tons of solid wastes from the city, from them, approximately 45-50% are domestic wastes, 10-15% are industrial wastes and 25-30% are other type wastes. The leachate of the landfill is discharged without treatment into Almendares River. Some reports indicate that levels of metals in the leachate and in the river surface water are relatively low, contrary to the one should wait, due to the nature of the deposited waste- type

  14. 76 FR 10028 - Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs 10,000 Havana Street Site, Commerce City...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9269-7] Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs 10,000 Havana Street Site, Commerce City, Adams County, CO AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice and request for public comment. SUMMARY: In accordance with the requirements of Section...

  15. Effective environmental factors on geographical distribution of traffic accidents on pedestrians, downtown Tehran city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Ali; Soori, Hamid; Kavousi, Amir; Eshghabadi, Farshid; Nematollahi, Shahrzad; Zeini, Salahdien

    2017-01-01

    In most countries, occurrence of traffic causalities is high in pedestrians. The aim of this study is to geographically analyze the traffic casualties in pedestrians in downtown Tehran city. The study population consisted of traffic injury accidents in pedestrians occurred during 2015 in Tehran city. Data were extracted from offices of traffic police and municipality. For analysis of environmental factors and site of accidents, ordinary least square regression models and geographically weighted regression were used. Fitness and performance of models were checked using the Akaike information criteria, Bayesian information criteria, deviance, and adjusted R 2 . Totally, 514 accidents were included in this study. Of them, site of accidents was arterial streets in 370 (71.9%) cases, collector streets in 133 cases (25.2%), and highways in 11 cases (2.1%). Geographical units of traffic accidents in pedestrians had statistically significant relationship with a number of bus stations, number of crossroads, and recreational areas. Distribution of injury traffic accidents in pedestrians is different in downtown Tehran city. Neighborhoods close to markets are considered as most dangerous neighborhoods for injury traffic accidents. Different environmental factors are involved in determining the distribution of these accidents. The health of pedestrians in Tehran city can be improved by proper traffic management, control of environmental factors, and educational programs.

  16. Identifying sources of atmospheric fine particles in Havana City using Positive Matrix Factorization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnera, I.; Perez, G.; Ramos, M.; Guibert, R.; Aldape, F.; Flores M, J.; Martinez, M.; Molina, E.; Fernandez, A.

    2011-01-01

    In previous study a set of samples of fine and coarse airborne particulate matter collected in a urban area of Havana City were analyzed by Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. The concentrations of 14 elements (S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb) were consistently determined in both particle sizes. The analytical database provided by PIXE was statistically analyzed in order to determine the local pollution sources. The Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) technique was applied to fine particle data in order to identify possible pollution sources. These sources were further verified by enrichment factor (EF) calculation. A general discussion about these results is presented in this work. (Author)

  17. Effective environmental factors on geographical distribution of traffic accidents on pedestrians, downtown of Tehran City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Ali; Rahmani, Khaled; Kavousi, Amir; Eshghabadi, Farshid; Nematollahi, Shahrzad; Zainni, Slahedyn; Soori, Hamid

    2018-02-20

    The aim of this study was to geographically analyse the traffic casualties in pedestrians in downtown of Tehran City. Study population consisted of pedestrians who had traffic injury accidents from April 2014 to March 2015 in Tehran City. Data were extracted from the offices of traffic police and municipality. For analysis of environmental factors and site of accidents, Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression models and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) were used. All pedestrian accidents including 514 accidents were assessed in this study in which the site of accidents included arterial streets in 370 (71.9%) cases, collector streets in 133 cases (25.2%) and highways in 11 cases (2.1%). Geographical units of traffic accidents in pedestrians had statistically significant relationship with the number of bus stations, number of crossroads and recreational areas. Neighbourhoods close to markets are considered as the most dangerous places for injury in traffic accidents.

  18. Impacts of urban sprawl on the area of downtown lakes in a highly developing city on central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Wuhan city in central China is full of water resources and numerous lakes are located. Downtown lakes have significant ecological value and ornamental value for urban inhabitants in Wuhan. Under the rapid process of urban sprawl, downtown lakes are occupied by impervious areas. This research uses Landsat images to extract land uses from 1991 to 2013 in Wuhan city , and attempts to find out how urban sprawl affects the water body area decline in space. Two largest downtown lakes in Wuhan city, Donghu Lake located in central city and Tangxunhu Lake located in suburbs, are taken as case study area. A direction change index (DCI) is proposed to evaluate the changes of a specific land use in different directions. The results reveal that two downtown lakes are undergoing rapid water body area decline from 1991 to 2013, with decline rate are -0.022 in Donghu watershed and -0.011 in Tangxunhu watershed. 68.26% and 62.50% of the reduced water body is occupied by built-up land in Donghu watershed and Tangxunhu watershed, respectively. According to DCI, the water body reduce is highly correlated with built-up land increase in all direction. Moreover, it is found that in the Donghu watershed the north-west part suffered significant water body area decline, which is close to central city. While in Tangxunhu watershed, the area of water body declined in north-west, south-west and north-east part, and the area obstructed from central city by the lake was suffering less water body area decline. It is concluded that the water body area of downtown lakes are highly affected by the process of urban sprawl, and the lakes in central districts trends to suffer higher descend than that of the downtown lake located in suburbs. Meanwhile, even for the same downtown lake, the area orientating and close to the central city may suffer more rapid decline than the area that does not orientate to the central city.

  19. Evaluation of the radius-226 doses incorporated with the consumption waters, which is receive by the City of Havana inhabitants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomas Zerquera, J.; Prendes Alonso, M.; Fernandez Gomez, I.M.; Martinez Ricardo, N.

    2001-01-01

    Because of the relatively good solubility of radium compounds contained in the crust of the earths, frequently is this possible to find in spring waters concentration of radium 226 which may be significant. Taking in account that person consumer important volumes of waters annually, it is necessary to assess the dose to population due to the intake of radium 226 by this pathway. Samples were taking in the principal water sources in Havana City and for each samples the radium 226 concentration was determined

  20. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the City of North Las Vegas (Downtown) and the Motor Speedway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotr Wasiolek

    2007-01-01

    As part of the proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey on December 11-12, 2007, with the purpose of mapping natural radiation background and locating any man-made radioactive sources. The survey covered 19.4 square miles (9.2 square miles over the downtown area of the City of North Las Vegas and 10.2 square miles over the Las Vegas Motor Speedway [LVMS]). The flight lines over the surveyed areas are presented in Figures 1 and 2. A total of four 2.5-hour-long flights were performed at an altitude of 150 ft above ground level (AGL) with 300 ft of flight line spacing. Water line and test line flights were conducted over the Lake Mead and Government Wash areas to ensure quality control of the data. The data were collected by the AMS data acquisition system-REDAR V using an array of twelve 2-inch x 4-inch x 16-inch sodium iodide (NaI) detectors flown on-board a twin-engine Bell 412 helicopter. Data in the form of gamma energy spectra were collected continually (every second) over the course of the survey and were geo-referenced using a differential Global Positioning System. Collection of spectral data allows the system to distinguish between ordinary fluctuations in natural background radiation levels and the signature produced by man-made radioisotopes sources. Spectral data can also be used to identify specific radioactive isotopes. As a courtesy service with the approval of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office, RSL-Nellis is providing this summary to the office of the Mayor of City of North Las Vegas and LVMS security along with the gross counts-based exposure rate and man-made counts maps

  1. [Tuberculin reactivity among ninth-grade schoolchildren in the city of Havana, Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroto Gutiérrez, Susana M; González Ochoa, Edilberto; Armas Pérez, Luisa; Urbino López-Chávez, Amelia; Martínez, Ana Maribel; Llanes, María Josefa; Sevy Court, José; Carreras Corzo, Libertad

    2003-09-01

    To determine the proportion of 14-year-old schoolchildren in the city of Havana, Cuba, with a positive tuberculin skin test, as an indicator of the prevalence of tuberculosis infection among them. Using single-stage cluster sampling, 1 936 Mantoux (tuberculin) tests were carried out with ninth-grade students (cohort born in 1985) during the 1999- 2000 school year in 20 basic high schools randomly selected in Havana. The tests were performed according to the standard technique recommended by the World Health Organization, and they were read after 72 hours. The percentage of skin tests that were positive and the average diameter of the indurations were calculated for the cohort overall and for the two genders. The means and the percentages were compared using the chi-square test, with 95% confidence intervals. The computer software used was Epi Info version 6.0. Of the tests read, 96% of them were negative (0-4 mm), 2.5% were doubtful (5-9 mm), and 1.5% were positive (>/=10 mm). The percentage of reactivity was 0.1% when a cutoff value of 15 mm was used. The mean diameter of the indurations was 0.41 mm. No statistically significant difference was found between the genders. In this study the proportion of schoolchildren with tuberculin reactivity, using an induration-diameter cutoff point of 10 mm, was very low (1.5%), and it was much lower (0.1%) when a cutoff point of 15 mm was used. The skin reactions with an induration diameter of >/=10 mm could be the expression of a natural infection if one takes into account the low frequency of bacillary tuberculosis in Cuba and that there is an inverse relationship between the time elapsed from the BCG vaccination and the intensity of the response to tuberculin. Therefore, that would mean that in this case (l)the point (.)prevalence of tuberculosis infection in this group of schoolchildren wou d be 1.5% ResumenObjetivos. Determinar la proporción de personas que reaccionan a la tuberculina como indicador de la prevalencia de

  2. HAVANA: SPACE THROUGH TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVIDEL RALUCA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Milton Santos, important Brazilian geographer, stated in his writings that space is a social production through time. The present work belongs to a series of studies of Latin-American cities based on Santos´ theories. Our case study is the city of Havana. Strategically situated in the Antilles, the city always played the role of a gate to the Spanish colonies in the Americas. After the Cuban independence (1898, the Caribbean city fell under the influence of the crescent power of the United States. At the turn of the XXth century, the city which during the colonial times based its economy on trade of commodities from the mainland like tobacco or sugar, turned to be funded mainly by North American tourism. The city attracted legal investment and mafia groups equally. Disparity and growing authoritarianism led to the well known Cuban Revolution and with its socialist reforms, the city froze in time. With the Soviet collapse, the government searched for economic alternatives facing a strong U.S. embargo. Tourism appeared once more as an important source of income. Yet, this new transition raises questions like: how is this reorientation going to change spatially Havana? Or, how are deeper changes in the socialist regime going to affect the heritage and identity of the city?

  3. Levels of cadmium, lead, cooper and zinc in vegetables cultivated in a highly urbanized area of La Havana city, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares R, S.; Garcia C, D.; Lima C, L.; Saborit S, I.; Llizo C, A.; Perez A, P.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we report levels of Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn in soils and vegetables grown in a highly urbanized area of La Havana city. We studied 17 farms dedicated to urban agriculture in an area of two kilometers around the landfill -Calle 100- during 2006 and 2007. For the study, samples of the soil and all the vegetables ready to harvest were taken from the farms. The heavy metals Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The levels of heavy metals in agricultural soils varied in the following ranges: Cd(0.24-2.1 mg/kg), Cu(38.4-81.3 mg/kg), Pb(18.1-138.5 mg/kg) and Zn(44.1-294.7 mg/kg). For Zn and Pb, some farm soils (35 and 52% respectively) exceeded the ranges in which these metals are found in Cuban agricultural soils. For Pb, 23% of the soils exceeded levels considered phyto toxic and limits in some international standards. The 12.5% of the samples of vegetables collected exceeded the maximum permissible levels of this pollutant in food for human consumption set by Cuban and international standards. The results indicate the need for strict crop monitoring in the area. (Author)

  4. [Incidence of tuberculosis at the local level: Marianao Municipality, Havana City, Cuba (1990-2000)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'fana Valdés, Jorgelina; Cambell, Shirley; Armas Pérez, Luisa; Fraginal, Bárbaro; González Ochoa, Edilberto

    2003-01-01

    For the elimination of tuberculosis (TB) is necessary the surveillance of the incidence rate at the local level, as this is the first level of access to the health service. This study is aimed at providing a description of the spread and trend of the tuberculosis incidence rates in Marianao Municipality, Habana City by healthcare areas and age groups throughout the 1990-2000 period. The time series for the 1990-1994 and 1995-2000 incidence rates were analyzed employing a two parameter exponential smoothing method. The total percentage and annual average of variation was estimated. The healthcare areas were stratified. In 1990-1994, the rate rose from 11.1 to 25.8 per 105 inhabitants (33% of increase by year), having been most noticeable in Carlos J. Finlay and Portuondo health areas (respectively annual average 112.7% y 36.2% increases). Taking into account that the control program was strengthened in 1995, the rates dropped by 47.6% in this municipality during the 1995-2000 period. The Finlay and Portuondo areas respectively lowered their rates by 79.9% y 39.7% while the Gonzalez Coro area showed a 58.3% rise and 27 de Noviembre area had no major change. The age and above 60 group had the higher percentage of cases, recording 49.8% of the total and only one case among children under age 15 for the period. During this same period, only six cases of tuberculosis/human inmunodeficiency virus were diagnosed. The 27 de Noviembre area was the only one found to be at the unsatisfactory level according to the stratification. An initially upward trend, followed by a downward trend in tuberculosis was found to exist in the Marianao Municipality throughout the period studied. This disease was predominant among older adults.

  5. Urban policies for downtown São Paulo: renewal or rehabilitation? An assessment of São Paulo city's proposals from 1970 to 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alberto Cusce Nobre

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The debate over urban interventions in central areas is probably one of the most controversial subjects between architects and city planners. Since the cities are built on social grounds, depending on the roles that government and the market play in the production of space, some urban areas" develop" while other" degrade." In response to a" degradation" process, governments around the world have developed urban policies for intervention in central areas of cities. These interventions have changed over time, alternating mainly between two types: eradication and rehabilitation. The current paper analyzes the interventions proposed by the city of São Paulo for its downtown area over the past thirty years, taking into consideration these types of intervention. The article starts out by discussing the evolution of urban policies for central areas in the international arena and then analyzes the process of São Paulo downtown decay and the response of local government, with an emphasis on recent initiatives and their outcomes.

  6. Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) measured with the doubly labeled water technique in women from 60 to 70 years of age from Havana City, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Triana, M.H.; Porrata, C.; Estrada, G.; Diaz, M.E.; Martin, I.; Bayley, H.; McCormack, B.A.; Jones, P.J.H.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: With the purpose to measure the Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) and to validate the Cuban Dietary Energy Allowance for elderly subjects, energy expenditure was assessed by the doubly labeled water technique in 11 women aged 65.9 ± 2.8 y with a mean BMI of 21.4 ± 4.2 kg/m2 during 14 days under free-living conditions in their own environment in Havana City. Materials and Methods: After taking a basal urine sample, the women received an oral dose of 2.5 g H218O (10%) and 0.12 g 2H2O (99.8%) body weight and samples of saliva and urine were collected 14 days after. Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) was estimated by the Schofield equations proposed by the 1985 FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Committee Report and energy intake was measured by trained dietitians using the 3-day weighed dietary record. A mean value of the food quotient of 0.85 was used for the calculations of the CO2 production by the isotopic method. Results: In spite of the expected variability, the differences between TEE measured by the isotopic method (7.57 MJ/d) and estimated according to FAO/WHO/UNU, 1985 (7.24 MJ/d) were not significant (0.625). The recommended dietary allowance for energy valid for Cuban elderly subjects (7.66 MJ/d) was only slight over the value of the measured TEE. The value of energy expenditure measured in free-living elderly women from Havana City was in the range of acceptable values (6-8 MJ/d) for this group of age. Conclusions: The total energy expenditure of elderly women from Havana City was lower than reported values for women living in developed countries but coincident with those of women of the developing world. The differences between dietary energy intake and TEE measured by the isotopic method were around 27% and coincident with previous reports in elderly people. The Cuban allowance for dietary energy for elderly women was enough for covering their energy requirements

  7. Envision Downtown: Public Space Public Life Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Pedestrian and Bicycle counts, Stationary Activity Counts, and Age and Gender counts for 16 locations in Downtown Pittsburgh. Data was collected over a weekday (7am...

  8. Application of XRF methods for multielemental analysis of lichen samples collected in Havana City. Comparison with ICP-AES, ICP-MS and FAAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrero Fernandez, Zahily; Estevez Alvarez, Juan R.; Montero Alvarez, Alfredo; Pupo Gonzalez, Ivan; Ortueta Milan, Marvic; Mesa Perez, Guillermo; Leyva Bombuse, Dennys; Rodriguez Gonzalez, Maydel; Hernandez Torres, Debora; Padilla Alvarez, Roman; Quejido Cabezas, Alberto J.; Rucandio Saez, Maria I.; Fernandez Diaz, Marta

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the analysis of Ca, Fe, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb in samples of lichens used as biomonitors of air pollution collecting in Havana City during 2009-2010. Two different X-Ray Fluorescence methods were used. First, a combination of Si (Li) detector with an annular 109Cd as primary excitation source was employed. The second system consisted in a Mo X-ray tube with a secondary target of Molybdenum and a X-PIPS detector. In both configurations, the correction of matrix effects was achieved by using the Compton scattering peak. The quantification was performed using calibration curves obtained from different biological Certified Reference Materials. The determination of elements by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry, Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry was carried out in order to evaluate the reliability of XRF methods. No significant differences were found between the obtained results by the different techniques. The levels of concentration of the analyzed elements in the lichens in 2009 and 2010 respectively were similar. The elemental distribution patters obtained for each metal were associated with different sources of contamination. (Author)

  9. VT Designated Downtown Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Downtown designation provides communities with financial incentives, training and technical assistance to support local efforts to restore historic buildings,...

  10. Contamination by Helicobacter pylori measured by the 13C-Urea-Breath-Test and nutritional status of children with chronic diarrhoea syndrome in Havana City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Triana, M.H.; Cabrera, A.; Sanchez, M. A.; Herrera, X.; Pawong, M.; Moreno, R.; Reyes, D.; Serrano, G.; Diaz, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    Diarrhoea morbidity shows a slow increasing tendency during the last 10 years in Cuba. In young children the compromise of the gastric acid barrier after a chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is discussed in pathogenic relation to gastritis, duodenal ulcer, chronic diarrhoea, short stature, malabsorption of the B-complex vitamins and malnutrition. The Hp contamination level of the population of the developing world is estimated to be considerably high. Endoscopic studies carried out in Cuban subjects with upper gastrointestinal symptoms show contamination values of 60 to 100%. The current treatment of chronic diarrhoea does not include the elimination of Hp. Cuban children with upper gastrointestinal symptoms show contamination values of more than 60%. There are not available data on the contamination level in apparently healthy Cuban children or those with chronic diarrhoea. In March-April 2000 the prevalence of Hp infection measured in serum by chromatographic immunoassay for detection of Hp IgG antibodies was found to be 94 % in 20 infants and young children with persistent chronic diarrhoea and 100% in 11 apparently healthy children in Havana City. Children with diarrhoea showed a more evident affection of their nutritional status and a higher percentage of positive personal or familiar history of parasitism, giardiasis, gastritis, ulcer, stomatitis and glositis. The validity of the immunological tests in infants is discussed from the point of view of the antibody transference with breast milk. In a sample of 16 different children studied by the 13C-Urea-Breath-Test the contamination level was 50% of the children not affected by diarrhoea and only one of the 6 children with diarrhoea showed positive values

  11. Urban revitalization at downtown areas: discussions on the case of the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Nigro

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This article: refers to the recent interventions and present revitalisation projects taking place at São Paulo city centre. It deals with the importance that has been attributed to the urban central areas through the years and the way in which these particular spaces are constant targets of public interventions. The case of São Paulo is treated through the process of "urban revitalisation". The text focuses on the need to speak about the context of this process within a wider one, that of "urban reestructuraron" - which leads to "gentrification" and spatial segregation phenomenon

  12. Contamination by Helicobacter pylori measured by the 13C-urea-breast-test and nutritional status of children with chronic diarrhoea syndrome in Havana city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera, A.; Hernandez-Triana, M.; Sanchez, M.; Herrera, X.; Pawong, M.; Moreno, R.; Reyes, D.; Serrano, G.; Diaz, M.E.; Valencia, M.

    2000-01-01

    Diarrhoea morbidity shows a slow increasing tendency during the last 10 years in Cuba. In young children the compromise of the gastric acid barrier after a chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori is discussed in pathogenic relation to gastritis, duodenal ulcer chronic diarrhoea, short stature, malabsorption of the B-complex vitamins and malnutrition. The Hp contamination level of the population of the developing world is estimated to be considerably high. Endoscopic studies carried out in Cuban subjects with upper gastrointestinal symptoms show contamination values of 60 to 100%. The current treatment of chronic diarrhoea does not include the elimination of Hp. Cuban children with upper gastrointestinal symptoms show contamination values of more than 60%. There are not available data on the contamination level in apparently healthy Cuban children or those with chronic diarrhoea. In March-April 2000 the prevalence of Hp infection measured in serum by chromatographic immunoassay for detection of Hp IgG antibodies was found to be 94% in 20 infants and young children with persistent chronic diarrhoea and 100% in 11 apparently healthy children in Havana City. Children with diarrhoea showed a more evident affection of their nutritional status and a higher percentage of positive personal or familiar history of parasitism, giardiasis, gastritis, ulcer stomatitis and glositis. The validity of the immunological tests in infants is discussed from the point of view of the antibody transference with breast milk. In a sample of 16 different children studied by the 13 C-Urea-Breath-Test the contamination level was 50% of the children not affected by diarrhoea and only one of the 6 children with diarrhoea showed positive values. This research contract proposes the study of contamination with Hp in Cuban children older than 2 years of age affected by chronic diarrhoea using the 13 C-Urea Breath Test and serological tests for detection of anti-Hp IgG antibodies. Their nutritional

  13. Contamination by Helicobacter pylori measured by the {sup 13}C-urea-breast-test and nutritional status of children with chronic diarrhoea syndrome in Havana city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, A; Hernandez-Triana, M; Sanchez, M; Herrera, X; Pawong, M; Moreno, R; Reyes, D; Serrano, G; Diaz, M E [Institute of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Department of Biochemistry and Physiology, Havana (Cuba); Valencia, M [Centro de Investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo, Department of Human Nutrition, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Diarrhoea morbidity shows a slow increasing tendency during the last 10 years in Cuba. In young children the compromise of the gastric acid barrier after a chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori is discussed in pathogenic relation to gastritis, duodenal ulcer chronic diarrhoea, short stature, malabsorption of the B-complex vitamins and malnutrition. The Hp contamination level of the population of the developing world is estimated to be considerably high. Endoscopic studies carried out in Cuban subjects with upper gastrointestinal symptoms show contamination values of 60 to 100%. The current treatment of chronic diarrhoea does not include the elimination of Hp. Cuban children with upper gastrointestinal symptoms show contamination values of more than 60%. There are not available data on the contamination level in apparently healthy Cuban children or those with chronic diarrhoea. In March-April 2000 the prevalence of Hp infection measured in serum by chromatographic immunoassay for detection of Hp IgG antibodies was found to be 94% in 20 infants and young children with persistent chronic diarrhoea and 100% in 11 apparently healthy children in Havana City. Children with diarrhoea showed a more evident affection of their nutritional status and a higher percentage of positive personal or familiar history of parasitism, giardiasis, gastritis, ulcer stomatitis and glositis. The validity of the immunological tests in infants is discussed from the point of view of the antibody transference with breast milk. In a sample of 16 different children studied by the {sup 13}C-Urea-Breath-Test the contamination level was 50% of the children not affected by diarrhoea and only one of the 6 children with diarrhoea showed positive values. This research contract proposes the study of contamination with Hp in Cuban children older than 2 years of age affected by chronic diarrhoea using the {sup 13}C-Urea Breath Test and serological tests for detection of anti-Hp IgG antibodies. Their

  14. TEC variability over Havana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, B.; Alazo, K.; Rodriguez, M.; Calzadilla, A.

    2003-01-01

    The variability of total electron content (TEC) measured over Havana using ATS-6, SMS-1 and GOES-3 geosynchronous satellite signals has been investigated for low, middle and high solar activity periods from 1974 to 1982. The obtained results show that standard deviation is smooth during nighttime hours and maximum at noon or postnoon hours. Strong solar activity dependence of standard deviation with a maximum values during HSA has been found. (author)

  15. THE OLD HAVANA, A FEARLESS PRESENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysel Castillo García

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Havana, Cuba's capital city had its beginnings with the construction of the San Cristobal de la Habana village, which was consolidated from a city with a large urban development from architectural SXVI until today. The urban structure that will characterize the city is given by a system of square with different uses and functions which will develop the core business of the town, giving polycentric character. During its growth this character always prevailed and remains in the current city allowing the decentralization of functions. The presence of outstanding works of domestic architecture, with large central courtyard mansions and hallway with colorful stained glass, were symbols of economic development. Religious architecture, boomed equally important for the construction of buildings part of the skyline as milestones and the social life. The Church as an institution takes force within society itself to develop health functions, including education, thus exerting ideological control - cultural on different social groups. Today that village, Old Havana has experienced significant economic, cultural and social product integrated management model implemented. The of Historian´s of the city Office (Oficina del Historiador de la Ciudad and its directorates, has rescued an important part of the tangible and intangible heritage sample of Cuban culture in the oldest part of Havana, the historic center. The work of the Historians of the city office, with offices established directorates to carry out comprehensive management process, with a comprehensive development strategy developed and self-funded, achieving significant economic development to enhance their traditional components. The integrated management model of the old town, sees culture as main linchpin of development, and the human being the heart of the process. It's a livable historic center, where a high density of occupation, a considerable number of families, thus making the man as

  16. Memory and a Hard Place: Revisiting Central Havana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marivic Wyndham

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Raul and Manolo are two Cuban men in their late sixties. Manolo left soon after Castro’s triumph to become a television celebrity in Miami. He returned in 1991 to make a clandestine film about the city which once was his. Raul never left his decaying city. He applauded the revolution, but little by little his enthusiasm soured. The paper examines the relationship of the two men to what was once the ultra modern Central Havana of the mid-1950s. Manolo’s froze on the day he left: his filmed city is silent, immobile, full of ghosts, almost empty, ugly, ruined. Manolo’s Central Havana processes and changes, it is noisy, busy, - but also it is ugly and ruined. Both lament the city as it once was. Only Raul sees hope of reconciliation.

  17. Clasificación del síndrome climatérico en mujeres de edad mediana, Ciudad de La Habana, 2003 (I Classification of the climaterium syndrome in women of middle-aged women. Havana City 2003 (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadna Corral Martín

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: el síndrome climatérico se presenta con variada frecuencia e intensidad en distintas poblaciones. OBJETIVO: identificar su intensidad en mujeres de 40 a 59 años de edad en Ciudad de La Habana. MÉTODOS: estudio descriptivo transversal en el que se estudió una muestra de 625 mujeres de estas edades, seleccionadas por muestreo estratificado polietápico. Se estimó de forma puntual y por intervalo de confianza del 95 %, el porcentaje de mujeres en cada nivel del síndrome climatérico y por subescala según el instrumento aplicado. Se caracterizó cada grupo de mujeres de dicha clasificación, de forma general y con variables biológicas. RESULTADOS: el 40,3 % y el 30,2 % de las mujeres estudiadas clasificaron como asintomáticas y con síndrome climatérico leve respectivamente, según el puntaje total. El grupo de edad de 40 a 49 años tuvo el 11,6 % de mujeres con síndrome muy molesto, el 56,8 % se encontraba en la posmenopausia y el 9,3 % en la perimenopausia. CONCLUSIONES: en la Ciudad de La Habana, tanto en la clasificación total como en las subescalas predominaron las mujeres clasificadas en el nivel asintomático/muy leve y leve. El intervalo más cercano a la mediana de la edad de la menopausia, la perimenopausia y el sobrepeso constituyeron las situaciones más desfavorables para el síndrome climatérico.INTRODUCTION: climateric syndrome has a varying frequency and intensity in different populations. AIM: to identify its intensity in women aged 40-59 in Havana City. METHODS: cross-sectional descriptive study in which a cohort of 625 women of these ages was studied, selected by multi-stage stratified sampling. In a detailed way and by 95 % confidence interval (CI, the percentage of women in each level of climateric syndrome, and by subscale according to applied instrument. Authors characterized each group of women of such classification en a general way and with biological variables. RESULTS: the 40,3 % and the 30

  18. Mental images of architectural heritage. The representations and the radical envision towards the conflicts and proposals of the historical downtown of the city of Guanajuato [Gto.], Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Hernández López

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper searches to understand the imagery made by the inhabitants to their main conflicts and threats to built heritage, using the methodology of urban imaginaries trying to deal –with the imagination– of how the world functions and how it might work. The assumption is that perception and the proposals of these actors can shed light to the rearrangement of the Historic Center of the city and thus contribute to the conservation of the built heritage, and achieve from their imaginary ideal spaces. The Charter of Zacatecas recommends that land planning should be understood as a set of actions and integrated action programs to improve the quality of life of the population, promote orderly growth and ensure social cohesion; protect, preserve and rescue the property through public awareness and appreciation and active participation by developing surveys and identification of key individuals and opinion leaders to define policies and comprehensive strategies most convenient.

  19. Characterization of the compounds of nitrogen and total suspended particles in the municipality Regla, Havana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallo Vazquez, Antonio; Cuesta Santos, Osvaldo

    2006-01-01

    The questions related with the atmospheric contamination in urban areas every day they charge bigger importance for the affectations that it can take place so much in the health of the human beings as in the materials, constructions, etc. In the city of Havana those made up of nitrogen and the particles suspended totals are of the pollutants whose concentrations are elevated in the atmosphere. Inside this context, the present work intends the analysis of the behavior of this concentrations, taken as experimental polygon the municipality Regla in city of Havana

  20. Efectos adversos asociados al tratamiento con factor de transferencia: Ciudad de La Habana, 2004 Adverse drug effects associated to the treatment of patients with transfer factor: City of Havana , 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aida Cruz Barrios

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available El factor de transferencia (Hebertrans constituye un inmunoestimulante que se emplea en una amplia gama de enfermedades. Su seguridad ha sido evaluada en los ensayos clínicos pre-registro, pero no así en investigaciones poscomercialización, por tal motivo se realizó un estudio observacional y multicéntrico de vigilancia activa, en pacientes tratados con factor de transferencia en 11 hospitales de la Ciudad de La Habana , para identificar los eventos presentados durante el tratamiento, así como clasificarlos según su causalidad y gravedad. La información fue recogida por el médico inmunólogo de cada hospital y supervisada por el farmacoepidemiólogo hospitalario. Durante el tratamiento se obtuvo información de 387 pacientes y se reportaron 133 eventos en 86 casos (22,2 %. Los más frecuentes fueron fiebre, dolor y eritema en el sitio de la inyección, cefalea y diarrea; el 92,5 % de los eventos observados fueron leves. El 27,8 % se clasificó como definitivamente provocados por el fármaco, estos últimos relacionados con la vía de administración. El factor de transferencia resultó un medicamento seguro en los pacientes observadosTransfer factor called Hebertrans is an immunostimulant used in a wide range of diseases. The safety of this drug has been assessed in several clinical assays prior to registration, but not in aftermarket research studies. Therefore, a multicenter observational study of active surveillance was carried out in patients treated with transfer factor in 11 hospitals located in the City of Havana to detect adverse events in the course of treatment, and then to classify them by cause and severity. Data was collected by the immunologist in each hospital and supervised by the pharmacological epidemiologist. During the treatment, information was gathered from 387 patients where 133 events were reported in 86 cases (22,2%. The most frequent were fever, pain, erythema at the site of injection, headache and diarrhea; 92

  1. Havana: a cidade como catástrofe em Antonio José Ponte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Lopes de Barros

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ortiz viu a aceleração do tempo em Cuba. A museificação (Agamben tornou-se, porém, a ordem do dia na Havana pós-revolucionária. Para Ponte, caminhar pelas ruas de Havana é fazer uma viagem no tempo. Ela não é apenas um museu, mas um museu em ruínas. Havana é uma cidade bombardeada por um bombardeio que nunca ocorreu. Assim, a vida é levada ao subterrâneo. Tuguria, a cidade submersa, está, contudo, em total sincronia com o deserto que toma a paisagem.Ortiz vio la aceleración del tiempo en Cuba. Sin embargo, la museificación (Agamben se ha convertido en el orden del día en La Habana posrevolucionaria. Según Ponte, caminar por las calles de La Habana es como hacer un viaje en el tiempo. La cuidad no es solamente un museo, sino también un museo en ruinas. La Habana es una cuidad bombardeada por un bombardeo que jamás ocurrió. Así, la vida pasa a ser subterránea. Tuguria, la ciudad sumergida, está, con todo, en total sincronía con el desierto que toma el paisaje.Ortiz saw the acceleration of time in Cuba. However, the museification (Agamben has become the agenda of post-revolutionary Havana. For Ponte, to walk through the streets of Havana is like to undertake a time travel. The city is not only a museum but also a museum in ruins. Havana is a bombarded city by a bombing that never took place. Thus, life goes underground. Tuguria, the submerged city, is however fully synchronized to the wasteland that grows on the surface.

  2. On natural ventilation and thermal comfort in compact urban environments – the Old Havana case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tablada, A.; De Troyer, F.; Blocken, B.J.E.; Carmeliet, J.E.; Verschure, H.

    2009-01-01

    The Historical Centre of Old Havana in Cuba is currently undergoing a comprehensive preservation and urban recovering program. Housing units are built in existing vacant plots of the old city. The design of the new buildings should be integrated in the compact urban structure that has developed

  3. Control de la calidad del diagnóstico coproparasitológico en la provincia de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba External quality assessment in coproparasitology in Havana City Province, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidel Angel Núñez

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio sobre la calidad del diagnóstico coproparasitológico en 77 laboratorios de la red de salud pública de la provincia Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba. El procedimiento se basó en la entrega a cada jefe de laboratorio de un modelo de encuesta, y una bolsa de nylon conteniendo 10 viales plásticos con distintos especímenes parasitarios, preservados en formaldehído al 7%. Recogidos los resultados en las primeras 72 horas después de su entrega, se realizó la evaluación mediante una escala de puntuación establecida. La mayoría de los laboratorios aprobaron (70%; sin embargo aún existen centros, sobre todo policlínicas, con calificaciones deficientes. Los municipios con resultados más desfavorables fueron, Lisa, Marianao y Habana del Este, alcanzándose mejores resultados en los hospitales que en las policlínicas. En el análisis de Protozooarios, el mejor diagnosticado fué Giardia lamblia, con solo un centro que erró al identificarlo. Las mayores dificultades se presentaron en Blastocystis hominis con 61% de fallas, Endolimax nana, con 24,6%, y Entamoeba histolytica, con 22%. Entre los helmintos, la mayor aprobación fué en Trichuris trichiura y los errores diagnósticos predominaron con Fasciola hepatica y Taenia sp., ambos con 66,2% de fallas. Dados los resultados obtenidos, hemos organizado una intervención educativa en la red de laboratorios de la provincia.An external quality assessment in coproparasitology was carried out in 77 laboratories from Havana City. A questionnaire and ten plastic vials with different intestinal parasites in a small nylon bag, duly sealed, were sent to each laboratory. Answers were collected during the 72 hours after delivery. Results were analyzed by means of a computer program. The majority of the laboratories (70% passed the test; the municipalities with the worst scores in the province were Lisa, Marianao, and Habana del Este. Better results were obtained among technologists working

  4. Análisis de la mortalidad neonatal precoz en San Miguel del Padrón (La Habana Analysis of early neonatal mortality in San Miguel del Padrón municipality in Havana City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Vidal Borrás

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. Fueron objetivos de esta presentación caracterizar el comportamiento de la mortalidad neonatal precoz y su relación con la edad materna, gestacional, los factores de riesgo y las causas de muerte neonatal en el municipio San Miguel del Padrón, entre 1999 y 2008. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo y longitudinal del comportamiento de la mortalidad neonatal precoz en una muestra de 49 defunciones. Se analizaron variables maternas y del recién nacido, cuyos datos fueron obtenidos de la revisión de registros médicos de defunción e historias clínicas. RESULTADOS. Se encontró que la mortalidad neonatal precoz en el municipio fue de tendencia decreciente en el período estudiado. El año de mayor número de nacidos vivos (NV fue 1999, con 2146 nacimientos y una tasa de mortalidad infantil (TMI de 10,7 × 1 000 NV. La tasa de mortalidad neonatal precoz fue de 3,7 x 1000 NV, tanto en 1999 y como en 2002, con 7 defunciones en neonatos de menos de 7 días de vida. De las 129 defunciones, 49 correspondieron al componente neonatal precoz, en tanto que el parto pretérmino constituyó el 20,1 %. La principal causa de muerte fue la sepsis (48,9 %. CONCLUSIONES. Las principales causas de muerte fueron la sepsis, la asfixia y las malformaciones congénitas, mientras que los factores de riesgo más frecuentes relacionados con el embarazo fueron la moniliasis vaginal y las infecciones urinarias.INTRODUCTION. The objectives of this presentation were to characterize the behavior of early neonatal mortality and its relation to maternal and gestational age, risk factors, and the neonatal death causes in San Miguel del Padrón municipality in Havana City. METHODS: A descriptive, retrospective and longitudinal study was conducted on early neonatal mortality behavior in a sample of 49 deceases. Maternal and newborn variables were analyzed whose data were obtained from death medical records and clinical records. RESULTS: We

  5. Prevención y diagnóstico tardío de SIDA en Ciudad de La Habana, 1986-2007 Late prevention and diagnosis of the AIDS present in Havana City, 1986-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Regla Bolaños Gutiérrez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar la ocurrencia de los diagnósticos tardíos en personas con VIH y posibles fallas de la prevención en la atención primaria. MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, de los 422 casos ocurridos en la Ciudad de La Habana, en el período comprendido entre 1986-2007. La información se obtuvo de la base de datos nacional de casos VIH/SIDA del Ministerio de Salud Pública. RESULTADOS: los casos de inicio clínico se incrementaron a partir de 1997, con un máximo en 2007, y los municipios con un mayor porcentaje de afectados son La Lisa, Plaza y Habana Vieja. Hubo un predominio del sexo masculino (91 % con orientación sexual de hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (85,3 %; el grupo de edad más afectado fue de 40-44 años (20,4 %, y el 53,3 % son diagnosticados por la pesquisa de ingresos. Las entidades más frecuentes son, el desgaste por VIH (34,4 %, adenopatías generalizadas con CD4 bajos (21,7 %, y neumonía por Pneomucystis jiroveci (16,0 %. En los últimos 10 años hubo un incremento de las defunciones y un 38,4 % fallecen el mismo año de su diagnóstico. CONCLUSIONES: existen dificultades en el trabajo de prevención del VIH/SIDA, en la Atención Primaria de Salud.OBJECTIVE: to characterize the occurrence of late diagnoses in HIV-persons, and the possible failures in primary care. METHODS: a cross-sectional and descriptive study was made of the 422 cases occurred in Havana City from 1986 to 2007. Information is from the national data-base of HIV/AIDS cases of Public Health Ministry. RESULTS: cases of clinical beginning were increased from 1997, with a peak in 2007, and the municipalities with greater percentage of diseased include La Lisa, Plaza, and Habana Vieja. There was a predominance of male sex (91 % with sexual intercourse from man to man (85,3 %; the more affected age group was that aged 40-44 (20,4 %, and the 53,3 % was that more diagnosed through admission inquiry. More frequent

  6. Environmental noise in downtown Medellin 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedoya, Julian; Correa E, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    A total of 6400 noise measurements were taken in downtown Medellin, a 2km x 2km area to characterize noise levels. The area was divided into a grid of 160 blocks with a length 154 m each; 40 measurements were taken in each block Sampling was conducted for 10 days, with simultaneous measurements in four sampling zones selected randomly and with coverage of four sampling periods 7:00-9:00 AM, 9:30-11:30 AM, 12:00 AM-2:00 PM, y 5:00-7:00 PM). The zone between 44 and 49 streets and between 40 and 49 avenues has the maximum average noise level with 74 dBA (decibels in scale A). Four of the noisiest sites were measured during 48 hours continuously by usage of a dosimeter Auto correlation results allowed use of Geo statistics to built isophones for the tour time periods. Isophones plots over imposed on physical layout of the city shows a good correlation between high noise levels and heavy traffic through main avenues (Avenida Oriental, Calle San Juan, Avenida del Ferrocarril, Bazar de los Puentes, Glorieta de la Minorista). Medellin is a noisy city that does not meet existing national regulations. The proposed methodology based on Geo statistics and experimental design is a feasible and comprehensive approach to manage urban noise

  7. Metrics of Urban Sustainability: A Case Study of Changing Downtowns in Thunder Bay, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Randall

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Thunder Bay, a medium-sized city in Northern Ontario, has a twin downtown core model, arising from the merging of two former cities in 1970. Its north core, designated as the City’s Entertainment District has received considerable investment, notably a major waterfront renewal project undertaken in 2009 as part of an overall strategy towards downtown revitalization. Greater diversity of commercial functions and increasing residential capacity in downtowns are considered positive steps towards sustainable urban development. It is hoped the leadership taken by the City in its downtown capital investments can stimulate others (corporations and individuals to re-invest in both living and working in more central locations to the benefit of environmental sustainability indicators like journey-to-work (distance and mode selected and residential density. This article tracks changes in business composition and residential capacity during a five year period via the development of an intensive database of business and institutional activities. Urban sustainability metrics developed include residential capacity and density, business vacancy rates and business composition and turnover, which complement an existing measure of land-use diversity developed in earlier research. While major capital investments in downtown revitalization (such as the waterfront project have fairly long-term impact horizons, data suggest some positive trends in the developed metrics in the downtown north core since 2009. In particular, there have been notable investments in waterfront condos and downtown lofts and some diversification in the food retailing and restaurant sectors. However, overall trends in downtown commerce are currently flat, indicative of a struggling local economy and a continued suburbanization of key commercial sectors.

  8. Tall-building development process in downtown Maringá-PR, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Machado

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the urbanization process taking place in the city of Maringá, in the context of the tallbuilding development at its main economic axis, the city center. This research aims to conduct an in-depth analysis of the role played by the housing industry in the development of tall buildings at downtown Maringá, the origin of the capital associated to such process, and the rationale for building them in Zone 1 (downtown. This is also analyzed considering local environmental information and infrastructural considerations involved in this process.

  9. Representation of Marxism in Vampires in Havana

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Aziz Turhan Kariko

    2011-01-01

    Article presents an animated film related to ideological development in Cuba. This effort brings an understanding of ideology and cultural policy of Cuba as a communist state. Presentation begins with summary of the story, history and background, ideological concepts, and the movie Vampires in Havana itself. It is concluded that the film represents ideological disputes between capitalism and Marxism in Cuba, as well as giving an ideal perspective on how the world should work.  

  10. Representation of Marxism in Vampires in Havana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Aziz Turhan Kariko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Article presents an animated film related to ideological development in Cuba. This effort brings an understanding of ideology and cultural policy of Cuba as a communist state. Presentation begins with summary of the story, history and background, ideological concepts, and the movie Vampires in Havana itself. It is concluded that the film represents ideological disputes between capitalism and Marxism in Cuba, as well as giving an ideal perspective on how the world should work.  

  11. Levels of cadmium, lead, cooper and zinc in vegetables cultivated in a highly urbanized area of La Havana city, Cuba; Niveles de cadmio, plomo, cobre y zinc en hortalizas cultivadas en una zona altamente urbanizada de la ciudad de la Habana, Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares R, S.; Garcia C, D.; Lima C, L.; Saborit S, I.; Llizo C, A.; Perez A, P., E-mail: susana@instec.cu [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas, Laboratorio de Analisis Ambiental, Av. Salvador Allende y Luaces, Plaza, Ciudad Habana (Cuba)

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we report levels of Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn in soils and vegetables grown in a highly urbanized area of La Havana city. We studied 17 farms dedicated to urban agriculture in an area of two kilometers around the landfill -Calle 100- during 2006 and 2007. For the study, samples of the soil and all the vegetables ready to harvest were taken from the farms. The heavy metals Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The levels of heavy metals in agricultural soils varied in the following ranges: Cd(0.24-2.1 mg/kg), Cu(38.4-81.3 mg/kg), Pb(18.1-138.5 mg/kg) and Zn(44.1-294.7 mg/kg). For Zn and Pb, some farm soils (35 and 52% respectively) exceeded the ranges in which these metals are found in Cuban agricultural soils. For Pb, 23% of the soils exceeded levels considered phyto toxic and limits in some international standards. The 12.5% of the samples of vegetables collected exceeded the maximum permissible levels of this pollutant in food for human consumption set by Cuban and international standards. The results indicate the need for strict crop monitoring in the area. (Author)

  12. Analytic Approach to Resolving Parking Problems in Downtown Zagreb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolf Malić

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Parking issue is one of the major problems in Zagreb, andin relation to that Zagreb does not differ from other similar orbigger European cities. The problem the city is facing is beingpresented in the paper. It is complex and can be solved gradually,using operative and planning measures, by applying influentialparameters assessments based on which the appropriateparking-garage spaces assessment would be selected. Besides,all the knowledge learned from experiences of similar Europeancities should be used in resolving stationary traffic problem.Introduction of fast public urban transport would providepassengers with improved services (particularly in relation tothe travelling time introducing modern traffic system thatwould reduce the travelling time to below 30 minutes for the farthestrelations. Further improvement in reducing parking problemsin downtown as well as Zagreb broader area would not bepossible without t,nplementing th.s approach.

  13. Exams for attribution of sevres porcelain by x-ray fluorescence in Havana museums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza Cuevas, Ariadna; Nazco Torres, Julio

    2010-01-01

    Analysis with X-ray fluorescence on Sevres porcelain was performed in order to determine criteria from the scientific examination that may support the attribution of special pieces. Multielemental chemical analyses of decorations colours, marks and glazed porcelain body were related to specific historic information about used materials and procedure of Sevres french manufactory. The used portable XRF spectrometer allows non destructive and in situ studies of Havana's collections with adequate sensibility for this application. Collections of Havana City Museum, Decorative Art Museum and Napoleonic Museum and some pieces of different background were studied. Non typical pigments used in Sevres allows to identify non genuine Sevres decorations while cluster analysis on porcelain body differentiates Sevres and 'surdecor' porcelains from Sevres style non genuine porcelains. (author)

  14. Exams for attribution of sevres porcelain by x-ray fluorescence in Havana museums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza Cuevas, Ariadna; Nazco Torres, Julio

    2009-01-01

    Analysis with X-ray fluorescence on Sevres porcelain was performed in order to determine criteria from the scientific examination that may support the attribution of special pieces. Multielemental chemical analyses of decorations colours, marks and glazed porcelain body were related to specific historic information about used materials and procedure of Sevres french manufactory. The used portable XRF spectrometer allows non destructive and in situ studies of Havana's collections with adequate sensibility for this application. Collections of Havana City Museum, Decorative Art Museum and Napoleonic Museum and some pieces of different background were studied. Non typical pigments used in Sevres allows to identify non genuine Sevres decorations while cluster analysis on porcelain body differentiates Sevres and 'surdecor' porcelains from Sevres style non genuine porcelains. (author)

  15. Gamma Activation Analysis in the Havana Bay superficial sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, N.; Gelen, A.; Diaz Riso, O.; Manso, M.V.; Simon, M.J.; Maslov, A.G.; Gustova, M.V.; Beltran, J.; Soto, J.

    2003-01-01

    A preliminary study of 26 elements of Havana Bay superficial sediments were made using Gamma Activation Analysis. Samples from five zones of Havana Bay were analyzed. The results show a close interrelation between the concentration levels of the studied elements and the contaminant sources

  16. hmF2 variability over Havana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, B.; Alazo, K.; Rodriguez, M.; Calzadilla, A.

    2003-01-01

    The hmF2 variability over Havana station (Geo. Latitude 23 deg. N, Geo Longitude 278 deg. E; Dip 54.6 deg. N; Modip: 44.8 deg. N) is presented. In this study different solar and seasonal conditions are considered. The results show that, in general, standard deviation of hmF2 is quite irregular and reaches its values at nighttimes hours. Lower and upper quartiles variability has a similar behaviour to IQ variability, showing its higher values at nighttimes too. (author)

  17. Building an urban 'renaissance': fragmented services and the production of inequality in Greater Downtown Detroit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Brian; Smit, Edske

    2016-01-01

    Downtown Detroit has been undergoing a renaissance in recent years which is in stark contrast to the economic and social situation in much of the rest of the city. This renaissance has been taking place despite the city's ability to provide good municipal services such as streetlights, security, public space and transport. This article focuses on how four areas which constitute part of Greater Downtown Detroit have relied on different combinations of actors to create and provide the services and amenities deemed necessary for capital investment and middle-class consumption. Each area has its own initiatives and actors who implement them, further fragmenting the city between its core and periphery. Renewed public spaces, private police forces and resident initiatives in middle-class neighborhoods have been created to serve specific needs of the small areas they serve. Rather than being unique, Detroit is an extreme example of fragmented and polarized urbanism which is part and parcel of contemporary cities. We argue that rather than passively reflecting existing socio-spatial divides, these private initiatives in Greater Downtown Detroit actively contribute to the production of sociospatial inequalities across the city.

  18. Pigments identification in Havana Colonial wall painting by portable XRF System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazca, J.; Mendoza, A.; Rodriguez, A.; Rodriguez, T.

