Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hayashida, M; Narusawa, K [Traffic Safety and Nuisance Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)
1997-10-01
The purpose of this study is to reveal a proper power system for a miniature vehicle called as `Commuter-car` for short trips in urban areas. Two types of simulated series hybrid commuter-cars were set on bench test systems. In order to have sufficient performance and energy saving, combination of electric motor and reduction gear. regenerative break efficiency and generator power supplying were considered by transient driving experiments. Further, estimation of primary energy consumption of the commuter-car was tried. 7 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.
Potential health impact of switching from car to public transportation when commuting to work.
Morabia, Alfredo; Mirer, Franklin E; Amstislavski, Tashia M; Eisl, Holger M; Werbe-Fuentes, Jordan; Gorczynski, John; Goranson, Chris; Wolff, Mary S; Markowitz, Steven B
2010-12-01
We assessed humidity-corrected particulate matter (PM(2.5)) exposure and physical activity (using global positioning system monitors and diaries) among 18 people who commuted by car to Queens College, New York, New York, for 5 days, and then switched to commuting for the next 5 days via public transportation. The PM(2.5) differed little between car and public transportation commutes (1.41 μg/M(3)·min; P = .226). Commuting by public transportation rather than by car increased energy expenditure (+124 kcal/day; P < .001) equivalent to the loss of 1 pound of body fat per 6 weeks.
Understanding adolescents' intentions to commute by car or bicycle as adults
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sigurdardottir, Sigrun Birna; Kaplan, Sigal; Møller, Mette
2013-01-01
This study focuses on the intentions of adolescents to commute by car or bicycle as adults. The behavioral model is based on intrapersonal and interpersonal constructs from the theory of planned behavior extended to include constructs from the institutional, community and policy domains. Data from...... a survey among Danish adolescents is analyzed. It is found that car use intentions are related to positive car passenger experience, general interest in cars, and car ownership norms, and are negatively related to willingness to accept car restrictions and perceived lack of behavioral control. Cycling...
Okokon, Enembe O; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Turunen, Anu W; Taimisto, Pekka; Pennanen, Arto; Vouitsis, Ilias; Samaras, Zissis; Voogt, Marita; Keuken, Menno; Lanki, Timo
2017-04-01
In order to curb traffic-related air pollution and its impact on the physical environment, contemporary city commuters are encouraged to shift from private car use to active or public transport modes. However, personal exposures to particulate matter (PM), black carbon and noise during commuting may be substantial. Therefore, studies comparing exposures during recommended modes of transport versus car trips are needed. We measured personal exposure to various-sized particulates, soot, and noise during commuting by bicycle, bus and car in three European cities: Helsinki in Finland, Rotterdam in the Netherlands and Thessaloniki in Greece using portable monitoring devices. We monitored commonly travelled routes in these cities. The total number of one-way trips yielding data on any of the measured parameters were 84, 72, 94 and 69 for bicycle, bus, closed-window car and open-window car modes, respectively. The highest mean PM 2.5 (85µg/m 3 ), PM 10 (131µg/m 3 ), black carbon (10.9µg/m 3 ) and noise (75dBA) levels were recorded on the bus, bus (again), open-window car and bicycle modes, respectively, all in Thessaloniki, PM and soot concentrations were generally higher during biking and taking a bus than during a drive in a a car with closed windows. Ratios of bike:car PM 10 ranged from 1.1 in Thessaloniki to 2.6 in Helsinki, while bus:car ratios ranged from in 1.0 in Rotterdam to 5.6 in Thessaloniki. Higher noise levels were mostly recorded during bicycle rides. Based on our study, active- and public-transport commuters are often at risk of higher air pollution and noise exposure than private car users. This should be taken into account in urban transportation planning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Okokon, E.O.; Yli-Tuomi, T.; Turunen, A.W.; Taimisto, P.; Pennanen, A.; Vouitsis, I.; Samaras, Z.; Voogt, M.; Keuken, M.; Lanki, T.
2017-01-01
Background: In order to curb traffic-related air pollution and its impact on the physical environment, contemporary city commuters are encouraged to shift from private car use to active or public transport modes. However, personal exposures to particulate matter (PM), black carbon and noise during
Analysis of Urban Car Owners Commute Mode Choice Based on Evolutionary Game Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huawei Gong
2015-01-01
Full Text Available With the aggravation of the traffic congestion in the city, car owners will have to give up commuting with private cars and take the public transportation instead. The paper uses the replication dynamic mechanism to simulate the learning and adjustment mechanism of the automobile owners commuting mode selection. The evolutionary stable strategy is used to describe the long-term evolution of competition game trend. Finally we simulate equilibrium and stability of an evolution of the game under a payoff imbalance situation. The research shows that a certain proportion of car owners will choose public transit under the pressure of public transport development and heavy traffic, and the proportion will be closely related to the initial conditions and urban transportation development policy.
Evaluating In-Car Movements in the Design of Mindful Commute Interventions: Exploratory Study.
Paredes, Pablo Enrique; Hamdan, Nur Al-Huda; Clark, Dav; Cai, Carrie; Ju, Wendy; Landay, James A
2017-12-04
The daily commute could be a right moment to teach drivers to use movement or breath towards improving their mental health. Long commutes, the relevance of transitioning from home to work, and vice versa and the privacy of commuting by car make the commute an ideal scenario and time to perform mindful exercises safely. Whereas driving safety is paramount, mindful exercises might help commuters decrease their daily stress while staying alert. Increasing vehicle automation may present new opportunities but also new challenges. This study aimed to explore the design space for movement-based mindful interventions for commuters. We used qualitative analysis of simulated driving experiences in combination with simple movements to obtain key design insights. We performed a semistructured viability assessment in 2 parts. First, a think-aloud technique was used to obtain information about a driving task. Drivers (N=12) were given simple instructions to complete movements (configural or breath-based) while engaged in either simple (highway) or complex (city) simulated urban driving tasks using autonomous and manual driving modes. Then, we performed a matching exercise where participants could experience vibrotactile patterns from the back of the car seat and map them to the prior movements. We report a summary of individual perceptions concerning different movements and vibrotactile patterns. Beside describing situations within a drive when it may be more likely to perform movement-based interventions, we also describe movements that may interfere with driving and those that may complement it well. Furthermore, we identify movements that could be conducive to a more relaxing commute and describe vibrotactile patterns that could guide such movements and exercises. We discuss implications for design such as the influence of driving modality on the adoption of movement, need for personal customization, the influence that social perception has on participants, and the potential
Morabia, Alfredo; Zhang, Fang Fang; Kappil, Maya A; Flory, Janine; Mirer, Frank E; Santella, Regina M; Wolff, Mary; Markowitz, Steven B
2012-01-01
Commuting by public transportation (PT) entails more physical activity and energy expenditure than by cars, but its biologic consequences are unknown. In 2009-2010, we randomly sampled New York adults, usually commuting either by car (n=79) or PT (n=101). Measures comprised diet and physical activity questionnaires, weight and height, white blood cell (WBC) count, C reactive protein, (CRP) gene-specific methylation (IL-6), and global genomic DNA methylation (LINE-1 methylation). Compared to the 101 PT commuters, the 79 car drivers were about 9 years older, 2 kg/m(2) heavier, more often non-Hispanic whites, and ate more fruits and more meats. The 2005 guidelines for physical activity were met by more car drivers than PT users (78.5% vs. 65.0%). There were no differences in median levels of CRP (car vs. PT: 0.6 vs. 0.5mg/dl), mean levels of WBC (car vs. PT: 6.7 vs. 6.5 cells/mm(3)), LINE-1 methylation (car vs. PT: 78.0% vs. 78.3%), and promoter methylation of IL-6 (car vs. PT: 56.1% vs. 58.0%). PT users were younger and lighter than car drivers, but their commute mode did not translate into a lower inflammatory response or a higher DNA methylation, maybe because, overall, car drivers were more physically active. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chuan Ding
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Reducing car trips and promoting green commuting modes are generally considered important solutions to reduce the increase of energy consumption and transportation CO2 emissions. One potential solution for alleviating transportation CO2 emissions has been to identify a role for the employer through green commuter programs. This paper offers an approach to assess the effects of employer attitudes towards green commuting plans on commuter mode choice and the intermediary role car ownership plays in the mode choice decision process. A mixed method which extends the traditional discrete choice model by incorporating latent variables and mediating variables with a structure equation model was used to better understand the commuter mode choice behaviour. The empirical data were selected from Washington-Baltimore Regional Household Travel Survey in 2007-2008, including all the trips from home to workplace during the morning hours. The model parameters were estimated using the simultaneous estimation approach and the integrated model turns out to be superior to the traditional multinomial logit (MNL model accounting for the impact of employer attitudes towards green commuting. The direct and indirect effects of socio-demographic attributes and employer attitudes towards green commuting were estimated. Through the structural equation modelling with mediating variable, this approach confirmed the intermediary nature of car ownership in the choice process. The results found in this paper provide helpful information for transportation and planning policymakers to test the transportation and planning policies effects and encourage green commuting reducing transportation CO2 emissions.
‘We are the future’: understanding adolescents’ intentions to commute by car or bicycle as adults
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sigurdardottir, Sigrun Birna; Kaplan, Sigal; Møller, Mette
This study focuses on the intentions of adolescents to commute by car or bicycle as adults, as key elements towards promoting societal transition towards sustainable modes. The behavioral model is based on the theory of planned behavior combined with positive current travel experience, willingness...... passenger experience, general interest in cars, and car-ownership norms, and are negatively related to willingness to accept car restrictions and perceived lack of behavioral control; (ii) cycling intentions are positively related to positive cycling experience, willingness to accept car restrictions...
Investigation of Flow Behavior around Corotating Blades in a Double-Spindle Lawn Mower Deck
Chon W.; Amano R. S.
2005-01-01
When the airflow patterns inside a lawn mower deck are understood, the deck can be redesigned to be efficient and have an increased cutting ability. To learn more, a combination of computational and experimental studies was performed to investigate the effects of blade and housing designs on a flow pattern inside a 1.1m wide corotating double-spindle lawn mower deck with side discharge. For the experimental portion of the study, air velocities inside the deck were measured using a laser Do...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oruç ALTINTAŞI
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Analyzing travel behavior of Middle East Technical University (METU campus users via traditional survey approach requires great effort. However, using Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID system installed at all the campus entry gates provided a cheaper and an effective approach to determine basic characteristics of the campus private car commuters. The RFID data combined with traveler details enabled the study of the arrival and departure car-based commute behavior of academic personnel, administrative personnel and students, separately. The results revealed that campus car-based travel demand is mainly active between 07: 00 to 22: 00. While the majority of the private car commuters arrive during 08: 00-09: 00, the evening peak is distributed over a much longer period from 15: 00 to 19: 00. Administrative personnel have sharper evening departures between 17: 00-18: 00, while academic ones show a more scattered pattern lasting longer. Car-traveler students mostly arrive later during 09: 00-10: 00 and start leaving the campus as early as 15: 00 lasting until late evenings. Stay time of vehicles on campus revealed that 43% of all trips to campus lasted less than 15 minutes, especially during morning and evening peaks, suggesting that a high number of RFID card holders pass through the campus, possibly for pick-ups or drop-offs. A small reverse commute pattern occurred due to the trips generated by family members of those living in on-campus housing units.
Investigation of Flow Behavior around Corotating Blades in a Double-Spindle Lawn Mower Deck
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chon W.
2005-01-01
Full Text Available When the airflow patterns inside a lawn mower deck are understood, the deck can be redesigned to be efficient and have an increased cutting ability. To learn more, a combination of computational and experimental studies was performed to investigate the effects of blade and housing designs on a flow pattern inside a 1.1m wide corotating double-spindle lawn mower deck with side discharge. For the experimental portion of the study, air velocities inside the deck were measured using a laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV system. A high-speed video camera was used to observe the flow pattern. Furthermore, noise levels were measured using a sound level meter. For the computational fluid dynamics (CFD work, several arbitrary radial sections of a two-dimensional blade were selected to study flow computations. A three-dimensional, full deck model was also developed for realistic flow analysis. The computational results were then compared with the experimental results.
Goodman, Anna; Guell, Cornelia; Panter, Jenna; Jones, Natalia R; Ogilvie, David
2012-06-01
Car use is associated with substantial health and environmental costs but research in deprived populations indicates that car access may also promote psychosocial well-being within car-oriented environments. This mixed-method (quantitative and qualitative) study examined this issue in a more affluent setting, investigating the socio-economic structure of car commuting in Cambridge, UK. Our analyses involved integrating self-reported questionnaire data from 1142 participants in the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study (collected in 2009) and in-depth interviews with 50 participants (collected 2009-2010). Even in Britain's leading 'cycling city', cars were a key resource in bridging the gap between individuals' desires and their circumstances. This applied both to long-term life goals such as home ownership and to shorter-term challenges such as illness. Yet car commuting was also subject to constraints, with rush hour traffic pushing drivers to start work earlier and with restrictions on, or charges for, workplace parking pushing drivers towards multimodal journeys (e.g. driving to a 'park-and-ride' site then walking). These patterns of car commuting were socio-economically structured in several ways. First, the gradient of housing costs made living near Cambridge more expensive, affecting who could 'afford' to cycle and perhaps making cycling the more salient local marker of Bourdieu's class distinction. Nevertheless, cars were generally affordable in this relatively affluent, highly-educated population, reducing the barrier which distance posed to labour-force participation. Finally, having the option of starting work early required flexible hours, a form of job control which in Britain is more common among higher occupational classes. Following a social model of disability, we conclude that socio-economic advantage can make car-oriented environments less disabling via both greater affluence and greater job control, and in ways manifested across the full socio
Mirabelli, Maria C.; Golan, Rachel; Greenwald, Roby; Raysoni, Amit U.; Holguin, Fernando; Kewada, Priya; Winquist, Andrea; Flanders, W. Dana; Sarnat, Jeremy A.
2015-01-01
Background Effects of traffic-related exposures on respiratory health are well documented, but little information is available about whether asthma control influences individual susceptibility. We analyzed data from the Atlanta Commuter Exposure study to evaluate modification of associations between rush-hour commuting, in-vehicle air pollution, and selected respiratory health outcomes by asthma control status. Methods Between 2009 and 2011, 39 adults participated in Atlanta Commuter Exposure, and each conducted two scripted rush-hour highway commutes. In-vehicle particulate components were measured during all commutes. Among adults with asthma, we evaluated asthma control by questionnaire and spirometry. Exhaled nitric oxide, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and other metrics of respiratory health were measured precommute and 0, 1, 2, and 3 hours postcommute. We used mixed effects linear regression to evaluate associations between commute-related exposures and postcommute changes in metrics of respiratory health by level of asthma control. Results We observed increased exhaled nitric oxide across all levels of asthma control compared with precommute measurements, with largest postcommute increases observed among participants with below-median asthma control (2 hours postcommute: 14.6% [95% confidence interval {CI} = 5.7, 24.2]; 3 hours postcommute: 19.5% [95% CI = 7.8, 32.5]). No associations between in-vehicle pollutants and percent of predicted FEV1 were observed, although higher PM2.5 was associated with lower FEV1 % predicted among participants with below-median asthma control (3 hours postcommute: −7.2 [95% CI = −11.8, −2.7]). Conclusions Level of asthma control may influence respiratory response to in-vehicle exposures experienced during rush-hour commuting. PMID:25901844
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Min Fu
2015-07-01
Full Text Available AIM: To study the trabeculectomy clinical effect of use tunnel knife to make double-deck scleral flap and to cut off the layer scleral flap of glaucoma.METHODS:Using the random grouping method to divide 46 cases(60 eyesof glaucoma into the treatment group of 24 cases(32 eyesand control group of 22 cases(28 eyes. The treatment group, tunnel knife was used to make double-deck sclera flap and superficial scleral flap about the size of 5mm×5.5mm,1/3 scleral thickness, under the sclera flap made another one about the size of 3.5mm×4mm, 1/3 scleral thickness, resected the middle layer of the sclera flap, removed 2mm×2mm trabecular tissue, underwent routine peripheral iridectomy, could adjust suture the superficial scleral flap, sutured Ball fascia and bulbar conjunctiva. In control group, routine glaucoma trabeculectomy was undergone.RESULTS:Patients were followed up for 1a, the vision in treatment group was obviously better than that in the control group, with a statistically significant difference(PP>0.05. But after 6 and 12mo, the intraocular pressure of the treatment group were significantly lower than that of the control group, with statistically significant difference(PPCONCLUSION:The trabeculectomy have a good effect to lower the intraocular pressure by use tunnel knife to make double-deck scleral flap and to cut off the layer scleral flap. The scleral flap have uniform thickness, smooth surface, and the function of the filtering bleb maintained for a long time, less postoperative complications, suitable for various types of glaucoma, so it is worthy of clinical promotion.
In-vehicle carbon dioxide concentration in commuting cars in Bangkok, Thailand.
Luangprasert, Maytat; Vasithamrong, Chainarin; Pongratananukul, Suphasit; Chantranuwathana, Sunhapos; Pumrin, Suree; De Silva, I P D
2017-05-01
It is known that in-vehicle carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentration tends to increase due to occupant exhalation when the HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) air is in recirculation mode. Field experiments were conducted to measure CO 2 concentration during typical commute in Bangkok, Thailand. The measured concentrations agreed with the concentration predicted using first-order mass balance equation, in both recirculating and outside air modes. The long-term transient decay of the concentration when the vehicle was parked and the HVAC system was turned off was also studied. This decay was found to follow Fickian diffusion process. The paper also provides useful operational details of the automotive HVAC system and fresh air ventilation exchange between cabin interior and exterior. Drivers in tropical Asian countries typically use HVAC recirculation mode in their automobiles. This behavior leads to excessive buildup of cabin CO 2 concentration levels. The paper describes the CO 2 buildup in a typical commute in Bangkok, Thailand. Auto manufacturers can potentially take measures to alleviate such high concentration levels. The paper also discusses the diffusion of CO 2 through the vehicle envelope, an area that has never been investigated before.
Suárez, Liliana; Mesías, Stephanie; Iglesias, Verónica; Silva, Claudio; Cáceres, Dante D; Ruiz-Rudolph, Pablo
2014-05-01
The objective of this study was to compare personal exposure to particulate matter (fine and ultrafine particles) in commuters using different transport modes (bicycle, bus, car and subway) in a busy, assigned route in downtown Santiago, Chile. Volunteers carrying personal samplers completed scheduled commutes during the morning rush hours, while central site measurements were conducted in parallel. A total of 137 valid commutes were assessed. The impact of central site, traffic and other variables was explored with regression models. PM2.5 personal concentrations were equal to or slightly above central site measurements, while UFP personal concentrations were above them. Regression models showed impacts of both background levels and traffic emissions on personal PM2.5 and UFP exposure. Traffic impacts varied with transport modes. Estimates of traffic impacts on personal PM2.5 exposure were 2.0, 13.0, 16.9 and 17.5 μg m(-3), for car, bicycle, subway and bus, respectively; while for UFP exposure were 8400, 16 200, 25 600 and 30 100 counts per cm(3), for subway, car, bicycle and bus, respectively. After controlling the central site and transport mode, higher temperatures increased PM2.5 exposure and decreased UFP ones, while the wind direction affected UFP personal exposure. In conclusion, we found significant impacts of both central site background measurements and traffic emissions on personal exposure of volunteer commuters in an assigned route in Santiago, with impacts varying with transport modes.
Fast commutation of high current in double wire array Z-pinch loads
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davis, J.; Gondarenko, N.A.; Velikovich, A.L.
1997-01-01
A dynamic model of multi-MA current commutation in a double wire array Z-pinch load is proposed and studied theoretically. Initially, the load is configured as nested concentric wire arrays, with the current driven through the outer array and imploding it. Once the outer array or the annular plasma shell formed from it approaches the inner array, the imploded plasma might penetrate through the gaps between the wires, but the azimuthal magnetic field is trapped due to both the high conductivity of the inner wires and the inductive coupling between the two parts of the array, causing a rapid switching of the total current to the inner part of the array. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Potchter, Oded; Oz, Meirav; Brenner, Shmuel; Yaakov, Yaron; Schnell, Izhak
2014-12-01
Short-term personal exposure of passengers in different types of motor vehicles to carbon monoxide was investigated in an intensively used main road in Israel's Tel Aviv metropolitan area. According to monitoring stations of the Ministry for Environmental Protection (MEP), concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) along the road, at a height of 3 m above pedestrian level, in the Tel Aviv metropolitan area, are currently very low. However, these measurements do not reflect the actual exposure of commuters, which were the main objective of this study. Four vehicle types/travel modes were investigated: private cars with closed windows, private cars with open windows, motorcycles, and buses. The commuter CO average exposure was the accumulative exposure divided by the duration of the sampling taken along the route, for each type of vehicles. The results showed that commuters in cars with closed windows were exposed to the highest mean CO level, 27.2 ppm, for a period of 38 min; those in a car with open windows, to 19.7 ppm for 38 min; motorcycle riders, to 12.8 ppm, for 17 min; and bus users were exposed to the lowest mean pollution level, of only 3.6 ppm, for 25 min. Thus, CO values of 1 to 3 ppm, as measured at an MEP adjacent monitoring station, may indicate the exposure to CO pollution of area residents, but do not represent the actual exposure of commuters on the congested main road.
Yu, Lu; Zhou, Jin; Mabu, Shingo; Hirasawa, Kotaro; Hu, Jinglu; Markon, Sandor
The Elevator Group Supervisory Control Systems (EGSCS) are the control systems that systematically manage three or more elevators in order to efficiently transport the passengers in buildings. Double-deck elevators, where two elevators are connected with each other, serve passengers at two consecutive floors simultaneously. Double-deck Elevator systems (DDES) become more complex in their behavior than conventional single-deck elevator systems (SDES). Recently, Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology has been used in such complex systems. Genetic Network Programming (GNP), a graph-based evolutionary method, has been applied to EGSCS and its advantages are shown in some papers. GNP can obtain the strategy of a new hall call assignment to the optimal elevator when it performs crossover and mutation operations to judgment nodes and processing nodes. Meanwhile, Destination Floor Guidance System (DFGS) is installed in DDES, so that passengers can also input their destinations at elevator halls. In this paper, we have applied GNP to DDES and compared DFGS with normal systems. The waiting time and traveling time of DFGS are all improved because of getting more information from DFGS. The simulations showed the effectiveness of the double-deck elevators with DFGS in different building traffics.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lieberoth, Andreas; Jensen, Niels Holm; Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup
2018-01-01
Persuasive strategies like nudging, gamification, and goal-oriented health feedback are now used across a variety of behavior domains including transportation, exercise and sustainable consumption. However, documentation is lacking for their precise effects on entrenched behavioral habits...... such as day-to-day commuting, or how well such persuasive strategies fare compared to each other in terms of behaviour change rates. In this study of bus commuting, we pitted nudging, gamification, and goal-oriented health information against each other in a field quasi-experiment. The experiment lasted one...
Application of Electric Double Layer Capacitor for Solar Car
中西, 弘一; 岸, 純男; 仲森, 昌也; 荒賀, 浩一
2016-01-01
This paper describes a method for efficient work of electrical energy, using DC-DC converter as insulate between battery and Electrical Double Layer Capacitor (EDLC). In case of constant-current charge to the EDLC, the efficiency of the electric power is higher, compared to the constant-voltage charge.
McIntosh, Phyllis
2013-01-01
Cars are the focus of this feature article, which explores such topics as the history of cars in the United States, the national highway system, safety and pollution concerns, mobility and freedom for women, classic car shows, and the road trip in American literature and film. Also included are links to the websites of Automobile in American Life…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sakai, H; Morisawa, M; Yoshino, T [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Sato, T [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan); Ishizuki, H [Satake Co., Tokyo (Japan)
1997-10-01
In this study, after having performed simulation which took up scale models substituting for full scale model of commuter car made of FRP, we carried out collision tests to barrier. Here, we made enquiries about the occupant safety by changing the collision speed and the deformation characteristics of the seat belt, during head-on barrier collision using one-fifth scale models. We sought for the occupant`s safe combinations among the deformation characteristics of airbag and the thorax deformation. In this case, the degree of the occupants injury were estimated using HIC values, 3msecG and maximum deformation of the thorax. 7 refs., 5 figs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matsukura, K.
1981-06-18
The synchronous, electric micromotor of a time commutator, by means of a three staged cylindrical gear drive rotates a disk with a semirounded segmented notch, which, in turn, drives a Maltese cross. The gear drum, linked with the Maltese cross rotates a disk with an indicator, equipped with radial, spherical grooves, equidistant from each other. Radially projecting catches, which are used with rotation of the disk to accomplish elastic movement of a vertical shaft under the effect of a three beam, asymmetrical star, are mounted in the disk's grooves by means of spring loaded locking devices, in accordance with the required time technological program. There are driving and locking cams located on the lower end of the shaft. The first is of pear shaped section and provides drive to the microswitch, which commutates the output electrical circuit of the apparatus.
Rafique, Saqib; Abdullah, Shahino Mah; Shahid, Muhammad Mehmood; Ansari, Mohammad Omaish; Sulaiman, Khaulah
2017-01-13
This work demonstrates the high performance graphene oxide (GO)/PEDOT:PSS doubled decked hole transport layer (HTL) in the PCDTBT:PC 71 BM based bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic device. The devices were tested on merits of their power conversion efficiency (PCE), reproducibility, stability and further compared with the devices with individual GO or PEDOT:PSS HTLs. Solar cells employing GO/PEDOT:PSS HTL yielded a PCE of 4.28% as compared to either of individual GO or PEDOT:PSS HTLs where they demonstrated PCEs of 2.77 and 3.57%, respectively. In case of single GO HTL, an inhomogeneous coating of ITO caused the poor performance whereas PEDOT:PSS is known to be hygroscopic and acidic which upon direct contact with ITO reduced the device performance. The improvement in the photovoltaic performance is mainly ascribed to the increased charge carriers mobility, short circuit current, open circuit voltage, fill factor, and decreased series resistance. The well matched work function of GO and PEDOT:PSS is likely to facilitate the charge transportation and an overall reduction in the series resistance. Moreover, GO could effectively block the electrons due to its large band-gap of ~3.6 eV, leading to an increased shunt resistance. In addition, we also observed the improvement in the reproducibility and stability.
Rafique, Saqib; Abdullah, Shahino Mah; Shahid, Muhammad Mehmood; Ansari, Mohammad Omaish; Sulaiman, Khaulah
2017-01-01
This work demonstrates the high performance graphene oxide (GO)/PEDOT:PSS doubled decked hole transport layer (HTL) in the PCDTBT:PC71BM based bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic device. The devices were tested on merits of their power conversion efficiency (PCE), reproducibility, stability and further compared with the devices with individual GO or PEDOT:PSS HTLs. Solar cells employing GO/PEDOT:PSS HTL yielded a PCE of 4.28% as compared to either of individual GO or PEDOT:PSS HTLs where they demonstrated PCEs of 2.77 and 3.57%, respectively. In case of single GO HTL, an inhomogeneous coating of ITO caused the poor performance whereas PEDOT:PSS is known to be hygroscopic and acidic which upon direct contact with ITO reduced the device performance. The improvement in the photovoltaic performance is mainly ascribed to the increased charge carriers mobility, short circuit current, open circuit voltage, fill factor, and decreased series resistance. The well matched work function of GO and PEDOT:PSS is likely to facilitate the charge transportation and an overall reduction in the series resistance. Moreover, GO could effectively block the electrons due to its large band-gap of ~3.6 eV, leading to an increased shunt resistance. In addition, we also observed the improvement in the reproducibility and stability.
Opechowski's theorem and commutator groups
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caride, A.O.; Zanette, S.I.
1985-01-01
It is shown that the conditions of application of Opechowski's theorem for double groups of subgroups of O(3) are directly associated to the structure of their commutator groups. Some characteristics of the structure of classes are also discussed. (Author) [pt
Orlando, Monica
2018-06-01
Collaborative memoirs by co-writers with and without autism can enable the productive interaction of the voices of the writers in ways that can empower rather than exploit the disabled subject. Carly's Voice, co-written by Arthur Fleischmann and his autistic daughter Carly, demonstrates the capacity for such life narratives to facilitate the relational interaction between writers in the negotiation of understandings of disability. Though the text begins by focusing on the limitations of life with autism, it develops into a collaboration which helps both writers move toward new ways of understanding disability and their own and one another's life stories.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Siokhara, T.; Khibino, Y.; Tiaki, K.; Vatanabe, K.
1981-06-22
Switching of a microswitch, which switches the output electrical circuits of a unit, which supports control of industrial processes in time, is accomplished by a two arm rocking lever. The lever is driven by a cam mechanism, linked with a complex, multistage mechanical drive, which includes cylindrical gear drives and cam couplings for linkage, rotated by a synchronous electric micromotor. The unit is equipped with two subassemblies for establishment of process control: in functions of conditional time and functions of the times of day. The dials of the subassemblies for time establishment, located on the facial panel of the instrument, are equipped with arrows for the assigners with illumination and signal lamps. The lights control the mode of electric power for the instrument and the modes of the output circuits of the commutating subassembly.
Törnqvist, N A
1972-01-01
As shown by Deck, the double-peripheral model for three-particle final states gives a substantial low-mass enhancement over phase space in two-body subchannels. With the advent of duality it was conjectured that the Deck effect and a true resonance are just different manifestations of the same phenomena. Thus the presence of a Deck enhancement could be interpreted as evidence for the existence of the A/sub 1/ resonance. The conjecture has been subject to criticism of two different kinds. These two points are clarified by constructing a counter example to the conjecture of Chew and Pignotti, using the five-point amplitude (B/sub 5/) of the generalized Veneziano model. (8 refs).
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller, Berit Thorup; Thøgersen, John
2008-01-01
It is often claimed that many drivers use their private car rather habitually. The claim gains credibility from the fact that travelling to many everyday destinations fulfils all the prerequisites for habit formation: it is recurring, performed under stable circumstances and produces rewarding...... consequences. Since the decision is made quite automatically and only one choice alternative is considered (the habitually chosen one), behaviour guided by habit is difficult to change. The implications of car use habits for converting drivers to commuters using public transportation is analysed based...... to do so, car use habit, and the interaction between the two, confirms the theory-derived hypothesis that car use habits act as an obstacle to the transformation of intentions to commute by public transportation into action....
X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE DOUBLE-BINARY OB-STAR SYSTEM QZ CAR (HD 93206)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parkin, E. R.; Naze, Y.; Rauw, G.; Broos, P. S.; Townsley, L. K.; Pittard, J. M.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Oskinova, L. M.; Waldron, W. L.
2011-01-01
X-ray observations of the double-binary OB-star system QZ Car (HD 93206) obtained with the Chandra X-ray Observatory over a period of roughly 2 years are presented. The respective orbits of systems A (O9.7 I+b2 v, P A = 21 days) and B (O8 III+o9 v, P B = 6 days) are reasonably well sampled by the observations, allowing the origin of the X-ray emission to be examined in detail. The X-ray spectra can be well fitted by an attenuated three-temperature thermal plasma model, characterized by cool, moderate, and hot plasma components at kT ≅ 0.2, 0.7, and 2 keV, respectively, and a circumstellar absorption of ≅0.2 x 10 22 cm -2 . Although the hot plasma component could be indicating the presence of wind-wind collision shocks in the system, the model fluxes calculated from spectral fits, with an average value of ≅7 x 10 -13 erg s -1 cm -2 , do not show a clear correlation with the orbits of the two constituent binaries. A semi-analytical model of QZ Car reveals that a stable momentum balance may not be established in either system A or B. Yet, despite this, system B is expected to produce an observed X-ray flux well in excess of the observations. If one considers the wind of the O8 III star to be disrupted by mass transfer, the model and observations are in far better agreement, which lends support to the previous suggestion of mass transfer in the O8 III + o9 v binary. We conclude that the X-ray emission from QZ Car can be reasonably well accounted for by a combination of contributions mainly from the single stars and the mutual wind-wind collision between systems A and B.
Impact of Distance on Mode of Active Commuting in Chilean Children and Adolescents
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fernando Rodríguez-Rodríguez
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Active commuting could contribute to increasing physical activity. The objective of this study was to characterise patterns of active commuting to and from schools in children and adolescents in Chile. A total of 453 Chilean children and adolescents aged between 10 and 18 years were included in this study. Data regarding modes of commuting and commuting distance was collected using a validated questionnaire. Commuting mode was classified as active commuting (walking and/or cycling or non-active commuting (car, motorcycle and/or bus. Commuting distance expressed in kilometres was categorised into six subgroups (0 to 0.5, 0.6 to 1, 1.1 to 2, 2.1 to 3, 3.1 to 5 and >5 km. Car commuting was the main mode for children (to school 64.9%; from school 51.2% and adolescents (to school 50.2%; from school 24.7%. Whereas public bus commuting was the main transport used by adolescents to return from school. Only 11.0% and 24.8% of children and adolescents, respectively, walk to school. The proportion of children and adolescents who engage in active commuting was lower in those covering longer distances compared to a short distance. Adolescents walked to and from school more frequently than children. These findings show that non-active commuting was the most common mode of transport and that journey distances may influence commuting modes in children and adolescents.
Inductive energy storage commutator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gavrilov, I.M.
1987-01-01
An inductive energy storage commutator is described. The value of commutated current is up to 800 A, the voltage amplitude in the load is up to 50 kV, the working frequency is equal to 1-50 Hz, the commutated power is up to 40 MW. The commutating device comprises of the first stage commutator having two in-series connected modules of the BTSV - 800/235 high-voltage thyristor unit, the second stage commutator containing three GMI-43A parallel connected powerful pulsed triodes, a commutating capacitor, an induction coil, two supplementary high-voltage thyristor keys (20 in-series connected thyristors T2-300 (13 class)), load, control pulse shapers, thyristor keys, power supply
Commuting Pattern with Park-and-Ride Option for Heterogeneous Commuters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chengjuan Zhu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We study the effect of the parking on heterogeneous commuters' travel choice in a competitive transportation system which consists of a subway and a parallel road with a bottleneck of limited service capacity. Every morning, commuters either use their private cars only or drive their cars to the bottleneck, park there, and then take the subway to the destination. Considering the effects caused by body congestion in carriage and the parking fees, we developed a bottleneck model to describe the commuters' travel choice. There exist several types of equilibrium that corresponds to user equilibrium. We investigated the influence of the capacity of the bottleneck and the total travel demand on the travel behaviors and on the total social cost. It is shown that there exists a scheme with suitable subway fare and parking fees to implement the minimum total social cost.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mulalic, Ismir; Ommeren, Jos N. van; Pilegaard, Ninette
2011-01-01
We examine the causal effect of commuting distance on workers' wages in a quasi-natural experiments setting using information on all workers in Denmark. We account for endogeneity of distance by using changes in distance that are due to firms’ relocations. For the range of commuting distances where...... income tax reductions associated with commuting do not apply, one kilometre increase in commuting distance induces a wage increase of about 0.42%, suggesting an hourly compensation of about half of the hourly net wage. Our findings are consistent with wage bargaining theory and suggest a bargaining power...
Dwelling on Everyday Car Journeys
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tølbøll, Lene; Jensen, Hanne Louise
different traffic conditions as well as the emotional states related to the drivers’ thoughts about work and family issues, the materiality of the car and the recreational activities inside the car. Analyses are based on a web-based questionnaire, sent to 373 participating drivers in the Big Data research...... project Intelligent Transportation System Platform North Denmark (Lahrmann 2012). In that project data on e.g. position and speed was collected via an On Board Unit from more than 400 cars in 2012-2014 (Tøfting et. al. 2014). The full dataset includes a driven distance of approximately 14 million km...... experiences related to commuting. The findings will be discussed using theoretical inspiration from Sheller (2004), Bull (2003) and Thrift (2004) and we will suggest that the various emotional experiences of the commuters are of great importance for their ability to use of the car as a dwelling place....
Commutation and Darboux transformation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
1College of Military Engineering, Pune 411 031, India. 2Department of ... Liouville equation is a particular application of the commutation method. Darboux ... transformation of a differential operator L, then there exists a differential operator A of.
US Agency for International Development — This dataset is the USAID portion of a larger dataset developed by OMB to better understand and to quanity the carbon footprint of the daily commute of government...
Who cares about the environmental impact of cars? Those with an eye toward the future.
Joireman, J.A.; van Lange, P.A.M.; van Vugt, M.
2004-01-01
This study examines preference for commuting to work by car or public transportation (PT) within an expanded social dilemma framework (i.e., one that recognizes the importance of both social and temporal concerns). Commuters completed scales assessing commuting preferences, beliefs regarding the
Computational commutative and non-commutative algebraic geometry
Cojocaru, S; Ufnarovski, V
2005-01-01
This publication gives a good insight in the interplay between commutative and non-commutative algebraic geometry. The theoretical and computational aspects are the central theme in this study. The topic is looked at from different perspectives in over 20 lecture reports. It emphasizes the current trends in commutative and non-commutative algebraic geometry and algebra. The contributors to this publication present the most recent and state-of-the-art progresses which reflect the topic discussed in this publication. Both researchers and graduate students will find this book a good source of information on commutative and non-commutative algebraic geometry.
van der Waerden, P.J.H.J.; Lem, A.; Schaefer, W.F.
2015-01-01
The current study aims to get more insight into the attributes that stimulate car drivers to use carpool as an alternative for their commuting trips in which the car is still the most used travel mode. The study was set up as a stated choice experiment. In the experiment, car drivers were asked to
The linkage between car-related fringe benefits and the travel behavior of knowledge workers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bendit, Eduard; Frenkel, Amnon; Kaplan, Sigal
2011-01-01
This study focuses on the linkage between car-related fringe benefits and the travel behavior of knowledge workers in commute and leisure trips. Specifically, this study compares the commuting and leisure travel behavior of knowledge workers who receive either a company-car or car allowance...... with the travel behavior of workers who do not receive car-related fringe benefits. Data are based on a revealed-preferences survey among knowledge workers in Israel. Results show that car-related fringe benefits are associated with (i) high car ownership and car use intensity, (ii) long commute distances...... and travel times and non-sustainable transport modes, and (iii) high frequency of long-distance leisure trips. Policy implications include (i) directing policies towards reducing car ownership induced by car-related fringe benefits, (ii) encouraging company-car holders to ‘pay their way’, and (iii...
Ham, Walter; Vijayan, Abhilash; Schulte, Nico; Herner, Jorn D.
2017-10-01
This study was designed to estimate and compare the air pollution exposures experienced by commuters in six common transportation modes utilized by California residents, and to evaluate the impact of practical exposure mitigation strategies in reducing commute exposures. We measured concentrations of fine particle matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), and ultrafine particles (UFP) for 161 commutes between April 2014 and November 2015 in Sacramento, CA. We collected measurements for six modes including single occupancy vehicles, high occupancy vehicles (multiple occupants), buses, light rail, train, and bicycling. The largest average concentrations for most pollutants were measured during train commutes and the lowest average concentrations were observed during light-rail commutes. Mitigation options were explored for personal vehicles, bicycling, and train commute modes. We found that ventilation settings of personal vehicles can reduce in-vehicle PM2.5, BC, and UFP concentrations by up to 75%. Similarly, bicycle route choice can reduce exposures by 15-75% with the lowest concentrations observed during commutes on dedicated bicycle paths away from traffic sources. Train commuters experienced UFP concentrations an order of magnitude greater when the locomotive engine was pulling the rail cars versus pushing the rail cars. We found that UFP concentrations during bus, bicycling, and train commutes were 1.6-5.3 times greater than personal vehicle commutes, while light rail commutes had 30% lower UFP concentrations than personal vehicle commutes. The largest exposure per mile occurred during bicycle commutes with PM2.5, BC, and UFP exposures of 1.312 μg/mile, 0.097 μg/mile, and 3.0 × 109 particles/mile, respectively. Train commutes experienced the largest exposure per mile of all of the combustion-derived transportation commute modes. BC accounted for 5-20% of total PM mass across all commute modes with an average fraction of ∼7% of PM2.5.
Jorgensen, Palle
2017-01-01
The book features new directions in analysis, with an emphasis on Hilbert space, mathematical physics, and stochastic processes. We interpret 'non-commutative analysis' broadly to include representations of non-Abelian groups, and non-Abelian algebras; emphasis on Lie groups and operator algebras (C* algebras and von Neumann algebras.)A second theme is commutative and non-commutative harmonic analysis, spectral theory, operator theory and their applications. The list of topics includes shift invariant spaces, group action in differential geometry, and frame theory (over-complete bases) and their applications to engineering (signal processing and multiplexing), projective multi-resolutions, and free probability algebras.The book serves as an accessible introduction, offering a timeless presentation, attractive and accessible to students, both in mathematics and in neighboring fields.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Jonas
2018-01-01
The uniqueness of this article is that it deals with long-distance bike commuting in pro-cycling Copenhagen and its environs. Informed by practice theory and sensuous studies of urban and sport practices, I discuss the ‘things and environments’, ‘meanings’ and ‘competences and biological bodies......’ that typify long-distance commuter cycling. This article develops cycling literature and the ‘mobilities paradigm’ in the following ways: by outlining a practice approach to cycling; challenging the idea that commuter cycling is only for short distances; undermining the distinction between utility and sport...... cycling; and lastly by connecting the ‘mobilities paradigm’ with literature on active travel and sport studies....
Do driving restriction policies effectively motivate commuters to use public transportation?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Yunxia; Hong, Zaisheng; Liu, Yong
2016-01-01
Driving restriction policies have been implemented in some large Chinese cities to cope with severe urban smog pollution. We explored the roles of policy acceptance and other factors in commuters' transport mode decisions, based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. A questionnaire survey was conducted in Tianjin, China. A structural equation model was developed to test eight hypotheses, two of which were rejected. The results indicate that a driving restriction policy alone cannot effectively motivate commuters to use public transport if the policymakers fail to improve public transport, enhance commuters' awareness of consequences, increase commuters' perceived behavior control, and encourage car owners to change driving behavior. Comparisons between car owners and non-owners indicated that car owners view driving restriction policy and public transport more negatively. These negative views could be a barrier for the promotion of public transport among car owners. In addition, attitude toward public transport was found to have positive correlation with commuting time. - Highlights: • Attitude towards public transport has an impact on policy acceptance. • Driving habit indirectly affects policy acceptance and perceived behavior control. • Driving restriction policy and public transport are not popular among car owners. • Attitude towards public transport correlates positively with commuting time.