    2001-01-01

    The Havana City historical center is being recuperated in the las years. Numerous are the colonial houses with values typical wall painting as internal decoration that need to be investigated and restored. The pigment identification is essential to have knowledge about pictorial technique and to help and monitor the restoration process. The identification of inorganic pigments in the Havana colonial wall painting has been not almost studied. The opportunity to have a new Portable XRF system in the Archaeometry laboratory of the Conservation and Restoration Gabinet of Havana Historitian Office allows to investigate the wall painting, samples that because of its more of this nature it would be impossible to move to the laboratory for non destructive analysis. The most of the pigment are made of inorganic elements and they can be identified property by XRF technique. All complete archaeometric investigation has to use several technique and to work in a multidisciplinary research team to give a fundamental answer about the past, The suitable techniques selection to employ depends of the art Historitian and archaeologist's questions. The pictorial technique are traditionally investigated using stratigraphical information obtained by Optical Microscopy and organic compound determination by Gas Chromatography. The global analysis of the results from the different employed techniques and the discussion from the restaurateur point of view is presented

  19. Prevalencia de ceguera y limitación visual severa, en personas mayores de 50 años de Ciudad de La Habana Prevalence of blindness and severe visual shortage in over 50 years-old adults in the City of Havana province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Cabrera Martínez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, cuyo universo estuvo constituido por la población mayor de 50 años perteneciente a Ciudad de La Habana, en el período comprendido entre junio de 2004 a junio del 2005. Para la determinación del tamaño de la muestra se asumió como universo los 633 396 habitantes mayores de 50 años de Ciudad Habana, con una estimación de la prevalencia esperada de 4,0 %, un error aceptable del 3 % y un efecto de diseño de 70 %. Se efectuó un muestreo sistemático por conglomerados y se determinó como muestra 2 760 habitantes de Ciudad de La Habana, representada por 46 cluster de 60 individuos cada uno. Se definió como ceguera la agudeza visual con corrección, inferior a 20/400 y la deficiencia visual grave como la agudeza visual con corrección >20/400 y The universe of a cross-sectional descriptive study, which was carried out from June 2004 to June 2005, was made up of people aged over 50 years, who lived in the City of Havana. In order to determine the sample size, 633 396 over 50 years-old inhabitants were taken as the universe of study, with an expected prevalence estimation of 4.0 %, an allowable error of 3 % and a design effect of 70 %. On the basis of these data, systematic cluster sampling was made to determine a sample of 2 760 inhabitants from the City of Havana, represented by 46 clusters of 60 subjects each. Blindness was defined as corrected visual acuity lower than 20/400 and severe visual shortage as corrected visual acuity >20/400 and <20/200 in the best eye and with the best available correction. An inter-observer variation to reduce errors for this reason was also made. The study coverage was 98.4 % of the selected sample. The blindness prevalence by sex was 2.4 %. Prevalence of bilateral blind persons by age increases from 2.6 % at 50 years to 15,2 % at 80 years and over. The most important causes of bilateral blindness were cataract (50 %, glaucoma (26 % and diabetic

  20. Downtown Detroit Energy Efficient Street Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, Malik [Detroit Economic Growth Corp, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2013-11-29

    Reliable public lighting remains a critically important and valuable public service in Detroit, Michigan. The Downtown Detroit Energy Efficiency Lighting Program (the, “Program”) was designed and implemented to bring the latest advancements in lighting technology, energy efficiency, public safety and reliability to Detroit’s Central Business District, and the Program accomplished those goals successfully. Downtown’s nighttime atmosphere has been upgraded as a result of the installation of over 1000 new LED roadway lighting fixtures that were installed as part of the Program. The reliability of the lighting system has also improved.

  1. The Learning Exchange: A Shared Space for the University of British Columbia and Vancouver's Downtown Eastside Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towle, Angela; Leahy, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    The Learning Exchange was established by the University of British Columbia (UBC) in 1999 in Vancouver's Downtown Eastside (DTES). The challenge has been to create a shared space for learning exchanges between two very different communities: a research-intensive university and an inner city area most commonly depicted as a place of hopelessness.…

  2. Graham Greene and Cuba: Our man in Havana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hulme

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Graham Greene’s novel Our Man in Havana was published on October 6, 1958. Seven days later Greene arrived in Havana with Carol Reed to arrange for the filming of the script of the novel, on which they had both been working. Meanwhile, after his defeat of the summer offensive mounted by the Cuban dictator, Fulgencio Batista, in the mountains of eastern Cuba, just south of Bayamo, Fidel Castro had recently taken the military initiative: the day after Greene and Reed’s arrival on the island, Che Guevara reached Las Villas, moving westwards towards Havana. Six weeks later, on January 1, 1959, after Batista had fled the island, Castro and his Cuban Revolution took power. In April 1959 Greene and Reed were back in Havana with a film crew to film Our Man in Havana. The film was released in January 1960. A note at the beginning of the film says that it is “set before the recent revolution.” In terms of timing, Our Man in Havana could therefore hardly be more closely associated with the triumph of the Cuban Revolution. But is that association merely accidental, or does it involve any deeper implications? On the fiftieth anniversary of novel, film, and Revolution, that seems a question worth investigating, not with a view to turning Our Man in Havana into a serious political novel, but rather to exploring the complexities of the genre of comedy thriller and to bringing back into view some of the local contexts which might be less visible now than they were when the novel was published and the film released.

  3. Tourist shopping behavior in a historic downtown area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemperman, A.D.A.M.; Borgers, A.W.J.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Shopping is one of the most important activities for tourists. The purpose of this study is to describe and predict tourist shopping route choice behavior in a downtown historic center. Reported routes of tourists in the downtown shopping area of Maastricht, located in the Southern part of the

  4. Fecal indicator bacteria at Havana Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Perez, Lisse; Gomez D'Angelo, Yamiris; Beltran Gonzalez, Jesus; Alvarez Valiente, Reinaldo

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations were evaluated in Havana Bay. Methods: Concentrations of traditional fecal indicator bacteria were calculated between April 2010 and February 2011, by MPN methods. Concentrations of thermo tolerant coliform (CTT), Escherichia coli, fecal streptococci (EF), intestinal enterococci (ENT) in seawater, and Clostridium perfringens in sediment surface, were determined. Results: CTT and E. coli levels were far above Cuban water quality standard for indirect contact with water, showing the negative influence of sewage and rivers on the bay. The EF and ENT were measured during sewage spills at the discharge site and they were suitable indicators of fecal contamination, but these indicators didn't show the same behavior in other selected sites. This result comes from its well-known inactivation by solar light in tropical zones and the presumable presence of humid acids in the waters of the bay. Conclusion: Fecal indicator bacteria and its statistical relationships reflect recent and chronic fecal contamination at the bay and near shores.

  5. Air pollution monitoring in downtown Rome, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brocco, D; Petricca, M; Polesi, R [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Rome (Italy). Ist. sull' Inquinamento Atmosferico Assessorato Ambiente, Rome (Italy). Amministrazione Provinciale

    1992-09-01

    This paper tables air pollution data indicating concentrations of sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxides, carbon monoxide, ozone, non-methane hydrocarbons (NMTHC) and particulate matter measured in downtown Rome during the period, April 1990 - March 1991. These data are analyzed according to National Air Quality Standards. Correlations are developed for nitrous oxide, NMTHC and ozone concentration trends as a function of solar radiation intensity. Analysis of the data reveals that the concentrations of the primary pollutants, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide, were very high in the winter months when building heating systems were operating under stable weather conditions. In many cases, the concentrations of carbon monoxide exceeded ambient air quality standards. The paper also discusses the need for the development of limits for NMTHC concentrations and including these limits in the Air Quality Standards.

  6. The Concept of “Icon Streets” on the Basis of Lisbon Downtown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Moreira Pinto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the article is to enrich the current discussion on “place icons” through a case study of the Lisbon street “Rua da Madalena” and its architecture illustrating the integrated design and marketing concept adopted by the whole city. The paper presents the interdisciplinary approach using significant contribution from the fields of tourism, business, history and memory of the past. The article argues that modern cities need the “icon streets” that are basing on the social innovation policy, branding concepts, architectural theory and practice. Moreover, the paper presents how an integrated design strategy is practically applied in Lisbon downtown, and how it can contribute to the successful promotion of the city. Throughout this research, there is used the direct reference into both tangible and intangible cultural heritage, in terms of renewing the old city street on the basis of the unique brand strategy, the historical perspective that should characterized the street and up-to-date marketing concepts. The case study of Lisbon downtown provides the example of such the integrated strategy that can be easily adopted by other cities to improve their images and increase both economic and social potential by attracting tourists and media interest.

  7. The changing face of inner-city Havana | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-14

    Jul 14, 2011 ... The collapse of Cuba's Soviet trading partner and the continued U.S. ... Dubbed the "Cayo Hueso Intervention" it quickly became a model in Cuba for ... The work included analysis of interviews and surveys done in Cayo Hueso. ... Taking a fresh look at old problems yields greater benefits for communities.

  8. Dense downtown living more carbon intense due to higher consumption: a case study of Helsinki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinonen, Jukka; Kyroe, Riikka; Junnila, Seppo, E-mail: jukka.heinonen@aalto.fi, E-mail: riikka.kyro@aalto.fi, E-mail: seppo.junnila@aalto.fi [School of Engineering, Department of Surveying, Aalto University, PO Box 11200, 00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2011-07-15

    Hindering urban sprawl is one of the main goals for contemporary urban planning. Urban density is considered crucial in climate change mitigation since it reduces automobile dependence and decreases unit sizes, for example. This letter analyzes the effect of density in a city context. In the study the Finnish capital Helsinki is divided into two areas of different urban densities: the high density downtown area and the more scarcely populated suburbs. The study is a continuation of a recently published study on the implications of urban structure on carbon emissions, and analyzes further the main finding of the first study-that higher urban density might have negligible or even reverse effect on the per capita carbon emissions. Similarly to the previous study, a consumption based tiered hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) approach is employed in order to produce a comprehensive assessment, free of territorial boundaries and system cutoffs typical of traditional LCAs. Based on the findings of the previous study, it is hypothesized that when assessing city level carbon dioxide emissions from a wider, consumer oriented LCA perspective, increased urban density may not necessarily reduce carbon emissions. Surprisingly, the study finds that carbon dioxide equivalent (CO{sub 2}e) emissions are substantially higher in the dense downtown area than in the surrounding suburbs, which is suggested to imply that the increased consumption due to the higher standard of living increases emissions more than the higher density is able to reduce them. The results demonstrate that, while increasing urban density can be justified from a number of ecological, social and economic viewpoints, density is not necessarily a key parameter in the particular case of climate change. In cities like Helsinki, where wealth is concentrated in the downtown area, climate policies should give higher priority to the energy consumption of buildings, to alternative energy production and distribution modes

  9. Dense downtown living more carbon intense due to higher consumption: a case study of Helsinki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinonen, Jukka; Kyroe, Riikka; Junnila, Seppo

    2011-01-01

    Hindering urban sprawl is one of the main goals for contemporary urban planning. Urban density is considered crucial in climate change mitigation since it reduces automobile dependence and decreases unit sizes, for example. This letter analyzes the effect of density in a city context. In the study the Finnish capital Helsinki is divided into two areas of different urban densities: the high density downtown area and the more scarcely populated suburbs. The study is a continuation of a recently published study on the implications of urban structure on carbon emissions, and analyzes further the main finding of the first study-that higher urban density might have negligible or even reverse effect on the per capita carbon emissions. Similarly to the previous study, a consumption based tiered hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) approach is employed in order to produce a comprehensive assessment, free of territorial boundaries and system cutoffs typical of traditional LCAs. Based on the findings of the previous study, it is hypothesized that when assessing city level carbon dioxide emissions from a wider, consumer oriented LCA perspective, increased urban density may not necessarily reduce carbon emissions. Surprisingly, the study finds that carbon dioxide equivalent (CO 2 e) emissions are substantially higher in the dense downtown area than in the surrounding suburbs, which is suggested to imply that the increased consumption due to the higher standard of living increases emissions more than the higher density is able to reduce them. The results demonstrate that, while increasing urban density can be justified from a number of ecological, social and economic viewpoints, density is not necessarily a key parameter in the particular case of climate change. In cities like Helsinki, where wealth is concentrated in the downtown area, climate policies should give higher priority to the energy consumption of buildings, to alternative energy production and distribution modes, as

  10. Prevalencia de los trastornos temporomandibulares en la población de 15 años y más de la Ciudad de La Habana Prevalence of temporomandibular disorders in the 15 years and over population from the City of Havana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuilen Jiménez Quintana

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio en 1 201 personas de 15 años y más de Ciudad de La Habana con el objetivo de determinar la prevalencia de los trastornos temporomandibulares y el índice de severidad sintomatológica de estos, así como el conocimiento que presentaba la población sobre las alteraciones de la articulación temporomandibular. Se utilizó el muestreo por conglomerados polietápicos con asignación proporcional equiprobabilístico. La información se recogió por la anamnesis y examen clínico mediante un formulario confeccionado según los criterios de los Indices Anamnésico y Clínicos de Disfunción de Helkimo. Presentaron disfunción el 31,89 % de los examinados según índice anamnésico y el 47,33 % según índice clínico, lo que evidenció que el porcentaje de encuestados con signos clínicos de disfunción fue mayor que los que refirieron algún síntoma, con predominio del sexo femenino y proporcional con la edad, con mayor frecuencia de la disfunción leve tanto en el índice clínico como anamnésico. La sintomatología principal fueron los ruidos articulares durante los movimientos de abertura y cierre mandibular. Con respecto al nivel de conocimiento se evidenció escasa información sobre el tema.A study of 1 201 persons aged 15 years and over from the City of Havana was carried out to determine the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders and their symptom severity index as well as the knowledge of the population about the temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD. Multistage cluster sampling with equal probability proportional allocation was used. Data were collected through anamnesis and clinical examination on the basis of a form created according to Helkimo´s Anamnesic and Clinical Indexes of Dysfunction. Dysfunction affected 31.89% of the patients according to the anamnesic index whereas 47,33% according to the clinical index, which evidenced that the percentage of surveyed people with clinical signs of dysfunction was

  11. Downlight Demonstration Program: Hilton Columbus Downtown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Robert G.; Perrin, Tess E.

    2014-05-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that there were about 700 million downlight luminaires installed in residential and commercial buildings in the U.S. as of 2012, with light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires representing less than 1% of this installed base. Downlight luminaires using conventional incandescent, halogen, and compact fluorescent lamps have lower efficacies and shorter expected lifetimes than comparable LED systems, but the lower initial cost of the conventional technology and the uncertainties associated with the newer LED technology have restricted widespread adoption of LED downlight luminaires. About 278 tBtu of energy could be saved annually if LED luminaires were to saturate the downlight market, equating to an annual energy cost savings of $2.6 billion. This report summarizes an evaluation of LED recessed downlight luminaires in the guest rooms at the Hilton Columbus Downtown hotel in Columbus, OH. The facility opened in October of 2012, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducted a post-occupancy assessment of the facility in January–March of 2014. Each of the 484 guest rooms uses seven 15 W LED downlights: four downlights in the entry and bedroom and three downlights in the bathroom. The 48 suites use the seven 15 W LED downlights and additional fixtures depending on the space requirements, so that in total the facility has more than 3,700 LED downlights. The downlights are controlled through wall-mounted switches and dimmers. A ceiling-mounted vacancy sensor ensures that the bathroom luminaires are turned off when the room is not occupied.

  12. A preliminary study of waste to energy potential of municipal solid waste in Havana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llanes, Junior Lorenzo; Kalogirou, Efstratios

    2017-01-01

    One of the challenges that must be face by a growing society is its waste management. This is crucial in the particular case of developing countries like Cuba. Waste to energy is a well-established technology for municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment. The aim of this work was to estimate the energetic potential of MSW in the city of Havana. An average low heating value (LHV) of 7.35 MJ/kg was estimated by applying different models. From the mass and energy balances, the emissions and the energy recovered for electricity generation were determined. Two steam turbine configurations (back – pressure and condensing) were designed by a rigorous method and later simulated in Aspen Plus simulator. The results showed that for a feeding rate of 49.5 tonh-1 of MSW it was possible to generate 257 GWh per year with an overall plant efficiency of 25.4% in a four-stage turbine. (author)

  13. Factores asociados al uso de DIU en mujeres de 35 a 49 años en un policlínico de Ciudad de La Habana Factors associated with the use of IUD in women aged 35-49 in a polyclinic of Havana City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Jesús Perdomo Estrada

    2004-08-01

    among 375 women from "Moncada" Polyclinic, in Havana City. The analysis included non-conditioned logistical regression to determine the association among the sociodemographic, biological, reproductive and educative, or information variables and the use of IUDs. The measure of association used was the ratio of momios at a confidence interval of 95 %. As a result, it was observed that the IUD was used by 43.3 % of women using contraceptives; of them, 61.5 % had one or no child. The probability of use of the IUD was higher in women aged 35-39 (RM=286, CI: 95 % = 1.43 - 5.75 and 40-44 (RM = 2.42, CI: 95 % = 1.13 - 5.45 than in females aged 45-49. The use of the IUD was also greater in women having less than 2 children (RM = 3.33, CI: 95 % = 1.94 - 5.36, and it was even higher if they were informed (RM = 2.42, CI: 95 % = 2.27 - 12.03 or if they have received medical counselling (RM = 2.35, CI: 95 % = 1.16 -4.78. Other variables were associated with the use of IUDs, but only parity and the indication of the method by the physician maintained their significance in the multivariate analysis. It was concluded that the medical guidance is a variable that influences positively on the studied women aged 35-49 at the time of deciding whether to use the IUD, much more if parity is considered "satisfied" or "concluded".

  14. Downtown People Mover (DPM) Winterization Test Demonstration : Otis Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The Otis Elevator Company Transportation Technology Division (OTIS-TTD) Downtown People Mover (DPM) Winterization Test Demonstration Final Report covers the 1978-79 and 1979-80 winter periods. Tests were performed at the Otis test track in Denver, Co...

  15. Fighting Downtown: A Training Necessity for the Heavy Brigade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-01

    Concept Technology Demonstration, and the Army Transformation Urban Franchise exploration of future operations.”57 CAMTF has identified three...fighting in a downtown area with tall buildings and underground sewers and or subways , but it must also apply to the outlying urban sprawl that is now

  16. Urban Sustainability Versus Green-Washing—Fallacy and Reality of Urban Regeneration in Downtown Seoul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Schuetze

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the planning paradigm shift related to the contested “urban renaissance” mega-project in Downtown Seoul (Korea. Similar to other global cities, over the last few decades, different mega-projects have been successfully implemented in Seoul. These projects have been considered engines for urban renewals and transformation. This paper builds on the analysis of the failure and re-framing planning strategy for the Green Corridor (GC mega-project, part of the “Urban Renaissance Master Plan for Downtown Seoul”. The GC case reveals various critical insights for urban sustainability: (i the current mega-projects’ sustainability fallacy, related to top-down, technocratic densification, and greening practices; and (ii the untapped potential of Asian traditional and irregular small scale urban patterns, and their related socio-cultural value in addressing the renaissance of the long term urban sustainability. In particular, the discussed research findings point out that urban renaissance enabling sustainability principles requires integrated, small scale, incremental, and adaptive (stepwise urban planning and design processes that go well beyond general strategies following the so-called “green growth” paradigm.

  17. Guest Room Lighting at the Hilton Columbus Downtown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-06-30

    At the Hilton Columbus Downtown hotel in Ohio, DOE's Better Buildings Alliance conducted a demonstration of Next Generation Luminaires-winning downlights installed in all guest rooms and suites prior to the hotel's 2012 opening. After a post-occupancy assessment, the LED downlights not only provided the aesthetic appearance and dimming functionality desired, but also provided 50% energy savings relative to a comparable CFL downlight and enabled the lighting power to be more than 20% below that allowed by code. This document is a summary case study of the report.

  18. Next Generation Luminaire (NGL) Downlight Demonstration Project, Hilton Columbus Downtown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R. G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Perrin, T. E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    At the Hilton Columbus Downtown hotel in Ohio, DOE's Better Buildings Alliance conducted a demonstration of Next Generation Luminaires-winning downlights installed in all guest rooms and suites prior to the hotel's 2012 opening. After a post-occupancy assessment, the LED downlights not only provided the aesthetic appearance and dimming functionality desired, but also provided 50% energy savings relative to a comparable CFL downlight and enabled the lighting power to be more than 20% below that allowed by code.

  19. Development of Astronomy at the Planetarium of Havana. Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Oscar

    2015-08-01

    In December 2009 to celebrate the International Year of Astronomy was inaugurated in Havana with a great constructive effort the only Planetarium in regular public service, currently serving in Cuba.After 5 years of operation open to the public is time to propose a series of activities that raise its level of activity as a Cultural Center of Science and Technology.The establishment of a cathedra of Astronomy and Astrophysics attached to a center of Higher Education once the staff acquire sufficient capacity and experience to conduct research programs is proposed, and also, to provide scientific expertise to educators in supporting the national system of education and outreach of the Cultural Center.In addition to becoming a member of the International Association of Planetariums, its active members will participate to international and national events, will increase our national membership in the International Astronomical Union and its commissions, an also to the Red Pop UNESCO and other related groups of IberoamericaIn order to ensure the scientific life of its main technical staff, efforts will be made to establish agreements with Higher Education related centers such as the Faculty of Physics at the University of Havana, the Higher Institute of Applied Science and Technology and other schools allowing professional activities of staff in these institutions to the Cultural Centre as university extension. This includes the maintenance of university students of all specialties covering fixed shifts as guides / aids in attention to visitors.The Cultural Center is designed as a modern concept embedded in a Colonial architecture and traditional external environment. Exhibitions, shows the space and other facilities - will provide visitors a set of tools to bring back home, concepts and information about the universe before it was too remote and too complex for the average citizen. It is undoubtedly a unique educational opportunity in the country to demystify the

  20. Determinants of Downtown Image and Retail Patronage: A Case of Fargo, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaeha; Park, Kwangsoo

    2017-01-01

    We sought to identify determinants of downtown image and retail patronage, which contribute to tourism development in small and mid-sized communities. The purpose of our research was twofold: (a) to understand how visitors perceive the business mix, safety, and atmosphere of the Fargo, North Dakota, downtown and (b) to identify what factors…

  1. Do we go shopping downtown or in the ‘burbs’? Why not both?

    OpenAIRE

    USHCHEV, Philip; SLOEV, Igor; THISSE, Jacques-François; ,

    2013-01-01

    We combine spatial and monopolistic competition to study market interactions between downtown retailers and an outlying shopping mall. Consumers shop at either marketplace or at both, and buy each variety in volume. The market solution stems from the interplay between the market expansion effect generated by consumers seeking more opportunities, and the competition effect. Firms’ profits increase (decrease) with the entry of local competitors when the former (latter) dominates. Downtown retai...

  2. Neutron activation analysis to the profile surface sediments from several sites on the Havana Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Riso, O.; Gelen, A.; Lopez, N.; Gonzalez, H.; Manso, M.V.; Graciano, A.M.; Nogueira, C.A.; Beltran, J.; Soto, J.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique was employed to analyze the surface sediments from several sites on the Havana Bay, Cuba. Measurements of heavy and trace elements in the sediments are reported. The results show that the concentration of the elements is site dependent. The data suggest that an anthropogenic input into the bay from domestic sewage and industries occurred

  3. Cognitive Functioning and the Probability of Falls among Seniors in Havana, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Antonio J.; Hyder, Adnan A.; Steinhardt, Laura C.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the connection between cognitive functioning and falls among seniors (greater than or equal to 60 years of age) in Havana, Cuba, after controlling for observable characteristics. Using the SABE (Salud, Bienestar, and Envejecimiento) cross-sectional database, we used an econometric strategy that takes advantage of available…

  4. Environmental Analysis of the Groningen City Center

    OpenAIRE

    GÓMEZ BUGEDA, RICARDO SANTIAGO

    2017-01-01

    This final thesis project is part of the research that is carrying out by the Gemeente Groningen in order to make the city center more sustainable and livable. The municipality of Groningen has recently published a conceptual development plan for improving the inner-city of Groningen, this report is called Bestemming Binnenstad 01/2016 . The main focus of this report is convert the city center to an environmental friendly downtown, reducing pollution, reroute public and private transpo...

  5. [Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of atmospheric VOCs in the downtown area of Guangzhou, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Li, Hong; Wang, Xue-Zhong; Zhang, Xin-Min; Wen, Chong

    2013-12-01

    The measurements of 31 kinds of VOCs in the ambient air of a site were carried out in the downtown of Guangzhou by online method from November 5, 2009 to November 9, 2009. The ambient level and composition characteristics, temporal variation characteristics, sources identification, and chemical reactivity of VOCs were studied, and the health risk of VOCs in the ambient air in the study area was assessed by using the international recognized health risk assessment method. Results showed that the mean and the range of the mass concentrations of 31 VOCs were 114.51 microg x m(-3) and 29.42-546.06 microg x m(-3), respectively. The mass concentrations of 31 VOCs, and those of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics all showed a changing trend of higher in the morning and in the evening, and lower at noontime. Vehicular exhaust, gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas evaporates were the main sources of VOCs with the volatilization of paints and solvents being important emission sources. Toluene, trans-2-butene, m/p-xylene, i-butane, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene were the key reactive species among the 31 VOCs. Vehicular exhaust and gasoline evaporation were the main sources of VOCs leading to the formation of ozone. Health risk assessment showed that n-hexane, 1,3-butadiene, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene and o-xylene had no appreciable risk of adverse non-cancer health effect on the exposed population, but 1, 3-butadiene and benzene had potential cancer risk. By comparing the corresponding data about health risk assessment of benzene compounds in some cities in China, it is concluded that benzene can impose relatively high cancer risk to the exposed populations in the ambient air of some cities in China. Therefore, strict countermeasures should be taken to further control the pollution of benzene in the ambient air of cities, and it is imperative to start the related studies and develop the atmospheric environmental health criteria and national ambient air quality

  6. Uso pesado de álcool por estudantes dos ensinos fundamental e médio de escolas centrais e periféricas de Campinas (SP: prevalência e fatores associados Heavy alcohol use among elementary and high-school students in downtown and outskirts of Campinas City - São Paulo: prevalence and related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Soldera

    2004-09-01

    : To determine the prevalence of heavy alcohol use and investigate the influence of sociodemographic, cultural and psychopathological variables on alcohol use among elementary and high-school students of public and private schools in Campinas, Brazil. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study using an intentional sampling technique. The questionnaire used was based on the CEBRID (Brazilian Information Center on Psychotropic Drugs questionnaire and filled out anonymously by the subjects. The sample consisted of 2,287 elementary and high-school students from public and private schools in Campinas, Brazil, during the year of 1998. According World Health Organization criteria (WHO, 1981, alcohol use for 20 days or more in the 30 days prior to the study was considered heavy alcohol use. The "Polytomic Logistic Regression - Generalized Logits Model" was applied to identify the factors that influenced heavy alcohol use. RESULTS: Heavy alcohol use was seen in 11.9% of the sample, being more frequent among students at the inner-city public school belonging to socioeconomic classes A and B, who held down jobs and attended school in the afternoons. These students felt that their families did not understand or support them and also showed lower academic performance at school. CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicates that factors such as availability of funds, work , delayed schooling performance and unfavorable personal and family situations were related to heavy alcohol use among adolescents.

  7. Applicability assessment of concrete with recycled coarse aggregates in Havana, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Pavón, E.; Etxeberria, M.; Díaz, N. E.

    2012-01-01

    The recent viability studies carried out in Havana, Cuba, according to natural or recycled aggregates, exhibited high volume production of construction and demolition waste (CDW). The last well-known data of concrete waste generation reached to 1800 m3/month. This situation, together with the depletion of the quarry aggregates closed to the capital, requires the use of such debris as aggregate for concrete production. In this work, four origin recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) were produced ...

  8. Multielemental analysis of surface sediments in Havana bay (Cuba) using X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelen, A.; Corrales, Y.; Lopez, N.; Manso Guevara, M. V.; Casanova, A. O.; Alessandro, K. D'; Diaz, O.; Espen, P. Van; Beltran, J.; Soto, J.

    2006-01-01

    Multielemental Analysis was performed in Superficial Sediments in Havana Bay. Twenty one samples were analysed by Dispersive Energy X- Ray Fluorescence using an spectrometer based on Si (Li) semiconductor detector an a 109 Cd source. The results showed a similar behaviour in the levels of contamination related with neutron activation analysis. The data suggest that an anthropogenic input into the bay from domestic sewage and industries occurred. (Full text)

  9. HIV/AIDS among women in Havana, Cuba: 1986-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Dinorah C; Viñas, Arturo L; Saavedra, Clarivel; Oliva, Maritza; González, Ciro; de la Torre, Caridad

    2013-10-01

    Women are being diagnosed with HIV infection in increasing numbers, and now account for 50% of cases worldwide. In Cuba, HIV is more frequent in men, but in recent years, a growing number of women have been diagnosed. Describe patterns of HIV among women in Havana, Cuba, 1986-2011. Descriptive study of women with HIV aged >14 years, residents of Havana, Cuba, who were diagnosed with HIV from 1 January 1986 through 31 December 2011. Information was obtained from the limited-access HIV/AIDS database of Cuba's Ministry of Public Health. Data were studied from all reported cases, a total of 1274 women. Variables selected were age at diagnosis, education, municipality of residence, screening group, year of HIV diagnosis, late presentation, AIDS-defining condition, year of diagnosis as AIDS case, vital status at the end of 2011, and year of death (if applicable). Incidence of HIV and AIDS, cumulative incidence by municipality of residence, and case fatality rates were calculated. Those aged 20-29 years were most affected by HIV. Almost half (46.7%) the women had completed middle school, and a further 35.4% had completed high school or middle-level technical studies. HIV incidence began to increase more steeply starting in 1998, as did AIDS incidence by year of diagnosis, though to a lesser extent. Central Havana and Old Havana municipalities had the highest cumulative incidence. Late presentation was seen in 7.4% of cases; mean age of those diagnosed late was 38.9 years. Wasting syndrome and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia were the most frequent AIDS-defining conditions. Case fatality rates started to decline in 1998. HIV infection in women is occurring in a predominantly young, relatively well-educated population. Increasing rates of HIV and AIDS in the past decade are a warning sign of the possible expansion of HIV infection in women, even though mortality is declining.

  10. Agriculture in the City : A Key to Sustainability in Havana, Cuba ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... 1990, plusieurs économies nationales ont vu leurs marchés d'alimentation urbains ... Une position qui modifie considérablement le paysage, le mode de vie et les ... Le CRDI et plus de 800 délégués internationaux participent à la conférence ... Droits d'auteur · Éthique de la recherche · Politique de libre accès · Politique ...

  11. Intersectoral coordination in Aedes aegypti control. A pilot project in Havana City, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, L; Perez, D; Pérez, T; Sosa, T; Cruz, G; Kouri, G; Boelaert, M; Van der Stuyft, P

    2005-01-01

    Background The 55th World Health Assembly declared dengue prevention and control a priority and urged Member States to develop sustainable intersectoral strategies to this end. To provide evidence for the reorientation of the dengue prevention policy in Cuba, we launched an intervention study to document the effectiveness of a local-level intersectoral approach. We used a quasi-experimental design. Social scientists introduced participatory methods to facilitate dialogue in the biweekly meetings of the intersectoral Health Council of the intervention area. This council subsequently developed an intersectoral plan for dengue prevention, of which the core objective was to design and implement activities for communication and social mobilization. In the control area, routine dengue control activities continued without additional input. Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of dengue, and entomological indices were compared inside and between the areas before and after the 1-year intervention period. In the intervention area the Health Council elaborated an intersectoral plan for dengue prevention focused on source reduction. The Aedes aegypti control methods consisted in eliminating useless containers in the houses and surroundings, covering tanks, and cleaning public and inhabited areas. It was implemented through communication and social mobilization. The Health Council in the control area occasionally discussed dengue issues but did not develop a coordinated action plan. Good knowledge about breeding sites and disease symptoms increased significantly (by 49.7% and 17.1% respectively) in the intervention area as well as the proportion of respondents eliminating containers in and around their houses (by 44%). No changes were observed in the control area. The House Index in the intervention area was 3.72% at baseline and decreased to 0.61% after 1 year. In the control area it remained stable throughout the study period (1.31% and 1.65% respectively). The introduction of a participatory approach by social scientists promotes changes in intersectoral management. This facilitates social mobilization which, in its turn, leads to significant changes in knowledge, attitudes and dengue-related practices in the population and eventually to more effective control of Ae. aegypti.

  12. Rodolfo's Casa Caribe in Cuba: Business, Law, and Ethics of Investing in a Start-Up in Havana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulkowski, Adam J.

    2017-01-01

    This case study presents the true story of Rodolfo--a former tailor and attorney from the provinces of Cuba--who moved to Havana to start a hospitality business. In 2016, the author (referred to as Adam throughout the case study), a business law professor from the United States, visited Havana to interview Rodolfo and learn about the factors for…

  13. Disaster Preparedness activities in Havana: the study of the Community leaders´ Perception of risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Gaeta Carrillo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Risk reduction and build resilience in order to prevent some disasters require not just well coordinated authorities, a sound legislation and strong institutions. It is also vital to involve the local communities in preventive measures. The design of community training and community based preparedness activities is not ofen planned properly and is done without enough information, leading to a breakdown in the intervention. Based on personal and group interviews and a survey, this study performs an exploration of community leaders´ perceptions about risks in Havana that strengthens or constrains preventive measures and enhance or not response capacities. information that helps to design capacity building activities at studied community.

  14. Neurological Manifestations Among US Government Personnel Reporting Directional Audible and Sensory Phenomena in Havana, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Randel L; Hampton, Stephen; Green-McKenzie, Judith; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Grady, M Sean; Verma, Ragini; Biester, Rosette; Duda, Diana; Wolf, Ronald L; Smith, Douglas H

    2018-03-20

    From late 2016 through August 2017, US government personnel serving on diplomatic assignment in Havana, Cuba, reported neurological symptoms associated with exposure to auditory and sensory phenomena. To describe the neurological manifestations that followed exposure to an unknown energy source associated with auditory and sensory phenomena. Preliminary results from a retrospective case series of US government personnel in Havana, Cuba. Following reported exposure to auditory and sensory phenomena in their homes or hotel rooms, the individuals reported a similar constellation of neurological symptoms resembling brain injury. These individuals were referred to an academic brain injury center for multidisciplinary evaluation and treatment. Report of experiencing audible and sensory phenomena emanating from a distinct direction (directional phenomena) associated with an undetermined source, while serving on US government assignments in Havana, Cuba, since 2016. Descriptions of the exposures and symptoms were obtained from medical record review of multidisciplinary clinical interviews and examinations. Additional objective assessments included clinical tests of vestibular (dynamic and static balance, vestibulo-ocular reflex testing, caloric testing), oculomotor (measurement of convergence, saccadic, and smooth pursuit eye movements), cognitive (comprehensive neuropsychological battery), and audiometric (pure tone and speech audiometry) functioning. Neuroimaging was also obtained. Of 24 individuals with suspected exposure identified by the US Department of State, 21 completed multidisciplinary evaluation an average of 203 days after exposure. Persistent symptoms (>3 months after exposure) were reported by these individuals including cognitive (n = 17, 81%), balance (n = 15, 71%), visual (n = 18, 86%), and auditory (n = 15, 68%) dysfunction, sleep impairment (n = 18, 86%), and headaches (n = 16, 76%). Objective findings included cognitive (n

  15. Climate Resilient Analysis of the Groningen City Center

    OpenAIRE

    MORALES LLAMAS, MÓNICA

    2017-01-01

    This final thesis project is part of the research that is carrying out by the Gemeente Groningen in order to make the city center more sustainable and livable. The municipality of Groningen has recently published a conceptual development plan for improving the inner-city of Groningen, this report is called Bestemming Binnenstad 01/2016 . The main focus of this report is convert the city center to an environmental friendly downtown, reducing pollution, reroute public and private transpo...

  16. Heavy metal determination by X-rays spectrometry in superficial sediments at Havana Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelen, Alina; Izquierdo, Walter; Lopez, Neivy; Corrales, Yasser; Casanova, Amaya O.; Diaz, Oscar; Manso, Maria V.; D'Alessandro, Katia; Reyes, Enma; Toledo, Carlos; Beltran, Jesus; Perez, Marlen; Ramirez, Marta; Soto, Jesus

    2007-01-01

    Havana Bay is a typical bag-type located in the Western-North Coast of the Republic of Cuba. Since 1980 it has been the object of a study for sea bottom rehabilitation and improvement of quality of the waters, where the final objective will be the recovery of the coastal and marine ecosystem. Thirteen surface samples of the Havana Bay (Cuba) were collected and analysed by X-Rays spectrometry. Some majority elements (Si, Ca, K, Na, S, Cl, Al, Fe, Mg, C and O) were measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with microanalysis to perform geomorphologic analysis. Nine elements (Ca, Fe, Ti, Mn, Cu, Zn, Sr, Zr and Pb) have been measured using an Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) with a Si(Li) detector. Multivariate statistical was used for the analysis. The concentration levels showed this bay as the most polluted in Cuba. The highest contents of Cu, Zn and Pb were obtained in Atares and Marimelena Cove; these elements are indicators of urban as well as industrial pollution. (author)

  17. Simulation of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization management of maize under edaphic conditions of south of Havana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Seijas, Teresa; Cid, G.; Gonzalez, F.; Jorge, Y.; Chaterlan, Y.; Giralt, E.; Rodriguez, R.; Duennas, G.

    1999-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to validate the crop simulation model STICS for the soil and climate conditions of south of Havana, especially for the water and nitrogen balances on Maize crop on Ferralitic soil, For this purpose was used all the available information from field experiments carried out in the Experimental Stations of the Irrigation and Drainage and Soil Research Institutes, both on south of Havana, The comparison between the simulation and observed values showed a good fitness for the variables related to the crop water uptake, while for the soil water content when the root water uptake flux is minimum and the soil water redistribution flux is maximum wasn't good, The soil nitrogen balance was adjusted from the optimization of the parameters related to the mineralization velocity of soil organic nitrogen, Nevertheless is necessary to complete this study involving other climate conditions and water and nitrogen managements to define the optimum strategy for irrigation and fertilization of Maize crop on the studied conditions,

  18. Heavy metal determination by X-rays spectrometry in superficial sediments at Havana Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelen, Alina; Izquierdo, Walter; Lopez, Neivy; Corrales, Yasser; Casanova, Amaya O.; Diaz, Oscar; Manso, Maria V.; D' Alessandro, Katia [Institute for Applied Sciences and Technology, Havana (Cuba)], E-mail: alina@instec.cu; Reyes, Enma; Toledo, Carlos [Central Laboratory Criminology, Havana (Cuba); Beltran, Jesus; Perez, Marlen; Ramirez, Marta [Engineering Centre for Environmental Management of Bays and Coasts, Havana (Cuba)], E-mail: beltran@cimab.transnet.cu; Soto, Jesus [Universidad de Cantabria, Santander (Spain)], E-mail: sotoj@unican.es

    2007-07-01

    Havana Bay is a typical bag-type located in the Western-North Coast of the Republic of Cuba. Since 1980 it has been the object of a study for sea bottom rehabilitation and improvement of quality of the waters, where the final objective will be the recovery of the coastal and marine ecosystem. Thirteen surface samples of the Havana Bay (Cuba) were collected and analysed by X-Rays spectrometry. Some majority elements (Si, Ca, K, Na, S, Cl, Al, Fe, Mg, C and O) were measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with microanalysis to perform geomorphologic analysis. Nine elements (Ca, Fe, Ti, Mn, Cu, Zn, Sr, Zr and Pb) have been measured using an Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) with a Si(Li) detector. Multivariate statistical was used for the analysis. The concentration levels showed this bay as the most polluted in Cuba. The highest contents of Cu, Zn and Pb were obtained in Atares and Marimelena Cove; these elements are indicators of urban as well as industrial pollution. (author)

  19. CITY GROUND DESIGN AND THE IMAGE OF THE CITY: THE PORTUGUESE CALÇADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Remesar

    2014-10-01

    The pavement-form - including the "calçada-form"-is at the root of some of the flagship operations creating the image of the city (Havana, 1928; Alicante, 1957; the Ramblas in Barcelona, 1969; reform of the Avenida Atlantica in Rio by Burle Marx, 1970. However, these same operations show that the "form-calçada" does not meet many of the requirements of economy, security or universal accessibility required by the contemporary city. In the paper was to analyze the causes and reasons that hover over the announced death of calçada á Portugueza.

  20. Limnological Monitoring on the Upper Mississippi River System, 1993-1996: Long Term Resource Monitoring Program Havana Field Station

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soballe, David

    2002-01-01

    .... The flood in spring 1995 receded sooner than in 1993. However, the 137 m (450.66 feet) peak on May 31, 1995, was the third highest river elevation recorded at Havana, Illinois. Low dissolved oxygen levels in the main channel were also notable in 1993-1996 with concentrations at or below 5 mg/L observed each year.

  1. Evaluation of the Marine Intrusion in Havana Province Groundwater Using Hydrochemical and Isotopic Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, A. M.; Bombuse, D. L.; Estevez Alvarez, J. R. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Havana (Cuba); others, and

    2013-07-15

    In the present paper the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of the saline intrusion in the most important aquifer of Havana province is presented. Results were obtained through the application of hydrochemical and isotopic tools. Studies were carried out within the framework of the IAEA Regional Project RLA/8/041. The survey was carried out in 2008 during the dry and rainy seasons. Sampling points were selected according to a monitoring network located along the north-south line following the main groundwater flow direction. Stable isotopes ({sup 2}H and {sup 18}O) were used to identify and characterize the groundwater origin and mixing processes. Changes in the chemical composition of groundwater were shown to be mainly controlled by the groundwater and seawater mixing process, followed by cation exchange reactions and a Ca-Mg precipitation process due to the strong influence of the costal wetland. A gradual decreasing of the spatial and temporal saline intrusion was observed. (author)

  2. The applied research program of the High Flux Neutron Generator at the National Nuclear Center, Havana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, G.; Martin, G.; Ceballos, C.; Padron, I.; Shtejer, K.; Perez, N.; Guibert, R.; Ledo, L.M.; Cruz Inclan, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    The Havana High Flux Neutron Generator facility is an intense neutron source based on a 20 mA duoplasmatron ion source and a 250 kV high voltage power supply. It has been installed in the Neutron Generator Laboratory at the Center of Applied Technologies and Nuclear Research in 1997. This paper deal outlined the future applied program to be carried out in this facility in the next years. The Applied Research Program consists on install two nuclear analytic techniques: the PELAN technique which uses the neutron generator in the pulse mode and the Low Energy PIXE technique which uses the same facility as a low energy proton accelerator for PIXE analysis. (author)

  3. Responsiveness summary for the engineering evaluation/cost analysis for decontamination at the St. Louis Downtown Site, St. Louis, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picel, M.H.; Peterson, J.M.; Williams, M.J.

    1991-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for conducting remedial actions at the Mallinckrodt Chemical Plant, also referred to as the St. Louis Downtown Site (SLDS), located in the city of St. Louis, Missouri. Remedial activities at the SLDS are being carried out under DOE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) as part of the overall cleanup planned for three noncontiguous areas in St. Louis, which are collectively referred to as the St. Louis Site. Potential response action alternatives for managing the contaminated material generated at the SLDS have been evaluated in accordance with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance for conducting interim actions under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. An engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) report was prepared to document this process. On the basis of the analysis presented in the EE/CA, the preferred alternative for the management of contaminated wastes generated by DOE-supported plant activities is the provision of temporary storage capacity, which can be made available by modifying an existing building (i.e., Building 116) at SLDS. This alternative would enable DOE and Mallinckrodt to coordinate efforts to prevent the uncontrolled relocation of contamination and ensure that ultimate site cleanup objectives are not complicated by plant activities implemented by Mallinckrodt. The EE/CA, dated May 1991, was issued to the general public on June 7, 1991, and a public comment period was held from June 7 through July 10, 1991, in accordance with the public participation process identified in CERCLA. Comments on the proposed action were received in writing from the Missouri Department of Health, private citizen Kay Drey, and the EPA Region 7. This responsiveness summary has been prepared to respond to issues identified in these comment letters on the proposed action

  4. Multielemental analysis to the profile sediments from several sites on the Havana Bay, by the Neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Riso, O.; Gelen, A.; Lopez, N.; Manso, M.V.; Graciano, A.M.; Nogueira, C.A.; Beltran, J.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique was employed to analyze the profile sediments from several sites on the Havana Bay, Cuba. Measurements of 24 heavy and trace elements in the sediments are reported. The results show the increment in the sediment pollution occurred in the 70-80 years of the last century. The data confirm that an anthropogenic input into the bay from domestic sewage and industries occurred

  5. Reconstruction of metal pollution and recent sedimentation processes in Havana Bay (Cuba): A tool for coastal ecosystem management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz-Asencio, M.; Alvarado, J.A. Corcho; Alonso-Hernández, C.; Quejido-Cabezas, A.; Ruiz-Fernández, A.C.; Sanchez-Sanchez, M.; Gómez-Mancebo, M.B.; Froidevaux, P.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Past metal pollution in the heavy polluted coastal ecosystem of Havana Bay. ► Effectiveness of pollution-reduction strategies. ► Dated environmental archives to reconstruct sedimentation and pollution trends. ► Impact of severe climatic events on sedimentation. - Abstract: Since 1998 the highly polluted Havana Bay ecosystem has been the subject of a mitigation program. In order to determine whether pollution-reduction strategies were effective, we have evaluated the historical trends of pollution recorded in sediments of the Bay. A sediment core was dated radiometrically using natural and artificial fallout radionuclides. An irregularity in the 210 Pb record was caused by an episode of accelerated sedimentation. This episode was dated to occur in 1982, a year coincident with the heaviest rains reported in Havana over the XX century. Peaks of mass accumulation rates (MAR) were associated with hurricanes and intensive rains. In the past 60 years, these maxima are related to strong El Niño periods, which are known to increase rainfall in the north Caribbean region. We observed a steady increase of pollution (mainly Pb, Zn, Sn, and Hg) since the beginning of the century to the mid 90s, with enrichment factors as high as 6. MAR and pollution decreased rapidly after the mid 90s, although some trace metal levels remain high. This reduction was due to the integrated coastal zone management program introduced in the late 90s, which dismissed catchment erosion and pollution.

  6. Transmission of tuberculosis in Havana, Cuba: a molecular epidemiological study by IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism typing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz R

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of molecular and conventional epidemiological methods has improved the knowledge about the transmission of tuberculosis in urban populations. To examine transmission of tuberculosis in Havana, Cuba, with DNA fingerprinting, we studied 51 out of 92 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from tuberculosis patients who resided in Havana and whose infection was culture-confirmed in the period from September 1997 to March 1998. Isolates from 28 patients (55% had unique IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP patterns, while isolates from 23 others (45% had identical patterns and belonged to 7 clusters. Three clusters consisting of six, five and two cases were each related to small outbreaks that occurred in a closed setting. Three other clustered cases were linked to a large outbreak that occurred in another institution. Younger patients were more correlated to clustering than older ones. The finding that 45% of the isolates had clustered RFLP patterns suggests that recent transmission is a key factor in the tuberculosis cases in Havana. The IS6110 RFLP typing made it possible to define the occurrence of outbreaks in two closed institutions.

  7. [Upbringing and Sexuality in Children from Marginal Prostitute Women Downtown in Bogotá].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Javier Guillermo Díaz; Acosta, Miguel Barrios; Rojas, Rafael Vásquez

    2012-09-01

    Child upbringing of women engaged in prostitution has been little explored. Child upbringing beliefs, attitudes and practices regarding sexuality in prostitutes' children and adolescents were explored downtown in Bogota. Analytical-interpretive research included in-depth interviews and a focus group. There were ten women between 28 and 56 years of age. Core issues were their subjectivity as mothers, sexual development challenges, upbringing social and cultural conditions. Structural, symbolic and economic violence are the main determinants of parenting. Sexual abuse and the possibility of pregnancy in their adolescent daughters are the most important concerns. In general, the participants share the same values and reproduce traditional ideals in gender and sexuality, which are transmitted and modeled from upbringing. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. "Weak-Center" Gentrification and the Contradictions of Containment: deconcentrating poverty in downtown Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Ellen; DeVerteuil, Geoffrey; Thach, Leanne

    2010-01-01

    This case study of recent efforts to deconcentrate poverty within the Skid Row area of Los Angeles examines processes of "weak-center" gentrification as it applies to a "service dependent ghetto," thus filling two key gaps in prior scholarship. We document the collaboration between the government, business and development interests, and certain non-profit agencies in this process and identify two key mechanisms of poverty deconcentration: housing/service displacement and the criminalization of low income residents. Following Harvey, we argue that these efforts are driven by pressures to find a "spatial fix" for capital accumulation through Downtown redevelopment. This process has been hotly contested, however, illustrating the strength of counter-pressures to gentrification/poverty deconcentration within "weak-center" urban areas.

  9. [Bodies and pleasures in male homosocial circuits of downtown Rio de Janeiro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Luis Felipe

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an ethnographic research investigating the cultural bases that guide the construction of corporeal events, especially those related to sex/eroticism, in the homosocial circuits of downtown Rio de Janeiro. Data were gathered by means of biographic narrative interviews, direct observations and research-interventions. The main argument presented in this paper is that the diverse corporeal events in the studied community are based on the same conceptual structure that focuses on transgression of the "body/flesh" in the sense of St. Paul's concept: an exaltation of forbidden 'tesão', erotic pleasure only admissible for the purpose of reproduction. 'Flesh' instead of sublimated being exalted, constantly inspired and attracted to more and more erotic pleasure.

  10. Seasonal variations in antibiotic resistance gene transport in the Almendares River, Havana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W Knapp

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have quantified antibiotic resistance genes (ARG in rivers and streams around the world, and significant relationships have been shown that relate different pollutant outputs and increased local ARG levels. However, most studies have not considered ambient flow conditions, which can vary dramatically especially in tropical countries. Here, ARG were quantified in water-column and sediment samples during the dry-and wet-seasons to assess how seasonal and other factors influence ARG transport down the Almendares River (Havana, Cuba. Eight locations were sampled and stream flow estimated during both seasons; qPCR was used to quantify four tetracycline, two erythromycin, and three beta-lactam resistance genes. ARG concentrations were higher in wet-season versus dry-season samples, which combined with higher flows, indicated greater ARG transport downstream during the wet season. Water-column ARG levels were more spatially variable in the dry-season than the wet-season, with the proximity of waste outfalls strongly influencing local ARG levels. Results confirm that dry-season sampling provides a useful picture of the impact of individual waste inputs on local stream ARG levels, whereas, the majority of ARGs in this tropical river were transported downstream during the wet season, possibly due to re-entrainment of ARG from sediments.

  11. Large-Eddy Simulation of pollutant dispersion in downtown Montreal: Evaluation of the convective and turbulent mass fluxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gousseau, P.; Blocken, B.J.E.; Stathopoulos, T.; Heijst, van G.J.F.; Seppelt, R.; Voinov, A.A.; Lange, S.; Bankamp, D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Large-Eddy Simulation of pollutant dispersion from a stack on the roof of a low-rise building in downtown Montreal is performed. Two wind directions are considered, with different wind flow patterns and plume behaviours. The resulting mean concentration field is observed and analysed with

  12. Changing Lives: The Baltimore City Community College Life Sciences Partnership with the University of Maryland, Baltimore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Vanessa G.; Harris-Bondima, Michelle; Norris, Kathleen Kennedy; Williams, Carolane

    2010-01-01

    Baltimore City Community College (BCCC) leveraged heightened student interest and enrollment in the sciences and allied health with Maryland's world-leading biotechnology industry to build a community college life sciences learning and research center right on the University of Maryland, Baltimore's downtown BioPark campus. The BCCC Life Sciences…

  13. Caracterization of the HIV-AIDS descentralization office in centro Havana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Elena Hernández Rodríguez

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available It was carried out a descriptive, retrospective and longitudinal study of the medical records of 245 people who have been diagnosed as having HIV-aids and who have been treated at the municipal decentralization office of Centro Havana from January 2006 through June 2008. The study was aimed at making a characterization of the office. The statistical analysis consisted on the calculation of the absolute and relative frequencies of each of the variables under study, using the SPSS statistical package, version 11.5. The study revealed that the highest percentage of patients was between 20 to 39 years old, in both sexes, with a prevalence of people who have completed either secondary or pre-university education. 60 % are retired, 60. 4% live crammed and the majority of them live on houses in regular or bad conditions. 72,6% of the studied group has a homosexual orientation. Based on the HIV and aids classification, 149 were diagnosed as having HIV. The studied group of highest incidence was the one selected. 99% became infected via sexual transmission. The more frequent unhealthy habit was a sedentary lifestyle. The most frequently reported side effect of the three-therapy treatment was the hyperlipidemia. The most prevalent opportunist infectious disease was Pneumonia by Pneumocistis Carini. Depressive neurosis was the main diagnosis at the medical office, while the most prevalent non-transmissible chronic disease was hypertension. Fourteen patients have died; 1873 consultations and 674 home visits have been made. We recommend that a medical multidisciplinary team be put together at the HIV-AIDS office, and that a plan of action will be created to solve the detected problems.

  14. Detection of rotavirus and other enteropathogens in children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Havana, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, María de Los Angeles; Tejero, Yahisel; Cordero, Yanislet; de Los Angeles León, María; Rodriguez, Misladys; Perez-Lastre, Jorge; Triana, Thelma; Guerra, Mabel; Ayllón, Lucía; Escalante, Gladys; Hadad, Jorge

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to diagnose infections with rotavirus and other enteric pathogens in children under five years old with acute gastroenteritis and to identify the most common epidemiological and clinical characteristics of these pathogens. The study was conducted using 110 stool samples from the same number of children under five years old who were inpatients at three paediatric hospitals in Havana, Cuba, between October and December 2011. The samples were tested for rotavirus and other enteric pathogens using traditional and molecular microbiological methods. Pathogens were detected in 85 (77.3 %) of the children. Rotavirus was the most commonly found, appearing in 54.5 % of the children, followed by bacteria (29 %) and parasites (10.9 %). Other viral pathogens detected included adenovirus (6.4 %) and astrovirus (3.6 %). In rotavirus-positives cases, at least one other pathogen was detected, usually a bacterium (26.6 %). More than three episodes of watery diarrhea in 24 hours were observed in 78.3 % of the cases. Dehydration was found in 30 (50 %) rotavirus-positive children, of whom seven (11.6 %) were transferred to an intensive care unit due to complications of metabolic acidosis. Rotavirus was most commonly observed among children under 12 months old (65 %). The highest incidence of infection occurred in children who were under the care of a relative at home (78.3 %), had not been breastfed (65 %), or had been breastfed for less than six months (28.3 %). The genotype combinations most frequently found were G9P8 (28.3 %) and G1P8 (10 %). This study demonstrates the presence of rotavirus and other enteric pathogens as causes of gastroenteritis in hospitalized infants and young children in Cuba.

  15. Antibiotic Resistance Gene Abundances Associated with Waste Discharges to the Almendares River near Havana, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Considerable debate exists over the primary cause of increased antibiotic resistance (AR) worldwide. Evidence suggests increasing AR results from overuse of antibiotics in medicine and therapeutic and nontherapeutic applications in agriculture. However, pollution also can influence environmental AR, particularly associated with heavy metal, pharmaceutical, and other waste releases, although the relative scale of the “pollution” contribution is poorly defined, which restricts targeted mitigation efforts. The question is “where to study and quantify AR from pollution versus other causes to best understand the pollution effect”. One useful site is Cuba because industrial pollution broadly exists; antibiotics are used sparingly in medicine and agriculture; and multiresistant bacterial infections are increasing in clinical settings without explanation. Within this context, we quantified 13 antibiotic resistance genes (ARG; indicators of AR potential), 6 heavy metals, 3 antibiotics, and 17 other organic pollutants at 8 locations along the Almendares River in western Havana at sites bracketing known waste discharge points, including a large solid waste landfill and various pharmaceutical factories. Significant correlations (p < 0.05) were found between sediment ARG levels, especially for tetracyclines and β-lactams (e.g., tet(M), tet(O), tet(Q), tet(W), blaOXA), and sediment Cu and water column ampicillin levels in the river. Further, sediment ARG levels increased by up to 3 orders of magnitude downstream of the pharmaceutical factories and were highest where human population densities also were high. Although explicit links are not shown, results suggest that pollution has increased background AR levels in a setting where other causes of AR are less prevalent. PMID:21133405

  16. Tuberculosis en la Ciudad de la Habana, 1995-1999 Tuberculosis in Havana City, 1995-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José I Sevy Court

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: La tuberculosis es un importante problema mundial de salud que recibe una atención priorizada del Sistema de Salud Cubano. Lo objetivo del trabajo es describir el comportamiento de los indicadores del Programa de Control de Tuberculosis cubano. MÉTODOS: A partir de una revisión de los documentos de la vigilancia de la tuberculosis en los registros del Centro Provincial de Higiene y Epidemiología se expone la infraestructura sanitaria, las estrategias del Programa de Control en la ciudad, se describen las tasas de incidencia, indicadores de localización, diagnóstico y manejo de casos. RESULTADOS: Se hallaron 8 sintomáticos respiratorios por cada mil consultantes de medicina general; la tasa de incidencia de tunerculosis en todas sus formas descendió de 16,4 (1995 a 12,0x105 habitantes (1999; la tuberculosis pulmonar descendió de 15,1 a 10,45 habitantes mientras la tuberculosis extrapulmonar ascendió de 1,3 a 1,6 x 105 habitantes, en igual período. Del total de los casos nuevos, el 40-50% fueron identificados en los policlínicos, el 67% fueron diagnosticados por baciloscopías, el 15,2% por cultivos, el 13.8% sólo por evidencias clínicas y radiológicas; el 0,9% y el 1,5%, respectivamente, fueron diagnosticados por biopsia o hallazgos de necropsia. Los grupos de 15-64 años incrementaron su incidencia en 1996-1997 y disminuyeron en 1998-1999; los casos >64 años de edad disminuyeron progresivamente de 1995 a 1999; en general, la tasa de incidencia de casos disminuyó. La demora promedio entre primeros síntomas y diagnóstico mejoró de 42 días en 1995 a 28,6 en 1999. CONCLUSIONES: La reversión de la tendencia de la notificación de casos nuevos parece haberse detenido en 1996. La situación de los indicadores de tuberculosis revelan cambios satisfactorios en el período analizado.OBJECTIVE: Tuberculosis is a worldwide health problem getting a prioritized attention by the Cuban National Health System. To describe the main indicators of the Cuban Tuberculosis Control Program. METHODS: Based on surveillance data from the Provincial Center of Hygiene and Epidemiology, the health care network and strategies of the tuberculosis control program were reviewed; incidence rates, case finding indicators, diagnosis and case management were described. RESULTS: Eight subjects with respiratory symptoms were found per 1,000 attending general medical care services. The incidence rates of all tuberculosis types declined from 16.4 in 1995 to 12.0 x 10(5 people in 1999. Pulmonary tuberculosis incidence rate was reduced from 15.1 in1995 to 10.4 x 10(5 in 1999, whereas extrapulmonary tuberculosis had an increment from 1.3 to 1.6 x 10(5 in the same period. Of all new cases, 40-50 % were diagnosed at multispecialty clinics, 67.6% were diagnosed by positive smears, 15.2 % by positive cultures, 13.8 % by clinical and X-rays evidences only; and 0.9 % and 1.5 % were respectively diagnosed by biopsy and necropsy. There was an increase in the incidence rate in the age group 15-64 years in 1996 and 1997 but it declined again in 1998 and 1999. The age group 64 years and over showed a rate reduction from 1995 to 1999. In general, incidence rates diminished in the overall period. The average delay between onset of symptoms and diagnosis improved from 42 days in 1995 to 28.6 days in 1999. CONCLUSIONS: There seems to be a halt in reporting trends of new cases in 1996. Tuberculosis indicators reveal satisfactory changes in the study period.

  17. Opportunities to learn and barriers to change: crack cocaine use in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moffat Barbara

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2004, a team comprised of researchers and service providers launched the Safer Crack Use, Outreach, Research and Education (SCORE project in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The project was aimed at developing a better understanding of the harms associated with crack cocaine smoking and determining the feasibility of introducing specific harm reduction strategies. Specifically, in partnership with the community, we constructed and distributed kits that contained harm reduction materials. We were particularly interested in understanding what people thought of these kits and how the kits contents were used. To obtain this information, we conducted 27 interviews with women and men who used crack cocaine and received safer crack kits. Four broad themes were generated from the data: 1 the context of crack use practices; 2 learning/transmission of harm reducon education; 3 changing practice; 4 barriers to change. This project suggests that harm reduction education is most successful when it is informed by current practices with crack use. In addition it is most effectively delivered through informal interactions with people who use crack and includes repeated demonstrations of harm reduction equipment by peers and outreach workers. This paper also suggests that barriers to harm reduction are systemic: lack of safe housing and private space shape crack use practices.

  18. EVALUATION OF A POPULAR SHOPPING MALL BUILT TO ACCOMMODATE PREVIOUS STREET VENDORS IN DOWNTOWN PORTO ALEGRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiana Maura John

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to evaluate a popular shopping mall, named the CPC, focusing on its location, use, aesthetics and security. The global and local integration values of streets surrounding the CPC and the former Square XV Camelódromo are compared in order to evidence their level of accessibility. Concerning use, the following specific objectives are investigated: retailers’ and CPC users’ preference for a popular shopping mall type and CPC users’ knowledge and shopping routines in the former Square XV Camelódromo; retailers’ and CPC users’ levels of satisfaction with the CPC, evaluations of the CPC building and shops location regarding sales, assessments of the existence of a food court and a bus terminal in the CPC building. In relation to aesthetics, retailers’ and CPC users’ evaluations of the internal appearance of the CPC, and retailers’, CPC users’ and architects’ assessments of the external appearance of the CPC are revealed. Moreover, retailers’ and CPC users’ evaluations of security in the bus terminal in the CPC building and in downtown Porto Alegre are identified. Data gathering methods included archival surveys, physical measurements, behavioral observations, and questionnaires. Data were analyzed through non-parametric statistical tests and space syntax methods. Results corroborate findings of other studies regarding the need for movement of people and visibility of shops at ground level, in order to achieve a satisfactory sales performance. Moreover, the CPC external appearance tends to be differently evaluated among retailers, CPC users and architects.

  19. Air pollution and vulnerability of exposed individuals: the case of downtown Medellín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel J. González

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of respiratory problems in high level pollution areas is linked to factors such as exposure, susceptibility, and social coping. Objective: To present statistical evidence regarding the relationship between the probability of experiencing symptoms or contracting a respiratory disease and factors such as exposure to pollution, susceptibility, and social coping among people inhabiting areas with particulate matter pollution. Methodology: The study used unique information collected from a survey conducted on 1000 people in downtown Medellin who were exposed to this problem. This information was used to perform a descriptive statistic analysis and to build 27 probit models. The dependent variables were: the patient has a symptom or disease –emf-, the patient has a symptom –leve-, and the patient has a respiratory disease –grave-. Results: The results evidence that exposure is a key variable affecting the presence of respiratory symptoms or diseases (vulnerability; however, exposed individuals may also experience health problems not only due to air pollution per se, but also to implicit personal and social conditions.

  20. Evaluation of methods of bio monitoring with lichens to study the state of air pollution by trace elements in Havana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero Alvarez, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the main results obtained in the use of lichens as bio monitors to estimate the levels of atmospheric deposition of Al, Br, Ca, Cd, Co Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na is short, Ni, Pb , Sr, V and Zn in Havana during the period 2001-2010 are shown. For the determination of the elemental contents were used and evaluated the possibilities of X-ray fluorescence, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, Polarography (voltammetry stripping anode) Atomic Emission Spectrometry with Inductively coupled plasma and mass spectrometry Inductively Coupled Plasma. The simultaneous application of three methods in the case of some chemical elements also allowed to make comparisons of the results, which is important from the point of view of quality assurance. It is also significant that the analytical techniques used in this work are available in the country, so that this experience could be used by other institutions for this kind of studies. A comparative study of three species of lichens is reported and Physcia alba has being selected as the most suitable dawn. The spatial and temporal diagrams of the elements studied in the territory of the Capital and its relation to the main sources of pollution distribution are established. The study of isotopic ratios for lead allowed to confirm that the source of atmospheric Pb in Havana is a possible mixture of soil dust and anthropogenic activities such as the combustion of domestic heavy oil used for power generation and other industries. (Author)

  1. Assessment of Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb levels in beach and dune sands from Havana resorts, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Rizo, Oscar; Buzón González, Fran; Arado López, Juana O

    2015-11-15

    Concentrations of nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in beach and dune sands from thirteen Havana (Cuba) resorts were estimated by X-ray fluorescence analysis. Determined mean metal contents (in mg·kg(-1)) in beach sand samples were 28±12 for Ni, 35±12 for Cu, 31±11 for Zn and 6.0±1.8 for Pb, while for dune sands were 30±15, 38±22, 37±15 and 6.8±2.9, respectively. Metal-to-iron normalization shows moderately severe and severe enrichment by Cu. The comparison with sediment quality guidelines shows that dune sands from various resorts must be considered as heavily polluted by Cu and Ni. Almost in every resort, the Ni and Cu contents exceed their corresponding TEL values and, in some resorts, the Ni PEL value. The comparison with a Havana topsoil study indicates the possible Ni and Cu natural origin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Applicability assessment of concrete with recycled coarse aggregates in Havana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavón, E.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent viability studies carried out in Havana, Cuba, according to natural or recycled aggregates, exhibited high volume production of construction and demolition waste (CDW. The last well-known data of concrete waste generation reached to 1800 m3/month. This situation, together with the depletion of the quarry aggregates closed to the capital, requires the use of such debris as aggregate for concrete production. In this work, four origin recycled concrete aggregates (RCA were produced and characterized. Recycled aggregate concrete with 25%, 50% and 100% of RCA and 0.45, 0.50 and 0.55 of water-cement ratio were produced. Physical, mechanical and durabilidty properties of thoses concretes were determined and evaluated, and their applicability as structural material in different aggressive environments according to Cuban normative was defined.Los estudios de viabilidad realizados recientemente en La Habana, Cuba muestran elevadas cifras de producción de residuos de construcción y demolición (RCD. Los últimos datos conocidos de generación de escombros de hormigón alcanzan valores cercanos a los 1800m3/mensual. Esta situación unida al agotamiento de los áridos en las zonas cercanas a la capital hace necesaria la utilización de estos escombros como áridos en la fabricación de hormigones. En el trabajo realizado se trituraron escombros de hormigón de cuatro orígenes diferentes, después de su caracterización se fabricaron hormigones con 25%, 50% y 100% de árido reciclado y con relaciones agua-cemento de 0.45, 0.50 y 0.55. A partir de la evaluación de las propiedades físico-mecánicas y de durabilidad obtenidas por los hormigones reciclados, se define la aplicabilidad de los mismos como hormigón estructural para ser utilizados en los diferentes tipos de ambientes de agresividad que tiene definido la normativa cubana.

  3. Petroleum hydrocarbon assessment in the sediments of the northeastern Havana littoral, Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Companioni Dams, Eloy Yordad; Nunez Clemente, Ana Catalina; Cora Medina, Miriam Odette [Laboratorio de Quimica Ambiental, Centro de Investigaciones del Petroleo, Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: elocompa@yahoo.com; Gonzalez Brovo, Luis [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear, Habana, (Cuba); Marbot Ramada, Rolando [Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica, Centro de Investigaciones del Petroleo, Habana (Cuba); Montes de Oca Porto, Rodny [Laboratorio Antidoping, Habana (Cuba); Rosabal Rodriguez, Maikel [Centro de Ingenieria y Manejo Ambiental de Bahias y Costas, Habana (Cuba); Diaz Diaz, Miguel angel [Laboratorio de Quimica Ambiental, Centro de Investigaciones del Petroleo, Habana (Cuba)

    2009-02-15

    As a part of a geochemical study, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in surficial sediments, from a Cuban coastal zone located in the Northeastern Havana Littoral. Sediment samples were collected at 15 sites in this area, and then extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass spectrometry detectors. Total concentration of both, aliphatic (AH) and aromatic (ArH) hydrocarbons, varied from 2.4 {+-} 0.2 to 105.1 {+-} 5.9 {mu}g/g (dry weight) and from 1.1 {+-} 0.2 to 38.4 {+-} 7.6 {mu}g/g (dry weight), respectively. The chromatography profile of AH was dominated by an unresolved complex mixture (UCM), and the presence of isoprenoid hydrocarbons, steranes and hopanes, indicated petroleum - related hydrocarbon inputs. The predominant concentration of phytoplanktonic molecular markers (pristane and nC17) in collected sediments, revealed the marine productivity in this sites. The anthropogenic contribution detected showed the impact of the petroleum exploration along this coastal area. [Spanish] Como parte de un estudio geoquimico se determinaron hidrocarburos alifaticos y aromaticos en sedimentos superficiales, de una zona costera situada en el Litoral Nordeste de La Habana. Las muestras de sedimento se colectaron en 15 estaciones de muestreo en esta area, y posteriormente se extrajeron y analizaron mediante cromatografia gaseosa con detectores de ionizacion a la llama y espectrometria de masas. Las concentraciones totales de hidrocarburos alifaticos (HA) e hidrocarburos aromaticos (HAr) variaron desde 2.4 {+-} 0.2 a 105.1 {+-} 5.9 {mu}g/g (peso eco) y desde 1.1 {+-} 0.2 a 38.4 {+-} 7.6 {mu}g/g (peso eco), respectivamente. El perfil cromatografico de los hidrocarburos alifaticos estuvo dominado por una mezcla compleja no resuelta (MCNR), y la presencia de hidrocarburos isoprenoides, esteranos y hopanos, indico el aporte de hidrocarburos derivados del petroleo. La concentracion predominante de marcadores moleculares

  4. Telling our stories: heroin-assisted treatment and SNAP activism in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Susan; Murray, Dave; MacPherson, Donald

    2017-05-18

    This article highlights the experiences of a peer-run group, SALOME/NAOMI Association of Patients (SNAP), that meets weekly in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. SNAP is a unique independent peer- run drug user group that formed in 2011 following Canada's first heroin-assisted treatment trial (HAT), North America Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI). SNAP's members are now made up of former research participants who participated in two heroin-assisted trials in Vancouver. This article highlights SNAP members' experiences as research subjects in Canada's second clinical trial conducted in Vancouver, Study to Assess Longer-term Opioid Medication Effectiveness (SALOME), that began recruitment of research participants in 2011. This paper draws on one brainstorming session, three focus groups, and field notes, with the SALOME/NAOMI Association of Patients (SNAP) in late 2013 about their experiences as research subjects in Canada's second clinical trial, SALOME in the DTES of Vancouver, and fieldwork from a 6-year period (March 2011 to February 2017) with SNAP members. SNAP's research draws on research principles developed by drug user groups and critical methodological frameworks on community-based research for social justice. The results illuminate how participating in the SALOME clinical trial impacted the lives of SNAP members. In addition, the findings reveal how SNAP member's advocacy for HAT impacts the group in positive ways. Seven major themes emerged from the analysis of the brainstorming and focus groups: life prior to SALOME, the clinic setting and routine, stability, 6-month transition, support, exiting the trial and ethics, and collective action, including their participation in a constitutional challenge in the Supreme Court of BC to continue receiving HAT once the SALOME trial ended. HAT benefits SNAP members. They argue that permanent HAT programs should be established in Canada because they are an effective harm reduction

  5. Economic within the City network. Nexans; Wirtschaftlich im City-Netz. Nexans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2015-07-01

    Within the project ''AmpaCity'' prove the partners Nexans Germany and RWE that superconducting cables are technically mature and have to offer economic advantages: By changing the distribution networks in metropolitan areas of high voltage copper cables to medium voltage superconductors could not not only be multiplied the ampacity and power losses minimized, but it could also make disappear substations in downtown and make valuable city land freely. [German] Im Rahmen des Projekts ''AmpaCity'' beweisen die Partner Nexans Deutschland und RWE, dass Supraleiterkabel technisch ausgereift sind und wirtschaftliche Vorteile zu bieten haben: Durch Umstellen der Verteilnetze in Ballungszentren von Hochspannungskupferkabeln auf Mittelspannungssupraleiter liessen sich nicht nur die Stromtragfaehigkeit (Englisch: ampacity) vervielfachen und Leistungsverluste minimieren, sondern es koennten auch Umspannstationen in der Innenstadt wegfallen und wertvolle City-Grundstuecke frei machen.

  6. 500 Cities: City Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This city boundary shapefile was extracted from Esri Data and Maps for ArcGIS 2014 - U.S. Populated Place Areas. This shapefile can be joined to 500 Cities...

  7. Use of the renewable wind and photovoltaic sources, for the recharge of a fleet of electric taxis in Havana, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez Torres, Yamir

    2017-01-01

    Electrification of the transportation sector seems to be one of the alternatives in terms of restriction of pollutant from that sector. However, it is necessary to study the GHG (Green House Gas) emissions from Generation Power Plants (EGPP) because could be more or less the same of that from the vehicles. Furthermore, Centralized GPP supply would result in distribution losses, bigger fuel consumption and more pollution. Thus, EVs development should be considered as a sustainable solution if powered by electricity systems with considerable share of Renewable Energy Sources (RES). In this paper, the study of the recharge of an EV taxi fleet during night, using photovoltaic and wind mills RES in Havana, Cuba, is analyzed. This work is aiming to find a feasible operational synergy between cited intermittent RES electricity generation and EVs taxi fleet recharge. (author)

  8. Estimating Roof Solar Energy Potential in the Downtown Area Using a GPU-Accelerated Solar Radiation Model and Airborne LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy, as a clean and renewable resource is becoming increasingly important in the global context of climate change and energy crisis. Utilization of solar energy in urban areas is of great importance in urban energy planning, environmental conservation, and sustainable development. However, available spaces for solar panel installation in cities are quite limited except for building roofs. Furthermore, complex urban 3D morphology greatly affects sunlit patterns on building roofs, especially in downtown areas, which makes the determination of roof solar energy potential a challenging task. The object of this study is to estimate the solar radiation on building roofs in an urban area in Shanghai, China, and select suitable spaces for installing solar panels that can effectively utilize solar energy. A Graphic Processing Unit (GPU-based solar radiation model named SHORTWAVE-C simulating direct and non-direct solar radiation intensity was developed by adding the capability of considering cloud influence into the previous SHORTWAVE model. Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR data was used as the input of the SHORTWAVE-C model and to investigate the morphological characteristics of the study area. The results show that the SHORTWAVE-C model can accurately estimate the solar radiation intensity in a complex urban environment under cloudy conditions, and the GPU acceleration method can reduce the computation time by up to 46%. Two sites with different building densities and rooftop structures were selected to illustrate the influence of urban morphology on the solar radiation and solar illumination duration. Based on the findings, an object-based method was implemented to identify suitable places for rooftop solar panel installation that can fully utilize the solar energy potential. Our study provides useful strategic guidelines for the selection and assessment of roof solar energy potential for urban energy planning.

  9. A longitudinal study of enterobiasis in three day care centers of Havana City Estudo longitudinal de enterobíase em três creches da cidade de Havana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidel Angel Núñez

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Pinworm infection was prospectively studied during one year in 469 children attending three day care centers. Each child was examined at six months intervals using up to three perianal swabs with adhesive tape. Those found infected were treated with mebendazole. At the beginning of the study we found a prevalence of 28% that dropped to 13% and 12% in the following study periods. The reinfection rate was twice the incidence rate in both study periods. We also found a small percentage (10% of the children reinfected in most or all study periods. There was a high correlation between reinfection and perianal itching. Our results add further knowledge to the epidemiology of intestinal parasites in day care centers.Infecção por oxiuros foi estudada prospectivamente durante um ano em 469 crianças de três creches. Cada criança foi examinada com intervalos de 6 meses usando até 3 esfregaços perianais com fita adesiva. As que estavam infectadas foram tratadas com mebendazole. No início do estudo foi encontrada prevalência de 28% que caiu para 13% e 12% nos períodos de estudo posteriores. A freqüência de reinfecção foi 2 vezes a incidência em ambos os períodos de estudo. Foi encontrada, também, pequena porcentagem (10% de crianças reinfectadas na maioria ou em todos os períodos de estudo. Existiu elevada correlação entre reinfecção e coceira perianal. Nossos resultados adicionam outros conhecimentos à epidemiología dos parásitos intestinais em creches.

  10. The Second Factory of Havana before the War of Independence of the Thirteen Colonies 1760-1779. A Reading from the Spanish Estanco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago de LUXÁN MELÉNDEZ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our main objective is to verify the Spanish problems of Spanish estanco relative to its main supplier, the Island of Cuba. The return to direct management by the Monarchy of the production, sale and export of Cuban tobacco as a leading provider of Metropolitan estanco, once passed the accident of taking of Havana by the English, was accompanied by the expansion of culture in the Island, but not the increase in longterm consumption of the product in the Metropolitan estanco. Two types of tobacco, the Virginian, and especially the Brazilian one, continued to maintain a privileged position in the Spanish market. On the other hand, the more opening of Havana to American market coincides with the creation of estancos in the rest of America. According to the known estimations, at least until the period of the War of Independence of the Thirteen Colonies, the solution to the problems of excess production did not take place in the Antillean Island

  11. Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and their contribution to ozone formation potential in a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chenhui; Mao, Xiaoxuan; Huang, Tao; Liang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Yanan; Shen, Yanjie; Jiang, Wanyanhan; Wang, Huiqin; Bai, Zhilin; Ma, Minquan; Yu, Zhousuo; Ma, Jianmin; Gao, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Hourly air concentrations of fifty-three non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were measured at downtown and suburb of Lanzhou, a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China in 2013. The measured data were used to investigate the seasonal characteristics of NMHCs air pollution and their contributions to the ozone formation in Lanzhou. Annually averaged NMHCs concentration was 38.29 ppbv in downtown Lanzhou. Among 53 NMHCs, alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics accounted for 57%, 23% and 20% of the total NMHCs air concentration, respectively. The atmospheric levels of toluene and propane with mean values of 4.62 and 4.56 ppbv were higher than other NMHCs, respectively. The ambient levels of NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou were compared with measured NMHCs data collected at a suburban site of Lanzhou, located near a large-scale petrochemical industry. Results show that the levels of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics in downtown Lanzhou were lower by factors of 3-11 than that in west suburb of the city. O3-isopleth plots show that ozone was formed in VOCs control area in downtown Lanzhou and NOx control area at the west suburban site during the summertime. Propylene-equivalent (Prop-Equiv) concentration and the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) in downtown Lanzhou indicate that cis-2-butene, propylene, and m/p-xylene were the first three compounds contributing to ozone formation potentials whereas in the petrochemical industrialized west suburb, ethane, propene, and trans-2-Butene played more important role in the summertime ozone formation. Principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) were further applied to identify the dominant emission sources and examine their fractions in total NMHCs. Results suggest that vehicle emission, solvent usage, and industrial activities were major sources of NMHCs in the city, accounting for 58.34%, 22.19%, and 19.47% of the total monitored NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou, respectively. In the west suburb of the city

  12. Strategic planning and marketing research for older, inner-city health care facilities: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, V R; Robertson, K R

    1992-01-01

    Numerous health care facilities, located in downtown metropolitan areas, now find themselves surrounded by a decaying inner-city environment. Consumers may perceive these facilities as "old," and catering to an "urban poor" consumer. These same consumers may, therefore, prefer to patronize more modern facilities located in suburban areas. This paper presents a case study of such a health care facility and how strategic planning and marketing research were conducted in order to identify market opportunities and new strategic directions.

  13. Parameterized equation for the estimation of the hydraulic conductivity function not saturated in ferralsols south of Havana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González Robaina, Felicita; López Seijas, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    The modeling of the processes involved in the movement of water in soil solutions generally requires the general equation of water flow for the condition of saturation, or Darcy - Buckinghan approach. In this approach the hydraulic - soil moisture (K(0)) conductivity function is a fundamental property of the soil to determine for each field condition. Several methods reported in the literature for determining the hydraulic conductivity are based on simplifications of assuming unit gradient method or a fixed ratio K(0). In recent years related to the search for simple, rapid and inexpensive methods to measure this relationship in the field using a lot of work aftershocks reported. One of these methods is the parameterized equation proposed by Reichardt, using the parameters of the equations describing the process of internal drainage and explain the exponential nature of the relationship K(0). The objective of this work is to estimate the K(0), with the method of the parameterized equation. To do the test results of internal drainage on a Ferralsol area south of Havana will be used. The results show that the parameterized equation provides an estimation of K(0) for those similar to the methods that assume unit gradient conditions

  14. Science, Passion & Compassion vs. Cancer: Tania Crombet MD PhD, Director of Clinical Research. Molecular Immunology Center, Havana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gory, Conner

    2016-10-01

    Soon after the Molecular Immunology Center (CIM) was established in 1994 (a founding institution of Havana's biotechnology and pharmaceutical campus known as the scientific pole), Dr Crombet completed her master's thesis there. She joined CIM's team in 1998 and in 2004 was designated Director of Clinical Research. She has participated in the research, development and clinical trials of some of Cuba's most innovative therapies and vaccines, including CIMAvax-EGF for non-small cell lung cancer patients. In 2015, this therapy completed Phase IV clinical trials in Cuba and is now used in primary health care services throughout the country's national health system. CIM and Roswell Park Cancer Institute (Buffalo, New York) received US Department of Treasury approval in 2015 to test CIMAvax-EGF and other CIM products in the United States, opening the way for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to consider joint ground-breaking Phase I and II clinical trials in the USA. Recent regulatory changes introduced by President Barack Obama may make applying for such licenses a thing of the past-at least that is what researchers hope. In any case, the work of Dr Crombet and the teams at CIM is making headway in cancer immunotherapy, within the broader goals of the institution's mandate…the subject of our interview.

  15. Pu Radioisotopes and 241Am as Alternative Chronostratigraphic Markers in Tropical Regions: An Application in Havana Bay (Cuba)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, J.A. Corcho; Froidevaux, P.; Bochud, F.; Diaz-Asencio, M.; Hernandez, C.M. Alonso; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    The low 137 Cs activity observed in marine sediments of tropical regions often precludes its use as chronostratigraphic marker. Here we present a study on the use of Pu and Am radioisotopes as alternative markers to constrain the 210 Pb ages in a sediment core of the Havana Bay (Cuba). Mean activity ratios of 238 Pu/ 239,240 Pu, 241 Am/ 239,240 Pu and 241 Pu/ 239 , 240 Pu indicated that the nuclear weapon tests (NWT) fallout is the main source of the anthropogenic radionuclides. While the inventory of 137 Cs in the sediments is lower than the expected fallout inventory, 239,240 Pu accumulates in the sediments with inventories higher than the expected fallout inventory. The high fluxes of 239,240 Pu are nevertheless corroborated here through use of 210 Pb, and confirm that focusing of solid particles is of great importance in the investigated site. 239,240 Pu showed to be a useful time tracer in marine sites where the 137 Cs signal is very low. (author)

  16. Architectural Ruins and Urban Imaginaries: Carlos Garaicoa’s Images of Havana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Kovach

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary Cuban artist Carlos Garaicoa juxtaposes photographic images of Havana’s architectural ruins with timidly articulated drawings that trace the outlines of the dilapidated buildings in empty urbanscapes. Each of these fragile drawings, often composed of delicate threads adhered to a photograph of a site after demolition, serves as a vestige of the sagging structure that the artist photographed prior to destruction. The dialogue that emerges from these photograph/drawing diptychs implies the unmooring of the radical utopian underpinnings of revolutionary ideology that persisted in the policies of Cuba’s Período especial (Special Period of the 1990s, and suggests a more complicated narrative of Cuba’s modernity, in which the ambiguous drawings—which could indicate construction plans or function as mnemonic images—represent empty promises of economic growth that must negotiate the real socio-economic crises of the present. This article proposes that Garaicoa’s critique of the goals and outcomes of the Special Period through Havana’s ruins suggests a new articulation of the baroque expression— one that calls to mind the anti-authoritative strategies of twentieth-century Neo-Baroque literature and criticism. The artist historically grounds the legacy of the Cuban Revolution’s modernizing project in the country’s real economic decline in the post-Soviet era, but he also takes this approach to representing cities beyond Cuba’s borders, thereby posing broader questions about the architectural symbolism of the 21st-century city in the ideological construction of modern globalizing society.

  17. Extreme Rainfall In A City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkemdirim, Lawrence

    Cities contain many structures and activities that are vulnerable to severe weather. Heavy precipitation cause floods which can damage structures, compromise transportation and water supply systems, and slow down economic and social activities. Rain induced flood patterns in cities must be well understood to enable effective placement of flood control and other regulatory measures. The planning goal is not to eliminate all floods but to reduce their frequency and resulting damage. Possible approaches to such planning include probability based extreme event analysis. Precipitation is normally the most variable hydrologic element over a given area. This variability results from the distribution of clouds and in cloud processes in the atmosphere, the storm path, and the distribution of topographical features on the ground along path. Some studies suggest that point rainfall patterns are also affected by urban industrial effects hence some agreement that cities are wetter than the country surrounding them. However, there are still questions regarding the intra- urban distribution of precipitation. The sealed surfaces, urban structures, and the urban heat anomaly increase convection in cities which may enhance the generation of clouds. Increased dust and gaseous aerosols loads are effective condensation and sublimation nuclei which may also enhance the generation of precipitation. Based on these associations, the greatest amount of convection type rainfall should occur at city center. A study of summer rainfall in Calgary showed that frequencies of trace amounts of rainfall and events under 0.2mm are highest downtown than elsewhere. For amounts greater than than 0.2 mm, downtown sites were not favored. The most compelling evidence for urban-industrial precipitation enhancement came from the Metromex project around St. Loius, Missouri where maximum increases of between 5 to 30 per cent in summer rainfall downwind of the city was linked to urbanization and

  18. Exploring the Notion of the Family Friendly City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provi Drianda, Riela

    2018-05-01

    There is a common perception that downtown areas will never attract families and big cities are not the best place to raise children. Particularly the downtown areas of cities been depicted as the place where criminals, prostitutes, drug-sellers, and other dangerous strangers live. People with children are more likely to look for the suburbs to find bigger housing with more affordable prices, cleaner air, richer nature, a slower lifestyle, and safer environment. However, living in the modern suburb is not always easy and cheap, especially for those who need to commute to the central city. Dealing with the long commutes can be stressful and it affects the health, happiness, and well-being of family members. As the number of modern families with both parents in the workforce is rising, the demand to live closer to the workplace is getting stronger and growing. In some parts of the world, more families increasingly want to live in the cities. This trend can be seen in the United States, Japan, Korea, and Canada. Being family-friendly has become increasingly important for modern cities as more millennial generation show the tendency to raise their families in the urban area. Moreover, it is predicted that two-thirds of world’s population will live in cities by 2030. To accommodate the growing population, in particular, those with children, modern cities should be developed to suit urban families. But what criteria and qualities make one city more family-friendly than another? What would a family-friendly city look like? To date, the number studies exploring the notion of the family-friendly city has been very limited. Most studies have been focusing on the notion of family-friendly dwellings, family-friendly workplaces, or child-friendly cities. This paper brings together and examines the dominant and recurring ideas about the family-friendly city represented in the relevant literature and current urban practices. This paper also questions whether the concept of the

  19. Air quality impacts of a CicLAvia event in Downtown Los Angeles, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Shi; Batteate, Christina; Cole, Brian; Froines, John; Zhu, Yifang

    2016-01-01

    CicLAvia in Los Angeles, CA is the open streets program that closes streets to motorized vehicles and invites people to walk, run, play or ride their bicycles on these streets, allowing them to experience the city in a new way and get exercise at the same time. Since the events reduce the motorized traffic flow, which is a significant source of air pollution, on the streets, it is reasonable to hypothesize that the CicLAvia events can reduce the concentrations of traffic-emitted air pollutants during the road closure. This study is the first experiment to test this hypothesis. The on-road and community-wide ultrafine particle (UFP) and PM2.5 were measured on the Event-Sunday (October 5th, 2014) and the Pre- and Post- Sundays (September 28(th) and October 12(th), 2014). Data analysis results showed the on-road UFP and PM2.5 reduction was 21% and 49%, respectively, and the community-wide PM2.5 reduction was 12%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Image city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities.......Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities....

  1. Air quality impacts of a CicLAvia event in Downtown Los Angeles, CA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Shi; Batteate, Christina; Cole, Brian; Froines, John; Zhu, Yifang

    2016-01-01

    CicLAvia in Los Angeles, CA is the open streets program that closes streets to motorized vehicles and invites people to walk, run, play or ride their bicycles on these streets, allowing them to experience the city in a new way and get exercise at the same time. Since the events reduce the motorized traffic flow, which is a significant source of air pollution, on the streets, it is reasonable to hypothesize that the CicLAvia events can reduce the concentrations of traffic-emitted air pollutants during the road closure. This study is the first experiment to test this hypothesis. The on-road and community-wide ultrafine particle (UFP) and PM_2_._5 were measured on the Event-Sunday (October 5th, 2014) and the Pre- and Post- Sundays (September 28"t"h and October 12"t"h, 2014). Data analysis results showed the on-road UFP and PM_2_._5 reduction was 21% and 49%, respectively, and the community-wide PM_2_._5 reduction was 12%. - Highlights: • A natural experiment on air quality impacts of one CicLAvia event was conducted. • The CicLAvia event reduced traffic flow from 1,100 vehicles h"−"1 to zero. • On-road ultrafine particle and PM_2_._5 reduction was 21% and 49% respectively. • Community-wide PM_2_._5 reduction was 12%. - This study showed the CicLAvia event on October 5th, 2014 had reduced the on-road and community-wide concentrations of ultrafine particles and PM_2_._5.

  2. New information on regional subsidence and soil fracturing in Mexico City Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Auvinet

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, updated information about regional subsidence in Mexico City downtown area is presented. Data obtained by R. Gayol in 1891, are compared with information obtained recently from surveys using the reference points of Sistema de Aguas de la Ciudad de México (2008 and on the elevation of a cloud of points on the ground surface determined using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR technology. In addition, this paper provides an overview of recent data obtained from systematic studies focused on understanding soil fracturing associated with regional land subsidence and mapping of areas susceptible to cracking in Mexico City Valley.

  3. Validation of Simplified Urban-Canopy Aerodynamic Parametrizations Using a Numerical Simulation of an Actual Downtown Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, N.; Afshari, Afshin; Norford, L.

    2018-02-01

    A steady-state Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stoke computational fluid dynamics (CFD) investigation of boundary-layer flow over a major portion of downtown Abu Dhabi is conducted. The results are used to derive the shear stress and characterize the logarithmic region for eight sub-domains, where the sub-domains overlap and are overlaid in the streamwise direction. They are characterized by a high frontal area index initially, which decreases significantly beyond the fifth sub-domain. The plan area index is relatively stable throughout the domain. For each sub-domain, the estimated local roughness length and displacement height derived from CFD results are compared to prevalent empirical formulations. We further validate and tune a mixing-length model proposed by Coceal and Belcher (Q J R Meteorol Soc 130:1349-1372, 2004). Finally, the in-canopy wind-speed attenuation is analysed as a function of fetch. It is shown that, while there is some room for improvement in Macdonald's empirical formulations (Boundary-Layer Meteorol 97:25-45, 2000), Coceal and Belcher's mixing model in combination with the resolution method of Di Sabatino et al. (Boundary-Layer Meteorol 127:131-151, 2008) can provide a robust estimation of the average wind speed in the logarithmic region. Within the roughness sublayer, a properly parametrized Cionco exponential model is shown to be quite accurate.

  4. Promotional cultural poster: Major features of the sociocultural peak in Santiago de Cuba city, between 1970-1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoilo Rafael Fernández-Hernández

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available During 70´s and 80´s of the last century, the promotional cultural poster in Santiago de Cuba gained a remarkable peak, due to historical and culturals conditions. Many important institutions were founded, that promote graphic design and sociocultural actions in the city, expressed in a lot of cultural events in that period. Nonetheless is impossible deny the education that acquired artists and designers, who with their creations increased the graphic arts movement in Santiago de Cuba, because they had a unique style. Because they had developed a unique style, apart of the Havana´s art movement.

  5. Hydrometer method: influence of the times of readings in the determination of the size distribution of particles in soil of Havana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Coronado, Jorge; Medina Gonzalez, Hanoi; Nunnez Acosta, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Full text: One of the most widespread is based on Stokes law, hydrometer method worldwide for textural analysis of soils. The objective of this study is to assess the influence of the hydrometer reading times, associated with various simplifications of the method in the determination of the distribution of the size of particles of soil belonging to the Havana province. It is based on 101 property measurements, starting from the I am at 51 points at two depths, 10-15 cm and 35-40 cm. The distribution of points It responds to a wider project aimed at evaluating different physical properties, chemical and water in the province of Havana, through the design of a non-aligned stratified sampling. It was determined the effect of the variation of time of registration of the readings of the hydrometer in the results obtained from evaluating different methodologies of calculation. It was found that the limitation of the measurement time to an hour, as it is done usually in several laboratories of agronomic studies of Cuba, you can change completely the textural classification of soils, with a marked over-estimation of the clay content. (author)

  6. Compensatory lengthening in the Spanish of Havana, Cuba: Acoustic analyses of word-internal, post-nuclear /l/ and /r/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kristin M.

    Given the geographic, demographic, and historical importance of Cuba vis-a-vis the dissemination of language and culture throughout the Hispanic Caribbean, one would naturally anticipate a larger corpus of scientifically-noteworthy linguistic publications on Cuban Spanish, which is far from the actual case. Moreover, the gemination of an onset positionally subsequent to the deletion of a syllable-final liquid (generally termed liquid gemination in the literature) has been repeatedly claimed yet remarkably unsubstantiated as a pervasive characteristic of Cuban Spanish, particularly of the western dialect region (cf. Alfaraz (2000, 2007, 2008), Casanellas and Alamo (1985), Choy Lopez (1985, 1988, 1989), Costa Sanchez (1987), Darias Concepcion (2001, 2005), Dohotaru (2002, 2007), Figueroa Esteva and Dohotaru (1994), Garcia Perez (2006), Garcia Riveron (1991), Haden and Matluck (1973, 1974, 1977), Isbǎsescu (1965, 1968), Lamb (1968), Levina (1970), Montero Bernal (1990, 2002, 2007a, b), Ringer Uber (1986), Ruiz Hernandez (1978), Sosa (1974), Terrell (1976), Trista and Valdes (1978), Valdes Acosta (1980), and Vera Riveron (2000)). As a result, in the interest of supplementing all antecedent work concerning the allophony of final liquids as well as affording a more descriptively-precise account of the allophony of word-internal, post-nuclear /l/ and /[Special character omitted]/ in Cuban Spanish in addition to expressly addressing the need for empirical data-collection and analysis processes, the present investigation was specifically designed and implemented to acoustically investigate the phenomenon of gemination as it is purported to occur in the Spanish of the region of Havana, Cuba: more specifically, (1) to acoustically examine the qualitative and quantitative patternings of post-nuclear /l/ and /[Special character omitted]/ within the word; and (2) to statistically evaluate the relationship between gemination and eight independent variables: gender, age group

  7. City PLANTastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , any attempt to create a green city is motivated by certain ecological, political and esthetical perspectives. Therefore the role of plants in tomorrows cities is everything but straightforward. Rather, a broad range of possibilities unfolds. City PLANTastic is the title of the 8th World in Denmark...

  8. INSTANT CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

    2013-01-01

    of an experimental and social en- gaged city environment? The analysis shows that the specific city life at the instant city, Roskilde Festival, can be characterized by being ‘open minded’, ‘playful’ and ‘inclusive’, but also by ‘a culture of laughter’ that penetrates the aesthetics and the urban scenography....

  9. A cost-benefit/cost-effectiveness analysis of an unsanctioned supervised smoking facility in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozaghi, Ehsan

    2014-11-13

    Smoking crack involves the risk of transmitting diseases such as HIV and hepatitis C (HCV). The current study determines whether the formerly unsanctioned supervised smoking facility (SSF)-operated by the grassroot organization, Vancouver Area Network of Drug Users (VANDU) for the last few years-costs less than the costs incurred for health-care services as a direct consequence of not having such a program in Vancouver, Canada. The data pertaining to the attendance at the SSF was gathered in 2012-2013 by VANDU. By relying on this data, a mathematical model was employed to estimate the number of HCV infections prevented by the former facility in Vancouver's Downtown Eastside (DTES). The DTES SSF's benefit-cost ratio was conservatively estimated at 12.1:1 due to its low operating cost. The study used 70% and 90% initial pipe-sharing rates for sensitivity analysis. At 80% sharing rate, the marginal HCV cases prevented were determined to be 55 cases. Moreover, at 80% sharing rate, the marginal cost-effectiveness ratio ranges from $1,705 to $97,203. The results from both the baseline and sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the establishment of the SSF by VANDU on average had annually saved CAD$1.8 million dollars in taxpayer's money. Funding SSFs in Vancouver is an efficient and effective use of financial resources in the public health domain; therefore, Vancouver Coastal Health should actively participate in their establishment in order to reduce HCV and other blood-borne infections such as HIV within the non-injecting drug users.

  10. A Case Study: Analyzing City Vitality with Four Pillars of Activity-Live, Work, Shop, and Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Matt; Nordstrom, Blake W; Scholes, Jon; Joncas, Kate; Gordon, Patrick; Krivenko, Elliott; Haynes, Winston; Higdon, Roger; Stewart, Elizabeth; Kolker, Natali; Montague, Elizabeth; Kolker, Eugene

    2016-03-01

    This case study evaluates and tracks vitality of a city (Seattle), based on a data-driven approach, using strategic, robust, and sustainable metrics. This case study was collaboratively conducted by the Downtown Seattle Association (DSA) and CDO Analytics teams. The DSA is a nonprofit organization focused on making the city of Seattle and its Downtown a healthy and vibrant place to Live, Work, Shop, and Play. DSA primarily operates through public policy advocacy, community and business development, and marketing. In 2010, the organization turned to CDO Analytics ( cdoanalytics.org ) to develop a process that can guide and strategically focus DSA efforts and resources for maximal benefit to the city of Seattle and its Downtown. CDO Analytics was asked to develop clear, easily understood, and robust metrics for a baseline evaluation of the health of the city, as well as for ongoing monitoring and comparisons of the vitality, sustainability, and growth. The DSA and CDO Analytics teams strategized on how to effectively assess and track the vitality of Seattle and its Downtown. The two teams filtered a variety of data sources, and evaluated the veracity of multiple diverse metrics. This iterative process resulted in the development of a small number of strategic, simple, reliable, and sustainable metrics across four pillars of activity: Live, Work, Shop, and Play. Data during the 5 years before 2010 were used for the development of the metrics and model and its training, and data during the 5 years from 2010 and on were used for testing and validation. This work enabled DSA to routinely track these strategic metrics, use them to monitor the vitality of Downtown Seattle, prioritize improvements, and identify new value-added programs. As a result, the four-pillar approach became an integral part of the data-driven decision-making and execution of the Seattle community's improvement activities. The approach described in this case study is actionable, robust, inexpensive

  11. Hypercongestion in downtown metropolis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    declines when the queue is large. We combine such a variable-capacity bottleneck with Vickrey scheduling preferences for the special case, where there are only two possible levels of capacity. Solving the model leads to several new insights, including that the marginal cost of adding a traveler...... is especially sensitive to the lowest level of capacity reached. We analyze an optimal toll, a coarse toll, and metering, showing substantial benefits from using these policies to eliminate the period of reduced capacity. Under hypercongestion, all of these policies can be designed so that travelers gain even...