Linear Cracking in Bridge Decks
2018-03-01
Concrete cracking in bridge decks remains an important issue relative to deck durability. Cracks can allow increased penetration of chlorides, which can result in premature corrosion of the reinforcing steel and subsequent spalling of the concrete de...
Combinatorial commutative algebra
Miller, Ezra
2005-01-01
Offers an introduction to combinatorial commutative algebra, focusing on combinatorial techniques for multigraded polynomial rings, semigroup algebras, and determined rings. The chapters in this work cover topics ranging from homological invariants of monomial ideals and their polyhedral resolutions, to tools for studying algebraic varieties.
Nordfjærn, Trond; Simşekoğlu, Özlem; Lind, Hans Brende; Jørgensen, Stig Halvard; Rundmo, Torbjørn
2014-11-01
There is currently scant research on the role of transport priorities, risk perception and worry for travel mode use and preferences. The present study aims to examine these factors in relation to mode use and preferences among Norwegian commuters. A web-based survey was conducted in a randomly obtained representative sample of daily commuters in the extended greater Oslo area (n=690). The results showed that those who prioritized efficiency and flexibility tended to commute by car, while those who prioritized safety and comfort used public (e.g. metro, tram, and train) or active (e.g. walking and cycling) transport. In a free choice scenario, the respondents who prioritized flexibility reported a preference for using a car, whereas those who prioritized safety and comfort preferred public and active transport for their commuter travels. Risk perception of high impact events, such as terrorism and major accidents, as well as risk perception related to personal impact risks (theft, violence etc.) were related to car use on commuter travels. Transport-related worry exerted weak influences on mode use and preferences. Increased speed on rail transport and more frequent departures may be effective in reducing car use on commuter travels. Risk communication should focus on highlighting the low risk of experiencing security and safety issues in the public transport sector, and this message should be complemented by efforts to reduce the probability of negative events affecting public transport. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Application Side Casing on Open Deck RoRo to Improve Ship Stability
Hasanudin; K. A. P Utama, I.; Chen, Jeng-Horng
2018-03-01
RoRo is a vessel that can transport passengers, cargo, container and cars. Open Car Deck is favourite RoRo Vessel in developing countries due to its small GT, small tax and spacious car deck, but it has poor survival of stability. Many accident involve Open Car Deck RoRo which cause fatalities and victim. In order to ensure the safety of the ship, IMO had applied intact stability criteria IS Code 2008 which adapted from Rahola’s Research, but since 2008 IMO improved criteria become probabilistic damage stability SOLAS 2009. The RoRo type Open Car Deck has wide Breadth (B), small Draft (D) and small freeboard. It has difficulties to satisfy the ship’s stability criteria. Side Casings which has been applied in some RoRo have be known reduce freeboard or improve ship’s safety. In this paper investigated the effect side casings to survival of intact dan damage ship’s stability. Calculation has been conducted for four ships without, existing and full side casings. The investigation results shows that defect stability of Open Deck RoRo can be reduce with fitting side casing.
Wang, Ping; Li, Mingdang; Pei, Fubin; Li, Yueyun; Liu, Qing; Dong, Yunhui; Chu, Qingyan; Zhu, Hongjun
2017-05-15
A novel thionine unites with platinum nanowire inlaid globular SBA-15 (Pt NWs@g-SBA-15/Thi) not only utilizes as an efficient electrical signal probe but also constitutes an amplifying system with double-deck gold film (D-Au film) have been applied to the fabrication of sandwich-type immunosensor for detecting hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs Ag). The D-Au film can accelerate the electron transfer on the electrode interface due to the tunneling effect between the two Au films and can improve the load capacity of primary antibodies (Ab 1 ) because of the good biocompatibility. The Pt NWs@g-SBA-15/Thi with uniform globular morphology not only can effectively reduce the spatial limitation for loading the secondary antibodies (Ab 2 ) but also can provide outstanding pore accessibility of guest species from outside and offer catalytically active sites in a large scale. Besides, the presence of Thi can well enhance the electrical conductivity of Pt NWs@g-SBA-15/Thi. With the good cooperation between D-Au film and Pt NWs@g-SBA-15/Thi, a linear relationship between current signals and the concentrations of HBs Ag was obtained in the wide range from 10 fg/mL to 100ng/mL and the detection limit of HBs Ag was 3.3 fg/mL (signal-to-noise ratio of 3). Furthermore, the designed immunosensor with excellent selectivity, reproducibility and stability shows excellent performance in detection of human serum samples and provides a promising capacity for detecting a wide range of other tumor markers in clinical application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Categories and Commutative Algebra
Salmon, P
2011-01-01
L. Badescu: Sur certaines singularites des varietes algebriques.- D.A. Buchsbaum: Homological and commutative algebra.- S. Greco: Anelli Henseliani.- C. Lair: Morphismes et structures algebriques.- B.A. Mitchell: Introduction to category theory and homological algebra.- R. Rivet: Anneaux de series formelles et anneaux henseliens.- P. Salmon: Applicazioni della K-teoria all'algebra commutativa.- M. Tierney: Axiomatic sheaf theory: some constructions and applications.- C.B. Winters: An elementary lecture on algebraic spaces.
Radar channel balancing with commutation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doerry, Armin Walter
2014-02-01
When multiple channels are employed in a pulse-Doppler radar, achieving and maintaining balance between the channels is problematic. In some circumstances the channels may be commutated to achieve adequate balance. Commutation is the switching, trading, toggling, or multiplexing of the channels between signal paths. Commutation allows modulating the imbalance energy away from the balanced energy in Doppler, where it can be mitigated with filtering.
Both, Adam F; Westerdahl, Dane; Fruin, Scott; Haryanto, Budi; Marshall, Julian D
2013-01-15
We measured real-time exposure to PM(2.5), ultrafine PM (particle number) and carbon monoxide (CO) for commuting workers school children, and traffic police, in Jakarta, Indonesia. In total, we measured exposures for 36 individuals covering 93 days. Commuters in private cars experienced mean (st dev) exposures of 22 (9.4) ppm CO, 91 (38) μg/m(3)PM(2.5), and 290 (150)×10(3) particles cm(-3). Mean concentrations were higher in public transport than in private cars for PM(2.5) (difference in means: 22%) and particle counts (54%), but not CO, likely reflecting in-vehicle particle losses in private cars owing to air-conditioning. However, average commute times were longer for private car commuters than public transport commuters (in our sample, 24% longer: 3.0 vs. 2.3 h per day). Commute and traffic-related exposures experienced by Jakarta residents are among the highest in the world, owing to high on-road concentrations and multi-hour commutes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Is the environment near school associated with active commuting to school among preschoolers?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jose Cazuza Farias Junior
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Available studies show that environmental factors may influence how parentes choose to commute their children from home to school. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the association between the characteristics of the physical and social environment near school and active commuting to school among preschool children. A school-based cross-sectional study with a sample of children aged 3to 5 years (n=914 was undertaken. Participants were selected by a single-stage cluster sampling process. To obtain data on commuting to school and demographicand socioeconomic variables, a previously validated questionnaire was used while an audit tool was used to assess the environment near school. Binarylogistic regression was used to analyze the association and results were presented as Odds Ratio values. Results showed that 28.3% (95%CI 25.5-31.3 ofthe children were active commuters from home to school. A positive association was found between public transportation (p=0.002 and social environment(p=0.004 domains and active commuting. However, this association was foundonly among children from families that did not have a car. The likelihood of achild being an active commuter was higher among those who are enrolled in schools with better environmental surroundings (OR=1.88; 95%CI 1.31-2.70. It was concluded that there was a positive association between some of the environmental factors near school and active commuting to school among children from families that did not have a car.
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Exodermic bridge deck performance evaluation.
2010-07-01
In 1998, the Wisconsin DOT completed a two"leaf bascule bridge in Green Bay with an exodermic deck system. The exodermic deck consisted of 4.5"in thick cast"in"place reinforced concrete supported by a 5.19"in tall unfilled steel grid. The concrete an...
Electronically commutated dc motors for electric vehicles
Maslowski, E. A.
1981-01-01
A motor development program to explore the feasibility of electronically commutated dc motors (also known as brushless) for electric cars is described. Two different design concepts and a number of design variations based on these concepts are discussed. One design concept is based on a permanent magnet, medium speed, machine rated at 7000 to 9000 rpm, and powered via a transistor inverter power conditioner. The other concept is based on a permanent magnet, high speed, machine rated at 22,000 to 26,000 rpm, and powered via a thyristor inverter power conditioner. Test results are presented for a medium speed motor and a high speed motor each of which have been fabricated using samarium cobalt permanent magnet material.
Kumar, Pramod; Gupta, N C
2016-01-15
A public health concern is to understand the linkages between specific pollution sources and adverse health impacts. Commuting can be viewed as one of the significant-exposure activity in high-vehicle density areas. This paper investigates the commuter exposure to inhalable, thoracic and alveolic particles in various transportation modes in Delhi, India. Air pollution levels are significantly contributed by automobile exhaust and also in-vehicle exposure can be higher sometime than ambient levels. Motorcycle, auto rickshaw, car and bus were selected to study particles concentration along two routes in Delhi between Kashmere Gate and Dwarka. The bus and auto rickshaw were running on compressed natural gas (CNG) while the car and motorcycle were operated on gasoline fuel. Aerosol spectrometer was employed to measure inhalable, thoracic and alveolic particles during morning and evening rush hours for five weekdays. From the study, we observed that the concentration levels of these particles were greatly influenced by transportation modes. Concentrations of inhalable particles were found higher during morning in auto rickshaw (332.81 ± 90.97 μg/m(3)) while the commuter of bus exhibited higher exposure of thoracic particles (292.23 ± 110.45 μg/m(3)) and car commuters were exposed to maximum concentrations of alveolic particles (222.37 ± 26.56 μg/m(3)). We observed that in evening car commuters experienced maximum concentrations of all sizes of particles among the four commuting modes. Interestingly, motorcycle commuters were exposed to lower levels of inhalable and thoracic particles during morning and evening hours as compared to other modes of transport. The mean values were found greater than the median values for all the modes of transport suggesting that positive skewed distributions are characteristics of naturally occurring phenomenon. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Testing Non-commutative QED, Constructing Non-commutative MHD
Guralnik, Z.; Jackiw, R.; Pi, S. Y.; Polychronakos, A. P.
2001-01-01
The effect of non-commutativity on electromagnetic waves violates Lorentz invariance: in the presence of a background magnetic induction field b, the velocity for propagation transverse to b differs from c, while propagation along b is unchanged. In principle, this allows a test by the Michelson-Morley interference method. We also study non-commutativity in another context, by constructing the theory describing a charged fluid in a strong magnetic field, which forces the fluid particles into ...
Commutative and Non-commutative Parallelogram Geometry: an Experimental Approach
Bertram, Wolfgang
2013-01-01
By "parallelogram geometry" we mean the elementary, "commutative", geometry corresponding to vector addition, and by "trapezoid geometry" a certain "non-commutative deformation" of the former. This text presents an elementary approach via exercises using dynamical software (such as geogebra), hopefully accessible to a wide mathematical audience, from undergraduate students and high school teachers to researchers, proceeding in three steps: (1) experimental geometry, (2) algebra (linear algebr...
Skateboard deck materials selection
Liu, Haoyu; Coote, Tasha; Aiolos; Charlie
2018-03-01
The goal of this project was to identify the ideal material for a skateboard deck under 200 in price, minimizing the weight. The material must have a fracture toughness of 5 MPa/m2, have a minimum lifetime of 10, 000 cycles and must not experience brittle fracture. Both single material and hybrid solutions were explored. When further selecting to minimize weight, woods were found to be the best material. Titanium alloy-wood composites were explored to determine the optimal percentage composition of each material.A sandwich panel hybrid of 50% titanium alloy and 50% wood (Ti-Wood) was found to be the optimum material, performing better than the currently used plywood.
Minute ventilation of cyclists, car and bus passengers: an experimental study.
Zuurbier, M.; Hoek, G.; van den Hazel, P.J.; Brunekreef, B.
2009-01-01
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Differences in minute ventilation between cyclists, pedestrians and other commuters influence inhaled doses of air pollution. This study estimates minute ventilation of cyclists, car and bus passengers, as part of a study on health effects of commuters' exposure to air
Influence of the residential and work environment on car use in dual-earner households
Maat, K.; Timmermans, H.J.P.
2009-01-01
This paper analyses whether the decision to commute by car is influenced by built environment characteristics of residential neighbourhoods and, more especially, of work locations, taking into account interdependencies between household partners. It shows that the residential environment only
MIT employee commuter behavior trial.
2013-04-01
The objectives of the project included the following: : To evaluate the potential impact (in terms of commuter mode shifts) from the introduction of : disruptive technologies at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, MA, includin...
Computational linear and commutative algebra
Kreuzer, Martin
2016-01-01
This book combines, in a novel and general way, an extensive development of the theory of families of commuting matrices with applications to zero-dimensional commutative rings, primary decompositions and polynomial system solving. It integrates the Linear Algebra of the Third Millennium, developed exclusively here, with classical algorithmic and algebraic techniques. Even the experienced reader will be pleasantly surprised to discover new and unexpected aspects in a variety of subjects including eigenvalues and eigenspaces of linear maps, joint eigenspaces of commuting families of endomorphisms, multiplication maps of zero-dimensional affine algebras, computation of primary decompositions and maximal ideals, and solution of polynomial systems. This book completes a trilogy initiated by the uncharacteristically witty books Computational Commutative Algebra 1 and 2 by the same authors. The material treated here is not available in book form, and much of it is not available at all. The authors continue to prese...
Take part in the Commute-Another-Way Challenge!
CERN Bulletin
2015-01-01
Ring the changes on Thursday, 4 June by commuting another way! CERN has signed up for the 5th “challenge mobilité Rhône-Alpes”, the aim of which is to encourage people to use modes of transport other than their car to get to work. Are you up for the challenge? Join in the challenge! Sign up using the dedicated CERN form. "Commute another way!" is an initiative launched by the Rhône-Alpes regional authorities and the French environment agency ADEME (l’Agence de l’environnement et de la maîtrise de l’énergie française) to promote alternative ways of travelling to work than the car (excluding carpooling), in private and public-sector organisations across the region. We love this idea and CERN has been signed up to a similar scheme - Bike to Work - for several years. That’s why we’ve decided that CERN should join the Commute-A...
Longer Lasting Bridge Deck Overlays
2018-04-01
The objective of this report is to determine the most effective method for bridge deck overlay construction and repair by assessing current practices; examining new products and technologies; and reviewing NCHRP (National Cooperative Highway Research...
Fiber reinforced polymer bridge decks.
2011-01-01
The overarching goal of this study was to perform a comprehensive evaluation of various issues related to the strength and serviceability : of the FRP deck panels that are available in the industry. Specific objectives were to establish critical limi...
Active commuting and sociodemographic factors among university students in Spain.
Molina-García, Javier; Sallis, James F; Castillo, Isabel
2014-02-01
Commuting to university represents an opportunity to incorporate physical activity (walking or biking) into students' daily routines. There are few studies that analyze patterns of transport in university populations. This cross-sectional study estimated energy expenditure from active commuting to university (ACU) and examined sociodemographic differences in findings. The sample included 518 students with a mean age of 22.4 years (59.7% female) from 2 urban universities in Valencia, Spain. Time spent in each mode of transport to university and sociodemographic factors was assessed by self-report. Nearly 35% of the students reported walking or biking as their main mode of transport. ACU (min/wk) were highest for walkers (168) and cyclists (137) and lowest for motorbike riders (0.0) and car drivers (16). Public transport users, younger students, low socioeconomic status students, and those living ≤ 2 km from the university had higher energy expenditure from active commuting than comparison groups. Biking was highest among those living 2-5 km from the university. Our findings suggest that active commuting and public transit use generated substantial weekly energy expenditure, contributed to meeting physical activity recommendations, and may aid in obesity prevention.
On the relationship between travel time and travel distance of commuters
Rietveld, P.; Zwart, A.P.; Wee, van G.P.; Hoorn, van der T.
1999-01-01
This paper gives a detailed empirical analysis of the relationships between different indicators of costs of commuting trips by car: difference as the crow flies, shortest travel time according to route planner, corresponding travel distance, and reported travel time. Reported travel times are
Anaïs Schaeffer
2012-01-01
Do you want to make your commute to CERN easier, while saving money at the same time? Would you prefer not to spend a quarter of an hour crawling round the CERN car parks looking for a space? If so, read on: this article might well be of great interest to you. We would like to draw your attention to a well established, albeit sadly under-used, method of transport: car sharing. To promote car-sharing, the GS Department has stepped in to call on the services of the Swiss firm Green Monkeys which specialises in this user-friendly and intelligent transport scheme. The company’s slogan is: “Car-sharing as you want, when you want and as much as you want”. The principle is very straightforward. To use this car-sharing facility, you simply complete your free online registration with Green Monkeys, providing the following details: your journey, departure time, arrival time and days of the week, and indicating whether you are a passenger or driver or both. &a...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zdunek, A.; Soederberg, M. (Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden))
1989-01-01
The input card deck for the finite element program GARFEM version 3.2 is described in this manual. The program includes, but is not limited to, capabilities to handle the following problems: * Linear bar and beam element structures, * Geometrically non-linear problems (bar and beam), both static and transient dynamic analysis, * Transient response dynamics from a catalog of time varying external forcing function types or input function tables, * Eigenvalue solution (modes and frequencies), * Multi point constraints (MPC) for the modelling of mechanisms and e.g. rigid links. The MPC definition is used only in the geometrically linearized sense, * Beams with disjunct shear axis and neutral axis, * Beams with rigid offset. An interface exist that connects GARFEM with the program GAROS. GAROS is a program for aeroelastic analysis of rotating structures. Since this interface was developed GARFEM now serves as a preprocessor program in place of NASTRAN which was formerly used. Documentation of the methods applied in GARFEM exists but is so far limited to the capacities in existence before the GAROS interface was developed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mingwei He
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Understanding the commuting patterns of long-duration commuters and the possible changes in these patterns can help policymakers adopt the more reasonable land use and transportation policies. With Kunming in China as a case study, the determinants of long-duration commuting trips were identified based on logistic regression model. The results indicated that age, education level, number of workers, presence of retirees, and residential location have a significant impact on the occurrence of long-duration commuting trips. The ideal commuting times and tolerance thresholds of commuting time of long-duration commuters were also investigated. The statistical results revealed the distributions of ideal commuting times and tolerance thresholds of commuting time of both short- and long-duration commuters. The average tolerance threshold of commuting time and the average ideal commuting time of long-duration commuters were greater than those of short-duration commuters. For 97.2% of the long-duration commuters, their actual commuting time was longer than the ideal commuting time; this finding indicates that most long-duration commuters are dissatisfied with their commuting time. The actual commuting time of 40.1% long-duration commuters exceeded their tolerance thresholds; these commuters are eager to reduce their commuting time.
Electron commutator on integrated circuits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demidenko, V.V.
1975-01-01
The scheme and the parameters of an electron 16-channel contactless commutator based entirely on integrated circuits are described. The device consists of a unit of analog keys based on field-controlled metal-insulator-semiconductor (m.i.s.) transistors, operation amplifier comparators controlling these keys, and a level distributor. The distributor is based on a ''matrix'' scheme and comprises two ring-shaped shift registers plugged in series and a decoder base on two-input logical elements I-NE. The principal dynamical parameters of the circuit are as follows: the control signal delay in the distributor. 50 nsec; the total channel switch-over time, 500-600 nsec. The commutator transmits both constant signals and pulses whose duration reaches tens of nsec. The commutator can be used in data acquisition and processing systems, for shaping complicated signals (for example), (otherwise signals), for simultaneous oscillographing of several signals, and so forth [ru
Fiber reinforced polymer bridge decks : [technical summary].
2011-01-01
A number of researchers have addressed the use of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) deck as a replacement solution for deteriorated bridge decks made of traditional materials. The use of new, advanced materials such as FRP is advantageous when the bridg...
P-commutative topological *-algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohammad, N.; Thaheem, A.B.
1991-07-01
If P(A) denotes the set of all continuous positive functionals on a unital complete Imc *-algebra and S(A) the extreme points of P(A), and if the spectrum of an element χ Ε A coincides with the set {f(χ): f Ε S(A)}, then A is shown to be P-commutative. Moreover, if A is unital symmetric Frechet Q Imc *-algebra, then this spectral condition is, in fact, necessary. Also, an isomorphism theorem between symmetric Frechet P-commutative Imc *-algebras is established. (author). 12 refs
Commuting in the settlement system of Serbia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lukić Vesna
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Territorial organization of settlement system is the framework for internal migration flows. The purpose of this paper is to consider the relation between commuting and the settlement structure. Commuting patterns and characteristics of commuters in Serbia are relatively unknown and insufficiently researched, and as such, can not be adequately used in creation of development strategies and public policies which would include commuters' issues. It has been emphasized the importance of research of commuting ties between different settlements and also pointed out in which way commuting flows could be researched and analyzed by using existing sources, due to better understanding of connections between migrations and settlements. Commuting patterns of workers in Serbia and interrelations between the scope and the structure of commuting flows, as well as the type and population size of settlements in Serbia have been examined. Apart from territorial dimension of commuting phenomenon, socio-economic component of commuting population has also been considered. The use of costumised tabulations from 2002 Census have enabled us to examine all types of commuting and emphasise dominant directions of commuting flows of economically active population according to gender, level of education and sector of economic activity, within the settlement hierarchy. Workers have been classified into seven groups according to place of residence and place of work. The findings reveal there is a clear connection between the hierarchy structure and commuting patterns in Serbia. Further, we find some evidence that only 9,5% of workers - commuters have been working in the settlement of the same population size and type such as their residing settlement. Commuting flows within Serbia’s settlement system point out to certain variations when looking at individual categories of population, but it can be concluded that there is general trend of commuting "upwards" within the
Anaheim electric vehicle car-sharing project
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kotler, D. [City of Anaheim Transportation Programs Planner, Anaheim, CA (United States); Chase, B. [Costa Mesa Planning Center, Costa Mesa, CA (United States)
2000-07-01
This paper described how the city of Anaheim in California is looking into a variety of clean transportation options for visitors, employees and residents in an effort to minimize air quality and congestion impacts. The city, which attracts approximately 24 million visitors annually, is looking into an electric vehicle (EV) car-sharing program that promotes EV use in multiple applications for both short- and long-term rental opportunities. There are two components to the program which provides eight 5-passenger electric Toyota RAV4 vehicles to both local employees and visitors. The electric RAV4s include nickel-hydride batteries which provide a range of 120 miles per charge. The city has already developed a network of public accessible EV charging stations and this project is a perfect extension of the city's continued efforts to seek opportunities to apply EV technologies within its jurisdictions. The Station Car Program provides flexibility for rail commuters to get from the rail station to their place of employment. On weekdays, the EVs are available to registered commuters at two rail stations to drive to and from work. A total of 32 commuters can benefit from the program at a cost of $40 per month. On weekends, the EVs are offered to visitors through Budget Rent-a-Car Agency at a rate comparable to gasoline-fueled vehicles. So far, participant feedback has been positive and the city is looking into expanding its efforts to provide clean transportation options. tab.
Non-commutative and commutative vacua effects in a scalar torsion scenario
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sheikhahmadi, Haidar, E-mail: h.sh.ahmadi@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghamohammadi, Ali, E-mail: a.aghamohamadi@iausdj.ac.ir [Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saaidi, Khaled, E-mail: ksaaidi@uok.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-10-07
In this work, the effects of non-commutative and commutative vacua on the phase space generated by a scalar field in a scalar torsion scenario are investigated. For both classical and quantum regimes, the commutative and non-commutative cases are compared. To take account the effects of non-commutativity, two well known non-commutative parameters, θ and β, are introduced. It should be emphasized, the effects of β which is related to momentum sector has more key role in comparison to θ which is related to space sector. Also the different boundary conditions and mathematical interpretations of non-commutativity are explored.
Non-commutative and commutative vacua effects in a scalar torsion scenario
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sheikhahmadi, Haidar; Aghamohammadi, Ali; Saaidi, Khaled
2015-01-01
In this work, the effects of non-commutative and commutative vacua on the phase space generated by a scalar field in a scalar torsion scenario are investigated. For both classical and quantum regimes, the commutative and non-commutative cases are compared. To take account the effects of non-commutativity, two well known non-commutative parameters, θ and β, are introduced. It should be emphasized, the effects of β which is related to momentum sector has more key role in comparison to θ which is related to space sector. Also the different boundary conditions and mathematical interpretations of non-commutativity are explored.
Non-commutative and commutative vacua effects in a scalar torsion scenario
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haidar Sheikhahmadi
2015-10-01
Full Text Available In this work, the effects of non-commutative and commutative vacua on the phase space generated by a scalar field in a scalar torsion scenario are investigated. For both classical and quantum regimes, the commutative and non-commutative cases are compared. To take account the effects of non-commutativity, two well known non-commutative parameters, θ and β, are introduced. It should be emphasized, the effects of β which is related to momentum sector has more key role in comparison to θ which is related to space sector. Also the different boundary conditions and mathematical interpretations of non-commutativity are explored.
46 CFR 108.486 - Helicopter decks.
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Helicopter decks. 108.486 Section 108.486 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Protection for Helicopter Facilities § 108.486 Helicopter decks. At least two of the accesses to the helicopter landing deck must each have a fire hydrant on the unit's...
MISS. KSHITIJA S. BALWAN , MR. V. G. KHURD , MR. S. S. CHOUGULE
2018-01-01
The objective of this study was to understand the meaning of bridge deck. To know the different forms of decks used in bridge design. To understand different methods used for analysis of deck and study of box girder and its evolution
Steel plate reinforcement of orthotropic bridge decks
Teixeira de Freitas, S.
2012-01-01
The PhD research is focused on the reinforcement of fatigue cracked orthotropic steel bridge decks (OBD) by adding a second steel plate to the existing deck. The main idea is to stiffen the existing deck plate, which will reduce the stresses at the fatigue sensitive details and extend the fatigue
75 FR 4584 - Wire Decking From China
2010-01-28
... Decking From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of the final... subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of wire decking, provided for in subheadings 9403.90... China of wire decking, and that such [[Page 4585
Investigation of Aerodynamic Interference between Twin Deck Bridges
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sitek, M. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division. Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center (TRACC); Bojanowski, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division. Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center (TRACC); Lottes, S. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division. Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center (TRACC)
2016-05-01
Construction of a twin bridge can be a cost effective and minimally disruptive way to increase capacity when an existing bridge is not near the end of its service life. With ever growing vehicular traffic, when demand approaches the capacity of many existing roads and bridges. Remodeling a structure with an insufficient number of lanes can be a good solution in case of smaller and less busy bridges. Closing down or reducing traffic on crossings of greater importance for the construction period, however, can result in major delays and revenue loss for commerce and transportation as well as increasing the traffic load on alternate route bridges. Multiple-deck bridges may be the answer to this issue. A parallel deck can be built next to the existing one, without reducing the flow. Additionally, a new bridge can be designed as a twin or multi-deck structure. Several such structures have been built throughout the United States, among them: - The New NY Bridge Project - the Tappan Zee Hudson River Crossing, - SR-182 Columbia River Bridge, - The Thaddeus Kosciusko Bridge (I-87), - The Allegheny River Bridge, Pennsylvania, which carries I76, - Fred Hartman Bridge, TX, see Figure 1.2. With a growing number of double deck bridges, additional, more detailed, studies on the interaction of such bridge pairs in windy conditions appears appropriate. Aerodynamic interference effects should be examined to assure the aerodynamic stability of both bridges. There are many studies on aerodynamic response of single deck bridges, but the literature on double-deck structures is not extensive. The experimental results from wind tunnels are still limited in number, as a parametric study is required, they can be very time consuming. Literature review shows that some investigation of the effects of gap-width and angle of wind incidence has been done. Most of the CFD computational studies that have been done were limited to 2D simulations. Therefore, it is desirable to investigate twin decks
8 CFR 211.5 - Alien commuters.
2010-01-01
... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alien commuters. 211.5 Section 211.5 Aliens...: IMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS § 211.5 Alien commuters. (a) General. An alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence.... An alien commuter engaged in seasonal work will be presumed to have taken up residence in the United...
Commutation relations for functions of operators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Transtrum, Mark K.; Van Huele, Jean-Francois S.
2005-01-01
We derive an expression for the commutator of functions of operators with constant commutations relations in terms of the partial derivatives of these functions. This result extends the well-known commutation relation between one operator and a function of another operator. We discuss the range of applicability of the formula with examples in quantum mechanics
A travel mode comparison of commuters' exposures to air pollutants in Barcelona
de Nazelle, Audrey; Fruin, Scott; Westerdahl, Dane; Martinez, David; Ripoll, Anna; Kubesch, Nadine; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark
2012-11-01
Daily commutes may contribute disproportionately to overall daily inhalations of urban air contaminants. Understanding factors that explain variability of exposures during travel, and especially differences across transportation modes, is essential to accurately assess health impacts of traffic emissions and to develop effective mitigating measures. We evaluated exposures and inhaled doses of air pollution and assessed factors that contributed to their variability in different travel modes in Barcelona. Black carbon (BC), ultrafine particles (UFP), carbon monoxide (CO), fine particle mass (PM2.5) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured and compared across walk, bike, bus, and car modes for a total of 172 trips made on two different round trip routes. On average, the car mode experienced highest concentrations for all contaminants. In pairwise t-tests between concurrent mode runs, statistically significant differences were found for cars compared to walking and biking. Car-to-walk or car-to-bike concentration ratios ranged from 1.3 for CO2 to 25 for CO and were 2-3 for PM2.5, BC, and UFP. In multivariate analyses, travel mode explained the greatest variability in travel exposures, from 8% for PM2.5 to 70% for CO. Different modal patterns emerged when estimating daily inhaled dose, with active commuters' two to three times greater total inhalation volume during travel producing about equal UFP and BC daily inhaled doses to car commuters and 33-50% higher UFP and BC doses compared to bus commuters. These findings, however, are specific to the bike and pedestrian lanes in this study being immediately adjacent to the roadways measured. Dedicated bike or pedestrian routes away from traffic would lead to lower active travel doses.
ARE PRICING POLICIES EFFECTIVE TO CHANGE CAR USE?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Geertje SCHUITEMA
2007-01-01
Results revealed that under pricing policies most people did not intend to change their car use. Pricing policies were relatively more effective when prices increased significantly. Especially visiting and shopping trips were affected, while commuting trips were hardly affected. Moreover, respondents were most likely to reduce their car use for short trips, which are an important source of CO2 emissions and local air pollution.
Covariant Gauss law commutator anomaly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dunne, G.V.; Trugenberger, C.A.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge
1990-01-01
Using a (fixed-time) hamiltonian formalism we derive a covariant form for the anomaly in the commutator algebra of Gauss law generators for chiral fermions interacting with a dynamical non-abelian gauge field in 3+1 dimensions. (orig.)
Workers' marginal costs of commuting
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
van Ommeren, Jos; Fosgerau, Mogens
2009-01-01
This paper applies a dynamic search model to estimate workers' marginal costs of commuting, including monetary and time costs. Using data on workers' job search activity as well as moving behaviour, for the Netherlands, we provide evidence that, on average, workers' marginal costs of one hour...
On commuting operator exponentials, II
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
where N is an unbounded normal operator and M is a bounded normal operator in the. Hilbert space. Keywords. Self-adjoint and normal operator; commuting normal operator exponent- ials; Borel functional calculus. 1. Introduction. Let E be a complex Hilbert space and let B(E) be the algebra of bounded linear operators.
On CNC Commuting Contractive Tuples
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The characteristic function has been an important tool for studying completely non-unitary contractions on Hilbert spaces. In this note, we consider completely non-coisometric contractive tuples of commuting operators on a Hilbert space H . We show that the characteristic function, which is now an operator-valued analytic ...
Fractional charge and anomalous commutators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frishman, Y.; Gepner, D.
1983-06-01
Non-integer charges on topological objects in the presence of fermions are further investigated. The connection with anomalous commutators is discussed. The reason for the identical results in two-dimensional solutions and four-dimensional monopoles is pointed out. (author)
On commutativity theorems for rings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. A. S. Abujabal
1990-01-01
Full Text Available Let R be an associative ring with unity. It is proved that if R satisfies the polynomial identity [xny−ymxn,x]=0(m>1,n≥1, then R is commutative. Two or more related results are also obtained.
Commuting, Life-Satisfaction and Internet Addiction
Lachmann, Bernd; Sariyska, Rayna; Kannen, Christopher; Stavrou, Maria
2017-01-01
The focus of the present work was on the association between commuting (business and private), life satisfaction, stress, and (over-) use of the Internet. Considering that digital devices are omnipresent in buses and trains, no study has yet investigated if commuting contributes to the development of Internet addiction. Overall, N = 5039 participants (N = 3477 females, age M = 26.79, SD = 10.68) took part in an online survey providing information regarding their commuting behavior, Internet addiction, personality, life satisfaction, and stress perception. Our findings are as follows: Personality seems to be less suitable to differentiate between commuter and non-commuter groups, which is possibly due to commuters often not having a choice but simply must accept offered job opportunities at distant locations. Second, the highest levels of satisfaction were found with income and lodging in the group commuting for business purposes. This might be related to the fact that commuting results in higher salaries (hence also better and more expensive housing style) due to having a job in another city which might exceed job opportunities at one’s own living location. Third, within the business-commuters as well as in the private-commuter groups, females had significantly higher levels of stress than males. This association was not present in the non-commuter group. For females, commuting seems to be a higher burden and more stressful than for males, regardless of whether they commute for business or private reasons. Finally, we observed an association between higher stress perception (more negative attitude towards commuting) and Internet addiction. This finding suggests that some commuters try to compensate their perceived stress with increased Internet use. PMID:28981452
Commuting, Life-Satisfaction and Internet Addiction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bernd Lachmann
2017-10-01
Full Text Available The focus of the present work was on the association between commuting (business and private, life satisfaction, stress, and (over- use of the Internet. Considering that digital devices are omnipresent in buses and trains, no study has yet investigated if commuting contributes to the development of Internet addiction. Overall, N = 5039 participants (N = 3477 females, age M = 26.79, SD = 10.68 took part in an online survey providing information regarding their commuting behavior, Internet addiction, personality, life satisfaction, and stress perception. Our findings are as follows: Personality seems to be less suitable to differentiate between commuter and non-commuter groups, which is possibly due to commuters often not having a choice but simply must accept offered job opportunities at distant locations. Second, the highest levels of satisfaction were found with income and lodging in the group commuting for business purposes. This might be related to the fact that commuting results in higher salaries (hence also better and more expensive housing style due to having a job in another city which might exceed job opportunities at one’s own living location. Third, within the business-commuters as well as in the private-commuter groups, females had significantly higher levels of stress than males. This association was not present in the non-commuter group. For females, commuting seems to be a higher burden and more stressful than for males, regardless of whether they commute for business or private reasons. Finally, we observed an association between higher stress perception (more negative attitude towards commuting and Internet addiction. This finding suggests that some commuters try to compensate their perceived stress with increased Internet use.
Commuting, Life-Satisfaction and Internet Addiction.
Lachmann, Bernd; Sariyska, Rayna; Kannen, Christopher; Stavrou, Maria; Montag, Christian
2017-10-05
The focus of the present work was on the association between commuting (business and private), life satisfaction, stress, and (over-) use of the Internet. Considering that digital devices are omnipresent in buses and trains, no study has yet investigated if commuting contributes to the development of Internet addiction. Overall, N = 5039 participants (N = 3477 females, age M = 26.79, SD = 10.68) took part in an online survey providing information regarding their commuting behavior, Internet addiction, personality, life satisfaction, and stress perception. Our findings are as follows: Personality seems to be less suitable to differentiate between commuter and non-commuter groups, which is possibly due to commuters often not having a choice but simply must accept offered job opportunities at distant locations. Second, the highest levels of satisfaction were found with income and lodging in the group commuting for business purposes. This might be related to the fact that commuting results in higher salaries (hence also better and more expensive housing style) due to having a job in another city which might exceed job opportunities at one's own living location. Third, within the business-commuters as well as in the private-commuter groups, females had significantly higher levels of stress than males. This association was not present in the non-commuter group. For females, commuting seems to be a higher burden and more stressful than for males, regardless of whether they commute for business or private reasons. Finally, we observed an association between higher stress perception (more negative attitude towards commuting) and Internet addiction. This finding suggests that some commuters try to compensate their perceived stress with increased Internet use.
Non-commutativity in polar coordinates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Edwards, James P. [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Ciudad Universitaria, Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)
2017-05-15
We reconsider the fundamental commutation relations for non-commutative R{sup 2} described in polar coordinates with non-commutativity parameter θ. Previous analysis found that the natural transition from Cartesian coordinates to the traditional polar system led to a representation of [r, φ] as an everywhere diverging series. In this article we compute the Borel resummation of this series, showing that it can subsequently be extended throughout parameter space and hence provide an interpretation of this commutator. Our analysis provides a complete solution for arbitrary r and θ that reproduces the earlier calculations at lowest order and benefits from being generally applicable to problems in a two-dimensional non-commutative space. We compare our results to previous literature in the (pseudo-)commuting limit, finding a surprising spatial dependence for the coordinate commutator when θ >> r{sup 2}. Finally, we raise some questions for future study in light of this progress. (orig.)
Knowledge-workers and the sustainable city: the travel consequences of car-related job-perks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bendit, Edward; Frenkel, Amnon; Kaplan, Sigal
2011-01-01
. This study analyzes the impact of company-cars and car-allowance on the travel behavior of knowledge-workers. The importance of this issue derives from the tendency of knowledge-based economy to concentrate in highly populated metropolitan regions. The analyzed data comprise 750 observations, retrieved from...... a revealed-preferences survey among KTI workers in the Tel-Aviv metropolitan region in Israel. Results show that car-related job perks are associated with (i) high annual kilometrage, (ii) high propensity of using the car as main commute mode, (iii) long commute distances and travel times, (iv) high trip...
A note on maximal commutators and commutators of maximal functions
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Agcayazi, M.; Gogatishvili, Amiran; Koca, K.; Mustafayev, R.
2015-01-01
Roč. 67, č. 2 (2015), s. 581-593 ISSN 0025-5645 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14743S; GA ČR GA201/08/0383 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : macimal operator * commutator * BMO Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.524, year: 2015 http://projecteuclid.org/euclid.jmsj/1429624595
Weak KAM for commuting Hamiltonians
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zavidovique, M
2010-01-01
For two commuting Tonelli Hamiltonians, we recover the commutation of the Lax–Oleinik semi-groups, a result of Barles and Tourin (2001 Indiana Univ. Math. J. 50 1523–44), using a direct geometrical method (Stoke's theorem). We also obtain a 'generalization' of a theorem of Maderna (2002 Bull. Soc. Math. France 130 493–506). More precisely, we prove that if the phase space is the cotangent of a compact manifold then the weak KAM solutions (or viscosity solutions of the critical stationary Hamilton–Jacobi equation) for G and for H are the same. As a corollary we obtain the equality of the Aubry sets and of the Peierls barrier. This is also related to works of Sorrentino (2009 On the Integrability of Tonelli Hamiltonians Preprint) and Bernard (2007 Duke Math. J. 136 401–20)
STS-42 Payload Specialist Merbold with drink on OV-103's aft flight deck
1992-01-01
STS-42 Payload Specialist Ulf D. Merbold, wearing a lightweight headset (HDST), experiments with a grapefruit drink and straw on the aft flight deck of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Merbold watches the liquid ball of grapefruit drink he created float in the weightlessness of space. The Los Angeles Dodger cap Merbold is wearing is part of a tribute to Manley L. (Sonny) Carter, originally assigned as a mission specialist on this flight. During the eight-day flight, the crewmembers each wore the cap on a designated day. Carter, a versatile athlete and avid Dodger fan, died in the crash of a commuter airline in 1991.
Renner, M G
1988-01-01
The automobile is currently seen as the most desirable mode of transportation. However, this view needs to be changed since the proliferation of the automobile worldwide is leading to the poisoning of the environment and people. In the US the number of passenger cars grew 51% between 1971-86 and in the noncommunist industrialized community that figure is 71%. The gasoline and diesel fuel used to power the overwhelming majority of cars creates a variety of problems. The pollution is estimated to have a hidden cost of US $.80/gallon. Others estimate that the pollution causes 30,000 premature deaths annually just in the US. 75% of the carbon monoxide (CO), 48% of nitrogen oxides (NO2), 13% of particulates (P), and 3% of sulfur (S) emissions come from cars in the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), which includes the US, Canada, Western Europe, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand. 17% of all worldwide carbon dioxide (CO2) emission comes from the production and use of fossil fuels for cars. The single biggest problem associated with cars is the photochemical smog they create in urban areas. In 1986 75 million Americans lived in areas that failed to meet national air quality standards for CO, P, and ozone (03). The only area of major improvement has been the removal of lead from gasoline. It was known to cause problems from the beginning of its use in the 1920s, but remained for 50 years because of auto and oil company pressure. Ground 03 is estimated by the US government to cost US $4 billion in annual losses, just for corn, wheat, soybeans, and peanuts. Acid rain is the other major problem associated with cars, and its damage is estimated at US $5 billion annually. Both these problems are shortterm, their effects occur immediately; the longterm disadvantage is the build up of CO2 and its contribution to the greenhouse effect. While the US is at the forefront of regulation and many other countries are modeling their emission
Non-commutative Nash inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kastoryano, Michael; Temme, Kristan
2016-01-01
A set of functional inequalities—called Nash inequalities—are introduced and analyzed in the context of quantum Markov process mixing. The basic theory of Nash inequalities is extended to the setting of non-commutative L p spaces, where their relationship to Poincaré and log-Sobolev inequalities is fleshed out. We prove Nash inequalities for a number of unital reversible semigroups
Commuting graphs of matrix algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akbari, S.; Bidkhori, H.; Mohammadian, A.