  12. Characterization of aerosol particles from Buenos Aires City and its subway system: PIXE and SEM/EDX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murruni, L. G.; Debray, M. E.; Minsky, D.; Kreiner, A. J.; Burlon, A.; Davidson, M.; Davidson, J.; Ozafran, M.; Vazquez, M. E.; Rosenbusch, M.; Ulke, A. G.; Solanes, V.

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzes total suspended particle (TSP) samples collected at two sites of Buenos Aires City (34S, 58W). One site (San Martin) placed 17 km from city center, and the other one at an underground subway station (Diagonal Norte) in downtown Buenos Aires. In both cases, gravimetric analysis has been performed, while elemental analysis using PIXE has been only carried out in the first case. To the best our knowledge, this is the first airborne particle measurement perform at a Buenos Aires underground subway station

  13. Building the food secure city

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC

    In the downtown core, hawkers ply their trade in everything from ... In a project supported by the International Development .... governmental organization, Agriproject Foundation Department of ... Lulandala sees this as a missed opportunity.

  14. The Marks of the Oriental Cities of Cuba at the End of the XIX Century: Between the Art and the Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoilo Rafael Fernández-Hernández

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the XIX century, in a city like Santiago de Cuba and others; then called as the Oriental Department of the country, there also existed trademarks not only linked to the tobacco, as those famous ones carried out in the lithography shops of Havana. Those recently located in the oriental files are also related with other products like the rum, vinegar, chocolate, liquors and wax matches, among others. This mark constituted for their coloring, the precision of their drawing and the appropriate artistic conception and design, valuable exponents of the history of the art and the Cuban publicity.

  15. Spatial variation in diesel-related elemental and organic PM2.5 components during workweek hours across a downtown core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunno, Brett J; Shmool, Jessie L C; Michanowicz, Drew R; Tripathy, Sheila; Chubb, Lauren G; Kinnee, Ellen; Cambal, Leah; Roper, Courtney; Clougherty, Jane E

    2016-12-15

    Capturing intra-urban variation in diesel-related pollution exposures remains a challenge, given its complex chemical mix, and relatively few well-characterized ambient-air tracers for the multiple diesel sources in densely-populated urban areas. To capture fine-scale spatial resolution (50×50m grid cells) in diesel-related pollution, we used geographic information systems (GIS) to systematically allocate 36 sampling sites across downtown Pittsburgh, PA, USA (2.8km 2 ), cross-stratifying to disentangle source impacts (i.e., truck density, bus route frequency, total traffic density). For buses, outbound and inbound trips per week were summed by route and a kernel density was calculated across sites. Programmable monitors collected fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) samples specific to workweek hours (Monday-Friday, 7 am-7 pm), summer and winter 2013. Integrated filters were analyzed for black carbon (BC), elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), elemental constituents, and diesel-related organic compounds [i.e., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hopanes, steranes]. To our knowledge, no studies have collected this suite of pollutants with such high sampling density, with the ability to capture spatial patterns during specific hours of interest. We hypothesized that we would find substantial spatial variation for each pollutant and significant associations with key sources (e.g. diesel and gasoline vehicles), with higher concentrations near the center of this small downtown core. Using a forward stepwise approach, we developed seasonal land use regression (LUR) models for PM 2.5 , BC, total EC, OC, PAHs, hopanes, steranes, aluminum (Al), calcium (Ca), and iron (Fe). Within this small domain, greater concentration differences were observed in most pollutants across sites, on average, than between seasons. Higher PM 2.5 and BC concentrations were found in the downtown core compared to the boundaries. PAHs, hopanes, and steranes displayed different spatial

  16. Eating Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Fisker, Anna Marie; Clausen, Katja Seerup

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzed the development of a city based sustainable food strategy for the city of Aalborg. It’s based on 3 cases of food service: food for the elderly as operated by the Municipality, food the hospital patients as operated by the region and food for defense staff as operated...

  17. Eco2 Cities : Ecological Cities as Economic Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Hiroaki; Dastur, Arish; Moffatt, Sebastian; Yabuki, Nanae; Maruyama, Hinako

    2010-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the World Bank's Eco2 cities : ecological cities as economic cities initiative. The objective of the Eco2 cities initiative is to help cities in developing countries achieve a greater degree of ecological and economic sustainability. The book is divided into three parts. Part one describes the Eco2 cities initiative framework. It describes the approach, be...

  18. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property....... As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective now is to cross the bridge between art and the potential applications to the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or for the treatment of language impairments....

  19. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction....... This cross-modal interaction not only supports our artistic messages, but also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from her/his speech activity. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective is now to cross the bridge between art...

  20. City Streets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...

  1. Sustainable Block Design Process for High-Rise and High-Density Districts with Snow and Wind Simulations for Winter Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihiro Watanabe

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban designs that consider regional climatic conditions are one of the most important approaches for developing sustainable cities. In cities that suffer from heavy snow and cold winds in winter, an urban design approach different than that used for warm cities should be used. This study presents a scientific design process (the sustainable design approach that incorporates environmental and energy assessments that use snow and wind simulations to establish guidelines for the design of urban blocks in high-rise and high-density districts so that the impact of snow and wind can be minimized in these cities. A city block in downtown Sapporo, Japan, was used as a case study, and we evaluated four conceptual models. The four models were evaluated for how they impacted the snow and wind conditions in the block as well as the snow removal energy. Based on the results, we were able to identify the design guidelines in downtown Sapporo: an urban block design with higher building height ratio without the mid-rise part can reduce the snowdrifts and lower the snow removal energy. The proposed sustainable urban design approach would be effective in improving the quality of public spaces and reducing snow removal energy in winter cities.

  2. Drone City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    for a new urban condition where cities are networked and connected (as well as disconnected) from the local block to global digital spheres. In the midst of many of the well-known data-creating devices (e.g. Bluetooth, radio-frequency identification (RFID), GPS, smartphone applications) there is a “new kid......This paper address the phenomenon of drones and their potential relationship with the city from the point of view of the so-called “mobilities turn”. This is done in such a way that turns attention to a recent redevelopment of the “turn” towards design; so the emerging perspective of “mobilities...... design” will be used as a background perspective to reflect upon the future of drones in cities. The other perspective used to frame the phenomenon is the emerging discourse of the “smart city”. A city of proliferating digital information and data communication may be termed a smart city as shorthand...

  3. Expanding cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Lasse

    A number of cities in Africa experience very rapid spatial growth without the benefit of a systematic process of planning and implementation of planning decisions. This process has challenged the road and transport system, created high levels of congestion, and hampered mobility and accessibility...... to both central and new peripheral areas. This paper reports on studies carried out in Accra and Dar es Salaam to address and link 1) mobility practices of residents, 2) local strategies for ‘post-settlement’ network extension, and 3) the city-wide performance of the transport system. The studies draw...... in advance. However, such solutions are often impeded by costly and cumbersome land-acquisition processes, and because of the reactive and often piecemeal approach to infrastructure extensions, the development will often be more costly. Moreover, the lack of compliance to a city-wide development plan...

  4. Vatican City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    Vatican City, the administrative and spiritual capital of the Roman catholic Church, has a population of 1000. Citizenship is generally accorded only to those who reside in Vatican City for reasons of office of employment. Supreme legislative, executive, and judicial power is currentily exercised by Pope John Paul II, the 1st non-italian pope in 5 centuries. The State of Vatican City is recognized by many nations as an independent sovereign state under the temporal jurisdiction of the Pope. By 1984, 108 countries had established diplomatic relations with the Holy See, most of which are not Roman Catholic. Third World countries comprise a large proportion of countries that have recently established relations with the Holy See. The US re-established relations with the Vatican in 1984 and there is frequent contact and consultation between the 2 states on key international issues.

  5. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  6. City 2020+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  7. Lowering infant mortality in Cuba: Fernando Domínguez MD PhD. Neonatologist, Ramón González Coro University Maternity Hospital, Havana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Fernando; Gorry, Conner

    2015-01-01

    Neonatologist Dr Fernando Domínguez served two years in a remote municipality of Cuba's Guantánamo Province upon graduation from medical school in 1973. Continuing his commitment to vulnerable populations, he joined the Cuban team in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, serving as a family doctor attending neonates and children. After returning to Cuba, he completed his pediatric residency and later became head of the neurodevelopment department at Havana's Ramón González Coro University Maternity Hospital, where he has worked for over three decades. Dr Domínguez holds a doctorate in medical sciences, and since 1995 has served on the board of the Cuban Society of Pediatrics, where he was President from 2005-2011. He is also a member of the Ministry of Public Health's National Bioethics Commission; President of the Scientific Council of the Manuel Fajardo Medical School; on the Executive Board of the Latin American Association of Pediatrics; and a member of the Permanent Commission of the International Pediatric Association (IPA). Since 2010, he has served on IPA's Commission for Child Environmental Health and is the Editor-in-Chief of the pediatric section of Infomed, Cuba's national health portal.

  8. Lead isotope ratios in lichen samples evaluated by ICP-ToF-MS to assess possible atmospheric pollution sources in Havana, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Alfredo Montero; Estévez Alvarez, Juan R; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo; González, Iván Pupo; Rizo, Oscar Díaz; Carzola, Lázaro Lima; Torres, Roberto Ayllón; Pascual, Jorge Gómez

    2017-01-01

    Epiphytic lichens, collected from 119 sampling sites grown over "Roistonea Royal Palm" trees, were used to assess the spatial distribution pattern of lead (Pb) and identify possible pollution sources in Havana (Cuba). Lead concentrations in lichens and topsoils were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) atomic emission spectrometry, respectively, while Pb in crude oils and gasoline samples were measured by ICP-time of flight mass spectrometry (ICP-ToF-MS). Lead isotopic ratios measurements for lichens, soils, and crude oils were obtained by ICP-ToF-MS. We found that enrichment factors (EF) reflected a moderate contamination for 71% of the samples (EF > 10). The 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratio values for lichens ranged from 1.17 to 1.20 and were a mixture of natural radiogenic and industrial activities (e.g., crude oils and fire plants). The low concentration of Pb found in gasoline (leaded gasoline is no longer used in Cuba.

  9. Battery of Pedagogical Test to evaluate the preparation of the boxers (1st category of the Academy of Havana during the 2016 ATR structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Liuban Alvarado Castillo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to expose the technical-methodological experiences in the application of a battery of Pedagogical Test to the provincial selection of boxing of the first category belonging to the Academy of Havana during the Macrocycle 2016. Theoretical, empirical and statistical methods were used., as were the logical historical method, inductive deductive, synthesis analysis, observation, interview, measurement, pre experiment and descriptive statistics. In addition, we worked with 100% of the population. The dates of the fundamental competitions, both national and international, in which the team was called to obtain positive results in the "Roberto Balado" International Cup, the National Boxing League and the National Tournament, were taken into consideration for said investigation. "Playa Girón", fundamental events of the season. The studied population was 28 boxers belonging to the Provincial Seniors Selection. Due to the application of the Pedagogical Test battery, it was possible to evaluate the level of preparation achieved by the sample investigated during the development of the ATR structure (Accumulation-Transformation-Realization. All of which allowed to have more control and precision during the planning of each of the training directions during the stage of the investigation.

  10. Excite City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper takes its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun and cult...

  11. City Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Stigel, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Succesful corporate branding requires that questions related to communication, publicity, and organizational structures are adressed. An uncritical adoption of approaches known from tradition product branding will inevitable give problems as the properties of tangible commodities and services...... to face - these differences will inevitably hamper such branding efforts because of the consequential inconsistencies. Finally, paths to more effective city branding are indicated...

  12. Fun City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin ...

  13. FUN CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin ...

  14. Sustainable Cities

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The case study by Ejigu reveals a tension inherent in urban development in the ... In fact, the price of viable land in the Global South cities is sometimes as high as the ... He discusses the 'piecemeal' construction practice typical of the informal ...

  15. Whose city?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Die Stadt als Beute. But where most of these films follow the money and dissect the power relations in today’s urban planning, Whose city? instead moves back in time to the almost forgotten, but defining architectural disputes of the 1990s. With the fall of the Berlin Wall and the rest of the Iron...

  16. Spatial distribution of topsoil magnetic susceptibility in Sawahlunto City, West Sumatera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afdal; Wahyuni, E. S.

    2018-03-01

    A research to determine the spatial distribution of top soil magnetic suceptibility at Sawahlunto City, West Sumatra has been conducted. The top soil samples were taken at four locations ie the downtown area, the steam power plant area, the agricultural area, and coal mine area. At each location, the soil samples were taken at 10 points at a depth of 20 cm. Magnetic susceptibility were measured using Bartington MS2B Magnetic Susceptibility Meter. The topsoil samples from Sawahlunto city have relatively low average value of the magnetic susceptibility that is 67.0×10-8 m3/kg. The magnetic susceptibility of topsoil samples from downtown area have the average and the highest value of magnetic susceptibility (100.6×10-8 and 259.9×10-8 m3/kg), and followed by sample from the steam power plant area (98.4×10-8 and 258.0×10-8 m3/kg), the agricultural area (56.2×10-8 and 83.7×10-8 m3/kg), and coal mine area (12.9×10-8 and 26.8×10-8 m3/kg). Soil samples from the steam power plant area have the widest range of magnetic susceptibility value range from 0.3 × 10-8 to 258.0 × 10-8 m3/kg.

  17. Los medicamentos en el embarazo: experiencias de la labor comunitaria con el Museo de la Farmacia Habanera Drugs in pregnancy: experience from the community-based work with the Havana´s Pharmacy Museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymée Herrera Llópiz

    2008-12-01

    Pharmacy and Food are carrying out a community-based project at the pharmacy called "La Reunión" located in the old historical part of Havana City. The project covers educational work aimed at pregnant women who are cared for at "Leonor Pérez" maternal home. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the impact of a first cycle of activities targeting the pregnant women population segment. METHODS: The activities targeted around 20 pregnant women. The addressed topics covered drug use in some pregnancy-related disorders. The population was classified according to age, number of pregnancies and number of activities in which they had previously participated. Some surveys were administered at the beginning and the end of this first cycle, and also the nursing staff working in this maternal home was interviewed. RESULTS: Ninety four percent of the surveyed population was involved in at least two activities. Young females aged 15-20 years and primiparas were predominant. The administered surveys showed a significant increase in the level of knowledge on pregnancy-related problems and greater motivation to discuss these topics. Discussion: These results may be considered as very positive in order to set new guidelines for this project improvement in the future.

  18. Solar cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roaf, S.; Fuentes, M.; Gupta, R.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decade, climate change has moved from being the concern of few to a widely recognized threat to humanity itself and the natural environment. The 1990s were the warmest decade on record, and ever-increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/), could, if left unchecked lead to serious consequences globally, including increased risks of droughts, floods and storms, disruption to agriculture, rising sea levels and the spread of disease. The contribution of anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide has been recognized as the principal cause of the atmospheric changes that drive these climate trends. Globally, buildings are the largest source of indirect carbon emissions. In 2000, the UK Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution estimated that in order to stabilise carbon emissions at levels, which avoid catastrophic alterations in the climate, we would have to reduce emissions from the built environment by at least 60% by 2050 and 80% by 2100 relative to 1997 levels. Studies of the Oxford Ecohouse have demonstrated that it is not difficult to reduce carbon emissions from houses by 60% or more through energy efficiency measures, but it is only possible to reach the 90% level of reductions required by using renewable energy technologies. Solar energy technologies have been the most successfully applied of all renewable to date largely because they are the only systems that can be incorporated easily into the urban fabric. In addition, the short fossil fuel horizons that are predicted (c. 40 years left for oil and 65 years for gas) will drive the markets for solar technologies. For these reasons, the cities of the future will be powered by solar energy, to a greater or lesser extent, depending on the city form and location. In recognition of the need to move rapidly towards a renewable energy future, a group of international cities, including Oxford, have started the Solar City Network. In this paper we outline the

  19. City Marketing : Case: Moscow

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzina, Irina

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays cities compete with each other for attracting investments and people, which make them implement new city marketing and city branding strategies. There are many factors that can influence city image and its perception in customers’ minds. The purpose of this thesis is to realize how a well-selected city marketing strategy benefits the city and gain a deeper understanding of city marketing possibilities. The final goal is to offer suggestions for the city of Moscow, which can help to i...

  20. Welcoming Diversity? Symbolic Boundaries and the Politics of Normativity in Kansas City's LGBTQ Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Using document analysis and ethnographic field work, this article examines the debate within the LGBTQ community of Kansas City over the decision to hold its Pride festival in the Power and Light District (P&L), a renewed downtown area with a controversial dress code. Despite the developers' and city's goals of creating a cosmopolitan urban space that welcomed diverse populations, the P&L acquired a reputation as an anti-Black, anti-queer space due to its dress code and redevelopment history. I argue that the debate surrounding this controversy reveals limits to notions of diversity and diverging approaches to sexual politics within the LGBTQ community that are normally obscured by political actors within the movement but that work to create symbolic boundaries that exclude "non-respectable" members of the LGBTQ population. Recovering queer perspectives allows us to imagine a more capacious definition of diversity and inclusion, both within the LGBTQ movement and in urban space.

  1. Analysis of the division of the urban-rural ecotone in the city of Zhuhai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Nan; Zhou, Sulong; Guo, Luo

    2018-02-01

    In this study, a high-resolution remote sensing image of downtown Zhuhai (2010) was used to analyze the division of the urban-rural ecotone. Based on the information entropy theory, the study analyzed the characteristics of the ecotone’s land use and entropy value distribution, the break entropy values of the inner and outer boundary, as determined by mutation detection, were 0.51 and 0.46, respectively, providing a range for the rough classification of the rural-urban ecotone. The results showed that the boundaries of the ecotone were dynamic and the landscape turbulence of the urban fringe in the section between rural and urban areas was greater than that of the core area and imagery area of Zhuhai city. We concluded that this study provided technical support for urban planning and administration in the city of Zhuhai.

  2. Technical and economic feasibility for the application of micronized coal as a replacement for No. 2 oil for start-up and low-load operation at Illinois Power Havana No. 6 Cycling Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberger, F.; Guilfoyle, C.J.; Parker, W.O. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Uncertainty regarding oil availability and long-term price stability make it difficult for a utility to predict annual ignition costs for a cycling unit. Illinois Power Company, Sargent and Lundy Engineering and Micro-fuel Corporation have produced a detailed feasibility study on the application of micronized coal as a replacement fuel for start-up and low-load operation for Havana No. 6. This unit is a B and W opposed-fired boiler which is rated at 410 MWe (summer net). This paper presents technical and economic analysis, including the uncertainties of the application of this technology

  3. Sharing City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This magazine offers an insight into the growing commercial innovation, civic movements, and political narratives surrounding sharing economy services, solutions and organisational types. It presents a cross-section of the manifold sharing economy services and solutions that can be found in Denmark....... Moreover, 15 thought leading experts - professionals and academic - have been invited to give their perspective on sharing economy for cities. This magazine touches upon aspects of the sharing economy as mobility, communities, sustainability, business development, mobility, and urban-rural relation....

  4. Heat and Humidity in the City: Neighborhood Heat Index Variability in a Mid-Sized City in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Alisa L; Ellis, Kelsey N; Reyes Mason, Lisa; Hathaway, Jon M; Howe, David A

    2016-01-11

    Daily weather conditions for an entire city are usually represented by a single weather station, often located at a nearby airport. This resolution of atmospheric data fails to recognize the microscale climatic variability associated with land use decisions across and within urban neighborhoods. This study uses heat index, a measure of the combined effects of temperature and humidity, to assess the variability of heat exposure from ten weather stations across four urban neighborhoods and two control locations (downtown and in a nearby nature center) in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. Results suggest that trees may negate a portion of excess urban heat, but are also associated with greater humidity. As a result, the heat index of locations with more trees is significantly higher than downtown and areas with fewer trees. Trees may also reduce heat stress by shading individuals from incoming radiation, though this is not considered in this study. Greater amounts of impervious surfaces correspond with reduced evapotranspiration and greater runoff, in terms of overall mass balance, leading to a higher temperature, but lower relative humidity. Heat index and relative humidity were found to significantly vary between locations with different tree cover and neighborhood characteristics for the full study time period as well as for the top 10% of heat index days. This work demonstrates the need for high-resolution climate data and the use of additional measures beyond temperature to understand urban neighborhood exposure to extreme heat, and expresses the importance of considering vulnerability differences among residents when analyzing neighborhood-scale impacts.

  5. Application of sol-gel based sensors to environmental monitoring of Maumejean stained glass windows housed in two different buildings at downtown Madrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena-Poza, J.; Conde, J. F.; Agua, F.; Garcia-Heras, M.; Villegas, M. A.

    2013-07-01

    Degradation of historical stained glass windows is mainly caused by acid attack enhanced by humidity and pollutants. Accordingly, their preventive conservation should include environmental evaluation. Maumejean's stained glass windows (c 1940) of two buildings located at downtown Madrid have been monitored by sol-gel sensors of acidity and temperature. The philosophy was the application of innovative glassy sol-gel sensors to assess the conservation conditions of stained glass windows, i.e. modern materials for preservation of historical materials. Conservation conditions (environmental acidity and temperature) of restored and non-restored stained glass windows have been recorded throughout 13 months. The main contributing parameter to outdoor acidity is proximity to road traffic, which produces acid species able to diminish two units of pH with respect to neutral conditions. This acid environment affects both sides of stained glass windows, even in those protected with a glazing system, which allows natural ventilation. Other contributing parameters to increase the air acidity were facade orientation, sensor position, distance to pollutants sources, human interaction and uncontrolled ventilation. (Author)

  6. Personal exposure to particulate matter in commuters using different transport modes (bus, bicycle, car and subway) in an assigned route in downtown Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Liliana; Mesías, Stephanie; Iglesias, Verónica; Silva, Claudio; Cáceres, Dante D; Ruiz-Rudolph, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare personal exposure to particulate matter (fine and ultrafine particles) in commuters using different transport modes (bicycle, bus, car and subway) in a busy, assigned route in downtown Santiago, Chile. Volunteers carrying personal samplers completed scheduled commutes during the morning rush hours, while central site measurements were conducted in parallel. A total of 137 valid commutes were assessed. The impact of central site, traffic and other variables was explored with regression models. PM2.5 personal concentrations were equal to or slightly above central site measurements, while UFP personal concentrations were above them. Regression models showed impacts of both background levels and traffic emissions on personal PM2.5 and UFP exposure. Traffic impacts varied with transport modes. Estimates of traffic impacts on personal PM2.5 exposure were 2.0, 13.0, 16.9 and 17.5 μg m(-3), for car, bicycle, subway and bus, respectively; while for UFP exposure were 8400, 16 200, 25 600 and 30 100 counts per cm(3), for subway, car, bicycle and bus, respectively. After controlling the central site and transport mode, higher temperatures increased PM2.5 exposure and decreased UFP ones, while the wind direction affected UFP personal exposure. In conclusion, we found significant impacts of both central site background measurements and traffic emissions on personal exposure of volunteer commuters in an assigned route in Santiago, with impacts varying with transport modes.

  7. District heating and cooling systems for communities through power-plant retrofit and distribution network. Volume 2. Tasks 1-3. Final report. [Downtown Toledo steam system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watt, J.R.; Sommerfield, G.A.

    1979-08-01

    Each of the tasks is described separately: Task 1 - Demonstration Team; Task 2 - Identify Thermal Energy Source(s) and Potential Service Area(s); and Task 3 - Energy Market Analysis. The purpose of the project is to establish and implement measures in the downtown Toledo steam system for conserving scarce fuel supplies through cogeneration, by retrofit of existing base- or intermediate-loaded electric-generating plants to provide for central heating and cooling systems, with the ultimate purpose of applying the results to other communities. For Task 1, Toledo Edison Company has organized a Demonstration Team (Battelle Columbus Laboratories; Stone and Webster; Ohio Dept. of Energy; Public Utilities Commission of Ohio; Toledo Metropolitan Area Council of Governments; and Toledo Edison) that it hopes has the expertise to evaluate the technical, legal, economic, and marketing issues related to the utilization of by-product heat from power generation to supply district heating and cooling services. Task 2 gives a complete technical description of the candidate plant(s), its thermodynamic cycle, role in load dispatch, ownership, and location. It is concluded that the Toledo steam distribution system can be the starting point for developing a new district-heating system to serve an expanding market. Battelle is a member of the team employed as a subcontractor to complete the energy market analysis. The work is summarized in Task 3. (MCW)

  8. Holiday CO2: Inference from the Salt Lake City data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryoo, J.; Fung, I. Y.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Stephens, B. B.

    2013-12-01

    A network of high-frequency CO2 sensors has been established in Salt Lake City (SLC), Utah (http://co2.utah.edu/), and the annual/monthly pattern of CO2 variability is consistent with a priori estimates of CO2 fluxes (McKain et al., 2012). Here we ask if short-term changes in anthropogenic sources can be detected, and present a case study of Thanksgiving holiday, when traffic and energy use patterns are expected to be different from that during the rest of the month. CO2 mole fraction is much higher during the Thanksgiving holidays than the other days in November 2008 for all 5 sites in SLC, and a similar pattern is found in other years. Taking into account that the wind speed is relatively low in downtown SLC compared to the other SLC sites, the downtown site is further investigated to minimize the meteorological influence on CO2. In order to understand the relative contributions to the high level of CO2 during the Thanksgiving holidays, we carried out a multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis of the rate of CO2 change against various sources. Mobile CO2 sources are assumed to be proportional to local traffic data and residential CO2 sources are assumed to depend exponentially on temperature. Vulcan data were used to specify the other anthropogenic sources (commercial, industrial, nonroad, electricity, aircraft, and cement). The MLR analysis shows that during the Thanksgiving holidays CO2 contributions from residential and commercial CO2 are larger than that during the rest of November, and mobile sources represent only a relatively small contribution. The study demonstrates the feasibility of detecting changes in urban source contributions using high-frequency measurements in combination with daily PBL height and local traffic volume data.

  9. Spatial and temporal disaggregation of the on-road vehicle emission inventory in a medium-sized Andean city. Comparison of GIS-based top-down methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, C. D.; González, C. M.; Osses, M.; Aristizábal, B. H.

    2018-04-01

    Emission data is an essential tool for understanding environmental problems associated with sources and dynamics of air pollutants in urban environments, especially those emitted from vehicular sources. There is a lack of knowledge about the estimation of air pollutant emissions and particularly its spatial and temporal distribution in South America, mainly in medium-sized cities with population less than one million inhabitants. This work performed the spatial and temporal disaggregation of the on-road vehicle emission inventory (EI) in the medium-sized Andean city of Manizales, Colombia, with a spatial resolution of 1 km × 1 km and a temporal resolution of 1 h. A reported top-down methodology, based on the analysis of traffic flow levels and road network distribution, was applied. Results obtained allowed the identification of several hotspots of emission at the downtown zone and the residential and commercial area of Manizales. Downtown exhibited the highest percentage contribution of emissions normalized by its total area, with values equal to 6% and 5% of total CO and PM10 emissions per km2 respectively. These indexes were higher than those obtained in residential-commercial area with values of 2%/km2 for both pollutants. Temporal distribution showed strong relationship with driving patterns at rush hours, as well as an important influence of passenger cars and motorcycles in emissions of CO both at downtown and residential-commercial areas, and the impact of public transport in PM10 emissions in the residential-commercial zone. Considering that detailed information about traffic counts and road network distribution is not always available in medium-sized cities, this work compares other simplified top-down methods for spatially assessing the on-road vehicle EI. Results suggested that simplified methods could underestimate the spatial allocation of downtown emissions, a zone dominated by high traffic of vehicles. The comparison between simplified methods

  10. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  11. Branding Cities, Changing Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City...... brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city...... branding campaign does not just present the city, it may change the city. The relationships between the branding exercise and the city are intertwined in the evolution of the place....

  12. Los diálogos de la habana y las perspectivas de una paz duradera en Colombia (Talks with havana and the perspectives of a lasting peace in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oto Higuita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Este artículo de investigación, presenta rutas de análisis histórico en torno a los alcances y falencias que dejaron los diálogos de Paz en Colombia entre las Frac-Ep y el Gobierno Nacional durante el siglo XX, el papel que han jugado los medios de comunicación en dichos procesos y una descripción analítica de los discursos de Oslo y la Habana, que dan inicio al actual proceso de Negociación en la Habana; se resalta el profundo alcance que este proceso de negociaciones marca en la última década en Colombia, en lo que concierne a la posible terminación del conflicto armado y la construcción de una paz estable y duradera. ABSTRACT This research article presents routes of historical analysis over the scope and shortcomings left by the talks of peace in Colombia between FARC-EP and the National government during the twentieth century, as well as the role played by the mass media in those processes and an analytical description of the discourses in Oslo and Havana, initiating the current process of negotiations at Havana; the deep scope of this process of negotiations marks in the last decade in Colombia, is highlighted with regard to the possible termination of the armed conflict and the construction of a stable and lasting peace.

  13. Box City Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Understanding the Built Environment, Prairie Village, KS.

    This curriculum packet contains two lesson plans about cities and architecture intended for use with students in upper elementary grades and middle schools. The first lesson plan, "City People, City Stories" (Jan Ham), states that understanding architecture and cities must begin with an understanding of the people of the city. The children create…

  14. Smart City project

    KAUST Repository

    Al Harbi, Ayman

    2018-01-24

    A \\'smart city\\' is an urban region that is highly advanced in terms of overall infrastructure, sustainable real estate, communications and market viability. It is a city where information technology is the principal infrastructure and the basis for providing essential services to residents. Yanbu Industrial City- Smart City Project - First large scale smart city in The kingdom.

  15. Women in Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Liz

    1982-01-01

    Suggesting that women are at a disadvantage in cities and towns, discusses experiences of women at home, working women, women traveling, shopping, and growing old in cities. Includes suggestions for studying women in cities. (JN)

  16. City Revenues and Expenses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — City Revenues and Expenses from the Operating Budget from 2012 to Present, updated every night from the City's JD Edwards ledger.

  17. Pittsburgh City Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Pittsburgh City FacilitiesIncludes: City Administrative Buildings, Police Stations, Fire Stations, EMS Stations, DPW Sites, Senior Centers, Recreation Centers, Pool...

  18. Managing Traffic Flows for Cleaner Cities: The Role of Green Navigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiamma Perez-Prada

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cities worldwide suffer from serious air pollution problems and are main contributors to climate change. Green Navigation systems have a great potential to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions from traffic. This research evaluates the impacts of different percentages of green drivers on traffic, CO2, and NOx over the entire Madrid Region. A macroscopic traffic model was combined with an enhanced macroscopic emissions model and a GIS (Geographic Information Systems to simulate emissions on the basis of average vehicle speeds and traffic intensity at the link level. NOx emissions are evaluated, taking into account not only the exhaust emissions produced by transport activity, but also the amount of the population exposed to these air pollutants. Results show up to 10.4% CO2 and 13.8% NOx reductions in congested traffic conditions for a 90% penetration of green drivers; however, the population’s exposure to NOx increases up to 20.2%. Moreover, while traffic volumes decrease by 13.5% for the entire region, they increase by up to 16.4% downtown. Travel times also increase by 28.7%. Since green drivers tend to choose shorter routes through downtown areas, eco-routing systems are an effective tool for fighting climate change, but are ineffective to reduce air pollution in dense urban areas.

  19. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  20. Water changed the cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    An improvement in water infrastructure and cleaning up the waters changed many harbour cities in Denmark at the beginning of the 90s. The harbour cities changed from drity, run-down industrial harbours to clean and attractive harbour dwelling creating new city centres and vital city areas...

  1. THE PROBLEM OF INTERCEPTING PARKING SYSTEMS DESIGN IN CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hetsovych

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Consistent determination of the main problems concerning the system of intercepting parking – lot design with the purpose of transport systems improvement downtown is grounded. The given approach allows to fully satisfy the demand for parking-lots of urban transport systems in combination with the system of downtown parkings and the capacity of the highway network.

  2. Retardo en el neurodesarrollo en niños de la Habana Vieja Retardation in the neurodevelopment of children in Old Havana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Moreno Mora

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: evaluar un programa dirigido a los niños con retardo del neurodesarrollo. MÉTODOS: estudio retrospectivo analítico de casos y controles, de la consulta de neurodesarrollo de La Habana Vieja. El universo y muestra estuvo constituido por 170 pacientes con retardo del neurodesarrollo entre los años 2000 y 2006. Se seleccionó aleatoriamente un grupo estudio constituido por 52 niños bajo peso con retraso del desarrollo sicomotor, y un grupo control formado por 118 niños normopesos con retraso del desarrollo sicomotor. Fueron evaluados por un equipo interdisciplinario, y se les realizó seguimiento trimestral, aplicándoles estimulación integral, fisiátrica, sicomotora, logopédica y en el hogar. Se aplicaron programas de estimulación como Isidoro Candell, Bobath y Vojta. RESULTADOS: el grupo estudio presentó el menor por ciento de nivel escolar medio superior (42,31 % y el mayor por ciento de lactancia materna no exclusiva (20,08 %. Además, presentó hipertonía (10,91 %, trastornos de conducta (10,91 % y epilepsia-Down (3,64 %. La evaluación motora presentó en el grupo estudio en la categoría normal, un ascenso a un 59 %. El grupo estudio presentó el mayor por ciento de evolución agravada (12 % y el grupo control presentó un mayor por ciento de evolución favorable (39 %. CONCLUSIONES: la esfera motora presentó una respuesta más positiva que la esfera mental, y la evolución agravada se relacionó con los niños bajo peso con retardo del desarrollo sicomotor, aunque en general la evolución de los niños estimulados en nuestro programa presentó tendencia a la evolución favorable y superada.OBJECTIVE: to evaluate a program directed to children with neurodevelopment retardation. METHODS: a retrospective analytical case-control study was conducted at the neurodevelopment department of Old Havana. The universe and the sample were composed of 170 patients with neurodevelopment retardation from 2000 to 2006. A study group

  3. An Attack on Duffer's Downtown

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glenn, Russell

    2001-01-01

    This recalling of an extended series of dreams will, if successful, serve to foment thoughts regarding what is, what could be, and what should be when a nation's soldiers and marines are once again...

  4. Determinants of single family residential water use across scales in four western US cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Heejun; Bonnette, Matthew Ryan; Stoker, Philip; Crow-Miller, Britt; Wentz, Elizabeth

    2017-10-15

    A growing body of literature examines urban water sustainability with increasing evidence that locally-based physical and social spatial interactions contribute to water use. These studies however are based on single-city analysis and often fail to consider whether these interactions occur more generally. We examine a multi-city comparison using a common set of spatially-explicit water, socioeconomic, and biophysical data. We investigate the relative importance of variables for explaining the variations of single family residential (SFR) water uses at Census Block Group (CBG) and Census Tract (CT) scales in four representative western US cities - Austin, Phoenix, Portland, and Salt Lake City, - which cover a wide range of climate and development density. We used both ordinary least squares regression and spatial error regression models to identify the influence of spatial dependence on water use patterns. Our results show that older downtown areas show lower water use than newer suburban areas in all four cities. Tax assessed value and building age are the main determinants of SFR water use across the four cities regardless of the scale. Impervious surface area becomes an important variable for summer water use in all cities, and it is important in all seasons for arid environments such as Phoenix. CT level analysis shows better model predictability than CBG analysis. In all cities, seasons, and spatial scales, spatial error regression models better explain the variations of SFR water use. Such a spatially-varying relationship of urban water consumption provides additional evidence for the need to integrate urban land use planning and municipal water planning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Geothermal District Heating System City of Klamath Falls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, Paul J; Rafferty, Kevin

    1991-12-01

    The city of Klamath Falls became interested in the possibility of a establishing geothermal district heating system for downtown government buildings in January 1977. Since that time, the project has undergone some controversial and interesting developments that may be of educational value to other communities contemplating such a project. The purpose and content of this article is to identify the historical development of the project; including the design of the system, well owner objections to the project, aquifer testing, piping failure, and future expansion and marketing incentives. The shallow geothermal reservoir in Klamath falls extends for at least 6.8 miles in a northwest-southeast direction, as shown on Figure 1, with a width of about 2 miles. More than 550 thermal wells ranging in depth from about 10 to 2,000 ft, and obtaining or contacting water from 70 to 230oF, have been drilled into the reservoir. The system is not geologically homogeneous. Great variations in horizontal permeability and many vertical discontinuities exist because of stratigraphy and structure of the area. Basalt flows, eruptive centers, fluvial and lacustrine deposits, diatomite and pyroclastic materials alternate in the rock column. Normal faults with large throw (estimated up to 1,700 ft) are spaced less than 3,300 ft apart and appear to be the main avenue of vertical movement of hot fluids. In order to more effectively utilize this resource, the city of Klamath Falls decided in 1978 to apply for a federal grant (Program Opportunity Notice to cost share field experiment projects) to construct a geothermal district heating system that would deliver geothermal fluids to areas not located on the resource. In 1977, several Geo-Heat Center staff members visited Reykjavik, Iceland, to study the design of their geothermal district heating systems. This was in part the basis for the conceptual design and feasibility study (Lund, 1979) of a downtown commercial district. The main difference

  6. Factores de riesgo de la infección por Giardia lamblia en niños de guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba Risk factors for Giardia lamblia in children in daycare centers in Havana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidel Ángel Núñez

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available En un estudio longitudinal sobre giardiasis desarrollado durante 18 meses en tres guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, describimos un grupo de niños con tendencia o "predisposición" a la infección por Giardia lamblia; a los que se les encontró con síntomas clínicos más asociados a las diarreas. Este estudio de casos y controles se desarrolló para conocer si algunos factores socioeconómicos y hábitos higiénicos estaban asociados con este fenómeno. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en las tasas de hacinamiento, el índice de personas por cama, en la carencia de determinados equipos eléctricos, en el nivel escolar de las madres, y en el promedio del ingreso familiar; sin embargo, predominó una frecuencia mayor de padres con nivel escolar menor de 12 grado en los casos que en los controles. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en cuanto a la ausencia de lavado de manos antes de comer y después de defecar, pero se encontró un mayor porcentaje de lavado incorrecto de vegetales, y una menor frecuencia del hábito de hervir el agua de consumo en las familias de los casos. Estos resultados demuestran el papel del agua como vehículo de transmisión en la giardiasis y la importancia de algunos factores epidemiológicos.We conducted a longitudinal study on giardiasis in three daycare centers in Havana City for a period of 18 months and described a group of children with a "predisposition" or tendency towards re-infection with Giardia lamblia. This group was found to be more frequently associated with clinical symptoms such as diarrhea. A case-control study was designed to determine whether socioeconomic factors and hygiene were associated with this phenomenon. We found no differences between the groups with regard to overcrowding rates, number of persons per bed, absence of certain electric appliances, mother's schooling, or mean family income. However, there were proportionally more fathers with less

  7. Application of sol-gel based sensors to environmental monitoring of Mauméjean stained glass windows housed in two different buildings at downtown Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña-Poza, J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of historical stained glass windows is mainly caused by acid attack enhanced by humidity and pollutants. Accordingly, their preventive conservation should include environmental evaluation. Mauméjean’s stained glass windows (c 1940 of two buildings located at downtown Madrid have been monitored by sol-gel sensors of acidity and temperature. The philosophy was the application of innovative glassy sol-gel sensors to assess the conservation conditions of stained glass windows, i.e. modern materials for preservation of historical materials. Conservation conditions (environmental acidity and temperature of restored and non-restored stained glass windows have been recorded throughout 13 months. The main contributing parameter to outdoor acidity is proximity to road traffic, which produces acid species able to diminish two units of pH with respect to neutral conditions. This acid environment affects both sides of stained glass windows, even in those protected with a glazing system, which allows natural ventilation. Other contributing parameters to increase the air acidity were façade orientation, sensor position, distance to pollutants sources, human interaction and uncontrolled ventilation.La degradación de vidrieras históricas se debe fundamentalmente al ataque ácido favorecido por la humedad y los contaminantes. Por tanto, su conservación preventiva debe incluir una evaluación ambiental. Se han evaluado vidrieras de Mauméjean (c 1940 de dos edificios del centro de Madrid mediante sensores sol-gel de acidez y de temperatura. La filosofía consistió en aplicar dichos sensores basados en materiales vítreos para tasar las condiciones de conservación de vidrieras del patrimonio, es decir materiales modernos para la preservación de materiales históricos. Las condiciones de conservación (acidez ambiental y temperatura de vidrieras restauradas y no restauradas se han registrado durante 13 meses. El principal parámetro que

  8. MERCURY IN ATMOSPHERE OVER RURAL, URBAN AND INDUSTRIAL PARTS OF ZAGREB CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav A. Palinkaš

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years Zagreb city encounters severe pollution problems in aquatic, terrrestrial and atmospheric environment. A random or permanent monitoring of some inorganic gaseous pollutants in atmosphere has already been organized and published alsewhere. By means of a sophisticated mercury vapor analyser with a Zeeman effect background corrector, however, continuous registration along two traverses (monitoring routes over rural, urban and industrial parts of Zagreb has been elaborated for the first lime. Data show strong anthropogenic influence in the Žitnjak industrial area. The anomaly high 105 ngm Hg, on the 22 October moved slightly to downtown by change of wind direction on the 31 October. Intensity raised as much as 155 ngm Hg, 13 times augmented in comparison to a background value on the Medvednica mountain. Explanation should be sought in denser public traffic, change of wind direction and lowering of atmospheric pressure.

  9. Pollution effects on stone benches of the Eagle Warriors Precinct at the Major Temple, Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, J.; Gallardo, M.L.; Grimaldi, D.M.; Roman-Berrelleza, J.A.; Ruvalcaba-Sil, J.L.; Ontalba Salamanca, M.A.; Morales, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    During Major Temple archaeological site excavations in Downtown Mexico City, the precinct of one of the most important Mexica military caste, the Eagle Warriors, was discovered. The ceremonial enclosure is composed of three rooms surrounded by paintings on 11 stone benches placed against the walls. Nowadays, these paintings and the stones present the effects of different deterioration processes produced by the underground water level, high humidity, and the presence of soil, water, and air pollutants. Ion beam analysis of samples from the benches and wall paintings was performed using PIXE and RBS techniques. Using enrichment factors of elements relative to iron concentrations, possible contamination by sulfur and chlorine salts was found, as well as airborne zinc scavenged by rain

  10. Smart City Services over a Future Internet Platform Based on Internet of Things and Cloud: The Smart Parking Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Lanza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing the effectiveness of city services and assisting on a more sustainable development of cities are two of the crucial drivers of the smart city concept. This paper portrays a field trial that leverages an internet of things (IoT platform intended for bringing value to existing and future smart city infrastructures. The paper highlights how IoT creates the basis permitting integration of current vertical city services into an all-encompassing system, which opens new horizons for the progress of the effectiveness and sustainability of our cities. Additionally, the paper describes a field trial on provisioning of real time data about available parking places both indoor and outdoor. The trial has been carried out at Santander’s (Spain downtown area. The trial takes advantage of both available open data sets as well as of a large-scale IoT infrastructure. The trial is a showcase on how added-value services can be created on top of the proposed architecture.

  11. City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)

  12. Jerusalem: City of Dreams, City of Sorrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricks, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Jerusalem is more than an intriguing global historical city; it is a classroom for liberal learning and international understanding. It had never been a city of one language, one religion and one culture. Looking at the origins of Jerusalem's name indicates its international and multicultural nature. While Israelis designate Jerusalem as their…

  13. Smart City project

    KAUST Repository

    Al Harbi, Ayman

    2018-01-01

    A 'smart city' is an urban region that is highly advanced in terms of overall infrastructure, sustainable real estate, communications and market viability. It is a city where information technology is the principal infrastructure and the basis

  14. Smart Sustainable Cities

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    important part of city planning is also learning from other cities, e.g., through the bench-learning, defining ..... Integrated semantics service platform ...... order to provide the best services to customers, their different needs and preferences ...

  15. City of Pittsburgh Trees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Trees cared for and managed by the City of Pittsburgh Department of Public Works Forestry Division. Tree Benefits are calculated using the National Tree Benefit...

  16. Cities spearhead climate action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Following President Trump's withdrawal from the Paris Agreement, cities worldwide have pledged support to combat climate change. Along with a growing coalition of businesses and institutions, cities represent a beacon of hope for carbon reduction in politically tumultuous times.

  17. Creation / accumulation city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doevendans, C.H.; Schram, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    A distinction between basic archetypes of urban form was made by Bruno Fortier: the accumulation city as opposed to the creation city. These archetypes derive from archaeology - being based on the Roman and the Egyptian city - but are interpreted as morphological paradigms, as a set of assumptions

  18. Participación comunitaria en el control de Aedes aegypti: opiniones de la población en un municipio de La Habana, Cuba Community participation in the control of Aedes aegypti: opinions of the population in one section of Havana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizet Sánchez

    2004-01-01

    comunitarios y el reconocimiento de la obligación de los ciudadanos de tomar parte en el desarrollo de su comunidad. Resultaron más desfavorables las opiniones acerca de la imagen de los líderes y del tipo de beneficio que podría traer consigo la participación comunitaria. CONCLUSIONES: Las opiniones de la población acerca de la participación comunitaria obtenidas en este estudio sirvieron de base para el diseño de nuevas estrategias para el control de A. aegypti. La metodología utilizada puede servir para planificar procesos participativos locales, tanto en Cuba como en otros países, y puede aplicarse a otros problemas cuya solución requiera de la participación comunitaria.OBJECTIVE: To analyze opinions on community participation held by residents of one section of the city of Havana, Cuba, in order to identify key criteria to use in preparing a participatory strategy for controlling the Aedes aegypti mosquito. METHODS: The study was conducted from September to October 1999 in Playa, one of the 15 municipios (districts that make up the city of Havana, Cuba. In the first phase of the study, interviews were carried out with key informants, including health brigade members and sanitation activists, who had lived in Playa for more than five years. The key informants were selected randomly from the nine health areas that the Playa municipio has. Qualitative content analysis was used to identify terms, common expressions, and key concepts related to community participation in the area. In the study's second phase a questionnaire using a Likert scale was prepared for application with a population sample from Playa. Based on the answers from the respondents, a point score with a confidence interval was calculated for each of the 30 statements on the questionnaire. The point scores for those statements were used to identify the population's most relevant criteria, that is, the statements producing the strongest agreement and the ones producing the strongest disagreement

  19. Surface albedo measurements in Mexico City metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, T; Mar, B; Longoria, R; Ruiz Suarez, L. G [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Morales, L [Instituto de Geografia, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-04-01

    Optical and thermal properties of soils are important input data for the meteorological and photochemical modules of air quality models. As development of these models increase on spatial resolution good albedo data become more important. In this paper measurements of surface albedo of UV (295-385 nm) and visible (450-550 nm) radiation are reported for different urban and rural surfaces in the vicinity of Mexico City. It was found for the downtown zone and average albedo value of 0.05 which is in very good agreement with reported values for urban surfaces. Our albedo values measured in UV region for grey cement and green grass are of 0.10 and 0.009, respectively, and quite similar to those found at the literature of 0.11 and 0.008 for those type of surfaces. [Spanish] Las propiedades opticas y termicas de suelos son datos importantes para los modulos meteorologicos y fotoquimicos de los modelos de calidad del aire. Conforme aumenta la resolucion espacial del modelo se vuelve mas importante contar con buenos datos de albedo. En este articulo se presentan mediciones de albedo superficial de radiacion Ultravioleta (295-385 nm) y visible (450-550 nm) para diferentes superficies urbanas. Los valores medidos de albedo en la region UV para cemento gris y pasto verde son de 0.10 y 0.009, respectivamente, y son muy similares a los reportados en la literatura, 0.11 y 0.008 para este tipo de superficies.

  20. Heat and Humidity in the City: Neighborhood Heat Index Variability in a Mid-Sized City in the Southeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa L. Hass

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Daily weather conditions for an entire city are usually represented by a single weather station, often located at a nearby airport. This resolution of atmospheric data fails to recognize the microscale climatic variability associated with land use decisions across and within urban neighborhoods. This study uses heat index, a measure of the combined effects of temperature and humidity, to assess the variability of heat exposure from ten weather stations across four urban neighborhoods and two control locations (downtown and in a nearby nature center in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. Results suggest that trees may negate a portion of excess urban heat, but are also associated with greater humidity. As a result, the heat index of locations with more trees is significantly higher than downtown and areas with fewer trees. Trees may also reduce heat stress by shading individuals from incoming radiation, though this is not considered in this study. Greater amounts of impervious surfaces correspond with reduced evapotranspiration and greater runoff, in terms of overall mass balance, leading to a higher temperature, but lower relative humidity. Heat index and relative humidity were found to significantly vary between locations with different tree cover and neighborhood characteristics for the full study time period as well as for the top 10% of heat index days. This work demonstrates the need for high-resolution climate data and the use of additional measures beyond temperature to understand urban neighborhood exposure to extreme heat, and expresses the importance of considering vulnerability differences among residents when analyzing neighborhood-scale impacts.

  1. Different Creative Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mark; Vaarst Andersen, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    and exhibits a tendency of congregating in major cities with diverse service and cultural offers and tolerance to non-mainstream lifestyles. However, we find that a range of smaller Danish cities also attract the creative class. Second, we undertake qualitative interviews that facilitate theory building. We...... suggest that many creatives are attracted by the smaller cities' cost advantages, specialized job offers, attractive work/life balances, and authenticity and sense of community. The article synthesizes its results into four stylized types of creative cities, and concludes by discussing the policy...... challenges associated with these different cities....

  2. Estimating Housing Vacancy Rate in Qingdao City with Npp-Viirs Nighttime Light and Geographical National Conditions Monitoring Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, X.

    2018-04-01

    Accompanying China's rapid urbanization in recent decades, especially in the new millennium, the housing problem has become one of the most important issues. The estimation and analysis of housing vacancy rate (HVR) can assist decision-making in solving this puzzle. It is particularly significant to government departments. This paper proposed a practical model for estimating the HVR in Qingdao city using NPP-VIIRS nighttime light composed data, Geographic National Conditions Monitoring data (GNCMD) and resident population distribution data. The main steps are: Firstly, pre-process the data, and finally forming a series of data sets with 500*500 grid as the basic unit; Secondly, select 400 grids of different types within the city as sample grids for SVM training, and establish a reasonable HVR model; Thirdly, using the model to estimate HVR in Qingdao and employing spatial statistical analysis methods to reveal the spatial differentiation pattern of HVR in this city; Finally test the accuracy of the model with two different methods. The results conclude that HVR in the southeastern coastal area of Qingdao city is relatively low and the low-low clusters distributed in patches. Simultaneously, in other regions it shows the tendency of the low value accumulation in the downtown area and the increasing trend towards the outer suburbs. Meanwhile the suburban and scenery regions by the side of the sea and mountains are likely to be the most vacant part of the city.

  3. Cities as development drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Bjørn; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Hansen, Jens Aage

    2011-01-01

    There is a strong connection between economic growth and development of cities. Economic growth tends to stimulate city growth, and city economies have often shaped innovative environments that in turn support economic growth. Simultaneously, social and environmental problems related to city growth...... can be serious threats to the realization of the socio-economic contributions that cities can make. However, as a result of considerable diversity of competences combined with interactive learning and innovation, cities may also solve these problems. The ‘urban order’ may form a platform...... for innovative problem solving and potential spill-over effects, which may stimulate further economic growth and development. This paper discusses how waste problems of cities can be transformed to become part of new, more sustainable solutions. Two cases are explored: Aalborg in Denmark and Malmö in Sweden...

  4. Doble parálisis de los elevadores y su comportamiento clínico-quirúrgico en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba Double elevador palsy and its clinical surgical behavior in the City of Havana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresita de Jesús Méndez Sánchez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir los resultados clínico-quirúrgicos de los pacientes con doble parálisis de los elevadores. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo a 16 pacientes que acudieron al servicio de oftalmología pediátrica y estrabismo del Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer", desde septiembre de 2004 hasta septiembre de 2006, en el que se analizaron las siguientes variables: etiología, motilidad ocular, ausencia de signo de Bell, ptosis o pseudoptosis palpebral, resultados de la técnica quirúrgica aplicada. La técnica utilizada fue la transposición completa de los rectos horizontales al recto superior. RESULTADOS: La etiología fue congénita en todos los pacientes. El 100 % de la muestra presentó hipotropía en posición primaria de mirada con marcada limitación de la elevación activa, tanto en aducción como abducción, con elevación del mentón y signo de Bell ausente. El 62,5 presentaba pseudoptosis y el 37,5 ptosis. Alcanzaron ortotropia 14 pacientes y dos quedaron con hipotropía menor de 15 dioptrías prismáticas. CONCLUSIONES: Se obtuvieron buenos resultados quirúrgicos en casi la totalidad de los pacientes.OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical surgical outcomes of patients with double elevator palsy. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study of 16 patients, who went to the ophthalmologic pediatric strabismus service at "Ramón Pando Ferrer" Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology from September 2004 to September 2006, was carried out based on the following variables: etiology, ocular motility, lack of Bell´s sign, palpebral pstosis or pseudoptosis, and results of the applied surgical technique. The surgical method was the complete transposition of horizontal recti to upper rectus. RESULTS: There was congenital etiology in all the patients. The whole sample presented with hypotropia in the primary position of the look, with significant restriction of active elevation both in adduction and abduction, rise of chin and lack of Bell´s sign. Pseudoptosis was seen in 62,5% of patients whereas 37,5% showed ptosis. Fourteen patients managed to reach orthotropia and only two remained with hypotropia under 15 prismatic dioptres CONCLUSIONS: Surgical results were satisfactory in most of the patients.

  5. Site Effect and Expected Seismic Performance of Buildings in Palestine- Case Study: Nablus City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dabbeek, Jalal N.; El-Kelani, Radwan J.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of local geology on ground-motion amplification and building damage were studied in Palestine-West Bank. Nakamura's method of microtremor analysis was applied in this study. The measurements showed significantly higher amplification in the frequency range of building vulnerability in different parts of Nablus city. This finding is consistent with the distribution of the earthquake damage grades in the urban areas struck by the 11 February 2004 earthquake (ML = 5.2) with a focal depth of 17 km beneath the northeastern part of the Dead Sea Basin. Quite large differences in amplification between around 1 and 9 were computed between the eastern and western rims of the city. The downtown built in the central part of the city on soft clay, marl and valley deposits, whereas the northern and southern parts of urban areas in Nablus city lying on mountains consist of consolidated carbonates bedrock. In the central part of the city and at the rims, where the thickness of fluvial deposits and soft formations is about 15 m, amplifications between 6.74 and 8.67 for dominant natural period range of 0.8-1.1 sec were obtained. On the southern and northern mountains, which are located on limestone rocks covered with a thin layer of soil, the amplification in the same frequency range was low. Calculating the natural period of the existing common buildings (T b ) in the studied area (buildings with 10-12 stories), by using the dynamic analysis method. The values of T b obtained were much closed to the site dominant natural period (Ts). The findings of this study indicate that the expected differences in damage grades for urban areas in Nablus city could be attributed to variations in the thickness and physical properties of Tertiary-Quaternary sediments, which appear to be rather heterogeneous

  6. Detection of Urban-Induced Rainfall Anomalies in a Major Coastal City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; Burian, Steven J.

    2002-01-01

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) are caused by the heat-retaining properties of surfaces usually found in urban cities like asphalt and concrete. The UHI can typically be observed on the evening TV weather map as warmer temperatures over the downtown of major cities and cooler temperatures in the suburbs and surrounding rural areas. The UHI has now become a widely acknowledged, observed, and researched phenomenon because of its broad environmental and societal implications. Interest in the UHI will intensify in the future as existing urban areas expand and rural areas urbanize. By the year 2025, more than 60% of the world s population will live in cities, with higher percentages expected in developed nations. The urban growth rate in the United States, for example, is estimated to be 12.5%, and the recent 2000 Census found that more than 80% of the population currently lives in urban areas. Furthermore, the U.S. population is not only growing but is tending to concentrate more in urban areas within the environmentally sensitive coastal zones. Urban growth creates unique and often contentious issues for policymakers related to land use zoning, transportation planning, agricultural production, housing and development, pollution, and natural resources protection. Urban expansion and its associated TJHIs also have measurable impacts on weather and climate processes. The UHI has been documented to affect local and regional temperature, wind patterns, and air quality

  7. City Carbon Footprint Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwu Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Progressive cities worldwide have demonstrated political leadership by initiating meaningful strategies and actions to tackle climate change. However, the lack of knowledge concerning embodied greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of cities has hampered effective mitigation. We analyse trans-boundary GHG emission transfers between five Australian cities and their trading partners, with embodied emission flows broken down into major economic sectors. We examine intercity carbon footprint (CF networks and disclose a hierarchy of responsibility for emissions between cities and regions. Allocations of emissions to households, businesses and government and the carbon efficiency of expenditure have been analysed to inform mitigation policies. Our findings indicate that final demand in the five largest cities in Australia accounts for more than half of the nation’s CF. City households are responsible for about two thirds of the cities’ CFs; the rest can be attributed to government and business consumption and investment. The city network flows highlight that over half of emissions embodied in imports (EEI to the five cities occur overseas. However, a hierarchy of GHG emissions reveals that overseas regions also outsource emissions to Australian cities such as Perth. We finally discuss the implications of our findings on carbon neutrality, low-carbon city concepts and strategies and allocation of subnational GHG responsibility.

  8. [Healthy Cities projects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Takehito

    2002-05-01

    This is a review article on "Healthy Cities". The Healthy Cities programme has been developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) to tackle urban health and environmental issues in a broad way. It is a kind of comprehensive policy package to carry out individual projects and activities effectively and efficiently. Its key aspects include healthy public policy, vision sharing, high political commitment, establishment of structural organization, strategic health planning, intersectoral collaboration, community participation, setting approach, development of supportive environment for health, formation of city health profile, national and international networking, participatory research, periodic monitoring and evaluation, and mechanisms for sustainability of projects. The present paper covered the Healthy Cities concept and approaches, rapid urbanization in the world, developments of WHO Healthy Cities, Healthy Cities developments in the Western Pacific Region, the health promotion viewpoint, and roles of research.

  9. [Pollution characteristics and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments of Qingshan Reservoir in Lin' an City, Zhejiang Province of East China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fen; Yang, Chang-Ming; Pan, Rui-Jie

    2013-09-01

    A total of 8 representative surface sediment sampling sites were collected from the Qingshan Reservoir in Lin'an City of Zhejiang Province to investigate the differences in the total concentrations of As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Mn, Pb, and Zn among the sampling sites. The different forms of the heavy metals, i. e., acid soluble, easily reducible, easily oxidizable, and residual, were determined by BCR sequential extraction method, and the pollution degrees and potential ecological risk, of the heavy metals in the surface sediments at different sampling sites of the Reservoir were assessed by using geo-accumulation index (I(geo)) and Hakanson potential ecological risk index. There existed obvious spatial differences in the total concentrations of the heavy metals in the surface sediments of the Reservoir. The sampling sites nearby the estuaries of the tributaries flowing through downtowns and heavy industrial parks to the Reservoir had obviously higher heavy metals concentrations in surface sediments, as compared to the other sampling sites. In the sediments, Mn was mainly in acid extractable form, Cu and Pb were mainly in reducible form, and As was mainly in residual form. The surface sediments at the sampling sites nearby the estuaries of the tributaries flowing through downtowns to the Reservoir had higher proportions of acid extractable and reducibles forms of the heavy metals, which would have definite potential toxic risk to aquatic organisms. Among the 7 heavy metals in the surface sediments, As showed the highest pollution degree, followed by Cu, Ni, Mn, Pb, and Zn, which were at moderate pollution degree, while Cr was at non-pollution degree, with relatively low potential ecological risk. Through the comparison of the sampling sites, it was observed that the surface sediments at the sites nearby the estuaries of Jinxi River and Hengxi River flowing through downtowns and heavy industrial parks to the Reservoir showed obviously higher heavy metals pollution degree and

  10. Prediction of Tsunami Inundation in the City of Lisbon (portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, M.; Miranda, J.; Omira, R.; Catalao Fernandes, J.

    2010-12-01

    Lisbon city is located inside the estuary of Tagus river, 20 km away from the Atlantic ocean. The city suffered great damage from tsunamis and its downtown was flooded at least twice in 1531 and 1755. Since the installation of the tide-gage network, in the area, three tsunamis caused by submarine earthquakes, were recorded in November 1941, February 1969 and May 1975. The most destructive tsunamis listed along Tagus Estuary are the 26th January 1531, a local tsunami event restricted to the Tagus Estuary, and the well known 1st November 1755 transoceanic event, both following highly destructive earthquakes, which deeply affected Lisbon. The economic losses due to the impact of the 1755 tsunami in one of Europe’s 18t century main harbor and commercial fleets were enormous. Since then the Tagus estuary suffered strong morphologic changes manly due to dredging works, construction of commercial and industrial facilities and recreational docks, some of them already projected to preserve Lisbon. In this study we present preliminary inundation maps for the Tagus estuary area in the Lisbon County, for conditions similar to the 1755 tsunami event, but using present day bathymetric and topographic maps. Inundation modelling is made using non linear shallow water theory and the numerical code is based upon COMCOT code. Nested grids resolutions used in this study are 800 m, 200 m and 50 m, respectively. The inundation is discussed in terms of flow depth, run up height, maximum inundation area and current flow velocity. The effects of estuary modifications on tsunami propagation are also investigated.

  11. EU Smart City Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years European Commission has developed a set of documents for Members States tracing, directly or indirectly, recommendations for the transformation of the European city. The paper wants to outline which future EU draws for the city, through an integrated and contextual reading of addresses and strategies contained in the last documents, a future often suggested as Smart City. Although the three main documents (Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 of European Community, Digital Agenda for Europe and European Urban Agenda face the issue of the future development of European cities from different points of view, which are respectively cohesion social, ICT and urban dimension, each of them pays particular attention to urban and territorial dimension, identified by the name of Smart City. In other words, the paper aims at drawing the scenario of evolution of Smart Cities that can be delineated through the contextual reading of the three documents. To this end, the paper is divided into three parts: the first part briefly describes the general contents of the three European economic plan tools; the second part illustrates the scenarios for the future of the European city contained in each document; the third part seeks to trace the evolution of the Smart Cities issue developed by the set of the three instruments, in order to provide the framework of European Community for the near future of our cities

  12. A liveable city:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2014-01-01

    is increas- ingly based in and on cities rather than nations, and cities compete for businesses, branding, tourists and talent. In the western world, urbanisation has happened simultane- ously to de-industrialisation, which has opened industrial neighbourhoods and harbours for new uses – often focus- ing......There are over 20 cities world-wide with a population of over 10 million people. We have entered ‘The Millennium of the City’. The growth of urban populations has been accompanied by profound changes of the cities’ economic and social profile and of the cities themselves. The world economy...

  13. Big data, smart cities and city planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, Michael

    2013-11-01

    I define big data with respect to its size but pay particular attention to the fact that the data I am referring to is urban data, that is, data for cities that are invariably tagged to space and time. I argue that this sort of data are largely being streamed from sensors, and this represents a sea change in the kinds of data that we have about what happens where and when in cities. I describe how the growth of big data is shifting the emphasis from longer term strategic planning to short-term thinking about how cities function and can be managed, although with the possibility that over much longer periods of time, this kind of big data will become a source for information about every time horizon. By way of conclusion, I illustrate the need for new theory and analysis with respect to 6 months of smart travel card data of individual trips on Greater London's public transport systems.

  14. Theme city or gated community - images of future cities

    OpenAIRE

    Helenius-Mäki, Leena

    2002-01-01

    The future of the cities has been under discussion since the first city. It has been typical in every civilisation and era to hope for a better city. Creek philosopher Platon created image of future city where all men were equal and the city was ruled by philosophers minds. Many philosopher or later social scientist have ended up to similar "hope to be city". The form and type of the better city has depended from creators of those future city images. The creators have had their future city im...

  15. Public health impact assessment of a proposed cogeneration plant in the Quebec city metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lajoie, P; Bolduc, D; Gauvin, D; Guerrier, P; Gauthier, R [Quebec Public Health Center, Ste-Foy (Canada); Laflamme, P [Laval Univ. (Canada). Dept. of Preventive Medicine

    1996-12-31

    In 1994, public hearings were held in Quebec city concerning a 120 megawatt (MW) gas cogeneration project that was to be coupled with an already existing pulp and paper mill in the downtown area. Cogeneration plants are often described as highly beneficial from the point of view of local environment. It is well known that the burning of natural gas emits far less sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and particulate matters (PM) than the combustion of oil or coal. The proposed plant would use high pressure vapour from a nearby incinerator plant and natural gas to produce low pressure vapor for the paper mill industry as well as electricity. The cogeneration plant would allow the paper mill to stop burning heavy oil. By using natural gas instead of heavy oil, the new cogeneration-paper mill complex (CPC) is expected to reinforce the recent trend and willingness towards improving downtown air quality. On the other hand, the CPC would emit more CO{sub 2}, due to the production of additional electricity. According to the Rio de Janeiro Agreement ratified in 1988, Canada is committed to stabilize its greenhouse gas emissions by the year 2000. Nevertheless, the cogeneration file is a new option considered by the Quebec Provincial Governement in its last energy triennal plan. However, it must be specified that the Province of Quebec contributes to less than 15 % of the total Canadian CO{sub 2} production although it represents more than 25 % of its population. Furthermore the maximum production of electricity by this file has been set to 250 MW. It is a very small fraction of the total production of electricity in Quebec, which is 200 TW

  16. Public health impact assessment of a proposed cogeneration plant in the Quebec city metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lajoie, P.; Bolduc, D.; Gauvin, D.; Guerrier, P.; Gauthier, R. [Quebec Public Health Center, Ste-Foy (Canada); Laflamme, P. [Laval Univ. (Canada). Dept. of Preventive Medicine

    1995-12-31

    In 1994, public hearings were held in Quebec city concerning a 120 megawatt (MW) gas cogeneration project that was to be coupled with an already existing pulp and paper mill in the downtown area. Cogeneration plants are often described as highly beneficial from the point of view of local environment. It is well known that the burning of natural gas emits far less sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and particulate matters (PM) than the combustion of oil or coal. The proposed plant would use high pressure vapour from a nearby incinerator plant and natural gas to produce low pressure vapor for the paper mill industry as well as electricity. The cogeneration plant would allow the paper mill to stop burning heavy oil. By using natural gas instead of heavy oil, the new cogeneration-paper mill complex (CPC) is expected to reinforce the recent trend and willingness towards improving downtown air quality. On the other hand, the CPC would emit more CO{sub 2}, due to the production of additional electricity. According to the Rio de Janeiro Agreement ratified in 1988, Canada is committed to stabilize its greenhouse gas emissions by the year 2000. Nevertheless, the cogeneration file is a new option considered by the Quebec Provincial Governement in its last energy triennal plan. However, it must be specified that the Province of Quebec contributes to less than 15 % of the total Canadian CO{sub 2} production although it represents more than 25 % of its population. Furthermore the maximum production of electricity by this file has been set to 250 MW. It is a very small fraction of the total production of electricity in Quebec, which is 200 TW

  17. ESTUDIO SOCIOECONÓMICO SOBRE LOS VENDEDORES ESTACIONARIOS DEL SECTOR UNO DEL CENTRO HISTÓRICO DE BARRANQUILLA - SOCIOECONOMICAL RESEARCH ABOUT THE PERMANENT SELLERS FROM SECTOR ONE IN BARRANQUILLA’S HISTORICAL DOWNTOWN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YOLANDA ROSA MORALES CASTRO

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The document talks about the information related to the socioeconomical research about the permanent sellers from sector one in Barranquilla’s historical downtown. This research comes from a previous study “Knowledge Dialogue: a strengthtening strategy for the people interested in the recovering of the historical downtown”, applied from the family and human development group in Universidad Simon Bolivar. The study variable includes the demography, family, economy, housing, environmental and legal dimmensions, which allows to analyze and identify the socioeconomical profile of the permanent sellers from sector one in Barranquilla’s distrit. In this text is also introduced relevant topics, interesting so they can help to clearly understand the growing development of the informal economy in Colombia, because they mean a challenge and clamis attention from the leaders in charge on the country’s economic way

  18. Urban traffic information system prototype: Use for Rome downtown area traffic control; 200 S.I.T.U. prototipo del sistema informativo per il traffico urbano: La sua applicazione allo studio della regolamentazione dell`accesso ai centri storici

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, L; Mattucci, A; Frondaroli, A

    1993-12-31

    This paper describes the characteristics, in terms of type of information and systems approaches utilized, of a prototype urban traffic simulator developed by ENEA (the Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment). With reference to the development of the functional and architectural elements of this simulator, a preliminary review is made of problematics relevant to transportation system design, urban planning, and traffic control. The data base incorporated by the simulator is described and a comparison is made of different traffic modelling codes and man-machine interface methods. The paper concludes with an assessment of the results obtained with the first experimental application of the simulator in the control of the flow of traffic in Rome`s heavily congested downtown area.

  19. Papeleros urbanos vs aseo del centro de Santiago de Chile.Impacto de las variables formales de los papeleros urbanos existentes en los paseos peatonales Ahumada y Huérfanos. /Waste containers vs. cleaning in downtown Santiago, Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Peralta, Osvaldo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El diseño que presentan los papeleros urbanos de los paseos peatonales del centro de Santiago no facilita su uso adecuado, lo que contribuye a la suciedad de sus calles peatonales. Como elementos de mobiliario urbano en el espacio público, deberían tener un mejor diseño en orden a mejorar su función y facilitar su uso. /The urban trash cans design, on pedestrian walks in Santiago downtown, doesn't facilitate its appropriate use, what contributes to the dirt of its pedestrian streets. As part of urban furniture in public space, they should have a better design in order to improve their function and to facilitate their use.

  20. Nivel de satisfacción con los servicios informativos en la Facultad de Estomatología de la Habana Level of satisfaction with the information services in the Faculty of Stomatology of Havana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Alfredo Ochoa González

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: identificar el nivel de satisfacción con los servicios informativos en la biblioteca de la Facultad de Estomatología de la Habana. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio a través de un cuestionario a una muestra representativa de los usuarios de estos servicios. RESULTADOS: Se determinaron las principales limitaciones en las variables promoción, accesibilidad, tangibilidad y exhaustividad lo cual provoca insatisfacción con los servicios brindados, básicamente en los alumnos de pre y postgrado. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados evidenciaron insatisfacción en general con los servicios informativos, básicamente en los alumnos de pre y postgrado, no obstante, las ocho variables estudiadas tuvieron diferentes valoracionesOBJECTIVE: to determine the level of satisfaction with the information services of the library of the Faculty of Stomatology of Havana. METHODS: A study was carried out by using a questionnaire in a representative sample of the users of these services. RESULTS: there were determined the main limitations in the variables promotion, accessibility, tangibility and exhaustivity, which cause unsatisfaction with the services offered, basically among pre- and postgraduate students. CONCLUSIONS: the results evidenced the unsatisfaction in general with the information services, mainly among pre- and postgraduate students; however, the eight studied variables had different assessments

  1. New City Logistics Paradigm: From the “Last Mile” to the “Last 50 Miles” Sustainable Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Faccio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of goods in urban areas, together with private traffic flows, are among the main sources of energy consumption, air pollution and noise. As a consequence, in the 2000s, several EU cities started to implement logistical solutions for the sustainable city. In this context, this study addresses the implementation of a new eco-logistic system, which serves multiple adjacent cities by using electric vehicles to deliver goods of any type within their urban areas. This paper describes the results of a project developed in the province of Vicenza (northern Italy and covering the main cities (Bassano del Grappa, Thiene, Schio and Valdagno in the foothills (the so-called Pedemontana Veneta zone. The eco-logistic system aims to cover the last 50 miles of distribution (typical area of an Italian province with a centralised platform that performs green deliveries with electric vehicles from/to the downtown areas. A preliminary and extensive “on field” analysis by means of door-to-door questionnaires was conducted to identify the performance required by the eco-logistic system. Therefore, the design of such a distribution system is performed to assess and define the conditions that make this solution profitable from both the economic and the environmental perspective.

  2. TIPOLOGI DAN POLA PENANGANAN PERMUKIMAN KUMUH DI KOTA BONTANG (The Typology and Patterns of Slum Improvement Management in Bontang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Setiadi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Started as a fishing settlement area in Bontang Kuala Village, the City of Bontang has been growing very rapidly. However, despite this growth people's standard of living has been decreasing in terms of environmental quality, income as well as sheltering with the emergence of slum areas. These conditions greatly affect the physical, social, cultural and economic aspects of life. The management of slum areas in Bontang City becomes strategic because slums are integrated with the rest of the city including the downtown area and urban growth centers, as well as with the other areas in the vicinity, such as industrial, commercial, warehousing, and office areas. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the characteristics of the slum areas. The identification methods do not discriminate the distribution of slum areas. The criteria used include non-economic vitality, regional economic vitality, land ownership status, infrastructure and facility conditions, local government’s commitment, and handling priorities. Environmental assessment of the slums was done by assigning a weighting system to each of the above criteria. The determination of the weights of the criteria is relative and depends on the individual and group preferences in looking at the influence of each criterion. The improvement or treatment patterns appropriate to be applied in Bontang City should be in accordance with the site characteristics. Locations with high-scale slum category (HS requires the curative pattern while those with moderate category (MS should take reductive treatment, and slum areas with low-scale category (LS will require preventive treatment.

  3. Retail Marijuana Purchases in Designer and Commercial Markets in New York City: Sales Units, Weights, and Prices per Gram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifaneck, Stephen J.; Ream, Geoffrey L.; Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise

    2007-01-01

    This paper documents the bifurcation of the market for commercial marijuana from the market for designer marijuana in New York City. Commercial marijuana is usually grown outdoors, imported to NYC, and of average quality. By contrast, several strains of designer marijuana are usually grown indoors from specially-bred strains and carefully handled for maximum quality. The mechanisms for selling include street/park sellers, delivery services, private sales, and storefronts. Retail sales units vary from $5 to $50 and more, but the actual weights and price per gram of retail marijuana purchases lacks scientific precision. Ethnographic staff recruited marijuana purchasers who used digital scales to weigh a purposive sample of 99 marijuana purchases. Results indicate clear differences in price per gram between the purchases of commercial (avg. $8.20/gram) and designer (avg. $18.02/gram) marijuana. Designer purchases are more likely to be made by whites, downtown (Lower East Side/Union Square area), via delivery services, and in units of $10 bags, $50 cubes, and eighth and quarter ounces. Commercial marijuana purchases are more likely to be made by blacks, uptown (Harlem), via street dealers, and in units of $5 and $20 bags. Imported commercial types Arizona and Chocolate were only found uptown, while designer brand names describing actual strains like Sour Diesel and White Widow were only found downtown. Findings indicate clear divisions between commercial and designer marijuana markets in New York City. The extent that these differences may be based upon different THC potencies is a matter for future research. PMID:17055670

  4. Preface (to Playable Cities)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unknown, [Unknown; Nijholt, A.; Nijholt, Antinus

    In this book, we address the issue of playfulness and playability in intelligent and smart cities. Playful technology can be introduced and authorized by city authorities. This can be compared and is similar to the introduction of smart technology in theme and recreational parks. However, smart

  5. Cities and Refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Bruce; Noring, Luise; Garrelts, Nantke

    Centennial Scholar Initiative and the Foreign Policy program, with key research led by the Copenhagen Business School. It aims to show the extent to which cities are at the vanguard of this crisis and to deepen our understanding of the role and capacity of city governments and local networks in resettlement...

  6. Innovation and the City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Neil; Forman, Adam; Ko, Jae; Giles, David; Bowles, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    With Washington trapped in budget battles and partisan gridlock, cities have emerged as the best source of government innovation. Nowhere is this more visible than in New York City. Since taking office in 2002, Mayor Bloomberg has introduced a steady stream of innovative policies, from a competition to recruit a new applied sciences campus and a…

  7. Visions of the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    in informing understandings and imaginings of the modern city. The author critically examines influential traditions in western Europe associated with such figures as Ebenezer Howard and Le Corbusier, uncovering the political interests, desires and anxieties that lay behind their ideal cities, and drawing out...

  8. Marriage and the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gautier, Pieter; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen

    Do people move to cities because of marriage market considerations? In cities singles can meet more potential partners than in rural areas. Singles are therefore prepared to pay a premium in terms of higher housing prices. Once married, the marriage market benefits disappear while the housing...

  9. Smart City Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Ulrik

    2018-01-01

    This article reflects on the challenges for urban planning posed by the emergence of smart cities in network societies. In particular, it reflects on reductionist tendencies in existing smart city planning. Here the concern is with the implications of prior reductions of complexity which have been...... undertaken by placing primacy in planning on information technology, economical profit, and top-down political government. Rather than pointing urban planning towards a different ordering of these reductions, this article argues in favor of approaches to smart city planning via complexity theory....... Specifically, this article argues in favor of approaching smart city plans holistically as topologies of organized complexity. Here, smart city planning is seen as a theory and practice engaging with a complex adaptive urban system which continuously operates on its potential. The actualizations in the face...

  10. The Flickering Global City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Slater

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores new dimensions of the global city in light of the correlation between hegemonic transition and the prominence of financial centers. It counterposes Braudel’s historical sequence of dominant cities to extant approaches in the literature, shifting the emphasis from a convergence of form and function to variations in history and structure. The marked increase of finance in the composition of London, New York and Tokyo has paralleled each city’s occupation of a distinct niche in world financial markets: London is the principal center of currency exchange, New York is the primary equities market, and Tokyo is the leader in international banking. This division expresses the progression of world-economies since the nineteenth century and unfolds in the context of the present hegemonic transition. By combining world-historical and city-centered approaches, the article seeks to reframe the global city and overcome the limits inherent in the paradigm of globalization.

  11. Governing the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornberger, Martin

    2012-01-01

    cities. This theoretical curiosity is reflected in the rising interest in urban strategy from practice. For instance, the World Bank regularly organizes an Urban Strategy Speaker Series, while the powerful network CEOs for Cities lobbies for a strategic approach to urban development. Critical scholars......Strategy frames the contemporary epistemological space of urbanism: major cities across the globe such as New York, London and Sydney invest time, energy and resources to craft urban strategies. Extensive empirical research projects have proposed a shift towards a strategic framework to manage...... such as Zukin diagnose not a shift in but a shift to strategic thinking in the contemporary city. This article poses the question: what makes strategy such an attractive ‘thought style’ in relation to imagining and managing cities? How can we understand the practice of urban strategy? And what are its intended...

  12. Smart City: Adding to the Complexity of Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Emine Mine

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to further the state-of-the-art knowledge on what a smart city is by analysing the smart cities across the world. It also seeks to find out how different approaches to smart city creation influence the city. This work is based on the ongoing review on Smart Cities that was started in 2014 and is structured as follows: first, definitions of "smart city" are reviewed, then typologies of smart cities are generated by analysing the different types of smart cities across the world...

  13. 2008 City of Baltimore Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the spring of 2008, the City of Baltimore expressed an interest to upgrade the City GIS Database with mapping quality airborne LiDAR data. The City of Baltimore...

  14. @City: technologising Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas, Jesús

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the concept of the contemporary city - the influence that technology has when one thinks about, plans and lives in a city. The conjunction of technology and city reformulates customs and social practices; it can even determine the way one constitutes one's own identity. One can see how close the relation is between technology (specifically, TICS and the structures of the city in a wide variety of situations: in social interactions on the street, in transport, and in ways of buying, of working and entertainment. "@City" is a concept that very well reflects the emergent properties of a current city, that is, the coexistence of a physical and a virtual urban space. The "22@Barcelona" project attempts to bring together different types of spaces. By combining the physical with the virtual, 22@Barcelona, as a neighborhood of @City, creates an uncertain and blurred border between both spaces.The article also examines the impact that these spaces have on the psycho-social processes involved in the daily life of a traditionally working-class neighborhood, now strongly limited by technological boundaries.

  15. Futures of cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogen dokumenterer resultater fra den internationale kongres Futures of Cities arrangeret af IFHP International Federation of Housing and Planning, Realdania, Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole og City of Copenhagen. Kongressen blev afholdt i september 2007 i Øksnehallen og på Kunstakademiets...... Arkitektskole. Bogen  har 3 dele. Principles: Copenhagen Agenda for Sustainable Living, 10 principper udviklet af Ugebrevet Mandag Morgen illustreret af arkitektstuderende. Congress: Futures of Cities, Emerging Urbanisms- Emerging Practices, oplæg fra unge tegnestuer til temaet fremlagt på Student Congress...

  16. Smart city – future city? smart city 20 as a livable city and future market

    CERN Document Server

    Etezadzadeh, Chirine

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a livable smart city presented in this book highlights the relevance of the functionality and integrated resilience of viable cities of the future. It critically examines the progressive digitalization that is taking place and identifies the revolutionized energy sector as the basis of urban life. The concept is based on people and their natural environment, resulting in a broader definition of sustainability and an expanded product theory. Smart City 2.0 offers its residents many opportunities and is an attractive future market for innovative products and services. However, it presents numerous challenges for stakeholders and product developers.

  17. The guide to greening cities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnston, Sadhu Aufochs

    2013-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 CHAPTER 3. Leading in the Community: Using City Assets, Policy, Partnerships, and Persuasion . . Case in Point: Returning to Green City Roots and Loving El...

  18. Metals in soils adjacent to avenues of highly dense traffic of Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ticianelli, Regina B.; Ribeiro, Andreza P.; Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Nammoura-Neto, Georges M.; Silva, Nathalia C.

    2009-01-01

    Sao Paulo is the largest city in Brazil with about 19 millions of inhabitants in the metropolitan area, more than 8 million motor vehicles and strong industrial activity at the metropolitan region, which are responsible for increasing pollution in the region. Nevertheless, there is little information on metal contents in the metropolitan region soils, which would be very useful as a fingerprint of the environmental pollution. The present study aimed to determine As, Ba, Co, Cr, Sb and Zn concentrations in soils adjacent to avenues of highly dense traffic downtown Sao Paulo city: Consolacao/Reboucas Avenues; 23 de Maio Avenue and Tiradentes Avenue, to assess their possible sources and potential environmental impact. The analytical technique employed was Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The results show metal concentration levels higher than the values reference values for soils of Sao Paulo, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State Sao Paulo (CETESB) guidelines. As, Ba and Zn showed concentration levels above the Intervention Values in some points, indicating direct or indirect potential risks to human health. The traffic related element Ba, Sb and Zn presented concentrations above the Prevention Values in points with high density traffic and may be associated to vehicular emissions. (author)

  19. CA-Markov Analysis of Constrained Coastal Urban Growth Modeling: Hua Hin Seaside City, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Shrestha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Thailand, a developing country in Southeast Asia, is experiencing rapid development, particularly urban growth as a response to the expansion of the tourism industry. Hua Hin city provides an excellent example of an area where urbanization has flourished due to tourism. This study focuses on how the dynamic urban horizontal expansion of the seaside city of Hua Hin is constrained by the coast, thus making sustainability for this popular tourist destination—managing and planning for its local inhabitants, its visitors, and its sites—an issue. The study examines the association of land use type and land use change by integrating Geo-Information technology, a statistic model, and CA-Markov analysis for sustainable land use planning. The study identifies that the land use types and land use changes from the year 1999 to 2008 have changed as a result of increased mobility; this trend, in turn, has everything to do with urban horizontal expansion. The changing sequences of land use type have developed from forest area to agriculture, from agriculture to grassland, then to bare land and built-up areas. Coastal urban growth has, for a decade, been expanding horizontally from a downtown center along the beach to the western area around the golf course, the southern area along the beach, the southwest grassland area, and then the northern area near the airport.

  20. U, TH and lanthanides in street soils of Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ticianelli, R.B.; Ribeiro, A.P.; Figueiredo, A.M.G.; Zanh, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    The study of lanthanide distribution in urban environments has become of interest over the last years, due to the increased industrial use of these elements. Sao Paulo is the 6th largest metropolitan region of the world, with about 20 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, more than 9 million motor vehicles and intense industrial activity. There is little information on U, Th, and lanthanide contents in urban soils, and there are as of yet no reference values for these elements in soils of Sao Paulo city. The present study aimed to determine U, Th and lanthanide concentrations in soils adjacent to avenues of highly dense traffic downtown in Sao Paulo city, to assess their possible sources and potential environmental impacts. The analytical technique employed was Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Th and U levels ranged from 4.0 to 37.0 mg kg -1 and from 1.6 to 18.7 mg kg -1 , respectively. These values are higher than literature values for U and Th in Brazilian superficial soils. The results obtained for the lanthanides indicate enrichment in La and Ce. However, a possible anthropogenic source should be investigated since high background values of these elements may be associated to the natural geological composition of the soils. (author)

  1. Postsovkhoz City & Postsovkhoz Person

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Põlvamaal Moostes mõtte- ja keskkonnakunstitalgud "Postsovkhoz City" ja "Postsovkhoz Person". Näha saab endistesse tööstushoonetesse ülespandud näitusi ja installatsioone. 11. VIII esinejad, ettekanded.

  2. OpenCities Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Open Cities Project aims to catalyze the creation, management and use of open data to produce innovative solutions for urban planning and resilience challenges...

  3. Access to the city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Manja Hoppe; Møller-Jensen, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    This paper is concerned with access to the city for urban residents living in the periphery of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The paper presents an analysis of the mobility practices of residents and investigates the mobility constraints they experience in relation to the limited accessibility provided...... mobility and access to the city for residents in the periphery. Regular mobility is an ingrained part of residents' livelihood strategies. The majority of households rely on one or more members regularly travelling to central parts of the city in relation to their livelihood activities. The analysis...... by road and traffic conditions and highlights how accessibility problems of peripheral settlements are not easily understood separately from the general dysfunctions of the overall mobility system of city....

  4. City sewer collectors biocorrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksiażek, Mariusz

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the biocorrosion of city sewer collectors impregnated with special polymer sulphur binders, polymerized sulphur, which is applied as the industrial waste material. The city sewer collectors are settled with a colony of soil bacteria which have corrosive effects on its structure. Chemoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria utilize the residues of halites (carbamide) which migrate in the city sewer collectors, due to the damaged dampproofing of the roadway and produce nitrogen salts. Chemoorganotrophic bacteria utilize the traces of organic substrates and produce a number of organic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, citric, oxalic and other). The activity of microorganisms so enables the origination of primary and secondary salts which affect physical properties of concretes in city sewer collectors unfavourably.

  5. Towards Intelligently - Sustainable Cities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Salvati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the quest for achieving sustainable cities, Intelligent and Knowledge City Programmes (ICPs and KCPs represent cost-efficient strategies for improving the overall performance of urban systems. However, even though nobody argues on the desirability of making cities “smarter”, the fundamental questions of how and to what extent can ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement of urban sustainability lack a precise answer. In the attempt of providing a structured answer to these interrogatives, this paper presents a methodology developed for investigating the modalities through which ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement or urban sustainability. Results suggest that ICPs and KCPs efficacy lies in supporting cities achieve a sustainable urban metabolism through optimization, innovation and behavior changes.

  6. SmartCityWare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Nader; Al-Jaroodi, Jameela; Jawhar, Imad

    2017-01-01

    Smart cities are becoming a reality. Various aspects of modern cities are being automated and integrated with information and communication technologies to achieve higher functionality, optimized resources utilization, and management, and improved quality of life for the residents. Smart cities...... rely heavily on utilizing various software, hardware, and communication technologies to improve the operations in areas, such as healthcare, transportation, energy, education, logistics, and many others, while reducing costs and resources consumption. One of the promising technologies to support...... technology is Fog Computing, which extends the traditional Cloud Computing paradigm to the edge of the network to enable localized and real-time support for operating-enhanced smart city services. However, proper integration and efficient utilization of CoT and Fog Computing is not an easy task. This paper...

  7. Environment, gas and city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Here are given all the advantages of natural gas among the others energies sources to avoid air pollution in cities. Pollution, energy economy, energy control are actions of environmental policy of natural gas industry in France

  8. A New City.

    OpenAIRE

    Clay, Allyson

    1990-01-01

    Allyson Clay’s "Traces of a City in the Spaces Between Some People" is a series of twenty diptychs contrasting fabricated faux finishing with expressionist painting and text. The fabricated paint applications evoke city surfaces like concrete and granite; they also evoke modernist painting.  Unlike modernist painting, however, the faux surfaces are decorative and mechanically painted. The choice to have the surfaces fabricated serves to disrupt the egoism of modern abstraction and the im...

  9. Terraforming and the city

    OpenAIRE

    Pak, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Science fictional depictions of cities have explored a variety of utopian and dystopian modes of habitation and control that have fed into popular imagination regarding the shape of future societies. The intersection between terraforming, the adaptation of planetary landscapes, and the interfaces for these interventions into multiple environments (the city) have accrued new resonances in the contemporary context of climate change. This paper considers the ...

  10. Schizophrenia and city life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, G; David, A; Andréasson, S; Allebeck, P

    1992-07-18

    Prevalence of schizophrenia and rates of first admission to hospital for this disorder are higher in most modern industrialised cities, and in urban compared with rural areas. The "geographical drift" hypothesis (ie, most schizophrenics tend to drift into city areas because of their illness or its prodrome) has remained largely unchallenged. We have investigated the association between place of upbringing and the incidence of schizophrenia with data from a cohort of 49,191 male Swedish conscripts linked to the Swedish National Register of Psychiatric Care. The incidence of schizophrenia was 1.65 times higher (95% confidence interval 1.19-2.28) among men brought up in cities than in those who had had a rural upbringing. The association persisted despite adjustment for other factors associated with city life such as cannabis use, parental divorce, and family history of psychiatric disorder. This finding cannot be explained by the widely held notion that people with schizophrenia drift into cities at the beginning of their illness. We conclude that undetermined environmental factors found in cities increase the risk of schizophrenia.

  11. Cities within Cities: An Urbanization Approach in the Gulf Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bamakhrama, Salim Salah

    2015-01-01

    Within Dubai, nineteen out of the original 112 mega-projects carried the word city in their names, a phenomenon that is common in Gulf cities such as Dubai, Riyadh and Abu Dhabi. To further explore this phenomenon, this thesis focuses on three aspects that affect the dynamic relationship between the primary city and the cities within cities (sub-cities) in the Gulf region with special emphasis on Dubai. First, the naming problem of the sub-city illustrates why the tension between competing id...

  12. Transfer of Ni, Cr, Zn, Cu and 99mTc to plant biomass of Raphanus sativus L. Role of 125I-fulvic acid and the influence of different treatments on urban soil in Havana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana Romero, Jorge Luis; Diaz Velazquez, Alberto; Garcia Cespedes, Damaris; Lima Cazorla, Lazaro; Saborit Sanchez, Israel; Olivares Rieumont, Susana; Rivas, Edgar; Manduca, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The importance of studying the transfer of heavy metals from soil to plant biomass is a current scientific topic. The global economic changes have caused accelerated environmental degradation processes in urban soils, in which important amount of agricultural production is obtained. The application of 'ecological' techniques on these soils, including the use of vermicompost, is be-coming more and more extensive and common. The question is: Is always safe and pertinent to apply vermicompost to urban soils?. Hence the importance of studying the heavy metal mobility and bioavailability to plant biomass in these conditions. In the present work, using different analytical techniques, a sample of Havana urban soil is characterized by determination of ph, electrical conductivity, organic material content and the total and EDTA extractable Ni, Cr, Zn and Cu levels. Fulvic acid was extracted from vermicompost and chemically characterized as well as its ability to chelate metals. The conditional stability constant, K of the fulvic acid-copper complex at different ph values was determined (log K cond = 7.39) using size-exclusion chromatography method. The Ni, Cr, Zn and Cu transfer study was conducted using biomass of Raphanus sativus L. The result shows significative statistical agreement with proposed experimental design 2 4-1 and allowed us to recognize the significant positive influence of factors such as the addition of Cu as possible pollutant in soil, ph, addition of fulvic acid and the time of addition of fulvic acid (vermicompost) at different physiological stages of plant development in increasing the bioavailability of Cu into plant biomass studied. The application of radiochemical methods with the use of fulvic acid labeled with 99mTc and 125I respectively allowed to ratify the influence of the factors studied on the transfer of heavy metals into biomass in terms of urban soil. It was possible to determine that the fulvic acid acts as a heavy metals transporter in

  13. Violence in Advertisements in New York City Subway Stations: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H.; Fullwood, M. D.; LeBlanc, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Violence has become a public health concern in the United States. Violent visually stimulating content encompasses various techniques such as fear, humor, shock, or violence, to stimulate a response or appeal toward awareness of human emotion. Exposing impressionable youth to violent advertisements can be particularly problematic. This is especially true in places like New York City where violent crime is a prevalent problem. With annual ridership reaching over 1.7 billion in 2014, the New York City subway system is abundant with advertisements. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the frequency and type of violent advertising on the Lexington Avenue/East Side Line in New York City, running through the Bronx and Manhattan to represent the lower and higher median income earning boroughs. There were no statistically different findings in median household income at site of station by number of ads or source of violent. Destruction was the most common form of violence (n = 32, 42.7 %) followed by intent to strike (n = 18, 24 %), showing a weapon (n = 15, 20 %) and horror (n = 10, 13.3 %). Most ads (n = 46, 61.3 %) were found in stations heading uptown toward and through the Bronx, the borough where median household income is lowest, whereas 29 (38.7 %) were found in stations heading downtown. Future studies could focus on additional boroughs and subways lines, and could be collected at multiple points in time to determine of how prevalent violent advertising is throughout New York City and at different time frames. PMID:26518776

  14. Violence in Advertisements in New York City Subway Stations: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Fullwood, M D; LeBlanc, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Violence has become a public health concern in the United States. Violent visually stimulating content encompasses various techniques such as fear, humor, shock, or violence, to stimulate a response or appeal toward awareness of human emotion. Exposing impressionable youth to violent advertisements can be particularly problematic. This is especially true in places like New York City where violent crime is a prevalent problem. With annual ridership reaching over 1.7 billion in 2014, the New York City subway system is abundant with advertisements. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the frequency and type of violent advertising on the Lexington Avenue/East Side Line in New York City, running through the Bronx and Manhattan to represent the lower and higher median income earning boroughs. There were no statistically different findings in median household income at site of station by number of ads or source of violent. Destruction was the most common form of violence (n = 32, 42.7 %) followed by intent to strike (n = 18, 24 %), showing a weapon (n = 15, 20 %) and horror (n = 10, 13.3 %). Most ads (n = 46, 61.3 %) were found in stations heading uptown toward and through the Bronx, the borough where median household income is lowest, whereas 29 (38.7 %) were found in stations heading downtown. Future studies could focus on additional boroughs and subways lines, and could be collected at multiple points in time to determine of how prevalent violent advertising is throughout New York City and at different time frames.

  15. AmpaCity. Superconducting cables and fault current limiters for the energy supply in conurbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merschel, F.; Noe, M.; Stemmle, M.; Hobl, A.; Sauerbach, O.

    2013-01-01

    In 2013 RWE Germany is working jointly with cable manufacturer Nexans and with the scientific support of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) to install world's longest superconducting cable in the downtown area electricity grid of Essen. The AmpaCity project is partly funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology and is playing an exemplary role in the further development of electricity grids in major cities worldwide. The project consortium presents AmpaCity as a convincing system solution especially with respect to economics and security of supply. Components of the system are a superconducting three-phase AC cable with two terminations and one connection joint in combination with a fault current limiter, which is also based on superconducting materials. The superconducting system is designed for 10 kV nominal voltage and 40 MW nominal power. It will replace a 110 kV cable system of equal capacity. At the same time, the project partners are paving the way for high failsafe performance, as the cable in conjunction with the fault current limiter cannot be overloaded by short circuit currents in the event of faults in the grid. Planning and follow up on the civil works in Essen posed a major challenge. Cable laying in the inner city, with various crossings of major highways, tramways, as well as already dense cable routes necessitated very thorough preparation and coordination. The civil works in Essen started in April 2013. At around the same time, after the cable had passed the type test, it went into production. Cable laying is scheduled for late summer. After commissioning, planned for the end of 2013, the field trial will run for at least two years under real grid conditions, to demonstrate this technology's suitability for wider deployment.

  16. City of Phoenix - Energize Phoenix Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laloudakis, Dimitrios J.

    2014-09-29

    Energize Phoenix (EPHX) was designed as an ambitious, large-scale, three-year pilot program to provide energy efficiency upgrades in buildings, along Phoenix’s new Light Rail Corridor – part of a federal effort to reduce energy consumption and stimulate job growth, while simultaneously reducing the country’s carbon footprint and promoting a shift towards a green economy. The program was created through a 2010 competitive grant awarded to the City of Phoenix who managed the program in partnership with Arizona State University (ASU), the state’s largest university, and Arizona Public Service (APS), the state’s largest electricity provider. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP) and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 provided $25M in funding for the EPHX program. The Light Rail Corridor runs through the heart of downtown Phoenix, making most high-rise and smaller commercial buildings eligible to participate in the EPHX program, along with a diverse mix of single and multi-family residential buildings. To ensure maximum impact and deeper market penetration, Energize Phoenix was subdivided into three unique parts: i. commercial rebate program, ii. commercial financing program, and iii. residential program Each component was managed by the City of Phoenix in partnership with APS. Phoenix was fortunate to partner with APS, which already operated robust commercial and residential rebate programs within its service territory. Phoenix tapped into the existing utility contractor network, provided specific training to over 100 contracting firms, and leveraged the APS rebate program structure (energy efficiency funding) to launch the EPHX commercial and residential rebate programs. The commercial finance program was coordinated and managed through a contract with National Bank of Arizona, NBAZ, which also provided project capital leveraging EPHX finance funds. Working in unison, approved contractors

  17. City marketing: online communication plan for the city of Lisbon

    OpenAIRE

    Altrichter, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Mestrado em Marketing City Marketing represents marketing efforts of cities in order to attract more visitors. Today, we are confronted everyday with marketing campaigns in all different communication media promoting countries, cities or events. Cities are competing for visitors on a global scale, forcing them to adapt successful marketing strategies for gaining and retaining costumers. Yet, City Marketing still remains an unknown chapter for a big part of the general public an...

  18. Its System to Manage Parking Supply: Considerations on Application to the “Ring” in the City of Brescia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Bulferetti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Brescia’s downtown is outlined by link roads built up at the Venetian walls, known as “Ring. The “Ring” is characterized by high traffic flows, as well as by the presence of several paid parking lots located on and off street. Furthermore, several facilities are located on these link roads. Nowadays city of Brescia is equipped with an ITS system able to manage off street parking spaces, allowing the share of information about parking availability to potential users, through the use of variable message panels. The parking supply issue and its management are strongly felt by citizens, as well as many other cities communities, whether European or not. This contribution aims to encourage an integration of the existing ITS system for the off street parking management with additional devices, which allow to manage also the on street paid parking supply located on “Ring” roads. The minimization of so-called “shared traffic” component of traffic flows, as well as the increase of road safety, in the context of a medium-sized Italian city are the main objectives of the ITS system integration. ITS asset chosen for the Brescia case study springs from the analysis of some non-European experiences about on street parking management (for example, San Francisco and Boston and certainly can be considered suitable for the parking supply management of the whole city. It could become the main starting point in Italian cities for the application of performance based parking pricing, widely experienced in many U.S. cities.