2006-08-01
The commuting graph of a ring R, denoted by Γ(R), is a graph whose vertices are all non- central elements of R and two distinct vertices x and y are adjacent if and only if xy = yx. The commuting graph of a group G, denoted by Γ(G), is similarly defined. In this paper we investigate some graph theoretic properties of Γ(M n (F)), where F is a field and n ≥ 2. Also we study the commuting graphs of some classical groups such as GL n (F) and SL n (F). We show that Γ(M n (F)) is a connected graph if and only if every field extension of F of degree n contains a proper intermediate field. We prove that apart from finitely many fields, a similar result is true for Γ(GL n (F)) and Γ(SL n (F)). Also we show that for two fields E and F and integers m, n ≥> 2, if Γ(M m (E)) ≅ Γ(M n (F)), then m = n and vertical bar E vertical bar = vertical bar F vertical bar. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Piffaretti, M.
2008-07-01
This well-illustrated presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by the Protoscar company takes a look at research, design, engineering and communication topics in the area of 'clean cars'. The present situation with electrically driven and hybrid-drive cars is reviewed and the chances and problems of the present-day vehicles are examined. New developments and a number of vehicles that should be on the market in the period from 2012 to 2015 are presented. Also, 'clean' specialist vehicles such as trucks and buses are reviewed. Battery systems and associated problems and new developments are looked at. The promotion scheme in Mendrisio, Switzerland is reviewed. Bottom-up and top-down approaches are discussed and future market developments are looked at, as are promotional activities in various countries.
When is Commuting Desirable to the Individual?
Ory, David T.; Mokhtarian, Patricia L.; Redmond, Lothlorien S.; Collantes, Gustavo O.; Choo, Sangho
2004-01-01
Commuting is popularly viewed as a stressful, costly, time-wasting experience from the individual perspective, with the attendant congestion imposing major social costs as well. However, several authors have noted that commuting can also offer benefits to the individual, serving as a valued transition between the home and work realms of personal life. Using survey data collected from about 1,300 commuting workers in three San Francisco Bay Area neighborhoods, empirical models are developed fo...
When is Commuting Desirable to the Individual?
Ory, D T; Mokhtarian, Patricia L; Redmond, Lothlorien; Salomon, Ilan; Collantes, G O; Choo, Sangho
2004-01-01
Commuting is popularly viewed as a stressful, costly, time-wasting experience from the individual perspective, with the attendant congestion imposing major social costs as well. However, several authors have noted that commuting can also offer benefits to the individual, serving as a valued transition between the home and work realms of personal life. Using survey data collected from about 1,300 commuting workers in three San Francisco Bay Area neighborhoods, we develop empirical models for f...
Non-commutative tomography and signal processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mendes, R Vilela
2015-01-01
Non-commutative tomography is a technique originally developed and extensively used by Professors M A Man’ko and V I Man’ko in quantum mechanics. Because signal processing deals with operators that, in general, do not commute with time, the same technique has a natural extension to this domain. Here, a review is presented of the theory and some applications of non-commutative tomography for time series as well as some new results on signal processing on graphs. (paper)
Commutativity theorems for rings and groups with constraints on commutators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Evagelos Psomopoulos
1984-01-01
Full Text Available Let n>1, m, t, s be any positive integers, and let R be an associative ring with identity. Suppose xt[xn,y]=[x,ym]ys for all x, y in R. If, further, R is n-torsion free, then R is commutativite. If n-torsion freeness of R is replaced by m, n are relatively prime, then R is still commutative. Moreover, example is given to show that the group theoretic analogue of this theorem is not true in general. However, it is true when t=s=0 and m=n+1.
On θ-commutators and the corresponding non-commuting graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shalchi S.
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The θ-commutators of elements of a group with respect to an automorphism are introduced and their properties are investigated. Also, corresponding to θ-commutators, we define the θ-non-commuting graphs of groups and study their correlations with other notions. Furthermore, we study independent sets in θ-non-commuting graphs, which enable us to evaluate the chromatic number of such graphs.
GreenCommute: the Nortel Networks Transportation Demand Management (TDM) Program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lewinson, S [Transport Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)
2001-07-01
The structural elements and the environmental benefits to the employer, the employees and the community of the 'GreenCommute' program, designed by Nortel Networks and negotiated with the City of Ottawa, the National Capital Commission, and OC Transpo (the regional transportation authority), are described. The program is designed to mitigate congestion, minimize infrastructure requirements, minimize parking area requirements and to act as a pilot program for the region. The Program was designed after extensive consultation with employees. Some 87 per cent of those who responded (40 per cent response rate) expressed willingness to try a commuting alternative, including walking, cycling and car-pooling. A program is complete with a comprehensive 'GreenCoummute' website for up-to-date information, an efficient ride-matching system based on postal code, highly visible support for alternative commuting including lighted signage for all walking, cycling, transit and car-pooling information at the main entrance to the Nortel Campus, and a one-month free pass for transit riders from OC Transpo. Mid-year 2000 results indicated that the GreenCommute program was well on its way to achieve targeted objectives for 2000. Experience to-date indicate that the program is well appreciated by employees, but there is an ongoing need to market the program by varied promotion and positive messaging.
Commutation circuit for an HVDC circuit breaker
Premerlani, William J.
1981-01-01
A commutation circuit for a high voltage DC circuit breaker incorporates a resistor capacitor combination and a charging circuit connected to the main breaker, such that a commutating capacitor is discharged in opposition to the load current to force the current in an arc after breaker opening to zero to facilitate arc interruption. In a particular embodiment, a normally open commutating circuit is connected across the contacts of a main DC circuit breaker to absorb the inductive system energy trapped by breaker opening and to limit recovery voltages to a level tolerable by the commutating circuit components.
Commutated automatic gain control system
Yost, S. R.
1982-01-01
A commutated automatic gain control (AGC) system was designed and built for a prototype Loran C receiver. The receiver uses a microcomputer to control a memory aided phase-locked loop (MAPLL). The microcomputer also controls the input/output, latitude/longitude conversion, and the recently added AGC system. The circuit designed for the AGC is described, and bench and flight test results are presented. The AGC circuit described actually samples starting at a point 40 microseconds after a zero crossing determined by the software lock pulse ultimately generated by a 30 microsecond delay and add network in the receiver front end envelope detector.
Students to Race Solar-Powered Model Cars
race model solar cars on Saturday, May 12. The cars, designed to tap into energy from the sun, are than 12 inches wide, 24 inches long and 12 inches high. The 20-meter race is a double elimination competition with awards going to the five fastest cars. Five design awards also will be given out for
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shui-Ting Zhou
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This study is about the impact of the performance and the sensitivity analysis for parameters of the torsion bar suspension in the electric sight-seeing car, which the authors’ laboratory designed and which is used in the authors’ university. The suspension stiffness was calculated by using the virtual work principle, the vector algebra, and tensor of finite rotation methods and was verified by the ADAMS software. Based on the random vibration analysis method, the paper analyzed the dynamic tire load (DTL, suspension working space (SWS, and comfort performance parameters. For the purpose of decreasing the displacement of the suspension and limiting the frequency of impacting the stop block, the paper examined the three parameters and optimized the basic parameters of the torsion bar. The results show that the method achieves a great effect and contributes an accurate value for the general layout design.
Factors affecting commuter rail energy efficiency.
2016-02-17
The objective of this study is to develop a planninglevel model of commuter rail energy efficiency. The : environmental benefits of commuter rail are often cited as one of the key benefits and motivators for its rapid development as a public trans...
Active commuting: prevalence, barriers, and associated variables.
Silva, Kelly Samara; Vasques, Daniel Giordani; Martins, Caroline de Oliveira; Williams, Laura Ashley; Lopes, Adair S
2011-08-01
Research has demonstrated that adolescents who actively commute have higher levels of physical activity (PA), which have declined precipitously over the past 30 years. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of active commuting to school; and to identify barriers associated with active commuting. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1672 students (46.8% boys and 53.2% girls) from 11 to 17 years of age in Caxias do Sul/RS, Brazil. The students were asked to answer questionnaires about active transport, PA, and sedentary behaviors. They also completed a cardiovascular fitness test and body composition measurements. The study used a multivariate Poisson regression analysis. A total of 62.5% of students were observed to actively commute and the prevalence ratio (PR) of not actively commuting was associated with the type of school (Private: 2.41; 1.47, 3.95) and the time spent on commuting (>20 min: 1.93; 1.23, 3.03). The associated barriers to passive commuting were distance (3.02; 1.95, 4.71), crime/danger (2.65; 1.82, 3.85), and traffic (1.75; 1.19, 2.58). This study showed that environmental variables were strongly associated with active commuting. However, no alterations in body composition or other behavioral variables were observed after adjustment.
Commuting quantum traces for quadratic algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagy, Zoltan; Avan, Jean; Doikou, Anastasia; Rollet, Genevieve
2005-01-01
Consistent tensor products on auxiliary spaces, hereafter denoted 'fusion procedures', and commuting transfer matrices are defined for general quadratic algebras, nondynamical and dynamical, inspired by results on reflection algebras. Applications of these procedures then yield integer-indexed families of commuting Hamiltonians
Car-use habits: An obstacle to the use of public transportation?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller, Berit Thorup; Thøgersen, John
consequences. Since the decision is made rather automatically and only one choice alternative is considered (the habitually chosen one) behaviours guided by habit are difficult to change. The implications of car-use habits for converting drivers to commuters by public transportation is analysed based...... on a survey in the Copenhagen area, collected in October 2002. The study reveals that a relatively low percentage of drivers (10-20%) intend to commute by public transportation in the near future, which is hardly a surprise. A hierarchical analysis, where reported use of public transportation is regressed...... onto intentions to do so, car-use habit, and the interaction between the two, confirms the theory-derived hypothesis that car-use habits act as an obstacle to transforming intentions to commute by public transportation into action....
Hydrodynamic forces on inundated bridge decks
2009-05-01
The hydrodynamic forces experienced by an inundated bridge deck have great importance in the design of bridges. Specifically, the drag force, lift force, and the moment acting on the bridge deck under various levels of inundation and a range of flow ...
Prime alternative algebras that are nearly commutative
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pchelintsev, S V
2004-01-01
We prove that by deforming the multiplication in a prime commutative alternative algebra using a C-operation we obtain a prime non-commutative alternative algebra. Under certain restrictions on non-commutative algebras this relation between algebras is reversible. Isotopes are special cases of deformations. We introduce and study a linear space generated by the Bruck C-operations. We prove that the Bruck space is generated by operations of rank 1 and 2 and that 'general' Bruck operations of rank 2 are independent in the following sense: a sum of n operations of rank 2 cannot be written as a linear combination of (n-1) operations of rank 2 and an arbitrary operation of rank 1. We describe infinite series of non-isomorphic prime non-commutative algebras of bounded degree that are deformations of a concrete prime commutative algebra
Causality, spin, and equal-time commutators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdel-Rahman, A.M.
1975-01-01
We study the causality constraints on the structure of the Lorentz-antisymmetric component of the commutator of two conserved isovector currents between fermion states of equal momenta. We discuss the sum rules that follow from causality and scaling, using the recently introduced refined infinite-momentum technique. The complete set of sum rules is found to include the spin-dependent fixed-mass sum rules obtained from light-cone commutators. The causality and scaling restrictions on the structure of the electromagnetic equal-time commutators are discussed, and it is found, in particular, that causality requires the spin-dependent part of the matrix element for the time-space electromagnetic equal-time commutator to vanish identically. It is also shown, in comparison with the electromagnetic case, that the corresponding matrix element for the time-space isovector current equal-time commutator is required, by causality, to have isospin-antisymmetric tensor and scalar operator Schwinger terms
Access and Control Service
2004-01-01
Following to the operational circular No2 title III. Conditions of access, paragraph 21 . Except in the case of exemptions authorized by the Director-General, all drivers must facilitate the identification of their vehicle. For CERN car stickers to be valid in 2004, they must have the numbers 04 printed on them. As of Monday, March 15th, the security agents on duty at the various access points will have no alternative but to refuse entry to vehicles which do not have a valid sticker. Anyone in this situation is requested to follow the regularization procedure either by logging on to the web site, or by going in person to the registration service in bldg. 55, first floor, between 07h30 et 16h30, Monday through Friday. Access and Control Service - FM Group, TS Department
Factors Affecting Consumers' Green Commuting
Kai, Chen; Haokai, Liang
2016-01-01
As Chinese air pollution and other environmental problems were paid much attention by the public, appeals about reducing private car use and adopting public transport had come into being. In view of this context, the current study extended the theory of planned behavior by including environmental concerns to explore the effect of subjective…
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Car Seat Safety KidsHealth / For Parents / Car Seat Safety ... certified child passenger safety technician.) Guidelines for Choosing Car Seats Choose a seat with a label that ...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located in Lakehurst, New Jersey, the Jet Car Track Site supports jet cars with J57 engines and has a maximum jet car thrust of 42,000 pounds with a maximum speed of...
Reducing drag of a commuter train, using engine exhaust momentum
Ha, Dong Keun
The objective of this thesis was to perform numerical investigations of two different methods of injecting fluid momentum into the air flow above a commuter train to reduce its drag. Based on previous aerodynamic modifications of heavy duty trucks in improving fuel efficiency, two structural modifications were designed and applied to a Metrolink Services commuter train in the Los Angeles (LA) County area to reduce its drag and subsequently improve fuel efficiency. The first modification was an L-shaped channel, added to the exhaust cooling fan above the locomotive roof to divert and align the exhaust gases in the axial direction. The second modification was adding an airfoil shaped lid over the L-shape channel, to minimize the drag of the perturbed structure, and thus reduce the overall drag. The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software CCM+ from CD-Adapco with the ?-? turbulence model was used for the simulations. A single train set which consists of three vehicles: one locomotive, one trailer car and one cab car were used. All the vehicles were modeled based on the standard Metrolink fleet train size. The wind speed was at 90 miles per hour (mph), which is the maximum speed for the Orange County Metrolink line. Air was used as the exhaust gas in the simulation. The temperature of the exhausting air emitting out of the cooling fan on the roof was 150 F and the average fan speed was 120 mph. Results showed that with the addition of the lid, momentum injection results in reduced flow separation and pressure recovery behind the locomotive, which reduces the overall drag by at least 30%.
Stress analysis on passenger deck due to modification from passenger ship to vehicle-carrying ship
Zubaydi, A.; Sujiatanti, S. H.; Hariyanto, T. R.
2018-03-01
Stress is a basic concept in learning about material mechanism. The main focus that needs to be brought to attention in analyzing stress is strength, which is the structural capacity to carry or distribute loads. The structural capacity not only measured by comparing the maximum stress with the material’s yield strength but also with the permissible stress required by the Indonesian Classification Bureau (BKI), which certainly makes it much safer. This final project analyzes stress in passenger deck that experiences modification due to load changes, from passenger load to vehicle one, carrying: 6-wheels truck with maximum weight of 14 tons, a passenger car with maximum weight of 3.5 tons, and a motorcycle with maximum weight of 0.4 tons. The deck structure is modelled using finite element software. The boundary conditions given to the structural model are fix and simple constraint. The load that works on this deck is the deck load which comes from the vehicles on deck with three vehicles’ arrangement plans. After that, software modelling is conducted for analysis purpose. Analysis result shows a variation of maximum stress that occurs i.e. 135 N/mm2, 133 N/mm2, and 152 N/mm2. Those maximum stresses will not affect the structure of passenger deck’s because the maximum stress that occurs indicates smaller value compared to the Indonesian Classification Bureau’s permissible stress (175 N/mm2) as well as the material’s yield strength (235 N/mm2). Thus, the structural strength of passenger deck is shown to be capable of carrying the weight of vehicles in accordance with the three vehicles’ arrangement plans.
Automobile Club
2012-01-01
The Car Club wishes all its members Good road and Happy New Year 2012. It is time to think about renewing your subscription for this year, at a cost of 50 CHF, unchanged since several years. For those of you who are regular users of our equipment and who know all the advantages that the club is in a position to offer, it seems pointless to going to more details, as we are sure that many of you have made use of them and are satisfied. Therefore don’t forget to fill in the payment slip to continue to be a part of our large family. We remind you that everyone who works on the CERN site can be members of our club, this includes industrial support personnel and the personnel of companies which have a contract with CERN. If you are not yet a member, come and visit us! We will be happy to welcome you and show you the installations, alternatively you can visit our web site: http://club-acc.web.cern.ch/club-acc/ The use of the club’s installations is strictly reserved for members. Pour t...
The theory of finitely generated commutative semigroups
Rédei, L; Stark, M; Gravett, K A H
1966-01-01
The Theory of Finitely Generated Commutative Semigroups describes a theory of finitely generated commutative semigroups which is founded essentially on a single """"fundamental theorem"""" and exhibits resemblance in many respects to the algebraic theory of numbers. The theory primarily involves the investigation of the F-congruences (F is the the free semimodule of the rank n, where n is a given natural number). As applications, several important special cases are given. This volume is comprised of five chapters and begins with preliminaries on finitely generated commutative semigroups before
Multiplication modules over non-commutative rings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tuganbaev, A A
2003-01-01
It is proved that each submodule of a multiplication module over a regular ring is a multiplicative module. If A is a ring with commutative multiplication of right ideals, then each projective right ideal is a multiplicative module, and a finitely generated A-module M is a multiplicative module if and only if all its localizations with respect to maximal right ideals of A are cyclic modules over the corresponding localizations of A. In addition, several known results on multiplication modules over commutative rings are extended to modules over not necessarily commutative rings
On the interrelations between migration and commuting
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lukić Vesna
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we emphasise the significance of studying the interrelations between commuting and migration. The aim of the paper is to point out the factors which affect these interrelations (demographic and socio-economic characteristics of migrants and commuters, labour market, real estate market, information, life style, etc., with the special emphasis on the role of commuting distance onto the chosen mobility type. Besides theorethical frameworks and results of the selected foreign researches up to date, the overview of research of interrelations between migration and commuting in Serbia has also been presented. While earlier studies conducted by Gawryszenski (1978, Termote (1980 and Reitsma&Vergoossen (1987 pointed to the replacement of migration types between each other within country, in recent literature the interaction between migration and commuting has been studied in a trans-boundary context of the contemporary EU. Modern trend of long distance commuting instead of migration and the concept of substitution/replacement regarding migration and commuting have also been discussed. In Serbia, there is a positive correlation between commuting outflows and immigration in rural settlements of Vojvodina province. Namely, commuting and migration are complement, which is the characteristic of both processes sub-urbanisation and ex-urbanisation (Lukić, 2012. In addition to ownership of real estate and previous migration experience, marital status influenced the chosen mobility type in Serbia as well. Adjustment to changes of Serbian labour market is mostly conducted via migration (Miletić, Lukić, Miljanović, 2011. Interrelations between migration and commuting are very significant due to the tendency of transformation of some commuters into migrants. This process has its consequences, both on demographic as well as the overall socio-economic development of the area of commuters’ origin and destination. However, even though the surveys
Two-dimensional black holes and non-commutative spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sadeghi, J.
2008-01-01
We study the effects of non-commutative spaces on two-dimensional black hole. The event horizon of two-dimensional black hole is obtained in non-commutative space up to second order of perturbative calculations. A lower limit for the non-commutativity parameter is also obtained. The observer in that limit in contrast to commutative case see two horizon
Commuter Shopping : A study in understanding commuting in the context of shopping
Andersson, Åsa; Skoog, Sara; Svensson, Johanna
2014-01-01
Background For ages people have commuted to work, or to other activities, located outside their home municipality. Statements found indicate that the basic decision for commuting are based on utility maximisation and no matter what the character of the benefit is; it should be higher than what can be found closer to the home location. This thesis aims to investigate if people are also commuting with the purpose of obtaining benefits from shopping. The shopping location will in this thesis be ...
Optimizing rib width to height and rib spacing to deck plate thickness ratios in orthotropic decks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdullah Fettahoglu
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Orthotropic decks are composed of deck plate, ribs, and cross-beams and are frequently used in industry to span long distances, due to their light structures and load carrying capacities. Trapezoidal ribs are broadly preferred as longitudinal stiffeners in design of orthotropic decks. They supply the required stiffness to the orthotropic deck in traffic direction. Trapezoidal ribs are chosen in industrial applications because of their high torsional and buckling rigidity, less material and welding needs. Rib width, height, spacing, thickness of deck plate are important parameters for designing of orthotropic decks. In the scope of this study, rib width to height and rib spacing to deck plate thickness ratios are assessed by means of the stresses developed under different ratios of these parameters. For this purpose a FE-model of orthotropic bridge is generated, which encompasses the entire bridge geometry and conforms to recommendations given in Eurocode 3 Part 2. Afterwards necessary FE-analyses are performed to reveal the stresses developed under different rib width to height and rib spacing to deck plate thickness ratios. Based on the results obtained in this study, recommendations regarding these ratios are provided for orthotropic steel decks occupying trapezoidal ribs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Froehlich, J.
1977-01-01
Sufficient conditions on unbounded, symmetric operators A and B which imply that exp(itA)exp(isB)exp(-itA) satisfies the well known 'multiple commutator' formula are derived. This formula is then applied to prove new necessary and sufficient conditions for the integrability of representations of Lie algebras and canonical commutation relations and the commutativity of the spectral projections of two commuting, unbounded, self-adjoint operators. A classic theorem of Nelson's is obtained as a corollary. Our results are useful in relativistic quantum field theory. (orig.) [de
Foundations of commutative rings and their modules
Wang, Fanggui
2016-01-01
This book provides an introduction to the basics and recent developments of commutative algebra. A glance at the contents of the first five chapters shows that the topics covered are ones that usually are included in any commutative algebra text. However, the contents of this book differ significantly from most commutative algebra texts: namely, its treatment of the Dedekind–Mertens formula, the (small) finitistic dimension of a ring, Gorenstein rings, valuation overrings and the valuative dimension, and Nagata rings. Going further, Chapter 6 presents w-modules over commutative rings as they can be most commonly used by torsion theory and multiplicative ideal theory. Chapter 7 deals with multiplicative ideal theory over integral domains. Chapter 8 collects various results of the pullbacks, especially Milnor squares and D+M constructions, which are probably the most important example-generating machines. In Chapter 9, coherent rings with finite weak global dimensions are probed, and the local ring of weak gl...
Reversal thyristor-relay direct current commutator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanenko, A.I.
1982-01-01
A thyristor-relay commutator used for alteration of the leading magnetic field direction in experiments with polarized neutrons is described. The commutator flowsheet is presented. Thyristors, connected so as to allow the relay trigger operation mode, are used as controllable electronic relay. Two connected in series coils with the total inductance of the order of 0.28 H serve as the electronic relay load. The arc-free current commutation is effected at the moment of the minimal current across the load terminals, which allows to easily reverse the current up to 10 A at a volatage, v <= 150 V. The experience gained within a year of operation has shown that the commutator meets the requirements of reliability and tuning
Covariant non-commutative space–time
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jonathan J. Heckman
2015-05-01
Full Text Available We introduce a covariant non-commutative deformation of 3+1-dimensional conformal field theory. The deformation introduces a short-distance scale ℓp, and thus breaks scale invariance, but preserves all space–time isometries. The non-commutative algebra is defined on space–times with non-zero constant curvature, i.e. dS4 or AdS4. The construction makes essential use of the representation of CFT tensor operators as polynomials in an auxiliary polarization tensor. The polarization tensor takes active part in the non-commutative algebra, which for dS4 takes the form of so(5,1, while for AdS4 it assembles into so(4,2. The structure of the non-commutative correlation functions hints that the deformed theory contains gravitational interactions and a Regge-like trajectory of higher spin excitations.
Euler Polynomials and Identities for Non-Commutative Operators
De Angelis, V.; Vignat, C.
2015-01-01
Three kinds of identities involving non-commutating operators and Euler and Bernoulli polynomials are studied. The first identity, as given by Bender and Bettencourt, expresses the nested commutator of the Hamiltonian and momentum operators as the commutator of the momentum and the shifted Euler polynomial of the Hamiltonian. The second one, due to J.-C. Pain, links the commutators and anti-commutators of the monomials of the position and momentum operators. The third appears in a work by Fig...
Flight Deck I-Glasses, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Flight Deck i-Glasses is a color, stereoscopic 3-D display mounted on consumer style eye glass frames that will enhance operator performance and multi-modal...
Deck41 Surficial Seafloor Sediment Description Database
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Deck41 is a digital summary of surficial sediment composition for 36,401 seafloor samples worldwide. Data include collecting source, ship, cruise, sample id,...
Extreme commutative quantum observables are sharp
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heinosaari, Teiko; Pellonpaeae, Juha-Pekka
2011-01-01
It is well known that, in the description of quantum observables, positive operator valued measures (POVMs) generalize projection valued measures (PVMs) and they also turn out be more optimal in many tasks. We show that a commutative POVM is an extreme point in the convex set of all POVMs if and only if it is a PVM. This results implies that non-commutativity is a necessary ingredient to overcome the limitations of PVMs.
How do motorways shape commuting patterns?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hovgesen, Henrik Harder; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick
2004-01-01
on urbanization and spatial interaction patterns in the last 20 years. This paper presents results on how the building of the motorway network has shaped spatial interactions patterns in Denmark over a ten year period. The question asked is how travel time reductions and changing motorway access is related...... to change in the commute pattern. And whether the relations between these factors and commuting are a new course of development or a continuation of past trends....
Lin, XuXun; Yuan, PengCheng
2018-01-01
In this research we consider commuters' dynamic learning effect by modeling the trip mode choice behavior from a new perspective of dynamic evolutionary game theory. We explore the behavior pattern of different types of commuters and study the evolution path and equilibrium properties under different traffic conditions. We further establish a dynamic parking charge optimal control (referred to as DPCOC) model to alter commuters' trip mode choice while minimizing the total social cost. Numerical tests show. (1) Under fixed parking fee policy, the evolutionary results are completely decided by the travel time and the only method for public transit induction is to increase the parking charge price. (2) Compared with fixed parking fee policy, DPCOC policy proposed in this research has several advantages. Firstly, it can effectively turn the evolutionary path and evolutionary stable strategy to a better situation while minimizing the total social cost. Secondly, it can reduce the sensitivity of trip mode choice behavior to traffic congestion and improve the ability to resist interferences and emergencies. Thirdly, it is able to control the private car proportion to a stable state and make the trip behavior more predictable for the transportation management department. The research results can provide theoretical basis and decision-making references for commuters' mode choice prediction, dynamic setting of urban parking charge prices and public transit induction.
Solar-to-vehicle (S2V) systems for powering commuters of the future
Birnie, Dunbar P.
Hybrid electric vehicles are growing in popularity and significance in our marketplace as gasoline prices continue to rise. Consumers are also increasingly aware of their carbon "footprint" and seek ways of lowering their carbon dioxide output. Plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles appear to be the next wave in helping transition from a gasoline-based transportation infrastructure to an electric-grid-sourced mode, though most plug-in scenarios ultimately rely on having the electric utilities converted from fossil sources to renewable generation in the long run. At present, one of the key advantages of plug-in hybrid/electric vehicles is that they can be charged at home, at night, when lower off-peak rates could apply. The present analysis considers a further advancement: the impact of daytime recharging using solar arrays located at commuters' work sites. This would convert large parking areas into solar recharge stations for commuters. The solar power would be large enough to supply many commuters' needs. The implications for electric car design in relation to commuter range are discussed in detail.
Non-commutative standard model: model building
Chaichian, Masud; Presnajder, P
2003-01-01
A non-commutative version of the usual electro-weak theory is constructed. We discuss how to overcome the two major problems: (1) although we can have non-commutative U(n) (which we denote by U sub * (n)) gauge theory we cannot have non-commutative SU(n) and (2) the charges in non-commutative QED are quantized to just 0,+-1. We show how the latter problem with charge quantization, as well as with the gauge group, can be resolved by taking the U sub * (3) x U sub * (2) x U sub * (1) gauge group and reducing the extra U(1) factors in an appropriate way. Then we proceed with building the non-commutative version of the standard model by specifying the proper representations for the entire particle content of the theory, the gauge bosons, the fermions and Higgs. We also present the full action for the non-commutative standard model (NCSM). In addition, among several peculiar features of our model, we address the inherentCP violation and new neutrino interactions. (orig.)
Is deck B a disadvantageous deck in the Iowa Gambling Task?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chiu Yao-Chu
2007-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Iowa gambling task is a popular test for examining monetary decision behavior under uncertainty. According to Dunn et al. review article, the difficult-to-explain phenomenon of "prominent deck B" was revealed, namely that normal decision makers prefer bad final-outcome deck B to good final-outcome decks C or D. This phenomenon was demonstrated especially clearly by Wilder et al. and Toplak et al. The "prominent deck B" phenomenon is inconsistent with the basic assumption in the IGT; however, most IGT-related studies utilized the "summation" of bad decks A and B when presenting their data, thereby avoiding the problems associated with deck B. Methods To verify the "prominent deck B" phenomenon, this study launched a two-stage simple version IGT, namely, an AACC and BBDD version, which possesses a balanced gain-loss structure between advantageous and disadvantageous decks and facilitates monitoring of participant preferences after the first 100 trials. Results The experimental results suggested that the "prominent deck B" phenomenon exists in the IGT. Moreover, participants cannot suppress their preference for deck B under the uncertain condition, even during the second stage of the game. Although this result is incongruent with the basic assumption in IGT, an increasing number of studies are finding similar results. The results of the AACC and BBDD versions can be congruent with the decision literatures in terms of gain-loss frequency. Conclusion Based on the experimental findings, participants can apply the "gain-stay, loss-shift" strategy to overcome situations involving uncertainty. This investigation found that the largest loss in the IGT did not inspire decision makers to avoid choosing bad deck B.
Jones, Caroline H D; Ogilvie, David
2012-09-11
Promoting walking or cycling to work (active commuting) could help to increase population physical activity levels. According to the habit discontinuity and residential self-selection hypotheses, moving home or workplace is a period when people (re)assess, and may be more likely to change, their travel behavior. Research in this area is dominated by the use of quantitative research methods, but qualitative approaches can provide in-depth insight into the experiences and processes of travel behavior change. This qualitative study aimed to explore experiences and motivations regarding travel behavior around the period of relocation, in an effort to understand how active commuting might be promoted more effectively. Participants were recruited from the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study cohort in the UK. Commuters who had moved home, workplace or both between 2009 and 2010 were identified, and a purposive sample was invited to participate in semi-structured interviews regarding their experiences of, and travel behavior before and after, relocating. A grounded theory approach was taken to analysis. Twenty-six commuters participated. Participants were motivated by convenience, speed, cost and reliability when selecting modes of travel for commuting. Physical activity was not a primary motivation, but incidental increases in physical activity were described and valued in association with active commuting, the use of public transport and the use of park-and-ride facilities. Emphasizing and improving the relative convenience, cost, speed and reliability of active commuting may be a more promising approach to promoting its uptake than emphasizing the health benefits, at least around the time of relocation. Providing good quality public transport and free car parking within walking or cycling distance of major employment sites may encourage the inclusion of active travel in the journey to work, particularly for people who live too far from work to walk or cycle the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jones Caroline HD
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Promoting walking or cycling to work (active commuting could help to increase population physical activity levels. According to the habit discontinuity and residential self-selection hypotheses, moving home or workplace is a period when people (reassess, and may be more likely to change, their travel behavior. Research in this area is dominated by the use of quantitative research methods, but qualitative approaches can provide in-depth insight into the experiences and processes of travel behavior change. This qualitative study aimed to explore experiences and motivations regarding travel behavior around the period of relocation, in an effort to understand how active commuting might be promoted more effectively. Methods Participants were recruited from the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study cohort in the UK. Commuters who had moved home, workplace or both between 2009 and 2010 were identified, and a purposive sample was invited to participate in semi-structured interviews regarding their experiences of, and travel behavior before and after, relocating. A grounded theory approach was taken to analysis. Results Twenty-six commuters participated. Participants were motivated by convenience, speed, cost and reliability when selecting modes of travel for commuting. Physical activity was not a primary motivation, but incidental increases in physical activity were described and valued in association with active commuting, the use of public transport and the use of park-and-ride facilities. Conclusions Emphasizing and improving the relative convenience, cost, speed and reliability of active commuting may be a more promising approach to promoting its uptake than emphasizing the health benefits, at least around the time of relocation. Providing good quality public transport and free car parking within walking or cycling distance of major employment sites may encourage the inclusion of active travel in the journey to work
Active commuting reduces the risk of wrist fractures in middle-aged women-the UFO study.
Englund, U; Nordström, P; Nilsson, J; Hallmans, G; Svensson, O; Bergström, U; Pettersson-Kymmer, U
2013-02-01
Middle-aged women with active commuting had significantly lower risk for wrist fracture than women commuting by car/bus. Our purpose was to investigate whether a physically active lifestyle in middle-aged women was associated with a reduced risk of later sustaining a low-trauma wrist fracture. The Umeå Fracture and Osteoporosis (UFO) study is a population-based nested case-control study investigating associations between lifestyle and fragility fractures. From a cohort of ~35,000 subjects, we identified 376 female wrist fracture cases who had reported data regarding their commuting habits, occupational, and leisure physical activity, before they sustained their fracture. Each fracture case was compared with at least one control drawn from the same cohort and matched for age and week of reporting data, yielding a total of 778 subjects. Mean age at baseline was 54.3 ± 5.8 years, and mean age at fracture was 60.3 ± 5.8 years. Conditional logistic regression analysis with adjustments for height, body mass index, smoking, and menopausal status showed that subjects with active commuting (especially walking) were at significantly lower risk of sustaining a wrist fracture (OR 0.48; 95 % CI 0.27-0.88) compared with those who commuted by car or bus. Leisure time activities such as dancing and snow shoveling were also associated with a lower fracture risk, whereas occupational activity, training, and leisure walking or cycling were unrelated to fracture risk. This study suggests that active commuting is associated with a lower wrist fracture risk, in middle-aged women.
Liu, Wen-Te; Ma, Chih-Ming; Liu, I-Jung; Han, Bor-Cheng; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Chuang, Kai-Jen
2015-05-01
The association between traffic-related air pollution and adverse cardiovascular effects has been well documented; however, little is known about whether different commuting modes can modify the effects of air pollution on the cardiovascular system in human subjects in urban areas with heavy traffic. We recruited 120 young, healthy subjects in Taipei, Taiwan. Each participant was classified with different commuting modes according to his/her own commuting style. Three repeated measurements of heart rate variability (HRV) indices {standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN) and the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals (r-MSSD)}, particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), temperature, humidity and noise level were conducted for each subject during 1-h morning commutes (0900-1000 h) in four different commuting modes, including an electrically powered subway, a gas-powered bus, a gasoline-powered car, and walking. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate the association of PM2.5 with HRV indices. The results showed that decreases in the HRV indices were associated with increased levels of PM2.5. The personal exposure levels to PM2.5 were the highest in the walking mode. The effects of PM2.5 on cardiovascular endpoints were the lowest in the subway mode compared to the effects in the walking mode. The participants in the car and bus modes had reduced effects on their cardiovascular endpoints compared to the participants in the walking mode. We concluded that traffic-related PM2.5 is associated with autonomic alteration. Commuting modes can modify the effects of PM2.5 on HRV indices among young, healthy subjects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Determinants of self-employment among commuters and non-commuters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Backman, M.; Karlsson, C.
2016-01-01
We analyse the determinants of self-employment and focus on the contextual environment. By distinguishing between commuters and non-commuters we are able to analyse the influence from the work and home environment, respectively. Our results indicate a significant difference between non...
Wave impact on a deck or baffle
Md Noar, Nor Aida Zuraimi; Greenhow, Martin
2015-02-01
Some coastal or ocean structures have deck-like baffles or horizontal platforms that can be exposed to wave action in heavy seas. A similar situation may occur in partially-filled tanks with horizontal baffles that become engulfed by sloshing waves. This can result in dangerous wave impact loads (slamming) causing a rapid rise of pressures which may lead to local damaging by crack initiation and/or propagation. We consider the wave impact against the whole of underside of horizontal deck (or baffle) projecting from a seawall (or vertical tank wall), previously studied by Wood and Peregrine (1996) using a different method based on conformal mappings. The approach used is to simplify the highly time-dependent and very nonlinear problem by considering the time integral of the pressure over the duration of the impact pressure-impulse, P (x, y). Our method expresses this in terms of eigenfunctions that satisfy the boundary conditions apart from that on the impact region and the matching of the two regions (under the platform and under the free surface); this results in a matrix equation to be solved numerically. As in Wood and Peregrine, we found that the pressure impulse on the deck increases when the length of deck increases, there is a strong pressure gradient beneath the deck near the seaward edge and the maximum pressure impulse occurs at the landward end of the impact zone.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Lars K.
2013-01-01
Review of L.H. Siegelbaum (ed.) The Socialist Car. Automobility in the Eastern Block. Cornell University Press, 2011.......Review of L.H. Siegelbaum (ed.) The Socialist Car. Automobility in the Eastern Block. Cornell University Press, 2011....
Survey of how staff commute to work
2014-01-01
A survey was initiated by the Canton of Geneva (Direction Générale des Transports) and the Swiss Permanent Mission to the United Nations, and is aimed at better understanding how staff in International Organisations commute to/from work so as to better plan future works (road access, public transport, etc.). The ILO, WHO, UNAIDs, Global Fund, IFRC, CERN and UNOG are taking part in this important survey. People living in Switzerland or France are invited to respond to this survey. The purpose of this survey is to better understand: - your commuting habits, - your willingness to explore alternative commuting options, - your expectations and needs. All data provided to this external company (www.mobilidee.ch) will be kept confidential and will only be used for this particular study. CERN has received all guarantees of confidentiality from this company. Many thanks for your collaboration! GS Department
Commutative algebra constructive methods finite projective modules
Lombardi, Henri
2015-01-01
Translated from the popular French edition, this book offers a detailed introduction to various basic concepts, methods, principles, and results of commutative algebra. It takes a constructive viewpoint in commutative algebra and studies algorithmic approaches alongside several abstract classical theories. Indeed, it revisits these traditional topics with a new and simplifying manner, making the subject both accessible and innovative. The algorithmic aspects of such naturally abstract topics as Galois theory, Dedekind rings, Prüfer rings, finitely generated projective modules, dimension theory of commutative rings, and others in the current treatise, are all analysed in the spirit of the great developers of constructive algebra in the nineteenth century. This updated and revised edition contains over 350 well-arranged exercises, together with their helpful hints for solution. A basic knowledge of linear algebra, group theory, elementary number theory as well as the fundamentals of ring and module theory is r...
Field performance of timber bridges. 10, Sanborn Brook stress-laminated deck bridge
P. D. Hilbrich Lee; J. P. Wacker; M. A. Ritter
The Sanborn Brook bridge was constructed in August 1991, 10 miles northeast of Concord, New Hampshire, as part of the demonstration timber bridge program of the USDA Forest Service. The bridge is a simple-span, double-lane, stress-laminated deck superstructure constructed from Southern Pine lumber and is approximately 25 ft long and 28 ft wide with a skew of 14 degrees...
Commutability of food microbiology proficiency testing samples.
Abdelmassih, M; Polet, M; Goffaux, M-J; Planchon, V; Dierick, K; Mahillon, J
2014-03-01
Food microbiology proficiency testing (PT) is a useful tool to assess the analytical performances among laboratories. PT items should be close to routine samples to accurately evaluate the acceptability of the methods. However, most PT providers distribute exclusively artificial samples such as reference materials or irradiated foods. This raises the issue of the suitability of these samples because the equivalence-or 'commutability'-between results obtained on artificial vs. authentic food samples has not been demonstrated. In the clinical field, the use of noncommutable PT samples has led to erroneous evaluation of the performances when different analytical methods were used. This study aimed to provide a first assessment of the commutability of samples distributed in food microbiology PT. REQUASUD and IPH organized 13 food microbiology PTs including 10-28 participants. Three types of PT items were used: genuine food samples, sterile food samples and reference materials. The commutability of the artificial samples (reference material or sterile samples) was assessed by plotting the distribution of the results on natural and artificial PT samples. This comparison highlighted matrix-correlated issues when nonfood matrices, such as reference materials, were used. Artificially inoculated food samples, on the other hand, raised only isolated commutability issues. In the organization of a PT-scheme, authentic or artificially inoculated food samples are necessary to accurately evaluate the analytical performances. Reference materials, used as PT items because of their convenience, may present commutability issues leading to inaccurate penalizing conclusions for methods that would have provided accurate results on food samples. For the first time, the commutability of food microbiology PT samples was investigated. The nature of the samples provided by the organizer turned out to be an important factor because matrix effects can impact on the analytical results. © 2013
Idleman, Hillis K. Ed.
The purpose of this consumer education module is to provide information and skills, and the ability to raise questions and find answers, while seeking the best automobile or motorcycle buy available for the money. The module may be used for a full or part semester course. The five sections (cars and the consumer, renting and leasing cars, cars and…
Commuting quantum traces: the case of reflection algebras
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Avan, Jean [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics and Modelization, University of Cergy, 5 mail Gay-Lussac, Neuville-sur-Oise, F-95031, Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France); Doikou, Anastasia [Theoretical Physics Laboratory of Annecy-Le-Vieux, LAPTH, BP 110, Annecy-Le-Vieux, F-74941 (France)
2004-02-06
We formulate a systematic construction of commuting quantum traces for reflection algebras. This is achieved by introducing two dual sets of generalized reflection equations with associated consistent fusion procedures. Products of their respective solutions yield commuting quantum traces.