  19. In situ monitoring of mutagenicity of air pollutants in São Paulo City using Tradescantia-SHM bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Maria Izildinha

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tradescantia stamen hair mutation assay (Trad-SHM was employed for assessing the environmental mutagenesis in two areas of São Paulo City. The study sites were defined as follows: 1 Celso Garcia Avenue, an industrial area on the outskirts of the urban center (Belém neighborhood, with an average daily traffic volume of 8,750 vehicles; 2 Doutor Arnaldo Avenue, in downtown area (Pinheiros neighborhood, with a mostly residential and business offices occupation, with an average daily traffic volume of 46,125 vehicles. The negative control (background site is located in the city of Jaguariúna, 138 km from São Paulo, in an area of low atmospheric pollution. The mutation frequency observed for Belém was similar to the background for clone 4430, whereas plants exposed in Pinheiros showed significant increases in mutation rate. Positive correlation was observed between mutation frequency and the levels of particulate matter in the atmosphere. This indicated a relationship between mutation frequency and the amount of atmospheric pollution present at the exposure sites in São Paulo City, with special reference to vehicular emissions.

  20. Universities scale like cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony F J van Raan

    Full Text Available Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross university income' in terms of total number of citations over 'size' in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities--the top-100 European universities--we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

  1. Universities scale like cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Raan, Anthony F J

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross university income' in terms of total number of citations over 'size' in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities--the top-100 European universities--we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

  2. Hamilton : the electric city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, R [Richard Gilbert Consultant, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2006-04-13

    The City of Hamilton has launched an extensive energy planning exercise that examines the possibility of steep increases in oil and natural gas prices. This report examined and illustrated the issue of oil and gas price points. The report also examined and presented the city's role in an era of energy constraints, focusing on the city's transit system and its vehicle fleet. In addition, in response to City Council's direction, the report presented the aerotropolis proposal and discussed freight transport issues. Specific topics of discussion included oil and natural gas prospects; prospects for high oil and natural gas prices; impacts of fuel price increases; strategic planning objectives for energy constraints; reducing energy use by Hamilton's transport and in buildings; and land-use planning for energy constraints. Energy production opportunities involve the use of solar energy; wind energy; deep lake water cooling (DLWC); hydro-electric power; energy from waste; biogas production; district energy; and local food production. Economic and social development through preparing for energy constraints and matters raised by city council were also presented. The report also demonstrated how an energy-based strategy could be paid for and its components approved. The next steps for Hamilton were also identified. refs., tabs., figs.

  3. Hamilton : the electric city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.

    2006-01-01

    The City of Hamilton has launched an extensive energy planning exercise that examines the possibility of steep increases in oil and natural gas prices. This report examined and illustrated the issue of oil and gas price points. The report also examined and presented the city's role in an era of energy constraints, focusing on the city's transit system and its vehicle fleet. In addition, in response to City Council's direction, the report presented the aerotropolis proposal and discussed freight transport issues. Specific topics of discussion included oil and natural gas prospects; prospects for high oil and natural gas prices; impacts of fuel price increases; strategic planning objectives for energy constraints; reducing energy use by Hamilton's transport and in buildings; and land-use planning for energy constraints. Energy production opportunities involve the use of solar energy; wind energy; deep lake water cooling (DLWC); hydro-electric power; energy from waste; biogas production; district energy; and local food production. Economic and social development through preparing for energy constraints and matters raised by city council were also presented. The report also demonstrated how an energy-based strategy could be paid for and its components approved. The next steps for Hamilton were also identified. refs., tabs., figs

  4. Geothermal energy systems plan for Boise City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This is a plan for development of a downtown Boise geothermal district space heating system incorporating legal, engineering, organizational, geological, and economic requirements. Topics covered include: resource characteristics, system design and feasibility, economic feasibility, legal overview, organizational alternatives, and conservation. Included in appendices are: property ownership patterns on the Boise Front, existing hot well data, legal briefs, environmental data, decision point communications, typical building heating system retrofit schematics, and background assumptions and data for cost summary. (MHR)

  5. Cities at Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke; Elming, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a community-driven science gaming project where students in collaboration with urban planners and youth project workers in the City of Copenhagen used Minecreaft to redesign their neighbourhood to generate solutions to problems in their local area. The project involved 25...... administrated by the City of Copenhagen. Resources were allocated for one of these projects to recondition the subsidized housing for this area. A community-driven science gaming process was designed in which overall challenges for redesign, defined by urban planners, were given to the students to highlight...... for redesigning the neighbourhood in Minecraft and LEGO. These were presented to City of Copenhagen architects and urban planners as well as the head of the Department of Transport, Technology and Environment. Overall the study showed that tasks focused on solving local living problems through neighbourhood...

  6. Mobilities, Futures & the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freudendal-Pedersen, Malene; Kesselring, Sven

    2016-01-01

    significant attention to these shifts in societies’ discursive patterns and structures. For making up powerful and strong visions and policies for sustainable cities, ‘collaborative storytelling’ plays a key role. The theoretical outset for the research project ‘Mobilities, Futures & the City’, which grounds......The future of cities and regions will be strongly shaped by the mobilities of people, goods, modes of transport, waste and information. In many ways, the ‘why and ‘for what’ often get lost in discourses on planning and designing mobilities. The predominant planning paradigm still conceptualizes...... the future of cities and mobilities as a matter of rather more efficient technologies than of social cohesion, integration and connectivity. Sustainable mobility needs the mobilities of ideas and concepts and the reflexivity of policies. Communicative planning theory and the ‘argumentative turn’ have given...

  7. The Meat City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the emergence of the Copenhagen slaughterhouse, called the Meat City, during the late nineteenth century. This slaughterhouse was a product of a number of heterogeneous components: industrialization and new infrastructures were important, but hygiene and the significance...... of Danish bacon exports also played a key role. In the Meat City, this created a distinction between rising production and consumption on the one hand, and the isolation and closure of the slaughtering facility on the other. This friction mirrored an ambivalent attitude towards meat in the urban space: one...... where consumers demanded more meat than ever before, while animals were being removed from the public eye. These contradictions, it is argued, illustrate and underline the change of the city towards a ‘post-domestic’ culture. The article employs a variety of sources, but primarily the Copenhagen...

  8. Innovation in City Governments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Jenny M; Ricard, Lykke Margot; Klijn, Erik Hans

    Innovation has become an important focus for governments around the world over the last decade, with greater pressure on governments to do more with less, and expanding community expectations. Some are now calling this ‘social innovation’ – innovation that is related to creating new services...... that have value for stakeholders (such as citizens) in terms of the social and political outcomes they produce. Innovation in City Governments: Structures, Networks, and Leadership establishes an analytical framework of innovation capacity based on three dimensions: Structure - national governance...... project in Copenhagen, Barcelona and Rotterdam. The book provides major new insights on how structures, networks and leadership in city governments shape the social innovation capacity of cities. It provides ground-breaking analyses of how governance structures and local socio-economic challenges...

  9. Urban Stage 2014: Navigating Relationships during a Collaboration between Local Businesses, Nonprofits, a Large University, and a Mid-Sized City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Driskill

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Urban Stage was constructed as a temporary urbanism project to demonstrate environmental, cultural, economic and social sustainability in an urban environment. One block of Avenue J in downtown Lubbock, Texas was constructed and activated between October 30 and November 7, 2014. This paper will focus on the collaboration and decision making processes between the City of Lubbock, Texas Tech University, and community organizations that enabled this project to take place. The collaborative process between these diverse entities was inherently complex by virtue of the existing organizational structures and complicated further by bureaucratic inertia, the bureaucratic avoidance of responsibility. Leadership actions at various levels of organizational structure were required in order to overcome this bureaucratic inertia and install the Urban Stage.

  10. Exposure to Rats and Rat-Associated Leptospira and Bartonella Species Among People Who Use Drugs in an Impoverished, Inner-City Neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVea, David A; Himsworth, Chelsea G; Patrick, David M; Lindsay, L Robbin; Kosoy, Michael; Kerr, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    Rat infestations are common, particularly in impoverished, inner-city neighborhoods. However, there has been little research into the nature and consequences of rat exposure in these neighborhoods, particularly in Canada. In this study, we sought to characterize exposure to rats and rat-associated Leptospira interrogans and Bartonella tribocorum, as well as risk factors associated with exposure, in residents (n = 202) of the Downtown Eastside (DTES) neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada. There was no evidence of exposure to rat-associated L. interrogans but 6/202 (3.0%) of participants were exposed to B. tribocorum, which is known to be circulating among DTES rats. We also found that frequent and close rat exposure was common among DTES residents, and that this exposure was particularly associated with injection drug use and outdoor income-generating activities (e.g., drug dealing). These risk factors may be good targets for interventions geared toward effectively reducing rat exposure.

  11. Prototyping a Smart City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Henrik; Brynskov, Martin

    In this paper, we argue that by approaching the so-called Smart City as a design challenge, and an interaction design perspective, it is possible to both uncover existing challenges in the interplay between people, technology and society, as well as prototype possible futures. We present a case...... in which we exposed data about the online communication between the citizens and the municipality on a highly visible media facade, while at the same time prototyped a tool that enabled citizens to report ‘bugs’ within the city....

  12. Temporal distribution and insecticide resistance profile of two major arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Yaoundé, the capital city of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamgang, Basile; Yougang, Aurelie P; Tchoupo, Micareme; Riveron, Jacob M; Wondji, Charles

    2017-10-10

    Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are the major epidemic vectors of several arbovirus diseases such as yellow fever, dengue, Zika and chikungunya worldwide. Both Aedes vectors are presents in Cameroon; however, knowledge on the dynamic of the distribution of these species across cities and their resistance profile to insecticide are limited. Here, we assessed the current distribution of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in Yaoundé, the Capital City, established the resistance profile to insecticides and explored the resistance mechanisms involved. Immature stages of Aedes were sampled in several breeding sites in December 2015 (dry season) and June 2016 (rainy season) in three central neighborhoods and four peripheral neighborhoods and reared to adult stage. The G0 adults were used for molecular identification and genotyping of F1534C mutation in Ae. aegypti. Bioassays and piperonyl butoxide (PBO) assays were carried out according to WHO guidelines. Analysis revealed that both species Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus are present in all prospected sites in Yaounde. However, in the dry season Ae. aegypti is most abundant in neighborhoods located in downtown. In contrast, Ae. albopictus was found most prevalent in suburbs whatever the season and in downtown during the rainy season. Bioassay analysis showed that both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, are resistant to 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.1% bendiocarb and 4% dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). A decreased of susceptibility to 0.75% permethrin and a full susceptibility to malathion 5% was observed. The mortality rate was increased after pre-exposure to synergist PBO. None of Ae. aegypti assayed revealed the presence of F1534C mutation. These findings are useful to planning vector control programme against arbovirus vectors in Cameroon and can be used as baseline in Africa where data on Aedes resistance is very scarce to plan further works.

  13. That City is Mine!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijendijk, Cordula

    2005-01-01

    This thesis is about urban ideal images. It is about dreams - not fictitious beliefs, but dreams that humankind can realize tomorrow. It is about images from intellectuals, pastry cooks, urban planners and firemen. About people who deeply care about their cities, about their hopes, frustrations,

  14. Cities Changing Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Andersen, Gregers Stig; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    for diabetes in Copenhagen. As part of the quantitative mapping phase of the Cities Changing Diabetes project in Copenhagen, a RoH analysis was conducted. The results of this analysis are summarized below. The figure shows that the ‘Halves’ rule does not generally apply for Copenhagen. On most of the levels...

  15. Transport for smart cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Buus; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2011-01-01

    ’ activities can be reached within the relative close distances of the city. However, urbanisation has also led to significant disadvantages, of which transport accounts for some of the most severe. Traffic accidents and emissions of air pollutants and noise take heavy tolls in terms of people killed...

  16. Towards Smart City Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Stan, Catalin; Wøldike, Niels Peter

    2015-01-01

    , the concept of smart city learning is exploited to situate learning about geometric shapes in concrete buildings and thus make them more accessible for younger children. In close collaboration with a local school a game for 3rd graders was developed and tested on a field trip and in class. A mixed measures...

  17. Feeding the Sustainable City

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    often spending three-quarters of what little income is available to ... whose time had come — again. The Research: ... of ideas, technology, and results. and the ... 20 % of the cities' organic waste. □ ... There is also a need for more education.

  18. Sound propagation in cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.; Polinder, H.; Lohman, W.; Zhou, H.; Borst, H.

    2009-01-01

    A new engineering model for sound propagation in cities is presented. The model is based on numerical and experimental studies of sound propagation between street canyons. Multiple reflections in the source canyon and the receiver canyon are taken into account in an efficient way, while weak

  19. City model enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Philip D.; Quinn, Jonathan A.; Jones, Christopher B.

    The combination of mobile communication technology with location and orientation aware digital cameras has introduced increasing interest in the exploitation of 3D city models for applications such as augmented reality and automated image captioning. The effectiveness of such applications is, at present, severely limited by the often poor quality of semantic annotation of the 3D models. In this paper, we show how freely available sources of georeferenced Web 2.0 information can be used for automated enrichment of 3D city models. Point referenced names of prominent buildings and landmarks mined from Wikipedia articles and from the OpenStreetMaps digital map and Geonames gazetteer have been matched to the 2D ground plan geometry of a 3D city model. In order to address the ambiguities that arise in the associations between these sources and the city model, we present procedures to merge potentially related buildings and implement fuzzy matching between reference points and building polygons. An experimental evaluation demonstrates the effectiveness of the presented methods.

  20. The City Street

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.C. van der Wouden

    1999-01-01

    Original title: De stad op straat. The city street; the public space in perspective (De stad op straat; de openbare ruimte in perspectief) by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP is intended to contribute to the formation of new ideas about the public space and the future of

  1. Summer in the City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the different experiences of the participants in an Outward Bound-sponsored "urban expedition" to New York City that was designed to make them better teachers by examining their beliefs and biases. The participants in this "urban expedition" came from schools that work with Outward Bound USA, the…

  2. WE LOVE THE CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    With a point of departure in amongst others the Danish office of ADEPT’s approach, ‘The city in the building and the building in the city’ (ADEPT 2012), it is consequently the aim of this article to show how workshops can help shape and develop a spatial and architectural approach to form finding...

  3. Making Cities Green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Neil B.; Engel, Jane

    1981-01-01

    Describes several examples of urban parks and the renewal of city open spaces. Community groups interested in getting funding from government or private sources must cope with budget restrictions by making effective, innovative use of available money. Government agencies with funds allocated for urban improvements are mentioned. (AM)

  4. Accepted into Education City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquith, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Qatar's Education City, perhaps the world's most diverse campus, is almost entirely unknown in the United States, but represents the next step in the globalization of American higher education--international franchising. Aided by technology such as online libraries, distance learning and streaming video, U.S. universities offer--and charge tuition…

  5. Bug City: Beetles [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  6. Bug City: Bees [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  7. Bug City: Ants [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic…

  8. City of open works

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riesto, Svava; Søberg, Martin; Braae, Ellen Marie

    2012-01-01

    Cities change – and so do the tasks and agendas of landscapes architects. New types of urban schemes are increasingly arising. On the one hand, new sorts of commissions have emerged in recent years – on the other hand, traditional commissions have been interpreted in radically new ways. These con...

  9. Less Smart More City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Papa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Smart is an expression used in recent years in science, and it refers to someone or something that shows a lively intelligence, with a quick learning curve and a fast response to external stimuli. The present scenario is dominated by the accelerated technological development that involves every aspect of life, enhancing the everyday tools through the use of information and digital processing: everything is smart, even cities. But when you pair the term smart to a complex organism such as the city the significance of the two together is open to a variety of interpretations, as shown by the vast and varied landscape of definitions that have occurred in recent years. Our contribution presents the results of research aimed at analyzing and interpreting this fragmented scene mainly, but not exclusively, through lexical analysis, applied to a textual corpus of 156 definitions of smart city. In particular, the study identified the main groups of stakeholders that have taken part in the debate, and investigated the differences and convergences that can be detected: Academic, Institutional, and Business worlds. It is undeniable that the term smart has been a veritable media vehicle that, on the one hand brought to the center of the discussion the issue of the city, of increasing strategic importance for the major challenges that humanity is going to face,  and on the other has been a fertile ground on which to pour the interests of different groups and individuals. In a nutshell we can say that from the analysis the different approaches that each group has used and supported emerge clearly and another, alarming, consideration occurs: of the smart part of “Smart City” we clearly grasp the tools useful to the each group of stakeholders, and of the city part, as a collective aspiration, there is often little or nothing.

  10. ANÁLISIS DE LA CADENA DE VALOR HORTOFRUTÍCOLA DEL MUNICIPIO MARIANAO EN LA HABANA, CUBA / FRUITS AND VEGETABLES SUPPLY CHAIN ANALYSIS IN MARIANAO MUNICIPALITY AT HAVANA, CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Acevedo-Suárez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available En Cuba, el funcionamiento de las redes hortofrutícolas se rigen por la estructura del Ministerio de la Agricultura denominada Operación Producción-Acopio-Comercialización, que va desde un Puesto de Dirección Nacional hasta los municipales. De manera que, de la semilla al plato, las futas y vegetales fluyen por redes que reflejan su eficiencia en la disponibilidad en los mercados municipales. El objetivo general que plantea este estudio es analizar la estructura y funcionamiento de la cadena de valor hortofrutícola del municipio Marianao en La Habana, Cuba. La investigación abordará la identificación de eslabones y actores de esta cadena, la evaluación con los Modelos de Referencia de la Logística y Red de Valor y un análisis causa-efecto de los problemas de esta red. El resultado permite identificar la problemática municipal para proponer estrategias de mejoramiento en función de los elementos de las redes de valor.AbstractIn Cuba, the fruits and vegetables supply chain works with the structure established by the Ministry of Agriculture, named Production-Distribution-Sale Operation, which includes national directions to municipal management. So from the plant to the plate, fruits and vegetables flow through chains that reflect their efficiency on the availability in municipality markets. The general objective of this study is to analyze the structure and operation of the fruits and vegetables supply chain in Marianao municipality at Havana, Cuba. This investigation deals with the identification of the different links and members of this supply chain, its evaluation based on the Reference Models of Logistic and Value Chain and a cause-effect analysis about the problems in the above mentioned chain. The results permit to identify the problems of this municipality and to propose strategies in order to improve the situation, based on the elements of the supply chain.

  11. Características de las fallas en alimentadores de 13,8 kV del sistema soterrado de La Habana;Characteristic of 13,8 kV feeders faults of the Havana underground system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Alba - Valle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El sistema soterrado de La Habana enfrenta problemas de continuas fallas en sus alimentadores de 13,8 kV. En este trabajo se determinan las características de estas averías, en el período comprendido entre los años 2007 y 2009, y se proponen algunas medidas objetivas con el fin de contribuir a su disminución. La investigación se basó fundamentalmente en el estudio de la base de datos de los alimentadores de 13,8 kV proporcionada por el departamento técnico de la Unidad Empresarial Básica (UEB Soterrada y en el uso de herramientas estadísticas digitales. Como resultado se pudo constatar que las fallas son más frecuentes en los alimentadores de la subestación de Tallapiedra producto de la humedad en cables y empalmes con aislamiento de PILC (papel impregnado en aceite y con cubierta de plomo, dispuestos por tierra muerta. Finalmente, las medidas propuestas tuvieron un impacto positivo en la disminución de estas fallas, en un período inferior a un año.The Havana underground system has problems of continuous faults in their 13,8 kV feeders. In this article the characteristics of these mishaps in the period of 2007 to 2009 are determined and purpose some objective measurements with the end of contributing to their decrease. The investigation was fundamentally based on the study of the 13,8 kV feeders database proportioned by the technical department of the Underground Basic Managerial Unit (UEB and the use of digital statistical tools. As a result, it was verified that the faults occur with more frequency in the Tallapiedra substation feeders, due to the humidity in cables and connections with PILC isolation (impregnated in oil and lead covered paper, prepared for undergrounding directly in the earth. Finally, the proposed measures had a positive impact in the decrease of these faults, in a period less than to a year.

  12. Hackable Cities : From Subversive City Making to Systemic Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, M.L.; de Waal, Martijn; Foth, Marcus; Verhoeff, Nanna; Martin, Brynskov

    2015-01-01

    The DC9 workshop takes place on June 27, 2015 in Limerick, Ireland and is titled "Hackable Cities: From Subversive City Making to Systemic Change". The notion of "hacking" originates from the world of media technologies but is increasingly often being used for creative ideals and practices of city

  13. Focus Cities : Urban Waste Management in the City of Cochabamba ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Focus Cities : Urban Waste Management in the City of Cochabamba (Bolivia). The city of ... Project status. Closed ... Studies. Inclusión social y económica de los recicladores en la gestión integrada de los residuos sólidos urbanos. 49088.

  14. Smart mobility in smart cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baucells, Aleta N.

    2016-07-01

    Cities are currently undergoing a transformation into the Smart concept, like Smartphones or SmartTV. Many initiatives are being developed in the framework of the Smart Cities projects, however, there is a lack of consistent indicators and methodologies to assess, finance, prioritize and implement this kind of projects. Smart Cities projects are classified according to six axes: Government, Mobility, Environment, Economy, People and Living. (Giffinger, 2007). The main objective of this research is to develop an evaluation model in relation to the mobility concept as one of the six axes of the Smart City classification and apply it to the Spanish cities. The evaluation was carried out in the 62 cities that made up in September 2015 the Spanish Network of Smart Cities (RECI- Red Española de Ciudades Inteligentes). This research is part of a larger project about Smart Cities’ evaluation (+CITIES), the project evaluates RECI’s cities in all the axes. The analysis was carried out taking into account sociodemographic indicators such as the size of the city or the municipal budget per inhabitant. The mobility’s evaluation in those cities has been focused in: sustainability mobility urban plans and measures to reduce the number of vehicles. The 62 cities from the RECI have been evaluated according to their degree of progress in several Smart Cities’ initiatives related to smart mobility. The applied methodology has been specifically made for this project. The grading scale has different ranks depending on the deployment level of smart cities’ initiatives. (Author)

  15. Funding Sustainable Cities in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhan, C.

    2018-01-01

    Currently, more and more people live in cities, and this leads to an enormous increase in global GHG emissions. Cities are blamed for the cause of environmental problems. Therefore, countries over the world aim to approach these problems by launching sustainable city programs. On April 22, 2016,

  16. The Carbon City Index (CCI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Straatman, Bas; Mangalagiu, Diana

    This paper presents a consumption-based Carbon City Index for CO2 emissions in a city. The index is derived from regional consumption and not from regional production. It includes imports and exports of emissions, factual emission developments, green investments as well as low carbon city...

  17. The Emergence of City Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Britta; Aastrup, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Many city logistics projects in Europe have failed. The purpose of this article is to increase understanding of how city logistics emerge. A better understanding of the complex organizational processes with many actors and stakeholders in city logistics projects may prevent further failu...

  18. Hellenistic Cities in the Levant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Eva

    2011-01-01

    By far the most of our knowledge on the Hellenistic cities of the Levant comes from the written sources - often combined with numismatic evidence - whereas archaeological discoveries of the Hellenistic layers of the cities are scarce. However, in Beirut excavations have shown interesting results...... in the last decades, for which reason this city is examined further in the article....

  19. Smart City trends and ambitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wijs, Lisanne; Witte, P.A.; de Klerk, Daniel; Geertman, S.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Research into smart city projects and applications has been increasing in recent years (Meijer & Bolivar, 2015). The smart city concept is mostly considered from a technology-oriented perspective that stresses the usage of data technologies, big data and ICT to ‘smarten up’ cities. In contrast,

  20. Example from Ilorin City, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2013-01-28

    Jan 28, 2013 ... Abstract. Ilorin is one of the major cities in Nigeria today and its growing strength in ... any city growth and development. ... The study area ... road network resulting in the city enveloping many of the smaller settlements .... Emerging Communities: A case of a Local Government Area of ... Regional Planning.

  1. [Simulation of air pollution characteristics and estimates of environmental capacity in Zibo City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wen-Bo; Wang, Jin-Nan; Yang, Jin-Tian; Lei, Yu; Yan, Li; He, Jin-Yu; Han, Bao-Ping

    2013-04-01

    To develop a new pattern of air pollution control that is based on the integration of "concentration control, total amount control, and quality control", and in the context of developing national (2011-2015 air pollution control plan for key areas) and (Environmental protection plan of Zibo municipality for the "12th Five-Year Plan" period), a simulation of atmospheric dispersion of air pollutants in Zibo City and its peripheral areas is carried out by employing CALPUFF model, and the atmospheric environmental capacity of SO2, NO(x) and PM10 is estimated based on the results of model simulation and using multi-objective linear programming optimization. The results indicates that the air pollution in Zibo City is significantly related to the pollution sources outside of Zibo City, which contributes to the annual average concentration of SO2, NO2 and PM10 in Zibo City by 26.34%, 21.23%, and 14.58% respectively. There is a notable interaction between districts and counties of Zibo municipality, in which the contribution of SO2, NO(x) and PM10 emissions in surrounding counties and districts to the annual average concentrations of SO2, NO2 and PM10 in downtown area are 35.96%, 43.17%, and 17.69% respectively. There is a great variation in spatial sensitivity of air pollutant emission, and the environmental impact of unit pollutant emissions from Zhoucun, Huantai, Zhangdian and Zichuan is greater than that released from other districts/counties. To meet the requirement of (Ambient air quality standard) (GB 3095-2012), the environmental capacities of SO2, NO(x) and PM10 of Zibo City are only 8.03 x 10(4) t, 19.16 x 10(4) t and 3.21 x 10(4) t, respectively. Therefore, it is imperative to implement regional air pollution joint control in Shandong peninsula in order to ensure the achievement of air quality standard in Zibo City.

  2. Spatial and temporal variability of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Thornhill

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of the Megacities Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO study in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area in March 2006, we measured particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and other gaseous species and particulate properties, including light absorbing carbon or effective black carbon (BC, at six locations throughout the city. The measurements were intended to support the following objectives: to describe spatial and temporal patterns in PAH concentrations, to gain insight into sources and transformations of PAHs and BC, and to quantify the relationships between PAHs and other pollutants. Total particulate PAHs at the Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo (T0 supersite located near downtown averaged 50 ng m−3, and aerosol active surface area averaged 80 mm2 m−3. PAHs were also measured on board the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory, which visited six sites encompassing a mixture of different land uses and a range of ages of air parcels transported from the city core. A combination of analyses of time series, back trajectories, concentration fields, pollutant ratios, and correlation coefficients supports the concept of T0 as an urban source site, T1 as a receptor site with strong local sources, Pedregal and PEMEX as intermediate sites, Pico Tres Padres as a vertical receptor site, and Santa Ana as a downwind receptor site. Weak intersite correlations suggest that local sources are important and variable and that exposure to PAHs and BC cannot be represented by a single regional-scale value. The relationships between PAHs and other pollutants suggest that a variety of sources and ages of particles are present. Among carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides (NOx, and carbon dioxide, particulate PAHs are most strongly correlated with NOx. Mexico City's PAH/BC mass ratio of 0.01 is similar to that found on a freeway loop in the Los Angeles area and approximately 8–30

  3. Spatial and temporal variability of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, D. A.; de Foy, B.; Herndon, S. C.; Onasch, T. B.; Wood, E. C.; Zavala, M.; Molina, L. T.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Marr, L. C.

    2008-06-01

    As part of the Megacities Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) study in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area in March 2006, we measured particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other gaseous species and particulate properties, including light absorbing carbon or effective black carbon (BC), at six locations throughout the city. The measurements were intended to support the following objectives: to describe spatial and temporal patterns in PAH concentrations, to gain insight into sources and transformations of PAHs and BC, and to quantify the relationships between PAHs and other pollutants. Total particulate PAHs at the Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo (T0 supersite) located near downtown averaged 50 ng m-3, and aerosol active surface area averaged 80 mm2 m-3. PAHs were also measured on board the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory, which visited six sites encompassing a mixture of different land uses and a range of ages of air parcels transported from the city core. A combination of analyses of time series, back trajectories, concentration fields, pollutant ratios, and correlation coefficients supports the concept of T0 as an urban source site, T1 as a receptor site with strong local sources, Pedregal and PEMEX as intermediate sites, Pico Tres Padres as a vertical receptor site, and Santa Ana as a downwind receptor site. Weak intersite correlations suggest that local sources are important and variable and that exposure to PAHs and BC cannot be represented by a single regional-scale value. The relationships between PAHs and other pollutants suggest that a variety of sources and ages of particles are present. Among carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides (NOx), and carbon dioxide, particulate PAHs are most strongly correlated with NOx. Mexico City's PAH/BC mass ratio of 0.01 is similar to that found on a freeway loop in the Los Angeles area and approximately 8 30 times higher than that found in other cities. Evidence also suggests that primary

  4. The Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Jensen, Ole B.; Kiib, Hans

    2009-01-01

      The article take its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun...... and cultural experience are emerging. In the discussion of the transformation into the ‘experience economy' relevant to cities and urban areas we rarely find an analysis of the physical and spatial implications of this transformation. However, the physical, cultural and democratic consequences...... clear goals related to the improvement of social interaction, performance and cultural exchange. The article contains three sections. in section one, we present three European cases in order to relate to the wider international debate and development. In section two we present the main theoretical...

  5. WE LOVE THE CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRAKTISTAN 2011 og udstillingen WE LOVE THE CITY på Utzon Centeret i Aalborg vil vi derfor gerne vise alle, der færdes i byen og bruger dens arkitektur, at der i Urban design fagligheden er et potentiale. Både for de der bruger byen og for dem der udøver arkitekturen med en stærk urban intention i det skala...

  6. Practicing the Generic (City)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2010-01-01

    Flanagan proposes that most locative media artworks neglect the particularities of spaces, their historical and political layers. Koolhaas, on the other hand, states that all urban areas are alike, that we are facing a global Generic City. The paper analyses digital media artist Esther Polak......’s NomadicMILK project in light of the generic and particular properties of space as laid out by Flanagan and Koolhaas in order to discuss the possible reconfiguring practices of locative media....

  7. Limerick, City and County

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Postcard. Colour drawings of maps of Limerick city and county and Foynes - transatlantic air base flying boat, Dromore Castle, Glenstal Abbey, Ardagh Chalice, Askeaton; the Abbey, Gate Loge Adare Manor, Newcastlewest, King John's Castle, St. Mary's Cathedral (Church of Ireland), The Old Custom House, The Hunt Museum, The Old Mill and Bridge croom, The Coll (de Valera) Cottage Buree, Town Gate Kilmallock, Lough Gur Interpretive Centre, Hospital Ancient hostelry and The Treaty Stone. Copyright ...

  8. Smart city analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Casper; Hansen, Christian; Alstrup, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    We present an ensemble learning method that predicts large increases in the hours of home care received by citizens. The method is supervised, and uses different ensembles of either linear (logistic regression) or non-linear (random forests) classifiers. Experiments with data available from 2013 ...... is very useful when full records are not accessible or available. Smart city analytics does not necessarily require full city records. To our knowledge this preliminary study is the first to predict large increases in home care for smart city analytics.......We present an ensemble learning method that predicts large increases in the hours of home care received by citizens. The method is supervised, and uses different ensembles of either linear (logistic regression) or non-linear (random forests) classifiers. Experiments with data available from 2013...... to 2017 for every citizen in Copenhagen receiving home care (27,775 citizens) show that prediction can achieve state of the art performance as reported in similar health related domains (AUC=0.715). We further find that competitive results can be obtained by using limited information for training, which...

  9. URBAN DISPLACEMENT AND LOW-INCOME COMMUNITIES: THE CASE OF THE AMERICAN CITY FROM THE LATE TWENTIETH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Knight

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available How can urban redevelopment benefit existing low-income communities? The history of urban redevelopment is one of disruption of poor communities. Renewal historically offered benefits to the place while pushing out the people. In some cases, displacement is intentional, in others it is unintentional. Often, it is the byproduct of the quest for profits. Regardless of motives, traditional communities, defined by cultural connections, are often disrupted. Disadvantaged neighborhoods include vacant units, which diminish the community and hold back investment. In the postwar period, American cities entered into a program of urban renewal. While this program cleared blight, it also drove displacement among the cities’ poorest and was particularly hard on minority populations clustered in downtown slums. The consequences of these decisions continue to play out today. Concentration of poverty is increasing and American cities are becoming more segregated. As neighborhoods improve, poorer residents are uprooted and forced into even more distressed conditions, elsewhere. This paper examines the history of events impacting urban communities. It further reviews the successes and failures of efforts to benefit low-income communities.

  10. Towards what kind of city?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Coletta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The virtual city exists in “time” whereas the real city exists in “space”. The first one is an expression of our imagination, the second one of our ability to create. Time has articulated the images of cities as artisan philosophers, historians, artists, dreamers and even poets have given it to us. Space has generated cities which have been worked upon by geographers, geologists, surveyors, and finally urban planners. Space and time however live together in both cities, even if with alternating states of subordination. The culture of thinking, of decision making and of working is the unifying center of both the cities; it is the generating element both of the crises and the prosperity of the cities and it works towards an overcoming of the first and for the pursuit of the second (prosperity using the experience of the past for the making of a better future.

  11. The Emergence of City Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Britta

    2015-01-01

    is therefore to increase understanding of how city logistics emerge, and secondarily, to investigate whether such processes can be managed at all. Design/methodology/approach: – A paradigm shift in urban planning creates new ways of involving stakeholders in new sustainability measures such as city logistics...... dialectic forces were at play. City logistics schemes are still in an innovation phase. The biggest challenge in managing a process toward city logistics is to convince the many public and private stakeholders of their mutual interest and goals. Research limitations/implications: – Urban goods transport...... city logistics projects may fail. Thereby, cities become more environmentally and socially sustainable. Originality/value: – Insights into a city logistics project from a change management perspective has not previously been reported in literature....

  12. Energy and the city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Martinico

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial planning should have a key role in creating urban environments that support less energy-intense lifestyles. A wise consideration of energy in urban land use policies should play an important role considering that, in spite of having a land occupation of 2% and accommodating 50% of the world population, cities produce 80% of GHG emissions and consume 80 % of the world’s resources.In the building industry, the green economy is already part of the designers’ approach. This has already produced several energy efficient buildings that also feature high architectural quality. Now is the turn of cities to take the same direction in developing the capacity of formulating sounded urban policies. This will contribute to develop adequate new tools for achieving the energy efficiency goal.Climate change concern, the dominating environmental paradigm, is permeating the political scenario worldwide, producing a plethora of formal documents. The most recent one is the COP21 agreed in Paris in December 2015, after the failure of the Copenhagen summit in 2009, and formally signed in April 2016 in New York. The challenge for land use planning now is to translate these general commitments into actions that modify planning practices at all levels, from cities to regions.In this field, the current situation is extremely varied. EU has issued several documents focussed mainly at building level but also sustainable transports are considered a key issue. However, a further step is needed in order to increase the level of integration among all land use approaches, including the idea of green infrastructure as a key component of any human settlement. (European Commission, 2013. The relationship between urbanisation and climate change has become key worldwide but looking at it from a Mediterranean perspective arises some specificities, considering also the political strain that this part of the world is facing. Both Southern Europe and Middle East and North

  13. Water for cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajumulo Tibaijuka, A.

    2003-01-01

    Africa has entered the new Millennium with a sense of hope and renewed confidence. With widening and deepening of political reforms, economic liberalization and a strengthened civil society, an increasing number of African countries are striving towards economic recovery and sustainable development. But also Africa is a continent of paradox. Home to the world's longest river, the Nile, and the second largest freshwater lake, Lake Victoria. Africa has abundant water resources contributed by large rivers, vast stretches of wetlands and limited, but widely spread, groundwater. Yet only a limited number of countries are beneficiaries of this abundance. Fourteen African countries account for 80% of the total water available on the continent, while 12 of the countries together account for only 1% of water availability. Some 400 million people are estimated to be living in water-scarce condition today. Indeed my home country, Tanzania, claims over 40% of Africa's water resources from Lake Victoria, Lake Tanganaika and other major water bodies. Water in Africa is not only unfairly distributed by nature but, due to backward technology and underdevelopment, it remains also inadequately allocated by man. At the turn of the new Millennium, over 300 million people in Africa still do not have access to safe water. But perhaps nowhere is the challenge more complex and demanding than in the rapidly growing African cities. With an average growth rate of 5% per annum, Africa is the fastest urbanizing region in the world today. Between 1990 and 2020, in many of our life times, urban populations in Africa will rise fourfold from 138 to 500 million. The 'Water for African Cities Programme' is demonstrating, in seven African countries (Cote d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Senegal, South Africa and Zambia), how to put in place an integrated urban water resource management strategy that could bring three key sectors -- urban, environment and water -- to work together. Tanzania is the

  14. Playable cities the city as a digital playground

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses the topic of playable cities, which use the ‘smartness’ of digital cities to offer their citizens playful events and activities. The contributions presented here examine various aspects of playable cities, including developments in pervasive and urban games, the use of urban data to design games and playful applications, architecture design and playability, and mischief and humor in playable cities. The smartness of digital cities can be found in the sensors and actuators that are embedded in their environment. This smartness allows them to monitor, anticipate and support our activities and increases the efficiency of the cities and our activities. These urban smart technologies can offer citizens playful interactions with streets, buildings, street furniture, traffic, public art and entertainment, large public displays and public events.

  15. Securing water for the cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterthwaite, D

    1993-01-01

    Many cities in developing countries have grown so much that they can no longer provide adequate, sustainable water. Over pumping in Dakar and Mexico City has forced those cities to obtain water from ever more distant sources. In Dakar, the result has been saltwater intrusion. Overpumping has caused Mexico City to sink, in some areas by as much as 9 m, resulting in serious damage to buildings and sewage and drainage pipes. Other cities facing similar water problems are coastal cities in Peru (e.g., Lima), La Rioja and Catamarca in Argentina, cities in Northern Mexico, and cities in dry areas of Africa. For some cities, the problem is not so much ever more distant water supplies but insufficient funds to expand supplies. Bangkok and Jakarta both face saltwater intrusion into their overdrawn aquifers. Even through agriculture is the dominant user of water in most countries, demand concentrated in a small area exhausts local and regional sources and pollutes rivers, lakes, and coasts with untreated human and industrial waste. Most cities in Africa and Asia do not have a sewerage system. Further, most cities do not have the drains to deal with storm water and external floodwater, causing frequent, seasonal flooding. The resulting stagnant water provides breeding grounds for insect vectors of diseases (e.g., malaria). The problems in most cities are a result of poor management, not lack of water. Reducing leaks in existing piped distribution systems from the usual 60% loss of water to leaks to 12% would increase the available water 2-fold. Another way to address water shortages would be commercial, industrial, and recreational use of minimally treated waste water, such as is the case in Madras and Mexico City. Political solutions are needed to resolve inadequate water supply and waste management.

  16. Deturned City Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2012-01-01

    . It draws lines back to the artistic and architectural avant-garde in the 1960s, where the Situationist Movement criticized the absence of atmosphere in modernistic architecture and suburban cities. Along this line they promoted mapping tools and artistic ‘construction of situations’ s that could evoke...... spatial situations that promote an experimental life. Through symbols, ornaments and decorations it is possible create recognizable urban sceneries in which people can be involved in aesthetically and bodily challenging situations. The article analyze the methods and the architectural tools in this kind...

  17. Playing with the city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosca, Susana; Marquez, Israel

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we introduce and describe the phenomenon of videogame street art as a specific kind of street art. We consider its materiality and significance, and conceptualize it in the light of a double manifestation of play: the playful appropriation of the city by the artist and the fact...... that street art encapsulates the act of playing videogames in a visual form. Digital play spills out of our computer screens and occupies the urban space with the explicit intention of involving spectators, who are invited to play in symbolic ways that actualize nostalgic memories of gaming and can be related...

  18. City of Epitaphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Hicks

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The pavement lies like a ledger-stone on a tomb. Buried underneath are the remains of fertile landscapes and the life they once supported. Inscribed on its upper side are epitaphic writings. Whatever their ostensible purpose, memorial plaques and public artworks embedded in the pavement are ultimately expressions of civic bereavement and guilt. The pavement's role as both witness and accomplice to fatality is confirmed by private individuals who publicize their grief with death notices graffitied on the asphalt. To walk the city is to engage in a dialogue about death.

  19. New city spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehl, Jan; Gemzøe, Lars

    2001-01-01

    2. rev. udg. engelsk udgave af 'Nye byrum'. This book presents an overview of the developments in the use and planning of public spaces, and offers a detailed description of 9 cities with interesting public space strategies: Barcelona, Lyon, Strasbourg, Freiburg and Copenhagen in Europe, Portland...... in North America, Curitiba and Cordoba in South America and Melbourne in Australia. It also portrays 39 selected public space projects from all parts of the World. The strategies and projects are extensively illustrated by drawings, plans and photographs....

  20. The Emerging City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    The paper explores how urban bodies such as architecture, urban design, art works and social action can be drawn together in as urban assemblages producing “a movement of generalised deterritorialization”(Deleuze & Guattari 2004:78) in relation to the city. The first example, “The Elbæk bench” – ......, Capitalism and Schizofrenia. Transl. Massumi Continuum, New York, London Whitehead, A.N. (1978) Process and Reality, corrected edition, Eds. Griffin, David Ray & Sherburne, Donald. W. The Free Press, New York...

  1. The Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Jensen, Ole B.; Kiib, Hans

    2012-01-01

    This article take its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun...... findings. The projects are categorised according to their content, structure and urban localisation. In particular the cases are labelled in relation to their strategic and urban planning importance, their social and cultural content and their architectural representation and the programmes they contain...

  2. City of layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the construction of the ‘Sky Train' in central Bangkok. The research question explores the potential socially segregating effect of the Sky Train on Bangkok mobility patterns. The conclusion is that in the networked urban geographies of Bangkok's transportation system new...... mobility practices are played out in a relational space where the potential for movement is shifted in favour of the elite and the tourists. The Sky Train reconfigures the mobility patterns of the inner city of Bangkok in ways that are more than planning policies to overcome congestion and traffic jams...

  3. 77 FR 3775 - Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for Proposed Federal Building Kansas City, MO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... downtown East Village development and tax increment financing (TIF) district, on the East-side of downtown.... The EA will inform GSA in its decision-making process. Compliance with the National Historic... period. GSA will consider all comments on the EA before making a final decision. Purpose of Notice: The...

  4. Harmonious Development between Socio-Economy and River-Lake Water Systems in Xiangyang City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiting Zuo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available River-lake water systems (RLS are important carriers for matter transformation and energy transmission. Influenced by accelerated social and economic development, the structural, functional, and environmental states of RLS have been seriously damaged. It is an important problem for human beings to coordinate the contradiction between socio-economic development and the protection of RLS. In order to quantitatively study the harmonious relationship between socio-economic development and the state of RLS, the harmony theory method was used to analyze the degree of harmonious development between socio-economy and RLS in this study taking Xiangyang City as an example, and formulating corresponding harmonious optimization schemes. The results indicate that: (1 the state of RLS had a relatively small change during 2009–2014, and its spatial distribution shows a decreasing trend with the Han River as the central axis decreases on both of its sides; (2 before 2011, the driving force of socio-economic development in Xiang yang City mainly originated in the peripheral regions such as Laohekou City, Zaoyang City, and Gucheng County, but after 2011, it migrated rapidly towards Downtown, and reached the maximum in 2014; (3 when the influence of regional socio-economic development on RLS is small, socio-economic development is the main factor driving the change of the overall harmonious development degree of socio-economy and RLS. However when the influence is big, it is combined, driven by socio-economic development and the state of RLS; (4 the main factors affecting the overall harmonious degree of socio-economy and RLS in Xiangyang City include: river length, standard ratio of water quality, water consumption per capita, reservoir regulation capability, farmland irrigation water consumption per Mu (Mu is an area unit in China, 1 Mu approximately equals to 666.67 m2, and sewage treatment rate. This study can provide a reference for the future analysis of

  5. A study of the Oklahoma City urban heat island using ground measurements and remote sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M. J. (Michael J.); Ivey, A. (Austin); McPherson, T. N. (Timothy N.); Boswell, D. (David); Pardyjak, E. R. (Eric R.)

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of temperature and position were collected during the night from an instrumented van on routes through Oklahoma City and the rural outskirts. The measurements were taken as part of the Joint URBAN 2003 Tracer Field Experiment conducted in Oklahoma City from June 29, 2003 to July 30, 2003 (Allwine et al., 2004). The instrumented van was driven over four primary routes that included legs from the downtown core to four different 'rural' areas. Each route went through residential areas and most often went by a line of permanently fixed temperature probes (Allwine et al., 2004) for cross-checking purposes. Each route took from 20 to 40 minutes to complete. Based on seven nights of data, initial analyses indicate that there was a temperature difference of 0.5-6.5 C between the urban core and nearby 'rural' areas. Analyses also suggest that there were significant fine scale temperature differences over distances of tens of meters within the city and in the nearby rural areas. The temperature measurements that were collected are intended to supplement the meteorological measurements taken during the Joint URBAN 2003 Field Experiment, to assess the importance of the urban heat island phenomenon in Oklahoma City, and to test new urban canopy parameterizations that have been developed for regional scale meteorological codes (e.g., Chin et al., 2000; Holt and Shi, 2004). In addition to the ground measurements, skin temperature measurements were also analyzed from remotely sensed images taken from the Earth Observing System's Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). A surface kinetic temperature thermal infrared image captured by the ASTER of the Oklahoma City area on July 21, 2001 was analyzed within ESRI's ArcGIS 8.3 to correlate variations in temperature with land use type. Analysis of this imagery suggests distinct variations in temperature across different land use categories. Through the use of

  6. CityGML - Interoperable semantic 3D city models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröger, Gerhard; Plümer, Lutz

    2012-07-01

    CityGML is the international standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) for the representation and exchange of 3D city models. It defines the three-dimensional geometry, topology, semantics and appearance of the most relevant topographic objects in urban or regional contexts. These definitions are provided in different, well-defined Levels-of-Detail (multiresolution model). The focus of CityGML is on the semantical aspects of 3D city models, its structures, taxonomies and aggregations, allowing users to employ virtual 3D city models for advanced analysis and visualization tasks in a variety of application domains such as urban planning, indoor/outdoor pedestrian navigation, environmental simulations, cultural heritage, or facility management. This is in contrast to purely geometrical/graphical models such as KML, VRML, or X3D, which do not provide sufficient semantics. CityGML is based on the Geography Markup Language (GML), which provides a standardized geometry model. Due to this model and its well-defined semantics and structures, CityGML facilitates interoperable data exchange in the context of geo web services and spatial data infrastructures. Since its standardization in 2008, CityGML has become used on a worldwide scale: tools from notable companies in the geospatial field provide CityGML interfaces. Many applications and projects use this standard. CityGML is also having a strong impact on science: numerous approaches use CityGML, particularly its semantics, for disaster management, emergency responses, or energy-related applications as well as for visualizations, or they contribute to CityGML, improving its consistency and validity, or use CityGML, particularly its different Levels-of-Detail, as a source or target for generalizations. This paper gives an overview of CityGML, its underlying concepts, its Levels-of-Detail, how to extend it, its applications, its likely future development, and the role it plays in scientific research. Furthermore, its

  7. The Trading Axis in Irkutsk Downtown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals a linear concentration of the trading function in the historical center of Irkutsk. It features historical prerequisites and continuation of the tradition in the post-Soviet period, given the conversion of plants and factories. The article analyses the current state and prospects of modernization of the trading axis with its transformation into a modern public space.

  8. Danish Downtown Redevelopment and Transformation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagnby, Bo

    A long view of how Danish town centres have been planned and redeveloped from the time when spaces of capital and consumption established themselves in Danish towns after the Second World War, and when the former market and tradings centres had to adapt to a new reality characterized by economic...

  9. in Beirut City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. El Khoury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of nutritional supplements among exercisers in gyms has been never investigated in the Middle East. The aim of the current study was to assess the prevalence intake of nutritional supplements and the potential influencing factors among people exercising in gyms in Beirut city. In this cross-sectional study, 512 exercisers, aged between 20 and 50 years, were randomly selected from gyms. The intake of nutritional supplements was reported among 36.3% (95% confidence interval 32.2–40.5 of participants, with a weak presence of medical supervision. Patterns of supplement use differed by gender and age. Men and younger exercisers were found to focus on supplements associated with performance enhancement and muscle building, while women and older exercisers were more concerned with health-promoting products such as vitamins, minerals, and herbal supplements. An appropriate dissemination of accurate and scientifically sound information regarding the benefits and side effects of nutritional supplements is highly recommended in the sports environment in Beirut city.

  10. Magical Landscapes and Designed Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2008-01-01

    with “something special,” a feel-good, (almost spiritual) healing power (just moments away from the bustling city). In Melanesia, such a spiritual force goes by the name of “mana”. Århus’ mana landscapes are only invested with this huge, floating quality because they are near the city. Furthermore, they are seen...... from the point of view of the city, where order, design, planning and commerce are important cityscape qualities. The article deals with the way in which these two parts of the city, landscape and brandscape are complementary parts of the city-web. Analytical points made by Mauss, Lévi......-Strauss and Greimas are discussed in connection with the empirical setting of the city of Århus...

  11. City project and public space

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The book aims at nurturing theoretic reflection on the city and the territory and working out and applying methods and techniques for improving our physical and social landscapes. The main issue is developed around the projectual dimension, with the objective of visualising both the city and the territory from a particular viewpoint, which singles out the territorial dimension as the city’s space of communication and negotiation. Issues that characterise the dynamics of city development will be faced, such as the new, fresh relations between urban societies and physical space, the right to the city, urban equity, the project for the physical city as a means to reveal civitas, signs of new social cohesiveness, the sense of contemporary public space and the sustainability of urban development. Authors have been invited to explore topics that feature a pluralism of disciplinary contributions studying formal and informal practices on the project for the city and seeking conceptual and operative categories capab...

  12. Práticas e comportamento alimentar no meio urbano: um estudo no centro da cidade de São Paulo Eating practices and behavior in the urban environment: a study in downtown São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Wanda Diez Garcia

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho explora a dimensão da comida no modo de vida urbano, tendo em vista as implicações que este modo de vida tem nos hábitos alimentares e nas representações simbólicas envolvidas. Utilizamos como referencial teórico os conceitos de representação social e de habitus para abordarmos a experiência alimentar. A metodologia utilizada foi a análise qualitativa do discurso de 21 funcionários administrativos e o estudo de observação em estabelecimentos comerciais, como lanchonetes e restaurantes na região central de São Paulo. O estudo do comportamento alimentar foi exposto em dois planos: o dos alimentos e preparações consumidos e o dos desejados. Por sua origem no universo doméstico, os aspectos simbólicos associados à alimentação têm uma forte matriz afetiva. As condições concretas do meio urbano associadas aos limites financeiros do sujeito estabelecem um arcabouço de valores e sentimentos compatíveis com suas possibilidades. A abreviação dos rituais alimentares e suas implicações no comportamento alimentar são abordados bem como as características do atual padrão de alimentação urbano.This study focuses on the implications of urban life style on eating habits and the related symbolic representations. Theoretical references used to approach the food experience are the concepts of social representation and habitus. The methodology consisted of a qualitative analysis of interviews with 21 administrative employees and field observations made at commercial establishments in downtown São Paulo, such as snack bars and restaurants. Study of eating behavior and practices was developed along two planes: food actually eaten and food desired. Results were classified into three segments: "ingesting and digesting affection", "determinants of social representations of eating practices", and "rituals in eating practices". Due to their origin in a domestic universe, symbolic aspects associated with food have a

  13. Influence of exposure differences on city-to-city heterogeneity ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-city population-based epidemiological studies have observed heterogeneity between city-specific fine particulate matter (PM2.5)-mortality effect estimates. These studies typically use ambient monitoring data as a surrogate for exposure leading to potential exposure misclassification. The level of exposure misclassification can differ by city affecting the observed health effect estimate. The objective of this analysis is to evaluate whether previously developed residential infiltration-based city clusters can explain city-to-city heterogeneity in PM2.5 mortality risk estimates. In a prior paper 94 cities were clustered based on residential infiltration factors (e.g. home age/size, prevalence of air conditioning (AC)), resulting in 5 clusters. For this analysis, the association between PM2.5 and all-cause mortality was first determined in 77 cities across the United States for 2001–2005. Next, a second stage analysis was conducted evaluating the influence of cluster assignment on heterogeneity in the risk estimates. Associations between a 2-day (lag 0–1 days) moving average of PM2.5 concentrations and non-accidental mortality were determined for each city. Estimated effects ranged from −3.2 to 5.1% with a pooled estimate of 0.33% (95% CI: 0.13, 0.53) increase in mortality per 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5. The second stage analysis determined that cluster assignment was marginally significant in explaining the city-to-city heterogeneity. The health effe

  14. Congestion in a city with a central bottleneck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Palma, André de

    2010-01-01

    We consider dynamic congestion in an urban setting where trip origins are spatially distributed. All travelers must pass through a downtown bottleneck in order to reach their destination in the CBD. Each traveler chooses departure time to maximize general concave scheduling utility. At equilibriu...

  15. Congestion in a city with a central bottleneck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Palma, André de

    2012-01-01

    We consider dynamic congestion in an urban setting where trip origins are spatially distributed. All travelers must pass through a downtown bottleneck in order to reach their destination in the CBD. Each traveler chooses departure time to maximize general concave scheduling utility. We find that,...

  16. Smart Cities Will Need Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru WOINAROSCHY

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A smart city is a sustainable and efficient urban centre that provides a high quality of life to its inhabitants through optimal management of its resources. Chemical industry has a key role to play in the sustainable evolution of the smart cities. Additionally, chemistry is at the heart of all modern industries, including electronics, information technology, biotechnology and nano-technology. Chemistry can make the smart cities project more sustainable, more energy efficient and more cost effective. There are six broad critical elements of any smart city: water management systems; infrastructure; transportation; energy; waste management and raw materials consumption. In all these elements chemistry and chemical engineering are deeply involved.

  17. CAPITAL, SUBJECT, AND CITY. READINGS OF THE CITY AND THE HUMANISTIC CRISIS: THE MEDELLIN CASE. CAPITAL, SUJETO Y CIUDAD. LECTURAS DE LA CIUDAD Y LA CRISIS HUMANISTA. EL CASO MEDELLÍN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Insuasty Rodriguez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This current text presents a result of analysis of the resulting information of the First Urban Counter-Hegemonic Forum, held in the city of Medellin, as a culmination of a series of city discussions carried out during the year 2013. It deals with an input that was thought in four sections, where downtown is the relationship among city, capitalism, war, and subjects in the city of Medellin. Likewise, it emphasizes the presence of the war more explicitly and it exposes how the capitalism that enters in a forceful way, undergoes transformations linked to the model of the city marketing, the city of the services, and the strong presence of a globalizing discourse, that also has effects on the urban screen and the social classes, subjects, and / or popular sectors. The text ends up trying to characterize the subjects, that in the previous dynamics, produce as being alienated, exploited, or oppressed, but also as resistance and/or emancipation in order to close with approaches - challenges, corresponding to the social research. RESUMEN: El presente texto presenta un resultado del análisis de la información resultante del I Foro Contra-Hegemónico Urbano, realizado en la ciudad de Medellín, culmen de una serie de conversatorios de ciudad realizados durante el año 2013, se trata de un insumo que se pensó en cuatro apartes donde el centro es la relación entre ciudad, capitalismo, guerra y sujetos en la ciudad de Medellín, así mismo, se enfatiza en la presencia de la guerra de manera más explícita y se expone cómo el capitalismo que ingresa de manera contundente, sufre trasformaciones ligadas al modelo de las city marketing, la ciudad de los servicios y la fuerte presencia de un discurso globalizador, que también tiene efectos en la retícula urbana y las clases sociales, sujetos y/o sectores populares. Finaliza el texto intentando una caracterización de los sujetos que las dinámicas anteriores producen como alienados, explotados u

  18. Surface energy balance measurements in the Mexico City: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejeda Martinez, A. [Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico); Jauregui Ostos, E. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-01-01

    During the last decade of the 20th Century, diverse campaigns for measuring the atmospheric energy balance were performed in downtown Mexico City (School of Mines and Preparatory School No. 7), in the southern suburbs (University Reserve) and in the surrounding rural areas (Plan Texcoco), in addition to a campaign carried out in 1985 in the Tacubaya district, a suburban western peripheral site. The objective was to obtain data for a better understanding of the climatic alterations due to urbanization, particularly to describe the role that the modification of the natural ground cover has played as a result of paving and the construction of urban canyons. In this paper, a review of these campaigns is presented. Energy partitioning in some areas (Tacubaya and Preparatory School No.7) is similar to that observed in urban centers of middle latitudes, whereas the major contrast was observed between Texcoco, with maximum energy consumption through evaporation, and School of Mines, where the latent heat is as low as in a desert. From the values of the correlations among the different components of energy balance, it may be possible to attempt the modeling of the diverse components of energy balance by means of regression equations starting from the net radiation. Those same coefficients distinguish the type of environment: urban, suburban or rural. [Spanish] Las primeras mediciones de balance energetico en la Ciudad de Mexico se realizaron en 1985 en un suburbio al poniente de la ciudad (el observatorio de Tacubaya). Ya en la decada de los anos noventa del siglo XX, dichas observaciones se multiplicaron tanto en el centro historico (antigua Escuela de Minas y en el edificio de la Preparatoria No. 7), como en otros sitios al sur (en terrenos de Ciudad Universitaria) y en la periferia rural (Plan Texcoco). El proposito de estas mediciones ha sido tener un mejor entendimiento de las alteraciones climaticas debidas a la urbanizacion. En este trabajo se presenta una revision

  19. Smart cities of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, M.; Axhausen, K. W.; Giannotti, F.; Pozdnoukhov, A.; Bazzani, A.; Wachowicz, M.; Ouzounis, G.; Portugali, Y.

    2012-11-01

    Here we sketch the rudiments of what constitutes a smart city which we define as a city in which ICT is merged with traditional infrastructures, coordinated and integrated using new digital technologies. We first sketch our vision defining seven goals which concern: developing a new understanding of urban problems; effective and feasible ways to coordinate urban technologies; models and methods for using urban data across spatial and temporal scales; developing new technologies for communication and dissemination; developing new forms of urban governance and organisation; defining critical problems relating to cities, transport, and energy; and identifying risk, uncertainty, and hazards in the smart city. To this, we add six research challenges: to relate the infrastructure of smart cities to their operational functioning and planning through management, control and optimisation; to explore the notion of the city as a laboratory for innovation; to provide portfolios of urban simulation which inform future designs; to develop technologies that ensure equity, fairness and realise a better quality of city life; to develop technologies that ensure informed participation and create shared knowledge for democratic city governance; and to ensure greater and more effective mobility and access to opportunities for urban populations. We begin by defining the state of the art, explaining the science of smart cities. We define six scenarios based on new cities badging themselves as smart, older cities regenerating themselves as smart, the development of science parks, tech cities, and technopoles focused on high technologies, the development of urban services using contemporary ICT, the use of ICT to develop new urban intelligence functions, and the development of online and mobile forms of participation. Seven project areas are then proposed: Integrated Databases for the Smart City, Sensing, Networking and the Impact of New Social Media, Modelling Network Performance

  20. City under the Ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    : The public image of Camp Century was one of technological comfort and military-scientific control. Amidst the raging Cold War and up against the harsh environment, the construction of the camp would prove to the public that the combined forces of the US military-technology-science complex would prevail......This paper uses Paul Edwards’ closed world metaphor to understand US involvement in Greenland during the Cold War. Closed worlds mark military-techno-scientific geographies of conflict: They refer to sealed techno-spaces of observation, containment, and control, but also to the settings in which....... However, the military logic of Camp Century was self-referential and closed in the sense that the very idea of constructing the city under ice emerged from Cold War strategy. The closed world of Camp Century established a temporary boundary between, on the one hand, the comfortable space controlled by US...

  1. Mexico City aerosol study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcon, Y.I.; Ramirez, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    A major task in the field of air pollution monitoring is the development of devices for determining the mass and composition of airborne particulate matter as a function of size - and time. The sample collection device must be designed giving consideration to the nature of the aerosol and to the effects of the aerosol on human health. It has been established that particles smaller than 3.5 μm in diameter can penetrate deeply into the human respiratory system, and that larger particles are trapped in the upper respiratory passages. For these reasons, it is desirable to use a dichotomous sampler to collect particles in two size ranges, rather than to collect total particulates on a single filter. The authors discuss a study in Mexico City using a dichotomous sampler

  2. Building the Bicycle City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    and passengers stranded. This was the case in many Japanese cities after the fatal earthquake hit the country on March 11th2011. But more and more people are choosing to cycle to work. Should an earthquake hit Japan again (it will) and thousands being unable to go home by car or public transportations, cyclists...... is that the cyclists feel safe. A few years ago Suginami Ward of Tokyo developed what they named Shiruku Road. At first the name sounds like “The Silk Road” referring to the historical network between Asia and Europe/ North Africa, but a closer look at the kanjis reveals that it means “Know your ward road”. The idea...... individual health and environment....

  3. Building the Bicycle City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Tokyo - Upcoming City of Cyclists Japan is often hit by natural disasters such as earthquakes, typhoons, tsunamis and heavy rain- and snowfall. Earthquakes often causes break downs in electricity and communication lines and makes public transportation come to a halt. Stations are shut down...... will most likely be able to ride home. After the March 11th earthquake The Japan Cycling Association (JCA) has said that the number of cyclist in Tokyo might be five times as high today as it was before March 2011. But the worry is the safety of the new cyclists. Government statistics in 2010, showed...... during the ride. Finally it gives the cyclists of the future - children and youngsters - a good opportunity to know their local neighbourhood, learn how to manage in the traffic, a fresh start of the day, and hopefully make them continue to prefer the bike, when they grow up for the benefit of both...

  4. Transformation of a City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trenessa L. Williams

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gentrification changes the landscape and the cultural makeup of a city by increasing property values and changing consumption patterns. Since the late 1980s, gentrification has challenged the residential and small business community of Harlem, New York. Guided by the rent gap theory and the consumption-side theory, the purpose of this case study was to explore how small business leaders can compete with demographical changes brought by gentrification. A purposive sample of 20 Harlem small business owners operating during the city’s gentrification participated in interviews. Interview interpretations were triangulated with government documents and periodicals to bolster the trustworthiness of the final report. These findings may contribute to positive social change by informing the strategies employed by small business owners who are currently facing gentrification.

  5. Essay: city on steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison, Steve

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It was love at first sight, an ancient town surrounded in oriental mystery, serene, enchanted and most importantly untouched by the advances and ravages of time. Frozen in the past with a lazy river and a way of life that brought back happy childhood memories of an innocent simplicity, her people laid back, content and satisfied. The surrounding countryside with thatched bamboo huts, farm cottages and slow easy-going country folk riding rusty bicycles. In 2003 I bought a house in Hoi An on that slow flowing river and settled back to watch the days of my life drift past at a snails pace, savouring the sweetness of every lazy moment. Content in the thought that nothing could ever disturb these tranquil days, that flowed without a care like that slow moving river. Travelling every week to Da Nang was a dull but necessary chore and one I would postpone as often as possible. 28 kilometres north the big city was a deserted metropolis, a throng of urban industrial sprawl. The city looked like the war with America had finished only yesterday, dull, lifeless and beaten. My wife and I would venture there along a rutted ill kept excuse for a road over a rusting crusty bridge to see her family and to buy provisions unobtainable in sleepy Hoi An. Getting back home to Hoi An was just that, getting Home to our safe haven. So that was only 12 years ago. Now every direction you turn is a construction site, everywhere and everyone and I mean everyone is building new glamorous homes. Roads literally appear out of nowhere overnight to newer and grander developments. Da Nang, well, the city has shaken the sands of war off her dusty back and become an indescribably beautiful city. Golden beaches and cloud kissed mountains, new wide roads, bridges, parks, round-a-bouts, shopping malls, theatres, entertainment centres and five star international resorts abound. Every square meter is being bought up and developed, high-rise apartments spring up overnight and the horizon

  6. Biometeorology for cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondula, David M; Balling, Robert C; Andrade, Riley; Scott Krayenhoff, E; Middel, Ariane; Urban, Aleš; Georgescu, Matei; Sailor, David J

    2017-09-01

    Improvements in global sustainability, health, and equity will largely be determined by the extent to which cities are able to become more efficient, hospitable, and productive places. The development and evolution of urban areas has a significant impact on local and regional weather and climate, which subsequently affect people and other organisms that live in and near cities. Biometeorologists, researchers who study the impact of weather and climate on living creatures, are well positioned to help evaluate and anticipate the consequences of urbanization on the biosphere. Motivated by the 60th anniversary of the International Society of Biometeorology, we reviewed articles published in the Society's International Journal of Biometeorology over the period 1974-2017 to understand if and how biometeorologists have directed attention to urban areas. We found that interest in urban areas has rapidly accelerated; urban-oriented articles accounted for more than 20% of all articles published in the journal in the most recent decade. Urban-focused articles in the journal span five themes: measuring urban climate, theoretical foundations and models, human thermal comfort, human morbidity and mortality, and ecosystem impacts. Within these themes, articles published in the journal represent a sizeable share of the total academic literature. More explicit attention from urban biometeorologists publishing in the journal to low- and middle-income countries, indoor environments, animals, and the impacts of climate change on human health would help ensure that the distinctive perspectives of biometeorology reach the places, people, and processes that are the foci of global sustainability, health, and equity goals.

  7. Diagnosis of downtown shopping centers in tourist-historical cities. The case of the world heritage cities in Spain = Diagnóstico de los centros comerciales abiertos en las ciudades históricas. El caso de las Ciudades Patrimonio de la humanidad en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Blanco Callejo

    2017-12-01

    Resumen La realización de un diagnóstico del grado de madurez en el desarrollo de los Centros Comerciales Abiertos (CCA de las Ciudades Patrimonio de la Humanidad permite plantear nuevas propuestas, así como potenciales líneas de acción para su optimización y dinamización. Con este objeto, el trabajo plantea el uso de un Modelo de Evaluación contrastado que, siguiendo una metodología razonada y lógica, permite la evaluación y el análisis en profundidad del estado actual del CCA e identificar sus fortalezas y debilidades. La aplicación concreta del modelo a los CCA de Ciudades Patrimonio ha permitido obtener sus rasgos más característicos, así como sus peculiaridades. A partir de los resultados obtenidos se proponen recomendaciones para mejorar los puntos débiles identificados y se definen las principales líneas estratégicas que se recomendarían incluir en un plan de dinamización del comercio en los cascos históricos, lo que aportaría mayor competitividad y capacidad de creación de valor a esta forma de organización comercial. El trabajo pone de manifiesto que los “Centro Comercial Abiertos” presentan dos problemas fundamentales: dificultades de financiación y falta de representatividad. En este sentido, se propone emplear el modelo de los Business Improvement Districts (BID o Áreas para la Promoción de Iniciativa Empresarial (APIE como una fórmula de carácter público-privada interesante que permitiría solventar y reforzar los CCA agilizando los ritmos y las dinámicas de funcionamiento de las agrupaciones de comerciantes, y creando un marco estable para negociar y ejecutar las propuestas de los actores privados.

  8. Tourism and City. Reflections about Tourist Dimension of Smart City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Anna La Rocca

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The city of the future seems to be necessarily “intelligent” both in its physical and in functional features.This paper starts from the consideration that the diffusion of new communication technologies (ICTs is significantly changing the urban supply system of tourist services giving rise to new ways of enjoying the city.As tourism can be assumed as an urban activity, by a town planning point of view, the study of tourism is meaningful to identify development trajectories of the present cities targeted to sustainable and smarter models.As a matter of fact, almost all the projects to get a “smart city” are based on the idea of joining the potentialities of ICTs and the needs of urban management through people living or using the city.In such a vision, “tourist dimension” of the city becomes fundamental in promoting urban image as well as in improving efficiency of the city. This efficiency also depends on the capability of each city to share historical and cultural heritage as “common good”.As tourist demand has deeply changed also driven by technological development, this paper tries to investigate how the urban supply will change in order to meet the rising demand of quality and efficiency. The transition to smart tourist destination currently seems to be strongly connected with the number and the variety of apps to improve the “experiential component”. A lack of interest there seems to be in finding strategies and policies oriented to plan the urban supply of services tourist or not.This consideration, if shared, opens up new perspectives for research and experimentation in which city planning could have a key-role also in proposing an holistic approach to city development towards smart city.

  9. A Study of the Oklahoma City Urban Heat Island Effect Using a WRF/Single-Layer Urban Canopy Model, a Joint Urban 2003 Field Campaign, and MODIS Satellite Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengyue Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The urban heat island effect (UHI for inner land regions was investigated using satellite data, ground observations, and simulations with an Single-Layer Urban Canopy Parameterization (SLUCP coupled into the regional Weather Research Forecasting model (WRF, http://wrf-model.org/index.php. Specifically, using the satellite-observed surface skin temperatures (Tskin, the intensity of the UHI was first compared for two inland cities (Xi’an City, China, and Oklahoma City (OKC, which have different city populations and building densities. The larger population density and larger building density in Xi’an lead to a stronger skin-level UHI by 2 °C. However, the ground observed 2 m surface air temperature (Tair observations showed an urban cooling island effect (UCI over the downtown region in OKC during the daytime of 19 July 2003, from a DOE field campaign (Joint Urban 2003. To understand this contrast between satellite-based Tskin and ground-based Tair, a sensitivity study using WRF/SLUCP was analyzed. The model reproduced a UCI in OKC. Furthermore, WRF/Noah/SLUCM simulations were also compared with the Joint Urban 2003 ground observations, including wind speeds, wind directions, and energy fluxes. Although the WRF/SLUCM model failed to simulate these variables accurately, it reproduced the diurnal variations of surface temperatures, wind speeds, wind directions, and energy fluxes reasonably well.

  10. Reassembling the city through Instagram

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boy, J.D.; Uitermark, J.

    2017-01-01

    How do people represent the city on social media? And how do these representations feed back into people's uses of the city? To answer these questions, we develop a relational approach that relies on a combination of qualitative methods and network analysis. Based on in-depth interviews and a

  11. 75 FR 11580 - Florida Power Corporation, City of Alachua, City of Bushnell, City of Gainesville, City of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ..., City of Ocala, Orlando Utilities Commission and City of Orlando, Seminole Electric Cooperative, Inc... building not only meet but exceed its original design basis as delineated in the FSAR. The PRB discussed the petitioner's request during internal meetings and made the initial PRB recommendation. The PRB's...

  12. Chicago, Illinois: The Windy City

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2008-01-01

    Once famous mainly for stockyards and steel mills, Chicago now boasts more top-rated five-star restaurants than any other city in the United States and has been voted by various publications as one of the "Top 10 U.S. Destinations," one of the "Best Walking Cities" in the United States, and one of the "Ten Best Places to…

  13. Agroecology for the Shrinking City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many cities are experiencing long-term declines in population and economic activity. As a result, frameworks for urban sustainability need to address the unique challenges and opportunities of such shrinking cities. Shrinking, particularly in the U.S., has led to extensive vacant...

  14. Participatory Prototyping for Future Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. van Waart; C.J.P.M. Bont; I.J. Mulder

    2015-01-01

    Emerging pervasive technologies such as the Internet of Things and Open Data will have severe impact on the experience, interactions and wellbeing of citizens in future smart cities. Local governments are concerned how to engage and embed citizens in the process of smart city development because

  15. Participatory prototyping for future cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Waart, P.; Mulder, I.J.; De Bont, C.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging pervasive technologies such as the Internet of Things and Open Data will have severe impact on the experience, interactions and wellbeing of citizens in future smart cities. Local governments are concerned how to engage and embed citizens in the process of smart city development because

  16. Crowd-based city logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampaio Oliveira, A.H.; Savelsbergh, M.W.P.; Veelenturf, L.P.; van Woensel, T.

    2017-01-01

    Cities are drivers of economic development, providing infrastructure to support countless activities and services. Today, the world’s 750 biggest cities account for more than 57% of the global GDP and this number is expected to increase to 61% by 2030. More than half of the world’s population lives

  17. Malmo: A city in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Tessa Kate

    2014-01-01

    become a multicultural city with vibrant neighbourhoods and successful new developments such as the Western Harbour. The Øresund bridge has increased its linkages with Denmark and Europe providing easy access for employment and residential opportunities. The success of the city will be measured in its...

  18. Privacy concerns in smart cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. van Zoonen (Liesbet)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper a framework is constructed to hypothesize if and how smart city technologies and urban big data produce privacy concerns among the people in these cities (as inhabitants, workers, visitors, and otherwise). The framework is built on the basis of two recurring dimensions in

  19. Globalization : Countries, Cities and Multinationals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip; Acs, Zoltan J.

    2011-01-01

    McCann P. and Acs Z. J. Globalization: countries, cities and multinationals, Regional Studies. This paper explores the relationship between the size of a country, the size of its cities, and the importance of economies of scale in the modern era of globalization. In order to do this, it integrates

  20. Dubai: a City of Hope?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Abirafeh

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The City of Hope is an organisation offering refuge for abused women in Dubai, the largest city of the United Arab Emirates. Dubai has started to acknowledge the social problems accompanying its phenomenal economic growth but is it doing enough to tackle the scourge of human trafficking?

  1. Medan City: Informality and the Historical Global City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarmadji, N.; Tyaghita, B.; Astuti, P. T.; Etleen, D.

    2018-05-01

    As projected by UN that two-thirds of Indonesia’s population will live in urban areas by 2050, rapid urbanization is happening in Indonesian cities. Initial research on eight Indonesian Cities (which includes Medan, Jatinegara, Bandung, Surakarta, Yogyakarta, Surabaya, Balikpapan, and Manado) by Tunas Nusa Foundation since 2012 shows that urbanization of each city has happened throughout history creating cultural, economic, and environmental networks that are distinct from one city to another. While the networks remain until today and continuously shapes the urban agglomeration pattern, not all parts of the city could undergo subsequent development that confirms the existing pattern, leading to the creation informality. Nor could it make future planning that comprehends the nature of its integrated urban dynamic beyond its current administrative authority. In this paper, we would like to share our study for Medan, North Sumatra as it shows a portrait of a city with a long relationship to a global network since the Maritime trade era. Medan has become home to many ethnic groups which have sailed and migrated as part of a global economic agenda creating a strong economic network between port cities along the Malacca Strait. The city has kept its role in the global economic network until today, to name a few, becoming the frontier for the Indonesia-Malaysia-Thailand Growth Triangle. While we celebrate Medan’s potential to become a global city with major infrastructure development as well as cultural assets as its advantage in the future, we argue that microscale cohesion supported by government policy in agreed planning documents are fundamental for the city to thrive amidst the challenges it is facing. Yet, these cultural assets, as well as micro scale cohesion in Medan City today, are still undermined. Thus, informality in Medan exists as result of ignorance and marginalization of certain socio-cultural groups, abandoning places and identity, as well as the

  2. 2015 Resident Survey (City and County)

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  3. 2016 Resident Survey (City and County)

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  4. Lighting the city. First poetic representations of Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Kerik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The first impressions that caused the changes made in Mexico City in its process of transformation into a modern city were captured by its poets drawing attention to different aspects of life in the capital. While from the popular poetry the record of the entrance of the electricity in the public road was left, from the official poetry was tried to witness the new cosmopolitan status of the Mexico City in the Porfirian era, through the fashion and the customs that were revealed in one of the main streets of the city. Comparing these poems allows us to know the initial strategies of poetic figuration of urban space that will continue to develop along different paths throughout the twentieth century until we reach our days.

  5. The Lake and the City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers relations between the city of Irkutsk and Lake Baikal in terms of cultural geography. Baikal is included in the UNESCO world heritage list. Unlike the majority of lakes also included in this list, Baikal’s coast is inhabited, especially its southern part. Similar situation is, for example, in the cluster “the city of Bergen – Geiranger village – Geirangerfjord” in Norway. The comparative analysis shows how Norway’s positive experience of the system “a city – a village – a natural phenomenon” could be used in order to make Irkutsk more attractive for tourists and citizens.

  6. The city of the merchant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnow, Niels Finn

    The City of the Merchant deals with cities, towns and villages in the European medieval period - i.e. in post-antique and pre-industrial Europe. In actual fact, the book mainly deals with Denmark and Northern Italy (the City States), with digressions to other "feudal" localities in France on Sici......, in the middle East, the Crusades, in Germany (the Hansatic League) and, finally, as far a field as the Danish West Indies. The book is part of a larger project that comprises other historical environments....

  7. Use of portable exposure meters for comparing mobile phone base station radiation in different types of areas in the cities of Basel and Amsterdam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbinello, Damiano; Huss, Anke; Beekhuizen, Johan; Vermeulen, Roel; Röösli, Martin

    2014-01-15

    Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) are highly variable and differ considerably within as well as between areas. Exposure assessment studies characterizing spatial and temporal variation are limited so far. Our objective was to evaluate sources of data variability and the repeatability of daily measurements using portable exposure meters (PEMs). Data were collected at 12 days between November 2010 and January 2011 with PEMs in four different types of urban areas in the cities of Basel (BSL) and Amsterdam (AMS). Exposure from mobile phone base stations ranged from 0.30 to 0.53 V/m in downtown and business areas and in residential areas from 0.09 to 0.41 V/m. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that measurements from various days were highly reproducible (measurement duration of approximately 30 min) with only 0.6% of the variance of all measurements from mobile phone base station radiation being explained by the measurement day and only 0.2% by the measurement time (morning, noon, afternoon), whereas type of area (30%) and city (50%) explained most of the data variability. We conclude that mobile monitoring of exposure from mobile phone base station radiation with PEMs is useful due to the high repeatability of mobile phone base station exposure levels, despite the high spatial variation. © 2013.

  8. Global cities and cultural experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas Gaviria, Pilar; Emontspool, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Studying the cultural dynamics of expatriate amateur theater in Brussels, this paper investigates multicultural marketplace development in contemporary global cities. Design/methodology/approach: The paper performs an interpretive analysis of the expatriate amateur scene in Brussels from...... an ethnographic perspective, combining observations of rehearsals and performances, in-depth interviews with actors, directors and audience, and secondary data. Findings: The fluidity of global cities allows their inhabitants to engage in collective creative processes of cultural experimentation, performing...... to the important role of global cities for cultural experimentation. Such cities are not only an interesting market for culturally diverse products, but also learning hubs. Managers willing to address multicultural marketplaces might target these markets with dynamic cultural offers that ensure a balance between...

  9. Planning for resource efficient cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian; Groth, Niels Boje

    2016-01-01

    development from energy consumption are crucial for a city’s future vulnerability and resilience against changes in general resource availability. The challenge gets further complex, as resource and energy efficiency in a city is deeply interwoven with other aspects of urban development such as social...... structures and the geographical context. As cities are the main consumer of energy and resources, they are both problem and solution to tackle issues of energy efficiency and saving. Cities have been committed to this agenda, especially to meet the national and international energy targets. Increasingly......, cities act as entrepreneurs of new energy solutions acknowledging that efficient monitoring of energy and climate policies has become important to urban branding and competitiveness. This special issue presents findings from the European FP7 project ‘Planning for Energy Efficient Cities’ (PLEEC...

  10. Mitigation: Decarbonization unique to cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nadine

    2017-10-01

    Strategies that reduce fossil-fuel use can achieve both global carbon mitigation and local health-protection goals. Now research shows the dual benefits of compact urban design and circular economy policies in Chinese cities.

  11. [The monster and the city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo Albizu, A

    1996-01-01

    "Negative aesthetic categories" and, specifically, the idea of monsters and monstrosity, are used in this discussion of urban phenomena and their relation to modern art. The reflection on monstrosity as a metaphor for the city draws upon such disparate sources as Greek philosophers, Freudian theory, and recent art criticism. It compares dictionary definitions of monster to a general concept of cities, judging the modern metropolis to be "excessively large or extraordinary," "disfigured and ugly," and even "cruel" and "perverse" as demonstrated in social pathologies such as terrorism that breed in cities. The relationship between monstrosity and the city is evident in a variety of artistic manifestations and can be seen in the work of planners, architects, and artists. The examination opens up promising areas for future research in greater depth.

  12. Cities lead on climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancost, Richard D.

    2016-04-01

    The need to mitigate climate change opens up a key role for cities. Bristol's year as a Green Capital led to great strides forward, but it also revealed that a creative and determined partnership across cultural divides will be necessary.

  13. 500 Cities: Census Tract Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This census tract shapefile for the 500 Cities project was extracted from the Census 2010 Tiger/Line database and modified to remove portions of census tracts that...

  14. The City as a Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The hypothesis in this paper is that the ideas and principles of linear cities, emerging in late 19th century and developing during the first half of 20th century, can be looked upon in a forward looking perspective as contributions to contemporary urban strategies. Throughout the 20th...... century, the major tendency has been the population’s relocation from the country to the city. In developing countries, the development has clearly been towards major cities while growth in industrialised countries has spread out through the entire urban system, including minor urban developments. A key...... concentration of people in a smaller area, without necessarily being followed by increased interaction by way of increased infrastructure. Both situations are interdependent through globalisation and in the long term, neither situation is sustainable. The relevance of discussing linear city principles today...

  15. City Walks and Tactile Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Diaconu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to develop categories of the pedestrian’s tactile and kinaesthetic experience of the city. The beginning emphasizes the haptic qualities of surfaces and textures, which can be “palpated” visually or experienced by walking. Also the lived city is three-dimensional; its corporeal depth is discussed here in relation to the invisible sewers, protuberant profiles, and the formal diversity of roofscapes. A central role is ascribed in the present analysis to the formal similarities between the representation of the city by walking through it and the representation of the tactile form of objects. Additional aspects of the “tactile” experience of the city in a broad sense concern the feeling of their rhythms and the exposure to weather conditions. Finally, several aspects of contingency converge in the visible age of architectural works, which record traces of individual and collective histories.

  16. Cities and Climate - What Visions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haentjens, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Given the difficulty of achieving a global agreement to cope with the challenges of climate change or even a national resilience programme, an increasing number of initiatives are coming up from the local level for preemptively implementing policies to adapt to climate change or combat it. There are several towns and cities across the world that have taken this line (Copenhagen, Totnes, Vaexjoe, Bristol, etc.) but, as Jean Haentjens shows here, an effective response to climate change requires the development of a genuine strategic vision capable of mobilizing all the actors concerned. For the moment, the towns and cities that have managed to come up with such a vision are few and far between. After a -largely historical- review of the importance of vision in changes of urban paradigm, Jean Haentjens stresses how much twenty-first century eco-urbanism broadens the range of possible solutions to the many issues facing our towns and cities today. But, though digital innovations in fact offer new opportunities at the local level, we should nonetheless be wary of 'technological solutionism': the new technologies are tools which towns and cities can use to their advantage, but to become really 'smart' they have to develop a vision. After presenting a series of established or emerging urban models (the frugal city, the creative city, the leisure city and the eco-metropolis), along with the values and imaginative conceptions that underpin them, this article shows - without being unaware of the potential obstacles - how a town or city can produce and renew its strategic vision to reinvent itself and meet the challenges of today

  17. Smart Cities for Smart Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Jensen, Martin Lynge; Wøldike, Niels Peter

    This position paper presents the concept of smart cities for smart children before highlighting three concrete projects we are currently running in order to investigate different aspects of the underlying concept like social-relational interaction and situated and experiential learning.......This position paper presents the concept of smart cities for smart children before highlighting three concrete projects we are currently running in order to investigate different aspects of the underlying concept like social-relational interaction and situated and experiential learning....

  18. Urban Form and City Life

    OpenAIRE

    Luque-Valdivia, J. (José)

    2011-01-01

    The compact city is often presented as an answer to sustainable urban development, the paper tries to stress the influence of urban form of the compact city itself in the kind of civic life La ciudad compacta se presenta con frecuencia como una respuesta al desarrollo urbano sostenible; el paper trata de identificar la influencia la forma urbana propia de la ciudad compacta en el tipo de vida ciudadana

  19. Constructing a modern city machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Hanne; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    1998-01-01

    Based on the Copenhagen sewers debates and constructions the role of changing perceptions of water, hygiene and environment is discussed in relation to the modernisation of cities by machinating flows and infrastructures.......Based on the Copenhagen sewers debates and constructions the role of changing perceptions of water, hygiene and environment is discussed in relation to the modernisation of cities by machinating flows and infrastructures....

  20. Privacy concerns in smart cities

    OpenAIRE

    van Zoonen, Liesbet

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper a framework is constructed to hypothesize if and how smart city technologies and urban big data produce privacy concerns among the people in these cities (as inhabitants, workers, visitors, and otherwise). The framework is built on the basis of two recurring dimensions in research about people's concerns about privacy: one dimensions represents that people perceive particular data as more personal and sensitive than others, the other dimension represents that people'...

  1. Evaluation Model for Sentient Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Florencia Fergnani Brion

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article we made a research about the Sentient Cities and produced an assessment model to analyse if a city is or could be potentially considered one. It can be used to evaluate the current situation of a city before introducing urban policies based on citizen participation in hybrid environments (physical and digital. To that effect, we've developed evaluation grids with the main elements that form a Sentient City and their measurement values. The Sentient City is a variation of the Smart City, also based on technology progress and innovation, but where the citizens are the principal agent. In this model, governments aim to have a participatory and sustainable system for achieving the Knowledge Society and Collective Intelligence development, as well as the city’s efficiency. Also, they increase communication channels between the Administration and citizens. In this new context, citizens are empowered because they have the opportunity to create a Local Identity and transform their surroundings through open and horizontal initiatives.

  2. For the Smarter Good of Cities? On Cities, Complexity and Slippages in the Smart City Discourse’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Henriette; Veel, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Cities for Smart Environmental and Energy Futures presents works written by eminent international experts from a variety of disciplines including architecture, engineering and related fields. Due to the ever-increasing focus on sustainable technologies, alternative energy sources......, and global social and urban issues, interest in the energy systems for cities of the future has grown in a wealth of disciplines. Some of the special features of this book include new findings on the city of the future from the macro to the micro level. These range from urban sustainability to indoor...... urbanism, and from strategies for cities and global climate change to material properties. The book is intended for graduate students and researchers active in architecture, engineering, the social and computational sciences, building physics and related fields....

  3. Mischief Humor in Smart and Playable Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Nijholt, Anton

    2017-01-01

    In smart cities we can expect to witness human behavior that is not be different from human behavior in present-day cities. There will be demonstrations, flash mobs, and organized events to provoke the smart city establishment. Smart cities will have bugs that can be exploited by hackers. Smart

  4. City Marketing: Towards an Integrated Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Braun (Erik)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis PhD thesis deals with city marketing: cities making use of marketing ideas, concepts and tools. Marketing has proved its value in the business environment, but what about applying marketing in the context of cities? How can cities make effective use of the potential of marketing?

  5. Are autonomous cities our urban future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Barbara

    2018-05-29

    Cities are rapidly expanding in size, wealth and power, with some now larger than nation states. Smart city solutions and strong global urban networks are developing to manage massive urban growth. However, cities exist within a wider system and it may take more than technological advances, innovation and city autonomy to develop a sustainable urban future.

  6. QUIC Transport and Dispersion Modeling of Vehicle Emissions in Cities for Better Public Health Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Brown

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Quick Urban and Industrial Complex (QUIC plume modeling system is used to explore how the transport and dispersion of vehicle emissions in cities are impacted by the presence of buildings. Using downtown Philadelphia as a test case, notional vehicle emissions of gases and particles are specified as line source releases on a subset of the east–west and north–south streets. Cases were run in flat terrain and with 3D buildings present in order to show the differences in the model-computed outdoor concentration fields with and without buildings present. The QUIC calculations show that buildings result in regions with much higher concentrations and other areas with much lower concentrations when compared to the flat-earth case. On the roads with vehicle emissions, street-level concentrations were up to a factor of 10 higher when buildings were on either side of the street as compared to the flat-earth case due to trapping of pollutants between buildings. However, on roads without vehicle emissions and in other open areas, the concentrations were up to a factor of 100 times smaller as compared to the flat earth case because of vertical mixing of the vehicle emissions to building height in the cavity circulation that develops on the downwind side of unsheltered buildings. QUIC was also used to calculate infiltration of the contaminant into the buildings. Indoor concentration levels were found to be much lower than outdoor concentrations because of deposition onto indoor surfaces and particulate capture for buildings with filtration systems. Large differences in indoor concentrations from building to building resulted from differences in leakiness, air handling unit volume exchange rates, and filter type and for naturally ventilated buildings, whether or not the building was sheltered from the prevailing wind by a building immediately upwind.

  7. Architecture and Stages of the Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents more than 41 articles on ‘Architecture and Stages of the Experience City'. The aim of the book is to investigate current challenges related to architecture, art and city life in the ‘Experience City' and it is presenting cutting edge knowledge and experiences within the following...... themes: Experience City Making Digital Architecture Stages in the Experience City The City as a Learning Lab Experience City Architecture Performative Architecture Art and Performance Urban Catalyst and Temporary Use...

  8. From city marketing to city branding : An interdisciplinary analysis with reference to Amsterdam, Budapest and Athens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavaratzis, M.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis deals with the theory and practice of city marketing. It describes the transition from city marketing to city branding by identifying the roots of city marketing in general marketing theory, by adapting the concept of corporate-level marketing for the needs of cities and by analysing in

  9. 77 FR 29932 - Safety Zone; Nautical City Festival Air Show, Rogers City, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Nautical City Festival Air Show, Rogers City, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... City Festival will be celebrating Calcite's 100th Anniversary. As part of that celebration, an air show... posed by the Nautical City Festival air show near Rogers City, MI, the Captain of the Port Sault Sainte...

  10. 77 FR 40798 - Safety Zone; Nautical City Festival Air Show, Rogers City MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Nautical City Festival Air Show, Rogers City MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...; Nautical City Festival Air Show, Rogers City MI; in the Federal Register (77 FR 29932). We received no... Nautical City Festival will be celebrating Calcite's 100th Anniversary. As part of that celebration, an air...

  11. Within city limits: nature and children's books about nature in the city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard S. Marcus

    1977-01-01

    Many children's books give the impression that we must leave the city to be "in nature.'' This is a review of children's books about nature found within city limits. The books include a natural history of New York City; a guide to city wildflowers and other weeds; a book about city trees; a delightful inquiry into the true nature of the roach;...

  12. Tourism and City. Reflections about Tourist Dimension of Smart City

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Anna La Rocca

    2013-01-01

    The city of the future seems to be necessarily “intelligent” both in its physical and in functional features.This paper starts from the consideration that the diffusion of new communication technologies (ICTs) is significantly changing the urban supply system of tourist services giving rise to new ways of enjoying the city.As tourism can be assumed as an urban activity, by a town planning point of view, the study of tourism is meaningful to identify development trajectories of the present cit...

  13. The Copper Balance of Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Ulrich; Lin, Chih-Yi; Kellner, Katharina; Ma, Hwong-wen; Brunner, Paul H

    2014-01-01

    Material management faces a dual challenge: on the one hand satisfying large and increasing demands for goods and on the other hand accommodating wastes and emissions in sinks. Hence, the characterization of material flows and stocks is relevant for both improving resource efficiency and environmental protection. This article focuses on the urban scale, a dimension rarely investigated in past metal flow studies. We compare the copper (Cu) metabolism of two cities in different economic states, namely, Vienna (Europe) and Taipei (Asia). Substance flow analysis is used to calculate urban Cu balances in a comprehensive and transparent form. The main difference between Cu in the two cities appears to be the stock: Vienna seems close to saturation with 180 kilograms per capita (kg/cap) and a growth rate of 2% per year. In contrast, the Taipei stock of 30 kg/cap grows rapidly by 26% per year. Even though most Cu is recycled in both cities, bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration represents an unused Cu potential accounting for 1% to 5% of annual demand. Nonpoint emissions are predominant; up to 50% of the loadings into the sewer system are from nonpoint sources. The results of this research are instrumental for the design of the Cu metabolism in each city. The outcomes serve as a base for identification and recovery of recyclables as well as for directing nonrecyclables to appropriate sinks, avoiding sensitive environmental pathways. The methodology applied is well suited for city benchmarking if sufficient data are available. PMID:25866460

  14. Energy management in Lucknow city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zia, Hina; Devadas, V.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, an attempt is made to prepare an energy management model for Lucknow city along with policy recommendations for optimal energy utilization and management. At the outset, the authors have reviewed the related literature on energy management in the urban system. The entire collected literature is divided into the following sections, such as, energy resource assessment, energy consumption, energy and economy, energy and environment, energy and transportation, forecasting the energy demand and supply, alternate energy sources and technologies, energy conservation and demand-side management and energy management measures in India, and are reviewed thoroughly and presented. Subsequently, an attempt is made to establish the importance of energy in urban development by using Systems concept. Lucknow city has been chosen for investigation in this study. A detailed methodology is developed for organizing the survey at the grassroots level to evolve feasible strategies for optimal energy management in the study area. An attempt is further made to assess the available energy resource in the city, and the energy consumption by source wise in the city and estimating the energy gap in the year 2011. The paper concludes with preparation of a detailed energy management model for Lucknow city to reduce the expected energy gap for the year 2011. The recommendations are made for supply augmentation, demand-side management and policy measures to be taken by the government authorities

  15. Green Technology for Smart Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casini, M.

    2017-08-01

    In view of the enormous social and environmental changes at the global level, more and more cities worldwide have directed their development strategies towards smart policies aimed at sustainable mobility, energy upgrading of the building stock, increase of energy production from renewable sources, improvement of waste management and implementation of ICT infrastructures. The goal is to turn into Smart Cities, able to improve the quality of life of their inhabitants by offering a lasting opportunity for cultural, economic and social growth within a healthy, safe, stimulating and dynamic environment. After an overview of the role of cities in climate changes and environmental pollution worldwide, the article provides an up to date definition of Smart City and of its main expected features, focussing on technology innovation, smart governance and main financing and support programs. An analysis of the most interesting initiatives at the international level pursued by cities investigating the three main areas of Green Buildings, Smart grid-Smart lighting, and Smart mobility is given, with the objective to offer a broad reference for the identification of development sustainable plans and programs at the urban level within the current legislative framework.

  16. Smart governance for smart city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutiara, Dewi; Yuniarti, Siti; Pratama, Bambang

    2018-03-01

    Some of the local government in Indonesia claimed they already created a smart city. Mostly the claim based of IT utilization for their governance. In general, a smart city definition is to describe a developed urban area that creates sustainable economic development and high quality of life by excelling in multiple key; economy, mobility, environment, people, living, and government. For public services, the law guarantees good governance by setting the standard for e-government implicitly including for local government or a city. Based on the arguments, this research tries to test the condition of e-government of the Indonesian city in 34 provinces. The purpose is to map e-government condition by measuring indicators of smart government, which are: transparent governance and open data for the public. This research is departing from public information disclosure law and to correspond with the existence law. By examining government transparency, the output of the research can be used to measure the effectiveness of public information disclosure law and to determine the condition of e-government in local government in which as part of a smart city.

  17. Urban Networking vs. Smart City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Păuna Carmen Beatrice

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration that the development of strong partnerships involving local citizens, civil society, the local economy and the various levels of government is an indispensable element for an Integrated Sustainable Urban Development, our paper is focusing on the role of an appropriate urban networking in the relationship with the objectives of a smart city. In this context, the Romanian good practices - as Oradea city - are worth to mention. In compliance with Europe 2020 Strategy’s objectives there will be discussed the particularities of urban networking in order to strengthen the resilience of cities, and to ensure synergies amongst the investments supported by European Structural and Investment (ESI funds. According to economic literature the urban network is not a funding instrument but a way for cities to share feedback on the use of these new approaches. The estimated results of our research are related to the conclusion that the urban networks act as a forum for capacity building and exchange between the cities pioneering new techniques and developing integrated investments.

  18. Brigham City Hydro Generation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammons, Tom B. [Energy Conservation Specialist, Port Ewen, NY (United States)

    2015-10-31

    Brigham City owns and operates its own municipal power system which currently includes several hydroelectric facilities. This project was to update the efficiency and capacity of current hydro production due to increased water flow demands that could pass through existing generation facilities. During 2006-2012, this project completed efficiency evaluation as it related to its main objective by completing a feasibility study, undergoing necessary City Council approvals and required federal environmental reviews. As a result of Phase 1 of the project, a feasibility study was conducted to determine feasibility of hydro and solar portions of the original proposal. The results indicated that the existing Hydro plant which was constructed in the 1960’s was running at approximately 77% efficiency or less. Brigham City proposes that the efficiency calculations be refined to determine the economic feasibility of improving or replacing the existing equipment with new high efficiency equipment design specifically for the site. Brigham City completed the Feasibility Assessment of this project, and determined that the Upper Hydro that supplies the main culinary water to the city was feasible to continue with. Brigham City Council provided their approval of feasibility assessment’s results. The Upper Hydro Project include removal of the existing powerhouse equipment and controls and demolition of a section of concrete encased penstock, replacement of penstock just upstream of the turbine inlet, turbine bypass, turbine shut-off and bypass valves, turbine and generator package, control equipment, assembly, start-up, commissioning, Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA), and the replacement of a section of conductors to the step-up transformer. Brigham City increased the existing 575 KW turbine and generator with an 825 KW turbine and generator. Following the results of the feasibility assessment Brigham City pursued required environmental reviews with the DOE and

  19. Exploring spatial patterns of sudden cardiac arrests in the city of Toronto using Poisson kriging and Hot Spot analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybysz, Raymond; Bunch, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Our study looked at out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest events in the City of Toronto. These are relatively rare events, yet present a serious global clinical and public health problem. We report on the application of spatial methods and tools that, although relatively well known to geographers and natural resource scientists, need to become better known and used more frequently by health care researchers. Our data came from the population-based Rescu Epistry cardiac arrest database. We limited it to the residents of the City of Toronto who experienced sudden arrest in 2010. The data was aggregated at the Dissemination Area level, and population rates were calculated. Poisson kriging was carried out on one year of data using three different spatial weights. Kriging estimates were then compared in Hot Spot analyses. Spatial analysis revealed that Poisson kriging can yield reliable rates using limited data of high quality. We observed the highest rates of sudden arrests in the north and central parts of Etobicoke, western parts of North York as well as the central and southwestern parts of Scarborough while the lowest rates were found in north and eastern parts of Scarborough, downtown Toronto, and East York as well as east central parts of North York. Influence of spatial neighbours on the results did not extend past two rings of adjacent units. Poisson kriging has the potential to be applied to a wide range of healthcare research, particularly on rare events. This approach can be successfully combined with other spatial methods. More applied research, is needed to establish a wider acceptance for this method, especially among healthcare researchers and epidemiologists.

  20. Shrinking Cities or Urban Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lea Louise Holst

    Shrinking Cities or Urban Transformation is a PhD-thesis conducted at the Department of Architecture and Design, Aalborg University in the period 2004-2008. The PhD concerns the spatial changes that emerge in contemporary urbanity. Contemporary urbanity can among others be characterized as both...... growing and declining. On the one hand, a concentration of the urban into a highly urbanized nodal point is happening and on the other a deconcentration of the urban fabric in declining territories is taking place. The starting point for the dissertation is the term shrinking cities, which has been...... investigation of the cases Baltimore and Denmark is conducted. This shall shed light upon whether the theoretical assumptions correspond to what is happening in the real world. The introduction of the term urban transformation is the result of these investigations and a response to shrinking cities. Urban...