Gust loading on streamlined bridge decks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larose, Guy; Mann, Jakob
1998-01-01
The current analytical description of the buffeting action of wind on long-span bridges is based on the strip assumption. However, recent experiments on closed-box girder bridge decks have shown that this assumption is not valid and is the source of an important part of the error margin...... of the analytical prediction methods. In this paper, an analytical model that departs from the strip assumption is used to describe the gust loading on a thin airfoil. A parallel is drawn between the analytical model and direct measurements of gust loading on motionless closed-box girder bridge decks. Empirical...
46 CFR 108.487 - Helicopter deck fueling operations.
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Helicopter deck fueling operations. 108.487 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Protection for Helicopter Facilities § 108.487 Helicopter deck fueling operations. (a) Each helicopter landing deck on which fueling operations are...
46 CFR 132.320 - Helicopter-landing decks.
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Helicopter-landing decks. 132.320 Section 132.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.320 Helicopter-landing decks. Each vessel with a helicopter-landing deck must...
46 CFR 12.15-13 - Deck engine mechanic.
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deck engine mechanic. 12.15-13 Section 12.15-13 Shipping... ENDORSEMENTS Qualified Member of the Engine Department § 12.15-13 Deck engine mechanic. (a) An applicant for an endorsement as deck engine mechanic shall be a person holding an MMC or MMD endorsed as junior engineer. The...
46 CFR 174.215 - Drainage of weather deck.
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drainage of weather deck. 174.215 Section 174.215 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES... weather deck. The weather deck must have open rails to allow rapid clearing of water, or must have freeing...
46 CFR 173.062 - Drainage of weather deck.
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drainage of weather deck. 173.062 Section 173.062 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.062 Drainage of weather deck. The weather deck of each sailing...
Cone calorimeter tests of wood-based decking materials
Robert H. White; Mark A. Dietenberger; Nicole M. Stark
2007-01-01
New technologies in building materials have resulted in the use of a wide variety of materials in decks. As part of our effort to address fire concerns in the wildland-urban interface, the Forest Products Laboratory has been examining the fire performance of decking products. In addition to preservative-treated wood, decking products include wood-plastic composites and...
Renovation techniques for fatigue cracked orthotropic steel bridge decks
de Jong, F.B.P.
2007-01-01
This dissertation presents the research into renovation techniques for orthotropic steel bridge decks. These techniques are needed to solve fatigue problems in the decks of these bridges, as several fatigue cracks have been detected in the deck structure of these bridges the last decade. A
Three-colour photometry of four suspected double-mode cepheids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pike, C.D.; Andrews, P.J.
1979-01-01
UBV photometry of the cepheids DY Car, EY Car, FZ Car and TZ Mus covering several periods show no evidence for the variable light curves to be expected if they were in fact double-mode cepheids. (author)
Commute Scheduling and Congestion in a Monocentric City
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fosgerau, Mogens; Kim, Jinwon; Ranjan, Abhishek
2017-01-01
to the CBD, residents choose their commute departure time jointly with residential location and housing consumption. Commuters arrive at the bottleneck in sequence sorted by residential location, so that more distant residents arrive later. The socially optimal toll makes central residents commute earlier...
Commuter partnerships : balancing home, family, and distant work
van der Klis, M.
2009-01-01
This study is about commuter partnerships. The commuter partnership is a particular non-standard household arrangement in which, for part of the time, one partner lives near his or her work and away from the communal family home, because the commuting distance is too great to travel on a daily
Commutating Permanent-Magnet Motors At Low Speed
Dolland, C.
1985-01-01
Circuit provides forced commutation during starting. Forced commutation circuit diverts current from inverter SCR's and turns SCR's off during commutation intervals. Silicon controlled rectifier in circuit unnecessary when switch S10 replaced by high-current, high-voltage transistor. At present, high-current, low-voltage device must suffice.
2D Toda chain and associated commutator identity
Pogrebkov, A. K.
2007-01-01
Developing observation made in \\cite{commut} we show that simple identity of the commutator type on an associative algebra is in one-to-one correspondence to 2D (infinite) Toda chain. We introduce representation of elements of associative algebra that, under some generic conditions, enables derivation of the Toda chain equation and its Lax pair from the given commutator identity.
Commutator identities on associative algebras and integrability of nonlinear pde's
Pogrebkov, A. K.
2007-01-01
It is shown that commutator identities on associative algebras generate solutions of linearized integrable equations. Next, a special kind of the dressing procedure is suggested that in a special class of integral operators enables to associate to such commutator identity both nonlinear equation and its Lax pair. Thus problem of construction of new integrable pde's reduces to construction of commutator identities on associative algebras.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1997-01-01
On January 27, 1994, a Canadian National (CN) tank car loaded with gasoline began to leak from a crack in the tank shell on the end of the car near the stub sill. The tank car had been damaged from impact switching. A part of the tank car was sent for laboratory analysis which concluded that: (1) the fracture originated in two locations in welds, (2) the cracks propagated in a symmetrical manner and progressed into the tank plate, (3) the fracture surface revealed inadequate weld fusion. A stress analysis of the tank car was conducted to determine the coupling force necessary to cause the crack. It was noted that over the last decade several problems have occurred pertaining to stub sill areas of tank cars that have resulted in hazardous material spills. An advisory was sent to Transport Canada outlining many examples where tank cars containing serious defects had passed CN inspections that were specifically designed to identify such defects. 4 figs
Happiness and Satisfaction with Work Commute
Olsson, L.E.; Gärling, T.; Ettema, D.F.; Friman, M.; Fujii, S.
2012-01-01
Research suggests that for many people happiness is being able to make the routines of everyday life work, such that positive feelings dominate over negative feelings resulting from daily hassles. In line with this, a survey of work commuters in the three largest urban areas of Sweden show that
Power Maps and Commutativity of Groups
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 7. Power Maps and Commutativity of Groups. Ashok Singh. Classroom Volume 9 Issue 7 July 2004 pp 70-73. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/07/0070-0073. Keywords. Abelian ...
Discrete choice models for commuting interactions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rouwendal, Jan; Mulalic, Ismir; Levkovich, Or
An emerging quantitative spatial economics literature models commuting interactions by a gravity equation that is mathematically equivalent to a multinomial logit model. This model is widely viewed as restrictive because of the independence of irrelevant alternatives (IIA) property that links sub...
A syntactic commutativity format for SOS
Mousavi, M.R.; Reniers, M.A.; Groote, J.F.
2005-01-01
Considering operators defined using Structural Operational Semantics (SOS), commutativity axioms are intuitive properties that hold for many of them. Proving this intuition is usually a laborious task, requiring several pages of boring and standard proof. To save this effort, we propose a syntactic
Star products from commutative string theory
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
in commutative open-string theory performed in [2], and an impressive ... formed to all orders in the derivative expansion, but keeping only terms of order(F 2) ... nonlogarithmic finite parts [2] and come from propagators for which there is no self-.
Quantum Gibbs Samplers: The Commuting Case
Kastoryano, Michael J.; Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.
2016-06-01
We analyze the problem of preparing quantum Gibbs states of lattice spin Hamiltonians with local and commuting terms on a quantum computer and in nature. Our central result is an equivalence between the behavior of correlations in the Gibbs state and the mixing time of the semigroup which drives the system to thermal equilibrium (the Gibbs sampler). We introduce a framework for analyzing the correlation and mixing properties of quantum Gibbs states and quantum Gibbs samplers, which is rooted in the theory of non-commutative {mathbb{L}_p} spaces. We consider two distinct classes of Gibbs samplers, one of them being the well-studied Davies generator modelling the dynamics of a system due to weak-coupling with a large Markovian environment. We show that their spectral gap is independent of system size if, and only if, a certain strong form of clustering of correlations holds in the Gibbs state. Therefore every Gibbs state of a commuting Hamiltonian that satisfies clustering of correlations in this strong sense can be prepared efficiently on a quantum computer. As concrete applications of our formalism, we show that for every one-dimensional lattice system, or for systems in lattices of any dimension at temperatures above a certain threshold, the Gibbs samplers of commuting Hamiltonians are always gapped, giving an efficient way of preparing the associated Gibbs states on a quantum computer.
Commutative monads as a theory of distributions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kock, Anders
2012-01-01
It is shown how the theory of commutative monads provides an axiomatic framework for several aspects of distribution theory in a broad sense, including probability distributions, physical extensive quantities, and Schwartz distributions of compact support. Among the particular aspects considered...... here are the notions of convolution, density, expectation, and conditional probability....
Non-commutative arithmetic circuits with division
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hrubeš, Pavel; Wigderson, A.
2015-01-01
Roč. 11, Article 14 (2015), s. 357-393 ISSN 1557-2862 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : arithmetic circuits * non-commutative rational function * skew field Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://theoryofcomputing.org/articles/v011a014/
Non-commutative geometry and supersymmetry 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hussain, F.; Thompson, G.
1991-05-01
Following the general construction of supersymmetric models, the model based on the idea of non-commutative geometry is formulated as a Yang-Mills theory of the graded Lie algebra U(2/1) over a graded space-time manifold. 4 refs
Hermiticity of quantum observables versus commutation relations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shirokov, M.I.
2002-01-01
In order to obtain sum rules and spectral representations the Hermiticity property = of observables is used. It is shown that for certain Ψ and Φ the property turn out to be inconsistent with the commutation relations that contain Α. The known Schwinger paradox is explained by this inconsistency
CAR2 - Czech Database of Car Speech
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Sovka
1999-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents new Czech language two-channel (stereo speech database recorded in car environment. The created database was designed for experiments with speech enhancement for communication purposes and for the study and the design of a robust speech recognition systems. Tools for automated phoneme labelling based on Baum-Welch re-estimation were realised. The noise analysis of the car background environment was done.
CAR2 - Czech Database of Car Speech
Pollak, P.; Vopicka, J.; Hanzl, V.; Sovka, Pavel
1999-01-01
This paper presents new Czech language two-channel (stereo) speech database recorded in car environment. The created database was designed for experiments with speech enhancement for communication purposes and for the study and the design of a robust speech recognition systems. Tools for automated phoneme labelling based on Baum-Welch re-estimation were realised. The noise analysis of the car background environment was done.
R. Bergman; H. Sup-Han; E. Oneil; I. Eastin
2013-01-01
The goal of the study was to conduct a life-cycle inventory (LCI) of California redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) decking that would quantify the critical environmental impacts of decking from cradle to grave. Using that LCI data, a life-cycle assessment (LCA) was produced for redwood decking. The results were used to compare the environmental footprint...
Deck Yourself with Flu Protection Song
Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts
2009-12-22
This song (sung to the tune of Deck the Halls) describes actions you can take to protect yourself and others from the flu. Sing along! Created: 12/22/2009 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID), Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ). Date Released: 12/22/2009.
Analysis of Biaxially Stressed Bridge Deck Plates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jönsson, Jeppe; Bondum, Tommi Højer
2012-01-01
The ultimate state analysis of bridge deck plates at the intersection zone between main girders and transverse beams is complicated by biaxial membrane stresses, which may be in compression or tension in either direction depending on the bridge configuration and the specific location. This paper...
Respiratory effects of commuters' exposure to air pollution in traffic.
Zuurbier, Moniek; Hoek, Gerard; Oldenwening, Marieke; Meliefste, Kees; van den Hazel, Peter; Brunekreef, Bert
2011-03-01
Much time is spent in traffic, especially during rush hours, when air pollution concentrations on roads are relatively high. Controlled exposure studies have shown acute respiratory effects of short, high exposures to air pollution from motor vehicles. Acute health effects of lower real-life exposures in traffic are unclear. Exposures of 34 healthy, nonsmoking adult volunteers were repeatedly measured while commuting for 2 hours by bus, car, or bicycle. Particle number (PN), particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), and soot exposures were measured. Lung function and airway resistance were measured directly before, directly following, and 6 hours after exposure. Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) was measured directly before and 6 hours after exposure. Inhaled doses were estimated based on monitored heart rates. Mixed models were used to analyze effects of exposure on changes in health parameters after exposure compared with before. PN, PM10, and soot were associated with decreased peak expiratory flow directly following but not 6 hours after exposure. PN doses were associated with decreases in maximum midexpiratory flow and forced expiratory flow (FEV1) 6 hours after exposure, whereas PN and soot exposures were associated with increased maximum midexpiratory flow and FEV1 directly after exposure. PN and soot were associated with increased exhaled NO after car and bus but not bicycle trips. PN was also associated with an increase in airway resistance directly following exposure but not 6 hours later. We found modest effects of 2-hour in-traffic exposure to air pollutants on peak flow, exhaled NO, and airway resistance.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frenkel, Amnon; Bendit, Edward; Kaplan, Sigal
2014-01-01
from a survey among knowledge workers in Tel-Aviv. Results show that car-related job perks are associated with (1) high annual kilometrage, (2) increased commute by car, (3) long commute travel times, (4) high trip chaining frequency, and (5) many long-distance leisure trips. Results suggest......This study analyzes the linkage between the travel behavior of knowledge workers and car-related job perks. The importance of this issue derives from the tendency of knowledge economy to concentrate in highly populated metropolitan regions. The analyzed data comprise 750 observations, retrieved...... that the development of sustainable knowledge-based cities should consider decoupling knowledge workers from car-related job perks. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC....
Noise from Aft Deck Exhaust Nozzles: Differences in Experimental Embodiments
Bridges, James E.
2014-01-01
Two embodiments of a rectangular nozzle on an aft deck are compared. In one embodiment the lower lip of the nozzle was extended with the sidewalls becoming triangles. In a second embodiment a rectangular nozzle was fitted with a surface that fit flush to the lower lip and extended outward from the sides of the nozzle, approximating a semi-infinite plane. For the purpose of scale-model testing, making the aft deck an integral part of the nozzle is possible for relatively short deck lengths, but a separate plate model is more flexible, accounts for the expanse of deck to the sides of the nozzle, and allows the nozzle to stand off from the deck. Both embodiments were tested and acoustic far-field results were compared. In both embodiments the extended deck introduces a new noise source, but the amplitude of the new source was dependent upon the span (cross-stream dimension) of the aft deck. The noise increased with deck length (streamwise dimension), and in the case of the beveled nozzle it increased with increasing aspect ratio. In previous studies of slot jets in wings it was noted that the increased noise from the extended aft deck appears as a dipole at the aft deck trailing edge, an acoustic source type with different dependence on velocity than jet mixing noise. The extraneous noise produced by the aft deck in the present studies also shows this behavior both in directivity and in velocity scaling.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zoethout, T.; Belin, H.; Verwijs, H.; Nicola, S.; De Saint Jacob, Y.; Gatermann, R.
2009-09-15
In six articles, two columns and two interviews a part of this issue is dedicated to electric car developments: about winners and losers in the electric car race; a unique business model to rolling out the electric car by the electric battery company Better Place and the automobile industry Renault Nissan; interview with entrepreneur Shai Agassi of the Indian company Better Place; the development of electric cars in Germany; interview with Jean-Jacques Chanaron, an economist specialising in innovation management and a firm believer in electric cars; start of mass production of electric vehicles at the Japanese Nissan automobile industry; the constraints in Sweden in developing fuel-efficient automobiles; plans for 1 million electric or hybrid cars by 2025 in the Netherlands.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thøgersen, John; Møller, Berit Thorup
2008-01-01
Based on calls for innovative ways of reducing car traffic and research indicating that car driving is often the result of habitual decision-making and choice processes, this paper reports on a field experiment designed to test a tool aimed to entice drivers to skip the habitual choice of the car...... and consider using-or at least trying-public transport instead. About 1,000 car drivers participated in the experiment either as experimental subjects, receiving a free one-month travelcard, or as control subjects. As predicted, the intervention had a significant impact on drivers' use of public transport...... and it also neutralized the impact of car driving habits on mode choice. However, in the longer run (i.e., four months after the experiment) experimental subjects did not use public transport more than control subjects. Hence, it seems that although many car drivers choose travel mode habitually, their final...
GS Department
2010-01-01
The 2011 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue car stickers will receive their 2011 car stickers by internal mail as of 15 December. Holders of red car stickers are kindly requested to come to the Registration Service (Building 55,1st floor) to renew their 2011 stickers. This service is open from Monday to Friday from 7.30 am to 5.30 pm non-stop. Documents for the vehicles concerned must be presented. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/ISG/SIS General Infrastructure Services Department
GS Department
2011-01-01
The 2012 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue car stickers will receive by internal mail their 2012 car stickers as of 5 December. Holders of red car stickers are kindly requested to come to the Registration Service (Building 55,1st floor) to renew their 2011 stickers. This service is open from Monday to Friday from 7.30 am to 5.30 pm non-stop. Documents related to the vehicles concerned are mandatory. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/IS/SIS General Infrastructure Services Department
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan, L.Y.; Liu, Y.M.
2001-01-01
Vehicle exhaust is a major source of air pollution in metropolitan cities. Commuters are exposed to high traffic-related pollutant concentrations. Public transportation is the most popular commuting mode in Hong Kong and there are about 10.8 million passenger trips every day. Two-thirds of them are road commuters. An extensive survey was conducted to measure carbon monoxide in three popular passenger commuting modes, bus, minibus, and taxi, which served, respectively, 3.91 million, 1.76 million and 1.31 million passenger trips per day in 1998. Three types of commuting microenvironments were selected: urban-urban, urban-suburban and urban-rural. Results indicated that in-vehicle CO level increased in the following order: bus, minibus and taxi. The overall average in-vehicle CO level in air-conditioned bus, minibus and taxi were 1.8, 2.9 and 3.3ppm, respectively. The average concentration level between air-conditioned buses (1.8ppm) and non-air-conditioned buses (1.9ppm) was insignificant. The fluctuation of in-vehicle CO level of non-air-conditioned vehicle followed the variation of out-vehicle CO concentration. Our result also showed that even in air-conditioned vehicles, the in-vehicle CO concentration was affected by the out-vehicle CO concentration although there exists a smoothing out effect. The in-vehicle CO level was the highest in urban-suburban commuting routes and was followed by urban-urban routes. The in-vehicle CO level in urban-rural routes was the lowest. The highest CO level was recorded after the vehicle traversed through tunnel.. The average CO exposure level of public road transportation commuters in Honk Kong was lower than most other cities. Factors governing the CO levels were also discussed. (Author)
Analysis of Journey to Work Travel Behavior by Car and Bus in the Sydney Metropolitan Region
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suthanaya P.A.
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Car dependence is a fundamental problem in the sustainability of cities with low-density suburban sprawl. Increasing the use of public transport is one of the policy objectives commonly adopted to overcome this problem. It is essential to study journey to work travel behavior by car and bus. This paper applied preference function to analyze travel behavior and Moran’s I spatial statistic to evaluate the spatial association. The results indicated that the commuting preferences of residents have moved towards distance maximization. In general, bus was preferred for shorter distance trips whilst car was preferred for longer distance trips. Unlike car, by increasing distances from the Central Business District, residents tended to use bus for shorter distance trip. A significant positive spatial association was identified for both the slope preferences by car and bus where zones with a preference towards longer or shorter trips tended to travel to zones with similar preferences.
Quantifying commuter exposures to volatile organic compounds
Kayne, Ashleigh
Motor-vehicles can be a predominant source of air pollution in cities. Traffic-related air pollution is often unavoidable for people who live in populous areas. Commuters may have high exposures to traffic-related air pollution as they are close to vehicle tailpipes. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are one class of air pollutants of concern because exposure to VOCs carries risk for adverse health effects. Specific VOCs of interest for this work include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX), which are often found in gasoline and combustion products. Although methods exist to measure time-integrated personal exposures to BTEX, there are few practical methods to measure a commuter's time-resolved BTEX exposure which could identify peak exposures that could be concealed with a time-integrated measurement. This study evaluated the ability of a photoionization detector (PID) to measure commuters' exposure to BTEX using Tenax TA samples as a reference and quantified the difference in BTEX exposure between cyclists and drivers with windows open and closed. To determine the suitability of two measurement methods (PID and Tenax TA) for use in this study, the precision, linearity, and limits of detection (LODs) for both the PID and Tenax TA measurement methods were determined in the laboratory with standard BTEX calibration gases. Volunteers commuted from their homes to their work places by cycling or driving while wearing a personal exposure backpack containing a collocated PID and Tenax TA sampler. Volunteers completed a survey and indicated if the windows in their vehicle were open or closed. Comparing pairs of exposure data from the Tenax TA and PID sampling methods determined the suitability of the PID to measure the BTEX exposures of commuters. The difference between BTEX exposures of cyclists and drivers with windows open and closed in Fort Collins was determined. Both the PID and Tenax TA measurement methods were precise and linear when evaluated in the
Moehrle, Matthias; Soballa, Martin; Korn, Manfred
2003-08-01
There is increasing knowledge about the hazards of solar and ultraviolet (UV) radiation to humans. Although people spend a significant time in cars, data on UV exposure during traveling are lacking. The aim of this study was to obtain basic information on personal UV exposure in cars. UV transmission of car glass samples, windscreen, side and back windows and sunroof, was determined. UV exposure of passengers was evaluated in seven German middle-class cars, fitted with three different types of car windows. UV doses were measured with open or closed windows/sunroof of Mercedes-Benz E 220 T, E 320, and S 500, and in an open convertible car (Mercedes-Benz CLK). Bacillus subtilis spore film dosimeters (Viospor) were attached to the front, vertex, cheeks, upper arms, forearms and thighs of 'adult' and 'child' dummies. UV wavelengths longer than >335 nm were transmitted through car windows, and UV irradiation >380 nm was transmitted through compound glass windscreens. There was some variation in the spectral transmission of side windows according to the type of glass. On the arms, UV exposure was 3-4% of ambient radiation when the car windows were shut, and 25-31% of ambient radiation when the windows were open. In the open convertible car, the relative personal doses reached 62% of ambient radiation. The car glass types examined offer substantial protection against short-wave UV radiation. Professional drivers should keep car windows closed on sunny days to reduce occupational UV exposure. In individuals with polymorphic light eruption, produced by long-wave UVA, additional protection by plastic films, clothes or sunscreens appears necessary.
Strong commutativity preserving generalized derivations on ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Let R be a non-commutative prime ring of characteristic different from 2, with right Utumi quotient ring U and extended centroid C and let F and G be generalized derivations of R such that F(x)G(y)-F(y)G(x) = [x; y], for all x; y ∈ S, where S is a subset of R. Here we will discuss the following cases: (a) S = [R;R];. b) S = L, where ...
Classical mechanics in non-commutative phase space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei Gaofeng; Long Chaoyun; Long Zhengwen; Qin Shuijie
2008-01-01
In this paper the laws of motion of classical particles have been investigated in a non-commutative phase space. The corresponding non-commutative relations contain not only spatial non-commutativity but also momentum non-commutativity. First, new Poisson brackets have been defined in non-commutative phase space. They contain corrections due to the non-commutativity of coordinates and momenta. On the basis of this new Poisson brackets, a new modified second law of Newton has been obtained. For two cases, the free particle and the harmonic oscillator, the equations of motion are derived on basis of the modified second law of Newton and the linear transformation (Phys. Rev. D, 2005, 72: 025010). The consistency between both methods is demonstrated. It is shown that a free particle in commutative space is not a free particle with zero-acceleration in the non-commutative phase space, but it remains a free particle with zero-acceleration in non-commutative space if only the coordinates are non-commutative. (authors)
FET commutated current-FED inverter
Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor); Edwards, Dean B. (Inventor)
1983-01-01
A shunt switch comprised of a field-effect transistor (Q.sub.1) is employed to commutate a current-fed inverter (10) using thyristors (SCR1, SCR2) or bijunction transistors (Q.sub.2, Q.sub.3) in a full bridge (1, 2, 3, 4) or half bridge (5, 6) and transformer (T.sub.1) configuration. In the case of thyristors, a tapped inverter (12) is employed to couple the inverter to a dc source to back bias the thyristors during commutation. Alternatively, a commutation power supply (20) may be employed for that purpse. Diodes (D.sub.1, D.sub.2) in series with some voltage dropping element (resistor R.sub.12 or resistors R.sub.1, R.sub.2 or Zener diodes D.sub.4, D.sub.5) are connected in parallel with the thyristors in the half bridge and transformer configuration to assure sharing the back bias voltage. A clamp circuit comprised of a winding (18) negatively coupled to the inductor and a diode (D.sub.3) return stored energy from the inductor to the power supply for efficient operation with buck or boost mode.
Organic Functional Group Playing Card Deck
Welsh, Michael J.
2003-04-01
The recognition and identification of organic functional groups, while essential for chemistry and biology majors, is also very useful for non-science majors in the study of molecules in art and life. In order to make this task more palatable for the non-science major (art and communications students), the images of a traditional playing deck of cards (heart, spade, diamond, and club) have been replaced with four representations of common organic functional groups. The hierarchy rules for naming two groups in a molecule is loosely incorporated to represent the sequence (King, Queen, Jack, ?, Ace) of the deck. Students practice recognizing and identifying organic groups by playing simple card games of "Old Maid" and "Go Fish". To play games like "Poker" or "Gin", a student must not only recognize the functional groups, but also master a naming hierarchy for the organic groups.
Roman, Harry T.
2011-01-01
Over 100 years ago, the great inventor Thomas Edison warned that gasoline cars would pollute the environment and lead to gasoline shortages. He preferred the use of clean electric vehicles. He also put his money where his mouth was and developed an entirely new alkaline storage battery system for his beloved cars, the nickel-iron storage battery.…
Collaborative Car Pooling System
João Ferreira; Paulo Trigo; Porfírio Filipe
2009-01-01
This paper describes the architecture for a collaborative Car Pooling System based on a credits mechanism to motivate the cooperation among users. Users can spend the accumulated credits on parking facilities. For this, we propose a business model to support the collaboration between a car pooling system and parking facilities. The Portuguese Lisbon-s Metropolitan area is used as application scenario.
Improvement of fatigue properties of orthotropic decks
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Frýba, Ladislav; Urushadze, Shota
2011-01-01
Roč. 33, č. 4 (2011), s. 1166-1169 ISSN 0141-0296 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/08/1340; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E08098 Grant - others:BRIFAG -Bridge Fatigue Guidance(XE) RFSR_CT-2008-00033 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : orthotropic deck * fatigue * prolonged life Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 1.351, year: 2011
City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk
Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-
2008-01-01
Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)
Optimization of wood plastic composite decks
Ravivarman, S.; Venkatesh, G. S.; Karmarkar, A.; Shivkumar N., D.; Abhilash R., M.
2018-04-01
Wood Plastic Composite (WPC) is a new class of natural fibre based composite material that contains plastic matrix reinforced with wood fibres or wood flour. In the present work, Wood Plastic Composite was prepared with 70-wt% of wood flour reinforced in polypropylene matrix. Mechanical characterization of the composite was done by carrying out laboratory tests such as tensile test and flexural test as per the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. Computer Aided Design (CAD) model of the laboratory test specimen (tensile test) was created and explicit finite element analysis was carried out on the finite element model in non-linear Explicit FE code LS - DYNA. The piecewise linear plasticity (MAT 24) material model was identified as a suitable model in LS-DYNA material library, describing the material behavior of the developed composite. The composite structures for decking application in construction industry were then optimized for cross sectional area and distance between two successive supports (span length) by carrying out various numerical experiments in LS-DYNA. The optimized WPC deck (Elliptical channel-2 E10) has 45% reduced weight than the baseline model (solid cross-section) considered in this study with the load carrying capacity meeting acceptance criterion (allowable deflection & stress) for outdoor decking application.
Effects of a school-based intervention on active commuting to school and health-related fitness
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emilio Villa-González
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Active commuting to school has declined over time, and interventions are needed to reverse this trend. The main objective was to investigate the effects of a school-based intervention on active commuting to school and health-related fitness in school-age children of Southern Spain. Methods A total of 494 children aged 8 to 11 years were invited to participate in the study. The schools were non-randomly allocated (i.e., school level allocation into the experimental group (EG or the control group (CG. The EG received an intervention program for 6 months (a monthly activity focused on increasing the level of active commuting to school and mainly targeting children’s perceptions and attitudes. Active commuting to school and health-related fitness (i.e., cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular fitness and speed-agility, were measured at baseline and at the end of the intervention. Children with valid data on commuting to school at baseline and follow-up, sex, age and distance from home to school were included in the final analysis (n = 251. Data was analyzed through a factorial ANOVA and the Bonferroni post-hoc test. Results At follow up, the EG had higher rates of cycling to school than CG for boys only (p = 0.04, but not for walking to school for boys or girls. The EG avoided increases in the rates of passive commuting at follow up, which increased in the CG among girls for car (MD = 1.77; SE = 0.714; p = 0.010 and bus (MD = 1.77; SE = 0.714; p = 0.010 modes. Moreover, we observed significant interactions and main effects between independent variables (study group, sex and assessment time point on health-related fitness (p < 0.05 over the 6-month period between groups, with higher values in the control group (mainly in boys. Conclusion A school-based intervention focused on increasing active commuting to school was associated with increases in rates of cycling to school among boys, but not for
Car Covers | Outdoor Covers Canada
Covers, Outdoor
2018-01-01
Protect your car from the elements with Ultimate Touch Car Cover. The multi-layer non-woven fabric is soft on the finish and offers 4 seasons all weather protection.https://outdoorcovers.ca/car-covers/
46 CFR 28.565 - Water on deck.
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water on deck. 28.565 Section 28.565 Shipping COAST... VESSELS Stability § 28.565 Water on deck. (a) Each vessel with bulwarks must comply with the requirements... energy, “b” in Figure 28.565, must not be less than the water on deck heeling energy, “a” in Figure 28...
Differential Galois obstructions for non-commutative integrability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maciejewski, Andrzej J. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Zielona Gora, Podgorna 50, PL-65-246 Zielona Gora (Poland)], E-mail: maciejka@astro.ia.uz.zgora.pl; Przybylska, Maria [Torun Centre for Astronomy, N. Copernicus University, Gagarina 11, PL-87-100 Torun (Poland)], E-mail: mprzyb@astri.uni.torun.pl
2008-08-11
We show that if a holomorphic Hamiltonian system is holomorphically integrable in the non-commutative sense in a neighbourhood of a non-equilibrium phase curve which is located at a regular level of the first integrals, then the identity component of the differential Galois group of the variational equations along the phase curve is Abelian. Thus necessary conditions for the commutative and non-commutative integrability given by the differential Galois approach are the same.
Fuzzy commutative algebra and its application in mechanical engineering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han, J.; Song, H.
1996-01-01
Based on literature data, this paper discusses the whole mathematical structure about point-fuzzy number set F(R). By introducing some new operations about addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and scalar multiplication, we prove that F(R) can form fuzzy linear space, fuzzy commutative ring, fuzzy commutative algebra in order. Furthermore, we get that A is fuzzy commutative algebra for any fuzzy subset. At last, we give an application of point-fuzzy number to mechanical engineering
In-car particles and cardiovascular health: an air conditioning-based intervention study.
Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Lin, Lian-Yu; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Ma, Chih-Ming; Chuang, Kai-Jen
2013-05-01
Exposure to traffic-related particulate matter (PM) is considered a potential risk for cardiovascular events. Little is known about whether improving air quality in car can modify cardiovascular effects among human subjects during commuting. We recruited a panel of 60 healthy subjects to commute for 2 h by a car equipped with an air conditioning (AC) system during the morning rush hour in Taipei. Operation modes of AC system using outside air (OA-mode), circulating inside air (IA-mode) and turning off (Off-mode) were examined. Repeated measurements of heart rate variability (HRV) indices, PM≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and noise level were conducted for each participant in different modes during the commute. We used linear mixed-effects models to associate HRV indices with in-car PM2.5. We found that decreases in HRV indices were associated with increased levels of in-car PM2.5. For Off-mode, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in in-car PM2.5 with 15-min moving average was associated with 2.7% and 4.1% decreases in standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN) and the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals (r-MSSD), respectively. During OA and IA modes, participants showed slight decreases in SDNN (OA mode: 0.1%; IA mode: 1.3%) and r-MSSD (OA mode: 1.1%; IA mode: 1.8%) by an IQR increase in in-car PM2.5 with 15-min moving average. We concluded that in-car PM2.5 is associated with autonomic alteration. Utilization of the car's AC system can improve air quality and modify the effects of in-car PM2.5 on HRV indices among human subjects during the commute. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Structural improvement of strengthened deck panels with externally bonded plates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sim, Jongsung; Oh, Hongseob
2005-01-01
Concrete bridge decks require eventual replacement and rehabilitation due to decreasing load-carrying capacity. This paper compares different strengthening design procedures that improve the usability and structural performance of bridge decks. The failure characteristics of bridge decks strengthened with various materials such as carbon fiber sheet, glass fiber sheet, steel plate, and grid CFRP and GFRP are analyzed, and the theoretical load-carrying capacities are evaluated using traditional beam and yield line theory, and punching shear analysis. The strengthening materials increase the punching shear strength of the deck and change the failure mode of the strengthened panel
Geometry, commutation relations and the quantum fictitious force
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Botero, J.; Cirone, M.A.; Dahl, Jens Peder
2003-01-01
We express the commutation relation between the operators of the momentum and the radial unit vectors in D dimensions in differential and integral form. We connect this commutator with the quantum fictitious potential emerging in the radial Schrodinger equation of an s-wave.......We express the commutation relation between the operators of the momentum and the radial unit vectors in D dimensions in differential and integral form. We connect this commutator with the quantum fictitious potential emerging in the radial Schrodinger equation of an s-wave....
Can non-commutativity resolve the big-bang singularity?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maceda, M.; Madore, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Universite de Paris-Sud, Batiment 211, 91405, Orsay (France); Manousselis, P. [Department of Engineering Sciences, University of Patras, 26110, Patras (Greece); Physics Department, National Technical University, Zografou Campus, 157 80, Zografou, Athens (Greece); Zoupanos, G. [Physics Department, National Technical University, Zografou Campus, 157 80, Zografou, Athens (Greece); Theory Division, CERN, 1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland)
2004-08-01
A possible way to resolve the singularities of general relativity is proposed based on the assumption that the description of space-time using commuting coordinates is not valid above a certain fundamental scale. Beyond that scale it is assumed that the space-time has non-commutative structure leading in turn to a resolution of the singularity. As a first attempt towards realizing the above programme a modification of the Kasner metric is constructed which is commutative only at large time scales. At small time scales, near the singularity, the commutation relations among the space coordinates diverge. We interpret this result as meaning that the singularity has been completely delocalized. (orig.)
Correlations in the hadronic double diffractive dissociation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldegol, Alexandre.
1991-05-01
A given reaction of double diffractive dissociation is studied based on the three-component Deck Model. The correlations among the diffractive slope, the effective mass of the dissociated particle sub-system and the dissociation angle in the Gottfried-Jackson are studied based in this model. 9 refs, 19 figs
Distortionary company car taxation: deadweight losses through increased car ownership
van Ommeren, J.N.; Gutierrez Puigarnau, E.
2013-01-01
We analyse the effects of distortionary company car taxation through increased household car consumption for the Netherlands. We use several identification strategies and demonstrate that for about 20 % of households company car possession increases car ownership. The annual welfare loss of
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Toby Lanzer
2007-07-01
Full Text Available The international community is waking up to the strategic importance of the Central African Republic (CAR in the crisis over Darfur. Will current interest endure long enough to help the people of CARCAR beyond the immediate future?
Diehl, Brian E.
1997-01-01
Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)
Rectifier transformer saturation on commutation failure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu, E.; Bronner, G.
1989-01-01
The rectifier transformer's service differs from the power transformer's service because of the rectifier load. Under certain fault conditions, such as a commutation failure, d.c. magnetization may be introduced into the rectifier transformer cores, resulting in possible saturation of the magnetic circuit, thus in degradation of the performance of the transformer. It is the purpose of this paper to present an approach for evaluating the electromagnetic transient process under such a fault condition. The studies were made on the operating 1000MVA converter system at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory
Non-commutative tools for topological insulators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prodan, Emil
2010-01-01
This paper reviews several analytic tools for the field of topological insulators, developed with the aid of non-commutative calculus and geometry. The set of tools includes bulk topological invariants defined directly in the thermodynamic limit and in the presence of disorder, whose robustness is shown to have nontrivial physical consequences for the bulk states. The set of tools also includes a general relation between the current of an observable and its edge index, a relation that can be used to investigate the robustness of the edge states against disorder. The paper focuses on the motivations behind creating such tools and on how to use them.
Electronically commutated DC motor. Elektronisch kommutierter Gleichstrommotor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gruenleitner, H; Schalk, K; Koegler, G
1981-08-13
The purpose of the invention is to create a controlled and electronically commutated DC motor, so that the braking current regulator does not act with the frequency motor current regulator, where an additional switch is not required to decouple the braking current transistor while running, and where the reference value of braking current need not be greater than the reference value of motor current. According to the invention, this problem is solved by a connection, by which, while running, the braking current regulator is interlocked out by means of the output signal of the motor current regulator. A cheap diode and the associated wiring are all that is required for the interlock.
Geometry of time-spaces non-commutative algebraic geometry, applied to quantum theory
Landau, Olav Arnfinn
2011-01-01
This is a monograph about non-commutative algebraic geometry, and its application to physics. The main mathematical inputs are the non-commutative deformation theory, moduli theory of representations of associative algebras, a new non-commutative theory o
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Graus, Wina; Worrell, Ernst
2008-01-01
Barriers exist for improvement of energy efficiency, of which the principal-agent problem is considered an important one. The principal-agent problem is a potential barrier for energy policies based on economic instruments, as the decision maker may be partially insulated from the price signal given by such policies. We estimate the size and the impact of the principal-agent problem for cars provided by companies as a benefit to employees in the Netherlands. Of all passenger cars in the Netherlands, 11% is classified as company cars, which consume 21% of the total energy consumption by passenger cars. As company cars are newer, operate more diesel engines, but are also larger, the fuel efficiency is slightly worse than that of private cars. Company cars seem to drive longer distances for commuting than the national average of private cars. Together, this might result in a net 1-7% increase of all fuel use of passenger cars in the Netherlands. This indicates that there is potential to reduce energy consumption of company cars and a need for policies aimed at improving energy efficiency of company cars
NREL Model Car Competitions | NREL
work together building cars with guidance from a parent, teacher, or coach to compete in race and Solar and Lithium Ion model car races in Colorado. Building solar- and battery-powered cars requires listPDF for Junior Solar Sprint and Lithium-Ion Battery model cars. Junior Solar Sprint Solar Made Pitsco
Double universe and the arrow of time
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alfinito, Eleonora [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione, Universitta di Lecce, 73100 Lecce and CNISM-Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia. Universita di Lecce (Italy); Vitiello, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Salerno, and INFN Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, 84100 Salerno (Italy)
2007-05-15
The canonical quantum field theory formalism for the expanding geometry universe leads to the 'Double Universe' scenario envisaged by quantum loop gravity. Thermal properties of inflating universe and the classicality of the time-evolution trajectories in the space of the representations of the canonical commutation relations are also discussed.
Reducing employee travelling time through smart commuting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rahman, A N N A; Yusoff, Z M; Aziz, I S; Omar, D
2014-01-01
Extremely congested roads will definitely delay the arrival time of each trip.This certainly impacted the journey of employees. Tardiness at the workplace has become a perturbing issue for companies where traffic jams are the most common worker excuses. A depressing consequence on daily life and productivity of the employee occurs. The issues of commuting distance between workplace and resident area become the core point of this research. This research will emphasize the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) technique to explore the distance parameter to the employment area and will focus on the accessibility pattern of low-cost housing. The research methodology consists of interview sessions and a questionnaire to residents of low-cost housing areas in Melaka Tengah District in Malaysia. The combination of these processes will show the criteria from the selected parameter for each respondent from their resident area to the employment area. This will further help in the recommendation of several options for a better commute or improvement to the existing routes and public transportations system. Thus enhancing quality of life for employees and helping to reduce stress, decrease lateness, absenteeism and improving productivity in workplace
BEHAVIORAL INTENTION PENUMPANG KRL COMMUTER LINE JABODETABEK
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ronald Sukwadi
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Behavioral intention dipandang sebagai penentu utama kinerja penyedia transportasi umum. Penelitian ini menekankan pada hubungan antara behavioral intention dan variabel-variabel yang mempengaruhinya seperti kualitas layanan, nilai yang dirasakan, keterlibatan, dan kepuasan penumpang. Dengan melakukan survei penumpang Kereta Rel Listrik (KRL Commuter Line Jabodetabek, teknik model persamaan struktural menggunakan software AMOS 22.0 digunakan untuk menganalisis hubungan antar variabel dalam model konseptual. Hasil penelitian mengungkapkan bahwa kualitas layanan memiliki dampak positif terhadap nilai yang dirasakan. Nilai yang dirasakan dan kepuasan penumpang mempunyai dampak positif terhadap keterlibatan. Kualitas layanan dan keterlibatan memiliki dampak positif terhadap behavioral intention. Abstract The behavioral intention of public transportation passengers is seen as a crucial determinant of public transportation provider performance. This research highlights the relationships between passenger behavioral intention and the various variables that affect it such as service quality, perceived value, involvement, and satisfaction of public transportation services. By using passenger survey data from the Kereta Rel Listrik (KRL Commuter Line Jabodetabek, the structural equation modeling technique AMOS 22.0 is applied to analyze the conceptualized relationship model. The findings reveal that service quality has positive effect to perceived value. Perceived value and customer satisfaction have positive effect to involvement. Service quality and involvement have positive effect to behavioral intention.
Reducing employee travelling time through smart commuting
Rahman, A. N. N. A.; Yusoff, Z. M.; Aziz, I. S.; Omar, D.
2014-02-01
Extremely congested roads will definitely delay the arrival time of each trip.This certainly impacted the journey of employees. Tardiness at the workplace has become a perturbing issue for companies where traffic jams are the most common worker excuses. A depressing consequence on daily life and productivity of the employee occurs. The issues of commuting distance between workplace and resident area become the core point of this research. This research will emphasize the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) technique to explore the distance parameter to the employment area and will focus on the accessibility pattern of low-cost housing. The research methodology consists of interview sessions and a questionnaire to residents of low-cost housing areas in Melaka Tengah District in Malaysia. The combination of these processes will show the criteria from the selected parameter for each respondent from their resident area to the employment area. This will further help in the recommendation of several options for a better commute or improvement to the existing routes and public transportations system. Thus enhancing quality of life for employees and helping to reduce stress, decrease lateness, absenteeism and improving productivity in workplace.
Fatigue Assessment of Full-Scale Retrofitted Orthotropic Bridge Decks
Teixeira De Freitas, S.; Kolstein, M.H.; Bijlaard, F.S.K.
2017-01-01
Full-scale fatigue tests were performed on two retrofitted orthotropic bridge decks (OBDs). The retrofitting systems consist of adding a second steel plate on the top of the existing deck. The aim is to reduce the stresses at the fatigue-sensitive details and therefore extend the fatigue life of
Rapid replacement of bridge deck expansion joints study - phase I.
2014-12-01
Bridge deck expansion joints are used to allow for movement of the bridge deck due to thermal expansion, dynamics loading, and : other factors. More recently, expansion joints have also been utilized to prevent the passage of winter de-icing chemical...
46 CFR 45.143 - Hull openings above freeboard deck.
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull openings above freeboard deck. 45.143 Section 45.143 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.143 Hull openings above freeboard deck. Closures for openings above...
On tea, donuts and non-commutative geometry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Igor V. Nikolaev
2018-03-01
Full Text Available As many will agree, it feels good to complement a cup of tea by a donut or two. This sweet relationship is also a guiding principle of non-commutative geometry known as Serre Theorem. We explain the algebra behind this theorem and prove that elliptic curves are complementary to the so-called non-commutative tori.
Commutators of Integral Operators with Variable Kernels on Hardy ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 115; Issue 4. Commutators of Integral Operators with Variable Kernels on Hardy Spaces. Pu Zhang Kai Zhao. Volume 115 Issue 4 November 2005 pp 399-410 ... Keywords. Singular and fractional integrals; variable kernel; commutator; Hardy space.
75 FR 13680 - Commutation of Sentence: Technical Change
2010-03-23
... Sentence: Technical Change AGENCY: Bureau of Prisons, Justice. ACTION: Interim rule. SUMMARY: This document makes a minor technical change to the Bureau of Prisons (Bureau) regulations on sentence commutation to.... Commutation of Sentence: Technical Change This document makes a minor technical change to the Bureau...
26 CFR 1.46-11 - Commuter highway vehicles.
2010-04-01
... Rules for Computing Credit for Investment in Certain Depreciable Property § 1.46-11 Commuter highway... investment under section 46(c)(1) for a qualifying commuter highway vehicle is 100 percent. A qualifying... meets the following requirements: (1) The vehicle is section 38 property in the hands of the taxpayer...
Newton's second law in a non-commutative space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romero, Juan M.; Santiago, J.A.; Vergara, J. David
2003-01-01
In this Letter we show that corrections to Newton's second law appear if we assume a symplectic structure consistent with the commutation rules of the non-commutative quantum mechanics. For central field we find that the correction term breaks the rotational symmetry. For the Kepler problem, this term is similar to a Coriolis force
Commutators with idempotent values on multilinear polynomials in ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Introduction and statements of the result. In mid-forties, after the development of the general structure theory for rings, a great deal of work was done that showed that under certain types of hypothesis, rings had to be commutative or almost commutative. A classical result of ring theory established by Jacobson generalizes at ...
Soft commutated direct current motor [summary of proposed paper
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hsu, John S.
1998-10-22
A novel soft commutated direct current (DC) motor is introduced. The current of the commutated coil is intentionally drained before the brush disconnects the coil. This prevents the spark generation that normally occurs in conventional DC motors. A similar principle can be applied for DC generators.
The university workers' willingness to pay for commuting
Russo, G.; van Ommeren, J.N.; Rietveld, P.
2012-01-01
Using a dynamic approach, employing data on job mobility, we demonstrate that university workers' marginal willingness to pay for reducing commuting distance is about €0. 25 per kilometre travelled. This corresponds to a marginal willingness to pay for reducing commuting time of about 75 % of the
Modelling the relation between income and commuting distance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carra, Giulia; Mulalic, Ismir; Fosgerau, Mogens
2016-01-01
We discuss the distribution of commuting distances and its relation to income. Using data from Denmark, the UK and the USA, we show that the commuting distance is (i) broadly distributed with a slow decaying tail that can be fitted by a power law with exponent γ ≈ 3 and (ii) an average growing...
Linearization of non-commuting operators in the partition function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmed, M.
1983-06-01
A generalization of the Stratonovich-Hubbard scheme for evaluating the grand canonical partition function is given. The scheme involves linearization of products of non-commuting operators using the functional integral method. The non-commutivity of the operators leads to an additional term which can be absorbed in the single-particle Hamiltonian. (author)
Homogeneous Buchberger algorithms and Sullivant's computational commutative algebra challenge
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lauritzen, Niels
2005-01-01
We give a variant of the homogeneous Buchberger algorithm for positively graded lattice ideals. Using this algorithm we solve the Sullivant computational commutative algebra challenge.......We give a variant of the homogeneous Buchberger algorithm for positively graded lattice ideals. Using this algorithm we solve the Sullivant computational commutative algebra challenge....
Perfect commuting-operator strategies for linear system games
Cleve, Richard; Liu, Li; Slofstra, William
2017-01-01
Linear system games are a generalization of Mermin's magic square game introduced by Cleve and Mittal. They show that perfect strategies for linear system games in the tensor-product model of entanglement correspond to finite-dimensional operator solutions of a certain set of non-commutative equations. We investigate linear system games in the commuting-operator model of entanglement, where Alice and Bob's measurement operators act on a joint Hilbert space, and Alice's operators must commute with Bob's operators. We show that perfect strategies in this model correspond to possibly infinite-dimensional operator solutions of the non-commutative equations. The proof is based around a finitely presented group associated with the linear system which arises from the non-commutative equations.
Non-commutative geometry on quantum phase-space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reuter, M.
1995-06-01
A non-commutative analogue of the classical differential forms is constructed on the phase-space of an arbitrary quantum system. The non-commutative forms are universal and are related to the quantum mechanical dynamics in the same way as the classical forms are related to classical dynamics. They are constructed by applying the Weyl-Wigner symbol map to the differential envelope of the linear operators on the quantum mechanical Hilbert space. This leads to a representation of the non-commutative forms considered by A. Connes in terms of multiscalar functions on the classical phase-space. In an appropriate coincidence limit they define a quantum deformation of the classical tensor fields and both commutative and non-commutative forms can be studied in a unified framework. We interprete the quantum differential forms in physical terms and comment on possible applications. (orig.)
Euler polynomials and identities for non-commutative operators
De Angelis, Valerio; Vignat, Christophe
2015-12-01
Three kinds of identities involving non-commutating operators and Euler and Bernoulli polynomials are studied. The first identity, as given by Bender and Bettencourt [Phys. Rev. D 54(12), 7710-7723 (1996)], expresses the nested commutator of the Hamiltonian and momentum operators as the commutator of the momentum and the shifted Euler polynomial of the Hamiltonian. The second one, by Pain [J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 46, 035304 (2013)], links the commutators and anti-commutators of the monomials of the position and momentum operators. The third appears in a work by Figuieira de Morisson and Fring [J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39, 9269 (2006)] in the context of non-Hermitian Hamiltonian systems. In each case, we provide several proofs and extensions of these identities that highlight the role of Euler and Bernoulli polynomials.
Critique of the Reggeized deck model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berger, E.L.
1975-01-01
A detailed analysis is presented of the Reggeized pion exchange Deck model for processes of the type ap → A*N → (a*π)N, where a = π, K, or nucleon and a* = rho, K*, N or Δ. Predictions of the model for both production and decay properties of the low mass system A* → (a*π) are derived and contrasted with data. Diffractive as well as charge exchange reactions are treated. The role of pion exchange in generating (a*π) enhancements near threshold and their properties is examined from several points of view. Characteristic exchange effects and quantum number properties (e.g., cross-overs) of the pion exchange Deck graph are shown to be verified in the data, but this graph alone is inadequate. The failures all point to the need for a second graph, having a* exchange properties. The contribution of a* exchange is roughly equal to that of the π exchange graph. (U.S.)
Katz, Joseph
2006-01-01
Race car performance depends on elements such as the engine, tires, suspension, road, aerodynamics, and of course the driver. In recent years, however, vehicle aerodynamics gained increased attention, mainly due to the utilization of the negative lift (downforce) principle, yielding several important performance improvements. This review briefly explains the significance of the aerodynamic downforce and how it improves race car performance. After this short introduction various methods to generate downforce such as inverted wings, diffusers, and vortex generators are discussed. Due to the complex geometry of these vehicles, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flows and lifting surface shapes unlike traditional airplane wings. Typical design tools such as wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics, and track testing, and their relevance to race car development, are discussed as well. In spite of the tremendous progress of these design tools (due to better instrumentation, communication, and computational power), the fluid dynamic phenomenon is still highly nonlinear, and predicting the effect of a particular modification is not always trouble free. Several examples covering a wide range of vehicle shapes (e.g., from stock cars to open-wheel race cars) are presented to demonstrate this nonlinear nature of the flow field.
Experimental and numerical investigation of idling car exposure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McNabola, A; Broderick, B M; Gill, L W [Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland). Dept. of Civil, Structural, and Environmental Engineering
2006-07-01
This study examined the effect of maintaining a 2 metre distance between vehicles on commuter pollution exposure levels. Air quality samples were recorded inside cars on a busy road in Dublin. A turbulent dispersion model was used to predict the exposure levels from idling cars. Samples were recorded along the route by keeping a distance of approximately 2 metres by sight to the car in front, and then a second time keeping a distance of approximately 1 meter. Traffic numbers were recorded during each sample from local authority loops. Meteorological and idling time data were also recorded for a total of 10 pairs of samples. Experiments were then conducted to measure volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}). A calibrated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was then used to predict car exposure levels under varying conditions. Key parameters included ventilation rates; wind speed; and distance. The calibrated numerical model demonstrated that the pollution concentration decreased rapidly within the first 2 metres of the preceding exhaust. Maintaining a distance of 2 metres to the preceding vehicle showed a reduction in VOCs and particulate matter of approximately 30 to 40 per cent. It was concluded that further research is needed to determine if modified driving behaviours will promote higher levels of traffic congestion. 11 refs., 6 tabs., 11 figs.
Connected Car: Quantified Self becomes Quantified Car
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Melanie Swan
2015-02-01
Full Text Available The automotive industry could be facing a situation of profound change and opportunity in the coming decades. There are a number of influencing factors such as increasing urban and aging populations, self-driving cars, 3D parts printing, energy innovation, and new models of transportation service delivery (Zipcar, Uber. The connected car means that vehicles are now part of the connected world, continuously Internet-connected, generating and transmitting data, which on the one hand can be helpfully integrated into applications, like real-time traffic alerts broadcast to smartwatches, but also raises security and privacy concerns. This paper explores the automotive connected world, and describes five killer QS (Quantified Self-auto sensor applications that link quantified-self sensors (sensors that measure the personal biometrics of individuals like heart rate and automotive sensors (sensors that measure driver and passenger biometrics or quantitative automotive performance metrics like speed and braking activity. The applications are fatigue detection, real-time assistance for parking and accidents, anger management and stress reduction, keyless authentication and digital identity verification, and DIY diagnostics. These kinds of applications help to demonstrate the benefit of connected world data streams in the automotive industry and beyond where, more fundamentally for human progress, the automation of both physical and now cognitive tasks is underway.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Setiawan, R.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Although there are clear environmental, economic, and social drawbacks in using private vehicles, students still choose cars to get to campus. This study reports an investigation of psychological factors influencing this behavior from the perspective of the Theory of Planned Behavior and Norm Activation Model. Students from three different university campuses in Surabaya, Indonesia, (n = 312 completed a survey on their car commuting behavior. Results indicated that perceived behavioral control and personal norm were the strongest factors that influence behavioral intention. Attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and personal norm explain 62.7% variance of the behavioral intention. In turn, behavioral intention explains 42.5% of the variance of the actual car use. Implications of these findings are that in order to alter the use of car, university should implement both structural and psychological interventions. Effective interventions should be designed to raise the awareness of negative aspects of car use.
TS Department
2008-01-01
All members of the personnel holding a valid contract (except owners of cars with green or CD plates) can come to the Registration Service (Building 55, 1st floor) to obtain their 2009 car sticker, Mondays to Fridays from 7.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. non-stop. Please ensure you bring with you the documents relating to the vehicles(s) concerned. If you only wish to register one vehicle, you can obtain the 2009 sticker using the request form on the Web (via internet Explorer only). NB: This notice only applies to members of the personnel who obtained one or several blue car stickers for 2008. Reception and Access Control Service – TS/FM
Commuting patterns of workers in a village of Barddhaman district, West Bengal
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bhaswati Mondal
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Commuting helps to keep balance between residence and workplace of workers. With growing accessibility and connectivity, the importance of commuting is increasing all over the world. It is becoming a major substitute to migration. In commute-studies, commute-pattern is an important chapter. It highlights commuters’ directions of movement, distance they cover, modes of transport they use, the time they take to commute, etc. Unlike the urban-based commute pattern, commute pattern in rural areas are relatively an under-researched issue. In fact, traditionally rural people are thought to carry a sedentary lifestyle. Using primary data, this study aims to explore the commute patterns of rural workers located in the village of Gandharbapur of Barddhaman district of West Bengal, India. All the commuters were found to be engaged in non-farm work. Commuters stem from two major groups. One group of commuters is accumulated farm-income induced. They possess sufficient agricultural land. Investing their surplus farm-income, they have established non-farm works. The second group of commuters is poverty-driven. They are landless poor or are marginal farmers and to escape poverty, they have slipped into these works. Located beyond the suburban area (Memari being the nearest town, most commuters commute to nearby rural areas. Due to non-availability of public transport, women commute less than men do. Regular-paid government employees commute longer than other workers commute. The article concludes with a summary of findings and recommendations for further research.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan
2013-01-01
In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...
Active commuting to school in Portuguese adolescents
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pizarro, Andreia Nogueira; Schipperijn, Jasper; Andersen, Henriette Bondo
2016-01-01
Abstract The declining levels of physical activity (PA) have led to active commuting to school (ACS) being seen as a key strategy to increase PA levels in school-aged children. In Portugal, no data exists on the patterns of this behavior, an essential step for developing evidence......-based and effective interventions. The purpose of this study is to explore the travel to school behavior using an objective methodology. Methods 155 adolescents (mean age 15.9±1.1 years) wore an accelerometer and a GPS for 7 consecutive days. Home and school addresses were geocoded to identify home-school trips....... The web-based tool PALMS was used to combine GPS and accelerometer data, categorize Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA) and classify trip mode of home-school trips into: walking, bicycling or vehicle. Results 609 trips were identified as home-school trips. Walking was the most frequent trip mode...
Electronically commutated motors for vehicle applications
Echolds, E. F.
1980-02-01
Two permanent magnet electronically commutated motors for electric vehicle traction are discussed. One, based on existing technology, produces 23 kW (peak) at 26,000 rpm, and 11 kW continuous at 18,000 rpm. The motor has a conventional design: a four-pole permanent magnet rotor and a three-phase stator similar to those used on ordinary induction motors. The other, advanced technology motor, is rated at 27 kW (peak) at 14,000 rpm, and 11 kW continuous at 10,500 rpm. The machine employs a permanent magnet rotor and a novel ironless stator design in an axial air gap, homopolar configuration. Comparison of the new motors with conventional brush type machines indicates potential for substantial cost savings.
The use of ultraproducts in commutative algebra
Schoutens, Hans
2010-01-01
In spite of some recent applications of ultraproducts in algebra, they remain largely unknown to commutative algebraists, in part because they do not preserve basic properties such as Noetherianity. This work wants to make a strong case against these prejudices. More precisely, it studies ultraproducts of Noetherian local rings from a purely algebraic perspective, as well as how they can be used to transfer results between the positive and zero characteristics, to derive uniform bounds, to define tight closure in characteristic zero, and to prove asymptotic versions of homological conjectures in mixed characteristic. Some of these results are obtained using variants called chromatic products, which are often even Noetherian. This book, neither assuming nor using any logical formalism, is intended for algebraists and geometers, in the hope of popularizing ultraproducts and their applications in algebra.
Calculation of atomic integrals using commutation relations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zamastil, J.; Vinette, F.; Simanek, M.
2007-01-01
In this paper, a numerically stable method of calculating atomic integrals is suggested. The commutation relations among the components of the angular momentum and the Runge-Lenz vector are used to deduce recurrence relations for the Sturmian radial functions. The radial part of the one- and two-electron integrals is evaluated by means of these recurrence relations. The product of two radial functions is written as a linear combination of the radial functions. This enables us to write the integrals over four radial functions as a linear combination of the integrals over two radial functions. The recurrence relations for the functions are used to derive the recursion relations for the coefficients of the linear combination and for the integrals over two functions
Design of Experimental Suspended Footbridge with Deck Made of UHPC
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Blank Marek
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the static and dynamic design of experimental footbridge for pedestrians and cyclists in the municipality Lužec nad Vltavou in Czech Republic, Europe. This work aims to familiarize the reader with calculations carried out and the results obtained, describing the static and dynamic properties of proposed footbridge. The construction of footbridge is designed as a suspended structure with prestressed bridge deck consisting of prefabricated UHPC panels and reversed “V” shaped steel pylon with height of approximately 40 meters. The deck is anchored using 24 steel hangers in one row in a steel pylon - 17 ropes in the main span and 7 cables on the other side. Range of the main span is 99.18 meters and the secondary span is 31.9 m. Deck width is 4.5 meters with 3.0 meters passing space. The bridge is designed for the possibility of passage of vehicles weighting up to 3.5 tons. Deck panels are made of UHPC with reinforcement. At the edge of the bridge on the side of the shorter span the bridge deck is firmly connected with abutment and on the other deck it is stored using a pair of sliding bearings. The utilization of the excellent properties of UHPC allows to design a very thin and lightweight construction of the deck, which could not be achieved with the use of normal concrete.
Commuting behavior of western U.S. residents
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Caviglia, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)
1996-06-01
Estimation and interpretation of commutes to work has been studied extensively with respect to gender, race, and income. While the literature is extensive in these areas, there has been little research on regional differences between US states and territories. Since data which reports the commute to work is in average minutes, the distance traveled is estimated using estimates of the distance between home and work county centroids. The models differ in estimation of in-county commutes. The first assumes that the commute is equal to the radius of the county and the second estimates the commute as a weighted distance based on place location. Two data sets are compared, US National Guard data and US census data. Goal of this paper is to make conclusions about the commuting behavior of western residents through the use of these estimates, and therefore to provide a estimation method for distance commutes which can be used in further research. It is concluded that the radius method of estimation may be an over estimation, in particular in the western states. Since the non-western states are generally more homogeneously populated, this overestimation is not observed. It is recommended that the place location method be used for similar research, in particular studies dealing with western states. Suggestions are made for further research and recommendations are made for the US Army National Guard in regards to recruiting.
Población commuter de la frontera norte: el caso de Mexicali-Calexico y Tijuana-San Diego
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Germán Vega Briones
2016-01-01
Full Text Available El objetivo central de este trabajo es analizar el perfil sociodemográfico de los trabajadores transfronterizos o commuters de las ciudades de Tijuana-San Diego y Mexicali- Calexico de acuerdo con el sexo y el lugar donde se encuentra el trabajo. Los trabajadores transfronterizos o commuters son los individuos que residen en alguna ciudad de la frontera norte de México, pero cotidianamente cruzan la línea fronteriza para trabajar en la ciudad estadounidense contigua. La información que se utiliza para realizar este estudio es la obtenida por el Censo de Población y Vivienda mexicano del año 2010; sin embargo, el análisis sobre el perfil de los commuters se complementa con información de carácter etnográfico producto de diversas entrevistas realizadas a los trabajadores transfronterizos, principalmente en las ciudades de Tijuana y Mexicali. Consideramos que esta población tiene una imagen individual y cotidiana más completa de la compleja relación que se da en la frontera México-Estados Unidos, dada su característica principal de interacción continua entre ambos lados de la frontera. Ello al mismo tiempo nos permite contar con una visión más profunda de una realidad fronteriza que se basa en la dependencia creada y recreada en las sociedades tanto mexicana como estadounidense.
A decking for erecting an insulating connector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chuprikov, A Ye; Lagutin, V I; Sklyarov, A A; Sukhanov, G V
1983-01-01
The decking includes a parachute like dome, made of a material impenetrable to air, an air penetrable hood, attachment elements and a branch pipe for supplying the filler. To improve the sealing of the insulating connector upon contact with the walls and the roof of the drift being isolated and to reduce the labor intensity of operations, it is equipped with a housing made in the form of a cylinder from a material impenetrable to water, an advancible vertical upright and a spring loaded panel. The housing is installed between the parachute like dome and the air penetrable hood. The extendible vertical upright is installed on the side of the air penetrable hood and by means of a movable rack mechanism is kinematically linked with the spring loaded panel, installed with the capability of interacting with the air penetrable hood. The spring loaded plate is made in the form of perforated plates which have a telescopic disengagement in the horizontal plane.
The market for gasoline cars and diesel cars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verboven, F.
1999-01-01
In Europe the tax tariff is much lower for diesel fuel than for gasoline. This benefit is used by manufacturers to increase the price of diesel-fueled cars, which limits the possibility to control the use of diesel cars by means of a fiscal policy (tax incidence). Attention is paid to the impact of fiscal advantages for diesel cars on the purchasing behavior of the consumer and the pricing policy (price discrimination) of the car manufacturers. 1 ref
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Lorenz
2011-09-01
Full Text Available In this work the development of a highly efficient pressure vessel for liquid petroleum gas (LPG in integral design is described. The pressure vessel can be customized in an optimal available installation space and thus means that the suitable for everyday use of existing modified cars or trucks can be increased.
Jumper, William D.
2012-01-01
Many high school and introductory college physics courses make use of mousetrap car projects and competitions as a way of providing an engaging hands-on learning experience incorporating Newton's laws, conversion of potential to kinetic energy, dissipative forces, and rotational mechanics. Presented here is a simple analytical and finite element…
Anthony, Joan L.
1994-01-01
Describes an activity where teams of parents and children work together to solve problems involving matchbox-sized race cars. The teams collect, record, and analyze data; measure distances in metric; and explore concepts related to mass, friction, and force. (PR)
Preston, Christine
2017-01-01
Familiar toys can be used to scaffold young children's learning about basic physics as well as guide scientific inquiry. Teachers looking for resources to engage young children and develop science inquiry skills need look no further than the toy box. In this two-part activity, children first construct a Lego® car and use it to explore the effects…
Motor car driving; Kraftfahrzeugfuehrung
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Juergensohn, T. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). ISS-Fahrzeugtechnik; Timpe, K.P. (eds.) [Technische Univ. Berlin (DE). Zentrum Mensch-Maschine-Systeme (ZMMS)
2001-07-01
This is the first comprehensive book on motor car driving, i.e. all aspects of motor car technology that cannot be looked at separately from the needs, characteristics and limitations of the human driver. This includes ergonomics as well as the design of the driver interface in consideration of the findings of cognitive science, problems of driving simulation in the context of simulation of technical systems, problems relating to optimal car automation up to traffic psychology. The book is in honour of Prof. Dr. Willumeit who died in summer 2000. Prof. Willumeit was one of the few scientists in Germany who had been an expert on all aspects of motor car driving for many years. [German] Erstmalig wird das Thema der Fahrzeugfuehrung geschlossen dargestellt. Die Thematik der 'Kraftfahrzeugfuehrung' umfasst in diesem Zusammenhang alle Aspekte der Kraftfahrzeugtechnik, die nicht isoliert von den Erfordernissen, Eigenschaften und Grenzen des menschlichen Fahrers betrachtet werden koennen. Dies beinhaltet u.a. Probleme der Ergonomie, aber auch Fragen nach einer kognitionswissenschaftlich unterstuetzten Schnittstellengestaltung, Fragen der Simulation des Fahrverhalten im Kontext der Simulation technischer Systeme oder Fragen einer optimalen Fahrzeugautomatisierung bis hin zu verkehrspsychologischen Aspekten. Das Buch ist als Gedenkband fuer Prof. Dr. Willumeit konzipiert, der im Sommer 2000 verstarb. Prof. Willumeit war einer der wenigen Wissenschaftler in Deutschland, der ueber viele Jahre diese Thematik der Kraftfahrzeugfuehrung in ihrer vollen Breite verfolgte. (orig.)
Experiments and theory on deck and girder crushing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Ocakli, Hasan
1999-01-01
-deflection curves and modes of deformation for decks, stringer decks and deep thin-walled beams subjected to central or excentric point loads between transverse frames. Based on theory and experiments, various modelling aspects of the local/global failure of the beams are discussed. The agreement between......This paper is concerned with theoretical and experimental analysis of deep plastic collapse of a deck or deep girder subjected to an in-plane, concentrated load. A theory is derived which is valid until initition of fracture in the structure. The presented experimental results show load...
Introduction to Dubois-Violette's non-commutative differential geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Djemai, A.E.F.
1994-07-01
In this work, one presents a detailed review of Dubois-Violette et al. approach to non-commutative differential calculus. The non-commutative differential geometry of matrix algebras and the non-commutative Poisson structures are treated in some details. We also present the analog of the Maxwell's theory and the new models of Yang-Mills-Higgs theories that can be constructed in this framework. In particular, some simple models are compared with the standard model. Finally, we discuss some perspectives and open questions. (author). 32 refs
Non-Commutative Mechanics in Mathematical & in Condensed Matter Physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter A. Horváthy
2006-12-01
Full Text Available Non-commutative structures were introduced, independently and around the same time, in mathematical and in condensed matter physics (see Table 1. Souriau's construction applied to the two-parameter central extension of the planar Galilei group leads to the ''exotic'' particle, which has non-commuting position coordinates. A Berry-phase argument applied to the Bloch electron yields in turn a semiclassical model that has been used to explain the anomalous/spin/optical Hall effects. The non-commutative parameter is momentum-dependent in this case, and can take the form of a monopole in momentum space.
Non-commutative field theory with twistor-like coordinates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taylor, Tomasz R.
2007-01-01
We consider quantum field theory in four-dimensional Minkowski spacetime, with the position coordinates represented by twistors instead of the usual world-vectors. Upon imposing canonical commutation relations between twistors and dual twistors, quantum theory of fields described by non-holomorphic functions of twistor variables becomes manifestly non-commutative, with Lorentz symmetry broken by a time-like vector. We discuss the free field propagation and its impact on the short- and long-distance behavior of physical amplitudes in perturbation theory. In the ultraviolet limit, quantum field theories in twistor space are generically less divergent than their commutative counterparts. Furthermore, there is no infrared-ultraviolet mixing problem
A behavioral analysis of private car use by households
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rouwendal, J. [Department of Household and Consumer Studies, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen (Netherlands)
1997-06-01
Various aspects of ownership and use of private cars by households are studied. The private car has been at the centre of discussions about environmental problems for many years. The study starts with a discussion of the effectiveness of environmental policy with respect to the private car and concludes that price and tax instruments still appear to be valuable instruments, despite some prima facie evidence against them. Technical aspects of automobile engines are discussed subsequently and it is noticed that potential environmental benefits caused by technical developments are not always realized because of changes in behaviour. A brief summary of the development of the prices of automobile fuel shows that the variable cost of automobile use for gasoline drivers has certainly not increased during the past thirty years. By focusing attention on years in which there were relatively large changes in these prices it was, nevertheless, possible to estimate behavioral reactions to price changes. Increases in the gasoline price lead to lower fuel use per kilometer, decreases in the price to higher fuel use. The number of kilometers driven could also be shown to be influenced by changes in the fuel price. There appear to be interesting differences between the reactions to the price decrease in early 1986 caused by the fall in crude oil prices and the tax increase of 1991. In the next part of the study choice of fuel type is explained by a trade off between disadvantages associated with the use of diesel and LPG and a monetary benefit for drivers of large numbers of kilometers caused by the lower variable cost of these fuels. These lower cost appear to induce additional demand for kilometers. Finally, the choice of commuting distance was analyzed by means of a search model. Although workers do not appear to be footloose, the monetary evaluation of the resistance against additional commuting kilometers appears to fall short of the generalized travel cost involved. 52 refs.
Bull, M J; Stroup, K B; Gerhart, S
1988-01-01
Correct use of car seats for small children is essential to prevent serious injuries and death from automotive accidents. Failure to use a car seat properly can contribute to serious injury or death of a child. A case study in which misuse of a car seat occurred is reported. The infant died of hemorrhage and shock secondary to liver laceration which resulted from excessive pressure over the abdomen sustained on impact. Surveys of car seat use for small children prior to and following a child restraint law are also reported. Observers noted types of car seats and specific forms of misuse. Survey results suggest that parents are more likely to misuse car seats for infants than toddlers. Medical professionals can reinforce the importance of proper car seat use by incorporating specific car seat use questions into the patient interview and by providing educational materials.
Na, Yongyi
2017-03-01
The design of simple intelligent car, using AT89S52 single chip microcomputer as the car detection and control core; The metal sensor TL - Q5MC induction to iron, to detect the way to send feedback to the signal of single chip microcomputer, make SCM according to the scheduled work mode to control the car in the area according to the predetermined speed, and the operation mode of the microcontroller choose different also can control the car driving along s-shaped iron; Use A44E hall element to detect the car speeds; Adopts 1602 LCD display time of car driving, driving the car to stop, take turns to show the car driving time, distance, average speed and the speed of time. This design has simple structure and is easy to implement, but are highly intelligent, humane, to a certain extent reflects the intelligence.
Van Wijk, A.J.M.; Verhoef, L.
2014-01-01
Fuel cell cars can provide more efficient and cleaner transportation. However, we use our cars for transportation only 5% of the time. When parked, the fuel cell in the car can produce electricity from hydrogen, which is cleaner and more efficient than the current electricity system, generating
DOES ELECTRIC CAR PRODUCE EMISSIONS?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vladimír RIEVAJ
2017-03-01
Full Text Available This article focuses on the comparison of the amount of emissions produced by vehicles with a combustion engine and electric cars. The comparison, which is based on the LCA factor results, indicates that an electric car produces more emissions than a vehicle with combustion engine. The implementation of electric cars will lead to an increase in the production of greenhouse gases.
Electronic fare collection options for commuter railroads : final report
2009-09-01
This research is designed to support FTA in its efforts to disseminate knowledge of new technologies within the transit community, in this case focusing on issues associated with automated fare collection (AFC) for commuter rail. By identifying le...
Exploring characteristics and motives of long distance commuter cyclists
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Karsten Bruun; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick
2014-01-01
are very positive about their commute - pointing to positive experiences, better mood, and stress relief as experiences related to their cycle trip to work. Policy support should devote attention to unlocking the potential that may be embedded in individuals combining their exercise and travel time......, commuter cyclists (>5 km from home to work) have more mobility options, higher incomes, and a longer education than other commuter cyclists. The main motive for longer distance cycling is physical exercise, followed by reduced costs and time used for traveling. The long distance commuter cyclists surveyed......, budgets to promote active travel to work as well as the role of psychological benefits as a factor in promoting and sustaining cycling practices....
The standard model on non-commutative space-time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calmet, X.; Jurco, B.; Schupp, P.; Wohlgenannt, M.; Wess, J.
2002-01-01
We consider the standard model on a non-commutative space and expand the action in the non-commutativity parameter θ μν . No new particles are introduced; the structure group is SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1). We derive the leading order action. At zeroth order the action coincides with the ordinary standard model. At leading order in θ μν we find new vertices which are absent in the standard model on commutative space-time. The most striking features are couplings between quarks, gluons and electroweak bosons and many new vertices in the charged and neutral currents. We find that parity is violated in non-commutative QCD. The Higgs mechanism can be applied. QED is not deformed in the minimal version of the NCSM to the order considered. (orig.)
The standard model on non-commutative space-time
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calmet, X.; Jurco, B.; Schupp, P.; Wohlgenannt, M. [Sektion Physik, Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Wess, J. [Sektion Physik, Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)
2002-03-01
We consider the standard model on a non-commutative space and expand the action in the non-commutativity parameter {theta}{sup {mu}}{sup {nu}}. No new particles are introduced; the structure group is SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1). We derive the leading order action. At zeroth order the action coincides with the ordinary standard model. At leading order in {theta}{sup {mu}}{sup {nu}} we find new vertices which are absent in the standard model on commutative space-time. The most striking features are couplings between quarks, gluons and electroweak bosons and many new vertices in the charged and neutral currents. We find that parity is violated in non-commutative QCD. The Higgs mechanism can be applied. QED is not deformed in the minimal version of the NCSM to the order considered. (orig.)
Interactions Between Representation Ttheory, Algebraic Topology and Commutative Algebra
Pitsch, Wolfgang; Zarzuela, Santiago
2016-01-01
This book includes 33 expanded abstracts of selected talks given at the two workshops "Homological Bonds Between Commutative Algebra and Representation Theory" and "Brave New Algebra: Opening Perspectives," and the conference "Opening Perspectives in Algebra, Representations, and Topology," held at the Centre de Recerca Matemàtica (CRM) in Barcelona between January and June 2015. These activities were part of the one-semester intensive research program "Interactions Between Representation Theory, Algebraic Topology and Commutative Algebra (IRTATCA)." Most of the abstracts present preliminary versions of not-yet published results and cover a large number of topics (including commutative and non commutative algebra, algebraic topology, singularity theory, triangulated categories, representation theory) overlapping with homological methods. This comprehensive book is a valuable resource for the community of researchers interested in homological algebra in a broad sense, and those curious to learn the latest dev...
Minimal length uncertainty and generalized non-commutative geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farmany, A.; Abbasi, S.; Darvishi, M.T.; Khani, F.; Naghipour, A.
2009-01-01
A generalized formulation of non-commutative geometry for the Bargmann-Fock space of quantum field theory is presented. The analysis is related to the symmetry of the simplistic space and a minimal length uncertainty.
7 CFR 354.2 - Administrative instructions prescribing commuted traveltime.
2010-01-01
... period of overtime and holiday duty, as defined in § 354.1 shall, in addition, include a commuted... Undesignated ports St. Albans 3 Virgin Islands: Alexander Hamilton Airport, St. Croix 1 Charlotte Amalie, St...
DSR Theories, Conformal Group and Generalized Commutation Relation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leiva, Carlos
2006-01-01
In this paper the relationship of DSR theories and Conformal Group is reviewed. On the other hand, the relation between DSR Magueijo Smolin generators and generalized commutation relations is also shown
Vectors and covectors in non-commutative setting
Parfionov, G. N.; Romashev, Yu. A.; Zapatrine, R. R.
1995-01-01
Following the guidelines of classical differential geometry the `building material' for the tensor calculus in non-commutative geometry is suggested. The algebraic account of moduli of vectors and covectors is carried out.
The shear viscosity of the non-commutative plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Landsteiner, Karl; Mas, Javier
2007-01-01
We compute the shear viscosity of the non-commutative N = 4 super Yang-Mills quantum field theory at strong coupling using the dual supergravity background. Special interest derives from the fact that the background presents an intrinsic anisotropy in space through the distinction of commutative and non-commutative directions. Despite this anisotropy the analysis exhibits the ubiquitous result η/s = 1/4π for two different shear channels. In order to derive this result, we show that the boundary energy momentum tensor must couple to the open string metric. As a byproduct we compute the renormalised holographic energy momentum tensor and show that it coincides with one in the commutative theory
Will urban commuting time affect housing prices and vehicle emissions?
2016-03-01
The transportation cost is an essential factor that impacts land and house values in urban areas. In a classical monocentric city model, residents who work in the Central Business District (CBD) are facing a tradeoff between rent and commuting dis...
Commutative curvature operators over four-dimensional generalized symmetric
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ali Haji-Badali
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Commutative properties of four-dimensional generalized symmetric pseudo-Riemannian manifolds were considered. Specially, in this paper, we studied Skew-Tsankov and Jacobi-Tsankov conditions in 4-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian generalized symmetric manifolds.
Commutative algebra with a view toward algebraic geometry
Eisenbud, David
1995-01-01
Commutative Algebra is best understood with knowledge of the geometric ideas that have played a great role in its formation, in short, with a view towards algebraic geometry. The author presents a comprehensive view of commutative algebra, from basics, such as localization and primary decomposition, through dimension theory, differentials, homological methods, free resolutions and duality, emphasizing the origins of the ideas and their connections with other parts of mathematics. Many exercises illustrate and sharpen the theory and extended exercises give the reader an active part in complementing the material presented in the text. One novel feature is a chapter devoted to a quick but thorough treatment of Grobner basis theory and the constructive methods in commutative algebra and algebraic geometry that flow from it. Applications of the theory and even suggestions for computer algebra projects are included. This book will appeal to readers from beginners to advanced students of commutative algebra or algeb...
A feasibility study of bridge deck deicing using geothermal energy.
2015-04-01
In this study, we investigated the feasibility of a ground-coupled system that utilizes heat energy harvested from the ground for : deicing of bridge decks. Heat exchange is performed using circulation loops integrated into the deep foundations suppo...
Precision monitoring of bridge deck curvature change during replacement.
2016-05-01
This project was focused on development and deployment of a system for monitoring vertical : displacement in bridge decks and bridge spans. The system uses high precision wireless inclinometer : sensors to monitor inclinations at various points of a ...
Bridge deck concrete volume change : final contract report.
2010-02-01
Concrete structures such as bridge decks, with large surface area relative to volume, shrink and crack, thus reducing service life performance and increasing operation costs. The project evaluated the early, first 24 hours, and long-term, 180 days, s...
Evaluation of bridge deck with shrinkage-compensating concrete.
2016-04-01
Concrete bridge decks are susceptible to premature cracking and to corrosion of reinforcing steel. Low-permeability : concrete does not always ensure durability if the concrete has excessive cracks that facilitate the intrusion of aggressive solution...
Multidisciplinary health monitoring of a steel bridge deck structure
Pahlavan, P.L.; Pijpers, R.J.M.; Paulissen, J.H.; Hakkesteegt, H.C.; Jansen, T.H.
2013-01-01
Fatigue cracks in orthotropic bridge decks are an important cause for the necessary renovation of existing bridges. Parallel utilization of various technologies based on different physical sensing principles can potentially maximize the efficiency of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems for
Structural Loading of Cross Deck Connections for Trimaran Vessels
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Rhoads, Jason
2004-01-01
...: longitudinal bending, transverse bending, torsional bending, spreading and squeezing of hulls, inner and outer hull slam pressures, wet deck slam pressures, loading from ship's motions, and whipping of slender hulls...
Experimental studies on multicellular GFRP bridge deck panels ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M P MUTHURAJ
2017-11-20
Nov 20, 2017 ... design of a new bridge deck panel made of GFRP. .... cient manufacturing processes with minimal wastage. But re-use of the remaining FRP elements during manufacture ... Energy consumption for production of different.
Smart FRP Composite Sandwich Bridge Decks in Cold Regions
2011-07-01
In this study, new and integrated Smart honeycomb Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (S-FRP) : sandwich materials for various transportation construction applications, with particular emphasis : on highway bridge decks in cold regions, were developed and teste...
Shrinkage and durability study of bridge deck concrete.
2010-12-01
The Mississippi Department of Transportation is incorporating changes to material : specifications and construction procedures for bridge decks in an effort to reduce shrinkage : cracking. These changes are currently being implemented into a limited ...
What interventions increase commuter cycling? A systematic review.
Stewart, Glenn; Anokye, Nana Kwame; Pokhrel, Subhash
2015-08-14
To identify interventions that will increase commuter cycling. All settings where commuter cycling might take place. Adults (aged 18+) in any country. Individual, group or environmental interventions including policies and infrastructure. A wide range of 'changes in commuter cycling' indicators, including frequency of cycling, change in workforce commuting mode, change in commuting population transport mode, use of infrastructure by defined populations and population modal shift. 12 studies from 6 countries (6 from the UK, 2 from Australia, 1 each from Sweden, Ireland, New Zealand and the USA) met the inclusion criteria. Of those, 2 studies were randomised control trials and the remainder preintervention and postintervention studies. The majority of studies (n=7) evaluated individual-based or group-based interventions and the rest environmental interventions. Individual-based or group-based interventions in 6/7 studies were found to increase commuter cycling of which the effect was significant in only 3/6 studies. Environmental interventions, however, had small but positive effects in much larger but more difficult to define populations. Almost all studies had substantial loss to follow-up. Despite commuter cycling prevalence varying widely between countries, robust evidence of what interventions will increase commuter cycling in low cycling prevalence nations is sparse. Wider environmental interventions that make cycling conducive appear to reach out to hard to define but larger populations. This could mean that environmental interventions, despite their small positive effects, have greater public health significance than individual-based or group-based measures because those interventions encourage a larger number of people to integrate physical activity into their everyday lives. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Electronically commutated serial-parallel switching for motor windings
Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN
2012-03-27
A method and a circuit for controlling an ac machine comprises controlling a full bridge network of commutation switches which are connected between a multiphase voltage source and the phase windings to switch the phase windings between a parallel connection and a series connection while providing commutation discharge paths for electrical current resulting from inductance in the phase windings. This provides extra torque for starting a vehicle from lower battery current.
An improved 4-step commutation method application for matrix converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guo, Yu; Guo, Yougui; Deng, Wenlang
2014-01-01
A novel four-step commutation method is proposed for matrix converter cell, 3 phase inputs to 1 phase output in this paper, which is obtained on the analysis of published commutation methods for matrix converter. The first and fourth step can be shorter than the second or third one. The discussed...... method here is implemented by programming in VHDL language. Finally, the novel method in this paper is verified by experiments....
On commutativity of one-sided s-unital rings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. A. S. Abujabal
1992-01-01
Full Text Available The following theorem is proved: Let r=r(y>1, s, and t be non-negative integers. If R is a left s-unital ring satisfies the polynomial identity [xy−xsyrxt,x]=0 for every x,y∈R, then R is commutative. The commutativity of a right s-unital ring satisfying the polynomial identity [xy−yrxt,x]=0 for all x,y∈R, is also proved.
Translation invariance, commutation relations and ultraviolet/infrared mixing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galluccio, Salvatore; Lizzi, Fedele; Vitale, Patrizia
2009-01-01
We show that the Ultraviolet/Infrared mixing of noncommutative field theories with the Groenewold-Moyal product, whereby some (but not all) ultraviolet divergences become infrared, is a generic feature of translationally invariant associative products. We find, with an explicit calculation that the phase appearing in the nonplanar diagrams is the one given by the commutator of the coordinates, the semiclassical Poisson structure of the non commutative spacetime. We do this with an explicit calculation for represented generic products.
Shinohara, Naohide; Ángeles, Felipe; Basaldud, Roberto; Cardenas, Beatriz; Wakamatsu, Shinji
2017-05-01
We investigated commuter exposure to volatile organic compounds in the metropolitan area of Mexico City in 2011 in private car, microbus, bus, metro, metrobus, and trolley bus. A similar survey was conducted in 2002 before initiation of the ProAire2002-2010 program aimed at reducing air pollution. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene, and o-xylene were sampled while traveling during the morning rush hour in May 2011. Compared with the 2002 survey, in-vehicle concentrations were substantially lower in 2011, except for formaldehyde in microbuses (35% higher than in 2002). The reductions were 17-42% (except microbuses), 25-44%, 41-61%, 43-61%, 71-79%, 80-91%, and 79-93% for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene, and o-xylene, respectively. These reductions are considered to be the outcome of some of the actions in the ProAire2002-2010 program. In some microbuses, use of liquid petroleum gas may have increased in-vehicle formaldehyde concentrations. The reduction in predicted excess cancer incidence of commuters because of ProAire2002-2010 was estimated to be 1.4 cases/yr. In addition, if every microbus commuter changed their transport mode to bus, metro, or metrobus in the future, the estimated excess cancer incidence of commuters could be further decreased from 6.4 to 0.88-2.2 cases/year.
Associations between active commuting and physical and mental wellbeing.
Humphreys, David K; Goodman, Anna; Ogilvie, David
2013-08-01
To examine whether a relationship exists between active commuting and physical and mental wellbeing. In 2009, cross-sectional postal questionnaire data were collected from a sample of working adults (aged 16 and over) in the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study. Travel behaviour and physical activity were ascertained using the Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire (RPAQ) and a seven-day travel-to-work recall instrument from which weekly time spent in active commuting (walking and cycling) was derived. Physical and mental wellbeing were assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form survey (SF-8). Associations were tested using multivariable linear regression. An association was observed between physical wellbeing (PCS-8) score and time spent in active commuting after adjustment for other physical activity (adjusted regression coefficients 0.48, 0.79 and 1.21 for 30-149 min/week, 150-224 min/week and ≥ 225 min/week respectively versus mental wellbeing (MCS-8) (p=0.52). Greater time spent actively commuting is associated with higher levels of physical wellbeing. Longitudinal studies should examine the contribution of changing levels of active commuting and other forms of physical activity to overall health and wellbeing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Trace Dynamics and a non-commutative special relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lochan, Kinjalk; Singh, T.P.
2011-01-01
Trace Dynamics is a classical dynamical theory of non-commuting matrices in which cyclic permutation inside a trace is used to define the derivative with respect to an operator. We use the methods of Trace Dynamics to construct a non-commutative special relativity. We define a line-element using the Trace over space-time coordinates which are assumed to be operators. The line-element is shown to be invariant under standard Lorentz transformations, and is used to construct a non-commutative relativistic dynamics. The eventual motivation for constructing such a non-commutative relativity is to relate the statistical thermodynamics of this classical theory to quantum mechanics. -- Highlights: → Classical time is external to quantum mechanics. → This implies need for a formulation of quantum theory without classical time. → A starting point could be a non-commutative special relativity. → Such a relativity is developed here using the theory of Trace Dynamics. → A line-element is defined using the Trace over non-commuting space-time operators.
ATMX-600 rail car safety analysis report for packaging (SARP)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adcock, F.E.; McCarthy, J.D.
1977-01-01
The ATMX-600 series rail car is used by Rockwell International, Rocky Flats Plant, for shipping low-level radioactive waste under the provisions of DOT Special Permit 5948. Fissile Class I shipments are authorized with the car loaded to capacity with drums containing up to 200 grams of plutonium-239. Inner packaging may be polyethylene-lined steel drums or fiberglass-coated plywood crates. These massive double-walled steel cars provide the equivalent protection of a Type B package. Rapid loading and unloading of the 9- by 9- by 50-foot cargo space are accomplished by prepackaging the waste in standard 20-foot steel cargo containers. The ATMX-600 rail car will hold two cargo containers, each carrying seventy 55-gallon drums and up to 44,800 pounds gross weight. This report is a revision of an earlier document and describes improvements to inner packaging. It also reflects current shipping practices
ATMX-600 rail car safety analysis report for packaging (SARP)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adcock, F.E.; McCarthy, J.D.
1977-01-01
The ATMX-600 series rail car is used by Rockwell International, Rocky Flats Plant, for shipping low-level radioactive waste under the provisions of DOT Special Permit 5948. Fissile Class I shipments are authorized with the car loaded to capacity with drums containing up to 200 g of 239 Pu. Inner packaging may be polyethylene-lined steel drums or fiberglass-coated plywood crates. These massive double-walled steel cars provide the equivalent protection of a Type B package. Rapid loading and unloading of the 9- by 9- by 50-ft cargo space is accomplished by prepackaging the waste in standard 20-ft steel cargo containers. The ATMX-600 rail car will hold two cargo containers, each carrying seventy 55-gal drums and up to 44,800 lb gross weight. Improvements to inner packaging and current shipping practices are discussed
Reception and Access Control Service - TS Department
2004-01-01
Please note that the car stickers for 2005 are now available. If you have not received the new one by internal mail, you should go along in person to the Registration Service (bldg. 55 - 1st floor), open non-stop from 7:30 to 16:30, taking with you your 2004 sticker and the log-book of your vehicle. Thank you for your collaboration. Reception and Access Control Service - TS Department.
CuseCar--community car-sharing program : car sharing lessons learned.
2011-08-01
CuseCar of Syracuse launched services in December 2008 with 3 Toyota Prius Hybrids. CuseCar initially, due to : concerns about availability, limited membership to Origination Sponsor Locations, which in turn developed few : members. In 2009 CuseCar o...
Massive neutrinos in almost-commutative geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stephan, Christoph A.
2007-01-01
In the noncommutative formulation of the standard model of particle physics by Chamseddine and Connes [Commun. Math. Phys. 182, 155 (1996), e-print hep-th/9606001], one of the three generations of fermions has to possess a massless neutrino. [C. P. Martin et al., Phys. Rep. 29, 363 (1998), e-print hep-th-9605001]. This formulation is consistent with neutrino oscillation experiments and the known bounds of the Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata matrix (PMNS matrix). But future experiments which may be able to detect neutrino masses directly and high-precision measurements of the PMNS matrix might need massive neutrinos in all three generations. In this paper we present an almost-commutative geometry which allows for a standard model with massive neutrinos in all three generations. This model does not follow in a straightforward way from the version of Chamseddine and Connes since it requires an internal algebra with four summands of matrix algebras, instead of three summands for the model with one massless neutrino
On commutators and semicommutators of Toeplitz operators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berkani, M.
1994-04-01
Let φ and ψ be two essentially bounded functions on the unit circle T. This paper is devoted to the study of the semicommutator T φψ -T φ T ψ of the Toeplitz operators T φ and T ψ . We prove that if φ is inner and P+(ψφ-bar) is an element of B 1/p p then the semicommutator T φψ -T φ T ψ is in the Schatten-Von-Neumann class σ p , p>0. Here B 1/p p denote the Besov class, P + is the orthogonal projection from L 2 onto the Hardy space H 2 . Moreover if φ is also continuous, then T φψ -T φ T ψ is of finite rank. An example based on the Hardy-Littelwood series shows that the result fails if we suppose φ only continuous. We also give some sufficient conditions on the Fourier coefficients of the symbols φ and ψ which implies that the commutator [T φ ,T ψ ] belongs to σ p , p>0. (author). 14 refs
On commutators and semicommutators of Toeplitz operators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berkani, M.
1996-08-01
Let φ and ψ be two essentially bounded functions on the unit circle T. This paper is devoted to the study of the semicommutator T φψ - T φ T ψ of the Toeplitz operators T φ and T ψ . We prove that if φ is inner and P + (ψφ-bar) is an element of B 1/p p then the semicommutator T φψ - T φ T ψ is in the Schatten-Von-Neumann class σ p , p > 0. Here B 1/p p denote the Besov class, P + is the orthogonal projection from L 2 onto the Hardy space H 2 . Moreover if φ is also continuous, then T φψ - T φ T ψ is of finite rank. An example based on the Hardy-Littlewood series shows that the result fails if we suppose φ only continuous. We also give some sufficient conditions on the Fourier coefficients of the symbols φ and ψ which implies that the commutator [T φ , T ψ ] belongs to σ p , p > 0. (author). 14 refs
Pion--nucleon sigma-commutator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banerjee, M.K.; Cammarata, J.B.
1977-07-01
The reasons for the large discrepancies in the magnitude of the πN sigma-commutator, sigma(πN), obtained by several authors are discussed using dynamic theory of the πN scattering amplitude. With sigma(πN) approximately 25 MeV this theory reproduces reasonably well both the experimental S-wave phase shifts at low energies and the amplitudes C approximately/sup(+)/(ν=0,t less than or equal to 0) determined by Langbein. In the method of Cheng and Dashen the value of sigma(πN) is obtained from these amplitudes by extrapolation to t = 2m 2 /sub π/. A study of the experimental D-wave ''scattering lengths'' implies that the coefficient of the term quadratic in t in the Hoehler expansion of C approximately/sup(+)/(0,t) is negative. Adding such a term to the results of the S-wave theory will tend to improve the agreement for C approximately/sup (+)/(0,t less than or equal to 0). These results suggest that the large ''world value'' sigma(πN) = 65 +- 5 MeV obtained using the Cheng-Dashen method is a consequence of errors in the extrapolation of amplitudes to the unphysical point ν = 0, t = 2m 2 /sub π/. Only the smaller value sigma(πN) approximately 25 MeV appears to be consistent with the experimental data and theoretical constraints
Non-commutative representation for quantum systems on Lie groups
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Raasakka, Matti Tapio
2014-01-27
The topic of this thesis is a new representation for quantum systems on weakly exponential Lie groups in terms of a non-commutative algebra of functions, the associated non-commutative harmonic analysis, and some of its applications to specific physical systems. In the first part of the thesis, after a review of the necessary mathematical background, we introduce a {sup *}-algebra that is interpreted as the quantization of the canonical Poisson structure of the cotangent bundle over a Lie group. From the physics point of view, this represents the algebra of quantum observables of a physical system, whose configuration space is a Lie group. We then show that this quantum algebra can be represented either as operators acting on functions on the group, the usual group representation, or (under suitable conditions) as elements of a completion of the universal enveloping algebra of the Lie group, the algebra representation. We further apply the methods of deformation quantization to obtain a representation of the same algebra in terms of a non-commutative algebra of functions on a Euclidean space, which we call the non-commutative representation of the original quantum algebra. The non-commutative space that arises from the construction may be interpreted as the quantum momentum space of the physical system. We derive the transform between the group representation and the non-commutative representation that generalizes in a natural way the usual Fourier transform, and discuss key properties of this new non-commutative harmonic analysis. Finally, we exhibit the explicit forms of the non-commutative Fourier transform for three elementary Lie groups: R{sup d}, U(1) and SU(2). In the second part of the thesis, we consider application of the non-commutative representation and harmonic analysis to physics. First, we apply the formalism to quantum mechanics of a point particle on a Lie group. We define the dual non-commutative momentum representation, and derive the phase
Non-commutative representation for quantum systems on Lie groups
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raasakka, Matti Tapio
2014-01-01
The topic of this thesis is a new representation for quantum systems on weakly exponential Lie groups in terms of a non-commutative algebra of functions, the associated non-commutative harmonic analysis, and some of its applications to specific physical systems. In the first part of the thesis, after a review of the necessary mathematical background, we introduce a * -algebra that is interpreted as the quantization of the canonical Poisson structure of the cotangent bundle over a Lie group. From the physics point of view, this represents the algebra of quantum observables of a physical system, whose configuration space is a Lie group. We then show that this quantum algebra can be represented either as operators acting on functions on the group, the usual group representation, or (under suitable conditions) as elements of a completion of the universal enveloping algebra of the Lie group, the algebra representation. We further apply the methods of deformation quantization to obtain a representation of the same algebra in terms of a non-commutative algebra of functions on a Euclidean space, which we call the non-commutative representation of the original quantum algebra. The non-commutative space that arises from the construction may be interpreted as the quantum momentum space of the physical system. We derive the transform between the group representation and the non-commutative representation that generalizes in a natural way the usual Fourier transform, and discuss key properties of this new non-commutative harmonic analysis. Finally, we exhibit the explicit forms of the non-commutative Fourier transform for three elementary Lie groups: R d , U(1) and SU(2). In the second part of the thesis, we consider application of the non-commutative representation and harmonic analysis to physics. First, we apply the formalism to quantum mechanics of a point particle on a Lie group. We define the dual non-commutative momentum representation, and derive the phase space path
WORM: A general-purpose input deck specification language
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, T.
1999-01-01
Using computer codes to perform criticality safety calculations has become common practice in the industry. The vast majority of these codes use simple text-based input decks to represent the geometry, materials, and other parameters that describe the problem. However, the data specified in input files are usually processed results themselves. For example, input decks tend to require the geometry specification in linear dimensions and materials in atom or weight fractions, while the parameter of interest might be mass or concentration. The calculations needed to convert from the item of interest to the required parameter in the input deck are usually performed separately and then incorporated into the input deck. This process of calculating, editing, and renaming files to perform a simple parameter study is tedious at best. In addition, most computer codes require dimensions to be specified in centimeters, while drawings or other materials used to create the input decks might be in other units. This also requires additional calculation or conversion prior to composition of the input deck. These additional calculations, while extremely simple, introduce a source for error in both the calculations and transcriptions. To overcome these difficulties, WORM (Write One, Run Many) was created. It is an easy-to-use programming language to describe input decks and can be used with any computer code that uses standard text files for input. WORM is available, via the Internet, at worm.lanl.gov. A user's guide, tutorials, example models, and other WORM-related materials are also available at this Web site. Questions regarding WORM should be directed to wormatlanl.gov
Quantifying reinforced concrete bridge deck deterioration using ground penetrating radar
Martino, Nicole Marie
Bridge decks are deteriorating at an alarming rate due to corrosion of the reinforcing steel, requiring billions of dollars to repair and replace them. Furthermore, the techniques used to assess the decks don't provide enough quantitative information. In recent years, ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been used to quantify deterioration by comparing the rebar reflection amplitudes to technologies serving as ground truth, because there is not an available amplitude threshold to distinguish healthy from corroded areas using only GPR. The goal of this research is to understand the relationship between GPR and deck deterioration, and develop a model to determine deterioration quantities with GPR alone. The beginning of this research determines that not only is the relationship between GPR and rebar corrosion stronger than the relationship between GPR and delaminations, but that the two are exceptionally correlated (90.2% and 86.6%). Next, multiple bridge decks were assessed with GPR and half-cell potential (HCP). Statistical parameters like the mean and skewness were computed for the GPR amplitudes of each deck, and coupled with actual corrosion quantities based on the HCP measurements to form a future bridge deck model that can be used to assess any deck with GPR alone. Finally, in order to understand exactly which component of rebar corrosion (rust, cracking or chloride) attenuates the GPR data, computational modeling was carried out to isolate each variable. The results indicate that chloride is the major contributor to the rebar reflection attenuation, and that computational modeling can be used to accurately simulate GPR attenuation due to chloride.
Exposure to particulate matter in traffic: A comparison of cyclists and car passengers
Int Panis, Luc; de Geus, Bas; Vandenbulcke, Grégory; Willems, Hanny; Degraeuwe, Bart; Bleux, Nico; Mishra, Vinit; Thomas, Isabelle; Meeusen, Romain
2010-06-01
Emerging evidence suggests that short episodes of high exposure to air pollution occur while commuting. These events can result in potentially adverse health effects. We present a quantification of the exposure of car passengers and cyclists to particulate matter (PM). We have simultaneously measured concentrations (PNC, PM2.5 and PM10) and ventilatory parameters (minute ventilation (VE), breathing frequency and tidal volume) in three Belgian locations (Brussels, Louvain-la-Neuve and Mol) for 55 persons (38 male and 17 female). Subjects were first driven by car and then cycled along identical routes in a pairwise design. Concentrations and lung deposition of PNC and PM mass were compared between biking trips and car trips. Mean bicycle/car ratios for PNC and PM are close to 1 and rarely significant. The size and magnitude of the differences in concentrations depend on the location which confirms similar inconsistencies reported in literature. On the other hand, the results from this study demonstrate that bicycle/car differences for inhaled quantities and lung deposited dose are large and consistent across locations. These differences are caused by increased VE in cyclists which significantly increases their exposure to traffic exhaust. The VE while riding a bicycle is 4.3 times higher compared to car passengers. This aspect has been ignored or severely underestimated in previous studies. Integrated health risk evaluations of transport modes or cycling policies should therefore use exposure estimates rather than concentrations.
Construction of coherent antistokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zidan, M. D.; Jazmati, A.
2007-01-01
Coherent Antistokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) has been built. It consists of a Raman cell, which is filled with CO 2 gas at 5 atm pressure and a frequency doubled Nd-YAG laser pumped dye laser. The two beams are focused by means of a bi-convex lens into Raman cell. The Antistokes signals (CARS signals) are generated due to Four-wave mixing process. The antistokes signals were directed to monochrometer entrance slit by prism . The signals are detected by photomultiplier detector which is fixed on the exit slit and connected to data acquisition card located inside the computed case. The dye laser frequency has to be tuned to satisfy the energy difference between the ν 1 beam (Nd- YAG laser beam) and the ν 2 beam (the stokes beam or the dye laser beam) exactly corresponds to a vibrational - rotational Raman resonance (ν 2 - ν 1 = ν M ) in the 12 CO 2 or 13 CO 2 molecule, then the antistokes signals (ν 3 ) will be generated. The spectra of the CARS signals have been recorded to determine the isotope shift of 12 CO 2 , 13 CO 2 , which is 18.3 cm -1 . (author)
GS Department
The 2010 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue stickers will receive their 2010 stickers through the internal mail from 1st December onwards. Holders of red stickers are required to go to the Registration Service (Building 55, first floor), which is open non-stop from 7.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. Mondays to Fridays, in order to obtain their new stickers. They will be asked to present documents relating to the vehicles concerned. Owners of vehicles registered on green and CD plates should disregard this message. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/SEM/LS
Car monitoring information systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alica KALAŠOVÁ
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The objective of this contribution is to characterize alternatives of information systems used for managing, processing and evaluation of information related to company vehicles. Especially we focus on logging, transferring and processing of on-road vehicle movement information in inland and international transportation. This segment of company information system has to monitor the car movement – actively or passively – according to demand of the company and after the processing it has to evaluate and give the complex monitoring of a situation of all the company vehicles to the controller.
Seiberg-Witten curves and double-elliptic integrable systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aminov, G.; Braden, H.W.; Mironov, A.; Morozov, A.; Zotov, A.
2015-01-01
An old conjecture claims that commuting Hamiltonians of the double-elliptic integrable system are constructed from the theta-functions associated with Riemann surfaces from the Seiberg-Witten family, with moduli treated as dynamical variables and the Seiberg-Witten differential providing the pre-symplectic structure. We describe a number of theta-constant equations needed to prove this conjecture for the N-particle system. These equations provide an alternative method to derive the Seiberg-Witten prepotential and we illustrate this by calculating the perturbative contribution. We provide evidence that the solutions to the commutativity equations are exhausted by the double-elliptic system and its degenerations (Calogero and Ruijsenaars systems). Further, the theta-function identities that lie behind the Poisson commutativity of the three-particle Hamiltonians are proven.
Active commuting to school: How far is too far?
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
Nelson, Norah M
2008-01-01
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Walking and cycling to school provide a convenient opportunity to incorporate physical activity into an adolescent\\'s daily routine. School proximity to residential homes has been identified as an important determinant of active commuting among children. The purpose of this study is to identify if distance is a barrier to active commuting among adolescents, and if there is a criterion distance above which adolescents choose not to walk or cycle. METHODS: Data was collected in 2003-05 from a cross-sectional cohort of 15-17 yr old adolescents in 61 post primary schools in Ireland. Participants self-reported distance, mode of transport to school and barriers to active commuting. Trained researchers took physical measurements of height and weight. The relation between mode of transport, gender and population density was examined. Distance was entered into a bivariate logistic regression model to predict mode choice, controlling for gender, population density socio-economic status and school clusters. RESULTS: Of the 4013 adolescents who participated (48.1% female, mean age 16.02 +\\/- 0.661), one third walked or cycled to school. A higher proportion of males than females commuted actively (41.0 vs. 33.8%, chi2 (1) = 22.21, p < 0.001, r = -0.074). Adolescents living in more densely populated areas had greater odds of active commuting than those in the most sparsely populated areas (chi2 (df = 3) = 839.64, p < 0.001). In each density category, active commuters travelled shorter distances to school. After controlling for gender and population density, a 1-mile increase in distance decreased the odds of active commuting by 71% (chi2 (df = 1) = 2591.86, p < 0.001). The majority of walkers lived within 1.5 miles and cyclists within 2.5 miles. Over 90% of adolescents who perceived distance as a barrier to active commuting lived further than 2.5 miles from school. CONCLUSION: Distance is an important perceived barrier to active commuting and a predictor
Fitness, Fatness and Active School Commuting among Liverpool Schoolchildren
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert J. Noonan
2017-08-01
Full Text Available This study investigated differences in health outcomes between active and passive school commuters, and examined associations between parent perceptions of the neighborhood environment and active school commuting (ASC. One hundred-ninety-four children (107 girls, aged 9–10 years from ten primary schools in Liverpool, England, participated in this cross-sectional study. Measures of stature, body mass, waist circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF were taken. School commute mode (active/passive was self-reported and parents completed the neighborhood environment walkability scale for youth. Fifty-three percent of children commuted to school actively. Schoolchildren who lived in more deprived neighborhoods perceived by parents as being highly connected, unaesthetic and having mixed land-use were more likely to commute to school actively (p < 0.05. These children were at greatest risk of being obese and aerobically unfit(p < 0.01. Our results suggest that deprivation may explain the counterintuitive relationship between obesity, CRF and ASC in Liverpool schoolchildren. These findings encourage researchers and policy makers to be equally mindful of the social determinants of health when advocating behavioral and environmental health interventions. Further research exploring contextual factors to ASC, and examining the concurrent effect of ASC and diet on weight status by deprivation is needed.
Bias Assessment of General Chemistry Analytes using Commutable Samples.
Koerbin, Gus; Tate, Jillian R; Ryan, Julie; Jones, Graham Rd; Sikaris, Ken A; Kanowski, David; Reed, Maxine; Gill, Janice; Koumantakis, George; Yen, Tina; St John, Andrew; Hickman, Peter E; Simpson, Aaron; Graham, Peter
2014-11-01
Harmonisation of reference intervals for routine general chemistry analytes has been a goal for many years. Analytical bias may prevent this harmonisation. To determine if analytical bias is present when comparing methods, the use of commutable samples, or samples that have the same properties as the clinical samples routinely analysed, should be used as reference samples to eliminate the possibility of matrix effect. The use of commutable samples has improved the identification of unacceptable analytical performance in the Netherlands and Spain. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) has undertaken a pilot study using commutable samples in an attempt to determine not only country specific reference intervals but to make them comparable between countries. Australia and New Zealand, through the Australasian Association of Clinical Biochemists (AACB), have also undertaken an assessment of analytical bias using commutable samples and determined that of the 27 general chemistry analytes studied, 19 showed sufficiently small between method biases as to not prevent harmonisation of reference intervals. Application of evidence based approaches including the determination of analytical bias using commutable material is necessary when seeking to harmonise reference intervals.
Noncommutative conformally coupled scalar field cosmology and its commutative counterpart
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barbosa, G.D.
2005-01-01
We study the implications of a noncommutative geometry of the minisuperspace variables for the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe with a conformally coupled scalar field. The investigation is carried out by means of a comparative study of the universe evolution in four different scenarios: classical commutative, classical noncommutative, quantum commutative, and quantum noncommutative, the last two employing the Bohmian formalism of quantum trajectories. The role of noncommutativity is discussed by drawing a parallel between its realizations in two possible frameworks for physical interpretation: the NC frame, where it is manifest in the universe degrees of freedom, and in the C frame, where it is manifest through θ-dependent terms in the Hamiltonian. As a result of our comparative analysis, we find that noncommutative geometry can remove singularities in the classical context for sufficiently large values of θ. Moreover, under special conditions, the classical noncommutative model can admit bouncing solutions characteristic of the commutative quantum Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe. In the quantum context, we find nonsingular universe solutions containing bounces or being periodic in the quantum commutative model. When noncommutativity effects are turned on in the quantum scenario, they can introduce significant modifications that change the singular behavior of the universe solutions or that render them dynamical whenever they are static in the commutative case. The effects of noncommutativity are completely specified only when one of the frames for its realization is adopted as the physical one. Nonsingular solutions in the NC frame can be mapped into singular ones in the C frame
Klein, S.; Smrcek, L.
2009-01-01
This paper is primarily concerned with the inverted design process and manufacture of a flying car prototype which can overcome the problem of traffic management in the world today. A possible solution to the problem of overcrowded roads would be to design a flying or hovering car. Given technological advances in aircraft construction, navigation and operation, flying cars or personal aircraft are now a feasible proposition. The viability of such a concept was investigated in terms of produci...
Azar, Jose
2009-01-01
This paper studies the joint dynamics of oil prices and interest in electric cars, measured as the volume of Google searches for related phrases. Not surprisingly, I find that oil price shocks predict increases in Google searches for electric cars. Much more surprisingly, I also find that an increase in Google searches predicts declines in oil prices. The high level of public interest in electric cars between April and August of 2008 can explain approximately half of the decline in oil prices...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gruetter, J.M.
2000-01-01
This reports for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on the possible ways of declaring product information on cars. The basic elements of such a declaration are discussed and a recommendation for an energy label for cars is presented. The report discusses the fundamental questions posed such as how long a label should be valid, if comparisons should be made and if it is to be based on CO 2 -emissions or on fuel consumption. Also, the criteria to be used for comparisons - such as vehicle weight, size or power - are looked at and methods of classification are examined along with data fundamentals. Further, the expectations placed on the product declarations with respect to their energetic and economic impact are discussed. The design of the label and the legislature on which it is based are discussed and initial reactions of the automobile industry are noted. The report is rounded off by a discussion of the effects of the declaration in relation to other instruments that have been proposed
Proton - Malaysia's national car project
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fleming, Daniel; Søborg, Henrik
2017-01-01
The rise and development of the Malaysian national car project. How this project has become an esential part of the industrial development in Malaysia and how it has underpinned a growing middle class consumption culture with house and car as it pivotal goods.......The rise and development of the Malaysian national car project. How this project has become an esential part of the industrial development in Malaysia and how it has underpinned a growing middle class consumption culture with house and car as it pivotal goods....
Background free CARS imaging by phase sensitive heterodyne CARS
Jurna, M.; Korterik, Jeroen P.; Otto, Cornelis; Herek, Jennifer Lynn; Offerhaus, Herman L.
2008-01-01
In this article we show that heterodyne CARS, based on a controlled and stable phase-preserving chain, can be used to measure amplitude and phase information of molecular vibration modes. The technique is validated by a comparison of the imaginary part of the heterodyne CARS spectrum to the
Modes and Moods of Mobility: Tourists and Commuters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Orvar Löfgren
2015-06-01
Full Text Available What can we learn from comparing different modes and moods of travel, among, for example, tourists and commuters? This paper contrasts these two very different kinds of mobility, and the ways in which they organise both motion and emotion. It is not only a question about how people interact with various systems of transport, but also how materialities and affects work together. An important topic is the question of how people acquire travelling skills. How do they learn to be a tourist or a commuter, to handle a train ride, navigate a transit space, or interact with strangers? A good reason to contrast commuters and tourists is also because they have often been studied within very different research paradigms. How can these different research traditions be put into a dialogue with each other, and help to develop methods for capturing the often elusive ways in which motion and emotion work together?
QPFT operator algebras and commutative exterior differential calculus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yur'ev, D.V.
1993-01-01
The reduction of the structure theory of the operator algebras of quantum projective (sl(2, C)-invariant) field theory (QPFT operator algebras) to a commutative exterior differential calculus by means of the operation of renormalization of a pointwise product of operator fields is described. In the first section, the author introduces the concept of the operator algebra of quantum field theory and describes the operation of the renormalization of a pointwise product of operator fields. The second section is devoted to a brief exposition of the fundamentals of the structure theory of QPT operator algebras. The third section is devoted to commutative exterior differential calculus. In the fourth section, the author establishes the connection between the renormalized pointwise product of operator fields in QPFT operator algebras and the commutative exterior differential calculus. 5 refs
Optimization of polynomials in non-commuting variables
Burgdorf, Sabine; Povh, Janez
2016-01-01
This book presents recent results on positivity and optimization of polynomials in non-commuting variables. Researchers in non-commutative algebraic geometry, control theory, system engineering, optimization, quantum physics and information science will find the unified notation and mixture of algebraic geometry and mathematical programming useful. Theoretical results are matched with algorithmic considerations; several examples and information on how to use NCSOStools open source package to obtain the results provided. Results are presented on detecting the eigenvalue and trace positivity of polynomials in non-commuting variables using Newton chip method and Newton cyclic chip method, relaxations for constrained and unconstrained optimization problems, semidefinite programming formulations of the relaxations and finite convergence of the hierarchies of these relaxations, and the practical efficiency of algorithms.
Some commutativity theorems for a certain class of rings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khan, M.A.
1994-08-01
In the present paper we first establish the commutativity theorem for semiprime ring satisfying the polynomial identity [x n ,y]x r = ±y s [x,y m ]y t for all x,y in R, where m,n,r,s and t are fixed nonnegative integers, and further, we investigate commutativity of rings with unity under some additional hypothesis. Moreover, it is also shown that the above result is true for s-unital. Also, we provide some counter examples which show that the hypothesis of our theorems are not altogether superfluous. The results of this paper generalize some of the well-known commutativity theorems for rings which are right s-unital. (author). 21 refs
Emergent classicality via commuting position and momentum operators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Halliwell, J J, E-mail: j.halliwell@ic.ac.u [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)
2009-06-01
Any account of the emergence of classicality from quantum theory must address the fact that the quantum operators representing positions and momenta do not commute, whereas their classical counterparts suffer no such restrictions. To address this, we revive an old idea of von Neumann, and seek a pair of commuting operators X, P which are, in a specific sense, 'close' to the canonical non-commuting position and momentum operators, x,p. The construction of such operators is related to the problem of finding complete sets of orthonormal phase space localized states, a problem severely limited by the Balian-Low theorem. Here these limitations are avoided by restricting attention to situations in which the density matrix is reasonably decohered (i.e., spread out in phase space).
A Study on The Marriage Phenomenolgy of Commuter Marriage Spouse
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B’tari Sekar Nastiti
2017-08-01
Full Text Available In general, the marriage is lived by a spouse who lives together and cooperates with each other to shape the family. Recently, many couples do not live together, but in a distant city, and are called a long-distance marriage or a commuter marriage. From many reasons that create the long distance marriage, one of which is the job. The aim of this study is to find out the condition of the marriage life in commuter marriage and the dynamics on perceived marital satisfaction. This research method uses the qualitative method. Subjects in this study are 3 pairs of husband and wife practicing commuter marriage, which has a minimum marriage age of 5 years and has at least one child. The research result has shown that wives tend to experience dissatisfaction in the marriage, while the husbands feel quite happy in the marriage.
Non-commutative flux representation for loop quantum gravity
Baratin, A.; Dittrich, B.; Oriti, D.; Tambornino, J.
2011-09-01
The Hilbert space of loop quantum gravity is usually described in terms of cylindrical functionals of the gauge connection, the electric fluxes acting as non-commuting derivation operators. It has long been believed that this non-commutativity prevents a dual flux (or triad) representation of loop quantum gravity to exist. We show here, instead, that such a representation can be explicitly defined, by means of a non-commutative Fourier transform defined on the loop gravity state space. In this dual representation, flux operators act by sstarf-multiplication and holonomy operators act by translation. We describe the gauge invariant dual states and discuss their geometrical meaning. Finally, we apply the construction to the simpler case of a U(1) gauge group and compare the resulting flux representation with the triad representation used in loop quantum cosmology.
Mäki-Opas, Tomi E; Borodulin, Katja; Valkeinen, Heli; Stenholm, Sari; Kunst, Anton E; Abel, Thomas; Härkänen, Tommi; Kopperoinen, Leena; Itkonen, Pekka; Prättälä, Ritva; Karvonen, Sakari; Koskinen, Seppo
2016-08-11
and cycling infrastructure may play an important role in promoting commuting physical activity among the employed population, regardless of educational background, leisure-time and occupational physical activity. Close proximity to green space and a high proportion of green space near the home may not be sufficient to initiate commuting physical activity in Finland, where homes surrounded by green areas are often situated in car-oriented zones far from work places.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tomi E. Mäki-Opas
2016-08-01
likely to be physically active while commuting. Conclusions Good pedestrian and cycling infrastructure may play an important role in promoting commuting physical activity among the employed population, regardless of educational background, leisure-time and occupational physical activity. Close proximity to green space and a high proportion of green space near the home may not be sufficient to initiate commuting physical activity in Finland, where homes surrounded by green areas are often situated in car-oriented zones far from work places.
2009-10-01
In this study, the concept of the hybrid FRP-concrete structural systems was applied to both bridge : superstructure and deck systems. Results from the both experimental and computational analysis for : both the hybrid bridge superstructure and deck ...
2009-01-01
Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite cellular deck systems were used as new bridge decks on two replacement bridges on Tangier Island, Virginia. The most important characteristics of this application were reduced self-weight and increased durabil...
Dynamic assessment of bridge deck performance considering realistic bridge-traffic interaction
2017-09-01
Concrete bridge decks are directly exposed to daily traffic loads and may experience some surface cracking caused by excessive stress or fatigue accumulation, which requires repair or replacement. Among typical bridges in North America, bridge decks ...
2017-09-01
This study is to develop simulation methodology to conduct the dynamic assessment of bridge deck performance subjected to traffic. Concrete bridge decks are exposed to daily traffic loads and may experience some surface cracking caused by excessive s...
Aircraft Carrier Flight and Hangar Deck Fire Protection: History and Current Status
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Darwin, Robert L; Bowman, Howard L; Hunstad, Mary; Leach, William B; Williams, Frederick W
2005-01-01
.... Next, a review of firefighting systems, including the firefighting agents currently in use, as well as the current tactics for fighting fires on the flight deck and the hangar deck, is provided...
"The Battery" designed with Super-Light (concrete) Decks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Castberg, Niels Andreas; Hertz, Kristian Dahl
This paper describes how Super-Light structures can be used as a structural principle for the buildings in the project ‘The Battery’ designed by Bjarke Ingels Group. The overall structural concept is described and the advantages of using super-light slabs for the project are explored. Especially...... the cantilevered internal corridors are investigated. Super-Light Structures is a newly patented structural concrete concept. Slabs based on the concept are the first structural element developed under the patent. The slabs called SL-decks have multiple advantages compared to traditional hollow core slabs....... The paper aims to describe the concept of how the deck can be used in these innovative buildings and how the special advantages of the SL-decks are applied....
Issues in bridge deck damage evaluation using aerial photos
Natarajan, M.; Chen, S. E.; Boyle, C.; Martin, E.; Hauser, E.
2012-04-01
Small format aerial photography (SFAP) with low flying technique is proposed for damage evaluation of bridge decks. High resolution images obtained using under-belly photography can be used to quantify the various bridge deck problems. The conventional truck-mount or vehicle-mount deck imaging technologies require a large number of image samples. Hence the physical scanning is time consuming and it is also challenging consider the size and location of a bridge. Aerial imaging overcomes these issues, but they face different kinds of challenges that are posed by obstacles such as shadow from trees, power lines and vehicles, signs and luminaries structures. The image resolution uncertainty, which is a function of the pilot skills and flying conditions, may also add additional challenges to aerial imaging technique. Hence different image processing tools have to be integrated into a single package to achieve the desired task. This paper summarizes the challenges faced and the preliminary results are presented and discussed.
Cyclists' Behaviour: identification of factors on commuting by bicycle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kátia Andrade
2013-12-01
Full Text Available In Japan, cycling is a widely accepted transportation mode and often used for commuting or other purposes. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the reasons that motivate people to cycle, even though the Japanese transportation policies towards cycling are somewhat limited when compared to other countries with high cycling levels. Behavioural and statistical analyses are presented with a focus on unimodal commuting trips. In the behavioural analysis, commuters’ views on cycling are presented. In the statistical analysis, Nested Logit models are estimated to assess factors with strong influence on cycling. This paper contributes to further understanding the behaviour of active cyclists.
Modular Theory, Non-Commutative Geometry and Quantum Gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wicharn Lewkeeratiyutkul
2010-08-01
Full Text Available This paper contains the first written exposition of some ideas (announced in a previous survey on an approach to quantum gravity based on Tomita-Takesaki modular theory and A. Connes non-commutative geometry aiming at the reconstruction of spectral geometries from an operational formalism of states and categories of observables in a covariant theory. Care has been taken to provide a coverage of the relevant background on modular theory, its applications in non-commutative geometry and physics and to the detailed discussion of the main foundational issues raised by the proposal.
Seasonal and socio-demographic determinants of school commuting
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjørkelund Børrestad, Line Anita; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bere, Elling
2011-01-01
OBJECTIVE: To report prevalence of commuting to school in Norway with regard to season, gender, parental education level, ethnicity and distance to school. METHODS: Cross-sectional questionnaire data from the Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks project collected in 2008, including 1,339 ten...... to twelve-year-old children from 27 schools. The participants were categorized according to main mode of commuting to school in the three different school seasons (fall, winter and spring) and for the full school year if more than 50% of all trips were conducted by one specific mode. RESULTS: Most pupils...
Decreasing the commutation failure frequency in HVDC transmission systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen (retired June, 2000), Arne; Havemann (retired June, 2000), Henrik
2000-01-01
In this paper we show how a fairly large proportion of those commutation failures that are due to single-phased short circuits to earth can be avoided. In a control circuit based on a digital signal processor (DSP) it is possible, with instantaneous results, to switch from a normal control strategy...... with equidistant firing pulses to a strategy that takes into consideration the potentially dangerous voltage changes on the supply lines, If the supply voltages are monitored continuously, it is possible to calculate the necessity of advancing the firing pulses to avoid commutation failures. In the paper...
Non-commutative covering spaces and their symmetries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Canlubo, Clarisson
dened and its corresponding Galois theory. Using this and basic concepts from algebraic geometryand spectral theory, we will give a full description of the general structure of non-centralcoverings. Examples of coverings of the rational and irrational non-commutative tori will alsobe studied. Using...... will explain this and relate it to bi-Galois theory.Using the OZ-transform, we will show that non-commutative covering spaces come in pairs.Several categories of covering spaces will be dened and studied. Appealing to Tannaka duality,we will explain how this lead to a notion of an etale fundamental group...
Features of Synchronous Electronically Commutated Motors in Servomotor Operation Modes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dirba J.
2017-04-01
Full Text Available The authors consider the features and operation specifics of the synchronous permanent magnet motors and the synchronous reluctance motors with electronic commutation in servomotor operation modes. Calculation results show that mechanical and control characteristics of studied motors are close to a linear shape. The studied motor control is proposed to implement similar to phase control of induction servomotor; it means that angle θ (angle between vectors of the supply voltage and non-load electromotive force or angle ε (angle between rotor direct axis and armature magnetomotive force axis is changed. The analysis results show that synchronous electronically commutated motors could be used as servomotors.
Features of Synchronous Electronically Commutated Motors in Servomotor Operation Modes
Dirba, J.; Lavrinovicha, L.; Dobriyan, R.
2017-04-01
The authors consider the features and operation specifics of the synchronous permanent magnet motors and the synchronous reluctance motors with electronic commutation in servomotor operation modes. Calculation results show that mechanical and control characteristics of studied motors are close to a linear shape. The studied motor control is proposed to implement similar to phase control of induction servomotor; it means that angle θ (angle between vectors of the supply voltage and non-load electromotive force) or angle ɛ (angle between rotor direct axis and armature magnetomotive force axis) is changed. The analysis results show that synchronous electronically commutated motors could be used as servomotors.
Minute ventilation of cyclists, car and bus passengers: an experimental study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hazel Peter
2009-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in minute ventilation between cyclists, pedestrians and other commuters influence inhaled doses of air pollution. This study estimates minute ventilation of cyclists, car and bus passengers, as part of a study on health effects of commuters' exposure to air pollutants. Methods Thirty-four participants performed a submaximal test on a bicycle ergometer, during which heart rate and minute ventilation were measured simultaneously at increasing cycling intensity. Individual regression equations were calculated between heart rate and the natural log of minute ventilation. Heart rates were recorded during 280 two hour trips by bicycle, bus and car and were calculated into minute ventilation levels using the individual regression coefficients. Results Minute ventilation during bicycle rides were on average 2.1 times higher than in the car (individual range from 1.3 to 5.3 and 2.0 times higher than in the bus (individual range from 1.3 to 5.1. The ratio of minute ventilation of cycling compared to travelling by bus or car was higher in women than in men. Substantial differences in regression equations were found between individuals. The use of individual regression equations instead of average regression equations resulted in substantially better predictions of individual minute ventilations. Conclusion The comparability of the gender-specific overall regression equations linking heart rate and minute ventilation with one previous American study, supports that for studies on the group level overall equations can be used. For estimating individual doses, the use of individual regression coefficients provides more precise data. Minute ventilation levels of cyclists are on average two times higher than of bus and car passengers, consistent with the ratio found in one small previous study of young adults. The study illustrates the importance of inclusion of minute ventilation data in comparing air pollution doses between
Minute ventilation of cyclists, car and bus passengers: an experimental study.
Zuurbier, Moniek; Hoek, Gerard; van den Hazel, Peter; Brunekreef, Bert
2009-10-27
Differences in minute ventilation between cyclists, pedestrians and other commuters influence inhaled doses of air pollution. This study estimates minute ventilation of cyclists, car and bus passengers, as part of a study on health effects of commuters' exposure to air pollutants. Thirty-four participants performed a submaximal test on a bicycle ergometer, during which heart rate and minute ventilation were measured simultaneously at increasing cycling intensity. Individual regression equations were calculated between heart rate and the natural log of minute ventilation. Heart rates were recorded during 280 two hour trips by bicycle, bus and car and were calculated into minute ventilation levels using the individual regression coefficients. Minute ventilation during bicycle rides were on average 2.1 times higher than in the car (individual range from 1.3 to 5.3) and 2.0 times higher than in the bus (individual range from 1.3 to 5.1). The ratio of minute ventilation of cycling compared to travelling by bus or car was higher in women than in men. Substantial differences in regression equations were found between individuals. The use of individual regression equations instead of average regression equations resulted in substantially better predictions of individual minute ventilations. The comparability of the gender-specific overall regression equations linking heart rate and minute ventilation with one previous American study, supports that for studies on the group level overall equations can be used. For estimating individual doses, the use of individual regression coefficients provides more precise data. Minute ventilation levels of cyclists are on average two times higher than of bus and car passengers, consistent with the ratio found in one small previous study of young adults. The study illustrates the importance of inclusion of minute ventilation data in comparing air pollution doses between different modes of transport.
PARAMETRIC STUDY OF SKEW ANGLE ON BOX GIRDER BRIDGE DECK
Shrikant D. Bobade *, Dr. Valsson Varghese
2016-01-01
Box girder bridge deck, is the most common type of bridges in world and India, it consists of several Slab or girders. The span in the direction of the roadway and connected across their tops and bottoms by a thin continuous structural stab, the longitudinal box girders can be made of steel or concrete. The Simple supported single span concrete bridge deck is presented in present study. Skewed bridges are suitable in highway design when the geometry of straight bridges is not possible. The sk...
Daanen, H.A.M.; Teunissen, L.P.J.; Hoogh, I.M. de
2012-01-01
During the initial minutes after entering a cold car, people feel uncomfortably cold. Six different warming systems were investigated in a small car in order to find out how to improve the feeling of comfort using 16 volunteers. The methods were: no additional warming next to a standard heating
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Kaj
1998-01-01
Analysis of the Danish sale and stock of passenger cars, focusing particularly on aspects influencing energy use. The project has tracked the development of vehicle weight, power and fuel economy for both the sale of new cars (from 1980 to 1997)and the stock. In addition, the energy use...
2010-01-01
This brochure provides some helpful tips on what to look for when shopping for a safer car. Automakers are increasingly advertising the safety features of their cars. The problem is sorting out their claims and zeroing in on the safety features that ...
Vlad Cârstea
2008-01-01
Automotive industry is a very important economic sector that is highly responsive to changes in the world economy. The fuel price is the biggest enemy of car manufacturers. This is a compared analysis between Europe and Romania regarding new car registrations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vinot, Simon
2013-10-01
Car-sharing is a new mode of transportation that consists of multiple users sharing the same vehicle. This type of service is expanding with the arrival of larger players, such as traditional car rental companies, automotive manufacturers, and large firms specializing in transportation. This new mode of transportation offers real potential and is currently finding its users, in France and worldwide. (author)
46 CFR 109.575 - Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks.
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks. 109.575... DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.575 Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks. The master or person in charge shall ensure that no liquids are allowed to accumulate on the helicopter decks. ...
Associations between long commutes and subjective health complaints among railway workers in Norway
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Terhi Urhonen
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Commuting is an important aspect of daily life for many employees, but there is little knowledge of how this affects individual commuters' health and well-being. The authors investigated the relationship between commuting and subjective health complaints, using data from a web-based questionnaire. In a sample of 2126 railway employees, 644 (30.3% had long commute times. A 29-item inventory was used to measure the number and degree of the subjective health complaints. Those who commuted 60 min or more each way were characterized by significantly higher numbers and degrees of subjective health complaints compared with their peers with short commutes. The mean number of complaints was 7.5 among the former group and 6.4 for the latter group (p = 0.009. In a regression model, in which the authors controlled for age, gender, education, self-rated health, and coping, the employees with long commutes reported more complaints than those with short commutes. Significant associations were found between those with long commutes and the number and degree of incidences of self-reported musculoskeletal pain, pseudo-neurologic complaints, and gastrointestinal problems. Commuters who had had long commutes for more than 10 years reported more gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal complaints than those with long commutes for less than 2 years. Also, commuters with long commutes spent less time with their families and leisure activities compared with those with short commutes. The authors conclude that the association between long commute times and higher levels of subjective health complaints should attract the attention of transport planners, employers, and public health policymaker.
Analyses of commuting distances and times in the household context: The case of Berlin
Beige, Sigrun
2012-01-01
Commuting is the consequence of a spatial discrepancy between the residential and occupational locations. Commuting distance and time are changed either by residential or occupational mobility. Residential locations are by their very nature chosen at the household level. These joint decisions determine commuting distances and times of each employed household member, leading to a sort of commuting collaboration between the spouses. Multiple-earner households have to adapt their residential loc...
Point-splitting analysis of commutator anomalies in non-abelian chiral gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghosh, S.; Banerjee, R.
1988-01-01
A gauge covariant point-splitting regularisation is employed to calculate different anomalous commutators in four dimensional chiral gauge theories. For an external gauge field the fixed time anomalous commutator of the gauge group generators is seen to violate the Jacobi identity. The cohomological prediction can be confirmed provided the electric fields do not commute. Other commutators like the current-current and current-electric field are consistent with the Bjorken-Johnson-Low (BJL) derivation. (orig.)
Are workers with a long commute less productive? An empirical analysis of absenteeism
van Ommeren, J.N.; Gutierrez Puigarnau, E.
2011-01-01
We hypothesise, and test for, a negative effect of the length of the worker's commute on worker's productivity, by examining whether the commute has a positive effect on worker's absenteeism. We identify this effect using employer-induced changes in commuting distance. Our estimates for Germany
Impacts of urban sprawl and commuting: A modelling study for Italy
Travisi, C.M.; Camagni, R.; Nijkamp, P.
2010-01-01
This paper aims to analyse empirically the intricate relationship between urban sprawl and commuting, a process that started a few decades ago in Italy. Using a mobility impact index based on commuting data for 1981 and 1991, we quantify the impact of commuting for seven major Italian urban areas,
20 CFR 704.102 - Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents.
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commutation of payments to aliens and... LHWCA EXTENSIONS Defense Base Act § 704.102 Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents. Authority to commute payments to aliens and nonnationals who are not residents of the United States and...
The commuter family as a geographical adaptive strategy for the work-family balance
van der Klis, M.; Karsten, L.
2009-01-01
In this paper we raise the question of how commuter families create a work-family balance in a situation of incongruity of the geographical scales of work and family. Commuter families combine the work location of a commuting parent on the (inter)national scale, with the home-based parent's work
49 CFR 172.330 - Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.330..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.330 Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a... material— (1) In a tank car unless the following conditions are met: (i) The tank car must be marked on...
49 CFR 1247.1 - Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS REPORT OF CARS LOADED AND CARS TERMINATED § 1247.1 Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated. Beginning with the...
Full-Scale Evaluation of DuraDeck (registered trademark) and MegaDeck (trademark) Matting Systems
2013-07-01
plates studded with threaded bolts were placed ERDC/GSL TR-13-27 10 underneath two pre-drilled corners of the panel. The plates were positioned so...metal plates studded with threaded ERDC/GSL TR-13-27 4 Figure 1. DuraDeck® mat panel, top surface. Figure 2. DuraDeck® mat panel, bottom surface...ERDC/GSL TR-13-27 5 bolts , as shown in Figure 3, underneath the mat corners and then installing special connector nuts from the top surface
AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats
... Size Email Print Share AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats Page Content Article Body Children should ride ... of approved car safety seats. Healthy Children Radio: Car Seat Safety Dennis Durbin, MD, FAAP, lead author ...
McNabola, Aonghus; Broderick, Brian M; Gill, Laurence W
2009-10-01
Principal component analysis was used to examine air pollution personal exposure data of four urban commuter transport modes for their interrelationships between pollutants and relationships with traffic and meteorological data. Air quality samples of PM2.5 and VOCs were recorded during peak traffic congestion for the car, bus, cyclist and pedestrian between January 2005 and June 2006 on a busy route in Dublin, Ireland. In total, 200 personal exposure samples were recorded each comprising 17 variables describing the personal exposure concentrations, meteorological conditions and traffic conditions. The data reduction technique, principal component analysis (PCA), was used to create weighted linear combinations of the data and these were subsequently examined for interrelationships between the many variables recorded. The results of the PCA found that personal exposure concentrations in non-motorised forms of transport were influenced to a higher degree by wind speed, whereas personal exposure concentrations in motorised forms of transport were influenced to a higher degree by traffic congestion. The findings of the investigation show that the most effective mechanisms of personal exposure reduction differ between motorised and non-motorised modes of commuter transport.
Limits of commutative triangular systems on locally compact groups
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Commutative triangular systems of probability measures on locally compact groups have been studied extensively and ... in [S3,S4], we extend our earlier result to some particular triangular systems on algebraic groups. We also discuss ..... Now G can be embedded as a closed subgroup in. G2 ¼ G1=D and G0. 2 ¼ ًG0 آ ...
On some classes of unbounded commutants of unbounded operator families
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shabani, J.
1985-08-01
We consider some classes of unbounded commutants and bicommutants and we investigate their behaviour with respect to the quasi weak* topology which seems to play here the role of the weak topology for bounded operators. In particular we give some sufficient conditions in order that the bicommutants be the quasi weak* closure of the original set of operators. (author)
Groups of automorphisms of the canonical commutation and anticommutation relations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grosse, H.; Pittner, L.
1987-01-01
Observables of supersymmetric quantum mechanics are coded by taking the antisymmetric tensor product with anticommuting parameters. Next we define superunitary transformations, which mix bosonic and fermionic degrees of freedom, in order to construct automorphisms of the canonical (anti-) commutation relations. Conversely, every automorphism of the C(A)CR is implemented by an essentially unique superunitary transformation. 12 refs. (Author)
The M5-brane and non-commutative open strings
Bergshoeff, E.; Berman, D.S.; Schaar, J.P. van der; Sundell, P.
2001-01-01
The M-theory origin of non-commutative open-string theory is examined by investigating the M-theory 5-brane at near critical field strength. In particular, it is argued that the open-membrane metric provides the appropriate moduli when calculating the duality relations between M and II
On Subgroups of Non-Commutative General Rhotrix Group ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper considers the pair (GRn(F),o) consisting of the set of all invertible rhotrices of size n over an arbitrary field F; and together with the binary operation of row-column based method for rhotrix multiplication; 'o' , in order to introduce it as the concept of “non commutative general rhotrix group”. We identify a number of ...
Notes on algebraic invariants for non-commutative dynamical systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Longo, R [Rome Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Matematica
1979-11-01
We consider an algebraic invariant for non-commutative dynamical systems naturally arising as the spectrum of the modular operator associated to an invariant state, provided certain conditions of mixing type are present. This invariant turns out to be exactly the annihilator of the invariant T of Connes. Further comments are included, in particular on the type of certain algebras of local observables
A generalization of zero divisor graphs associated to commutative ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M. Afkhami
2018-03-19
Mar 19, 2018 ... R . We also determine all isomorphic classes of finite commutative rings whose generalized zero divisor graphs have genus at most three. Keywords. Zero divisor graph; lower triangular matrix; genus; complete graph. 2010 Mathematics Subject Classification. 15B33, 05C10, 05C25, 05C45. 1. Introduction.
African Women Commuter Traders in Nairobi in the First Decade ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This article investigates African women commuter trading activities in Nairobi in the first decade after World War One. Its findings derive mainly from a research project carried out in 1989-1996. The major source of data for the study was oral interviews with the women who traded in Nairobi during the years under study, ...
Exploratory mapping of commuter flows in England and Wales
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Hovgesen, Henrik Harder; Lassen, Claus
2005-01-01
The availability of representative and disaggregate interaction data allows for a new range of “realistic” analysis with geographical information systems and spatial statistics. The paper uses the origin-destination commute data published from Census 2001 to analyse interaction patterns generally...
Commutative $C^*$-algebras and $\\sigma$-normal morphisms
de Jeu, Marcel
2003-01-01
We prove in an elementary fashion that the image of a commutative monotone $\\sigma$-complete $C^*$-algebra under a $\\sigma$-normal morphism is again monotone $\\sigma$-complete and give an application of this result in spectral theory.
Commuter Effects on Local Labour Markets: A German Modelling Study
Russo, G.; Tedeschi, F.; Reggiani, A.; Nijkamp, P.
2014-01-01
This paper offers an exploratory investigation of the effects of inbound commuter flows on employment in regional labour markets in Germany. For this purpose, the paper distinguishes three main channels that may transmit the effects concerned: a crowding-out mechanism and two labour demand
Limit algebras of differential forms in non-commutative geometry
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The holomorphic functional calculus closure of Connes' non- commutative de Rham algebra. ∗. D. (p. 549 of [C]) leads to a couple of operator algebras which are briefly discussed in this section. In §5, which contains the main contributions of the paper, quantized integrals are constructed on ∞A by using Dixmier trace ...
Regenerative Snubber For GTO-Commutated SCR Inverter
Rippel, Wally E.; Edwards, Dean B.
1992-01-01
Proposed regenerative snubbing circuit substituted for dissipative snubbing circuit in inverter based on silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR's) commutated by gate-turn-off thyristor (GTO). Intended to reduce loss of power that occurs in dissipative snubber. Principal criteria in design: low cost, simplicity, and reliability.
A new method of converter transformer protection without commutation failure
Zhang, Jiayu; Kong, Bo; Liu, Mingchang; Zhang, Jun; Guo, Jianhong; Jing, Xu
2018-01-01
With the development of AC / DC hybrid transmission technology, converter transformer as nodes of AC and DC conversion of HVDC transmission technology, its reliable safe and stable operation plays an important role in the DC transmission. As a common problem of DC transmission, commutation failure poses a serious threat to the safe and stable operation of power grid. According to the commutation relation between the AC bus voltage of converter station and the output DC voltage of converter, the generalized transformation ratio is defined, and a new method of converter transformer protection based on generalized transformation ratio is put forward. The method uses generalized ratio to realize the on-line monitoring of the fault or abnormal commutation components, and the use of valve side of converter transformer bushing CT current characteristics of converter transformer fault accurately, and is not influenced by the presence of commutation failure. Through the fault analysis and EMTDC/PSCAD simulation, the protection can be operated correctly under the condition of various faults of the converter.
quasi hyperrigidity and weak peak points for non-commutative ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
7
Abstract. In this article, we introduce the notions of weak boundary repre- sentation, quasi hyperrigidity and weak peak points in the non-commutative setting for operator systems in C∗-algebras. An analogue of Saskin's theorem relating quasi hyperrigidity and weak Choquet boundary for particular classes of C∗-algebras is ...
On W algebras commuting with a set of screenings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Litvinov, Alexey [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics,Akademika Semenova av., 1-A , Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Kharkevich Institute for Information Transmission Problems,Bolshoy Karetny per. 19-1, Moscow, 127051 (Russian Federation); Spodyneiko, Lev [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics,Akademika Semenova av., 1-A , Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); California Institute of Technology, Department of Physics,1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, 91125 (United States)
2016-11-22
We consider the problem of classification of all W algebras which commute with a set of exponential screening operators. Assuming that the W algebra has a nontrivial current of spin 3, we find equations satisfied by the screening operators and classify their solutions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Van Dasselaar, J.; Jonker, C.
2011-01-15
Based on the results of a study on electric bicycles the following research question and related subquestions have been answered: What are the requirements, wishes and needs of commuters to make them use e-bikes instead of the car to go to work, and thus decrease traffic jams? Based on the results, recommendations were made to the municipality of Groningen, Netherlands [Dutch] Met behulp van het onderzoek naar fietsen met elektrische trapondersteuning is er antwoord gegeven op de volgende onderzoeksvraag met de bijbehorende deelvragen: Aan welke eisen, wensen en behoeften moet een E-Bike voor forenzen voldoen waardoor ze minder vaak de auto pakken en daardoor minder files komen? Op basis van de resultaten is advies uitgebracht aan de gemeente Groningen.
On the typography of flight-deck documentation
Degani, Asaf
1992-01-01
Many types of paper documentation are employed on the flight-deck. They range from a simple checklist card to a bulky Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM). Some of these documentations have typographical and graphical deficiencies; yet, many cockpit tasks such as conducting checklists, way-point entry, limitations and performance calculations, and many more, require the use of these documents. Moreover, during emergency and abnormal situations, the flight crews' effectiveness in combating the situation is highly dependent on such documentation; accessing and reading procedures has a significant impact on flight safety. Although flight-deck documentation are an important (and sometimes critical) form of display in the modern cockpit, there is a dearth of information on how to effectively design these displays. The object of this report is to provide a summary of the available literature regarding the design and typographical aspects of printed matter. The report attempts 'to bridge' the gap between basic research about typography, and the kind of information needed by designers of flight-deck documentation. The report focuses on typographical factors such as type-faces, character height, use of lower- and upper-case characters, line length, and spacing. Some graphical aspects such as layout, color coding, fonts, and character contrast are also discussed. In addition, several aspects of cockpit reading conditions such as glare, angular alignment, and paper quality are addressed. Finally, a list of recommendations for the graphical design of flight-deck documentation is provided.
A FORM ANALYSIS OF JAPANESE PEDESTRIAN DECKS AND EUROPEAN PLAZAS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ANDO Naomi
2015-06-01
Full Text Available This study compares Japanese pedestrian decks and European plazas as public pedestrian spaces. The characteristics of both types of spaces will be clarified through a schematic analysis. The connections of these spaces with their surroundings will also be analyzed. Further, the spatial image of these spaces are discussed. Pedestrian spaces in Romania will be discussed as well.
Compressive Membrane Action in Prestressed Concrete Deck Slabs
Amir, S.
2014-01-01
One of the most important questions that structural engineers all over the world are dealing with is the safety of the existing structures. In the Netherlands, there are a large number of transversely prestressed bridge decks that have been built in the last century and now need to be investigated
The effect of floating deck structures on underwater radiated noise
Bosschaart, C.; Jansen, H.W.; Jong, C.A.F. de; Basten, T.
2017-01-01
A concept for underwater machinery noise mitigation of future civil and military ships is the application of a common deck structure, supporting multiple machines, which is installed on resilient mounts on the ship's foundation structure. TNO is addressing the availability and testing of tools to be
Development of MIDAS/SMR Input Deck for SMART
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, S. W.; Oh, H. K.; Lee, J. M.; Lee, J. H.; Yoo, K. J.; Kwun, S. K.; Hur, H.
2010-01-01
The objective of this study is to develop MIDAS/SMR code basic input deck for the severe accidents by simulating the steady state for the SMART plant. SMART plant is an integrated reactor developed by KAERI. For the assessment of reactor safety and severe accident management strategy, it is necessary to simulate severe accidents using the MIDAS/SMR code which is being developed by KAERI. The input deck of the MIDAS/SMR code for the SMART plant is prepared to simulate severe accident sequences for the users who are not familiar with the code. A steady state is obtained and the results are compared with design values. The input deck will be improved through the simulation of the DBAs and severe accidents. The base input deck of the MIDAS/SMR code can be used to simulate severe accident scenarios after improvement. Source terms and hydrogen generation can be analyzed through the simulation of the severe accident. The information gained from analyses of severe accidents is expected to be helpful to develop the severe accident management strategy
a finite element model for the analysis of bridge decks
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Dr Obe
A FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR THE ANALYSIS OF BRIDGE DECKS. NIGERIAN JOURNAL OF TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 27 NO.1, MARCH 2008. 59. (a) Beam-plate system. (b) T-beam structural model. Fig. 1 Beam-plate structure idealisations. The matrix displacement method of analysis is used. The continuum structure is.
Life-Cycle Inventory Analysis of Manufacturing Redwood Decking
Richard D. Bergman; Han-Sup Han; Elaine Oneil; Ivan L. Eastin
2012-01-01
Green building has become increasingly important. Therefore, consumers and builders often take into account the environmental attributes of a building material. This study determined the environmental attributes associated with manufacturing 38-mm Ã 138-mm (nominal 2 Ã 6) redwood decking in northern California using the life-cycle inventory method. Primary data...
Fatigue Properties of Orthotropic Decks on Railway Bridges
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Frýba, Ladislav; Gajdoš, Lubomír
1999-01-01
Roč. 21, č. 7 (1999), s. 639-652 ISSN 0141-0296 Grant - others:XX(CZ) ERRI D 191 Keywords : railway bridges * orthotropic decks * fatigue Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 0.364, year: 1999
Punching shear strength of transversely prestressed concrete decks
Amir, S.; Van der Veen, C.; Walraven, J.C.
2012-01-01
In the Netherlands, there is a need to determine the capacity of bridge decks as a large number of them were built back in the 60’s and 70’s. Since then, not only a lot of additional safety requirements have been incorporated into the modern codes but the traffic flow has also increased drastically.
Nanobody Based Dual Specific CARs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stijn De Munter
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Recent clinical trials have shown that adoptive chimeric antigen receptor (CAR T cell therapy is a very potent and possibly curative option in the treatment of B cell leukemias and lymphomas. However, targeting a single antigen may not be sufficient, and relapse due to the emergence of antigen negative leukemic cells may occur. A potential strategy to counter the outgrowth of antigen escape variants is to broaden the specificity of the CAR by incorporation of multiple antigen recognition domains in tandem. As a proof of concept, we here describe a bispecific CAR in which the single chain variable fragment (scFv is replaced by a tandem of two single-antibody domains or nanobodies (nanoCAR. High membrane nanoCAR expression levels are observed in retrovirally transduced T cells. NanoCARs specific for CD20 and HER2 induce T cell activation, cytokine production and tumor lysis upon incubation with transgenic Jurkat cells expressing either antigen or both antigens simultaneously. The use of nanobody technology allows for the production of compact CARs with dual specificity and predefined affinity.
Nanobody Based Dual Specific CARs.
De Munter, Stijn; Ingels, Joline; Goetgeluk, Glenn; Bonte, Sarah; Pille, Melissa; Weening, Karin; Kerre, Tessa; Abken, Hinrich; Vandekerckhove, Bart
2018-01-30
Recent clinical trials have shown that adoptive chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy is a very potent and possibly curative option in the treatment of B cell leukemias and lymphomas. However, targeting a single antigen may not be sufficient, and relapse due to the emergence of antigen negative leukemic cells may occur. A potential strategy to counter the outgrowth of antigen escape variants is to broaden the specificity of the CAR by incorporation of multiple antigen recognition domains in tandem. As a proof of concept, we here describe a bispecific CAR in which the single chain variable fragment (scFv) is replaced by a tandem of two single-antibody domains or nanobodies (nanoCAR). High membrane nanoCAR expression levels are observed in retrovirally transduced T cells. NanoCARs specific for CD20 and HER2 induce T cell activation, cytokine production and tumor lysis upon incubation with transgenic Jurkat cells expressing either antigen or both antigens simultaneously. The use of nanobody technology allows for the production of compact CARs with dual specificity and predefined affinity.
Longitudinal associations of active commuting with wellbeing and sickness absence.
Mytton, Oliver Tristan; Panter, Jenna; Ogilvie, David
2016-03-01
Our aim was to explore longitudinal associations of active commuting (cycling to work and walking to work) with physical wellbeing (PCS-8), mental wellbeing (MCS-8) and sickness absence. We used data from the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study (2009 to 2012; n=801) to test associations between: a) maintenance of cycling (or walking) to work over a one year period and indices of wellbeing at the end of that one year period; and b) associations between change in cycling (or walking) to work and change in indices of wellbeing. Linear regression was used for testing associations with PCS-8 and MCS-8, and negative binomial regression for sickness absence. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, physical activity and physical limitation, those who maintained cycle commuting reported lower sickness absence (0.46, 95% CI: 0.14-0.80; equivalent to one less day per year) and higher MCS-8 scores (1.50, 0.10-2.10) than those who did not cycle to work. The association for sickness absence persisted after adjustment for baseline sickness absence. No significant associations were observed for PCS-8. Associations between change in cycle commuting and change in indices of wellbeing were not significant. No significant associations were observed for walking. This work provides some evidence of the value of cycle commuting in improving or maintaining the health and wellbeing of adults of working age. This may be important in engaging employers in the promotion of active travel and communicating the benefits of active travel to employees. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Active commuting to school: How far is too far?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Moyna Niall M
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Walking and cycling to school provide a convenient opportunity to incorporate physical activity into an adolescent's daily routine. School proximity to residential homes has been identified as an important determinant of active commuting among children. The purpose of this study is to identify if distance is a barrier to active commuting among adolescents, and if there is a criterion distance above which adolescents choose not to walk or cycle. Methods Data was collected in 2003–05 from a cross-sectional cohort of 15–17 yr old adolescents in 61 post primary schools in Ireland. Participants self-reported distance, mode of transport to school and barriers to active commuting. Trained researchers took physical measurements of height and weight. The relation between mode of transport, gender and population density was examined. Distance was entered into a bivariate logistic regression model to predict mode choice, controlling for gender, population density socio-economic status and school clusters. Results Of the 4013 adolescents who participated (48.1% female, mean age 16.02 ± 0.661, one third walked or cycled to school. A higher proportion of males than females commuted actively (41.0 vs. 33.8%, χ2 (1 = 22.21, p 2 (df = 3 = 839.64, p 2 (df = 1 = 2591.86, p Conclusion Distance is an important perceived barrier to active commuting and a predictor of mode choice among adolescents. Distances within 2.5 miles are achievable for adolescent walkers and cyclists. Alternative strategies for increasing physical activity are required for individuals living outside of this criterion.
Analysis of Subway Interior Noise at Peak Commuter Time.
Lee, Donguk; Kim, Gibbeum; Han, Woojae
2017-07-01
Although mass transit systems are convenient and efficient for urban people, little attention has been paid to the potential hearing hazard from their noise. The purpose of the current study was to measure and analyze levels of subway interior noise at peak commuter times and to provide information about commuters' daily dose of noise exposure. To measure the subway interior noise, nine subway lines inside Seoul (i.e., lines 1-9) and six lines surrounding the capital city area (i.e., Central, Bundang, Sinbundang, Incheon, Gyeongui, and Gyeongchun) were chosen. The noise was measured and recorded by a sound level meter for two-hour periods in the morning and evening. 1) In the LZeq analysis, the average noise level of all 15 lines was 72.78 dB; the maximum and minimum noise levels were 78.34 and 62.46 dB, respectively. The average noise level of the nine lines inside Seoul was 73.45 dB, which was 1.68-dB louder than that of the six lines surrounding the capital city area. 2) Based on the LZeq analysis of 33 measured frequencies, 12.5 Hz was the highest frequency and 20,000 Hz was the lowest. 3) There was no remarkable difference in the level of subway interior noise between morning and evening peak commuter times. We concluded that the level of subway interior noise was not loud enough for commuters to incur noise-induced hearing loss. Regardless, environmental noise control efforts in the subway system might be needed for commuters who take a subway every day.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. S. Kopytov
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Opening roof cars can be used in transportation of a diversity of goods that require weather protection. Their operation allows us to fulfill the tasks of the Ministry of Railways that is to ensure both the qualitative and lossless transportation of various national economy and special loads and the significant improvement in the technical and economic indexes of the industry. Thus, there are three embodiment options of the opening roofs: single-leaf roof with axial of rotation along one car side; double-leaf roof with axial of rotation of its flaps along both car sides; single-leaf roof with axial of rotation along the car end wall. The work analyses and compares the first two options of the opening systems of the car roof. Analysis of various schemes of opening the roof-insulated cars is based on kinematic and force calculations. The paper defines how the changing length of hydraulic cylinders depends on the stroke and on the arm of applied force, depending on the opening roof angle for various embodiment options. To find the forces acting on the cylinders were determined the forces acting on the roof and the total applied moment of all the forces acting on them with respect to the axial of rotation. Thus, the total applied moment was considered to comprise the weighting unbalance moments of the roof and snow on it, as well as a moment of the force of wind acting on the roof (dead wind or downwind. Upon finding how the changing total moment of the force applied to the roof depends on the rotation angle and on the change of the applied force arm of hydraulic cylinders, the work determines the forces acting on the cylinders. The maximum tensile and compression force acting on the cylinders allows us to define their geometric characteristics such as piston stroke, diameter of the rod, piston-and rod-working cavity. Using a software package SADAS (developed at the Department "Rocket Launching Complexes" in BMSTU the core models were built and
Automobile club
2009-01-01
You are cordially invited to the next General Assembly of the CERN Car Club Tuesday 12 January 2010 at 5:45pm Bldg. 593 / room 11 As the end of 2009 is approaching, it is time to think about renewing your subscription. Therefore next time you are on the CERN-Meyrin site or at the Post Office counter don’t forget to fill in the payment slip to continue to be a part of our large family. The fee remains unchanged: 50 CHF. For those of you who are regular users of our equipment and who know of all the advantages that the club is in a position to offer, it seems pointless to give details, we are sure that many of you have made use of them and are satisfied. We remind you everyone working on CERN site is entitled to become a member of our club, this includes industrial support personnel and staff of companies which have a contract with CERN. If you are not yet a member, come and visit us! We will be happy to welcome you and show you the facilities, or you can visit our web site. The use of the club&...
Service Accueil et Controle d'Accès; ST Division
1999-01-01
In accordance with Operational Circular n¡ 2, paragraph 21, CERN car stickers are to be renewed. The new stickers are now available and will be valid for a year.Youare therefore requested:either to obtain them from the distribution points for new stickers (see below); or to send us the application form below, duly completed, via the internal mail; or to complete the application form directly via the Web at the address: http://cern.ch/registration-stickers. Each vehicle has to carry a sticker and needs a separate application form.Vehicles bearing CERN diplomatic plates (CD07, 431K and CD series) do not need a sticker for access to the CERN areas.Thank you.List of distribution points:Registration Service (bldg 55 1st floor), open from 07h30 to 16h30. Building 33 (entrance hall), open from 08h00 to 18h00. Building 120 (ground floor), outside working hours.Name Surname CERN identification number Vehicle registration plates Country issuing the plates Vehicle ma...
Advanced Infant Car Seat Would Increase Highway Safety
Dabney, Richard; Elrod, Susan
2004-01-01
An advanced infant car seat has been proposed to increase highway safety by reducing the incidence of crying, fussy behavior, and other child-related distractions that divert an adult driver s attention from driving. In addition to a conventional infant car seat with safety restraints, the proposed advanced infant car seat would include a number of components and subsystems that would function together as a comprehensive infant-care system that would keep its occupant safe, comfortable, and entertained, and would enable the driver to monitor the baby without having to either stop the car or turn around to face the infant during driving. The system would include a vibrator with bulb switch to operate; the switch would double as a squeeze toy that would make its own specific sound. A music subsystem would include loudspeakers built into the seat plus digital and analog circuitry that would utilize plug-in memory modules to synthesize music or a variety of other sounds. The music subsystem would include a built-in sound generator that could synthesize white noise or a human heartbeat to calm the baby to sleep. A second bulb switch could be used to control the music subsystem and would double as a squeeze toy that would make a distinct sound. An anti-noise sound-suppression system would isolate the baby from potentially disturbing ambient external noises. This subsystem would include small microphones, placed near the baby s ears, to detect ambient noise. The outputs of the microphone would be amplified and fed to the loudspeakers at appropriate amplitude and in a phase opposite that of the detected ambient noise, such that the net ambient sound arriving at the baby s ears would be almost completely cancelled. A video-camera subsystem would enable the driver to monitor the baby visually while continuing to face forward. One or more portable miniature video cameras could be embedded in the side of the infant car seat (see figure) or in a flip-down handle. The outputs of
Unveiling E-Bike Potential for Commuting Trips from GPS Traces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angel J. Lopez
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Common goals of sustainable mobility approaches are to reduce the need for travel, to facilitate modal shifts, to decrease trip distances and to improve energy efficiency in the transportation systems. Among these issues, modal shift plays an important role for the adoption of vehicles with fewer or zero emissions. Nowadays, the electric bike (e-bike is becoming a valid alternative to cars in urban areas. However, to promote modal shift, a better understanding of the mobility behaviour of e-bike users is required. In this paper, we investigate the mobility habits of e-bikers using GPS data collected in Belgium from 2014 to 2015. By analysing more than 10,000 trips, we provide insights about e-bike trip features such as: distance, duration and speed. In addition, we offer a deep look into which routes are preferred by bike owners in terms of their physical characteristics and how weather influences e-bike usage. Results show that trips with higher travel distances are performed during working days and are correlated with higher average speeds. Usage patterns extracted from our data set also indicate that e-bikes are preferred for commuting (home-work and business (work related trips rather than for recreational trips.
Commuting behaviour and urban form: a longitudinal study of a polycentric urban region in Denmark
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grunfelder, Julien; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick
2012-01-01
is a polycentric urban region in Denmark. Data from the National Transport Survey of Denmark were used for this quantitative analysis and two time periods were selected to highlight any potential changes over time. Empirical findings indicate that urban form and location variables help to explain the three......This paper is an empirical investigation of the relation between urban form and commuting behaviour in a polycentric urban region. It explores to what extent urban form and location variables help to explain commuting time, distance and mode based on an empirical case, East Jutland, which...... selected aspects of commuting. However, urban form variables have greater explanatory power in explaining commuting modes than commuting time and commuting distance. No general trends in commuting were detectable from the data. Finally, the empirical findings revealed specificities of the case study...
The equationally-defined commutator a study in equational logic and algebra
Czelakowski, Janusz
2015-01-01
This monograph introduces and explores the notions of a commutator equation and the equationally-defined commutator from the perspective of abstract algebraic logic. An account of the commutator operation associated with equational deductive systems is presented, with an emphasis placed on logical aspects of the commutator for equational systems determined by quasivarieties of algebras. The author discusses the general properties of the equationally-defined commutator, various centralization relations for relative congruences, the additivity and correspondence properties of the equationally-defined commutator, and its behavior in finitely generated quasivarieties. Presenting new and original research not yet considered in the mathematical literature, The Equationally-Defined Commutator will be of interest to professional algebraists and logicians, as well as graduate students and other researchers interested in problems of modern algebraic logic.
Zhang, Cheng; Liu, Jun; Zhong, Jiang F; Zhang, Xi
2017-01-01
Chimeric antigen receptor redirected T cells (CAR-T cells) have achieved inspiring outcomes in patients with B cell malignancies, and are now being investigated in other hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. CAR-T cells are generated by the T cells from patients' or donors' blood. After the T cells are expanded and genetically modified, they are reinfused into the patients. However, many challenges still need to be resolved in order for this technology to gain widespread adoption. In this review, we first discuss the structure and evolution of chimeric antigen receptors. We then report on the tools used for production of CAR-T cells. Finally, we address the challenges posed by CAR-T cells.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
China Accounting Review(CAR)is a new accounting journal in Chinese,spon- sored by Peking University,Tsinghua University,Beijing National Accounting Insti- tute and ten more universities,and published by the Peking University Press.
Adaptation Model for Corporate Car Sharing in the Car Rental Industry
Matthes, Martin
2016-01-01
The focus of this thesis was on developing an adaption model for implementing a corporate car sharing service within the existing infrastructure of a car rental company. The investigated case companies were a leading Finnish car rental franchisee and an international car sharing subsidiary, largely owned by the car rental franchisor, which offers corporate car sharing solutions in major European countries. Adapting this new service in Finland will help the car rental franchisee to assert its ...
Passenger car fuel consumption survey
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1984-03-01
This survey originated from a proposal to monitor the fuel consumption and fuel economy of personal use passenger cars operated in Canada. Its purpose is to establish a data base which would contain information on total distance travelled, total amount of fuel consumed, average distance obtained per unit of fuel, total expenditures on fuel, and seasonal fluctuations in fuel consumption and in distance travelled. Among the needs served by this data base are the monitoring of passenger car fuel economy standards and the estimation of pasenger car fuel requirements in conditions involving fuel shortages. Survey methodology is by telephone interview to trace selected vehicles to the registered owners, at which time a fuel purchase diary is then mailed to the principal driver of the car. The results are tabulated on a quarterly basis and to be released as they become available in bulletins similar to this. Data are presented for each province and the total for Canada is given. During the fourth quarter of 1982, it is estimated that there were 7.3 million personal use passenger cars operated in Canada. These cars were driven 28 billion kilometers and consumed 4.3 billion litres of fuel. Their average litres/100 kilometres and the average fuel consumption was 590 litres. 8 tabs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lu Guanghui
2017-11-01
Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to prove that the boundedness of the commutator Mκ,b∗$\\mathcal{M}_{\\kappa,b}^{*} $ generated by the Littlewood-Paley operator Mκ∗$\\mathcal{M}_{\\kappa}^{*} $ and RBMO (μ function on non-homogeneous metric measure spaces satisfying the upper doubling and the geometrically doubling conditions. Under the assumption that the kernel of Mκ∗$\\mathcal{M}_{\\kappa}^{*} $ satisfies a certain Hörmander-type condition, the authors prove that Mκ,b∗$\\mathcal{M}_{\\kappa,b}^{*} $ is bounded on Lebesgue spaces Lp(μ for 1 < p < ∞, bounded from the space L log L(μ to the weak Lebesgue space L1,∞(μ, and is bounded from the atomic Hardy spaces H1(μ to the weak Lebesgue spaces L1,∞(μ.
Engineering an Affordable Self-Driving Car
Budisteanu, Alexandru Ionut
2018-01-01
for affordable self-driving cars and he designed a low-cost self-driving car. The car's roof has cameras and low-resolution 3D LiDAR equipment to detect traffic lanes, other cars, curbs and obstacles, such as people crossing by. To process this dizzying amount
49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) [Reserved] (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless...
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified for...
Art Cars: Transformations of the Mundane
Stienecker, Dawn
2010-01-01
The automobile itself is often understood as an extension of oneself, where individuals may manipulate the interior and exterior of cars and trucks, decorating them through detailing, stickers, custom colors, and so on. Others go further and change their cars into unique works of art called art cars. Such cars break away from the banality of mass…
49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than 50...
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cars. 1037.2 Section 1037.2 Transportation Other... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BULK GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS-LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS § 1037.2 Cars. A car is... railroad-leased cars. [57 FR 54334, Nov. 18, 1992] ...
Watanabe, Tsutomu; Sogabe, Masamichi; Asanuma, Kiyoshi; Wakui, Hajime
A number of steel railway bridges have been constructed in Japan. Thin steel members used for the bridges easily tend to vibrate and generate structure-borne noise. Accordingly, the number of constructions of steel railway bridges tends to decrease in the urban areas from a viewpoint of environmental preservation. Then, as a countermeasure against structure-borne noise generated from steel railway bridges, we have developed a new type of the steel railway bridge equipped with a floating-ladder track and a floating reinforced-concrete (RC) deck. As a result of train-running experiment, it became apparent that the new steel railway bridge installed by double floating system has reduced a vibration velocity level by 10.5 dB(A) at main girder web as compared with a steel railway bridge installed by directly fastened track. This reduction effect was achieved by the ladder track and RC deck supported by resilient materials.
The time resolved SBS and SRS research in heavy water and its application in CARS
Liu, Jinbo; Gai, Baodong; Yuan, Hong; Sun, Jianfeng; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Di; Xia, Xusheng; Wang, Pengyuan; Hu, Shu; Chen, Ying; Guo, Jingwei; Jin, Yuqi; Sang, Fengting
2018-05-01
We present the time-resolved character of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and backward stimulated Raman scattering (BSRS) in heavy water and its application in Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) technique. A nanosecond laser from a frequency-doubled Nd: YAG laser is introduced into a heavy water cell, to generate SBS and BSRS beams. The SBS and BSRS beams are collinear, and their time resolved characters are studied by a streak camera, experiment show that they are ideal source for an alignment-free CARS system, and the time resolved property of SBS and BSRS beams could affect the CARS efficiency significantly. By inserting a Dye cuvette to the collinear beams, the time-overlapping of SBS and BSRS could be improved, and finally the CARS efficiency is increased, even though the SBS energy is decreased. Possible methods to improve the efficiency of this CARS system are discussed too.
Causes of Early Age Cracking on Concrete Bridge Deck Expansion Joint Repair Sections
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jared R. Wright
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Cracking of newly placed binary Portland cement-slag concrete adjacent to bridge deck expansion dam replacements has been observed on several newly rehabilitated sections of bridge decks. This paper investigates the causes of cracking by assessing the concrete mixtures specified for bridge deck rehabilitation projects, as well as reviewing the structural design of decks and the construction and curing methods implemented by the contractors. The work consists of (1 a comprehensive literature review of the causes of cracking on bridge decks, (2 a review of previous bridge deck rehabilitation projects that experienced early-age cracking along with construction observations of active deck rehabilitation projects, and (3 an experimental evaluation of the two most commonly used bridge deck concrete mixtures. Based on the literature review, the causes of concrete bridge deck cracking can be classified into three categories: concrete material properties, construction practices, and structural design factors. The most likely causes of the observed early-age cracking were found to be inadequate curing and failure to properly eliminate the risk of plastic shrinkage cracking. These results underscore the significance of proper moist curing methods for concrete bridge decks, including repair sections. This document also provides a blueprint for future researchers to investigate early-age cracking of concrete structures.
2009-06-01
This report describes the investigation of the long term structural performance of a : hybrid FRP-concrete (HFRPC) bridge deck on steel girders. The study aimed at : assessing three long term aspects pertaining to the HFRPC bridge deck: (1) creep : c...
Essay on physics and non-commutative geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Connes, A.
1990-01-01
Our aim, in this article, is to try to discover what physics would be like if the space in which it took place was not a set of points, but a non-commutative space. We shall not go very far in this direction, and the consequences of this investigation are for the moment either mathematical or only applied to a commutative space-time. It is clear, however, that a tool as remarkable as the Dixmier trace for analyzing logarithmic divergences should be useful to physicists. Moreover we have been able to show that a small modification of our picture of space-time gives a conceptual explanation of the Higgs fields and of the way they appear in the Weinberg-Salam model. This should allow us to make at the classical level explicit predictions of the Higgs mass: a very crude one is discussed. (author)
Some Thoughts on Commutation Relations and Measurement Accuracy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noyes, H. Pierre
1999-01-01
We show that measuring the trajectories of charged particles to finite accuracy leads to the commutation relations needed for the derivation of the free space Maxwell equations using the discrete ordered calculus (DOC). We note that the finite step length derivation of the discrete difference version of the single particle Dirac equation implies the discrete version of the p, q commutation relations for a free particle. We speculate that a careful operational analysis of the change in momenta occurring in a step-wise continuous solution of the discrete Dirac equation could supply the missing source-sink terms in the DOC derivation of the Maxwell equations, and lead to a finite and discrete (''renormalized'') quantum electrodynamics (QED)
Commuting periodic operators and the periodic Wigner function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zak, J
2004-01-01
Commuting periodic operators (CPO) depending on the coordinate x-hat and the momentum p-hat operators are defined. The CPO are functions of the two basic commuting operators exp(i x-hat 2π/a) and exp(i/h p-hat a), with a being an arbitrary constant. A periodic Wigner function (PWF) w(x, p) is defined and it is shown that it is applicable in a normal expectation value calculation to the CPO, as done in the original Wigner paper. Moreover, this PWF is non-negative everywhere, and it can therefore be interpreted as an actual probability distribution. The PWF w(x, p) is shown to be given as an expectation value of the periodic Dirac delta function in the phase plane. (letter to the editor)
Almost-commutative geometries beyond the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stephan, Christoph A
2006-01-01
In Iochum et al (2004 J. Math. Phys. 45 5003), Jureit and Stephan (2005 J. Math. Phys. 46 043512), Schuecker T (2005 Preprint hep-th/0501181) and Jureit et al (2005 J. Math. Phys. 46 072303), a conjecture is presented that almost-commutative geometries, with respect to sensible physical constraints, allow only the standard model of particle physics and electro-strong models as Yang-Mills-Higgs theories. In this paper, a counter-example will be given. The corresponding almost-commutative geometry leads to a Yang-Mills-Higgs model which consists of the standard model of particle physics and two new fermions of opposite electro-magnetic charge. This is the second Yang-Mills-Higgs model within noncommutative geometry, after the standard model, which could be compatible with experiments. Combined to a hydrogen-like composite particle, these new particles provide a novel dark matter candidate
Route Choice Model Based on Game Theory for Commuters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Licai Yang
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The traffic behaviours of commuters may cause traffic congestion during peak hours. Advanced Traffic Information System can provide dynamic information to travellers. Due to the lack of timeliness and comprehensiveness, the provided information cannot satisfy the travellers’ needs. Since the assumptions of traditional route choice model based on Expected Utility Theory conflict with the actual situation, a route choice model based on Game Theory is proposed to provide reliable route choice to commuters in actual situation in this paper. The proposed model treats the alternative routes as game players and utilizes the precision of predicted information and familiarity of traffic condition to build a game. The optimal route can be generated considering Nash Equilibrium by solving the route choice game. Simulations and experimental analysis show that the proposed model can describe the commuters’ routine route choice decisionexactly and the provided route is reliable.
Space/time non-commutative field theories and causality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bozkaya, H.; Fischer, P.; Pitschmann, M.; Schweda, M.; Grosse, H.; Putz, V.; Wulkenhaar, R.
2003-01-01
As argued previously, amplitudes of quantum field theories on non-commutative space and time cannot be computed using naive path integral Feynman rules. One of the proposals is to use the Gell-Mann-Low formula with time-ordering applied before performing the integrations. We point out that the previously given prescription should rather be regarded as an interaction-point time-ordering. Causality is explicitly violated inside the region of interaction. It is nevertheless a consistent procedure, which seems to be related to the interaction picture of quantum mechanics. In this framework we compute the one-loop self-energy for a space/time non-commutative φ 4 theory. Although in all intermediate steps only three-momenta play a role, the final result is manifestly Lorentz covariant and agrees with the naive calculation. Deriving the Feynman rules for general graphs, we show, however, that such a picture holds for tadpole lines only. (orig.)
Stability of a non-commutative Jackiw-Teitelboim gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vassilevich, D.V. [Universitaet Leipzig, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Postfach 100 920, Leipzig (Germany); St. Petersburg University, V.A. Fock Institute of Physics, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Fresneda, R.; Gitman, D.M. [Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica
2006-07-15
We start with a non-commutative version of the Jackiw-Teitelboim gravity in two dimensions which has a linear potential for the dilaton fields. We study whether it is possible to deform this model by adding quadratic terms to the potential but preserving the number of gauge symmetries. We find that no such deformation exists (provided one does not twist the gauge symmetries). (orig.)
Semiclassical and quantum motions on the non-commutative plane
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baldiotti, M.C.; Gazeau, J.P.; Gitman, D.M.
2009-01-01
We study the canonical and the coherent state quantizations of a particle moving in a magnetic field on the non-commutative plane. Using a θ-modified action, we perform the canonical quantization and analyze the gauge dependence of the theory. We compare coherent states quantizations obtained through Malkin-Man'ko states and circular squeezed states. The relation between these states and the 'classical' trajectories is investigated, and we present numerical explorations of some semiclassical quantities.
Semiclassical and quantum motions on the non-commutative plane
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baldiotti, M.C., E-mail: baldiott@fma.if.usp.b [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318-CEP, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil); Gazeau, J.P., E-mail: gazeau@apc.univ-paris7.f [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318-CEP, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil); Gitman, D.M., E-mail: gitman@dfn.if.usp.b [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318-CEP, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil)
2009-10-19
We study the canonical and the coherent state quantizations of a particle moving in a magnetic field on the non-commutative plane. Using a theta-modified action, we perform the canonical quantization and analyze the gauge dependence of the theory. We compare coherent states quantizations obtained through Malkin-Man'ko states and circular squeezed states. The relation between these states and the 'classical' trajectories is investigated, and we present numerical explorations of some semiclassical quantities.
Parallel resonant converter with LLC-type commutation
Lee, C. Q.; Liu, Rui; Batarseh, Issa
1989-11-01
It is shown that by using a proper transformation of state variables, the third-order system of the parallel resonant converter (PRC) with LLC-type commutation can be analyzed by means of a two-dimensional state-plane diagram. A set of characteristic curves which can be used for the converter design is derived from the analysis. It is shown from these curves that the converter possesses more desirable features than the conventional PRC.
Particle exposure and inhaled dose during commuting in Singapore
Tan, Sok Huang; Roth, Matthias; Velasco, Erik
2017-12-01
Exposure concentration and inhaled dose of particles during door-to-door trips walking and using motorized transport modes (subway, bus, taxi) are evaluated along a selected route in a commercial district of Singapore. Concentrations of particles smaller than 2.5 μm in size (PM2.5), black carbon, particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, number of particles, active surface area and carbon monoxide have been measured in-situ using portable instruments. Simultaneous measurements were conducted at a nearby park to capture the background concentrations. The heart rate of the participants was monitored during the measurements as a proxy of the inhalation rate used to calculate the inhaled dose of particles. All measured metrics were highest and well above background levels during walking. No significant difference was observed in the exposure concentration of PM2.5 for the three motorized transport modes, unlike for the metrics associated with ultrafine particles (UFP). The concentration of these freshly emitted particles was significantly lower on subway trips. The absence of combustion sources, use of air conditioning and screen doors at station platforms are effective measures to protect passengers' health. For other transport modes, sections of trips close to accelerating and idling vehicles, such as bus stops, traffic junctions and taxi stands, represent hotspots of particles. Reducing the waiting time at such locations will lower pollutants exposure and inhaled dose during a commute. After taking into account the effect of inhalation and travel duration when calculating dose, the health benefit of commuting by subway for this particular district of Singapore became even more evident. For example, pedestrians breathe in 2.6 and 3.2 times more PM2.5 and UFP, respectively than subway commuters. Public buses were the second best alternative. Walking emerged as the worst commuting mode in terms of particle exposure and inhaled dose.
A study on mobility improvement for intellectually disabled student commuters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fumihiko Nakamura
2017-07-01
Overall, our findings suggested that to actually implement mobility support in school commuting environments in a way that will improve the mobility of intellectually disabled people requires not only the cooperation of schools, but also contributions from transport operators, road administrators, and traffic administrators. Because the contributions of these entities are essential, awareness-raising activities and a system for promoting common understanding among them are vital.
On (m, n)-absorbing ideals of commutative rings
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
with respect to various ring theoretic constructions and study (m, n)-absorbing ideals in several commutative rings. For example, in a Bézout ring or a Boolean ring, an ideal is an (m, n)-absorbing ideal if and only if it is an n-absorbing ideal, and in an almost. Dedekind domain every (m, n)-absorbing ideal is a product of at ...
a generalization of zero divisor graphs associated to commutative
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
8
R is isomorphic to the zero divisor graph Γ(R), and so Γn. R is a generalization of Γ(R) which is called a generalized zero divisor graph of R. In this paper, we study some basic properties of Γn. R. We also determine all isomorphic classes of finite commutative rings whose generalized zero divisor graphs have genus at most ...
AC system stabilization via phase shift transformer with thyristor commutation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oliveira, Jose Carlos de; Guimaraes, Geraldo Caixeta; Moraes, Adelio Jose [Uberlandia Univ., MG (Brazil); Abreu, Jose Policarpo G. de [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Edimar Jose de [Juiz de Fora Univ., MG (Brazil)
1994-12-31
This article aims to present initially the constructive and operative forms of a phase-shift autotransformer which provides both magnitude and phase angle change through thyristor commutation, including a technic to reduce the number of thyristors. Following, it is proposed a control system to make such equipment an efficient AC system stabilizing tool. It is presented some simulation results to show the operation of this transformer in an electrical system. (author) 3 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.
New relativistic generalization of the Heisenberg commutation relations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bohm, A.; Loewe, M.; Magnollay, P.; Tarlini, M.; Aldinger, R.R.; Kielanowski, P.
1984-01-01
A relativistic generalization of the Heisenberg commutation relations is suggested which is different from the conventional ones used for the intrinsic coordinates and momenta in the relativistic oscillator model and the relativistic string. This new quantum relativistic oscillator model is determined by the requirement that it gives a unified description of relativistic vibrations and rotations and contracts in the nonrelativistic limit c -1 →0 into the usual nonrelativistic harmonic oscillator
Robotics and Automation for Flight Deck Aircraft Servicing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chesser, J.B.; Draper, J.V.; Pin, F.G.
1999-03-01
One of the missions of the Future Aircraft Carriers Program is to investigate methods that would improve aircraft turnaround servicing activities on carrier decks. The major objectives and criteria for evaluating alternative aircraft servicing methods are to reduce workload requirements, turnaround times (TAT), and life-cycle costs (LCC). Technologies in the field of Robotics and Automation (R and A) have the potential to significantly contribute to these objectives. The objective of this study was to investigate aircraft servicing functions on carrier decks which would offer the potentially most significant payoff if improved by various R and A technologies. Improvement in this case means reducing workload, time and LCC. This objective was accomplished using a ''bottom-up'' formalized approach as described in the following.
Investigating Proenvironmental Behavior: The Case of Commuting Mode Choice
Trinh, Tu Anh; Phuong Linh Le, Thi
2018-04-01
The central aim of this article is to investigate mode choice behavior among commuters in Ho Chi Minh City using disaggregate mode choice model and norm activation theory. A better understanding of commuters’ choice of transport mode provide an opportunity to obtain valuable information on their travel behaviors which help to build a basic for proffering solutions stimulating commuters to switch to public transport, which in turn contribute to deal with traffic problems and environmental issues. Binary logistic regression was employed under disaggregate choice method. Key findings indicated that Demographic factors including Age (-0.308), Married (-9.089), Weather (-8.272); Trip factors including Travel cost (0.437), Travel distance (0.252), and Norm activation theory (Awareness of consequences: AC2 (-1.699), AC4 (2.951), AC6 (-3.523), AC7 (-2.092), AC9 (-3.045), AC11 (+ 2.939), and Personal norms: PN2 (-2.695)) had strong impact on the commuters’ mode choice. Although motorcycle was the major transport mode among commuters, they presented their willingness to switch to bus transport if it had less negative impacts on the environment and their daily living environment.
Marginal Consistency: Upper-Bounding Partition Functions over Commutative Semirings.
Werner, Tomás
2015-07-01
Many inference tasks in pattern recognition and artificial intelligence lead to partition functions in which addition and multiplication are abstract binary operations forming a commutative semiring. By generalizing max-sum diffusion (one of convergent message passing algorithms for approximate MAP inference in graphical models), we propose an iterative algorithm to upper bound such partition functions over commutative semirings. The iteration of the algorithm is remarkably simple: change any two factors of the partition function such that their product remains the same and their overlapping marginals become equal. In many commutative semirings, repeating this iteration for different pairs of factors converges to a fixed point when the overlapping marginals of every pair of factors coincide. We call this state marginal consistency. During that, an upper bound on the partition function monotonically decreases. This abstract algorithm unifies several existing algorithms, including max-sum diffusion and basic constraint propagation (or local consistency) algorithms in constraint programming. We further construct a hierarchy of marginal consistencies of increasingly higher levels and show than any such level can be enforced by adding identity factors of higher arity (order). Finally, we discuss instances of the framework for several semirings, including the distributive lattice and the max-sum and sum-product semirings.
Non-topological non-commutativity in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guttenberg, S.; Herbst, M.; Kreuzer, M.; Rashkov, R.
2008-01-01
Quantization of coordinates leads to the non-commutative product of deformation quantization, but is also at the roots of string theory, for which space-time coordinates become the dynamical fields of a two-dimensional conformal quantum field theory. Appositely, open string diagrams provided the inspiration for Kontsevich's solution of the long-standing problem of quantization of Poisson geometry by virtue of his formality theorem. In the context of D-brane physics non-commutativity is not limited, however, to the topological sector. We show that non-commutative effective actions still make sense when associativity is lost and establish a generalized Connes-Flato-Sternheimer condition through second order in a derivative expansion. The measure in general curved backgrounds is naturally provided by the Born-Infeld action and reduces to the symplectic measure in the topological limit, but remains non-singular even for degenerate Poisson structures. Analogous superspace deformations by RR-fields are also discussed. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Djurhuus, Sune; Hansen, Henning Sten; Aadahl, Mette; Glümer, Charlotte
2014-01-01
Active commuters have lower risk of chronic disease. Understanding which of the, to some extent, modifiable characteristics of public transportation that facilitate its use is thus important in a public health perspective. The aim of the study was to examine the association between individual public transportation accessibility and self-reported active commuting, and whether the associations varied with commute distance, age, and gender. Twenty-eight thousand nine hundred twenty-eight commuters in The Capital Region of Denmark reported self-reported time spent either walking or cycling to work or study each day and the distance to work or study. Data were obtained from the Danish National Health Survey collected in February to April 2010. Individual accessibility by public transportation was calculated using a multi-modal network in a GIS. Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the association between accessibility, expressed as access area, and being an active commuter. Public transport accessibility area based on all stops within walking and cycling distance was positively associated with being an active commuter. Distance to work, age, and gender modified the associations. Residing within 10 km commute distance and in areas of high accessibility was associated with being an active commuter and meeting the recommendations of physical activity. For the respondents above 29 years, individual public transportation accessibility was positively associated with being an active commuter. Women having high accessibility had significantly higher odds of being an active commuter compared to having a low accessibility. For men, the associations were insignificant. This study extends the knowledge about the driving forces of using public transportation for commuting by examining the individual public transportation accessibility. Findings suggest that transportation accessibility supports active commuting and planning of improved public transit accessibility
Active commuting of the inhabitants of Liberec city in low and high walkability areas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lukáš Rubín
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Background: Active commuting in terms of everyday transport to school or work can have a significant effect on physical activity. Active commuting can be influenced by the environment, and examples from abroad show that current environmental changes tend mostly to promote passive forms of commuting. A similar situation of decreasing active commuting might be expected in the Czech Republic. However, little information has been published to date about the issue of active commuting among the inhabitants of our country. Objective: The main objective of the present study is to describe the active commuting patterns of the inhabitants of Liberec city in low and high walkability areas. Methods: A total of 23,621 economically active inhabitants or students of Liberec city aged 6-87 years (34.77 ± 14.39 participated in the study. The data about commuting were retrieved from the national Population and Housing Census of 2011. Geographic information systems were used to objectively analyze the built environment and to calculate the walkability index. Results: Active commuting to/from school or work is used by 17.41% of inhabitants. Active commuting is dominated by walking (16.60% as opposed to cycling (0.81%. Inhabitants who lived in high walkability areas were more likely to actively commute than those living in low walkability areas (OR = 1.54; 95% CI [1.41, 1.68]. Conclusions: This study confirmed the findings of international studies about the effect of the built environment on active commuting among Liberec inhabitants. Active commuters are often those living near or in the city center, which is characterized by high walkability. In Liberec city, walking as a means of active commuting significantly prevails over cycling. One of the reasons might be the diverse topography of the city and the insufficiently developed cycling network.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreira, João-Pedro; Barata, Eduardo; Ramos, Pedro Nogueira; Cruz, Luis
2014-01-01
Commuting is one of the main contributors to the high energy consumption patterns in modern economies. The need to reduce the energy spent in commuting has attracted the attention of academics and policy makers. The main goal of this research is to improve knowledge of the economic, social, energy and environmental opportunity costs of inter-municipality commuting and to support policy-oriented strategies that explicitly take them into account. For this, we use hypothetical assumptions based on the baseline scenario that Portuguese households do not travel between municipalities for commuting purposes coupled with the expected changes in private final consumption. Accordingly, the direct, indirect and induced opportunity costs of inter-municipality commuting are assessed using an input–output model. The significance of the estimated virtual net benefits of commuting is analyzed according to their macroeconomic (GVA, taxes, international imports and employment), energy (primary energy consumption) and environmental (CO 2 emissions) dimensions. The results obtained empirically indicate that inter-municipality commuting has significant opportunity costs in the GVA and GDP as well as in primary energy consumption and CO 2 emissions. The results also indicate that commuters in metropolitan regions and long-distance commuters are responsible for a major share of these opportunity costs. - Highlights: • This paper provides an insight into the magnitude of opportunity costs of commuting. • Input–output modeling is valuable to assess changes in final consumption patterns. • About 25% of household's fuel consumption is due to inter-municipality commuting. • Inter-municipality commuting has net negative effects on GDP, GVA and employment. • The main opportunity costs come from metropolitan and long distance commuting
Service Life and Maintenance Modelling of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Decks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thoft-Christensen, Palle
Recent research in the area of assessment and maintenance of reinforced concrete bridge decks is presented in this paper. Three definitions of service lifetime are introduced and the difficult problem of assessing the service life is discussed. A stochastic modelling of corrosion and corrosion...... cracking is introduced and the site dependency of corrosion is stressed. Finally, a recently developed optimal repair strategy for bridges is briefly explained....
Seatbelts in CAR therapy: How Safe Are CARS?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kentaro Minagawa
2015-05-01
Full Text Available T-cells genetically redirected with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR to recognize tumor antigens and kill tumor cells have been infused in several phase 1 clinical trials with success. Due to safety concerns related to on-target/off-tumor effects or cytokine release syndrome, however, strategies to prevent or abate serious adverse events are required. Pharmacologic therapies; suicide genes; or novel strategies to limit the cytotoxic effect only to malignant cells are under active investigations. In this review, we summarize results and toxicities of investigations employing CAR redirected T-cells, with a focus on published strategies to grant safety of this promising cellular application.
Delamination Detection of Reinforced Concrete Decks Using Modal Identification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shutao Xing
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This study addressed delamination detection of concrete slabs by analyzing global dynamic responses of structures. Both numerical and experimental studies are presented. In the numerical examples, delaminations with different sizes and locations were introduced into a concrete slab; the effects of presence, sizes, and locations of delaminations on the modal frequencies and mode shapes of the concrete slab under various support conditions were studied. In the experimental study, four concrete deck specimens with different delamination sizes were constructed, and experimental tests were conducted. Traditional peak-picking, frequency domain decomposition, and stochastic subspace identification methods were applied to the modal identification from dynamic response measurements. The modal parameters identified by these three methods correlated well. The changes in modal frequencies, damping ratios, and mode shapes that were extracted from the dynamic measurements were investigated and correlated to the actual delaminations and can indicate presence and severity of delamination. Finite element (FE models of reinforced concrete decks with different delamination sizes and locations were established. The modal parameters computed from the FE models were compared to those obtained from the laboratory specimens, and the FE models were validated. The delamination detection approach was proved to be effective for concrete decks on beams.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund
2013-01-01
The paper presents the full-scale experimental investigation of the dynamic heat storage potential of the prefabricated hollow core deck elements with and without phase change material (PCM) and with and without increased bottom surface area of the decks. In the presented investigation five types...... of hollow core decks with different surfaces on the bottom are investigated: reference deck made of standard concrete and flat surface, deck with special mortar grooved tiles, deck with flat mortar tiles, deck with grooved mortar and phase change material tiles, deck with flat mortar and phase change...... material tiles. The experimental investigation presented in the paper is performed in the specially designed modified hot box apparatus that allows maintaining periodic steady-state tests with the full-scale concrete deck elements. The presented research investigates if the extended surface area and PCM...
Numerical Analysis of Heat Storage and Heat Conductivity in the Concrete Hollow Core Deck Element
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund
2011-01-01
extent these simplified models estimate the heat storage potential of precast hollow-core concrete decks correctly. This study investigates various approaches on how to model the heat transfer within the air void in the deck. Furthermore, it is analysed how different heat transfer models influence...... the overall heat transfer and heat storage in the hollow-core decks. The presented results allow comparison between detailed results from 2D-COMSOL simulations and simple 1D calculations from the whole building simulation tool such as BSim program and moreover, it is possible to validate the calculation...... method in BSim for the concrete deck element with air voids. Finally, this paper presents a comparison of the calculated heat conductivity of the hollow-core concrete deck and the measured heat conductivity for the same deck by using hot box apparatus....
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Buljac, Andrija; Kozmar, H.; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Macháček, Michael
2017-01-01
Roč. 137, April (2017), s. 310-322 ISSN 0141-0296 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01035S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : bridge decks * roadway wind barrier * aerodynamic forces and moments * galloping * flutter * wind-tunnel experiments Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering OBOR OECD: Construction engineering , Municipal and structural engineering Impact factor: 2.258, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ article /pii/S014102961730278X
Substitution between Cars within the Household
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan
In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...
Recommendations for Longitudinal Post-Tensioning in Full-Depth Precast Concrete Bridge Deck Panels
Bowers, Susan Elizabeth
2007-01-01
Full-depth precast concrete panels offer an efficient alternative to traditional cast-in-place concrete for replacement or new construction of bridge decks. Research has shown that longitudinal post-tensioning helps keep the precast bridge deck in compression and avoid problems such as leaking, cracking, spalling, and subsequent rusting on the beams at the transverse panel joints. Current design recommendations suggest levels of initial compression for precast concrete decks in a very limit...
Positive and negative spillover effects from electric car purchase to car use
Kløckner, Christian; Nayum, Alim; Mehmetoglu, Mehmet
2013-01-01
This study reports the results of two online surveys conducted on buyers of conventional combustion engine cars compared to those of electric vehicles in Norway. The results show that electric cars are generally purchased as additional cars, do not contribute to a decrease in annual mileage if the old car is not substituted, and that electric car buyers use the car more often for their everyday mobility. Psychological determinants derived from the theory of planned behavior and the norm-activ...
More Effective Use of Urban Space by Autonomous Double Parking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rafael Estepa
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The new capabilities of autonomous cars can be used to mitigate to a large extent safety concerns and nuisance traditionally associated with double parking. In this paper double parking for autonomous cars is proposed as a new approach to temporarily increase parking capacity in locations in clear need for extra provision when best alternatives cannot be found. The basic requirements, operation, and procedures of the proposed solution are outlined. A curbside parking has been simulated implementing the suggested double parking operation and important advantages have been identified for drivers, the environment, and the city. Double parking can increase over 50% the parking capacity of a given area. Autonomous car owners would (at least double their probabilities of finding parking compared to traditional drivers, saving cruising time and emissions. However, significant work and technological advances are still needed in order to make this feasible in the near future.
Bartholomew, Paul D.; Guthrie, W. Spencer; Mazzeo, Brian A.
2012-08-01
Corrosion is a pressing problem for aging concrete infrastructure, especially bridge decks. Because of its sensitivity to factors that affect corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete, resistivity is an important structural health indicator for reinforced concrete structures. In this research, an instrument was developed to measure vertical impedance on concrete bridge decks. Measurements of vertical impedance on slabs prepared in the laboratory, on slabs removed from decommissioned bridge decks, and on an in-service bridge deck in the field demonstrate the utility of the new apparatus.
Preparation of Input Deck to analyze the Nuclear Power Plant for the Use of Regulatory Verification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kang, Doo Hyuk; Kim, Hyung Seok; Suh, Jae Seung; Ahn, Seung Hoon
2009-01-01
The objectives of this paper are to make out the input deck that analyzes a nuclear power plant for the use of regulatory verification and to produce its calculation note. We have been maintained the input deck of T/H safety codes used in existing domestic reactors to ensure independent and accurate regulatory verification for the thermal-hydraulic safety analysis in domestic NPPs. This paper is mainly divided into two steps: first step is to compare existing input deck to the calculation note in order to verify the consistency. Next step is to model 3-dimensional reactor pressure vessel using MULTID component instead of the 1D existing input deck
Income, Wealth and Consumption of Cross-Border Commuters to Luxembourg
Thomas Y. Mathä; Alessandro Porpiglia; Michael Ziegelmeyer
2012-01-01
Exceeding 40% of domestic employment cross-border commuters are extremely important to Luxembourg's economy and labour market in general. This paper presents unique information on their income, wealth and consumption using representative survey data from cross-border commuter households to Luxembourg. The estimated average total net wealth of cross-border commuter households is about EUR 240,000, which falls substantially short of comparable estimates for Luxembourg resident households exceed...
One-loop beta functions for the orientable non-commutative Gross Neveu model TH1"-->
Lakhoua, A.; Vignes-Tourneret, F.; Wallet, J.-C.
2007-11-01
We compute at the one-loop order the β-functions for a renormalisable non-commutative analog of the Gross Neveu model defined on the Moyal plane. The calculation is performed within the so called x-space formalism. We find that this non-commutative field theory exhibits asymptotic freedom for any number of colors. The β-function for the non-commutative counterpart of the Thirring model is found to be non vanishing.
Page, Nadine C; Nilsson, Viktor O
2016-01-01
Objective: This paper describes a behavior change intervention that encourages active commuting using electrically assisted bikes (e-bikes) for health promotion in the workplace. This paper presents the preliminary findings of the intervention's impact on improving employee well-being and organizational behavior, as an indicator of potential business success. Method: Employees of a UK-based organization participated in a workplace travel behavior change intervention and used e-bikes as an active commuting mode; this was a change to their usual passive commuting behavior. The purpose of the intervention was to develop employee well-being and organizational behavior for improved business success. We explored the personal benefits and organizational co-benefits of active commuting and compared these to a travel-as-usual group of employees who did not change their behavior and continued taking non-active commutes. Results: Employees who changed their behavior to active commuting reported more positive affect, better physical health and more productive organizational behavior outcomes compared with passive commuters. In addition, there was an interactive effect of commuting mode and commuting distance: a more frequent active commute was positively associated with more productive organizational behavior and stronger overall positive employee well-being whereas a longer passive commute was associated with poorer well-being, although there was no impact on organizational behavior. Conclusion: This research provides emerging evidence of the value of an innovative workplace health promotion initiative focused on active commuting in protecting and improving employee well-being and organizational behavior for stronger business performance. It considers the significant opportunities for organizations pursuing improved workforce well-being, both in terms of employee health, and for improved organizational behavior and business success.
A new non-commutative representation of the Wiener and Poisson processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Privault, N.
1996-01-01
Using two different constructions of the chaotic and variational calculus on Poisson space, we show that the Wiener and Poisson processes have a non-commutative representation which is different from the one obtained by transfer of the Fock space creation and annihilation operators. We obtain in this way an extension of the non-commutative It calculus. The associated commutation relations show a link between the geometric and exponential distributions. (author). 11 refs
Trade-offs between commuting time and health-related activities.
Christian, Thomas J
2012-10-01
To further understand documented associations between obesity and urban sprawl, this research describes individuals' trade-offs between health-related activities and commuting time. A cross-section of 24,861 working-age individuals employed full-time and residing in urban counties is constructed from the American Time Use Survey (2003-2010). Data are analyzed using seemingly unrelated regressions to quantify health-related activity decreases in response to additional time spent commuting. Outcomes are total daily minutes spent in physical activity at a moderate or greater intensity, preparing food, eating meals with family, and sleeping. Commuting time is measured as all travel time between home and work and vice versa. The mean commuting time is 62 min daily, the median is 55 min, and 10.1% of workers commute 120 min or more. Spending an additional 60 min daily commuting above average is associated with a 6% decrease in aggregate health-related activities and spending an additional 120 min is associated with a 12% decrease. The greatest percentage of commuting time comes from sleeping time reductions (28-35%). Additionally, larger proportions of commuting time are taken from physical activity and food preparation relative to the mean commuting length: of 60 min spent commuting, 16.1% is taken from physical activity and 4.1% is taken from food preparation; of 120 min commuting, 20.3% is taken from physical activity and 5.6% is taken from food preparation. The results indicate that longer commutes are associated with behavioral patterns which over time may contribute to obesity and other poor health outcomes. These findings will assist both urban planners and researchers wishing to understand time constraints' impacts on health.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Edgar, S.B.
1990-01-01
The structures of the N.P. and G.H.P formalisms are reviewed in order to understand and demonstrate the important role played by the commutator equations in the associated integration procedures. Particular attention is focused on how the commutator equations are to be satisfied, or checked for consistency. It is shown that Held's integration method will only guarantee genuine solutions of Einstein's equations when all the commutator equations are correctly and completely satisfied. (authors)
CarD uses a minor groove wedge mechanism to stabilize the RNA polymerase open promoter complex.
Bae, Brian; Chen, James; Davis, Elizabeth; Leon, Katherine; Darst, Seth A; Campbell, Elizabeth A
2015-09-08
A key point to regulate gene expression is at transcription initiation, and activators play a major role. CarD, an essential activator in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is found in many bacteria, including Thermus species, but absent in Escherichia coli. To delineate the molecular mechanism of CarD, we determined crystal structures of Thermus transcription initiation complexes containing CarD. The structures show CarD interacts with the unique DNA topology presented by the upstream double-stranded/single-stranded DNA junction of the transcription bubble. We confirm that our structures correspond to functional activation complexes, and extend our understanding of the role of a conserved CarD Trp residue that serves as a minor groove wedge, preventing collapse of the transcription bubble to stabilize the transcription initiation complex. Unlike E. coli RNAP, many bacterial RNAPs form unstable promoter complexes, explaining the need for CarD.
Substitution between cars within the household
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan
The purpose of this paper is to study to what extent two-car households substitute the use of their less fuel efficient car by the use of their more fuel efficient car after an increase in fuel prices. Based on a simple theoretical framework we use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car...... households to estimate, for each car owned by the household, own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometer. The empirical results point at important substitution effects, so that models that estimate responses to fuel prices on the implicit or explicit assumption of one car per...
Commutative discrete filtering on unstructured grids based on least-squares techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haselbacher, Andreas; Vasilyev, Oleg V.
2003-01-01
The present work is concerned with the development of commutative discrete filters for unstructured grids and contains two main contributions. First, building on the work of Marsden et al. [J. Comp. Phys. 175 (2002) 584], a new commutative discrete filter based on least-squares techniques is constructed. Second, a new analysis of the discrete commutation error is carried out. The analysis indicates that the discrete commutation error is not only dependent on the number of vanishing moments of the filter weights, but also on the order of accuracy of the discrete gradient operator. The results of the analysis are confirmed by grid-refinement studies
High Speed Rail commuting: Efficiency analysis of the Spanish HSR links
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moyano, A.
2016-07-01
This paper is centred on the analysis of the commuting High Speed Rail (HSR) links that are possible nowadays in the Spanish network. The large development of the network multiplies the possibilities of travelling for commuting. However, not only the feasibility but also the characteristics of the trip, in terms of ticket cost and time spent on the travel, become essential factors when considering HSR commuting links. This paper presents a person-based methodology focused on travellers’ needs and working schedules constraints, which allow differentiating among connections and identifying those intervals of time spent and costs that are affordable for commuting. (Author)
The Speeding Car Design Challenge
Roman, Harry T.
2009-01-01
All too often, one reads about high-speed police chases in pursuit of stolen cars that result in death and injury to people and innocent bystanders. Isn't there another way to accomplish the apprehension of the thieves that does not put people at such great risk? This article presents a classroom challenge to use technology to remotely shutdown…
Automated Car Park Management System
Fabros, J. P.; Tabañag, D.; Espra, A.; Gerasta, O. J.
2015-06-01
This study aims to develop a prototype for an Automated Car Park Management System that will increase the quality of service of parking lots through the integration of a smart system that assists motorist in finding vacant parking lot. The research was based on implementing an operating system and a monitoring system for parking system without the use of manpower. This will include Parking Guidance and Information System concept which will efficiently assist motorists and ensures the safety of the vehicles and the valuables inside the vehicle. For monitoring, Optical Character Recognition was employed to monitor and put into list all the cars entering the parking area. All parking events in this system are visible via MATLAB GUI which contain time-in, time-out, time consumed information and also the lot number where the car parks. To put into reality, this system has a payment method, and it comes via a coin slot operation to control the exit gate. The Automated Car Park Management System was successfully built by utilizing microcontrollers specifically one PIC18f4550 and two PIC16F84s and one PIC16F628A.
Restoring a Classic Electric Car
Kraft, Thomas E.
2012-01-01
One hundred years ago, automobiles were powered by steam, electricity, or internal combustion. Female drivers favored electric cars because, unlike early internal-combustion vehicles, they did not require a crank for starting. Nonetheless, internal-combustion vehicles came to dominate the industry and it's only in recent years that the electrics…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goldegol, Alexandre
1991-05-01
A given reaction of double diffractive dissociation is studied based on the three-component Deck Model. The correlations among the diffractive slope, the effective mass of the dissociated particle sub-system and the dissociation angle in the Gottfried-Jackson are studied based in this model. 9 refs, 19 figs.
1978-02-01
The first phase of this contract authorized the design, development, and demonstration of two State-Of-The-Art Cars (SOAC). This document reports on the gathering of comparative test data on existing in-service transit cars. The three transit cars se...
Topological field theories and quantum mechanics on commutative space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lefrancois, M.
2005-12-01
In particle physics, the Standard Model describes the interactions between fundamental particles. However, it was not able till now to unify quantum field theory and general relativity. This thesis focuses on two different unification approaches, though they might show some compatibility: topological field theories and quantum mechanics on non-commutative space. Topological field theories have been introduced some twenty years ago and have a very strong link to mathematics: their observables are topological invariants of the manifold they are defined on. In this thesis, we first give interest to topological Yang-Mills. We develop a superspace formalism and give a systematic method for the determination of the observables. This approach allows, once projected on a particular super gauge (of Wess-Zumino type), to recover the existing results but it also gives a generalisation to the case of an unspecified super-gauge. We have then be able to show that the up-to-now known observables correspond to the most general form of the solutions. This superspace formalism can be applied to more complex models; the case of topological gravity is given here in example. Quantum mechanics on noncommutative space provides an extension of the Heisenberg algebra of ordinary quantum mechanics. What differs here is that the components of the position or momentum operators do not commute with each other anymore. This implies to introduce a fundamental length. The second part of this thesis focuses on the description of the commutation algebra. Applications are made to low-dimensional quantum systems (Landau system, harmonic oscillator...) and to supersymmetric systems. (author)
Exposure to hydrocarbon concentrations while commuting or exercising in Dublin.
O'Donoghue, R T; Gill, L W; McKevitt, R J; Broderick, B
2007-01-01
In Ireland, several studies have monitored the air pollution due to traffic in both urban and rural environments. However, few studies have attempted to quantify the relative exposure to traffic derived HC pollutants between different modes of commuter transport. In this study, the difference in pollution exposure between bus and cycling commuters on a route in Dublin was compared by sampling for five vehicle related hydrocarbons: benzene, 1,3-butadiene, acetylene, ethane and ethylene. Samples were collected during both morning and afternoon rush hour periods using a fixed speed pump to gain representative concentrations across the whole journey. Journey times were also measured, as were typical breathing rates in order to calculate the overall dose of pollutant inhaled on the journey. Results clearly picked up significantly higher pollutant concentrations in the bus compared to cycling and also revealed elevated concentrations on the congested side of the road compared to the side moving against the traffic. However, when respiration rates and travel times were taken into account to reveal the mass of pollutants inhaled over the course of a journey, the pattern was reversed, showing slightly enhanced levels of hydrocarbons for the cyclist compared to the bus passenger. In addition, the concentrations of these compounds (excluding ethane), were ascertained at playing pitches in the vicinity of a heavily trafficked suburban motorway and in Dublin city centre. Although the concentrations were relatively low at all sites, when breathing rates were taken into consideration, the average inhaled weights of pollutants were, on occasion, higher than those average values observed for both bus and bicycle commuters.
Number-to-voltage converter on commutated condensers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grekhov, Yu.N.
1975-01-01
A code-voltage converter using precision voltage dividers based on commutated capacitors [1] is described which is distinguished by the absence of precision elements. Each digit includes eight field-effect transistors in two 1KT682 microcircuit assemblies and three microcapacitors with a conventional unstable capacitance 6200 pF +- 50%. The converter has a speed of response that is not inferior to that of converters based on R-2R matrices, while in time stability of the characteristics, low interference level, and low output impedance it is superior to such converters
Promoting health and safety for traveling and commuting employees.
Pochat-Debroux, Sophia
2008-09-01
In a society that relies on a growing market economy and free enterprise, Americans spend inordinate time commuting and traveling for work. Aircraft and private vehicles are the two primary modes of work-related travel, with each having its own inherit risks and hazards. Although much has been written about international travel health, little has been published about protecting the health and safety of workers during domestic business travel. The intent of this article is to highlight the statistics associated with domestic business travel and present sound rationale for an inclusive and comprehensive domestic travel health and safety program for employees.
Operating limits on commutator dc machines used as electromechanical capacitors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thullen, P.
1981-01-01
This paper presents data gathered in testing 28 rebuilt motors and discusses the impact of possible variation of characteristics among the machines of the operation of the facility. It also discusses commutation limits and their relationship to the economics and reliability of the system. When installed, the system will consist of 30 motors and will have a rating of 50 kA, 1.68 kV corresponding to 84 MVA at a peak power of 42 MW. The cost of this supply will be near $6/kVA which continues to compare favorably with the present $30/kVA cost of alternators
Using a micromachined magnetostatic relay in commutating a DC motor
Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Wright, John A. (Inventor); Lilienthal, Gerald (Inventor)
2004-01-01
A DC motor is commutated by rotating a magnetic rotor to induce a magnetic field in at least one magnetostatic relay in the motor. Each relay is activated in response to the magnetic field to deliver power to at least one corresponding winding connected to the relay. In some cases, each relay delivers power first through a corresponding primary winding and then through a corresponding secondary winding to a common node. Specific examples include a four-pole, three-phase motor in which each relay is activated four times during one rotation of the magnetic rotor.
Note on the Tableau Technique for Commutative Transition Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Srba, Jirí
2002-01-01
We define a class of transition systems called effective commutative transition systems (ECTS) and show, by generalising a tableau-based proof for BPP, that strong bisimilarity between any two states of such a transition system is decidable. It gives a general technique for extending decidability...... borders of strong bisimilarity for a wide class of infinite-state transition systems. This is demonstrated for several process formalisms, namely BPP process algebra, lossy BPP processes, BPP systems with interrupt and timed-arc BPP nets....
Canonical commutation relations - historical aspect and new results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mnatsakanova, M.N.; Vernov, Yu.S.
1997-01-01
The aim of the paper is to describe the historical aspects of the canonical commutation relations (CCR) and to analyse the new results. The CCR are the algebraic structure (Heisenberg algebra) on the basis of quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. The following results are discussed: the Weyl form of CCR, Von Neumann's uniqueness theorem, regularity conditions, CCR representation in standard and Weyl forms, CCR in an indefinite metric space, class of CCR regular representations and CCR in the case of infinite number of degrees of freedom [ru