  1. Microsensing networks for sustainable cities

    CERN Document Server

    Lambrechts, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    This book explores the microsensing technologies and systems now available to monitor the quality of air and water within the urban environment and examines their role in the creation of sustainable cities against the background of the challenges posed by rapid urbanization. The opening section addresses the theoretical and conceptual background of microsensing networks. The coverage includes detailed description of microsensors, supported by design-specific equations, and clear explanation of the ways in which devices that harvest energy from ambient sources can detect and quantify pollution. The practical application of such systems in addressing environmental impacts within cities and in sustainable urban planning is then discussed with the aid of case studies in developing countries. The book will be of interest to all who wish to understand the benefits of microsensing networks in promoting sustainable cities through better delivery of information on health hazards and improved provision of data to envir...

  2. Lean production of intensive cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad; Bojesen, Anders; Bramming, Pia

    2014-01-01

    turnover. This is analysed in terms of Italo Calvino's Invisible cities. It is argued that Calvino's themes and prose help us understand change as a multiplicity of temporal intensities producing ambivalence and affect. We describe this use of literary abstractions as a ‘hyperbolic social epistemology......’. Through the depiction of four intensifications of Lean Production, the metaphors of Calvino's cities show how reality and illusion; hope and poverty; dreams and death and utopia and dystopia are intricately mingled and produce temporary and equally ambivalent affects of alienation, hypocrisy, self...

  3. 'Facework', Flow and the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper contains a re-reading of Simmel and Goffman with an eye to the mobility practices of the contemporary city. The paper offers a ‘new’ perspective on mobility in the contemporary city by re-reading two sociological ‘classics’ as there is a need to conceptualise the everyday level of flow...... and mobility in the midst of an intellectual climate dominated by grand theories of networks and globalisation. In the re-reading of Simmel and Goffman, the aim is to reach an understanding of how contemporary material mobility flows and symbolic orders and meanings are produced and re-produced. You may argue...

  4. Playable Cities : The City as a Digital Playground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton

    2017-01-01

    The first book to exhaustively review key recent research into playability in smart and digital cities. - Addresses pervasive games and the relation between gameful and gamified applications and the design of playful architecture - Includes special chapters on playful civic hacking applications and

  5. LOCAL IDENTITY MEETING WITH CITY: CITTASLOW-SLOW CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugba Ustun Topal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cities are characterised by local identities, which have been shaped by natural and cultural values. Constituting elements of local identity are settlement pattern bearing the traces of past, local music, traditional taste, handicrafts and life story. Besides, there has been a fast pace of life owing to globalization, and globally standardized cities, where local identities are ignored, have been emerged in planning-design-implementation process. From this viewpoint, Cittaslow movement has become a major turning point for liveable and sustainable cities that emphasize the local character. In this context, in the study, it is aimed to raise awareness about Cittaslow which is an example of an urban model for sustainability. In line with this purpose, the importance of Cittaslow approach and the criteria that are needed to be met for being a member of the Association of Cittaslow have been revealed. In line with these criteria Cittaslow cities in Turkey were discussed comparatively in terms of their features were considered. Examples from our country have been evaluated together with the international Cittaslow examples. In addition, proposals have been made by developing strategies in planning- designing and implementation process for the Cittaslow approach.

  6. Smart cities, smart lights. Digital signane and the city experience

    OpenAIRE

    Fiori, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    This article is about the experience of light in the smart and digital city or, in other words, the existing and widening use of visual digital signane in the urban environment, open air and in public places. This research focuses on where in towns this digital "contamination" is more visible and accessible, i.e. in shopping districts.

  7. From the Garden City to the Smart City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Hügel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been a century since the first Garden Cities at Welwyn and Letchworth were founded and, in the eyes of many, we have entered the age of the Smart City. This commentary briefly reflects upon the origins of Ebenezer Howard’s vision in the slums of overcrowded, filthy London and the fire-traps of early 20th century Chicago before outlining some of the main contributing factors to its ultimate failure as an approach: the lack of a robust theory underpinning his ideas, a finance model which was unacceptable to the banks—leading to a compromise which robbed the more idealistic participants of any real power over their schemes—and finally, a dilution of Howard’s vision by architects who were more focused on population density than on social reform. A parallel is then drawn between the weaknesses which afflicted the Garden City vision, and those which afflict current Smart City visions, a loose agglomeration of ahistorical techno-utopian imaginaries, whose aims almost invariably include optimising various measures of efficiency using large-scale deployments of networked sensors and cameras, linked to monolithic control rooms from which our shared urban existence is overseen. The evolution (or perhaps more accurately: alteration of these concepts in response to criticism is then detailed, before some of the less well-known ideas which are now emerging are briefly discussed.

  8. The green city guidelines : techniques for a healthy liveable city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roo, M.; Kuypers, V.H.M.; Lenzholzer, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Green City Guidelines is an international book that provides information on the social and economic advantages of green spaces in urban environments. The book focuses on decision-makers and people practically involved in the field concerned. It provides tips and advice on ways of using plants,

  9. Smart city planning and development shortcomings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Angelidou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores smart city planning and development shortcomings. In particular, it investigates eleven cases of smart city strategies and the shortcomings that were observed during their planning and implementation stages. The cases include: Barcelona Smart City, PlanlT Valley, Stockholm Smart City, Cyberjaya, King Abdullah Economic City, Masdar City, Skolkovo, Songdo International Business District, Chicago Smart City, Rio de Janeiro Smart City, and Konza Technology City. The paper proceeds with the synthesis of the findings and their critical appraisal. Shortcomings are classified into economic and budget shortages, bureaucratic and organizational challenges, challenges in the development and layout of digital services, poor physical planning, struggle to attract investment and support the development of new businesses, low performance in attracting and engaging users, and stakeholder resistance. In turn, the shortcomings are clustered in two distinct groups and analyzed in terms of causes and effects. The paper closes with mitigation propositions, accounting for past experience and novel approaches to this end.

  10. Gamification in the context of smart cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zica, M. R.; Ionica, A. C.; Leba, M.

    2018-01-01

    The recent emergence of smart cities is highly supported by the development of IT and IoT technologies. Nevertheless, a smart city needs to be built to meet the needs and requirements of its citizens. In order to build a smart city it is necessary to understand the benefits of such a city. A smart city is, beyond technology, populated by people. A smart city can be raised by its citizens’ contribution, and gamification is the means to motivate them. In this paper we included gamification techniques in the stage of capturing the citizens’ requirements for building a smart city. The system proposed in the paper is to create an application that allows the building of a virtual smart city customized by each user. From this virtual city, the most relevant features are extracted.

  11. [WHO Healthy City Initiative in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Kazuko

    2013-01-01

    City environmental conditions are associated with health outcomes in people living there. World Health Organization (WHO) initiated Healthy City in 1986. To promote the networking, Alliance for Healthy Cities (AFHC) was launched in 2003 with local offices including AFHC Japan. As of 2010, 26 cities are members of AFHC Japan. A questionnaire was sent to those member cities. It includes questions on why they became an AFHC member, which section is in charge of the initiatives, what factors are important for promotion, and others. Out of the 26 cities, 13 cities returned the completed questionnaire. As for factors important for promoting the initiatives, 10 (77%) out of the 13 cities answered "consciousness of residents", while five (38%) chose "budget". This result suggests that community participation is a more important factor than budget for promoting and succeeding in the initiatives. Aging is a problem in any of the member cities, and six cities out the 13 falls under the category of superaged society, which is defined as a society with the proportion of aged people cities (85%) agreed that bicycles are an alternative means of transportation to cars; however, infrastructure for ensuring safety needs further improvement. In the promotion of Healthy City, networking among the member cities in Japan and worldwide should be promoted. Community participation with empowerment from the planning stage should lead to sustainable initiatives. The function of AFHC in collaboration among the members should be strengthened to cope with the rapidly changing city environment.

  12. Influence of perceived city brand image on emotional attachment to the city

    OpenAIRE

    Manyiwa, Simon; Priporas, Constantinos-Vasilios; Wang, Xuan Lorna

    2018-01-01

    Purpose - This study examines the influence of perceived city brand image on emotional attachment to the city. The study also compares the effects of perceived brand image of the city on the emotional attachment to the city across two groups: residents and visitors. \\ud \\ud Design/methodology - A total of 207 usable questionnaires were collected from 107 residents of the city of Bratislava, Slovakia, and 100 visitors to the city. Partial least square structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) me...

  13. Influence of perceived city brand image on emotional attachment to the city

    OpenAIRE

    Manyiwa, Simon; Priporas, Constantinos-Vasilios; Wang, Xuan Lorna

    2018-01-01

    Purpose - This study examines the influence of perceived city brand image on emotional attachment to the city. The study also compares the effects of perceived brand image of the city on the emotional attachment to the city across two groups: residents and visitors. Design/methodology - A total of 207 usable questionnaires were collected from 107 residents of the city of Bratislava, Slovakia, and 100 visitors to the city. Partial least square structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) met...

  14. Sustainability and Cities as Systems of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Bjørn; Lehmann, Martin

    Cities often constitute relevant environments for interactive learning and innovation potentially capable of tackling sustainability problems. In this paper we ask if the concept of systems of innovation can increase our understanding of city dynamics and help promoting the sustainable development...... of cities. Through a combination of the innovation system approach and the perspective of creative cities, we argue that a slightly modified concept – sustainable city systems of innovation – may be helpful in this context. To underline this, we discuss certain ‘city-traits’ of sustainability and conclude...

  15. Landscape planning for a safe city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ishikawa

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available To create a safe city free from natural disasters has been one of the important criteria in city planning. Since large cities have suffered from large fires caused by earthquakes, the planning of open spaces to prevent the spread of fires is part of the basic structure of city planning in Japan. Even in the feudal city of Edo, the former name of Tokyo, there had been open spaces to prevent fire disasters along canals and rivers. This paper discusses the historical evolution of open space planning, that we call landscape planning, through the experiences in Tokyo, and clarifies the characteristics and problems for achieving a safe city.

  16. Avaliação das Boas Práticas através de check-list aplicado em restaurantes self-service da região central de Maringá, Estado do Paraná - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v27i2.1415 Good practices evaluation through check-list applied in self-service restaurants to the downtown population of Maringá, Paraná State - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v27i2.1415

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciette Matioli

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O número de pessoas que se alimenta fora de suas residências é cada vez maior, devido a vários fatores como crescimento das cidades, inserção da mulher no mercado de trabalho e tempo indisponível para o preparo das refeições. Para garantir a segurança dos alimentos oferecidos, é necessária a implantação das Boas Práticas, procedimentos padronizados que devem ser adotados com o objetivo de evitar as Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos. O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi avaliar as condições de higiene no preparo de alimentos em restaurantes do tipo self-service da região central do município de Maringá. Foi aplicado um check-list (guia de verificação baseado na legislação vigente no país, de forma a verificar o nível de Não-conformidades apresentadas pelos estabelecimentos. Os resultados mostraram uma variação de 10,8 a 60,9% de Não-conformidade. Conclui-se que a maioria dos restaurantes pesquisados possui condições de higiene insatisfatórias e não atendem a legislação vigente no país no que diz respeito às Boas Práticas para a produção de alimentos segurosThe number of people who eat out of their residences is becoming bigger, due to several factors: the growth of the cities, the woman's insert in the job market and the unavailable time for meals preparation. To guarantee the safety of the supplied foods, it is necessary to adopt the Good Practices, that are, standardized procedures followed with the objective of avoiding the Diseases Transmitted by Foods. This work aimed to evaluate the hygienic-sanitary conditions in the foods preparation provided by restaurants of the type self-service to the downtown population of Maringá. A check-list was applied (verification guide based on the current legislation in the country, in order to verify the Non-Conformities level presented by the establishments. The results showed a variation from 10.8 to 60.9% of Non-Conformities and that most of the researched

  17. Foodscape gastropolis New York City

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der A.J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Men slurp banana pudding from the hips of a black-latex-clad woman lying on atable in a room filled with liquid nitrogen smoke. This is just a single episode inthe culinary life of New York City (Parasecoli, 2009). Elsewhere, a long queue ofAfrican-Americans is patiently waiting for a soup kitchen

  18. Riparian planning in Yogyakarta City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, R.; Prakoso, E.; Sadali, M. I.; Yusuf, M. G.

    2018-04-01

    Riparian is a potential for slums in urban areas. The city of Yogyakarta is passed by three rivers namely Code, Gajahwong, and Winongo, crossing the city. Riparian in the three rivers are potential for slum if the area is not well managed. This paper is based on the survey results of the structured interview with the people living in the riparian area in Yogyakarta City. They were 75 respondents from the three riparian. The result shows that several reasons why people prefer to remain living in the area are limited spaces and high land price in the city as well as inherited from their parents. The facts that there are still several problems related to the condition of settlement environment in the riparian, i.e., The condition of densely-populated areas, limited availability of land, and limited public spaces. Efforts that can be done to solve problems related to the riparian planning are anticipating disasters like flood and landslide, paying attention to densely-populated and unwell-planned areas, and handling garbage that has been abandoned into the river. The program expected by those living along both riversides is intended to give priorities on providing some aid for those whose houses are not in good condition, controlling buildings without a permit, and building a dike along the river. Efficiency can be made by making use of the space adequately between the one for settlement and the other one for open-green space for both aesthetic and economic purposes.

  19. Miami, Florida: The Magic City

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2008-01-01

    With its subtropical climate and intimate ties to Latin America, Miami is like no other city in the United States. More than 65 percent of its population is Hispanic, and Spanish is the most commonly heard language. Situated at the southern tip of the 500-mile-long Florida peninsula, Miami is the largest urban area in the southeastern United…

  20. Educated Cities and Regional Centralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jesper

    centralization where the shares of students rose significantly more in urban municipalities than non-urban municipalities. The highest shares of students as well as fastest increases were seen in the municipalities of the four largest cities, Copenhagen, Århus, Odense, and Aalborg. At the national level...

  1. Heritage contribution in sustainable city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, R.; Khoshnava, S. M.; Lamit, H.

    2014-02-01

    The concept of sustainability has been an integral part of development work since the late 1970s. Sustainability is no longer a buzzword but a reality that must be addressed by cities all over the world. Increasing empirical evidence indicates that city sustainability is not just related to technical issues, such as carbon emissions, energy consumption and waste management, or on the economic aspects of urban regeneration and growth, but also it covers social well-being of different groups living within increasingly cosmopolitan towns and cities. Heritage is seen as a major component of quality of life, features that give a city its unique character and provide the sense of belonging that lies at the core of cultural identity. In other words, heritage by providing important social and psychological benefits enrich human life with meanings and emotions, and raise quality of life as a key component of sustainability. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to examine the role that built cultural heritage can play within sustainable urban development.

  2. Designing cities to minimise crime

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Saville, G

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Crime is, to a large degree, absent from the contemporary debate on sustainability. Yet it is difficult to think of sustainable cities without considering crime and safety in the design, planning and development process. Some argue that ecological...

  3. Creating continuous smart city innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, K.M.; Voncken, R.; den Ouden, P.H.

    2016-01-01

    The Netherlands, and especially Eindhoven, features in the top of most entrepreneurial, technology, and innovation rankings worldwide. Not only are its companies and universities successful in innovation, but also the municipality of Eindhoven can be seen as an exemplar for other cities. The

  4. Market solutions for sustainable cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursem, Thomas; Nijkamp, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Sustainable development has become a globally accepted policy objective. It is however, increasingly recognized that the implementation of sustainability strategies has to take place at a decentralized level. This has also provoked the idea of urban sustainability. The notion of sustainable city is

  5. Structural Damage in Mexico City

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, John F.; Beck, James L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the structural damage in Mexico City caused by the September 19, 1985 earthquake. Photographs which illustrate various features of structural behavior are included. One explanation is presented as to why buildings with fundamental periods of elastic vibration considerably below the predominant two‐second period of the ground motion were most vulnerable to damage.

  6. Heritage contribution in sustainable city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostami, R; Khoshnava, S M; Lamit, H

    2014-01-01

    The concept of sustainability has been an integral part of development work since the late 1970s. Sustainability is no longer a buzzword but a reality that must be addressed by cities all over the world. Increasing empirical evidence indicates that city sustainability is not just related to technical issues, such as carbon emissions, energy consumption and waste management, or on the economic aspects of urban regeneration and growth, but also it covers social well-being of different groups living within increasingly cosmopolitan towns and cities. Heritage is seen as a major component of quality of life, features that give a city its unique character and provide the sense of belonging that lies at the core of cultural identity. In other words, heritage by providing important social and psychological benefits enrich human life with meanings and emotions, and raise quality of life as a key component of sustainability. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to examine the role that built cultural heritage can play within sustainable urban development

  7. The city of the landowner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnow, Niels Finn

    The City of the Landowner deals with urban systems and urban architecture in the Antique Greek World and the Roman Empire. Although it is a part og a wider context, the book can perfectly well be read separatly as its texts, drawings and photographs describe a subject which is abundant...

  8. Bug City: Aquatic Insects [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  9. Bug City: Flies & Mosquitoes [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon, including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic…

  10. Bug City: Ladybugs & Fireflies [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon, including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic…

  11. Shrinking Cities and the Need for a Reinvented Understanding of the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lea Louise holst

    the contemporary city and maybe the understanding of the city needs to be updated in some areas, before we are able to do so. In this paper, the focus will be directed towards two themes which become present with the Shrinking Cities phenomenon and therefore seems important to discuss in order to understand...... the concept of Shrinking Cities. These two themes may affect the understanding of the existing city theory. The first theme is concerned with the physical understanding of the city where the traditional assumption about the city as a high density area, with buildings as the dominant structure, is questioned....... Here the concept of the city as an urban landscape will be introduced. The second theme points to the need for a discussion regarding the object of our planning when developing the cities. Previously, the purpose of city development has been growth and expansion, but with the Shrinking Cities...

  12. Basic statistics of PM2.5 and PM10 in the atmosphere of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, E; Reyes, E; Sánchez, G; Ortiz, E; Ruiz, M; Chow, J; Watson, J; Edgerton, S

    2002-03-27

    The high levels of fine particulate matter in Mexico City are of concern since they may induce severe public health effects as well as the attenuation of visible light. Sequential filter samplers were used at six different sites from 23 February to 22 March 1997. The sampling campaign was carried out as part of the project 'Investigación sobre Materia Particulada y Deterioro Atmosferico-Aerosol and Visibility Evaluation Research'. This research was a cooperative project sponsored by PEMEX and by the US Department of Energy. Sampling sites represent the different land uses along the city, the northwest station, Tlalnepantla, is located in a mixed medium income residential and industrial area. The northeast station, Xalostoc, is located in a highly industrialized area, Netzahualcoyotl is located in a mixed land use area, mainly commercial and residential. Station La Merced is located in the commercial and administrative district downtown. The southwest station is located in the Pedregal de San Angel, in a high-income neighborhood, and the southeast station located in Cerro de la Estrella is a mixed medium income residential and commercial area. Samples were collected four times a day in Cerro de la Estrella (CES), La Merced (MER) and Xalostoc (XAL) with sampling periods of 6 h. In Pedregal (PED), Tlalnepantla (TLA) and Netzahualcoyot1 (NEZ) sampling periods were every 24 h. In this paper the basic statistics of PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentrations are presented. The average results showed that 49, 61, 46, 57, 51 and 44% of the PM10 consisted of PM2.5 for CES, MER, XAL, PED, TLA and NEZ, respectively. The 24-h average highest concentrations of PM25 and PM10 were registered at NEZ (184 and 267 microg/m3) and the lowest at PED (22 and 39 microg/m3). The highest PM10 correlations were between XAL-CES (0.79), PED-TLA (0.80). In contrast, the highest PM2.5 correlations were between CES-PED (0.74), MER-CES (0.73) and TLA-PED (0.72), showing a lower correlation than the PM10

  13. From the network city to the neo-liberal city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    Network Cities: Globalization and Urban Transformation in Oslo, Stockholm and Copenhagen aims to probe relationships between planning discourses, planning practices and urban transformations. By bringing together practitioners and academics we aim at focussing the discussion on developments...... in the three Schandinavian capitals, namely Oslo, Stockholm and Copenhagen. Relationships between urban transformations and global networks (economic, cultural, informational), are closely related to considerations by planners, decision makers and academics about themes such as the competition between cities......, the forging of regional identities, the impact of information technologies on urban development, the development of networked infrastructures (transport, telecommunications) and spatial consequences such as the changing status of public space, social polarization, amongst others. The central purpose...

  14. Green City Branding in Perspective d

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulsrud, Natalie Marie

    2014-01-01

    their competitive advantage as an increasingly global economy has led to fierce competition between cities at a national and international level. Cities are actively competing for talent, innovation, and creativity to boost their economies. One way cities achieve a competitive image is through green place branding......From Sydney, Australia’s “Sustainable Sydney 2030” campaign, to Vancouver, Canada’s “Greenest City 2020” vision, green city brands have become a global tool for municipal leaders to promise a better quality of life, promote sustainable development, and increase their competitive advantage. In Asia......, various green city schemes and rankings exist. They include Siemen’s Asian Green City Index, assessed by The Economist Intelligence Unit, based on a city’s environmental performance in a wide range of categories (Economist Intelligence Unit 2011). These green city brands provide a vision of health...

  15. Transnational learning in Creative City Challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romein, A.; Trip, J.J.; Zonneveld, W.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Report written in the context of the INTERREG IVB project Creative City Challenge. Based on a series of international expert meetings the report discusses various themes in relation to creative city policy, and analyses the process of transnational learning itself.

  16. Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-05-24

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  17. Creativity and tourism in the city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, G.W.

    2014-01-01

    Creativity has become increasingly important for the development of tourism in cities in recent years. As competition between cities grows, they increasingly seek to distinguish themselves through creative strategies. In the field of tourism, however, such strategies may arguably be

  18. Smart city performance measurement framework. CITYkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Airaksinen, M.; Seppa, I.P.; Huovilla, A.; Neumann, H.M.; Iglar, B.; Bosch, P.R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a holistic performance measurement framework for harmonized and transparent monitoring and comparability of the European cities activities during the implementation of Smart City solutions. The work methodology was based on extensive collaboration and communication with European

  19. 3PL Services in City Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, Jesper; Gammelgaard, Britta; Prockl, Günter

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is 1) to develop an overview of activities and services that can add value for users and consignees in city logistics schemes based on Urban Consolidation Centre, and 2) to understand and analyze the perceived value for users and consignees from using such services....... The paper will be based on studies of the city logistics literature and existing city logistics schemes, as well as survey and interview findings from studies of potential users (retailers) in Copenhagen inner city and interviews with existing users (retailers) of existing city logistics services...... in the cities of Maastricht, Netherlands, and Hasselt, Belgium. The paper provides an overview and classification of possible third party logistics services in city logistics schemes. Also, findings about value perceived by current users as well as potential users are presented. Literature on city logistics has...

  20. Clean Cities Now Vol. 16.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-05-01

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  1. For a Safer City. A Friendlier City. And a More Beautiful City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Busi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the safety of mobility in the urban environment has been emerging as a primary social topic for some time now due to the number of casualties and, more generally, due to the impact on living conditions in the city. If correctly formulated, in fact, this subject has implications primarily and fundamentally with regard to the quality of urban life, as the citizen, and the vulnerable road user in particular, is severely restricted in their use of urban public paces. Consequently, an increasingly greater focus is being placed on acquiring methods, techniques and strategies for addressing the issue of planning, constructing and managing roads, squares and urban green spaces (and above all, applying the logic of reclaiming the historic and consolidated city in order that the city can be used to its full potential by the citizen. The subject itself therefore presents an opportunity to re-establish urban planning regulations (and, more generally, city regulations in accordance with the renewed interest in public spaces. The article discusses this matter and includes supporting elements and examples, also referring to the implications on the urban landscape.

  2. From City-States to Global Cities: the role of Cities in Global Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos Martins Vaz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Global governance has altered institutional architecture and the systemic and institutional conditions under which power is exercised, as well as the characteristics of the political system, the form of government, and the system of intermediation of interests. However, although it has surpassed the State’s dimension of power, it created new interstate dimensions and new relations between powers, particularly at the level of cities. Cities have helped to solve common problems in a more efficient and effective way by facilitating the exchange of knowledge, sharing of solutions and resources, and building capacity to implement and monitor progress in order to achieve collectively agreed goals, in a bottom-up approach. Cities have the virtue of securing the most direct social and political contract between societies and the notion of authority. This study, therefore, aims to reflect on this emerging, less hierarchical and rigid governance and address complex global challenges such as climate and demographic change; increasing crime rates; disruptive technology; and pressures on resources, infrastructure and energy. As a global/local interface, cities can ensure effective solutions to current challenges and act together in areas where the global agenda has stalled.

  3. A FRAMEWORK FOR STRUCTURING CITY LOGISTICS INITIATIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Snežana Tadić; Slobodan Zečević

    2016-01-01

    Interest in the problems and conceptual solutions for city logistics is increasing each year. City is the place of largest concentration of economic and social activities, and logistics is very important for the sustainability and the economy of the city. Numerous research projects indicate that the state of urban logistics is quite critical. City logistics system is extremely complex, with a large number of participants with different roles, problems, interests and goals. They all want an at...

  4. Mischief humor: From Games to Playable Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    2015-01-01

    Playable cities are smart cities that allow artists, urban designers, and city dwellers to introduce sensors and actuators or use already in-place sensors and actuators for playful applications. These applications allow users to interact with street furniture or with and in public buildings. Sensors

  5. Smart City Governance: A Local Emergent Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Albert

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents a local emergent perspective on smart city governance. Smart city governance is about using new technologies to develop innovative governance arrangements. Cities all around the world are struggling to find smart solutions to wicked problems and they hope to learn from

  6. Digital romance in the Indian city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Arora (Payal); A. Rangaswamy (Arvind)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The Indian city is no Paris. Far from being a city of love, it spells of crowds, chaos and confusion. Within desperately strained urban infrastructures lie grey zones, grey markets, and grey practices. In Mumbai alone, the most populous city in India of 30 million,

  7. LCA of road infrastructure in Mexico City.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosales Carreon, Jesus

    2007-01-01

    Vehicular traffic is a major problem in metropolitan areas and Mexico City is no exception. Located in a pollutant-trapping valley, Mexico City (one of the largest cities in the world) is famous for its size, its history, and the warmth of its people. Nev

  8. The 3D-city model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgren, Steen; Rüdiger, Bjarne; Tournay, Bruno

    2001-01-01

    We have worked with the construction and use of 3D city models for about ten years. This work has given us valuable experience concerning model methodology. In addition to this collection of knowledge, our perception of the concept of city models has changed radically. In order to explain...... of 3D city models....

  9. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 18, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-19

    This is version 18.2 of Clean Cities Now, the official biannual newsletter of the Clean Cities program. Clean Cities is an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  10. Creating Smart-er Cities: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwinkle, Sam; Cruickshank, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The following offers an overview of what it means for cities to be "smart." It draws the supporting definitions and critical insights into smart cities from a series of papers presented at the 2009 Trans-national Conference on Creating Smart(er) Cities. What the papers all have in common is their desire to overcome the all too often…

  11. Mischief humor : From Games to Playable Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Playable cities are smart cities that allow artists, urban designers, and city dwellers to introduce sensors and actuators or use already in-place sensors and actuators for playful applications. These applications allow users to interact with street furniture or with and in public buildings. Sensors

  12. Pavement management system for City of Madison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This project aims to implement a pavement management system (PMS) for the City of Madison using : four specific objectives: 1) build a city-wide GIS database for PMS compatible and incorporable with the : citys GIS system; 2) identify feasible pav...

  13. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include all...

  14. 75 FR 18778 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... zone on the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Ocean City, Maryland to support the Ocean City Air Show. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic movement on the Atlantic Ocean to protect mariners...

  15. The strategic bombing of German cities during World War II and its impact on city growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, Steven; Garretsen, Harry; Schramm, Marc

    2002-01-01

    It is a stylized fact that city size distributions are rather stable over time. Explanations for city growth and the resulting city-size distributions fall into two broad groups. On the one hand there are theories that assume city growth to be a random process and this process can result in a stable

  16. The city as a sign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharlamov, Nikita

    2012-01-01

    . This question is tackled through Jaan Valsiner’s notions of semiotic mediation and regulation. I specifically focus on spatial signs that humans use to regulate the meaning-making process that creates as meaningful what Georges Perec called species of spaces, such as towns and cities. “The city,” from...... this standpoint, becomes one of the most important signs that mediate and regulate our experience of environments we inhabit. I discuss a number of theoretical and methodological directions in which this framework could be further developed to revive the urban, or settlement, psychology, which failed to develop...... Werner, and Bernard Kaplan, and developed as cultural-developmental approach by Jaan Valsiner, the proposed framework centers on the experience of individual organismic relating to spatial environment. I draw on the work of Manuel Castells, Edward Soja, and Yi-Fu Tuan to conceptualize the emergence...

  17. City evacuations an interdisciplinary approach

    CERN Document Server

    Binner, Jane; Branicki, Layla; Galla, Tobias; Jones, Nick; King, James; Kolokitha, Magdalini; Smyrnakis, Michalis

    2015-01-01

    Evacuating a city is a complex problem that involves issues of governance, preparedness education, warning, information sharing, population dynamics, resilience and recovery. As natural and anthropogenic threats to cities grow, it is an increasingly pressing problem for policy makers and practitioners.   The book is the result of a unique interdisciplinary collaboration between researchers in the physical and social sciences to consider how an interdisciplinary approach can help plan for large scale evacuations.  It draws on perspectives from physics, mathematics, organisation theory, economics, sociology and education.  Importantly it goes beyond disciplinary boundaries and considers how interdisciplinary methods are necessary to approach a complex problem involving human actors and increasingly complex communications and transportation infrastructures.   Using real world case studies and modelling the book considers new approaches to evacuation dynamics.  It addresses questions of complexity, not only ...

  18. Instant City@Roskilde Festival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

    INSTANT CITY@ROSKILDE FESTIVAL pursues this phenomenon in a comprehensive analysis of one of the biggest cultural events in Denmark. Roskilde Festival’s comprehensive program and its physical size justify our perception of it as a new ‘temporary experience city’ with more than 100,000 inhabitants....... The book analyzes the concept of the festival, its mission statement, its physical layout, its urban life and its architecture, and it seeks to define the events that take place at the festival – be they scheduled or unscheduled. The potential of the temporary city to combine its ambitious music program...... with experimental architecture is the focal point, and the book thus explores the possibilities of promoting new aesthetics and a diverse social life in the city’s official spaces. The analyses take their point of departure in Roskilde Festival 2009. In advance (2008), research was carried out and interviews...

  19. Complexity, cognition and the city

    CERN Document Server

    Portugali, Juval

    2011-01-01

    Complexity, Cognition and the City aims at a deeper understanding of urbanism, while invoking, on an equal footing, the contributions both the hard and soft sciences have made, and are still making, when grappling with the many issues and facets of regional planning and dynamics. In this work, the author goes beyond merely seeing the city as a self-organized, emerging pattern of some collective interaction between many stylized urban "agents" – he makes the crucial step of attributing cognition to his agents and thus raises, for the first time, the question on how to deal with a complex system composed of many interacting complex agents in clearly defined settings. Accordingly, the author eventually addresses issues of practical relevance for urban planners and decision makers. The book unfolds its message in a largely nontechnical manner, so as to provide a broad interdisciplinary readership with insights, ideas, and other stimuli to encourage further research – with the twofold aim of further pushing ba...

  20. Resilience and the Fragile City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John de Boer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Humanitarian, security, and development actors are witnessing two distinct but intertwined trends that will have a dramatic impact on their operations. The first relates to the fact that the locus of global poverty and vulnerability to disaster are increasingly concentrated in fragile and conflict affected states. The second trend is associated with the notion that the world has entered a period of unprecedented urbanization. For the first time in history, more people live inside urban centres than outside of them. As the world continues to urbanize, global emergencies will increasingly be concentrated in cities, particularly in lower income and fragile countries where the pace of urbanization is fastest. Yet, despite the growing risks facing urban populations living in fragile and conflict affected countries, there is very little understanding of what can be done to reduce the risks posed to these cities and their populations.

  1. City personification as problem solving to strengthen the wholeness of the city: study case in Serui city, Papua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardine, Y. R. I.; Herlily

    2018-03-01

    Serui City in Papua Province has many unique characters and must be maintained for the sake of the continuity of its identity. However, this city still lacks the facility and depend on other areas. Accordingly, it becomes vulnerable. The wholeness of the city is not just by having strong character but also having strength regarding vitality. The loss of it can affect the character and even eliminate it. Cities and people have many similarities regarding character and vitality. Therefore, there is a chance to solve the problems in the city using the similar approach to treat the human. We called city personification methods as problem-solving to the city. It means that we treat the city as a human being so that the problem can be solved as the human’s treatment. The personification of this city is conducted because of the many treatments that have proven effective in humans and may also be powerful to manifest in city. The personification makes the design will only focus on the particular networks and not on the whole “body,” remain in the hope for strengthening (maintain and improve) the quality of wholeness (character and vitality) city which in this case is Serui.

  2. Hadoop Oriented Smart Cities Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bologa, Ana-Ramona; Bologa, Razvan

    2018-01-01

    A smart city implies a consistent use of technology for the benefit of the community. As the city develops over time, components and subsystems such as smart grids, smart water management, smart traffic and transportation systems, smart waste management systems, smart security systems, or e-governance are added. These components ingest and generate a multitude of structured, semi-structured or unstructured data that may be processed using a variety of algorithms in batches, micro batches or in real-time. The ICT architecture must be able to handle the increased storage and processing needs. When vertical scaling is no longer a viable solution, Hadoop can offer efficient linear horizontal scaling, solving storage, processing, and data analyses problems in many ways. This enables architects and developers to choose a stack according to their needs and skill-levels. In this paper, we propose a Hadoop-based architectural stack that can provide the ICT backbone for efficiently managing a smart city. On the one hand, Hadoop, together with Spark and the plethora of NoSQL databases and accompanying Apache projects, is a mature ecosystem. This is one of the reasons why it is an attractive option for a Smart City architecture. On the other hand, it is also very dynamic; things can change very quickly, and many new frameworks, products and options continue to emerge as others decline. To construct an optimized, modern architecture, we discuss and compare various products and engines based on a process that takes into consideration how the products perform and scale, as well as the reusability of the code, innovations, features, and support and interest in online communities. PMID:29649172

  3. Innovation quality in knowledge cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Inkinen, Tommi

    2014-01-01

    Innovation awards have for long attracted policy makers as a method for innovation promotion. Still, academic research on innovation awards has thus far received little attention. In particular, empirical studies on the motives to enter award competitions and the realized impacts of winning an in...... for innovation promotion, alongside innovation inducement policies including tax reductions and direct funding, as they produce significant positive effects for the award winning companies, and an additional indicator of innovation quality in the context of knowledge cities....

  4. Hadoop Oriented Smart Cities Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Diaconita

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A smart city implies a consistent use of technology for the benefit of the community. As the city develops over time, components and subsystems such as smart grids, smart water management, smart traffic and transportation systems, smart waste management systems, smart security systems, or e-governance are added. These components ingest and generate a multitude of structured, semi-structured or unstructured data that may be processed using a variety of algorithms in batches, micro batches or in real-time. The ICT architecture must be able to handle the increased storage and processing needs. When vertical scaling is no longer a viable solution, Hadoop can offer efficient linear horizontal scaling, solving storage, processing, and data analyses problems in many ways. This enables architects and developers to choose a stack according to their needs and skill-levels. In this paper, we propose a Hadoop-based architectural stack that can provide the ICT backbone for efficiently managing a smart city. On the one hand, Hadoop, together with Spark and the plethora of NoSQL databases and accompanying Apache projects, is a mature ecosystem. This is one of the reasons why it is an attractive option for a Smart City architecture. On the other hand, it is also very dynamic; things can change very quickly, and many new frameworks, products and options continue to emerge as others decline. To construct an optimized, modern architecture, we discuss and compare various products and engines based on a process that takes into consideration how the products perform and scale, as well as the reusability of the code, innovations, features, and support and interest in online communities.

  5. Hadoop Oriented Smart Cities Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconita, Vlad; Bologa, Ana-Ramona; Bologa, Razvan

    2018-04-12

    A smart city implies a consistent use of technology for the benefit of the community. As the city develops over time, components and subsystems such as smart grids, smart water management, smart traffic and transportation systems, smart waste management systems, smart security systems, or e-governance are added. These components ingest and generate a multitude of structured, semi-structured or unstructured data that may be processed using a variety of algorithms in batches, micro batches or in real-time. The ICT architecture must be able to handle the increased storage and processing needs. When vertical scaling is no longer a viable solution, Hadoop can offer efficient linear horizontal scaling, solving storage, processing, and data analyses problems in many ways. This enables architects and developers to choose a stack according to their needs and skill-levels. In this paper, we propose a Hadoop-based architectural stack that can provide the ICT backbone for efficiently managing a smart city. On the one hand, Hadoop, together with Spark and the plethora of NoSQL databases and accompanying Apache projects, is a mature ecosystem. This is one of the reasons why it is an attractive option for a Smart City architecture. On the other hand, it is also very dynamic; things can change very quickly, and many new frameworks, products and options continue to emerge as others decline. To construct an optimized, modern architecture, we discuss and compare various products and engines based on a process that takes into consideration how the products perform and scale, as well as the reusability of the code, innovations, features, and support and interest in online communities.

  6. Sustainable cities and energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capello, R.; Nijkamp, P.; Pepping, G.

    1999-01-01

    This book starts out with the optimistic perspective that modern cities can indeed play a strategic role in the necessary pathway to sustainable development, with particular emphasis on the opportunities offered by local energy and environmental initiatives. Our study aims to demonstrate that an urban sustainability policy has many socio-economic benefits, while it also seeks to identify the critical success and failure factors of sustainable city innovations. After a comprehensive review of various opportunities and experiences, attention is focused particularly on renewable energy resources which may offer new potential for the active involvement of local authorities. The study also highlights major impediments regarding the adoption and implementation of renewable energies, in particular, the development of advanced energy-environmental technology in a world dominated by natural (public) monopolies and/or monopolistic competition elements. In this context both theoretical and empirical elements are discussed, as well as institutional aspects. The theory and methodology is tested by a thorough empirical investigation into local renewable energy initiatives in three European countries, viz. Greece, Italy and The Netherlands. Based on an extensive data base, various statistical models are estimated in order to identify the key elements and major driving forces of sustainable development at the city level. And finally, the study is concluded with a long list of applicable and operational policy guidelines for urban sustainability. These lessons are largely based on meta-analytic comparative studies of the various initiatives investigated. (orig.)

  7. Radiological mapping of Bhubaneswar city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, S.S.; Patra, R.P.; Murali, S.; Singh, Rajvir; Pradeepkumar, K.S.; Vidya Sagar, D; Patra, P.

    2015-01-01

    The radiological mapping of Bhubaneswar city was carried as a part of emergency preparedness program intended to generate the countrywide radiation field baseline data for various routes and major cities. The study was effected using various state of art monitoring systems both Online and Offline dose rate data monitoring instruments such as Compact Aerial Radiation Monitoring System (CARMS), Gamma Tracer (GT), μR survey meter, Identi-finder. The instruments/systems were installed with special care to minimize the radiation shielding effect due to vehicle surfaces in light motor vehicle. During survey the dose rate along with GPS data were recorded and spectra were taken whenever elevated radiation level was observed. The data on dose rate using survey meter were recorded manually. The data on dose rate at important places is tabulated and it was observed that the dose rate in Bhubaneswar city ranged between 90-130 nSvh -1 . Detailed survey was carried out around Lingraj pond and the spectra were recorded. The results on analysis confirmed the presence of 232 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K attributed to elevated radiation levels. (author)

  8. A novel association between Rhodnius neglectus and the Livistona australis palm tree in an urban center foreshadowing the risk of Chagas disease transmission by vectorial invasions in Monte Alto City, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Danila B; Almeida, Carlos E; Rocha, Cláudia S; Gardim, Sueli; Mendonça, Vagner J; Ribeiro, Aline R; Alves, Zulimar C P V T; Ruellas, Kellem T; Vedoveli, Alan; da Rosa, João A

    2014-02-01

    After several public notifications of domiciliary invasions, palm trees were investigated in downtown Monte Alto City, São Paulo State, Brazil, in proximity to the city hall building, the main church, condominiums and marketing establishments. One hundred seventy four palm trees of 10 species were investigated, in which 72 specimens of Rhodnius neglectus, a potential Chagas disease vector, were captured via manual methods. All insects were collected from dead leaves, organic debris and bird nests in the only three Livistona australis palm trees in the central park square. This was the first record of R. neglectus colonizing this palm species. Although no Trypanosoma cruzi was found by abdominal compression followed by light microscopy, the poor nutritional status of the bugs hampered the examination of gut contents for parasite detection. Furthermore, the central crowns of the trees, which shelter bats (Chiroptera: Mammalia), could not be carefully searched for insects due to difficult access. This new finding highlights the sudden alteration in insect behavior, probably as a result of man's interference. This report aims to warn those involved in the health system about this new threat, justifying detailed research of the area to evaluate the magnitude of this emerging public health issue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. City and School: the Visible Construction of the Fernando Gomes Elementary School in Porto Alegre/RS - Brazil (1913-1935

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane De Freitas Ermel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the context of studies about space and school architecture, this article analyses the visual construction of the Fernando Gomes Elementary School, which was located in downtown Porto Alegre/RS, Brazil between 1913 and 1935. Designed by the engineer Afonso Hébert, head of the Department of Public Works in the State of Rio Grande do Sul/RS, the building was completed in 1922. In addition to functional elements, i.e., a large number of classrooms that would serve to increase the access of children to primary school, its monumental proportions incorporated a series of symbolic elements aligned with the ideals of the First Brazilian Republic (1889–1930. The documentary analysis was performed on the archives of the Directorship of Public Education and the Directorship of Public Works of Rio Grande do Sul, as well as various iconographic sources, capital improvement plans and periodicals of the time. The construction of the school inaugurated a new conception of the space and architecture of public elementary schools in the State, as the visible improvement and sanitation of the cities were considered of great importance in the period. The construction of school buildings was also one of the greatest advertising tools of the new Republican political regime.

  10. [Evaluation of ectoparasites and hemoparasites in dogs kept in apartments and houses with yards in the city of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Aline O; Souza, Aline D; Feliciano, Eveline A; Rodrigues, André F S F; D'Agosto, Marta; Daemon, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Fleas and ticks transmit various pathogens while feeding on the blood of dogs. This study sought to verify the occurrence of ectoparasitism and hemoparasitism in dogs from two urban areas in the city of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Between February and August 2003, 101 dogs were studied: 50 came from apartments in the downtown region and 51 from houses with grassy yards. The ectoparasites were collected and conserved in etanol 70%. The occurrence of hemoparasites was verified by examining blood smears from sample taken from the dogs'ears. The blood smears were stained with Giemsa and 100 fields per slide were examined, studying the erythrocytes to determine parasitism. From among the dogs living in apartments, we found (with respective prevalence and mean intensity): Ctenocephalides felis (12%), (3.3+/-2.0); Rhipicephalus sanguineus (2%); and ixodid nymphs (2%). In this environment in the dogs were not found hemoparasites. From the houses with grassy yards, we observed the following prevalence levels and mean intensities: C. felis (14%), (2.28+/-1.9); R. sanguineus (35%), (7.8+/-9.8); ixodid nymph (18%), (1.4+/-0.7); and ixodid larvae (4%), (12+/-14.4). The hemoparasites found were: Ehrlichia canis (16%) and Babesia canis (2%).

  11. The city of the divine king

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnow, Niels Finn

    2001-01-01

    The City of the Divine King deals with urban systems and urban architecture in the river kingdoms of the Near East and the agrarian societies of the Orient. The book is part of a larger work comprising studies of the antique Greek world and the Roman Empire and the later developments of cities...... and villages in medieval Europe. The City of the Divine King is followed by volume 2: The City of the Landowner, about the Greco-Roman World, and volume 3: The City of the Merchant, about the medieval urban development in Europe....

  12. Global Cities and Liability of Foreignness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernicke, Georg; Mehlsen, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we combine the concepts of location, liability of foreignness (LoF), and their relation to factors that drive multinational enterprises (MNEs) towards, or away from, global cities. We argue that three interrelated characteristics of global cities - cosmopolitanism, availability...... indicate that MNEs have a stronger propensity to locate in global cities than in metropolitan or peripheral areas, and that these locational choices are affected by institutional distance and industrial characteristics. The results provide empirical support for our argument that locating in a global city...... can reduce the liability of foreignness suffered by MNEs, and that global cities play a central role in the process of globalisation....

  13. Mental Health and Illness in the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book highlights a broad range of issues on mental health and illness in large cities. It presents the epidemiology of mental disorders in cities, cultural issues of urban mental health care, and community care in large cities and urban slums. It also includes chapters on homelessness, crime...... and racism - problems that are increasingly prevalent in many cities world wide. Finally, it looks at the increasing challenges of mental disorders in rapidly growing cities. The book is aimed at an international audience and includes contributions from clinicians and researchers worldwide....

  14. City Marketing: Towards an Integrated Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Erik

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis PhD thesis deals with city marketing: cities making use of marketing ideas, concepts and tools. Marketing has proved its value in the business environment, but what about applying marketing in the context of cities? How can cities make effective use of the potential of marketing? The first contribution of this study is the development of a clear concept of city marketing that is based on a customer-oriented perspective, acknowledges the important of perceptions of places in t...

  15. The Esri 3D city information model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitz, T; Schubiger-Banz, S

    2014-01-01

    With residential and commercial space becoming increasingly scarce, cities are going vertical. Managing the urban environments in 3D is an increasingly important and complex undertaking. To help solving this problem, Esri has released the ArcGIS for 3D Cities solution. The ArcGIS for 3D Cities solution provides the information model, tools and apps for creating, analyzing and maintaining a 3D city using the ArcGIS platform. This paper presents an overview of the 3D City Information Model and some sample use cases

  16. Towards a framework of smart city diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mursitama, T. N.; Lee, L.

    2018-03-01

    This article addresses the impact of globalization on the contemporary society, particularly the role of the city that is becoming increasingly important. Three distinct yet intertwine aspects such as decentralization, technology, and para diplomacy become antecedent of competitiveness of the city. A city has more power and authority in creating wealth and prosperity of the society by utilizing technology. The smart city, in addition to the importance of technology as enabler, we argue that possessing the sophisticated technology and apply it towards the matter is not enough. The smart city needs to build smart diplomacy at the sub-national level. In this article, we extend the discussion about smart city by proposing a new framework of smart city diplomacy as one way to integrate information technology, public policy and international relations which will be the main contribution to literature and practice.

  17. CITIES: Centre for IT-Intelligent Energy Systems in Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg; O'Connell, Niamh; Heller, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    and aims at developing methodologies and ICT solutions for the analysis, operation, planning and development of fully integrated urban energy systems. A holistic research approach will be developed, to provide solutions at all levels between the appliance and the overall system, and at all-time scales...... between operations and planning. This extended abstract outlines the challenges to be met by city and energy planning bodies in an energy efficient future. The necessity of novel, data driven and IT intelligent solutions is stressed. A focus is placed on energy system planning in systems with high...

  18. Japan's Four Major Smart Cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-15

    A brief overview is given of initiatives, developments, projects, investment, incentives and business opportunities for Dutch companies in Japan with regard to smart cities. The four major smart cities are Yokohama City, Toyota City, Keihanna City (Kyoto Prefecture's Kansai Science Park), and Kitakyushu City.

  19. Resultados de la extensión del programa de educación en diabetes a la atención primaria de salud en Ciudad de La Habana Results of the extension of the diabetes education program to primary health care in Havana City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Suárez Pérez

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar las acciones de extensión del programa de educación en diabetes del Instituto Nacional de Endocrinología a los servicios de la atención primaria de salud de la provincia Ciudad de La Habana. Fueron invitados todos los municipios de la capital para participar en el estudio. En las áreas que aceptaron su incorporación se seleccionó una muestra representativa de sus consultorios, se realizó (al inicio y 4 años después una entrevista al universo de sus médicos y enfermeras y una encuesta a una muestra representativa de su población diabética adulta. Para comparar se aplicaron las pruebas de Chi cuadrado y t de Student, y se aceptó p<0,05 como nivel de significación. De 15 municipios, 12 respondieron al llamado al inicio del estudio y el porcentaje de respuesta fue superior al 90 % en ambos momentos y grupos diana. La información de los proveedores de salud mostró una mejoría significativa en la capacitación de los médicos y enfermeras y una mejor comprensión y destreza para el cuidado y educación de las personas con diabetes. Estos resultados influyeron en una mejor organización de las actividades educativas y en el significativo cambio encontrado en los conocimientos de las personas con diabetes en relación con su enfermedad, así como en las opiniones sobre los servicios recibidos. Se concluye que la evaluación demostró la utilidad del proceso de extensión, además de identificar aquellos aspectos en los que aún hay que continuar reforzando el programa para aumentar la eficacia de su acción.

  20. Anaglyph, Salt Lake City, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This anaglyph image provides a stereoscopic map view of north central Utah that includes all of these Olympic sites. In the south, next to Utah Lake, Provo hosts the ice hockey competition. In the north, northeast of the Great Salt Lake, Ogden hosts curling and the nearby Snowbasin ski area hosts the downhill events. In between, southeast of the Great Salt Lake, Salt Lake City hosts the Olympic Village and the various skating events. Further east, across the Wasatch Mountains, the Park City ski resort hosts the bobsled, ski jumping, and snowboarding events. The Winter Olympics are always hosted in mountainous terrain. This view shows the dramatic landscape that makes the Salt Lake City region a world-class center for winter sports.The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image over a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed