WorldWideScience

Sample records for dosimetry gevero software

  1. Software tool for portal dosimetry research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vial, P; Hunt, P; Greer, P B; Oliver, L; Baldock, C

    2008-09-01

    This paper describes a software tool developed for research into the use of an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) to verify dose for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) beams. A portal dose image prediction (PDIP) model that predicts the EPID response to IMRT beams has been implemented into a commercially available treatment planning system (TPS). The software tool described in this work was developed to modify the TPS PDIP model by incorporating correction factors into the predicted EPID image to account for the difference in EPID response to open beam radiation and multileaf collimator (MLC) transmitted radiation. The processes performed by the software tool include; i) read the MLC file and the PDIP from the TPS, ii) calculate the fraction of beam-on time that each point in the IMRT beam is shielded by MLC leaves, iii) interpolate correction factors from look-up tables, iv) create a corrected PDIP image from the product of the original PDIP and the correction factors and write the corrected image to file, v) display, analyse, and export various image datasets. The software tool was developed using the Microsoft Visual Studio.NET framework with the C# compiler. The operation of the software tool was validated. This software provided useful tools for EPID dosimetry research, and it is being utilised and further developed in ongoing EPID dosimetry and IMRT dosimetry projects.

  2. Software for evaluation of EPR-dosimetry performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkina, E A; Timofeev, Yu S; Ivanov, D V

    2014-06-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) with tooth enamel is a method extensively used for retrospective external dosimetry. Different research groups apply different equipment, sample preparation procedures and spectrum processing algorithms for EPR dosimetry. A uniform algorithm for description and comparison of performances was designed and implemented in a new computer code. The aim of the paper is to introduce the new software 'EPR-dosimetry performance'. The computer code is a user-friendly tool for providing a full description of method-specific capabilities of EPR tooth dosimetry, from metrological characteristics to practical limitations in applications. The software designed for scientists and engineers has several applications, including support of method calibration by evaluation of calibration parameters, evaluation of critical value and detection limit for registration of radiation-induced signal amplitude, estimation of critical value and detection limit for dose evaluation, estimation of minimal detectable value for anthropogenic dose assessment and description of method uncertainty.

  3. US Army Radiological Bioassay and Dosimetry: The RBD software package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckerman, K. F.; Ward, R. C.; Maddox, L. B.

    1993-01-01

    The RBD (Radiological Bioassay and Dosimetry) software package was developed for the U. S. Army Material Command, Arlington, Virginia, to demonstrate compliance with the radiation protection guidance 10 CFR Part 20 (ref. 1). Designed to be run interactively on an IBM-compatible personal computer, RBD consists of a data base module to manage bioassay data and a computational module that incorporates algorithms for estimating radionuclide intake from either acute or chronic exposures based on measurement of the worker's rate of excretion of the radionuclide or the retained activity in the body. In estimating the intake,RBD uses a separate file for each radionuclide containing parametric representations of the retention and excretion functions. These files also contain dose-per-unit-intake coefficients used to compute the committed dose equivalent. For a given nuclide, if measurements exist for more than one type of assay, an auxiliary module, REPORT, estimates the intake by applying weights assigned in the nuclide file for each assay. Bioassay data and computed results (estimates of intake and committed dose equivalent) are stored in separate data bases, and the bioassay measurements used to compute a given result can be identified. The REPORT module creates a file containing committed effective dose equivalent for each individual that can be combined with the individual's external exposure.

  4. Development and implementation of own software for dosimetry multichannel film; Desarrollo e implementacion de un software propio para la dosimetria multicanal con pelicula radiocromica EBT2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Feltstrom, D.; Reyes Garcia, R.; Luis Simon, F. J.; Carrasco Herrera, M.; Sanchez Carmona, G.; Herrador Cordoba, M.

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this work is to develop its own software for multichannel film dosimetry Radiochromic EBT2. Compare the results obtained with its use in multichannel and single-channel dosimetry. Check that the multi-channel dosimetry eliminates much of the artifacts caused by dirt, fingerprints, scratches, etc. Radiochromic in film and scanner devices. (Author)

  5. Development of a software tool for an internal dosimetry using MIRD method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaichana, A.; Tocharoenchai, C.

    2016-03-01

    Currently, many software packages for the internal radiation dosimetry have been developed. Many of them do not provide sufficient tools to perform all of the necessary steps from nuclear medicine image analysis for dose calculation. For this reason, we developed a CALRADDOSE software that can be performed internal dosimetry using MIRD method within a single environment. MATLAB software version 2015a was used as development tool. The calculation process of this software proceeds from collecting time-activity data from image data followed by residence time calculation and absorbed dose calculation using MIRD method. To evaluate the accuracy of this software, we calculate residence times and absorbed doses of 5 Ga- 67 studies and 5 I-131 MIBG studies and then compared the results with those obtained from OLINDA/EXM software. The results showed that the residence times and absorbed doses obtained from both software packages were not statistically significant differences. The CALRADDOSE software is a user-friendly, graphic user interface-based software for internal dosimetry. It provides fast and accurate results, which may be useful for a routine work.

  6. Year 2000 compliance concerns with the ISA Thermoluminescent Dosimetry Data Processing (TL-DP) software system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saviz, K.

    1998-05-26

    The year 2000 is rapidly approaching, and there is a good chance that computer systems that utilize two digit year dates will experience problems in retrieval of date information. The ISA Thermoluminescent Dosimetry Data Processing (TL-DP) software and computer system has been reviewed for Year 2000 compliance issues.

  7. DOSIMETRY

    CERN Multimedia

    Service de dosimétrie individuelle

    2000-01-01

    From the distribution Novembre/Decembre 2000 (film colour green), the people who worked in LEP experiments and who have not announced their participation to LEP dismantling or new activities in another experiment or group will be taken out from the regular distribution list of the Individual Dosimetry Service. Please contact Individual Dosimetry Service, tel. 72155 or e-mail to Jeannine.Fraisse@cern.ch We inform all staff and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER will be available from their usual dispatchers on the 1st of September 2000. Please have your films changed before the 12th of September. The colour of the dosimeter valid in SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER is RED. The service will be closed exceptionally on Friday 8 September.

  8. DOSIMETRY

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    From the month of May on, the neutron dosimeter will be worn in an extra package distinct from the usual film-badge. We will give you more ample information in Weekly Bulletin No. 18/2001 of April 30, 2001. In the week following Easter (17 - 20. 4. 2001) the Individual Dosimetry Service will be opened in the mornings from 8:30 to 11:30 h only. The Service will be closed on April 30.

  9. RisøScan - a new dosimetry software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helt-Hansen, J.; Miller, A.

    2004-01-01

    RisoScan is a software package that is used for analysis of images of visibly coloured dosimeter films. The image is created by scanning the dosimeter film on a flatbed scanner. RisoScan is based on LabView(R), and it is useful for analysis of dose distributions and depth dose curves. Measurement...... reproducibility is maintained in the analysis of dosimeter films, and measurement uncertainties (Type A) in the order of 3-5% (1 s.d.) are obtained depending on the scanner and the dosimeter film used. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  10. Development of a new software tool, based on ANN technology, in neutron spectrometry and dosimetry research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz R, J.M.; Martinez B, M.R.; Vega C, H.R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Av. Ramon Lopez Velarde 801, A.P. 336, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    Artificial Intelligence is a branch of study which enhances the capability of computers by giving them human-like intelligence. The brain architecture has been extensively studied and attempts have been made to emulate it as in the Artificial Neural Network technology. A large variety of neural network architectures have been developed and they have gained wide-spread popularity over the last few decades. Their application is considered as a substitute for many classical techniques that have been used for many years, as in the case of neutron spectrometry and dosimetry research areas. In previous works, a new approach called Robust Design of Artificial Neural network was applied to build an ANN topology capable to solve the neutron spectrometry and dosimetry problems within the Mat lab programming environment. In this work, the knowledge stored at Mat lab ANN's synaptic weights was extracted in order to develop for first time a customized software application based on ANN technology, which is proposed to be used in the neutron spectrometry and simultaneous dosimetry fields. (Author)

  11. SU-E-T-609: Evaluation of Transit Dosimetry Software Using Heterogeneous Phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matulewicz, L; Prazmowska, J; Stapor-Fudzinska, M; Slosarek, K [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice (Poland)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to evaluate limits and capabilities in the transit dosimetry software for use with the TomoTherapy system by irradiating a heterogeneous phantom. Methods: Helical TomoTherapy plan was created using CIRS phantom (model 062M) with nine various tissue equivalent inserts (lung inhale 0.2 g/cm{sup 3}, lung exhale 0.5 g/cm{sup 3}, adipose 0.96 g/cm{sup 3}, breast 0.99 g/cm{sup 3}, water 1.01 g/cm{sup 3}, muscle 1.06 g/cm{sup 3}, liver 1.07 g/cm{sup 3}, trabecular bone 1.16 g/cm{sup 3}, and dense bone 1.53 g/cm{sup 3}). Targets were contoured within every insert. The phantom was scanned with a 50 cm field of view and 3 mm slice width. Images were imported into the TomoTherapy TPS. A plan was generated to deliver 20 Gy to every insert (2 Gy per fraction) with a jaw width of 2.5 cm, a pitch of 0.430 and an actual modulation factor of 2.621. After the radiation delivery the planning CT, the RT structure, the RT plan, and the RT dose (DICOM format) as well as the exit detector sinogram were imported into the Dosimetry Check software (Math Resolutions, LLC). The 3D delivered doses were reconstructed from the exit detector data by correcting for phantom and couch attenuation. The resulting dose distribution were compared with the TPS planned dose using gamma index. Results: Using the clinical gamma criteria, 3% and 3 mm, all tissue equivalent inserts had a passing percentage of 100% except for 0.2 g/cm{sup 3} and 0.5 g/cm{sup 3} density inserts (gamma value of 81.67% and 99.18% respectively). Conclusion: The evaluated transit dosimetry software provides an independent verification of helical TomoTherapy plans giving additional confidence in the treatment delivery, however, an overestimation of the reconstructed dose in low density materials has been revealed. Implementation of Monte Carlo algorithm for exit dose reconstruction should improve dosimetric accuracy in heterogeneous patient tissues. Agreement with Math Resolutions.

  12. GENII (Generation II): The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System: Volume 3, Code maintenance manual: Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.

    1988-09-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project was undertaken to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in updated versions of the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. The resulting second generation of Hanford environmental dosimetry computer codes is compiled in the Hanford Environmental Dosimetry System (Generation II, or GENII). This coupled system of computer codes is intended for analysis of environmental contamination resulting from acute or chronic releases to, or initial contamination of, air, water, or soil, on through the calculation of radiation doses to individuals or populations. GENII is described in three volumes of documentation. This volume is a Code Maintenance Manual for the serious user, including code logic diagrams, global dictionary, worksheets to assist with hand calculations, and listings of the code and its associated data libraries. The first volume describes the theoretical considerations of the system. The second volume is a Users' Manual, providing code structure, users' instructions, required system configurations, and QA-related topics. 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. TestDose: A nuclear medicine software based on Monte Carlo modeling for generating gamma camera acquisitions and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marie-Paule, E-mail: marie-paule.garcia@univ-brest.fr; Villoing, Daphnée [UMR 1037 INSERM/UPS, CRCT, 133 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse (France); McKay, Erin [St George Hospital, Gray Street, Kogarah, New South Wales 2217 (Australia); Ferrer, Ludovic [ICO René Gauducheau, Boulevard Jacques Monod, St Herblain 44805 (France); Cremonesi, Marta; Botta, Francesca; Ferrari, Mahila [European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, Milano 20141 (Italy); Bardiès, Manuel [UMR 1037 INSERM/UPS, CRCT, 133 Route de Narbonne, Toulouse 31062 (France)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: The TestDose platform was developed to generate scintigraphic imaging protocols and associated dosimetry by Monte Carlo modeling. TestDose is part of a broader project (www.dositest.com) whose aim is to identify the biases induced by different clinical dosimetry protocols. Methods: The TestDose software allows handling the whole pipeline from virtual patient generation to resulting planar and SPECT images and dosimetry calculations. The originality of their approach relies on the implementation of functional segmentation for the anthropomorphic model representing a virtual patient. Two anthropomorphic models are currently available: 4D XCAT and ICRP 110. A pharmacokinetic model describes the biodistribution of a given radiopharmaceutical in each defined compartment at various time-points. The Monte Carlo simulation toolkit GATE offers the possibility to accurately simulate scintigraphic images and absorbed doses in volumes of interest. The TestDose platform relies on GATE to reproduce precisely any imaging protocol and to provide reference dosimetry. For image generation, TestDose stores user’s imaging requirements and generates automatically command files used as input for GATE. Each compartment is simulated only once and the resulting output is weighted using pharmacokinetic data. Resulting compartment projections are aggregated to obtain the final image. For dosimetry computation, emission data are stored in the platform database and relevant GATE input files are generated for the virtual patient model and associated pharmacokinetics. Results: Two samples of software runs are given to demonstrate the potential of TestDose. A clinical imaging protocol for the Octreoscan™ therapeutical treatment was implemented using the 4D XCAT model. Whole-body “step and shoot” acquisitions at different times postinjection and one SPECT acquisition were generated within reasonable computation times. Based on the same Octreoscan™ kinetics, a dosimetry

  14. Implementation and validation of a commercial portal dosimetry software for intensity-modulated radiation therapy pre-treatment verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varatharaj C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs are extensively used for obtaining dosimetric information of pre-treatment field verification and in-vivo dosimetry for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT. In the present study, we have implemented the newly developed portal dosimetry software using independent dose prediction algorithm EPIDose TM and evaluated this new tool for the pre-treatment IMRT plan quality assurance of Whole Pelvis with Simultaneous Integrated Boost (WP-SIB-IMRT of prostate cases by comparing with routine two-dimensional (2D array detector system (MapCHECK TM . We have investigated 104 split fields using g-distributions in terms of predefined g frequency parameters. The mean γ values are found to be 0.42 (SD: 0.06 and 0.44 (SD: 0.06 for the EPIDose and MapCHECK TM , respectively. The average g∆ for EPIDose and MapCHECK TM are found as 0.51 (SD: 0.06 and 0.53 (SD: 0.07, respectively. Furthermore, the percentage of points with g < 1, γ < 1.5, and γ > 2 are 97.4%, 99.3%, and 0.56%, respectively for EPIDose and 96.4%, 99.0% and 0.62% for MapCHECK TM . Based on our results obtained with EPIDose and strong agreement with MapCHECK TM , we may conclude that the EPIDose portal dosimetry system has been successfully implemented and validated with our routine 2D array detector

  15. Software for dosimetry hypothyroid patients treated with I131 pick up and using probe gamma camera; Software para la dosimetria de pacientes hipertiroideos tratados con 131I utilizando sonda de captacion y gammacamara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Felstrom, D.; Luis simon, J.; Reyes Garcia, R.; Derecho Torres, P.; Herrador Cordoba, M.

    2015-07-01

    In this communication the process recently implemented in our hospital for pre and post treatment of patients treated with I-131 in benign diseases of the thyroid gland internal dosimetry is described. We have developed a proprietary software that facilitates the process of dosimetry. Through scans Planar or pictures Spect be determines the mass of the gland thyroid. In function of the mass, is calculated by Monte Carlo the media power absorbed by disintegration of the I-131 in said gland endocrine. (Author)

  16. Dosimetry; La dosimetrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Couteulx, I.; Apretna, D.; Beaugerie, M.F. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)] [and others

    2003-07-01

    Eight articles treat the dosimetry. Two articles evaluate the radiation doses in specific cases, dosimetry of patients in radiodiagnosis, three articles are devoted to detectors (neutrons and x and gamma radiations) and a computer code to build up the dosimetry of an accident due to an external exposure. (N.C.)

  17. Radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hine, Gerald J; Hine, Gerald J

    1956-01-01

    Radiation Dosimetry focuses on the advancements, processes, technologies, techniques, and principles involved in radiation dosimetry, including counters and calibration and standardization techniques. The selection first offers information on radiation units and the theory of ionization dosimetry and interaction of radiation with matter. Topics include quantities derivable from roentgens, determination of dose in roentgens, ionization dosimetry of high-energy photons and corpuscular radiations, and heavy charged particles. The text then examines the biological and medical effects of radiation,

  18. Hematological dosimetry. Dosimetrie hematologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluery-Herard, A. (CEA Centre d' Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (FR). Direction des Sciences du Vivant)

    1991-01-01

    The principles of hematological dosimetry after acute or protracted whole-body irradiation are reviewed. In both cases, over-exposure is never homogeneous and the clinical consequences, viz medullary aplasia, are directly associated with the mean absorbed dose and the seriousness and location of the overexposure. The main hematological data required to assess the seriousness of exposure are the following: repeated blood analysis, blood precursor cultures, as indicators of whole-body exposure; bone marrow puncture, medullary precursor cultures and medullary scintigraphy as indicators of the importance of a local over-exposure and capacity for spontaneous repair. These paraclinical investigations, which are essential for diagnosis and dosimetry, are also used for surveillance and for the main therapeutic issues.

  19. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Cern Staff and Users can now consult their dose records for an individual or an organizational unit with HRT. Please see more information on our web page: http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry Dosimetry Service is open every morning from 8.30 - 12.00. Closed in the afternoons. We would like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCT's) must always be returned to the Service after the use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats. Dosimetry Service Tel. 7 2155 Dosimetry.service@cern.ch http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  20. Computational dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebert, B.R.L.; Thomas, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents a definition of the term ``Computational Dosimetry`` that is interpreted as the sub-discipline of computational physics which is devoted to radiation metrology. It is shown that computational dosimetry is more than a mere collection of computational methods. Computational simulations directed at basic understanding and modelling are important tools provided by computational dosimetry, while another very important application is the support that it can give to the design, optimization and analysis of experiments. However, the primary task of computational dosimetry is to reduce the variance in the determination of absorbed dose (and its related quantities), for example in the disciplines of radiological protection and radiation therapy. In this paper emphasis is given to the discussion of potential pitfalls in the applications of computational dosimetry and recommendations are given for their avoidance. The need for comparison of calculated and experimental data whenever possible is strongly stressed.

  1. Dosimetry methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Miller, A.; Kovacs, A.;

    2003-01-01

    Chemical and physical radiation dosimetry methods, used for the measurement of absorbed dose mainly during the practical use of ionizing radiation, are discussed with respect to their characteristics and fields of application.......Chemical and physical radiation dosimetry methods, used for the measurement of absorbed dose mainly during the practical use of ionizing radiation, are discussed with respect to their characteristics and fields of application....

  2. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    Dosimetry Service

    2005-01-01

    Please remember to read your dosimeter at least once every month. A regular read-out is indispensable to ensure periodic monitoring of your personal dose. You must read your dosimeter even if you have not visited the controlled areas. Film badges are no longer valid at CERN and holders of film badges are no longer allowed to enter the controlled radiation areas or work with a source. Dosimetry Service Tel. 72155 http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  3. Epid Dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Peter B.; Vial, Philip

    2011-05-01

    Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) were introduced originally for patient position verification. The idea of using EPIDs for dosimetry was realised in the 1980s. Little was published on the topic until the mid 1990's, when the interest in EPIDs for dosimetry increased rapidly and continues to grow. The increasing research on EPID dosimetry coincided with the introduction of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). EPIDs are well suited to IMRT dosimetry because they are high resolution, two-dimensional (2D) digital detectors. They are also pre-existing on almost all modern linear accelerators. They generally show a linear response to increasing dose. Different types of EPIDs have been clinically implemented, and these have been described in several review papers. The current generation of commercially available EPIDs are indirect detection active matrix flat panel imagers, also known as amorphous silicon (a-Si) EPIDs. Disadvantages of a-Si EPIDs for dosimetry include non-water equivalent construction materials, and the energy sensitivity and optical scatter of the phosphor scintillators used to create optical signal from the megavoltage beam. This report discusses current knowledge regarding a-Si EPIDs for dosimetry.

  4. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hum Na, Yong; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F.; Xu, X. George

    2010-07-01

    Computational phantoms representing workers and patients are essential in estimating organ doses from various occupational radiation exposures and medical procedures. Nearly all existing phantoms, however, were purposely designed to match internal and external anatomical features of the Reference Man as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To reduce uncertainty in dose calculations caused by anatomical variations, a new generation of phantoms of varying organ and body sizes is needed. This paper presents detailed anatomical data in tables and graphs that are used to design such size-adjustable phantoms representing a range of adult individuals in terms of the body height, body weight and internal organ volume/mass. Two different sets of information are used to derive the phantom sets: (1) individual internal organ size and volume/mass distribution data derived from the recommendations of the ICRP in Publications 23 and 89 and (2) whole-body height and weight percentile data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002). The NHANES height and weight data for 19 year old males and females are used to estimate the distributions of individuals' size, which is unknown, that corresponds to the ICRP organ and tissue distributions. This paper then demonstrates the usage of these anthropometric data in the development of deformable anatomical phantoms. A pair of phantoms—modeled entirely in mesh surfaces—of the adult male and female, RPI-adult male (AM) and RPI-adult female (AF) are used as the base for size-adjustable phantoms. To create percentile-specific phantoms from these two base phantoms, organ surface boundaries are carefully altered according to the tabulated anthropometric data. Software algorithms are developed to automatically match the organ volumes and masses with desired values. Finally, these mesh-based, percentile-specific phantoms are converted into voxel-based phantoms for Monte

  5. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Yong Hum; Xu, X George [Biomedical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Zhang Binquan; Zhang Juying; Caracappa, Peter F, E-mail: xug2@rpi.ed [Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2010-07-07

    Computational phantoms representing workers and patients are essential in estimating organ doses from various occupational radiation exposures and medical procedures. Nearly all existing phantoms, however, were purposely designed to match internal and external anatomical features of the Reference Man as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To reduce uncertainty in dose calculations caused by anatomical variations, a new generation of phantoms of varying organ and body sizes is needed. This paper presents detailed anatomical data in tables and graphs that are used to design such size-adjustable phantoms representing a range of adult individuals in terms of the body height, body weight and internal organ volume/mass. Two different sets of information are used to derive the phantom sets: (1) individual internal organ size and volume/mass distribution data derived from the recommendations of the ICRP in Publications 23 and 89 and (2) whole-body height and weight percentile data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002). The NHANES height and weight data for 19 year old males and females are used to estimate the distributions of individuals' size, which is unknown, that corresponds to the ICRP organ and tissue distributions. This paper then demonstrates the usage of these anthropometric data in the development of deformable anatomical phantoms. A pair of phantoms-modeled entirely in mesh surfaces-of the adult male and female, RPI-adult male (AM) and RPI-adult female (AF) are used as the base for size-adjustable phantoms. To create percentile-specific phantoms from these two base phantoms, organ surface boundaries are carefully altered according to the tabulated anthropometric data. Software algorithms are developed to automatically match the organ volumes and masses with desired values. Finally, these mesh-based, percentile-specific phantoms are converted into voxel-based phantoms for Monte

  6. (Biological dosimetry)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, R.J.

    1990-12-17

    The traveler attended the 1st International Conference on Biological Dosimetry in Madrid, Spain. This conference was organized to provide information to a general audience of biologists, physicists, radiotherapists, industrial hygiene personnel and individuals from related fields on the current ability of cytogenetic analysis to provide estimates of radiation dose in cases of occupational or environmental exposure. There is a growing interest in Spain in biological dosimetry because of the increased use of radiation sources for medical and occupational uses, and with this the anticipated and actual increase in numbers of overexposure. The traveler delivered the introductory lecture on Biological Dosimetry: Mechanistic Concepts'' that was intended to provide a framework by which the more applied lectures could be interpreted in a mechanistic way. A second component of the trip was to provide advice with regard to several recent cases of overexposure that had been or were being assessed by the Radiopathology and Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital General Gregorio Maranon'' in Madrid. The traveler had provided information on several of these, and had analyzed cells from some exposed or purportedly exposed individuals. The members of the biological dosimetry group were referred to individuals at REACTS at Oak Ridge Associated Universities for advice on follow-up treatment.

  7. THERMOLUMINESCENT DOSIMETRY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-10-20

    Oct 20, 2005 ... abo area of the city has the least radiation dose rate while Obantoku area has the upper limit. aking this as ... 'n Abeokuta. eywords: Environmental radiation, thermoluminescent dosimetry, Abeokuta, outdoor ... Both 238U and 232Th have long decay series with ... effects of radiation exposure (Hanson and.

  8. THERMOLUMINESCENT DOSIMETRY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-10-20

    Oct 20, 2005 ... abo area of the city has the least radiation dose rate while Obantoku area has the upper limit. aking this as ... “n Abeokuta. eywords: Environmental radiation, thermoluminescent dosimetry, Abeokuta, outdoor ... Both 238U and 232Th have long decay series with ... effects of radiation exposure (Hanson and.

  9. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    Dosimetry Service

    2005-01-01

    Please remember to read your dosimeter every month at least once and preferably during the first week. A regular read-out is indispensable in order to ensure a periodic monitoring of the personal dose. You should read your dosimeter even if you have not visited the controlled areas. If you still have the old dosimeter (film badge), please send it immediately for evaluation to us (Bdg 24 E-011). After January 2005 there will be no developing process for the old film system. Information for Contractors: Please remember also to bring the form ‘Confirm Reception of a CERN Dosimeter' signed with ‘Feuille d'enregistrement du CERN'. Without these forms the dosimeter cannot be assigned. Thank you for your cooperation. Dosimetry Service Tel 767 2155 http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  10. Radiation dosimetry.

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, J

    1991-01-01

    This article summarizes the basic facts about the measurement of ionizing radiation, usually referred to as radiation dosimetry. The article defines the common radiation quantities and units; gives typical levels of natural radiation and medical exposures; and describes the most important biological effects of radiation and the methods used to measure radiation. Finally, a proposal is made for a new radiation risk unit to make radiation risks more understandable to nonspecialists.

  11. Topics in radiation dosimetry radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    1972-01-01

    Radiation Dosimetry, Supplement 1: Topics in Radiation Dosimetry covers instruments and techniques in dealing with special dosimetry problems. The book discusses thermoluminescence dosimetry in archeological dating; dosimetric applications of track etching; vacuum chambers of radiation measurement. The text also describes wall-less detectors in microdosimetry; dosimetry of low-energy X-rays; and the theory and general applicability of the gamma-ray theory of track effects to various systems. Dose equivalent determinations in neutron fields by means of moderator techniques; as well as developm

  12. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne

    1986-01-01

    During the past few years significant advances have taken place in the different areas of dosimetry for radiation processing, mainly stimulated by the increased interest in radiation for food preservation, plastic processing and sterilization of medical products. Reference services both...... and sterilization dosimetry, optichromic dosimeters in the shape of small tubes for food processing, and ESR spectroscopy of alanine for reference dosimetry. In this paper the special features of radiation processing dosimetry are discussed, several commonly used dosimeters are reviewed, and factors leading...

  13. Gel dosimetry for conformal radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambarini, G. [Department of Physics of the University and INFN, Milan (Italy)]. e-mail: grazia.gambarini@mi.infn.it

    2005-07-01

    With the continuum development of conformal radio therapies, aimed at delivering high dose to tumor tissue and low dose to the healthy tissue around, the necessities has appeared of suitable improvement of dosimetry techniques giving the possibility of obtaining dose images to be compared with diagnostic images. Also if wide software has been developed for calculating dose distributions in the fields of various radiotherapy units, experimental verifications are necessary, in particular in the case of complex geometries in conformal radiotherapy. Gel dosimetry is a promising method for imaging the absorbed dose in tissue-equivalent phantoms, with the possibility of 3D reconstruction of the spatial dose distribution, with milli metric resolution. Optical imaging of gel dosimeters, based on visible light absorbance analysis, has shown to be a reliable technique for achieving dose distributions. (Author)

  14. SU-E-T-133: Assessing IMRT Treatment Delivery Accuracy and Consistency On a Varian TrueBeam Using the SunNuclear PerFraction EPID Dosimetry Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieterich, S [UC Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Trestrail, E; Holt, R [Pacific Crest Medical Physics, Chico, CA (United States); Saini, S [Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, FL (Australia); Pfeiffer, I [VMTH, UC Davis, Davis, CA (United States); Kent, M; Hansen, K [Surgical and Radiological Sciences, UC Davis, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To assess if the TrueBeam HD120 collimator is delivering small IMRT fields accurately and consistently throughout the course of treatment using the SunNuclear PerFraction software. Methods: 7-field IMRT plans for 8 canine patients who passed IMRT QA using SunNuclear Mapcheck DQA were selected for this study. The animals were setup using CBCT image guidance. The EPID fluence maps were captured for each treatment field and each treatment fraction, with the first fraction EPID data serving as the baseline for comparison. The Sun Nuclear PerFraction Software was used to compare the EPID data for subsequent fractions using a Gamma (3%/3mm) pass rate of 90%. To simulate requirements for SRS, the data was reanalyzed using a Gamma (3%/1mm) pass rate of 90%. Low-dose, low- and high gradient thresholds were used to focus the analysis on clinically relevant parts of the dose distribution. Results: Not all fractions could be analyzed, because during some of the treatment courses the DICOM tags in the EPID images intermittently change from CU to US (unspecified), which would indicate a temporary loss of EPID calibration. This technical issue is still being investigated. For the remaining fractions, the vast majority (7/8 of patients, 95% of fractions, and 96.6% of fields) are passing the less stringent Gamma criteria. The more stringent Gamma criteria caused a drop in pass rate (90 % of fractions, 84% of fields). For the patient with the lowest pass rate, wet towel bolus was used. Another patient with low pass rates experienced masseter muscle wasting. Conclusion: EPID dosimetry using the PerFraction software demonstrated that the majority of fields passed a Gamma (3%/3mm) for IMRT treatments delivered with a TrueBeam HD120 MLC. Pass rates dropped for a DTA of 1mm to model SRS tolerances. PerFraction pass rates can flag missing bolus or internal shields. Sanjeev Saini is an employee of Sun Nuclear Corporation. For this study, a pre-release version of PerFRACTION 1

  15. Dosimetry service removal

    CERN Multimedia

    Safety Commission

    2010-01-01

    Dear personal dosimeter user, Please note that the Dosimetry service has moved in building 55, the service is now located in the main floor: 55-R-004. Main floor instead of second floor. On your right hand when accessing in the building. Thank you Dosimetry Service

  16. Reactor Dosimetry State of the Art 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorbraak, Wim; Debarberis, Luigi; D'Hondt, Pierre; Wagemans, Jan

    2009-08-01

    data, damage correlations. Two-dimensional mapping of the calculated fission power for the full-size fuel plate experiment irradiated in the advanced test reactor / G. S. Chang and M. A. Lillo. The radiation safety information computational center: a resource for reactor dosimetry software and nuclear data / B. L. Kirk. Irradiated xenon isotopic ratio measurement for failed fuel detection and location in fast reactor / C. Ito, T. Iguchi and H. Harano. Characterization of dosimetry of the BMRR horizontal thimble tubes and broad beam facility / J.-P. Hu, R. N. Reciniello and N. E. Holden. 2007 nuclear data review / N. E. Holden. Further dosimetry studies at the Rhode Island nuclear science / R. N. Reciniello ... [et al.]. Characterization of neutron fields in the experimental fast reactor Joyo MK-III core / S. Maeda ... [et al.]. Measuring [symbol]Li(n, t) and [symbol]B(n, [symbol]) cross sections using the NIST alpha-gamma apparatus / M. S. Dewey ... [et al.]. Improvement of neutron/gamma field evaluation for restart of JMTR / Y. Nagao ... [et al.]. Monitoring of the irradiated neutron fluence in the neutron transmutation doping process of HANARO / M.-S. Kim and S.-J. Park.Training reactor VR-l neutron spectrum determination / M. Vins, A. Kolros and K. Katovsky. Differential cross sections for gamma-ray production by 14 MeV neutrons on iron and bismuth / V. M. Bondar ... [et al.]. The measurements of the differential elastic neutron cross-sections of carbon for energies from 2 to 133 ke V / O. Gritzay ... [et al.]. Determination of neutron spectrum by the dosimetry foil method up to 35 Me V / S. P. Simakov ... [et al.]. Extension of the BGL broad group cross section library / D. Kirilova, S. Belousov and Kr. Ilieva. Measurements of neutron capture cross-section for tantalum at the neutron filtered beams / O. Gritzayand V. Libman. Measurements of microscopic data at GELINA in support of dosimetry / S. Kopecky ... [et al.]. Nuclide guide and international chart of

  17. Development of 3D Slicer based film dosimetry analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, K. M.; Robinson, A.; Pinter, C.; Fichtinger, G.; Schreiner, L. J.

    2017-05-01

    Radiochromic film dosimetry has been widely adopted in the clinic as it is a convenient option for dose measurement and verification. Film dosimetry analysis is typically performed using expensive commercial software, or custom made scripts in Matlab. However, common clinical film analysis software is not transparent regarding what corrections/optimizations are running behind the scenes. In this work, an extension to the open-source medical imaging platform 3D Slicer was developed and implemented in our centre for film dosimetry analysis. This extension streamlines importing treatment planning system dose and film imaging data, film calibration, registration, and comparison of 2D dose distributions, enabling greater accessibility to film analysis and higher reliability.

  18. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact their dispatchers to explain their activities for the future, after LEP dismantling in order to be maintained on the regular distribution list at Individual DosimetryWe inform all staff and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period MAY/JUNE will be available from their usual dispatchers on Tuesday 2 May.Please have your films changed before the 12 May.The colour of the dosimeter valid in is MAY/JUNE is YELLOW.Individual Dosimetry Service will be closed on Friday 28 April.

  19. Nuclear medicine radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    McParland, Brian J

    2010-01-01

    Complexities of the requirements for accurate radiation dosimetry evaluation in both diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine (including PET) have grown over the past decade. This is due primarily to four factors: growing consideration of accurate patient-specific treatment planning for radionuclide therapy as a means of improving the therapeutic benefit, development of more realistic anthropomorphic phantoms and their use in estimating radiation transport and dosimetry in patients, design and use of advanced Monte Carlo algorithms in calculating the above-mentioned radiation transport and

  20. [The image noise effect on the results of Gamma knife dosimetry parameters test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaojun; Zhang, Conghua; Hu, Chuanpeng; Dai, Fuyou; Wei, Kunjie; Chu, Caifang

    2012-12-01

    In order to analyze the image noise effect on the results of Gamma knife dosimetry parameter test, we tested the dosimetry parameters of the Gamma knives according to GBZ 168-2005. Radiological protection standards of X (gamma)-ray stereotactic radiosurgery for head treatment. Dose analysis software was applied to examine the testing film before and after image denoising, and SPSS 11.0 software was used for statistical analysis. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the results of the maximum deviation between radiation field size and its nominal value (t = 7.600, P Gamma knife dosimetry parameters, so as to cause deviations.

  1. Dosimetry for SIRT; Dosimetrie bei der SIRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, S.P. [Universitatesklinikum Essen (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2011-09-15

    Dosimetry is only one aspect of treatment planning for 'Selective internal radiotherapy' (SIRT) or 'transarterial radioembolization' (TARE) with Yttrium-90 Microspheres is an emerging palliative therapy for malignant hepatoma. Dosimetric considerations, together with interventional, oncological and hepatological aspects need to be considered for optimal treatment stratification. The product-specific dosimetric calculations for 2 commercially available microsphere products are compared and set in relation to the average doses to liver and tumor. Ostensible discrepancies between the dose-response of Y-90-microspheres and external beam radiation therapy are discussed in the context of radiobiological concepts. (orig.)

  2. Status of radiation processing dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1993-01-01

    Several milestones have marked the field of radiation processing dosimetry since IMRP 7. Among them are the IAEA symposium on High Dose Dosimetry for Radiation Processing and the international Workshops on Dosimetry for Radiation Processing organized by the ASTM. Several standards have been...... or are being published by the ASTM in this field, both on dosimetry procedures and on the proper use of specific dosimeter systems. Several individuals are involved in this international cooperation which contribute significantly to the broader understanding of the role of dosimetry in radiation processing....... The importance of dosimetry is emphasized in the standards on radiation sterilization which are currently drafted by the European standards organization CEN and by the international standards organization ISO. In both standards, dosimetry plays key roles in characterization of the facility, in qualification...

  3. High frequency electromagnetic dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Hernández, David A

    2009-01-01

    Along with the growth of RF and microwave technology applications, there is a mounting concern about the possible adverse effects over human health from electromagnetic radiation. Addressing this issue and putting it into perspective, this groundbreaking resource provides critical details on the latest advances in high frequency electromagnetic dosimetry.

  4. Individual dosimetry service

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    We inform all staff and users under regular dosimetry control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period JULY-AUGUST 2004 are available from their usual dispatchers. Please have your films changed before the 15 JULY 2004. The color of the dosimeter valid in July-August 2004 is PINK.

  5. Quasi 3D dosimetry (EPID, conventional 2D/3D detector matrices)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäck, A.

    2015-01-01

    Patient specific pretreatment measurement for IMRT and VMAT QA should preferably give information with a high resolution in 3D. The ability to distinguish complex treatment plans, i.e. treatment plans with a difference between measured and calculated dose distributions that exceeds a specified tolerance, puts high demands on the dosimetry system used for the pretreatment measurements and the results of the measurement evaluation needs a clinical interpretation. There are a number of commercial dosimetry systems designed for pretreatment IMRT QA measurements. 2D arrays such as MapCHECK® (Sun Nuclear), MatriXXEvolution (IBA Dosimetry) and OCTAVIOUS® 1500 (PTW), 3D phantoms such as OCTAVIUS® 4D (PTW), ArcCHECK® (Sun Nuclear) and Delta4 (ScandiDos) and software for EPID dosimetry and 3D reconstruction of the dose in the patient geometry such as EPIDoseTM (Sun Nuclear) and Dosimetry CheckTM (Math Resolutions) are available. None of those dosimetry systems can measure the 3D dose distribution with a high resolution (full 3D dose distribution). Those systems can be called quasi 3D dosimetry systems. To be able to estimate the delivered dose in full 3D the user is dependent on a calculation algorithm in the software of the dosimetry system. All the vendors of the dosimetry systems mentioned above provide calculation algorithms to reconstruct a full 3D dose in the patient geometry. This enables analyzes of the difference between measured and calculated dose distributions in DVHs of the structures of clinical interest which facilitates the clinical interpretation and is a promising tool to be used for pretreatment IMRT QA measurements. However, independent validation studies on the accuracy of those algorithms are scarce. Pretreatment IMRT QA using the quasi 3D dosimetry systems mentioned above rely on both measurement uncertainty and accuracy of calculation algorithms. In this article, these quasi 3D dosimetry systems and their use in patient specific pretreatment IMRT

  6. Three-dimensional dosimetry using magnetic resonance imaging of polymer gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Young Taek; Kang, Hae Jin; Kim, Mi Wha; Chun, Mi Son; Kang, Seung Hee [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Chang Ok; Chu, Seong Sil; Seong, Jin Sil; Kim, Gwi Eon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    Three-dimensional radiation dosimetry using magnetic resonance imaging of polymer gel was recently introduced. This dosimetry system is based on radiation induced chain polymerization of acrylic monomers in a muscle equivalent gel and provide accurate 3 dimensional dose distribution. We planned this study to evaluate the clinical value of this 3-dimensional dosimetry. The polymer gel poured into a cylindrical glass flask and a spherical glass flask. The cylindrical test tubes were for dose response evaluation and the spherical flasks, which is comparable to the human head, were for isodose curves. T2 maps from MR images were calculated using software, IDL. Dose distributions have been displayed for dosimetry. The same spherical flask of gel and the same irradiation technique was used for film and TLD dosimetry and compared with each other. The R2 of the gel respond linearly with radiation doses in the range of 2 to 15 Gy. The repeated dosimetry of spherical gel showed the same isodose curves. The isodose curves were identical to dose distributions from treatment planning system especially high dose range. In addition, the gel dosimetry system showed comparable or superior results with the film and TLD dosimetry. The 3-dimensional dosimetry for conformal radiation therapy using MRI of polymer gel showed stable and accurate results. Although more studies are needed for convenient clinical application, it appears to be a useful tool for conformal radiation therapy.

  7. Dosimetry of the mixed field irradiation facility CALIBAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trompier, F. [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, 92265 Fontenay-aux-roses (France)], E-mail: francois.trompier@irsn.fr; Huet, C.; Medioni, R.; Robbes, I. [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, 92265 Fontenay-aux-roses (France); Asselineau, B. [Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, 13115 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2008-02-15

    The dosimetry of the experimental reactor CALIBAN was established for photon and neutron components, and the kerma variations were evaluated according to position (distance from the core, height, angle with the median room axis). Dosimetry was performed with TLD (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) for the photon component, and with passive silicon diodes, activation detectors (Au, In, Ni, Mg, Cu) and alanine pellets measured by EPR spectrometry for the neutron component. The neutron energy distribution was experimentally evaluated at various distances based on the activities measured at the activated foil using the SNAC2 software. It was then compared with those calculated with the Monte Carlo code MCNPX.

  8. The dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    A continuation of the treatise The Dosimetry of Ionizing Radiation, Volume III builds upon the foundations of Volumes I and II and the tradition of the preceeding treatise Radiation Dosimetry. Volume III contains three comprehensive chapters on the applications of radiation dosimetry in particular research and medical settings, a chapter on unique and useful detectors, and two chapters on Monte Carlo techniques and their applications.

  9. Quantitative imaging for clinical dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardiès, Manuel; Flux, Glenn; Lassmann, Michael; Monsieurs, Myriam; Savolainen, Sauli; Strand, Sven-Erik

    2006-12-01

    Patient-specific dosimetry in nuclear medicine is now a legal requirement in many countries throughout the EU for targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) applications. In order to achieve that goal, an increased level of accuracy in dosimetry procedures is needed. Current research in nuclear medicine dosimetry should not only aim at developing new methods to assess the delivered radiation absorbed dose at the patient level, but also to ensure that the proposed methods can be put into practice in a sufficient number of institutions. A unified dosimetry methodology is required for making clinical outcome comparisons possible.

  10. Neutron beam measurement dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaro, C.R. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This report describes animal dosimetry studies and phantom measurements. During 1994, 12 dogs were irradiated at BMRR as part of a 4 fraction dose tolerance study. The animals were first infused with BSH and irradiated daily for 4 consecutive days. BNL irradiated 2 beagles as part of their dose tolerance study using BPA fructose. In addition, a dog at WSU was irradiated at BMRR after an infusion of BPA fructose. During 1994, the INEL BNCT dosimetry team measured neutron flux and gamma dose profiles in two phantoms exposed to the epithermal neutron beam at the BMRR. These measurements were performed as a preparatory step to the commencement of human clinical trials in progress at the BMRR.

  11. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact the Individual Dosimetry Service.We inform all staff and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period MARCH/APRIL will be available from their usual dispatchers on the third of March 2000.Please have your films changed before the 13th of March.The colour of the dosimeter valid in MARCH/APRIL is BLUE.

  12. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact the Individual Dosimetry ServiceWe inform all staff and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period JANUARY/FEBRUARY will be available from their usual dispatchers on Monday the third of January 2000.Please have your films changed:before the 12 January.The colour of the dosimeter valid in JANUARY/FEBRUARY is WHITE.

  13. Dosimetry: an ARDENT topic

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    The first annual ARDENT workshop took place in Vienna from 20 to 23 November. The workshop gathered together the Early-Stage Researchers (ESR) and their supervisors, plus other people involved from all the participating institutions.   “The meeting, which was organised with the local support of the Austrian Institute of Technology, was a nice opportunity for the ESRs to get together, meet each other, and present their research plans and some preliminary results of their work,” says Marco Silari, a member of CERN Radiation Protection Group and the scientist in charge of the programme. Two full days were devoted to a training course on radiation dosimetry, delivered by renowned experts. The workshop closed with a half-day visit to the MedAustron facility in Wiener Neustadt. ARDENT (Advanced Radiation Dosimetry European Network Training) is a Marie Curie ITN project funded under EU FP7 with €4 million. The project focuses on radiation dosimetry exploiting se...

  14. Radioembolization dosimetry : the road ahead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Maarten L J; Elschot, Mattijs; Sze, Daniel Y; Kao, Yung H; Nijsen, JFW; Iagaru, Andre H; de Jong, Hugo W A M; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J; Lam, Marnix G E H

    2015-01-01

    Methods for calculating the activity to be administered during yttrium-90 radioembolization (RE) are largely based on empirical toxicity and efficacy analyses, rather than dosimetry. At the same time, it is recognized that treatment planning based on proper dosimetry is of vital importance for the o

  15. Relocation of Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The Dosimetry Service is moving from Building 24 to Building 55 and will therefore be closed on Friday, March 30. From Monday, April 2 onwards you will find us in building 55/1-001. Please note that during that day we might still have some problems with the internet connections and cannot fully guarantee normal service procedures. The service's opening hours and telephone number will not change as a result of the move 8.30 - 12.00, afternoons closed Tel. 72155

  16. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact their dispatchers to explain their activities for the future, after LEP dismantling in order to be maintained on the regular distribution list at Individual Dosimetry ServiceWe inform all staffs and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period JULY/AUGUST are available from their usual dispatchers.Please have your films changed before the 10th of July.The colour of the dosimeter valid in JULY/AUGUST is PINK.

  17. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2007-03-12

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNL’s Hanford External Dosimetry Program (HEDP) which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee (HPDAC) which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. Rev. 0 marks the first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving changes to all chapters in the document. Revision numbers that include a decimal fraction reflect minor revisions, usually restricted to selected chapters or selected pages in the document. Revision Log: Rev. 0 (2/25/2005) Major revision and expansion. Rev. 0.1 (3/12/2007) Minor

  18. Information from the Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please note the following opening hours of the Service: From 31st July onwards: Every morning from 8:30 to 12:00 The Service is closed in the afternoons. We should like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCTs) must always be returned to the Service after use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats. Dosimetry Service Tel 72155 Bldg. 24 E 011 Dosimetry.service@cern.ch http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  19. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-20

    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs.

  20. Radioembolization Dosimetry: The Road Ahead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smits, Maarten L. J., E-mail: m.l.j.smits-3@umcutrecht.nl; Elschot, Mattijs [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Netherlands); Sze, Daniel Y. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States); Kao, Yung H. [Austin Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine (Australia); Nijsen, Johannes F. W. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Netherlands); Iagaru, Andre H. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (United States); Jong, Hugo W. A. M. de; Bosch, Maurice A. A. J. van den; Lam, Marnix G. E. H. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Netherlands)

    2015-04-15

    Methods for calculating the activity to be administered during yttrium-90 radioembolization (RE) are largely based on empirical toxicity and efficacy analyses, rather than dosimetry. At the same time, it is recognized that treatment planning based on proper dosimetry is of vital importance for the optimization of the results of RE. The heterogeneous and often clustered intrahepatic biodistribution of millions of point-source radioactive particles poses a challenge for dosimetry. Several studies found a relationship between absorbed doses and treatment outcome, with regard to both toxicity and efficacy. This should ultimately lead to improved patient selection and individualized treatment planning. New calculation methods and imaging techniques and a new generation of microspheres for image-guided RE will all contribute to these improvements. The aim of this review is to give insight into the latest and most important developments in RE dosimetry and to suggest future directions on patient selection, individualized treatment planning, and study designs.

  1. Radioembolization dosimetry: the road ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Maarten L J; Elschot, Mattijs; Sze, Daniel Y; Kao, Yung H; Nijsen, Johannes F W; Iagaru, Andre H; de Jong, Hugo W A M; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J; Lam, Marnix G E H

    2015-04-01

    Methods for calculating the activity to be administered during yttrium-90 radioembolization (RE) are largely based on empirical toxicity and efficacy analyses, rather than dosimetry. At the same time, it is recognized that treatment planning based on proper dosimetry is of vital importance for the optimization of the results of RE. The heterogeneous and often clustered intrahepatic biodistribution of millions of point-source radioactive particles poses a challenge for dosimetry. Several studies found a relationship between absorbed doses and treatment outcome, with regard to both toxicity and efficacy. This should ultimately lead to improved patient selection and individualized treatment planning. New calculation methods and imaging techniques and a new generation of microspheres for image-guided RE will all contribute to these improvements. The aim of this review is to give insight into the latest and most important developments in RE dosimetry and to suggest future directions on patient selection, individualized treatment planning, and study designs.

  2. Kinetics model for lutate dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, M.F.; Mesquita, C.H., E-mail: mflima@ipen.br, E-mail: chmesqui@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-11-01

    The use of compartmental analysis to predict the behavior of drugs in the organism is considered the better option among numerous methods employed in pharmacodynamics. A six compartments model was developed to determinate the kinetic constants of 177Lu-DOTATATO biodistribution using data from one published study with 67 patients treated by PRRT (Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy) and followed by CT during 68,25 hours. The compartmental analysis was made using the software AnaComp Registered-Sign . The influence of the time pos-injection over the dose assessment was studied taking into account the renal excretion management by aminoacid coinfusion, whose direct effects persist in the first day. The biodistribution curve was split in five sectors: 0-0.25h; 0-3.25h; 3.25-24.25h; 24.25-68.25h and 3.25-68.25h. After the examination of that influence, the study was concentrated in separate the biodistribution curve in two phases. Phase 1: governed by uptake from the blood, considering the time pos-injection until 3.25h and phase 2: governed by renal excretion, considering the time pos-injection from 3.25h to 68.25h. The model considered the organs and tissues superposition in the CT image acquisition by sampling parameters as the contribution of the the activity concentration in blood and relation between the sizes of the whole body and measured organs. The kinetic constants obtained from each phase (1 and 2) were used in dose assessment to patients in 26 organs and tissues described by MIRD. Dosimetry results were in agreement with the available results from literature, restrict to whole body, kidneys, bone marrow, spleen and liver. The advantage of the proposed model is the compartmental method quickness and power to estimate dose in organs and tissues, including tumor that, in the most part, were not discriminate by voxels of phantoms built using CT images. (author)

  3. Hanford internal dosimetry program manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Sula, M.J.; Bihl, D.E.; Aldridge, T.L.

    1989-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry program. Program Services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessments of internal exposure and dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating internal radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. 13 refs., 16 figs., 42 tabs.

  4. Dosimetry of iodoantipyrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, R Y; Ekeh, S; Basmadjian, G

    1989-01-01

    Dosimetry of iodoantipyrine labeled with radioactive iodine was determined by measuring the biodistribution of 131I-iodoantipyrine in 41 female rabbits. Following administration of the radiopharmaceutical, subjects were killed at 0.5, 6, 12, 17, 24, 36, and 48 h. Organs and samples of tissues and body fluids were assayed. Results were corrected for physical decay. Exponential functions were employed to describe the time-concentration curves; representative value would be the biological half life of 9.96 +/- 0.55 h for blood. Cumulated activity estimates for 123I, 125I and 131I were then computed. Extrapolation to absorbed dose in humans followed the formulation of the Medical International Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine. The whole body absorbed doses are 7 mu Gray, 5 mu Gray and 29 mu Gray per MBq of 123I, 125I, and 131I administered respectively.

  5. Medical dosimetry in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turák, O.; Osvay, M.; Ballay, L.

    2012-09-01

    Radiation exposure of medical staff during cardiological and radiological procedures was investigated. The exposure of medical staff is directly connected to patient exposure. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of doses on uncovered part of body of medical staff using LiF thermoluminescent (TL) dosimeters in seven locations. Individual Kodak film dosimeters (as authorized dosimetry system) were used for the assessment of medical staff's effective dose. Results achieved on dose distribution measurements confirm that wearing only one film badge under the lead apron does not provide enough information on the personal dose. The value of estimated annual doses on eye lens and extremities (fingers) were in good correlation with international publications.

  6. Strahlungsmessung und Dosimetrie

    CERN Document Server

    Krieger, Hanno

    2013-01-01

    „Strahlungsquellen und Dosimetrie“ ist Teil einer Lehrbuchreihe zur Strahlungsphysik und zum Strahlenschutz. Der erste Teil befasst sich mit den physikalischen Grundlagen der Strahlungsdetektoren und der Strahlungsmessung. Im zweiten Teil werden die Konzepte und Verfahren der klinischen Dosimetrie dargestellt. Der dritte Abschnitt erläutert ausführlich die Dosisverteilungen der klinisch angewendeten Strahlungsarten. Im vierten Teil werden weitere Messaufgaben der Strahlungsphysik einschließlich der Messsysteme für die Bildgebung mit Röntgenstrahlung dargestellt. Neben den grundlegenden Ausführungen enthält dieser Band im laufenden Text zahlreiche Tabellen und Grafiken zur technischen und medizinischen Radiologie, die bei der praktischen Arbeit sehr hilfreich sein können und 199 Übungsaufgaben mit Lösungen zur Vertiefung der Inhalte. Für die zweite Auflage wurden die Darstellungen der Elektronen- und der Protonendosimetrie sowie der bildgebenden Verfahren mit Computertomografen deutlich erweit...

  7. Fundamentals of Radiation Dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Adrie J. J.

    2011-05-01

    The basic concepts of radiation dosimetry are reviewed on basis of ICRU reports and text books. The radiation field is described with, among others, the particle fluence. Cross sections for indirectly ionizing radiation are defined and indicated is how they are related to the mass energy transfer and mass energy absorption coefficients. Definitions of total and restricted mass stopping powers of directly ionizing radiation are given. The dosimetric quantities, kerma, absorbed dose and exposure together with the relations between them are discussed in depth. Finally it is indicated how the absorbed dose can be measured with a calorimeter by measuring the temperature increase and with an ionisation chamber measuring the charge produced by the ionizing radiation and making use of the Bragg-Gray relation.

  8. Dosimetry considerations in phototherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Profio, A.E.; Doiron, D.R.

    Dosimetry in phototherapy involves a determination of the energy absorbed per unit mass of tissue, corrected for the quantum yield in a photochemical reaction. The dose rate in photochemotherapy of cancer with hematoporphyrin derivative and visible light is related to the extinction coefficient, quantum yield for singlet oxygen production, concentration of sensitizer and energy flux density at depth. Data or methods of determining these quantities are presented. Calculations have been performed for the energy flux density at depth, as a function of the total attenuation coefficient and ratio of scattering coefficient to total attenuation coefficient, for isotropic scattering in slab geometry. For small absorption, these depth dose curves exhibit a maximum within the tissue followed by an exponential decrease.

  9. Dosimetry considerations in phototherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Profio, A.E.; Doiron, D.R.

    1981-03-01

    Dosimetry in phototherapy involves a determination of the energy absorbed per unit mass of tissue, corrected for the quantum yield in a photochemical reaction. The dose rate in photochemotherapy of cancer with hematoporphyrin derivative and visible light is related to the extinction coefficient, quantum yield for singlet oxygen production, concentration of sensitizer and energy flux density at depth. Data or methods of determining these quantities are presented. Calculations have been performed for the energy flux density at depth, as a function of the total attenuation coefficient and ratio of scattering coefficient to total attenuation coefficient, for isotropic scattering in slab geometry. For small absorption, these depth dose curves exhibit a maximum within the tissue followed by an exponential decrease.

  10. Freeware for reporting radiation dosimetry following the administration of radiopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Perales, Jesús Luis; García Mendoza, Antonio

    2015-09-01

    This work describes the development of a software application for reporting patient radiation dosimetry following radiopharmaceutical administration. The resulting report may be included within the patient's medical records. The application was developed in the Visual Basic programming language. The dosimetric calculations are based on the values given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The software is available in both Spanish and English and can be downloaded at no cost from www.radiopharmacy.net. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Upgrading the dosimetry at Ontario Hydro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirning, C.R. [Ontario Hydro, Whitby, ON (Canada). Health Physics Dept.

    1996-12-01

    Ontario Hydro has embarked upon a major programme to replace and upgrade its external dosimetry systems. In two year`s time, the utility expects to have two state-of-the-art dosimetry systems in place: a new TLD dosimetry of legal record that was designed nearly 30 years ago; and an electronic dosimetry system which could eventually replace the TLD as the primary system. (Author).

  12. Characterising an aluminium oxide dosimetry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conheady, Clement F; Gagliardi, Frank M; Ackerly, Trevor

    2015-09-01

    In vivo dosimetry is recommended as a defence-in-depth strategy in radiotherapy treatments and is currently employed by clinics around the world. The characteristics of a new optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry system were investigated for the purpose of replacing an aging thermoluminescence dosimetry system for in vivo dosimetry. The stability of the system was not sufficient to satisfy commissioning requirements and therefore it has not been released into clinical service at this time.

  13. Monte Carlo simulations to optimize experimental dosimetry of narrow beams used in Gamma Knife radio-surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lymperopoulou, G. [Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis, Ilisia, 157 71 Athens (Greece)], E-mail: glymper@phys.uoa.gr; Petrokokkinos, L.; Papagiannis, P. [Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis, Ilisia, 157 71 Athens (Greece); Steiner, M.; Spevacek, V.; Semnicka, J.; Dvorak, P. [Czech Technical University, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Department of Dosimetry and Application of Ionizing Radiation, Brehova 7 115 19, Prague 1 (Czech Republic); Seimenis, I. [Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis, Ilisia, 157 71 Athens (Greece)

    2007-09-21

    The Leksell Gamma Knife is a stereotactic radio-surgery unit for the treatment of small volumes (on the order of 25 mm{sup 3}) that employs a hemispherical configuration of 201 {sup 60}Co sources and appropriate configurations of collimation to form beams of 4, 8, 14 and 18 mm nominal diameter at the Unit Center Point (UCP). Although Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is well suited for narrow-beam dosimetry, experimental dosimetry is required at least for acceptance testing and quality assurance purposes. Besides other drawbacks of conventional point dosimeters, the main problems associated with narrow-beam dosimetry in stereotactic applications are accurate positioning and volume averaging. In this work, MCNPX and EGSnrc MC simulation dosimetry results for a Gamma Knife unit are benchmarked through their comparison to treatment planning software calculations based on radio-chromic film measurements. Then, MC dosimetry results are utilized to optimize the only three-dimensional experimental dosimetry method available; the polymer gel-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) method. MC results are used to select the spatial resolution in the imaging session of the irradiated gels and validate a mathematical tool for the localization of the UCP in the three-dimensional experimental dosimetry data acquired. Experimental results are compared with corresponding MC calculations and shown capable to provide accurate dosimetry, free of volume averaging and positioning uncertainties.

  14. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    manual by PNNL was discontinued beginning with Revision 0.2. Revision Log: Rev. 0 (2/25/2005) Major revision and expansion. Rev. 0.1 (3/12/2007) Updated Chapters 5, 6 and 9 to reflect change in default ring calibration factor used in HEDP dose calculation software. Factor changed from 1.5 to 2.0 beginning January 1, 2007. Pages on which changes were made are as follows: 5.23, 5.69, 5.78, 5.80, 5.82, 6.3, 6.5, 6.29, and 9.2. Rev 0.2 (8/28/2009) Updated Chapters 3, 5, 6, 8 and 9. Chapters 6 and 8 were significantly expanded. References in the Preface and Chapters 1, 2, 4, and 7 were updated to reflect updates to DOE documents. Approved by HPDAC on 6/2/2009. Rev 1.0 (1/1/2010) Major revision. Updated all chapters to reflect the Hanford site wide implementation on January 1, 2010 of new DOE requirements for occupational radiation protection. The new requirements are given in the June 8, 2007 amendment to 10 CFR 835 Occupational Radiation Protection (Federal Register, June 8, 2007. Title 10 Part 835. U.S., Code of Federal Regulations, Vol. 72, No. 110, 31904-31941). Revision 1.0 to the manual replaces ICRP 26 dosimetry concepts and terminology with ICRP 60 dosimetry concepts and terminology and replaces external dose conversion factors from ICRP 51 with those from ICRP 74 for use in measurement of operational quantities with dosimeters. Descriptions of dose algorithms and dosimeter response characteristics, and field performance were updated to reflect changes in the neutron quality factors used in the measurement of operational quantities.

  15. Nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, C S

    1989-09-01

    Twenty-two nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies utilizing the fast-pulse Health Physics Research Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been conducted since 1965. These studies have provided a total of 62 different organizations a forum for discussion of criticality accident dosimetry, an opportunity to test their neutron and gamma-ray dosimetry systems under a variety of simulated criticality accident conditions, and the experience of comparing results with reference dose values as well as with the measured results obtained by others making measurements under identical conditions. Sixty-nine nuclear accidents (27 with unmoderated neutron energy spectra and 42 with eight different shielded spectra) have been simulated in the studies. Neutron doses were in the 0.2-8.5 Gy range and gamma doses in the 0.1-2.0 Gy range. A total of 2,289 dose measurements (1,311 neutron, 978 gamma) were made during the intercomparisons. The primary methods of neutron dosimetry were activation foils, thermoluminescent dosimeters, and blood sodium activation. The main methods of gamma dose measurement were thermoluminescent dosimeters, radiophotoluminescent glass, and film. About 68% of the neutron measurements met the accuracy guidelines (+/- 25%) and about 52% of the gamma measurements met the accuracy criterion (+/- 20%) for accident dosimetry.

  16. Dosimetry of iodoantipyrine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, R.Y.L.; Ekeh, S. (Oklahoma Univ., Oklahoma City, OK (USA). Dept. of Radiological Sciences; Veterans Administration Medical Center, Oklahoma City, OK (USA)); Basmadjian, G. (Oklahoma Univ., Oklahoma City, OK (USA). Dept. of Pharmaceutical Sciences)

    1989-12-01

    Dosimetry of iodoantipyrine labeled with radioactive iodine was determined by measuring the biodistribution of {sup 131}I-iodoantipyrine in 41 female rabbits. Following administration of the radiopharmaceutical, subjects were killed at 0.5, 6, 12, 17, 24, 36, and 48 h. Organs and samples of tissues and body fluids were assayed. Results were corrected for physical decay. Exponential functions were employed to describe the time-concentration curves; representative value would be the biological half life of 9.96+-0.55 h for blood. Cumulated activity estimates for {sup 123}I, {sup 125}I and {sup 131}I were then computed. Extrapolation to absorbed dose in humans followed the formulation of the Medical International Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine. The whole body absorbed doses are 0.7 {mu}Gray, 0.5 {mu}Gray and 2.9 {mu}Gray per MBq of {sup 123}I, {sup 123}I, and {sup 131}I administered respectively. (orig.).

  17. The personal dosimetry in Mexico; La dosimetria personal en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, M.A. [Proxtronics/ Asesoria Integral en Dosimetria Termoluminiscente S.A. de C.V., Canal de Miramontes 2030-14, Col. Educacion, 04400 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: aidtsa@avantel.net

    2006-07-01

    The Personal Dosimetry in Mexico, has an approximately 30 year-old history; and it had been and it is at the moment, one of the more important resources with which the personnel that works with ionizing radiation sources counts for its protection. The Personal Dosimetry begins with the film dosimetry, technique that even continues being used at the present time by some users, and the main reason of its use is for economic reasons. At the moment this technique, it has been surpassed, by the Thermoluminescent dosimetry, which has taken a lot of peak, mainly by the technological development with which it is counted at the present time; what has given as a result that this technique becomes tip technology; that supported in the characteristic of the used materials, as the handling and processing of the information associated with the new PC, digitizer cards, software etc, what has allowed increases it potential. In this work the current necessities of the market are presented as well as an analysis of the future real necessities in Mexico, at national level, the companies that provide this service and that they spread to satisfy this necessity of the market, including the different used technologies are also mentioned. The application ranges, at the same time, of the advantages and disadvantages of the different systems of Personal Dosimetry in the market. The companies that at the moment provide the service of Personal Dosimetry, its use materials and equipment in indistinct form, for the monitoring of gamma radiation, beta particles, different qualities of x-ray radiation, and sometimes neutrons. The monitoring of the exposed personnel at the diverse sources of ionizing radiation mentioned is carried out in many occasions without having with the materials (detectors), neither the appropriate infrastructure and therefore without the quality control that guarantees a correct evaluation of the dose equivalent, as a result of the exposure to the ionizing radiations; it

  18. Information from the Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please note the following opening hours of the Service: In June: Every morning from 8:30 to 12:00 In July: Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays from 8:30 to 11:30 Closed all day on Tuesdays and Thursdays From 31st July onwards: Every morning from 8:30 to 12:00 The Service is closed in the afternoons. We should like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCTs) must always be returned to the Service after use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats. Dosimetry Service Tel 72155 Bldg. 24 E 011 Dosimetry.service@cern.ch http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  19. For information: Individual dosimetry service

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The service has noticed that there are dosimeter holders who have changed their activities and thus have no longer need of dosimeter as a permanent basis in their work (persons who go rarely to the controlled areas). The reduction of persons in the regular distribution list of dosimeters will lighten the work of the service (distribution, evaluation and consolidation of doses) as well as the work of the distributors, needless to say the economical input this would have for CERN. For the persons who only need a dosimeter temporarily we would like to remind that there is a quick and simple procedure to have one immediately from the Individual Dosimetry Service. Please contact the service (dosimetry.service@cern.ch) if you do not need a dosimeter regularly. Thank you for your cooperation. http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  20. A new method for dosimetry with films radiochromic; Un nuevo metodo para la dosimetria con peliculas radiocromica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez Carot, I.

    2013-07-01

    in this paper a new method is presented and the results of the comparison between the calibration is summarized based on a planning reference and calibration obtained from the irradiated fragments measure different dose levels multichannel compare dosimetry based on the weighted average dosimetry described by Micke et al.(present in the FilmQAPro software) and, finally, show different results obtained with the method proposed in several applications clinics. (Author)

  1. Information from the Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    CERN Staff and Users can now consult their dose records for an individual or an organizational unit with HRT. Please see more information on our web page http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry. The Dosimetry Service is open every morning from 8.30 - 12.00, and closed in the afternoons. We would like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCT's) must always be returned to the Service after use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats.

  2. Information from the Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    CERN Staff and Users can now consult their dose records for an individual or an organizational unit with HRT. Please see more information on our web page: http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry. The Dosimetry Service is open every morning from 8.30 to 12.00 and is closed in the afternoons. We would like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCT's) must always be returned to the Service after use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats.

  3. Feasibility of portal dosimetry for flattening filter-free radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuter, Robert W; Rixham, Philip A; Weston, Steve J; Cosgrove, Vivian P

    2016-01-08

    The feasibility of using portal dosimetry (PD) to verify 6 MV flattening filter-free (FFF) IMRT treatments was investigated. An Elekta Synergy linear accelerator with an Agility collimator capable of delivering FFF beams and a standard iViewGT amorphous silicon (aSi) EPID panel (RID 1640 AL5P) at a fixed SSD of 160 cm were used. Dose rates for FFF beams are up to four times higher than for conventional flattened beams, meaning images taken at maximum FFF dose rate can saturate the EPID. A dose rate of 800 MU/min was found not to saturate the EPID for open fields. This dose rate was subsequently used to characterize the EPID for FFF portal dosimetry. A range of open and phantom fields were measured with both an ion chamber and the EPID, to allow comparison between the two. The measured data were then used to create a model within The Nederlands Kanker Instituut's (NKI's) portal dosimetry software. The model was verified using simple square fields with a range of field sizes and phantom thicknesses. These were compared to calculations performed with the Monaco treatment planning system (TPS) and isocentric ion chamber measurements. It was found that the results for the FFF verification were similar to those for flattened beams with testing on square fields, indicating a difference in dose between the TPS and portal dosimetry of approximately 1%. Two FFF IMRT plans (prostate and lung SABR) were delivered to a homogeneous phantom and showed an overall dose difference at isocenter of ~0.5% and good agreement between the TPS and PD dose distributions. The feasibility of using the NKI software without any modifications for high-dose-rate FFF beams and using a standard EPID detector has been investigated and some initial limitations highlighted.

  4. Dosimetry using radiosensitive gels in radiotherapy: significance and methods; Dosimetrie par gels radiosensibles en radiotherapie. Interet et methodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibon, D. [Dept. de Radiotherapie, Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille Cedex (France); Bourel, P. [Lab. de Biophysique, Inst. de Technologie Medicale, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Lille (France); Castelain, B. [Dept. de Radiotherapie, Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille Cedex (France); Marchandise, X.; Rousseau, J. [Lab. de Biophysique, Inst. de Technologie Medicale, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Lille (France)

    2001-02-01

    The goal of conformal radiotherapy is to concentrate the dose in a well-defined volume by avoiding the neighbouring healthy structures. This technique requires powerful treatment planning software and a rigorous control of estimated dosimetry. The usual dosimetric tools are not adapted to visualize and validate complex 3D treatment. Dosimetry by radiosensitive gel permits visualization and measurement of the three-dimensional dose distribution. The objective of this work is to report on current work in this field and, based on our results and our experience, to draw prospects for an optimal use of this technique. Further developments will relate to the realization of new radiosensitive gels satisfying, as well as possible, cost requirements, easy realization and use, magnetic resonance imagery (MRI) sensitivity, tissue equivalence, and stability. Other developments focus on scanning methods, especially in MRI to measure T1 and T2. (author)

  5. A portable multi-purpose OSL reader for UV dosimetry at workplaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smetana, F. [Atomic Institute of the Austrian Universities, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, AT-1020 Vienna (Austria); Hajek, M. [Atomic Institute of the Austrian Universities, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, AT-1020 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: mhajek@ati.ac.at; Bergmann, R. [Atomic Institute of the Austrian Universities, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, AT-1020 Vienna (Austria); Brusl, H. [Austrian Social Insurance for Occupational Risks, Adalbert-Stifter-Strasse 65, AT-1200 Vienna (Austria); Fugger, M. [Atomic Institute of the Austrian Universities, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, AT-1020 Vienna (Austria); Gratzl, W. [WEGS Data, Gatterholzgasse 14, AT-1120 Vienna (Austria); Kitz, E. [Austrian Social Insurance for Occupational Risks, Adalbert-Stifter-Strasse 65, AT-1200 Vienna (Austria); Vana, N. [Atomic Institute of the Austrian Universities, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, AT-1020 Vienna (Austria)

    2008-02-15

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) techniques are used for environmental radiation monitoring, luminescence dating and retrospective dosimetry. A portable and robust field instrument has been developed for the routine assessment of occupational exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation at workplaces. The design principles of hard- and software are described, along with preliminary measurements that illustrate the operation of the system and its capabilities.

  6. Dosimetry for Electron Beam Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne

    1983-01-01

    This report describes two aspects of electron bean dosimetry, on one hand developaent of thin fil« dosimeters and measurements of their properties, and on the other hand developaent of calorimeters for calibration of routine dosimeters, e.g. thin films. Two types of radiochromic thin film...

  7. In aqua vivo EPID dosimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendling, M.; McDermott, L.N.; Mans, A.; Olaciregui-Ruiz, I.; Pecharroman-Gallego, R.; Sonke, J.J.; Stroom, J.; Herk, M. van; Mijnheer, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: At the Netherlands Cancer Institute--Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital in vivo dosimetry using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) has been implemented for almost all high-energy photon treatments of cancer with curative intent. Lung cancer treatments were initially excluded, because t

  8. In vivo dosimetry in brachytherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Kari; Beddar, Sam; Andersen, Claus Erik;

    2013-01-01

    In vivo dosimetry (IVD) has been used in brachytherapy (BT) for decades with a number of different detectors and measurement technologies. However, IVD in BT has been subject to certain difficulties and complexities, in particular due to challenges of the high-gradient BT dose distribution and th...

  9. Portal dosimetry in wedged beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreeuw, H.; Rozendaal, R.; Camargo, P.; Mans, A.; Wendling, M.; Olaciregui-Ruiz, I.; Sonke, J.J.; Herk, M. van; Mijnheer, B.

    2015-01-01

    Portal dosimetry using electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) is often applied to verify high-energy photon beam treatments. Due to the change in photon energy spectrum, the resulting dose values are, however, not very accurate in the case of wedged beams if the pixel-to-dose conversion for the s

  10. IMBA Expert: internal dosimetry made simple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchall, A; Puncher, M; James, A C; Marsh, J W; Jarvis, N S; Peace, M S; Davis, K; King, D J

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, a collaboration between British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL), Westlakes Research Institute and NRPB started, with the aim of producing IMBA (Integrated Modules for Bioassay Analysis), a suite of software modules that implement the new ICRP models for estimation of intakes and doses. This was partly in response to new UK regulations, and partly due to the requirement for a unified approach in estimating intakes and doses from bioassay measurements within the UK. Over the past 5 years, the IMBA modules have been developed further, have gone through extensive quality assurance, and are now used for routine dose assessment by approved dosimetry services throughout the UK. More recently, interest in the IMBA methodology has been shown by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), and in 2001 an ambitious project to develop a software package (IMBA Expert USDOE Edition) which would meet the requirements of all of the major USDOE sites began. Interest in IMBA Expert is now being expressed in many other countries. The aim of this paper is to outline the origin and evolution of the IMBA modules (the past); to describe the full capabilities of the current IMBA Expert system (the present) and to indicate possible future directions in terms of capabilities and availability (the future).

  11. Plutonium worker dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchall, Alan; Puncher, M; Harrison, J; Riddell, A; Bailey, M R; Khokryakov, V; Romanov, S

    2010-05-01

    Epidemiological studies of the relationship between risk and internal exposure to plutonium are clearly reliant on the dose estimates used. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is currently reviewing the latest scientific information available on biokinetic models and dosimetry, and it is likely that a number of changes to the existing models will be recommended. The effect of certain changes, particularly to the ICRP model of the respiratory tract, has been investigated for inhaled forms of (239)Pu and uncertainties have also been assessed. Notable effects of possible changes to respiratory tract model assumptions are (1) a reduction in the absorbed dose to target cells in the airways, if changes under consideration are made to the slow clearing fraction and (2) a doubling of absorbed dose to the alveolar region for insoluble forms, if evidence of longer retention times is taken into account. An important factor influencing doses for moderately soluble forms of (239)Pu is the extent of binding of dissolved plutonium to lung tissues and assumptions regarding the extent of binding in the airways. Uncertainty analyses have been performed with prior distributions chosen for application in epidemiological studies. The resulting distributions for dose per unit intake were lognormal with geometric standard deviations of 2.3 and 2.6 for nitrates and oxides, respectively. The wide ranges were due largely to consideration of results for a range of experimental data for the solubility of different forms of nitrate and oxides. The medians of these distributions were a factor of three times higher than calculated using current default ICRP parameter values. For nitrates, this was due to the assumption of a bound fraction, and for oxides due mainly to the assumption of slower alveolar clearance. This study highlights areas where more research is needed to reduce biokinetic uncertainties, including more accurate determination of particle transport rates

  12. ESR dosimetry: achievements and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baffa, O., E-mail: baffa@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Fisica, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Electron Spin Resonance (ESR), also known as Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and more recently as Electron Magnetic Resonance (Emr), is a spectroscopy technique able to detect unpaired electrons such as those created by the interaction ionizing radiation with matter. When the unpaired electrons created by ionizing radiation are stable over some reasonable time, ESR can be used to measure the radiation dose deposited in the material under study. In principle, any insulating material that satisfies this requisite can be used as a dosimeter. ESR has been used in retrospective dosimetry in case of radiological accidents using natural constituents of human body such as teeth, bones and nails as well as fortuitous materials as sugar, sweeteners and plastics. When using teeth the typical detected dose is 0.5 Gy for, for X-Band spectrometers (9 GHz) and even lower doses if higher frequency spectrometers are used. Clinical dosimetry is another area of potential use of this dosimetric modality. In this application the amino acid alanine has been proposed and being used. Alanine dosimeters are very easy to prepare and require no complicated treatments for use. Alanine/ESR dosimetry satisfies many of the required properties for clinical applications such as water equivalent composition, independence of response for the energy range used in therapy and high precision. Other organic materials such as ammonium tartrate are being investigated to increase the sensitivity of ESR for clinical applications. Finally, industrial applications can also benefit from this dosimetry. The challenges to expand applications, the number of users and research groups of ESR dosimetry will be discussed. (Author)

  13. Results from 2010 Caliban Criticality Dosimetry Intercomparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veinot, K. G.

    2011-10-12

    The external dosimetry program participated in a criticality dosimetry intercomparison conducted at the Caliban facility in Valduc, France in 2010. Representatives from the dosimetry and instrumentation groups were present during testing which included irradiations of whole-body beta/gamma (HBGT) and neutron thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), a fixed nuclear accident dosimeter (FNAD), electronic alarming dosimeters, and a humanoid phantom filled with reference man concentrations of sodium. This report reviews the testing procedures, preparations, irradiations, and presents results of the tests.

  14. MISTI Shielding and Dosimetry Experiment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reliable on-orbit dosimetry is necessary for understanding effects of space radiation environments on spacecraft microelectronics performance and comparison of...

  15. Fifth personnel dosimetry intercomparison study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, C.S.

    1980-02-01

    The fifth Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study (PDIS) was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) Dosimetry Applications Research (DOSAR) facility on March 20-22, 1979. This study is the latest PDIS in the continuing series started at the DOSAR facility in 1974. The PDIS is a three day study, typically in March, where personnel dosimeters are mailed to the DOSAR facility, exposed to a range of low-level neutron radiation doses (1 to 15 mSv or equivalently, 100 to 1500 mrem) and neutron-to-gamma ratios (1:1-10:1) using the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) as the radiation source, and returned to the participants for evaluation. This report is a summary and analysis of the results reported by the various participants. The participants are able to intercompare their results with those of others who made dose measurements under identical experimental conditions.

  16. NOTE FROM THE DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    During March, the Dosimetry Service will be opened from 8h30 to 12h in the morning and closed every afternoon.   We have established that many people, who are provided regularly with a personal dosimeter (film badge), have changed their activity and do not need it anymore, because they do not, or only exceptionally, enter controlled areas. If you are one of these persons, please contact the Personal Dosimeter Service (tel: 72155). There is a simplified procedure for obtaining a dosimeter if you have an immediate need for short-term visits in controlled areas. A reduction of the number of persons on the regular distribution list of dosimeters would decrease our and the distributors workload. It would also contribute to significant savings in the dosimetry, and thus CERN, budget. We thank you in advance for your understanding and for your collaboration.

  17. Dosimetry for the external radiation therapy. Dosimetry with alanine; Dosimetrie fuer die externe Strahlentherapie. Dosimetrie mit Alanin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, Mathias [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' Alanin-Dosimetrie'

    2013-06-15

    The alanine-ESR dosimetry in the PTB is described. The response power of alanine related to the water energy dose for X-rays with average energy of 10-1000 keV is presented. Furthermore the application of alanine for the quality assurance in the radiation therapy is described by means of the prostate irradiation and the therapy of a tumor in the neck region as examples. (HSI)

  18. EPR Dosimetry - Present and Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regulla, D.F. [GSF - National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    In the past, IAEA has played a central role in stipulating research and development in EPR high-dose standardisation as well as in coordinating and organising international dose intercomparison programs, within the Member States of the United Nations from the mid-seventies till today. The future tasks of EPR dosimetry seem to tend towards different subjects such as bio markers, biological radiation effects, post-accident dose reconstruction in the environment, and retrospective human dosimetry. The latter may be considered a promising tool for epidemiology on the way to re-define radiation risk of man for chronicle radiation exposures, based on e.g. South Ural civil population and radiation workers. There are on-going international activities in the field of standardising high-level dosimetry by the American Standards on Testing and Materials (Astm), and by the International Organisation of Standards (ISO). The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) is considering the establishment of relevant recommendations concerning industrial radiation processing, but also human dose reconstruction. (Author)

  19. I-124 Imaging and Dosimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russ Kuker

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Although radioactive iodine imaging and therapy are one of the earliest applications of theranostics, there still remain a number of unresolved clinical questions as to the optimization of diagnostic techniques and dosimetry protocols. I-124 as a positron emission tomography (PET radiotracer has the potential to improve the current clinical practice in the diagnosis and treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer. The higher sensitivity and spatial resolution of PET/computed tomography (CT compared to standard gamma scintigraphy can aid in the detection of recurrent or metastatic disease and provide more accurate measurements of metabolic tumor volumes. However the complex decay schema of I-124 poses challenges to quantitative PET imaging. More prospective studies are needed to define optimal dosimetry protocols and to improve patient-specific treatment planning strategies, taking into account not only the absorbed dose to tumors but also methods to avoid toxicity to normal organs. A historical perspective of I-124 imaging and dosimetry as well as future concepts are discussed.

  20. Dosimetry studies in Zaborie village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, J; Hoshi, M; Endo, S; Stepanenko, V F; Kondrashov, A E; Petin, D; Skvortsov, V; Ivannikov, A; Tikounov, D; Gavrilin, Y; Snykov, V P

    2000-05-01

    Dosimetry studies in Zaborie, a territory in Russia highly contaminated by the Chernobyl accident, were carried out in July, 1997. Studies on dosimetry for people are important not only for epidemiology but also for recovery of local social activity. The local contamination of the soil was measured to be 1.5-6.3 MBq/m2 of Cs-137 with 0.7-4 microSv/h of dose rate. A case study for a villager presently 40 years old indicates estimations of 72 and 269 mSv as the expected internal and external doses during 50 years starting in 1997 based on data of a whole-body measurement of Cs-137 and environmental dose rates. Mean values of accumulated external and internal doses for the period from the year 1986 till 1996 are also estimated to be 130 mSv and 16 mSv for Zaborie. The estimation of the 1986-1996 accumulated dose on the basis of large scale ESR teeth enamel dosimetry provides for this village, the value of 180 mSv. For a short term visitor from Japan to this area, external and internal dose are estimated to be 0.13 mSv/9d (during visit in 1997) and 0.024 mSv/50y (during 50 years starting from 1997), respectively.

  1. Dosimetry requirements derived from the sterilization standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1998-01-01

    The main standards for radiation sterilization, ISO 11137 and EN 552, rest the documentation for the properly executed sterilization process on dosimetry. Both standards describe general requirements to the dosimetry system: The dose measurements must be traceable to national standards, the uncer...

  2. ESR dosimetry using eggshells and tooth enamel for accidental dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Toshihide; Yamanaka, Chihiro; Ikeya, Motoji [Department of Earth and Space Science, Faculty of Science, Osaka Univ., Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    The CO{sub 2}{sup -} signal of eggshells showed a good dose linearity and was appropriate in the wide dose range from 1 to 10 kGy, while ESR signal of CO{sub 2}{sup -} in sea and fresh water shells were saturated at a dose od below 10 kGy. The minimum detectable dose and G-value of CO{sub 2}{sup -} in eggshells were estimated 0.3 Gy and 0.28, respectively. The lifetime of CO{sub 2}{sup -} in eggshells could not be determined exactly because of overlapping organic signals, however it is still sufficiently long for practical use as ESR dosimeter materials. Various bird`s or reptile`s eggshells would be available as natural retrospective ESR dosimeter materials after nuclear accidents. Eggshells will be useful for the food irradiation dosimetry in the dose range of about a few kGy. Tooth enamel is one of the most useful dosimeter materials in public at a accident because of its high sensitivity. ESR dosimetry will replace TLD in near future if the cost of an ESR reader is further reduced . (author)

  3. Radiation dosimetry by potassium feldspar

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arun Pandya; S G Vaijapurkar; P K Bhatnagar

    2000-04-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) properties of raw and annealed feldspar have been studied for their use in gamma dosimetry. The raw gamma exposed feldspar shows glow peaks at 120°C and 319°C. Gamma dose beyond 500 cGy can be measured without any significant fading even after 40 days of termination of exposure. The annealed feldspar shows a glow peak at 120°C after gamma exposure. This peak can be used to measure gamma doses beyond 25 cGy when the TL is measured after 24 h from termination of exposure.

  4. Relocation of the Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The Dosimetry Service is moving from Building 24 to Building 55 and will therefore be closed on Friday, 30 March. From Monday, 2 April onwards you will find us in Building 55/1-001. Please note that we cannot exclude problems with Internet connections on that day and are therefore unable to guarantee normal service. The Service's opening hours and telephone number will not change as a result of the move: Open from 8.30 - 12.00. Closed in the afternoons. Tel. 7 2155

  5. An Automated Biological Dosimetry System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, T.; Bille, J.; Frieben, M.; Stephan, G.

    1986-04-01

    The scoring of structural chromosome aberrations in peripheral human blood lymphocytes can be used in biological dosimetry to estimate the radiation dose which an individual has received. Especially the dicentric chromosome is a rather specific indicator for an exposure to ionizing radiation. For statistical reasons, in the low dose range a great number of cells must be analysed, which is a very tedious task. The resulting high cost of a biological dose estimation limits the application of this method to cases of suspected irradiation for which physical dosimetry is not possible or not sufficient. Therefore an automated system has been designed to do the major part of the routine work. It uses a standard light microscope with motorized scanning stage, a Plumbicon TV-camera, a real-time hardware preprocessor, a binary and a grey level image buffer system. All computations are performed by a very powerful multi-microprocessor-system (POLYP) based on a MIMD-architecture. The task of the automated system can be split in finding the metaphases (see Figure 1) at low microscope magnification and scoring dicentrics at high magnification. The metaphase finding part has been completed and is now in routine use giving good results. The dicentric scoring part is still under development.

  6. Path forward for dosimetry cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, P.J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1146 (United States); Peters, C.D. [Sandia Staffing Alliance, Albuquerque, NM 87110 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    In the 1980's the dosimetry community embraced the need for a high fidelity quantification of uncertainty in nuclear data used for dosimetry applications. This led to the adoption of energy-dependent covariance matrices as the accepted manner of quantifying the uncertainty data. The trend for the dosimetry community to require high fidelity treatment of uncertainty estimates has continued to the current time where requirements on nuclear data are codified in standards such as ASTM E 1018. This paper surveys the current state of the dosimetry cross sections and investigates the quality of the current dosimetry cross section evaluations by examining calculated-to-experimental ratios in neutron benchmark fields. In recent years more nuclear-related technical areas are placing an emphasis on uncertainty quantification. With the availability of model-based cross sections and covariance matrices produced by nuclear data codes, some nuclear-related communities are considering the role these covariance matrices should play. While funding within the dosimetry community for cross section evaluations has been very meager, other areas, such as the solar-related astrophysics community and the US Nuclear Criticality Safety Program, have been supporting research in the area of neutron cross sections. The Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) is responsible for the creation and maintenance of the ENDF/B library which has been the mainstay for the reactor dosimetry community. Given the new trends in cross section evaluations, this paper explores the path forward for the US nuclear reactor dosimetry community and its use of the ENDF/B cross-sections. The major concern is maintenance of the sufficiency and accuracy of the uncertainty estimate when used for dosimetry applications. The two major areas of deficiency in the proposed ENDF/B approach are: 1) the use of unrelated covariance matrices in ENDF/B evaluations and 2) the lack of 'due consideration' of

  7. Introduction to radiological physics and radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Attix, Frank Herbert

    2004-01-01

    A straightforward presentation of the broad concepts underlying radiological physics and radiation dosimetry for the graduate-level student. Covers photon and neutron attenuation, radiation and charged particle equilibrium, interactions of photons and charged particles with matter, radiotherapy dosimetry, as well as photographic, calorimetric, chemical, and thermoluminescence dosimetry. Includes many new derivations, such as Kramers X-ray spectrum, as well as topics that have not been thoroughly analyzed in other texts, such as broad-beam attenuation and geometrics, and the reciprocity theorem

  8. Validation of internal dosimetry protocols based on stochastic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Bruno M.; Fonseca, Telma C.F., E-mail: bmm@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Almeida, Iassudara G.; Trindade, Bruno M.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R., E-mail: tprcampos@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    Computational phantoms adapted to Monte Carlo codes have been applied successfully in radiation dosimetry fields. NRI research group has been developing Internal Dosimetry Protocols - IDPs, addressing distinct methodologies, software and computational human-simulators, to perform internal dosimetry, especially for new radiopharmaceuticals. Validation of the IDPs is critical to ensure the reliability of the simulations results. Inter comparisons of data from literature with those produced by our IDPs is a suitable method for validation. The aim of this study was to validate the IDPs following such inter comparison procedure. The Golem phantom has been reconfigured to run on MCNP5. The specific absorbed fractions (SAF) for photon at 30, 100 and 1000 keV energies were simulated based on the IDPs and compared with reference values (RV) published by Zankl and Petoussi-Henss, 1998. The SAF average differences from RV and those obtained in IDP simulations was 2.3 %. The SAF largest differences were found in situations involving low energy photons at 30 keV. The Adrenals and thyroid, i.e. the lowest mass organs, had the highest SAF discrepancies towards RV as 7.2 % and 3.8 %, respectively. The statistic differences of SAF applying our IDPs from reference values were considered acceptable at the 30, 100 and 1000 keV spectra. We believe that the main reason for the discrepancies in IDPs run, found in lower masses organs, was due to our source definition methodology. Improvements of source spatial distribution in the voxels may provide outputs more consistent with reference values for lower masses organs. (author)

  9. Protocol for emergency EPR dosimetry in fingernails

    OpenAIRE

    Trompier, F; Kornak, L.; Calas, C.; Romanyukha, A.; LeBlanc, B.; Mitchell, C. A.; Swartz, H M; Clairand, I.

    2007-01-01

    There is an increased need for after-the-fact dosimetry because of the high risk of radiation exposures due to terrorism or accidents. In case of such an event, a method is needed to make measurements of dose in a large number of individuals rapidly and with sufficient accuracy to facilitate effective medical triage. Dosimetry based on EPR measurements of fingernails potentially could be an effective tool for this purpose. This paper presents the first operational protocols for EPR fingernail...

  10. Pre-treatment and in-vivo dosimetry of Helical Tomotherapy treatment plans using the Dosimetry Check system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzenga, E.; Cagni, E.; Botti, A.; Orlandi, M.; Iori, M.

    2014-04-01

    Dosimetry Check (DC) is the world's first commercially available software that provides patient-specific pre-treatment (PTD) and in-vivo transit (IVD) dose quality assurance of static and rotational intensity-modulated radiotherapy treatments. To investigate the feasibility of replacing pre-treatment verification with in vivo dosimetry for Helical Tomotherapy (HT), the commissioning and the application of the DC software was realised. Dose distributions were reconstructed from Mega Voltage Computed Tomography (MVCT) detectors, inside phantoms or patients for a total number of 6 treatment plans. Planned, reconstructed MVCT dose and measurements using ionisation chambers and a matrix detector inserted in cylindrical and octagonal phantoms, respectively, were compared at the isocenter and in two dimensions using the γ2D and γ10-index (3% / 3 mm). The dose reconstruction PTD and IVD methods of DC software provided, compared to detector measurements and for three Quality Assurance (QA) plans, similar point dose deviations and γ2D-index passing rates: (0.4 ± 0.1)% vs. (-1.4 ± 1.6)%, and (96.8 ± 0.9)% vs. (98.9 ± 0.6)%, respectively. In terms of γ10-index passing rate, PTD and IVD modalities reached mean values of (99.3 ± 0.1)% and (97.2 ± 1.9)%, respectively. Also for the remaining three clinical plans, similar results were reached for IVD with γ10-index passing rate reaching mean values of (95.9 ± 3.4)%. Therefore, either the PTD and the IVD verification modalities proved to be a very promising tool for the patient-specific QA of HT Plans.

  11. Software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerville, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The ninth edition of Software Engineering presents a broad perspective of software engineering, focusing on the processes and techniques fundamental to the creation of reliable, software systems. Increased coverage of agile methods and software reuse, along with coverage of 'traditional' plan-driven software engineering, gives readers the most up-to-date view of the field currently available. Practical case studies, a full set of easy-to-access supplements, and extensive web resources make teaching the course easier than ever.

  12. Development of radiation biological dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Yun Sil; Son, Young Sook; Kim, Soo Kwan; Jang, Won Suk; Le, Sun Joo; Jee, Young Heun; Jung, Woo Jung

    1999-04-01

    Up until now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline (triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the premature chromosome condensation assay and apoptotic fragment assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiation dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with conventional chromosome aberration assay and micronuclei assay.

  13. Advanced materials in radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Bruzzi, M; Nava, F; Pini, S; Russo, S

    2002-01-01

    High band-gap semiconductor materials can represent good alternatives to silicon in relative dosimetry. Schottky diodes made with epitaxial n-type 4 H SiC and Chemical Vapor Deposited diamond films with ohmic contacts have been exposed to a sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma-source, 20 MeV electrons and 6 MV X photons from a linear accelerator to test the current response in on-line configuration in the dose range 0.1-10 Gy. The released charge as a function of the dose and the radiation-induced current as a function of the dose-rate are found to be linear. No priming effects have been observed using epitaxial SiC, due to the low density of lattice defects present in this material.

  14. Online dosimetry for temoporfin-mediated interstitial photodynamic therapy using the canine prostate as model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartling, Johannes; Höglund, Odd V.; Hansson, Kerstin; Södersten, Fredrik; Axelsson, Johan; Lagerstedt, Anne-Sofie

    2016-02-01

    Online light dosimetry with real-time feedback was applied for temoporfin-mediated interstitial photodynamic therapy (PDT) of dog prostate. The aim was to investigate the performance of online dosimetry by studying the correlation between light dose plans and the tissue response, i.e., extent of induced tissue necrosis and damage to surrounding organs at risk. Light-dose planning software provided dose plans, including light source positions and light doses, based on ultrasound images. A laser instrument provided therapeutic light and dosimetric measurements. The procedure was designed to closely emulate the procedure for whole-prostate PDT in humans with prostate cancer. Nine healthy dogs were subjected to the procedure according to a light-dose escalation plan. About 0.15 mg/kg temoporfin was administered 72 h before the procedure. The results of the procedure were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, and gross pathology and histopathology of excised tissue. Light dose planning and online dosimetry clearly resulted in more focused effect and less damage to surrounding tissue than interstitial PDT without dosimetry. A light energy dose-response relationship was established where the threshold dose to induce prostate gland necrosis was estimated from 20 to 30 J/cm2.

  15. Korean standard nuclear plant ex-vessel neutron dosimetry program Ulchin 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duo, J.I.; Chen, J.; Kulesza, J.A.; Fero, A.H. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, 1000 Westinghouse Dr., Cranberry Township, PA 16066-5228 (United States); Yoo, C.S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., 150 Dukjin-dong Yuseung-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, B.C. [Korea Reactor Integrity Surveillance Technology, 150 Dukjin-dong Yuseung-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    A comprehensive ex-vessel neutron dosimetry (EVND) surveillance program has been deployed in 16 pressurized water reactors (PWR) in South Korea and EVND dosimetry sets have already been installed and analyzed in Westinghouse reactor designs. In this paper, the unique features of the design, training, and installation in the Korean standard nuclear plant (KSNP) Ulchin Unit 4 are presented. Ulchin Unit 4 Cycle 9 represents the first dosimetry analyzed from the EVND design deployed in KSNP plants: Yonggwang Units 3 through 6 and Ulchin Units 3 through 6. KSNP's cavity configuration precludes a conventional installation from the cavity floor. The solution, requiring the installation crew to access the cavity at an elevation of the active core, places a premium on rapid installation due to high area dose rates. Numerous geometrical features warranted the use of a detailed design in true 3D mechanical design software to control interferences. A full-size training mockup maximized the crew ability to correctly install the instrument in minimum time. The analysis of the first dosimetry set shows good agreements between measurement and calculation within the associated uncertainties. A complete EVND system has been successfully designed, installed, and analyzed for a KNSP plant. Current and future EVND analyses will continue supporting the successful operation of PWR units in South Korea. (authors)

  16. Uncertainty in 3D gel dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Deene, Yves; Jirasek, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) gel dosimetry has a unique role to play in safeguarding conformal radiotherapy treatments as the technique can cover the full treatment chain and provides the radiation oncologist with the integrated dose distribution in 3D. It can also be applied to benchmark new treatment strategies such as image guided and tracking radiotherapy techniques. A major obstacle that has hindered the wider dissemination of gel dosimetry in radiotherapy centres is a lack of confidence in the reliability of the measured dose distribution. Uncertainties in 3D dosimeters are attributed to both dosimeter properties and scanning performance. In polymer gel dosimetry with MRI readout, discrepancies in dose response of large polymer gel dosimeters versus small calibration phantoms have been reported which can lead to significant inaccuracies in the dose maps. The sources of error in polymer gel dosimetry with MRI readout are well understood and it has been demonstrated that with a carefully designed scanning protocol, the overall uncertainty in absolute dose that can currently be obtained falls within 5% on an individual voxel basis, for a minimum voxel size of 5 mm3. However, several research groups have chosen to use polymer gel dosimetry in a relative manner by normalizing the dose distribution towards an internal reference dose within the gel dosimeter phantom. 3D dosimetry with optical scanning has also been mostly applied in a relative way, although in principle absolute calibration is possible. As the optical absorption in 3D dosimeters is less dependent on temperature it can be expected that the achievable accuracy is higher with optical CT. The precision in optical scanning of 3D dosimeters depends to a large extend on the performance of the detector. 3D dosimetry with X-ray CT readout is a low contrast imaging modality for polymer gel dosimetry. Sources of error in x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry (XCT) are currently under investigation and include inherent

  17. Accelerated 3D Monte Carlo light dosimetry using a graphics processing unit (GPU) cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, William Chun Yip; Lilge, Lothar

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents a basic computational framework for real-time, 3-D light dosimetry on graphics processing unit (GPU) clusters. The GPU-based approach offers a direct solution to overcome the long computation time preventing Monte Carlo simulations from being used in complex optimization problems such as treatment planning, particularly if simulated annealing is employed as the optimization algorithm. The current multi- GPU implementation is validated using a commercial light modelling software (ASAP from Breault Research Organization). It also supports the latest Fermi GPU architecture and features an interactive 3-D visualization interface. The software is available for download at http://code.google.com/p/gpu3d.

  18. Microwave dielectric absorption spectroscopy aiming at novel dosimetry using DNAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumi, Yoshinobu; Hirayama, Makoto; Matuo, Youichirou [Research Institute of Nuclear Engineering, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan); Sunagawa, Takeyoshi [Fukui University of Technology, Fukui (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    We are developing L-band and S-band microwave dielectric absorption systems aiming novel dosimetry using DNAs, such as plasmid DNA and genomic DNA, and microwave technology. Each system is composed of a cavity resonator, analog signal generator, circulator, power meter, and oscilloscope. Since the cavity resonator is sensitive to temperature change, we have made great efforts to prevent the fluctuation of temperature. We have developed software for controlling and measurement. By using this system, we can measure the resonance frequency, f, and ΔQ (Q is a dimensionless parameter that describes how under-damped an oscillator or resonator is, and characterizes a resonator’s bandwidth relative to its center frequency) within about 3 minutes with high accuracy. This system will be expected to be applicable to DNAs evaluations and to novel dosimetric system.

  19. Internal dosimetry of plutonium using the late urinary excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R C; Abani, M C

    2000-10-01

    An attempt has been made to standardize the methodology of internal dose computation from the late urinary excretion data. The methodology was selected keeping in mind the most recent ICRP publications and the results of internal dosimetry intercomparison studies reported in literature. The key element of this methodology is the PC-based computational software LUDEP 2.05, which implements the new model of the human respiratory tract. Late urinary excretion data of three male subjects involved in accidental intakes of plutonium aerosols more than 25 years ago were interpreted in terms of intakes and internal doses with the aid of the standardized methodology. An important implication of this work is that late urinary excretion data of the occupational workers of any plutonium handling facility could be used to show the compliance with the life-time dose limit.

  20. SOFTWARE OPEN SOURCE, SOFTWARE GRATIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Aini Rakhmawati

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Berlakunya Undang – undang Hak Atas Kekayaan Intelektual (HAKI, memunculkan suatu alternatif baru untuk menggunakan software open source. Penggunaan software open source menyebar seiring dengan isu global pada Information Communication Technology (ICT saat ini. Beberapa organisasi dan perusahaan mulai menjadikan software open source sebagai pertimbangan. Banyak konsep mengenai software open source ini. Mulai dari software yang gratis sampai software tidak berlisensi. Tidak sepenuhnya isu software open source benar, untuk itu perlu dikenalkan konsep software open source mulai dari sejarah, lisensi dan bagaimana cara memilih lisensi, serta pertimbangan dalam memilih software open source yang ada. Kata kunci :Lisensi, Open Source, HAKI

  1. Software Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews software packages by providing extensive descriptions and discussions of their strengths and weaknesses. Software reviewed include (1) "VISIFROG: Vertebrate Anatomy" (grade seven-adult); (2) "Fraction Bars Computer Program" (grades three to six) and (3) four telecommunications utilities. (JN)

  2. In aqua vivo EPID dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendling, Markus; McDermott, Leah N.; Mans, Anton; Olaciregui-Ruiz, Igor; Pecharroman-Gallego, Raul; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Stroom, Joep; Herk, Marcel J.; Mijnheer, Ben van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    Purpose: At the Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital in vivo dosimetry using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) has been implemented for almost all high-energy photon treatments of cancer with curative intent. Lung cancer treatments were initially excluded, because the original back-projection dose-reconstruction algorithm uses water-based scatter-correction kernels and therefore does not account for tissue inhomogeneities accurately. The aim of this study was to test a new method, in aqua vivo EPID dosimetry, for fast dose verification of lung cancer irradiations during actual patient treatment. Methods: The key feature of our method is the dose reconstruction in the patient from EPID images, obtained during the actual treatment, whereby the images have been converted to a situation as if the patient consisted entirely of water; hence, the method is termed in aqua vivo. This is done by multiplying the measured in vivo EPID image with the ratio of two digitally reconstructed transmission images for the unit-density and inhomogeneous tissue situation. For dose verification, a comparison is made with the calculated dose distribution with the inhomogeneity correction switched off. IMRT treatment verification is performed for each beam in 2D using a 2D {gamma} evaluation, while for the verification of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatments in 3D a 3D {gamma} evaluation is applied using the same parameters (3%, 3 mm). The method was tested using two inhomogeneous phantoms simulating a tumor in lung and measuring its sensitivity for patient positioning errors. Subsequently five IMRT and five VMAT clinical lung cancer treatments were investigated, using both the conventional back-projection algorithm and the in aqua vivo method. The verification results of the in aqua vivo method were statistically analyzed for 751 lung cancer patients treated with IMRT and 50 lung cancer patients treated with VMAT. Results: The improvements by

  3. Technical Basis Document for PFP Area Monitoring Dosimetry Program

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, J R

    2000-01-01

    This document describes the phantom dosimetry used for the PFP Area Monitoring program and establishes the basis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant's (PFP) area monitoring dosimetry program in accordance with the following requirements: Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), part 835, ''Occupational Radiation Protection'' Part 835.403; Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM-1), Part 514; HNF-PRO-382, Area Dosimetry Program; and PNL-MA-842, Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual.

  4. Dosimetry at a 400 keV accelerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1992-01-01

    Absolute calorimetric dosimetry and relative dose mapping methods are described for a 400 keV electron accelerator used for polymer curing and crosslinking experiments. These methods of dosimetry are also useful at accelerators used in gas cleaning processes.......Absolute calorimetric dosimetry and relative dose mapping methods are described for a 400 keV electron accelerator used for polymer curing and crosslinking experiments. These methods of dosimetry are also useful at accelerators used in gas cleaning processes....

  5. Personnel neutron dosimetry at Department of Energy facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Endres, G.W.R.; Selby, J.M.; Vallario, E.J.

    1980-08-01

    This study assesses the state of personnel neutron dosimetry at DOE facilities. A survey of the personnel dosimetry systems in use at major DOE facilities was conducted, a literature search was made to determine recent advances in neutron dosimetry, and several dosimetry experts were interviewed. It was concluded that personnel neutron dosimeters do not meet current needs and that serious problems exist now and will increase in the future if neutron quality factors are increased and/or dose limits are lowered.

  6. Software reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Bendell, A

    1986-01-01

    Software Reliability reviews some fundamental issues of software reliability as well as the techniques, models, and metrics used to predict the reliability of software. Topics covered include fault avoidance, fault removal, and fault tolerance, along with statistical methods for the objective assessment of predictive accuracy. Development cost models and life-cycle cost models are also discussed. This book is divided into eight sections and begins with a chapter on adaptive modeling used to predict software reliability, followed by a discussion on failure rate in software reliability growth mo

  7. Computer software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, L E

    1986-10-01

    Software is the component in a computer system that permits the hardware to perform the various functions that a computer system is capable of doing. The history of software and its development can be traced to the early nineteenth century. All computer systems are designed to utilize the "stored program concept" as first developed by Charles Babbage in the 1850s. The concept was lost until the mid-1940s, when modern computers made their appearance. Today, because of the complex and myriad tasks that a computer system can perform, there has been a differentiation of types of software. There is software designed to perform specific business applications. There is software that controls the overall operation of a computer system. And there is software that is designed to carry out specialized tasks. Regardless of types, software is the most critical component of any computer system. Without it, all one has is a collection of circuits, transistors, and silicone chips.

  8. Advances in nuclear particle dosimetry for radiation protection and medicine - Ninth Symposium on Neutron Dosimetry (Editorial Material, English)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoetelief, J; Bos, A J.; Schuhmacher, H; McDonald, Joseph C.; Schultz, F W.; Pihet, P

    2004-12-15

    The Ninth Symposium on Neutron Dosimetry has been expanded to cover not only neutron radiation but heavy charged particle dosimetry as well. The applications are found in such fields as radiation protection, aircrew dosimetry, medicine, nuclear power and accelerator health physics. Scientists from many countries from around the world presented their work, and described the latest developments in techniques and instrumentation.

  9. Comparison between real-time intra-operative ultrasound-based dosimetry and CT-based dosimetry for prostate brachytherapy using cesium-131.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, B L; Gibbons, E P; Smith, R P; Beriwal, S; Komanduri, K; Benoit, R M

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between real-time intra-operative ultrasound-based dosimetry (USD) and day 0 post-implant CT dosimetry (CTD) (131)Cs permanent prostate brachytherapy. Fifty-two consecutive patients who underwent prostate brachytherapy with (131)Cs were evaluated. Real time operating room planning was performed using VariSeed 7.1 software. Post-needle placement prostate volume was used for real-time planning. Targets for dosimetry were D(90) >110%, V(100) >90%, V(150) 15% difference between USD and CTD and 51.9% of patients had a >10% difference between these values. In contrast, the USD and CTD for V(100) were within 5% in 55.8% of patients and within 10% in 86.5% of patients. This study demonstrates a correlation between the mean intra-operative USD and post-implant day 0 CTD values only for V(200). Significant variation in D(90), V(150), and V(200) values existed for individual patients between USD and CTD. These results suggest that real-time intra-operative USD does not serve as a surrogate for post-operative CTD, and that post-operative CTD is still necessary.

  10. Instrumentation for the individual dosimetry of workers

    CERN Document Server

    Thévenin, J C

    2003-01-01

    The control of the radiation dose exposure of workers and personnel exposed to ionizing radiations (nuclear industry, nuclear medicine, army, university laboratories etc..) is ensured by individual dosemeters. This dosimetry is mandatory for all workers susceptible to be exposed to more than 30% of the regulatory dose limit. dosemeters are worn on the chest and in some particular cases, on the finger (dosemeter rings) or on the wrist. Passive dosemeters allow to measure the dose a posteriori, while electronic dosemeters allow a direct reading and recording of the dose. This article presents successively: 1 - the general principles of individual dosimetry: situations of exposure, radiation detection, operational data, standardization, calibration and quality assurance, measurement uncertainties; 2 - goals and regulatory framework of individual dosimetry: regulation and recommendations, optimization, respect of dose limits, accidental situations; 3 - passive dosemeters: film, thermoluminescent, radio-photolumin...

  11. Model selection for radiochromic film dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Méndez, Ignasi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the most accurate model for radiochromic film dosimetry by comparing different channel independent perturbation models. A model selection approach based on (algorithmic) information theory was followed, and the results were validated using gamma-index analysis on a set of benchmark test cases. Several questions were addressed: (a) whether incorporating the information of the non-irradiated film, by scanning prior to irradiation, improves the results; (b) whether lateral corrections are necessary when using multichannel models; (c) whether multichannel dosimetry produces better results than single-channel dosimetry; (d) which multichannel perturbation model provides more accurate film doses. It was found that scanning prior to irradiation and applying lateral corrections improved the accuracy of the results. For some perturbation models, increasing the number of color channels did not result in more accurate film doses. Employing Truncated Normal perturbations was found to...

  12. Performance testing of UK personal dosimetry laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, T O

    1985-01-01

    The proposed Ionising Radiations Regulations will require all UK personal dosimetry laboratories that monitor classified personnel to be approved for personal dosimetry by the Health and Safety Executive. It is suggested that these approvals should be based on general and supplementary criteria published by the British Calibration Service (BCS) for laboratory approval for the provision of personal dosimetry services. These criteria specify certain qualitative requirements and also indicate the need for regular tests of performance to be carried out to ensure constancy of dosimetric standards. This report concerns the latter. The status of the BCS criteria is discussed and the need for additional documents to cover new techniques and some modifications to existing documents is indicated. A means is described by which the technical performance of laboratories, concerned with personal monitoring for external radiations, can be assessed, both initially and ongoing. The costs to establish the scheme and operate it...

  13. Bayesian Methods for Radiation Detection and Dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Groer, Peter G

    2002-01-01

    We performed work in three areas: radiation detection, external and internal radiation dosimetry. In radiation detection we developed Bayesian techniques to estimate the net activity of high and low activity radioactive samples. These techniques have the advantage that the remaining uncertainty about the net activity is described by probability densities. Graphs of the densities show the uncertainty in pictorial form. Figure 1 below demonstrates this point. We applied stochastic processes for a method to obtain Bayesian estimates of 222Rn-daughter products from observed counting rates. In external radiation dosimetry we studied and developed Bayesian methods to estimate radiation doses to an individual with radiation induced chromosome aberrations. We analyzed chromosome aberrations after exposure to gammas and neutrons and developed a method for dose-estimation after criticality accidents. The research in internal radiation dosimetry focused on parameter estimation for compartmental models from observed comp...

  14. Dosimetry procedures for an industrial irradiation plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahn, Ch.

    Accurate and reliable dosimetry procedures constitute a very important part of process control and quality assurance at a radiation processing plant. γ-Dose measurements were made on the GBS 84 irradiator for food and other products on pallets or in containers. Chemical dosimeters wre exposed in the facility under conditions of the typical plant operation. The choice of the dosimeter systems employed was based on the experience in chemical dosimetry gained over several years. Dose uniformity information was obtained in air, spices, bulbs, feeds, cosmetics, plastics and surgical goods. Most products currently irradiated require dose uniformity which can be efficiently provided by pallet or box irradiators like GBS 84. The radiation performance characteristics and some dosimetry procedures are discussed.

  15. Protocol for emergency EPR dosimetry in fingernails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompier, F; Kornak, L; Calas, C; Romanyukha, A; Leblanc, B; Mitchell, C A; Swartz, H M; Clairand, I

    2007-08-01

    There is an increased need for after-the-fact dosimetry because of the high risk of radiation exposures due to terrorism or accidents. In case of such an event, a method is needed to make measurements of dose in a large number of individuals rapidly and with sufficient accuracy to facilitate effective medical triage. Dosimetry based on EPR measurements of fingernails potentially could be an effective tool for this purpose. This paper presents the first operational protocols for EPR fingernail dosimetry, including guidelines for collection and storage of samples, parameters for EPR measurements, and the method of dose assessment. In a blinded test of this protocol application was carried out on nails freshly sampled and irradiated to 4 and 20 Gy; this protocol gave dose estimates with an error of less than 30%.

  16. Dosimetry of Low-Energy Beta Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Jette

    Useful techniques and procedures for derermination of absorbed doses from exposure in a low-energy beta radiation were studied and evaluated. The four techniques included were beta spectrometry, extrapolation chamber dosimetry, Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, and exoelectron dosimetry. As a typical...... low-energy beta radiation field a moderated spectrum from a carbon-14 source was used. The measured responce of a Si(Li) detector to photons (bremsstrahlung) showed fine agreemant with the MC calculated photon response, whereas the difference between measured and MC calculated response to electrons...

  17. Technical basis for internal dosimetry at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sula, M.J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, provides routine bioassay monitoring for employees who are potentially exposed to radionuclides in the workplace. This report presents the technical basis for routine bioassay monitoring and the assessment of internal dose at Hanford. The radionuclides of concern include tritium, corrosion products ({sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn, and {sup 59}Fe), strontium, cesium, iodine, europium, uranium, plutonium, and americium,. Sections on each of these radionuclides discuss the sources and characteristics; dosimetry; bioassay measurements and monitoring; dose measurement, assessment, and mitigation and bioassay follow-up treatment. 78 refs., 35 figs., 115 tabs.

  18. Technical basis for internal dosimetry at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sula, M.J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1989-04-01

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, provides routine bioassay monitoring for employees who are potentially exposed to radionuclides in the workplace. This report presents the technical basis for routine bioassay monitoring and the assessment of internal dose at Hanford. The radionuclides of concern include tritium, corrosion products (/sup 58/Co, /sup 60/Co, /sup 54/Mn, and /sup 59/Fe), strontium, cesium, iodine, europium, uranium, plutonium, and americium. Sections on each of these radionuclides discuss the sources and characteristics; dosimetry; bioassay measurements and monitoring; dose measurement, assessment, and mitigation; and bioassay follow-up treatment. 64 refs., 42 figs., 118 tabs.

  19. Optically stimulated luminescence in retrospective dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Murray, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1990s the exploration of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) in retrospective accident dosimetry has driven an intensive investigation and development programme at Riso into measurement facilities and techniques. This paper reviews some of the outcomes of this progr......Since the beginning of the 1990s the exploration of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) in retrospective accident dosimetry has driven an intensive investigation and development programme at Riso into measurement facilities and techniques. This paper reviews some of the outcomes...

  20. SNL RML recommended dosimetry cross section compendium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.; Luera, T.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); VanDenburg, J. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    A compendium of dosimetry cross sections is presented for use in the characterization of fission reactor spectrum and fluence. The contents of this cross section library are based upon the ENDF/B-VI and IRDF-90 cross section libraries and are recommended as a replacement for the DOSCROS84 multigroup library that is widely used by the dosimetry community. Documentation is provided on the rationale for the choice of the cross sections selected for inclusion in this library and on the uncertainty and variation in cross sections presented by state-of-the-art evaluations.

  1. Dosimetry of Low-Energy Beta Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Jette

    Useful techniques and procedures for derermination of absorbed doses from exposure in a low-energy beta radiation were studied and evaluated. The four techniques included were beta spectrometry, extrapolation chamber dosimetry, Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, and exoelectron dosimetry. As a typical...... low-energy beta radiation field a moderated spectrum from a carbon-14 source was used. The measured responce of a Si(Li) detector to photons (bremsstrahlung) showed fine agreemant with the MC calculated photon response, whereas the difference between measured and MC calculated response to electrons...

  2. Software piracy

    OpenAIRE

    Kráčmer, Stanislav

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present thesis is to clarify the term of software piracy and to determine responsibility of individual entities as to actual realization of software piracy. First, the thesis focuses on a computer programme, causes, realization and pitfalls of its inclusion under copyright protection. Subsequently, it observes methods of legal usage of a computer programme. This is the point of departure for the following attempt to define software piracy, accompanied with methods of actu...

  3. Thermoluminescent dosimetry in computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara C, A.; Rivera M, T. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Unidad Legaria, Av. Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Osorio V, M. [ISSSTE, Centro Medico Nacional 20 de Noviembre, Felix Cuevas 540, Col. del Valle, 03100 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Hernandez O, O., E-mail: armando_lara_cam@yahoo.com.mx [Hospital General de Mexico, Dr. Balmis 148, Col. Doctores, 06726 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-10-15

    In this work we studied the dosimetry performed on CT scan in two different equipment, SOMATOM and Phillips, with 16 and 64 slice respectively. We used 51 pellets of lithium fluoride doped with magnesium and titanium (LiF: Mg, Ti) also knows as TLD-100 due to its physical properties and its easy of use, in this study, first analysis a batch of 56 pellets, but only 53 pellets were optimal for this study, cesium-137 was used as source irradiation, then proceeded to calibrate the batch with X-rays source, measuring the corresponding dose in a Farmers ionization chamber, then, we obtained a calibration curve, and we used as reference to calculation of the applied dose, finally designing ergonomic mesh, were it was deposited a TLD 100, placed in a regions of interest were made to each scan type. Once characterized our material proceeded to testing in 30 patients, which were irradiated with X-ray tube, whose operation was performed at 80, 120 kV with a current of 100, 300 and 400 m A according to scanning protocol. Overall we measured dose of 5 mGy to 53 mGy, these measurements reflect significant dose to can induced cancer, due previous reports published, that doses greater than 20 mGy there is a risk of developing cancer in the long term, but in practice when it assigned a medical diagnosis, there are no dose limits due to benefits patients, however, IAEA publish recommendations that allow us to carry out optimum handling of ionizing radiation, among these is the quality control of the tomography equipment that helps greatly reduce patient dose. (Author)

  4. Dosimetry implant for treating restenosis and hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Suresh; Gonzales, Gilbert R; Howell, Roger W; Bolch, Wesley E; Adzic, Radoslav

    2014-09-16

    The present invention discloses a method of selectively providing radiation dosimetry to a subject in need of such treatment. The radiation is applied by an implant comprising a body member and .sup.117mSn electroplated at selected locations of the body member, emitting conversion electrons absorbed immediately adjacent selected locations while not affecting surrounding tissue outside of the immediately adjacent area.

  5. Optically stimulated luminescence techniques in retrospective dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Murray, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence signals from natural quartz and feldspar are now used routinely in dating geological and archaeological materials. More recently they have also been employed in accident dosimetry, i.e. the retrospective assessment of doses received as a result of a nuclear...

  6. Development of A-bomb survivor dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, G.D.

    1995-12-31

    An all important datum in risk assessment is the radiation dose to individual survivors of the bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The first set of dose estimates for survivors was based on a dosimetry system developed in 1957 by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These Tentative 1957 Doses (T57D) were later replaced by a more extensive and refined set of Tentative 1965 Doses (T65D). The T65D system of dose estimation for survivors was also developed at ORNL and served as a basis for risk assessment throughout the 1970s. In the late 1970s, it was suggested that there were serious inadequacies with the T65D system, and these inadequacies were the topic of discussion at two symposia held in 1981. In early 1983, joint US- Japan research programs were established to conduct a thorough review of all aspects of the radiation dosimetry for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. A number of important contributions to this review were made by ORNL staff members. The review was completed in 1986 and a new Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) was adopted for use. This paper discusses the development of the various systems of A-bomb survivor dosimetry, and the status of the current DS86 system as it is being applied in the medical follow-up studies of the A-bomb survivors and their offspring.

  7. Computational Techniques of Electromagnetic Dosimetry for Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Fujiwara, Osamu

    There has been increasing public concern about the adverse health effects of human exposure to electromagnetic fields. This paper reviews the rationale of international safety guidelines for human protection against electromagnetic fields. Then, this paper also presents computational techniques to conduct dosimetry in anatomically-based human body models. Computational examples and remaining problems are also described briefly.

  8. Thermoluminescence Dosimetry Applied to Radiation Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul; Bøtter-Jensen, Lars; Majborn, Benny

    1982-01-01

    This is a general review of the present state of the development and application of thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) for radiation protection purposes. A description is given of commonly used thermoluminescent dosimeters and their main dosimetric properties, e.g. energy response, dose range...

  9. Dosimetry implant for treating restenosis and hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Suresh; Gonzales, Gilbert R; Howell, Roger W; Bolch, Wesley E; Adzic, Radoslav

    2014-09-16

    The present invention discloses a method of selectively providing radiation dosimetry to a subject in need of such treatment. The radiation is applied by an implant comprising a body member and .sup.117mSn electroplated at selected locations of the body member, emitting conversion electrons absorbed immediately adjacent selected locations while not affecting surrounding tissue outside of the immediately adjacent area.

  10. Intra-Operative Dosimetry in Prostate Brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    CT-based post-implant dosimetry. Figure 1: System concept for TRUS and C-arm fusion B BODY B.1 Brief System Concept The system concept for...C-arm calibration - is it really necessary?,” MICCAI, pp. 639–646, 2005. 10. Brainlab, Inc., Heimstetten, Germany, Vector Vision. 11. Medtronic

  11. Advances in reference and transfer dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desrosiers, M.F. [Ionizing Radiation Division, Physics Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    1999-07-01

    All prerequisites are now in place to create a fundamentally and radically different type of calibration service for the radiation processing industry. Advancements in dosimetry and information technology can be combined to provide industry with on-line calibrations, on demand at a low cost. The remote calibration service will serve as a basis for other areas of metrology. (Author)

  12. Personnel radiation dosimetry symposium: program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-01

    The purpose was to provide applied and research dosimetrists with sufficient information to evaluate the status and direction of their programs relative to the latest guidelines and techniques. A technical program was presented concerning experience, requirements, and advances in gamma, beta, and neutron personnel dosimetry.

  13. Software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerville, Ian

    2016-01-01

    For courses in computer science and software engineering The Fundamental Practice of Software Engineering Software Engineering introduces readers to the overwhelmingly important subject of software programming and development. In the past few years, computer systems have come to dominate not just our technological growth, but the foundations of our world's major industries. This text seeks to lay out the fundamental concepts of this huge and continually growing subject area in a clear and comprehensive manner. The Tenth Edition contains new information that highlights various technological updates of recent years, providing readers with highly relevant and current information. Sommerville's experience in system dependability and systems engineering guides the text through a traditional plan-based approach that incorporates some novel agile methods. The text strives to teach the innovators of tomorrow how to create software that will make our world a better, safer, and more advanced place to live.

  14. Construction tool and suitability of voxel phantom for skin dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, Paula C.G.; Siqueira, Paulo T.D.; Fonseca, Gabriel P.; Yoriyaz, Helio, E-mail: ptsiquei@ipen.b, E-mail: hyoriyaz@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes a new software tool called 'SkinVop' which was developed to enable accurate voxel phantom skin dosimetry. A voxel phantom is a model used to describe human anatomy in a realistic way in radiation transport codes. This model is a three-dimensional representation of the human body in the form of an array of identification numbers that are arranged in a 3D matrix. Each entry in this array represents a voxel (volume element) directly associated to the units of picture resolution (pixel) of medical images. Currently, these voxel phantoms, in association with the transport code MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle), have provided subsidies to the planning systems used on the hospital routine, once they afford accurate and personalized estimative of dose distribution. However, these assessments are limited to geometric representations of organs and tissues in the voxel phantom, which do not discriminates some thin body structure, such as the skin. In this context, to enable accurate dosimetric skin dose assessment by the MCNP code, it was developed this new software tool that discriminates this region with thickness and localization in the voxel phantoms similar to the real. This methodology consists in manipulating the skin volume elements by segmenting and subdividing them in different thicknesses. A graphical user interface was designed to fulfill display the modified voxel model. This methodology is extremely useful once the skin dose is inaccurately assessed of current hospital system planning, justified justly by its small thickness. (author)

  15. Film dosimetry in conformal radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danciu, C.; Proimos, B.S. [Patras Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Medical Physics

    1995-12-01

    Dosimetry, through a film sandwiched in a transverse cross-section of a solid phantom, is a method of choice in Conformal Radiotherapy because: (a) the blackness (density) of the film at each point offers a measure of the total dose received at that point, and (b) the film is easily calibrated by exposing a film strip in the same cross-section, through a stationary field. The film must therefore have the following properties: (a) it must be slow, in order not to be overexposed, even at a therapeutic dose of 200 cGy, and (b) the response of the film (density versus dose curve) must be independent of the photon energy spectrum. A few slow films were compared. It was found that the Kodak X-Omat V for therapy verification was the best choice. To investigate whether the film response was independent of the photon energy, response curves for six depths, starting from the depth of maximum dose to the depth of 25 cm, in solid phantom were derived. The vertical beam was perpendicular to the anterior surface of the phantom, which was at the distance of 100 cm from the source and the field was 15x15 cm at that distance. This procedure was repeated for photon beams emitted by a Cobalt-60 unit, two 6 MV and 15 MV Linear Accelerators, as well as a 45 MV Betatron. For each of those four different beams the film response was the same for all six depths. The results, as shown in the diagrams, are very satisfactory. The response curve under a geometry similar to that actually applied, when the film is irradiated in a transverse cross-section of the phantom, was derived. The horizontal beam was almost parallel (angle of 85) to the plane of the film. The same was repeated with the central ray parallel to the film (angle 90) and at a distance of 1.5 cm from the horizontal film. The field size was again 15x15 at the lateral entrance surface of the beam. The response curves remained the same, as when the beam was perpendicular to the films.

  16. Neutron dosimetry; Dosimetria de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratin, Luciano

    1993-12-31

    A neutron irradiation facility was designed and built in order to establish a procedure for calibrating neutron monitors and dosemeters. A 185 GBq {sup 241} Am Be source of known is used as a reference source. The irradiation facility using this source in the air provides neutron dose rates between 9 nSv s{sup -1} and 0,5 {sup {mu}}Sv s{sup -1}. A calibrated 50 nSv s{sup -1} thermal neutron field is obtained by using a specially designed paraffin block in conjunction with the {sup 241} Am Be source. A Bonner multisphere spectrometer was calibrated, using a procedure based on three methods proposed by international standards. The unfold {sup 241} Am Be neutron spectrum was determined from the Bonner spheres data and resulted in a good agreement with expected values for fluence rate, dose rate and mean energy. A dosimetric system based on the electrochemical etching of CR-39 was developed for personal dosimetry. The dosemeter badge using a (n,{alpha}) converter, the etching chamber and high frequency power supply were designed and built specially for this project. The electrochemical etching (ECE) parameters used were: a 6N KOH solution, 59 deg C, 20 kV{sub pp} cm{sup -1}, 2,0 kHz, 3 hours of ECE for thermal and intermediate neutrons and 6 hours for fast neutrons. The calibration factors for thermal, intermediate and fast neutrons were determined for this personal dosemeter. The sensitivities determined for the developed dosimetric system were (1,46{+-} 0,09) 10{sup 4} tracks cm{sup -2} mSv{sup -1} for thermal neutrons, (9{+-}3) 10{sup 2} tracks cm{sup -2} mSV{sup -1} for intermediate neutrons and (26{+-}4) tracks cm{sup -2} mSv{sup -1} for fast neutrons. The lower and upper limits of detection were respectively 0,002 mSv and 0,6 mSv for thermal neutrons, 0,04 mSv and 8 mSv for intermediate neutrons and 1 mSv and 12 mSv for fast neutrons. In view of the 1990`s ICRP recommendations, it is possible to conclude that the personal dosemeter described in this work is

  17. Software requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegers, Karl E

    2003-01-01

    Without formal, verifiable software requirements-and an effective system for managing them-the programs that developers think they've agreed to build often will not be the same products their customers are expecting. In SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS, Second Edition, requirements engineering authority Karl Wiegers amplifies the best practices presented in his original award-winning text?now a mainstay for anyone participating in the software development process. In this book, you'll discover effective techniques for managing the requirements engineering process all the way through the development cy

  18. Software Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy

      Innovation is the forgotten key to modern systems development - the element that defines the enterprising engineer, the thriving software firm and the cutting edge software application.  Traditional forms of technical education pay little attention to creativity - often encouraging overly...... rationalistic ways of thinking which stifle the ability to innovate. Professional software developers are often drowned in commercial drudgery and overwhelmed by work pressure and deadlines. The topic that will both ensure success in the market and revitalize their work lives is never addressed. This book sets...... out the new field of software innovation. It organizes the existing scientific research into eight simple heuristics - guiding principles for organizing a system developer's work-life so that it focuses on innovation....

  19. Software Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are three computer software packages including "Martin Luther King, Jr.: Instant Replay of History,""Weeds to Trees," and "The New Print Shop, School Edition." Discussed are hardware requirements, costs, grade levels, availability, emphasis, strengths, and weaknesses. (CW)

  20. Software Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulfson, Stephen, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews seven computer software programs that can be used in science education programs. Describes courseware which deals with muscles and bones, terminology, classifying animals without backbones, molecular structures, drugs, genetics, and shaping the earth's surface. (TW)

  1. Software Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Donna; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reviewed are seven software packages for Apple and IBM computers. Included are: "Toxicology"; "Science Corner: Space Probe"; "Alcohol and Pregnancy"; "Science Tool Kit Plus"; Computer Investigations: Plant Growth"; "Climatrolls"; and "Animal Watch: Whales." (CW)

  2. A generalized calibration procedure for in vivo transit dosimetry using siemens electronic portal imaging devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidanzio, Andrea; Greco, Francesca; Gargiulo, Laura; Cilla, Savino; Sabatino, Domenico; Cappiello, Massimo; Di Felice, Cinzia; Di Castro, Elisabetta; Azario, Luigi; Russo, Mariateresa; Pompei, Luciano; D'Onofrio, Guido; Piermattei, Angelo

    2011-03-01

    A practical and accurate generalized in vivo dosimetry procedure has been implemented for Siemens linacs supplying 6, 10, and 15 MV photon beams, equipped with aSi electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs). The in vivo dosimetry method makes use of correlation ratios between EPID transit signal, s (t) (0) (TPR,w,L), and phantom mid-plane dose, D (0)(TPR,w,L), as functions of phantom thickness, w, square field dimensions, L, and tissue-phantom ratio TPR(20,10). The s (t) (0) (TPR,w,L) and D (0)(TPR,w,L) values were defined to be independent of the EPID sensitivity and monitor unit calibration, while their dependence on TPR(20,10) was investigated to determine a set of generalized correlation ratios to be used for beams with TPR(20,10) falling in the examined range. This way, other radiotherapy centers can use the method with no need to locally perform the whole set of measurements in solid water phantoms, required to implement it. Tolerance levels for 3D conformal treatments, ranging between ±5 and ±6% according to tumor type and location, were estimated for comparison purposes between reconstructed isocenter dose, D (iso), and treatment planning system (TPS) computed dose D (iso,TPS). Finally a dedicated software, interfaceable with record and verify (R&V) systems used in the centers, was developed to obtain in vivo dosimetry results in less than 2 min after beam delivery.

  3. a Study of the Dosimetry of IODINE-125 Seed Interstitial Implants Using Monte Carlo Simulation Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Gregory Scott

    Monte Carlo simulation methods were used to investigate the absorbed dose distribution around several preliminary source configurations and the 3M Company models 6701, 6702, and 6711 I-125 seeds in water. Simulations for the preliminary sources, all of which were structurally simpler than the seeds, were conducted to demonstrate correct behavior of the computer software. The relative dose distributions of the three seed models were found to be anisotropic, and distinct. Observed differences in the relative dose distributions of the three models are attributable to differences in seed design and photon emission spectrum. Variations in end weld thicknesses and radioactivity distributions within the seeds were found to have substantial influence on the relative dose distributions. Dosimetry estimates along the longitudinal axis of the seeds are particularly uncertain due to such variations. Finally, perturbations of the single seed dose distribution created by neighboring seeds within the implant were determined. Such perturbations are strongly dependent on the seed model used and on the separation between seeds. Simple superposition of single seed dose distributions in multiple seed implants causes overestimation of dose within seed planes. Errors may be quite large for single plane implants with small seed separations. The results of this study provide a means to reduce errors in iodine seed implant dosimetry through the use of seed design-specific two-dimensional dosimetry data, and through improved understanding of the causes of uncertainties in iodine seed relative dose distributions.

  4. Reusable Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    overseeing reusable software, the Reusable Software Organization ( RUSO ). This author does not feel at this time that establishment of such a specific...49] have not been accompanied by establishment of RUSO -like activities. There is need, however, for assurance that functions which a RUSO might be...assurance 6. establishment and maintenance of reuse archival facilities and activities. Actual establishment of a RUSO is best dictated by size of the

  5. Software Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    comprehensive approach for determining software epistemology which significantly advances the state of the art in automated vulnerability discovery...straightforward. First, internet -based repositories of open source software (e.g., FreeBSD ports, GitHub, SourceForge, etc.) are mined Approved for...the fix delta, we attempted to perform the same process to determine if the firmware release present in an Internet -of-Things (IoT) streaming camera

  6. Thermoluminescence in medical dosimetry; Termoluminiscencia en dosimetria medica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, T., E-mail: trivera@ipn.mx [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Av. Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2011-10-15

    The dosimetry by thermoluminescence (Tl) is applied in the entire world for the dosimetry of ionizing radiations specially to personal and medical dosimetry. This dosimetry method has been very interesting for measures in vivo because the Tl dosimeters have the advantage of being very sensitive in a very small volume and they are also equivalent to tissue and they do not need additional accessories (for example, cable, electrometer, etc.) The main characteristics of the diverse Tl materials to be used in the radiation measures and practical applications are: the Tl curve, the share homogeneity, the signal stability after the irradiation, precision and exactitude, the response in function with the dose and the energy influence. In this work a brief summary of the advances of the radiations dosimetry is presented by means of the thermally stimulated luminescence and its application to the dosimetry in radiotherapy. (Author)

  7. TU-F-201-00: Radiochromic Film Dosimetry Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    Since the introduction of radiochromic films (RCF) for radiation dosimetry, the scope of RCF dosimetry has expanded steadily to include many medical applications, such as radiation therapy and diagnostic radiology. The AAPM Task Group (TG) 55 published a report on the recommendations for RCF dosimetry in 1998. As the technology is advancing rapidly, and its routine clinical use is expanding, TG 235 has been formed to provide an update to TG-55 on radiochromic film dosimetry. RCF dosimetry applications in clinical radiotherapy have become even more widespread, expanding from primarily brachytherapy and radiosurgery applications, and gravitating towards (but not limited to) external beam therapy (photon, electron and protons), such as quality assurance for IMRT, VMAT, Tomotherapy, SRS/SRT, and SBRT. In addition, RCF applications now extend to measurements of radiation dose in particle beams and patients undergoing medical exams, especially fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures and CT. The densitometers/scanners used for RCF dosimetry have also evolved from the He-Ne laser scanner to CCD-based scanners, including roller-based scanner, light box-based digital camera, and flatbed color scanner. More recently, multichannel RCF dosimetry introduced a new paradigm for external beam dose QA for its high accuracy and efficiency. This course covers in detail the recent advancements in RCF dosimetry. Learning Objectives: Introduce the paradigm shift on multichannel film dosimetry Outline the procedures to achieve accurate dosimetry with a RCF dosimetry system Provide comprehensive guidelines on RCF dosimetry for various clinical applications One of the speakers has a research agreement from Ashland Inc., the manufacturer of Gafchromic film.

  8. Patient-Specific Dosimetry and Radiobiological Modeling of Targeted Radionuclide Therapy Grant - final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Sgouros, Ph.D.

    2007-03-20

    The broad, long-term objectives of this application are to 1. develop easily implementable tools for radionuclide dosimetry that can be used to predict normal organ toxicity and tumor response in targeted radionuclide therapy; and 2. to apply these tools to the analysis of clinical trial data in order to demonstrate dose-response relationships for radionuclide therapy treatment planning. The work is founded on the hypothesis that robust dose-response relationships have not been observed in targeted radionuclide therapy studies because currently available internal dosimetry methodologies are inadequate, failing to adequately account for individual variations in patient anatomy, radionuclide activity distribution/kinetics, absorbed dose-distribution, and absorbed dose-rate. To reduce development time the previously available software package, 3D-ID, one of the first dosimetry software packages to incorporate 3-D radionuclide distribution with individual patient anatomy; and the first to be applied for the comprehensive analysis of patient data, will be used as a platform to build the functionality listed above. The following specific aims are proposed to satisfy the long-term objectives stated above: 1. develop a comprehensive and validated methodology for converting one or more SPECT images of the radionuclide distribution to a 3-D representation of the cumulated activity distribution; 2. account for differences in tissue density and atomic number by incorporating an easily implementable Monte Carlo methodology for the 3-D dosimetry calculations; 3. incorporate the biologically equivalent dose (BED) and equivalent uniform dose (EUD) models to convert the spatial distribution of absorbed dose and dose-rate into equivalent single values that account for differences in dose uniformity and rate and that may be correlated with tumor response and normal organ toxicity; 4. test the hypothesis stated above by applying the resulting package to patient trials of targeted

  9. Comparison of vidar dosimetry advantage pro and epson perfection V700 scanner in densitometry of radiochomic EBT2 film in measurement of high dose gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bura, W.; Tangboonduangjit, P.; Damrongkijudom, N.

    2016-03-01

    Nowadays the radiochromic film is widely used to obtain dose distribution in two dimensions with high spatial resolution, less energy dependence and near tissue equivalent. It can be a commissioning tool to verify high dose gradient of dose distribution for IMRT and VMAT techniques. However, the film scanner could affect the accuracy of dose distribution if lack of precaution. In this study, the comparison between Epson perfection V700 and Vidar Dosimetry Pro Advantage (RED) is evaluated in terms of the capability to verify the 2D dose distribution for conventional and VMAT techniques. The Gafchromic® EBT2 films were read from two types of scanners (Epson perfection V700 and Vidar Dosimetry Pro Advantage) for volumetric modulated radiation therapy (VMAT) dosimetry. The software for analyzing the results of Epson perfection V700 and Vidar Dosimetry Pro Advantage are SNC Patient software and Omnipro’ IMRT software, respectively. Comparisons between measured and calculated dose distributions are reported as %passing rate and the gamma index for tolerance parameters of 3% and 3mm. The study found that the %passing rate obtained from Vidar scanner and Epson V700 scanner compared with Eclipse treatment planning system is more than 98% with the criteria of (3%/3mm).

  10. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2005-02-25

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNL’s Hanford External Dosimetry Program which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. Rev. 0 marks the first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database.

  11. Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Leonora, E.; Lo Presti, D.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Raffaele, L.; Randazzo, N.; Romano, F.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Tramontana, A.; Cirio, R.; Marchetto, F.; Sacchi, R.; Giordanengo, S.; Monaco, V.

    2013-07-01

    The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

  12. Trigeminal neuralgia treatment dosimetry of the Cyberknife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Anthony [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Lo, Anthony T., E-mail: tonyho22003@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Dieterich, Sonja; Soltys, Scott G.; Gibbs, Iris C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Chang, Steve G.; Adler, John R. [Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2012-04-01

    There are 2 Cyberknife units at Stanford University. The robot of 1 Cyberknife is positioned on the patient's right, whereas the second is on the patient's left. The present study examines whether there is any difference in dosimetry when we are treating patients with trigeminal neuralgia when the target is on the right side or the left side of the patient. In addition, we also study whether Monte Carlo dose calculation has any effect on the dosimetry. We concluded that the clinical and dosimetric outcomes of CyberKnife treatment for trigeminal neuralgia are independent of the robot position. Monte Carlo calculation algorithm may be useful in deriving the dose necessary for trigeminal neuralgia treatments.

  13. Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Institute of Physics Czech Academy of Science, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic); Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Romano, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Carpinelli, M. [INFN Sezione di Cagliari, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); Leonora, E.; Randazzo, N. [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Presti, D. Lo [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania, Italy and Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Raffaele, L. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Tramontana, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Cirio, R.; Sacchi, R.; Monaco, V. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino, Italy and Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino (Italy); Marchetto, F.; Giordanengo, S. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2013-07-26

    The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

  14. Technical basis document for internal dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hickman, D P

    1991-01-01

    This document provides the technical basis for the Chem-Nuclear Geotech (Geotech) internal dosimetry program. Geotech policy describes the intentions of the company in complying with radiation protection standards and the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) program. It uses this policy and applicable protection standards to derive acceptable methods and levels of bioassay to assure compliance. The models and computational methods used are described in detail within this document. FR-om these models, dose- conversion factors and derived limits are computed. These computations are then verified using existing documentation and verification information or by demonstration of the calculations used to obtain the dose-conversion factors and derived limits. Recommendations for methods of optimizing the internal dosimetry program to provide effective monitoring and dose assessment for workers are provided in the last section of this document. This document is intended to be used in establishing an accredited dosi...

  15. Criticality accident dosimetry with ESR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Errico, F. [DCMN, Universita degli Studi di Pisa (Italy); Fattibene, P.; Onori, S.; Pantaloni, M. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Fisica

    1997-01-01

    The suitability of the ESR alanine and sugar detectors for criticality accident dosimetry was experimentally investigated during an intercomparison of dosimetry techniques. Tests were performed irradiating detectors both free-in-air and on-phantom during controlled criticality excursions at the SILENE reactor in Valduc, France. Several grays of absorbed dose were imparted in neutron gamma-ray fields of various relative intensities and spectral distributions. Analysed results confirmed the potential of these systems which can immediately provide an acute dose assessment with an average underestimate of 30% in the various fields. This performance allows for the screening of severely exposed individuals and meets the IAEA recommendations on the early estimate of accident absorbed doses. (Author).

  16. Thermocurrent dosimetry with high purity aluminum oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullerton, G.D.; Cameron, J.R.; Moran, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    The application of thermocurrent (TC) to ionizing radiation dosimetry was studied. It was shown that TC in alumina (Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) has properties that are suited to personnel dosimetry and environmental monitoring. TC dosimeters were made from thin disks of alumina. Aluminum electrodes were evaporated on each side: on one face a high voltage electrode and on the opposite face a measuring electrode encircled by a guard ring. Exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in stored electrons and holes in metastable trapping sites. The signal was read-out by heating the dosimeter with a voltage source and picnometer connected in series between the opposite electrodes. The thermally remobilized charge caused a transient TC. The thermogram, TC versus time or temperature, is similar to a TL glow curve. Either the peak current or the integrated current is a measure of absorbed dose. Six grades of alumina were studied from a total of four commercial suppliers. All six materials displayed radiation induced TC signals. Sapphire of uv-grade quality from the Adolf Meller Co. (AM) had the best dosimetry properties of those investigated. Sources of interference were studied. Thermal fading, residual signal and radiation damage do not limit TC dosimetry. Ultraviolet light can induce a TC response but it is readily excluded with uv-opaque cladding. Improper surface preparation prior to electrode evaporation was shown to cause interference. A spurious TC signal resulted from polarization of surface contaminants. Spurious TC was reduced by improved cleaning prior to electrode application. Polished surfaces resulted in blocking electrodes and caused a sensitivity shift due to radiation induced thermally activated polarization. This was not observed with rough cut surfaces.

  17. Report: dosimetry of diagnostic exams in nuclear medicine; Rapport: dosimetrie des explorations diagnostiques en medecine nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touzery, C. [Centre Regional de Lutte Contre le Cancer de Bourgogne, Centre Georges-Francois Leclerc, 21 - Dijon (France); Aubert, B. [Institut Gustave Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France); Caselles, O. [Centre Claudius-Regaud, 31 - Toulouse (France); Gardin, I. [Centre Henri Becquerel, 76 - Rouen (France); Guilhem, M.Th. [Centre Hospitalier Regional de la Source, 45 - Orleans (France); Laffont, S. [Centre Eugene-Marquis, 35 - Rennes (France); Lisbona, A. [Centre Regional de Lutte Contre le Cancer Rene-Gauducheau, 44 - Nantes (France)

    2002-07-01

    A compilation about dosimetry of diagnosis explorations in nuclear medicine is presented in this issue. Dosimetry tables of the different radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine give indications on absorbed and efficient doses according the patients age from one year to adult age. The doses received by a fetus during a lung scintigraphy realized for the pregnant woman susceptible to suffer of pulmonary emboli is presented. A table of efficient doses for the infants until the age of six months for the principal scintigraphy explorations realized in nuclear medicine are given. A chapter of theoretical headlines is devoted to dosimetry and the calculations methods of absorbed and efficient doses in function of patients age. A short chapter concerns the recommendations to explore nursing mothers by scintigraphy. A last chapter treats the efficient doses received during explorations using ionizing radiations in radiology and their place in annual natural irradiation scale. (N.C.)

  18. MIAWARE Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkowski, Bartlomiej; Pereira, Oscar N. M.; Dias, Paulo

    2008-01-01

    This article presents MIAWARE, a software for Medical Image Analysis With Automated Reporting Engine, which was designed and developed for doctor/radiologist assistance. It allows to analyze an image stack from computed axial tomography scan of lungs (thorax) and, at the same time, to mark all...... pathologies on images and report their characteristics. The reporting process is normalized - radiologists cannot describe pathological changes with their own words, but can only use some terms from a specific vocabulary set provided by the software. Consequently, a normalized radiological report...... is automatically generated. Furthermore, MIAWARE software is accompanied with an intelligent search engine for medical reports, based on the relations between parts of the lungs. A logical structure of the lungs is introduced to the search algorithm through the specially developed ontology. As a result...

  19. Reconstructive dosimetry for cutaneous radiation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, C.M.A.; Lima, A.R.; Degenhardt, Ä.L.; Da Silva, F.C.A., E-mail: dasilva@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Valverde, N.J. [Fundacao Eletronuclear de Assistencia Medica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a relatively significant number of radiological accidents have occurred in recent years mainly because of the practices referred to as potentially high-risk activities, such as radiotherapy, large irradiators and industrial radiography, especially in gammagraphy assays. In some instances, severe injuries have occurred in exposed persons due to high radiation doses. In industrial radiography, 80 cases involving a total of 120 radiation workers, 110 members of the public including 12 deaths have been recorded up to 2014. Radiological accidents in industrial practices in Brazil have mainly resulted in development of cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS) in hands and fingers. Brazilian data include 5 serious cases related to industrial gammagraphy, affecting 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public; however, none of them were fatal. Some methods of reconstructive dosimetry have been used to estimate the radiation dose to assist in prescribing medical treatment. The type and development of cutaneous manifestations in the exposed areas of a person is the first achievable gross dose estimation. This review article presents the state-of-the-art reconstructive dosimetry methods enabling estimation of local radiation doses and provides guidelines for medical handling of the exposed individuals. The review also presents the Chilean and Brazilian radiological accident cases to highlight the importance of reconstructive dosimetry. (author)

  20. Hanford Internal Dosimetry Project manual. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.; MacLellan, J.A.; Long, M.P.

    1994-07-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Project, as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy and its Hanford contractors. Project services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessment of potential intakes and internal dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. Specific chapters deal with the following subjects: practices of the project, including interpretation of applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for assessment, documentation, and reporting of doses; assessment of internal dose, including summary explanations of when and how assessments are performed; recording and reporting practices for internal dose; selection of workers for bioassay monitoring and establishment of type and frequency of bioassay measurements; capability and scheduling of bioassay monitoring services; recommended dosimetry response to potential internal exposure incidents; quality control and quality assurance provisions of the program.

  1. Electron paramagnetic resonance dosimetry using synthetic hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kwon; Kim, Hwi Young; Ye, Sung Joon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hirata, Hiroshi [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Park, Jong Min [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    The victims exposed doses under 3.5-4.0 Gy have chance to survive if treated urgently. To determine the priority of treatment among a large number of victims, the triage – distinguishing patients who need an urgent treatment from who may not be urgent – is necessary based on radiation biodosimetry. A current gold standard for radiation biodosimetry is the chromosomal assay using human lymphocytes. But this method requires too much time and skilled labors to cover the mass victims in radiation emergencies. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has been known for its capability of quantifying radicals in matters. EPR dosimetry is based on the measurement of stable radiation-induced radicals in tooth enamel. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) contained in tooth enamel is a major probe for radiation dose reconstruction. This HAP dosimetry study was performed using a novel EPR spectrometer in Hokkaido University, Japan. The EPR dose-response curve was made using HAP samples. The blind test using 250 cGy samples showed the feasibility of EPR dosimetry for the triage purpose.

  2. Reconstructive dosimetry for cutaneous radiation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, C M A; Lima, A R; Degenhardt, Ä L; Valverde, N J; Silva, F C A da

    2015-10-01

    According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a relatively significant number of radiological accidents have occurred in recent years mainly because of the practices referred to as potentially high-risk activities, such as radiotherapy, large irradiators and industrial radiography, especially in gammagraphy assays. In some instances, severe injuries have occurred in exposed persons due to high radiation doses. In industrial radiography, 80 cases involving a total of 120 radiation workers, 110 members of the public including 12 deaths have been recorded up to 2014. Radiological accidents in industrial practices in Brazil have mainly resulted in development of cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS) in hands and fingers. Brazilian data include 5 serious cases related to industrial gammagraphy, affecting 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public; however, none of them were fatal. Some methods of reconstructive dosimetry have been used to estimate the radiation dose to assist in prescribing medical treatment. The type and development of cutaneous manifestations in the exposed areas of a person is the first achievable gross dose estimation. This review article presents the state-of-the-art reconstructive dosimetry methods enabling estimation of local radiation doses and provides guidelines for medical handling of the exposed individuals. The review also presents the Chilean and Brazilian radiological accident cases to highlight the importance of reconstructive dosimetry.

  3. Reconstructive dosimetry for cutaneous radiation syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.A. Lima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, a relatively significant number of radiological accidents have occurred in recent years mainly because of the practices referred to as potentially high-risk activities, such as radiotherapy, large irradiators and industrial radiography, especially in gammagraphy assays. In some instances, severe injuries have occurred in exposed persons due to high radiation doses. In industrial radiography, 80 cases involving a total of 120 radiation workers, 110 members of the public including 12 deaths have been recorded up to 2014. Radiological accidents in industrial practices in Brazil have mainly resulted in development of cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS in hands and fingers. Brazilian data include 5 serious cases related to industrial gammagraphy, affecting 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public; however, none of them were fatal. Some methods of reconstructive dosimetry have been used to estimate the radiation dose to assist in prescribing medical treatment. The type and development of cutaneous manifestations in the exposed areas of a person is the first achievable gross dose estimation. This review article presents the state-of-the-art reconstructive dosimetry methods enabling estimation of local radiation doses and provides guidelines for medical handling of the exposed individuals. The review also presents the Chilean and Brazilian radiological accident cases to highlight the importance of reconstructive dosimetry.

  4. Diagnostic radiology dosimetry: status and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera M, T., E-mail: trivera@ipn.mx [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Av. Legaria 694, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Medical radiation is by far the largest man-made source of public exposure to ionizing radiation. Since 1970 the expression of protection standards shifted from a dose- to a risk-based approach, with dose limits established to yield risks to radiation workers comparable with those for workers in other safe industries. Another hand, worldwide interest in patient dose measurement was stimulated by the publication of Patient Dose Reduction in Diagnostic Radiology by the UK National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB). In response to heightened awareness of the importance of patient dose contributed by radiology procedures, there has been a general trend to effect control of patient doses by applying the principles of optimization coupled with an increase in regulatory enforcement. In this sense, thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) has been actively proposed in the last 3 decades thanks to their successful applications in diagnostic radiology. At the same time, it is emerged as the best radiation dosimetry method. The present work presents advantages of thermoluminescent dosimetry for X-ray beams measurements and its optimization. (Author)

  5. Methodological aspects of EPR dosimetry with teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholom, S.; Chumak, V. [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2001-07-01

    EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel is known today as one of the most reliable and accurate methods of retrospective dosimetry. In the present study a comprehensive analysis of influence of the major confounding factors (solar UV exposure and dental X-ray diagnostic procedures) on the accuracy of accidental dose reconstruction is given. In this analysis, the facts known from literature as well as own authors' results were considered. Among the latter it is worth to mention study of doses in enamel caused by X-ray diagnostic procedures as well as investigation of dose profiles in front teeth, which are most affected to solar radiation. As a main result, the variant of dosimetric technique is proposed. It comprises the optimal combination of strongest sides of existing techniques which allows to conduct routine reconstruction of accidental doses as low as few tens of mGy with errors of the same order of magnitude. The proposed technique is primarily destined for dosimetry of Chernobyl liquidators, but could be used for reconstruction of doses of other over-exposed categories. (orig.)

  6. In vivo dosimetry in external beam radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mijnheer, Ben [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam 1066 CX (Netherlands); Beddar, Sam [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Izewska, Joanna [Division of Human Health, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna 1400 (Austria); Reft, Chester [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    In vivo dosimetry (IVD) is in use in external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) to detect major errors, to assess clinically relevant differences between planned and delivered dose, to record dose received by individual patients, and to fulfill legal requirements. After discussing briefly the main characteristics of the most commonly applied IVD systems, the clinical experience of IVD during EBRT will be summarized. Advancement of the traditional aspects of in vivo dosimetry as well as the development of currently available and newly emerging noninterventional technologies are required for large-scale implementation of IVD in EBRT. These new technologies include the development of electronic portal imaging devices for 2D and 3D patient dosimetry during advanced treatment techniques, such as IMRT and VMAT, and the use of IVD in proton and ion radiotherapy by measuring the decay of radiation-induced radionuclides. In the final analysis, we will show in this Vision 20/20 paper that in addition to regulatory compliance and reimbursement issues, the rationale for in vivo measurements is to provide an accurate and independent verification of the overall treatment procedure. It will enable the identification of potential errors in dose calculation, data transfer, dose delivery, patient setup, and changes in patient anatomy. It is the authors' opinion that all treatments with curative intent should be verified through in vivo dose measurements in combination with pretreatment checks.

  7. Sensitivity studies associated with dosimetry experiment interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourganel, S.; Soldevila, M. [CEA/DANS/DM2S/SERMA, CEA Saclay, 91191, Gif sur Yvette (France); Ferrer, A.; Gregoire, G.; Destouches, C.; Beretz, D. [CEA/DEN-CAD/DER/SPEX, CEA Cadarache, F13108, Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2011-07-01

    Document available in abstract form only, full text of document follows: Interpretation of reactor dosimetry experiments with C/E comparison requires precise knowledge of parameters involved in modeling. Some parameters have more weight than others on the calculated values. So, sensitivity studies should be conducted to verify the importance of these parameters. The conclusions of these studies are used to refine the experiment modeling, or to correct uncertainty calculations. The results of these sensitivity studies allow a post-irradiation analysis, which can justify the discarding of some atypical C/M values. Derived uncertainties may be improved by the sensitivity analyses. Beyond classical parameters as geometry or composition, this paper describes some specific sensitivity studies conducted for dosimetry irradiation in reactor, and presents conclusions. These studies are based on dosimeters irradiated in the EOLE reactor facility at Cadarache CEA center. Conclusions drawn from these studies are generic and can be applied to any dosimetry study. Calculations performed for these studies were realized using TRIPOLI-4 Monte Carlo code. (authors)

  8. Software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Thorin, Marc

    1985-01-01

    Software Engineering describes the conceptual bases as well as the main methods and rules on computer programming. This book presents software engineering as a coherent and logically built synthesis and makes it possible to properly carry out an application of small or medium difficulty that can later be developed and adapted to more complex cases. This text is comprised of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the fundamental notions of entities, actions, and programming. The next two chapters elaborate on the concepts of information and consistency domains and show that a proc

  9. Patient dosimetry in classical radiology;Dosimetrie patient en radiologie classique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valero, M. [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire, 75 Paris (France); Sirinelli, D. [Tours Univ., 37 (France); Chateil, J.F. [CHU Bordeaux, 33 (France)

    2009-10-15

    The objective is to give to the participants the means to determine, by simple methods, the dose delivered to skin during a radiological examination (conventional or numerical). The message to remember is: the use of a numerical detector does not lead systematically to reduce the dose at the patient. The dose.length product is a risk indicator. It is important to compare our practices to the procedures written in the guide of procedures and to note and to send to I.R.S.N. the dosimetry data relative to the dosimetry reference levels. (N.C.)

  10. [Software version and medical device software supervision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Liang; Liu, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    The importance of software version in the medical device software supervision does not cause enough attention at present. First of all, the effect of software version in the medical device software supervision is discussed, and then the necessity of software version in the medical device software supervision is analyzed based on the discussion of the misunderstanding of software version. Finally the concrete suggestions on software version naming rules, software version supervision for the software in medical devices, and software version supervision scheme are proposed.

  11. Dosimetry tools and techniques for IMRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Daniel A; Moran, Jean M; Dempsey, James F; Dong, Lei; Oldham, Mark

    2011-03-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) poses a number of challenges for properly measuring commissioning data and quality assurance (QA) radiation dose distributions. This report provides a comprehensive overview of how dosimeters, phantoms, and dose distribution analysis techniques should be used to support the commissioning and quality assurance requirements of an IMRT program. The proper applications of each dosimeter are described along with the limitations of each system. Point detectors, arrays, film, and electronic portal imagers are discussed with respect to their proper use, along with potential applications of 3D dosimetry. Regardless of the IMRT technique utilized, some situations require the use of multiple detectors for the acquisition of accurate commissioning data. The overall goal of this task group report is to provide a document that aids the physicist in the proper selection and use of the dosimetry tools available for IMRT QA and to provide a resource for physicists that describes dosimetry measurement techniques for purposes of IMRT commissioning and measurement-based characterization or verification of IMRT treatment plans. This report is not intended to provide a comprehensive review of commissioning and QA procedures for IMRT. Instead, this report focuses on the aspects of metrology, particularly the practical aspects of measurements that are unique to IMRT. The metrology of IMRT concerns the application of measurement instruments and their suitability, calibration, and quality control of measurements. Each of the dosimetry measurement tools has limitations that need to be considered when incorporating them into a commissioning process or a comprehensive QA program. For example, routine quality assurance procedures require the use of robust field dosimetry systems. These often exhibit limitations with respect to spatial resolution or energy response and need to themselves be commissioned against more established dosimeters. A chain of

  12. Educational Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    The third session of IT@EDU98 consisted of five papers on educational software and was chaired by Tran Van Hao (University of Education, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam). "Courseware Engineering" (Nguyen Thanh Son, Ngo Ngoc Bao Tran, Quan Thanh Tho, Nguyen Hong Lam) briefly describes the use of courseware. "Machine Discovery Theorems in Geometry: A…

  13. Software Patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Edmund B.

    1994-01-01

    Outlines basic patent law information that pertains to computer software programs. Topics addressed include protection in other countries; how to obtain patents; kinds of patents; duration; classes of patentable subject matter, including machines and processes; patentability searches; experimental use prior to obtaining a patent; and patent…

  14. Software Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔涛; 周淼

    1996-01-01

    The information used with computers is known as software and includesprograms and data. Programs are sets of instructions telling the computerwhat operations have to be carried out and in what order they should be done. Specialised programs which enable the computer to be used for particularpurposes are called applications programs. A collection of these programs kept

  15. Software Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science and Children, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are seven computer software packages for IBM and/or Apple Computers. Included are "Windows on Science: Volume 1--Physical Science"; "Science Probe--Physical Science"; "Wildlife Adventures--Grizzly Bears"; "Science Skills--Development Programs"; "The Clean Machine"; "Rock Doctor"; and "Geology Search." Cost, quality, hardware, and…

  16. Software Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Diane, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Reviewed is a computer software package entitled "Audubon Wildlife Adventures: Grizzly Bears" for Apple II and IBM microcomputers. Included are availability, hardware requirements, cost, and a description of the program. The murder-mystery flavor of the program is stressed in this program that focuses on illegal hunting and game management. (CW)

  17. Dosimetry intercomparisons in European medical device sterilization plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.; Sharpe, P.H.G.

    2000-01-01

    Dosimetry intercomparisons have been carried out involving two-thirds of all European radiation sterilization facilities. Dosimeters for the intercomparisons were supplied by two accredited calibration laboratories. The results show good agreement, and indicate overall dosimetry accuracy of the o...... of the order of +/-5% (1 sigma) for both Co-60 and electron beam plants. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  18. [Instrumental radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation dosimetry: general principals and modern methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perov, S Iu; Kudriashov, Iu B; Rubtsova, N B

    2012-01-01

    The modern experimental radiofrequency electromagnetic field dosimetry approach has been considered. The main principles of specific absorbed rate measurement are analyzed for electromagnetic field biological effect assessment. The general methodology of specific absorbed rate automated dosimetry system applied to establish the compliance of radiation sources with the safety standard requirements (maximum permissible levels and base restrictions) is described.

  19. Neutron dosimetry and radiation damage calculations for HFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, L.R.; Ratner, R.T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Neutron dosimetry measurements have been conducted for various positions of the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in order to measure the neutron flux and energy spectra. Neutron dosimetry results and radiation damage calculations are presented for positions V10, V14, and V15.

  20. Use of the GATE Monte Carlo package for dosimetry applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visvikis, D. [INSERM U650, LaTIM, University Hospital Medical School, F 29609 Brest (France)]. E-mail: Visvikis.Dimitris@univ-brest.fr; Bardies, M. [INSERM U601, CHU Nantes, F 44093 Nantes (France); Chiavassa, S. [INSERM U601, CHU Nantes, F 44093 Nantes (France); Danford, C. [Department of Medical Physics, MSKCC, New York (United States); Kirov, A. [Department of Medical Physics, MSKCC, New York (United States); Lamare, F. [INSERM U650, LaTIM, University Hospital Medical School, F 29609 Brest (France); Maigne, L. [Departement de Curietherapie-Radiotherapie, Centre Jean Perrin, F 63000 Clemont-Ferrand (France); Staelens, S. [UGent-ELIS, St-Pietersnieuwstraat, 41, B 9000 Gent (Belgium); Taschereau, R. [CRUMP Institute for Molecular Imaging, UCLA, Los Angeles (United States)

    2006-12-20

    One of the roles for Monte Carlo (MC) simulation studies is in the area of dosimetry. A number of different codes dedicated to dosimetry applications are available and widely used today, such as MCNP, EGSnrc and PTRAN. However, such codes do not easily facilitate the description of complicated 3D sources or emission tomography systems and associated data flow, which may be useful in different dosimetry application domains. Such problems can be overcome by the use of specific MC codes such as GATE (GEANT4 Application to Tomographic Emission), which is based on Geant4 libraries, providing a scripting interface with a number of advantages for the simulation of SPECT and PET systems. Despite this potential, its major disadvantage is in terms of efficiency involving long execution times for applications such as dosimetry. The strong points and disadvantages of GATE in comparison to other dosimetry specific codes are discussed and illustrated in terms of accuracy, efficiency and flexibility. A number of features, such as the use of voxelised and moving sources, as well as developments such as advanced visualization tools and the development of dose estimation maps allowing GATE to be used for dosimetry applications are presented. In addition, different examples from dosimetry applications with GATE are given. Finally, future directions with respect to the use of GATE for dosimetry applications are outlined.

  1. Application for internal dosimetry using biokinetic distribution of photons based on nuclear medicine images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal Neto, Viriato; Vieira, José Wilson; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a way to obtain estimates of dose in patients submitted to radiotherapy with basis on the analysis of regions of interest on nuclear medicine images. A software called DoRadIo (Dosimetria das Radiações Ionizantes [Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry]) was developed to receive information about source organs and target organs, generating graphical and numerical results. The nuclear medicine images utilized in the present study were obtained from catalogs provided by medical physicists. The simulations were performed with computational exposure models consisting of voxel phantoms coupled with the Monte Carlo EGSnrc code. The software was developed with the Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 Service Pack and the project template Windows Presentation Foundation for C# programming language. With the mentioned tools, the authors obtained the file for optimization of Monte Carlo simulations using the EGSnrc; organization and compaction of dosimetry results with all radioactive sources; selection of regions of interest; evaluation of grayscale intensity in regions of interest; the file of weighted sources; and, finally, all the charts and numerical results. The user interface may be adapted for use in clinical nuclear medicine as a computer-aided tool to estimate the administered activity.

  2. Application for internal dosimetry using biokinetic distribution of photons based on nuclear medicine images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal Neto, Viriato, E-mail: viriatoleal@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Vieira, Jose Wilson [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Objective: this article presents a way to obtain estimates of dose in patients submitted to radiotherapy with basis on the analysis of regions of interest on nuclear medicine images. Materials and methods: a software called DoRadIo (Dosimetria das Radiacoes Ionizantes [Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry]) was developed to receive information about source organs and target organs, generating graphical and numerical results. The nuclear medicine images utilized in the present study were obtained from catalogs provided by medical physicists. The simulations were performed with computational exposure models consisting of voxel phantoms coupled with the Monte Carlo EGSnrc code. The software was developed with the Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 Service Pack and the project template Windows Presentation Foundation for C ⧣ programming language. Results: with the mentioned tools, the authors obtained the file for optimization of Monte Carlo simulations using the EGSnrc; organization and compaction of dosimetry results with all radioactive sources; selection of regions of interest; evaluation of grayscale intensity in regions of interest; the file of weighted sources; and, finally, all the charts and numerical results. Conclusion: the user interface may be adapted for use in clinical nuclear medicine as a computer-aided tool to estimate the administered activity. (author)

  3. Sandia National Laboratories Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (Rev 4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goke, Sarah Hayes [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Elliott, Nathan Ryan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories’ Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual is intended to provide extended technical discussion and justification of the internal dosimetry program at SNL. It serves to record the approach to evaluating internal doses from radiobioassay data, and where appropriate, from workplace monitoring data per the Department of Energy Internal Dosimetry Program Guide DOE G 441.1C. The discussion contained herein is directed primarily to current and future SNL internal dosimetrists. In an effort to conserve space in the TBM and avoid duplication, it contains numerous references providing an entry point into the internal dosimetry literature relevant to this program. The TBM is not intended to act as a policy or procedure statement, but will supplement the information normally found in procedures or policy documents. The internal dosimetry program outlined in this manual is intended to meet the requirements of Federal Rule 10CFR835 for monitoring the workplace and for assessing internal radiation doses to workers.

  4. EPIQR software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flourentzos, F. [Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Droutsa, K. [National Observatory of Athens, Athens (Greece); Wittchen, K.B. [Danish Building Research Institute, Hoersholm (Denmark)

    1999-11-01

    The support of the EPIQR method is a multimedia computer program. Several modules help the users of the method to treat the data collected during a diagnosis survey, to set up refurbishment scenario and calculate their cost or energy performance, and finally to visualize the results in a comprehensive way and to prepare quality reports. This article presents the structure and the main features of the software. (au)

  5. EPIQR software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flourentzos, F. [Federal Institute of Technology-Lausanne (EPFL), Solar Energy and Building Physics Laboratory (LESO-PB), Lausanne (Switzerland); Droutsa, K. [National Observatory of Athens, Institute of Meteorology and Physics of Atmospheric Environment, Group Energy Conservation, Athens (Greece); Wittchen, K.B. [Danish Building Research Institute, Division of Energy and Indoor Environment, Hoersholm, (Denmark)

    2000-07-01

    The support of the EPIQR method is a multimedia computer program. Several modules help the users of the method to treat the data collected during a diagnosis survey, to set up refurbishment scenarios and calculate their cost or energy performance, and finally to visualize the results in a comprehensive way and to prepare quality reports. This article presents the structure and the main features of the software. (author)

  6. Software preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Vodopivec

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Comtrade Ltd. covers a wide range of activities related to information and communication technologies; its deliverables include web applications, locally installed programs,system software, drivers, embedded software (used e.g. in medical devices, auto parts,communication switchboards. Also the extensive knowledge and practical experience about digital long-term preservation technologies have been acquired. This wide spectrum of activities puts us in the position to discuss the often overlooked aspect of the digital preservation - preservation of software programs. There are many resources dedicated to digital preservation of digital data, documents and multimedia records,but not so many about how to preserve the functionalities and features of computer programs. Exactly these functionalities - dynamic response to inputs - render the computer programs rich compared to documents or linear multimedia. The article opens the questions on the beginning of the way to the permanent digital preservation. The purpose is to find a way in the right direction, where all relevant aspects will be covered in proper balance. The following questions are asked: why at all to preserve computer programs permanently, who should do this and for whom, when we should think about permanent program preservation, what should be persevered (such as source code, screenshots, documentation, and social context of the program - e.g. media response to it ..., where and how? To illustrate the theoretic concepts given the idea of virtual national museum of electronic banking is also presented.

  7. Software Engineering to Professionalize Software Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Alonso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The role, increasingly important, that plays the software in the systems with widespread effects presents new challenges for the formation of Software Engineers. Not only because social dependence software is increasing, but also because the character of software development is also changing and with it the demands for software developers certified. In this paper are propose some challenges and aspirations that guide the learning processes Software Engineering and help to identify the need to train professionals in software development.

  8. Neutron dosimetry for low dose rate Cf-252 AT sources and adherence to recent clinical dosimetry protocol for brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, M.J.; Wierzbicki, J.G.; Van den Heuvel, F. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Martin, R.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

    1997-12-01

    In 1995, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 43 (AAPM TG-43) published a protocol obsoleting all mixed-field radiation dosimetry for Cf-252. Recommendations for a new brachytherapy dosimetry formalism made by this Task Group favor quantification of source strength in terms of air kerma rather than apparent Curies or other radiation units. Additionally, representation of this dosimetry data in terms of radial dose functions, anisotropy functions, geometric factors, and dose rate constants are in an angular and radial (spherical) coordinate system as recommended, rather than the along-away dosimetry data (Cartesian coordinate system) currently available. This paper presents the initial results of calculated neutron dosimetry in a water phantom for a Cf-252 applicator tube (AT) type medical source soon available from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  9. Dosimetry applications in GATE Monte Carlo toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis

    2017-02-21

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are a well-established method for studying physical processes in medical physics. The purpose of this review is to present GATE dosimetry applications on diagnostic and therapeutic simulated protocols. There is a significant need for accurate quantification of the absorbed dose in several specific applications such as preclinical and pediatric studies. GATE is an open-source MC toolkit for simulating imaging, radiotherapy (RT) and dosimetry applications in a user-friendly environment, which is well validated and widely accepted by the scientific community. In RT applications, during treatment planning, it is essential to accurately assess the deposited energy and the absorbed dose per tissue/organ of interest, as well as the local statistical uncertainty. Several types of realistic dosimetric applications are described including: molecular imaging, radio-immunotherapy, radiotherapy and brachytherapy. GATE has been efficiently used in several applications, such as Dose Point Kernels, S-values, Brachytherapy parameters, and has been compared against various MC codes which are considered as standard tools for decades. Furthermore, the presented studies show reliable modeling of particle beams when comparing experimental with simulated data. Examples of different dosimetric protocols are reported for individualized dosimetry and simulations combining imaging and therapy dose monitoring, with the use of modern computational phantoms. Personalization of medical protocols can be achieved by combining GATE MC simulations with anthropomorphic computational models and clinical anatomical data. This is a review study, covering several dosimetric applications of GATE, and the different tools used for modeling realistic clinical acquisitions with accurate dose assessment. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Retrospective accident dosimetry using trapped charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. I.; Kim, J. L.; Chang, I.; Kim, B. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Dicentric chromosome aberrations technique scoring of aberrations in metaphases prepared from human lymphocytes is most commonly used. This is considered as a reliable technique because the sample is extracted from the individual human body itself. There are other techniques in biological dosimetry such as Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) using translocations, premature chromosome condensation (PCC) and micronucleus assay. However the minimum detectable doses (MDD) are relatively high and sample preparation time is also relatively longer. Therefore, there is limitation in use of these techniques for the purpose of triage in a short time in case of emergency situation relating large number of persons. Electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique is based on the signal from unpaired electrons such as free radicals in irradiated materials especially tooth enamel, however it has also limitation for the purpose of triage because of difficulty of sample taking and its high MDD. Recently as physical methods, thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technique have been attracted due to its lower MDD and simplicity of sample preparation. Density of the trapped charges is generally proportional to the radiation dose absorbed and the intensity of emitting light is also proportional to the density of trapped charges, thus it can be applied to measure radiation dose retrospectively. In this presentation, TL and OSL techniques are going to introduced and discussed as physical methods for retrospective accident dosimetry using trapped charges especially in electronic component materials. As a tool for dose reconstruction for emergency situation, thermoluminescece and optically stimulated luminescence techniques which are based on trapped charges during exposure of material are introduced. These techniques have several advantages such as high sensitivity, fast evaluation and ease to sample collection over common biological dosimetry and EPR

  11. In vivo light dosimetry for pleural PDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimofte, Andreea; Zhu, Timothy C.; Finlay, Jarod C.; Culligan, Melissa; Edmonds, Christine E.; Friedberg, Joseph S.; Cengel, Keith; Hahn, Stephen M.

    2009-02-01

    In-vivo light Dosimetry for patients undergoing photodynamic therapy (PDT) is one of the important dosimetry quantities critical for predicting PDT outcome. This study examines the light fluence (rate) delivered to patients undergoing pleural PDT as a function of treatment time, treatment volume and surface area, and its accuracy as a function of the calibration accuracies of each isotropic detector and the calibration integrating sphere. The patients studied here were enrolled in Phase II clinical trial of Photofrin-mediated PDT for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer with pleural effusion. The ages of the patients studied varied from 34 to 69 year old. All patients were administered 2mg per kg body weight Photoprin 24 hours before the surgery. Patients undergoing photodynamic therapy (PDT) are treated with laser light with a light fluence of 60 J/cm^2 at 630nm. Fluence rate (mW/cm^2) and cumulative fluence (J/cm^2) was monitored at 7 different sites during the entire light treatment delivery. Isotropic detectors were used for in-vivo light dosimetry. The anisotropy of each isotropic detector was found to be within 30%. The mean fluence rate delivery varied from 37.84 to 94.05 mW/cm^2 and treatment time varied from 1762 to 5232s. We have established a correlation between the treatment time and the treatment volume. The results are discussed using an integrating sphere theory and the measured tissue optical properties. The result can be used as a clinical guideline for future pleural PDT treatment.

  12. Neutron spectrometry and dosimetry with ANNs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H. R.; Hernandez D, V. M. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Cipres 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Gallego, E.; Lorente, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], e-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com

    2009-10-15

    Artificial neural networks technology has been applied to unfold the neutron spectra and to calculate the effective dose, the ambient equivalent dose, and the personal dose equivalent for {sup 252}Cf and {sup 241}AmBe neutron sources. A Bonner sphere spectrometry with a {sup 6}LiI(Eu) scintillator was utilized to measure the count rates of the spheres that were utilized as input in two artificial neural networks, one for spectrometry and another for dosimetry. Spectra and the ambient dose equivalent were also obtained with BUNKIUT code and the UTA4 response matrix. With both procedures spectra and ambient dose equivalent agrees in less than 10%. (author)

  13. Secondary standard dosimetry laboratory at INFLPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarlat, F.; Minea, R.; Scarisoreanu, A.; Badita, E.; Sima, E.; Dumitrascu, M.; Stancu, E.; Vancea, C., E-mail: scarlat.f@gmail.com [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics - INFLPR, Bucharest (Romania)

    2011-07-01

    National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics (INFLPR) has constructed a High Energy Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory SSDL-STARDOOR - for performing dosimetric calibrations according to ISO IEC SR/EN 17025:2005 standards. This is outfitted with UNIDOS Secondary Standard Dosimeter from PTW (Freiburg Physikalisch-Technische Werksttaten) calibrated at the PTB-Braunschweig (German Federal Institute of Physics and Metrology). A radiation beam of the quality of Q used by our laboratory as calibration source are provided by INFLPR 7 MeV electron beam linear accelerator mounted in our facility. (author)

  14. Eurados trial performance test for photon dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, H.; Bordy, J.M.; Ambrosi, P.

    2001-01-01

    Within the framework of the EURADOS Action entitled Harmonisation and Dosimetric Quality Assurance in Individual Monitoring for External Radiation, trial performance tests for whole-body and extremity personal dosemeters were carried out. Photon, beta and neutron dosemeters were considered....... This paper summarises the results of the whole-body photon dosemeter test. Twenty-six dosimetry services from all EU Member States and Switzerland participated. Twelve different radiation fields were used to simulate various workplace irradiation fields. Dose values from 0.4 mSv to 80 mSv were chosen. From...

  15. Proton minibeam radiation therapy: Experimental dosimetry evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peucelle, C.; Martínez-Rovira, I.; Prezado, Y., E-mail: prezado@imnc.in2p3.fr [IMNC-UMR 8165, CNRS, Paris 7 and Paris 11 Universities, 15 rue Georges Clemenceau, Orsay Cedex 91406 (France); Nauraye, C.; Patriarca, A.; Hierso, E.; Fournier-Bidoz, N. [Institut Curie - Centre de Protonthérapie d’Orsay, Campus Universitaire, Bât. 101, Orsay 91898 (France)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Proton minibeam radiation therapy (pMBRT) is a new radiotherapy (RT) approach that allies the inherent physical advantages of protons with the normal tissue preservation observed when irradiated with submillimetric spatially fractionated beams. This dosimetry work aims at demonstrating the feasibility of the technical implementation of pMBRT. This has been performed at the Institut Curie - Proton Therapy Center in Orsay. Methods: Proton minibeams (400 and 700 μm-width) were generated by means of a brass multislit collimator. Center-to-center distances between consecutive beams of 3200 and 3500 μm, respectively, were employed. The (passive scattered) beam energy was 100 MeV corresponding to a range of 7.7 cm water equivalent. Absolute dosimetry was performed with a thimble ionization chamber (IBA CC13) in a water tank. Relative dosimetry was carried out irradiating radiochromic films interspersed in a IBA RW3 slab phantom. Depth dose curves and lateral profiles at different depths were evaluated. Peak-to-valley dose ratios (PVDR), beam widths, and output factors were also assessed as a function of depth. Results: A pattern of peaks and valleys was maintained in the transverse direction with PVDR values decreasing as a function of depth until 6.7 cm. From that depth, the transverse dose profiles became homogeneous due to multiple Coulomb scattering. Peak-to-valley dose ratio values extended from 8.2 ± 0.5 at the phantom surface to 1.08 ± 0.06 at the Bragg peak. This was the first time that dosimetry in such small proton field sizes was performed. Despite the challenge, a complete set of dosimetric data needed to guide the first biological experiments was achieved. Conclusions: pMBRT is a novel strategy in order to reduce the side effects of RT. This works provides the experimental proof of concept of this new RT method: clinical proton beams might allow depositing a (high) uniform dose in a brain tumor located in the center of the brain (7.5 cm depth

  16. Characterization of brazilian wollastonite for radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, D.N. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Sao Cristovao/SE (Brazil); Melo, A.P.; Gazano, V.S.O.; Caldas, L.V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. e-mail: dnsouza@fisca.ufs.br

    2006-07-01

    In these work preliminary results of the characterization analyses of Brazilian Wollastonite for radiation dosimetry are presented. Wollastonite is a silicate of calcium, Ca(SiO{sub 3}), and it was acquired in the form of rude mineral with Andradite inclusions. The sample was cleaned and prepared for obtained selected grains of Wollastonite. The analyses of chemical and mineralogical compositions were obtained using the neutron activation and X-ray powder diffraction techniques. The thermoluminescent (TL) glow curve of the material shows a prominent peak at about 200 C. TL emission spectra, and photoinduced emission spectra were also obtained. (Author)

  17. Space Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Xontech, Inc.'s software package, XonVu, simulates the missions of Voyager 1 at Jupiter and Saturn, Voyager 2 at Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, and Giotto in close encounter with Comet Halley. With the program, the user can generate scenes of the planets, moons, stars or Halley's nucleus and tail as seen by Giotto, all graphically reproduced with high accuracy in wireframe representation. Program can be used on a wide range of computers, including PCs. User friendly and interactive, with many options, XonVu can be used by a space novice or a professional astronomer. With a companion user's manual, it sells for $79.

  18. Software architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Oliver; Chughtai, Arif

    2011-01-01

    As a software architect you work in a wide-ranging and dynamic environment. You have to understand the needs of your customer, design architectures that satisfy both functional and non-functional requirements, and lead development teams in implementing the architecture. And it is an environment that is constantly changing: trends such as cloud computing, service orientation, and model-driven procedures open up new architectural possibilities. This book will help you to develop a holistic architectural awareness and knowledge base that extends beyond concrete methods, techniques, and technologi

  19. Dosimetry of ionising radiation in modern radiation oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kron, Tomas; Lehmann, Joerg; Greer, Peter B.

    2016-07-01

    Dosimetry of ionising radiation is a well-established and mature branch of physical sciences with many applications in medicine and biology. In particular radiotherapy relies on dosimetry for optimisation of cancer treatment and avoidance of severe toxicity for patients. Several novel developments in radiotherapy have introduced new challenges for dosimetry with small and dynamically changing radiation fields being central to many of these applications such as stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy. There is also an increasing awareness of low doses given to structures not in the target region and the associated risk of secondary cancer induction. Here accurate dosimetry is important not only for treatment optimisation but also for the generation of data that can inform radiation protection approaches in the future. The article introduces some of the challenges and highlights the interdependence of dosimetric calculations and measurements. Dosimetric concepts are explored in the context of six application fields: reference dosimetry, small fields, low dose out of field, in vivo dosimetry, brachytherapy and auditing of radiotherapy practice. Recent developments of dosimeters that can be used for these purposes are discussed using spatial resolution and number of dimensions for measurement as sorting criteria. While dosimetry is ever evolving to address the needs of advancing applications of radiation in medicine two fundamental issues remain: the accuracy of the measurement from a scientific perspective and the importance to link the measurement to a clinically relevant question. This review aims to provide an update on both of these.

  20. Monte Carlo simulations for heavy ion dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geithner, O.

    2006-07-26

    Water-to-air stopping power ratio (s{sub w,air}) calculations for the ionization chamber dosimetry of clinically relevant ion beams with initial energies from 50 to 450 MeV/u have been performed using the Monte Carlo technique. To simulate the transport of a particle in water the computer code SHIELD-HIT v2 was used which is a substantially modified version of its predecessor SHIELD-HIT v1. The code was partially rewritten, replacing formerly used single precision variables with double precision variables. The lowest particle transport specific energy was decreased from 1 MeV/u down to 10 keV/u by modifying the Bethe- Bloch formula, thus widening its range for medical dosimetry applications. Optional MSTAR and ICRU-73 stopping power data were included. The fragmentation model was verified using all available experimental data and some parameters were adjusted. The present code version shows excellent agreement with experimental data. Additional to the calculations of stopping power ratios, s{sub w,air}, the influence of fragments and I-values on s{sub w,air} for carbon ion beams was investigated. The value of s{sub w,air} deviates as much as 2.3% at the Bragg peak from the recommended by TRS-398 constant value of 1.130 for an energy of 50 MeV/u. (orig.)

  1. Dosimetry of radium-223 and progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, D.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Sgouros, G. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Radium-223 is a short-lived (11.4 d) alpha emitter with potential applications in radioimmunotherapy of cancer. Radium-223 can be complexed and linked to protein delivery molecules for specific tumor-cell targeting. It decays through a cascade of short-lived alpha- and beta-emitting daughters with emission of about 28 MeV of energy through complete decay. The first three alpha particles are essentially instantaneous. Photons associated with Ra-223 and progeny provide the means for tumor and normal-organ imaging and dosimetry. Two beta particles provide additional therapeutic value. Radium-223 may be produced economically and in sufficient amounts for widescale application. Many aspects of the chemistry of carrier-free isotope preparation, complexation, and linkage to the antibody have been developed and are being tested. The radiation dosimetry of a Ra-223-labeled antibody shows favorable tumor to normal tissue dose ratios for therapy. The 11.4-d half-life of Ra-223 allows sufficient time for immunoconjugate preparation, administration, and tumor localization by carrier antibodies before significant radiological decay takes place. If 0.01 percent of a 37 MBq (1 mCi) injection deposits in a one gram tumor mass, and if the activity is retained with a typical effective half-time (75 h), the absorbed dose will be 163 mGy MBq{sup {minus}1} (600 rad mCi{sup {minus}1}) administered. 49 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Eleventh DOE workshop on personnel neutron dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    Since its formation, the Office of Health (EH-40) has stressed the importance of the exchange of information related to and improvements in neutron dosimetry. This Workshop was the eleventh in the series sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). It provided a forum for operational personnel at DOE facilities to discuss current issues related to neutron dosimetry and for leading investigators in the field to discuss promising approaches for future research. A total of 26 papers were presented including the keynote address by Dr. Warren K. Sinclair, who spoke on, ``The 1990 Recommendations of the ICRP and their Biological Background.`` The first several papers discussed difficulties in measuring neutrons of different energies and ways of compensating or deriving correction factors at individual facilities. Presentations were also given by the US Navy and Air Force. Current research in neutron dosimeter development was the subject of the largest number of papers. These included a number on the development of neutron spectrometers. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. DRDC Ottawa working standard for biological dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura, T.M.; Prud' homme-Lalonde, L. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Thorleifson, E. [Health Canada, Gatineau, Quebec (Canada); Lachapelle, S.; Mullins, D. [JERA Consulting (Canada); Qutob, S. [Health Canada, Gatineau, Quebec (Canada); Wilkinson, D.

    2005-07-15

    This Standard provides quality assurance, quality control, and evaluation of the performance criteria for the purpose of accreditation of the Radiation Biology laboratory at Defence Research and Development Canada - Ottawa (DRDC Ottawa) using biological dosimetry to predict radiation exposure doses. The International Standard (ISO 19238) and the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) Technical Report Series No. 405 are used as guiding documents in preparation of this working document specific to the DRDC Ottawa Radiation Biology Laboratory. This Standard addresses: 1. The confidentiality of personal information, for the customer and the service laboratory; 2. The laboratory safety requirements; 3. The calibration sources and calibration dose ranges useful for establishing the reference dose-effect curves allowing the dose estimation from chromosome aberration frequency, and the minimum detection levels; 4. Transportation criteria for shipping of test samples to the laboratory; 5. Preparation of samples for analysis; 6. The scoring procedure for unstable chromosome aberrations used for biological dosimetry; 7. The criteria for converting a measured aberration frequency into an estimate of absorbed dose; 8. The reporting of results; 9. The quality assurance and quality control plan for the laboratory; and 10. Informative annexes containing examples of a questionnaire, instructions for customers, a data sheet for recording aberrations, a sample report and other supportive documents. (author)

  4. Dosimetry methods in boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambarini, G.; Artuso, E.; Felisi, M.; Regazzoni, V.; Giove, D. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Department of Physics, Via Festa del Patrono 7, 20122 Milano (Italy); Agosteo, S.; Barcaglioni, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milano (Italy); Campi, F.; Garlati, L. [Politecnico di Milano, Energy Department, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); De Errico, F. [Universita degli Studi di Pisa, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Lungamo Pacinotti 43, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Borroni, M.; Carrara, M. [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Medical Physics Unit, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milano (Italy); Burian, J.; Klupak, V.; Viererbl, L.; Marek, M. [Research Centre Rez, Department of Neutron Physics, 250-68 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic)

    2014-08-15

    Dosimetry studies have been carried out at thermal and epithermal columns of Lvr-15 research reactor for investigating the spatial distribution of gamma dose, fast neutron dose and thermal neutron fluence. Two different dosimetry methods, both based on solid state detectors, have been studied and applied and the accuracy and consistency of the results have been inspected. One method is based on Fricke gel dosimeters that are dilute water solutions and have good tissue equivalence for neutrons and also for all the secondary radiations produced by neutron interactions in tissue or water phantoms. Fricke gel dosimeters give the possibility of separating the various dose contributions, i.e. the gamma dose, the fast neutron dose and the dose due to charged particles generated during thermal neutron reactions by isotopes having high cross section, like 10-B. From this last dose, thermal neutron fluence can be obtained by means of the kerma factor. The second method is based on thermoluminescence dosimeters. In particular, the developed method draw advantage from the different heights of the peaks of the glow curve of such phosphors when irradiated with photons or with thermal neutrons. The results show that satisfactory results can be obtained with simple methods, in spite of the complexity of the subject. However, the more suitable dosimeters and principally their utilization and analysis modalities are different for the various neutron beams, mainly depending on the relative intensities of the three components of the neutron field, in particular are different for thermal and epithermal columns. (Author)

  5. Global Software Engineering: A Software Process Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Ita; Casey, Valentine; Burton, John; McCaffery, Fergal

    Our research has shown that many companies are struggling with the successful implementation of global software engineering, due to temporal, cultural and geographical distance, which causes a range of factors to come into play. For example, cultural, project managementproject management and communication difficulties continually cause problems for software engineers and project managers. While the implementation of efficient software processes can be used to improve the quality of the software product, published software process models do not cater explicitly for the recent growth in global software engineering. Our thesis is that global software engineering factors should be included in software process models to ensure their continued usefulness in global organisations. Based on extensive global software engineering research, we have developed a software process, Global Teaming, which includes specific practices and sub-practices. The purpose is to ensure that requirements for successful global software engineering are stipulated so that organisations can ensure successful implementation of global software engineering.

  6. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2009-08-28

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNL’s Hanford External Dosimetry Program (HEDP) which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee (HPDAC) which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. The first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database was designated Revision 0. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving changes to all chapters in the document. Revision numbers that include a decimal fraction reflect minor revisions, usually restricted to selected chapters or selected pages in the document.

  7. Radiation Dosimetry for Quality Control of Food Preservation and Disinfestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Miller, Arne; Uribe, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    In the use of x and gamma rays and scanned electron beams to extend the shelf life of food by delay of sprouting and ripening, killing of microbes, and control of insect population, quality assurance is provided by standardized radiation dosimetry. By strategic placement of calibrated dosimeters...... speed) to meet changes that occur in product and source parameters (e.g. bulk density and radiation spectrum). Routine dosimetry methods and certain corrections of dosimetry data may be selected for the radiations used in typical food processes....

  8. Dosimetry of Auger emitters: Physical and phenomenological approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastry, K.S.R.; Howell, R.W.; Rao, D.V.; Mylavarapu, V.B.; Kassis, A.I.; Adelstein, S.J.; Wright, H.A.; Hamm, R.N.; Turner, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Recent radiobiological studies have demonstrated that Auger cascades can cause severe biological damage contrary to expectations based on conventional dosimetry. Several determinants govern these effects, including the nature of the Auger electron spectrum; localized energy deposition; cellular geometry; chemical form of the carrier; cellular localization, concentration, and subcellular distribution of the radionuclide. Conventional dosimetry is inadequate in that these considerations are ignored. Our results provide the basis for biophysical approaches toward subcellular dosimetry of Auger emitters in vitro and in vivo. 12 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Dosimetry in clinical static magnetic fields using plastic scintillation detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanowicz, S.; Latzel, H.; Lindvold, Lars René

    2013-01-01

    , however, not clear yet how dosimetry will be conducted as standard methods and might not be easily transferred to systems with clinical magnetic fields. For dosimetry in MRI accelerators, we have tested plastic scintillation detectors (PSD) coupled to optical fibers. They are suitable for real-time and in......-vivo dosimetry in radiation treatments and diagnostics and could be, being all-optical, promising candidates for this application. To study the basic feasibility of using PSDs with organic scintillators in magnetic fields, we measured the response of these dosimeters in presence of magnetic fields up to 1 T...

  10. SOFTWARE METRICS VALIDATION METHODOLOGIES IN SOFTWARE ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.P. Srinivasan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the software measurement validations, assessing the validation of software metrics in software engineering is a very difficult task due to lack of theoretical methodology and empirical methodology [41, 44, 45]. During recent years, there have been a number of researchers addressing the issue of validating software metrics. At present, software metrics are validated theoretically using properties of measures. Further, software measurement plays an important role in understanding and controlling software development practices and products. The major requirement in software measurement is that the measures must represent accurately those attributes they purport to quantify and validation is critical to the success of software measurement. Normally, validation is a collection of analysis and testing activities across the full life cycle and complements the efforts of other quality engineering functions and validation is a critical task in any engineering project. Further, validation objective is to discover defects in a system and assess whether or not the system is useful and usable in operational situation. In the case of software engineering, validation is one of the software engineering disciplines that help build quality into software. The major objective of software validation process is to determine that the software performs its intended functions correctly and provides information about its quality and reliability. This paper discusses the validation methodology, techniques and different properties of measures that are used for software metrics validation. In most cases, theoretical and empirical validations are conducted for software metrics validations in software engineering [1-50].

  11. Characterization of radiochromic films EBT3 by means of the scanner Vidar dosimetry Pro Red and Epson 10000-XL use; Caracterizacion de films radiocromicos EBT3 mediante el uso de scanner Vidar dosimetry Pro Red y Epson 10000-XL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, L.; Garrigo, E.; Venencia, D.; Adrada, A.; Filipuzzi, M., E-mail: fisicamedina11@gmail.com [Instituto Privado de Radioterapia, Obispo Oro 423, X5000BFI Cordoba (Argentina)

    2014-08-15

    The Radiochromic film have become an attractive tool for verification of dose distributions in IMRT because these have high spatial resolution film, are near water equivalent and not require revealed, A critical aspect of the use of these film is used for digitizing scanner The purpose of this paper is to characterize EBT3 using two types of scanner. Were employed The Radiochromic film EBT3, was used photon beam 6 MV generated by a linear accelerator Siemens Primus, he films were irradiated at a dose range between 0 Gy a 9 Gy. The stabilization time after irradiation was 24 hours. The films were digitized with a scanner Epson 10000-XL y el VIDAR Dosimetry Pro Red. We used the software for construction of the calibration curve. The resolution of each dosimetry system was analyzed through the results of the spatial response function by analyzing a step pattern. The Epson scanner is most sensitive to the red channel. This is less than that obtained with the Vidar. The Vidar scanner spatial response profiles disturbs not opposed to Epson analyzed. The calibration curves for both dosimetry systems can be employed. However, the sensitivity and repeatability of the system is better than Red Vidar Epson 10000-XL. (author)

  12. One click film (OCF) dosimetry system for routine QA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, So Young; Yi, Byong Yong; Kim, Jong Hoon; Ahn, Seung Do; Lee, Sang Wook; Choi, Eun Kyoung [Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Kwan Sik [MyongJi University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    To develop a practical film dosimetry system for routine Quality Assurance (QA). An One Click Film (OCF) Dosimetry system was designed to perform swift routine QA with functions including automatic fog value elimination, angle adjustment, automatic symmetry calculation, and realtime profile generation with the ability to display realtime three-dimensional dose distributions. The most frequently used functions for routine QA, such as the elimination of the fog value, conversion into an H and D curve, symmetry, and isodose distribution, can be achieved with only one click. Reliable results were achieved with the OCF dosimetry with simpler steps than other commercially available film dosimetry systems for routine QA. More research on the refined user interface will make this system be clinically useful.

  13. Retrospective dosimetry analyses of reactor vessel cladding samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, L. R.; Soderquist, C. Z. [Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Fero, A. H. [Westinghouse Electric Company, Cranberry Twp., PA 16066 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Reactor pressure vessel cladding samples for Ringhals Units 3 and 4 in Sweden were analyzed using retrospective reactor dosimetry techniques. The objective was to provide the best estimates of the neutron fluence for comparison with neutron transport calculations. A total of 51 stainless steel samples consisting of chips weighing approximately 100 to 200 mg were removed from selected locations around the pressure vessel and were sent to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for analysis. The samples were fully characterized and analyzed for radioactive isotopes, with special interest in the presence of Nb-93m. The RPV cladding retrospective dosimetry results will be combined with a re-evaluation of the surveillance capsule dosimetry and with ex-vessel neutron dosimetry results to form a comprehensive 3D comparison of measurements to calculations performed with 3D deterministic transport code. (authors)

  14. Proceedings of the third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S.; Casson, W.H. [eds.

    1991-10-01

    The Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 21--24, 1991, at the Sheraton Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection, and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To meet these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical session included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, accident dosimetry, regulations and standards, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. Individual reports are processed separately on the database.

  15. Sandia software guidelines: Software quality planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-08-01

    This volume is one in a series of Sandia Software Guidelines intended for use in producing quality software within Sandia National Laboratories. In consonance with the IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans, this volume identifies procedures to follow in producing a Software Quality Assurance Plan for an organization or a project, and provides an example project SQA plan. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Radiation dosimetry of a conformal heat-brachytherapy applicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taschereau, Richard; Stauffer, Paul R; Hsu, I-Chow; Schlorff, Jaime L; Milligan, Andrew J; Pouliot, Jean

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the radiation dosimetric characteristics of a new combination applicator for delivering heat and radiation simultaneously to large area superficial disease conformal printed circuit board microwave antenna array (for heat generation), and a body-conforming 5-10 mm thick temperature-controlled water bolus. The rationale for applying both modalities simultaneously includes the potential for significantly higher response rate due to enhanced synergism of modalities, and lower peak toxicity due to temporal extension of heat and radiation induced toxicities. Treatment plans and radiation dosimetry are calculated with IPSA (an optimization tool developed at UCSF) for 15 x 15 cm(2) and 35 x 24 cm(2) applicators, lesion thicknesses of 5 to 15 mm, flat and curved surfaces, and catheter separation of 5 and 10 mm. The effect on skin dose of bolus thickness and presence of thin copper antenna structures between radiation source and tissue are also evaluated. Results demonstrate the ability of the applicator to provide conformal radiation dose coverage for up to 15 mm deep target volumes under the applicator. For clinically acceptable plans, tumor coverage is > 98%, homogeneity index > 0.95 and the percentage of normal tissue irradiated is antenna array is of the order 0.25% and secondary electron emissions are absorbed completely within 5 mm of water bolus and plastic layers. Both phenomena can then be neglected in dose calculations allowing commercial software to be used for treatment planning. This novel applicator should prove useful for the treatment of diffuse chestwall disease located over contoured anatomy that may be difficult to treat with single field external beam therapy. By delivering heat and radiation simultaneously, increased synergism is expected with a TER in the range of 2-5. Lowering radiation dose by an equivalent factor may produce lower radiation toxicity with similar efficacy, while preserving the option of

  17. Biodistribution and dosimetry of {sup 123}I-mZIENT: a novel ligand for imaging serotonin transporters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, Alice [NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Southern General Hospital, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Krishnadas, Rajeev [University of Glasgow, Sackler Institute of Psychobiological Research, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Champion, Sue [University of Glasgow, Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Tamagnan, Gilles [Institute for Neurodegenerative Disorders, New Haven, CT (United States); Stehouwer, Jeffrey S.; Goodman, Mark M. [Emory University, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Atlanta, GA (United States); Hadley, Donald M. [NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde, Department of Neuro-Radiology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Pimlott, Sally L. [NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde, West of Scotland Radionuclide Dispensary, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    {sup 123}I-labelled mZIENT (2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(3'-((Z)-2-iodoethenyl)phenyl)nortropane) has been developed as a radioligand for the serotonin transporter. The aim of this preliminary study was to assess its whole-body biodistribution in humans and estimate dosimetry. Three healthy controls and three patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) therapy for depression were included (two men, four women, age range 41-56 years). Whole-body imaging, brain SPECT imaging and blood and urine sampling were performed. Whole-body images were analysed using regions of interest (ROIs), time-activity curves were derived using compartmental analysis and dosimetry estimated using OLINDA software. Brain ROI analysis was performed to obtain specific-to-nonspecific binding ratios in the midbrain, thalamus and striatum. Initial high uptake in the lungs decreased in later images. Lower uptake was seen in the brain, liver and intestines. Excretion was primarily through the urinary system. The effective dose was estimated to be of the order of 0.03 mSv/MBq. The organ receiving the highest absorbed dose was the lower large intestine wall. Uptake in the brain was consistent with the known SERT distribution with higher specific-to-nonspecific binding in the midbrain, thalamus and striatum in healthy controls compared with patients receiving SSRI therapy. {sup 123}I-mZIENT may be a promising radioligand for imaging the serotonin transporters in humans with acceptable dosimetry. (orig.)

  18. Dosimetry in Thermal Neutron Irradiation Facility at BMRR

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) has been performed since 1959 at Thermal Neutron Irradiation Facility (TNIF) of the three-megawatt light-water cooled Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). In the early 1990s when more effective drug carriers were developed for NCT, in which the eye melanoma and brain tumors in rats were irradiated in situ, extensive clinical trials of small animals began using a focused thermal neutron beam. To improve the dosimetry at irradiation f...

  19. Why is a high accuracy needed in dosimetry. [Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzl, L.H.

    1976-01-01

    Dose and exposure intercomparisons on a national or international basis have become an important component of quality assurance in the practice of good radiotherapy. A high degree of accuracy of ..gamma.. and x radiation dosimetry is essential in our international society, where medical information is so readily exchanged and used. The value of accurate dosimetry lies mainly in the avoidance of complications in normal tissue and an optimal degree of tumor control.

  20. EPID dosimetry for pretreatment quality assurance with two commercial systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Daniel W; Kumaraswamy, Lalith; Bakhtiari, Mohammad; Malhotra, Harish K; Podgorsak, Matthew B

    2012-07-05

    This study compares the EPID dosimetry algorithms of two commercial systems for pretreatment QA, and analyzes dosimetric measurements made with each system alongside the results obtained with a standard diode array. 126 IMRT fields are examined with both EPID dosimetry systems (EPIDose by Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne FL, and Portal Dosimetry by Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto CA) and the diode array, MapCHECK (also by Sun Nuclear Corporation). Twenty-six VMAT arcs of varying modulation complexity are examined with the EPIDose and MapCHECK systems. Optimization and commissioning testing of the EPIDose physics model is detailed. Each EPID IMRT QA system is tested for sensitivity to critical TPS beam model errors. Absolute dose gamma evaluation (3%, 3 mm, 10% threshold, global normalization to the maximum measured dose) yields similar results (within 1%-2%) for all three dosimetry modalities, except in the case of off-axis breast tangents. For these off-axis fields, the Portal Dosimetry system does not adequately model EPID response, though a previously-published correction algorithm improves performance. Both MapCHECK and EPIDose are found to yield good results for VMAT QA, though limitations are discussed. Both the Portal Dosimetry and EPIDose algorithms, though distinctly different, yield similar results for the majority of clinical IMRT cases, in close agreement with a standard diode array. Portal dose image prediction may overlook errors in beam modeling beyond the calculation of the actual fluence, while MapCHECK and EPIDose include verification of the dose calculation algorithm, albeit in simplified phantom conditions (and with limited data density in the case of the MapCHECK detector). Unlike the commercial Portal Dosimetry package, the EPIDose algorithm (when sufficiently optimized) allows accurate analysis of EPID response for off-axis, asymmetric fields, and for orthogonal VMAT QA. Other forms of QA are necessary to supplement the limitations of the

  1. Basic principles in the radiation dosimetry of nuclear medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabin, Michael; Xu, Xie George

    2014-05-01

    The basic principles of the use of radiation dosimetry in nuclear medicine are reviewed. The basic structure of the main mathematical equations are given and formal dosimetry systems are discussed. An extensive overview of the history and current status of anthropomorphic models (phantoms) is given. The sources and magnitudes of uncertainties in calculated internal dose estimates are reviewed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A practical three-dimensional dosimetry system for radiation therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Pengyi; Adamovics, John; Oldham, Mark

    2006-01-01

    There is a pressing need for a practical three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry system, convenient for clinical use, and with the accuracy and resolution to enable comprehensive verification of the complex dose distributions typical of modern radiation therapy. Here we introduce a dosimetry system that can achieve this challenge, consisting of a radiochromic dosimeter (PRESAGE™) and a commercial optical computed tomography (CT) scanning system (OCTOPUS™). PRESAGE™ is a transparent material with com...

  3. Individual dosimetry of workers and patients: implementation and perspectives; La dosimetrie individuelle des travailleurs et de patients: mise en oeuvre et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rannou, A.; Aubert, B.; Lahaye, Th.; Scaff, P.; Casanova, Ph.; Van Bladel, L.; Queinnec, F.; Valendru, N.; Jehanno, J.; Grude, E.; Berard, Ph.; Desbree, A.; Kafrouni, H.; Paquet, F.; Vanhavere, F.; Bridier, A.; Ginestet, Ch.; Magne, S.; Donadille, L.; Bordy, J.M.; Bottollier-Depois, J.F.; Barrere, J.L.; Ferragut, A.; Metivier, H.; Gaillard-Lecanu, E

    2008-07-01

    These days organised by the section of the technical protection of the S.F.R.P. review the different techniques of dosimetry used in France and Europe, and present the future orientations.The different interventions are as follow: Individual exposures of the workers: historic assessment and perspectives; medical exposure: where are the doses; legal obligations in individual dosimetry: which are the objective and the need on the subject; the dosimetry follow-up of workers by the S.I.S.E.R.I. system: assessment and perspectives; impact of the norm ISO 20553 on the follow-up of internal exposure; the implementation of the patient dose measurement in Belgium; techniques of passive dosimetry used in Europe; Supervision radiation protection at EDF: long term and short term approach; Comparison active and passive dosimetry at Melox; methodology for the choice of new neutron dosemeters; the working group M.E.D.O.R.: guide of internal dosimetry for the use of practitioners; O.E.D.I.P.E.: tool of modeling for the personalized internal dosimetry; the use of the Monte-Carlo method for the planning of the cancer treatment by radiotherapy becomes a reality; the works of the committee 2 of the ICRP; passive dosimetry versus operational dosimetry: situation in Europe; Implementation of the in vivo dosimetry in a radiotherapy department: experience of the Gustave Roussy institute; experience feedback on the in vivo measures in radiotherapy, based on the use of O.S.L. pellets; multi points O.S.L. instrumentation for the radiation dose monitoring in radiotherapy; dosimetry for extremities for medical applications: principle results of the European contract C.O.N.R.A.D.; references and perspectives in dosimetry; what perspectives for numerical dosimetry, an example: Sievert; system of dose management: how to answer to needs; the last technical evolutions in terms of electronic dosimetry in nuclear power plant; the fourth generation type reactors: what dosimetry. (N.C.)

  4. The radiation dosimetry of intrathecally administered radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stabin, M.G. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States); Evans, J.F. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The radiation dose to the spine, spinal cord, marrow, and other organs of the body from intrathecal administration of several radiopharmaceuticals was studied. Anatomic models were developed for the spine, spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), spinal cord, spinal skeleton, cranial skeleton, and cranial CSF. A kinetic model for the transport of CSF was used to determine residence times in the CSF; material leaving the CSF was thereafter assumed to enter the bloodstream and follow the kinetics of the radiopharmaceutical as if intravenously administered. The radiation transport codes MCNP and ALGAMP were used to model the electron and photon transport and energy deposition. The dosimetry of Tc-99m DTPA and HSA, In-111 DTPA, I-131 HSA, and Yb-169 DTPA was studied. Radiation dose profiles for the spinal cord and marrow in the spine were developed and average doses to all other organs were estimated, including dose distributions within the bone and marrow.

  5. Accidental neutron dosimetry with human hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekendahl, Daniela; Bečková, Věra; Zdychová, Vlasta; Bulánek, Boris; Prouza, Zdeněk; Štefánik, Milan

    2014-11-01

    Human hair contains sulfur, which can be activated by fast neutrons. The 32S(n,p)32P reaction with a threshold of 2.5 MeV was used for fast neutron dose estimation. It is a very important parameter for individual dose reconstruction with regards to the heterogeneity of the neutron transfer to the human body. Samples of human hair were irradiated in a radial channel of a training reactor VR-1. 32P activity in hair was measured both, directly by means of a proportional counter, and as ash dispersed in a liquid scintillator. Based on neutron spectrum estimation, a relationship between the neutron dose and induced activity was derived. The experiment verified the practical feasibility of this dosimetry method in cases of criticality accidents or malevolent acts with nuclear materials.

  6. EPR tooth dosimetry of SNTS area inhabitants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholom, Sergey [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, Melnikova str., 53, Kiev (Ukraine); Desrosiers, Marc [Ionizing Radiation Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Bouville, Andre; Luckyanov, Nicholas [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 6120 Executive Boulevard, Bethesda, MD (United States); Chumak, Vadim [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, Melnikova str., 53, Kiev (Ukraine); Simon, Steven L. [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 6120 Executive Boulevard, Bethesda, MD (United States)], E-mail: ssimon@mail.nih.gov

    2007-07-15

    The determination of external dose to teeth of inhabitants of settlements near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) was conducted using the EPR dosimetry technique to assess radiation doses associated with exposure to radioactive fallout from the test site. In this study, tooth doses have been reconstructed for 103 persons with all studied teeth having been formed before the first nuclear test in 1949. Doses above those received from natural background radiation, termed 'accident doses', were found to lie in the range from zero to approximately 2 Gy, with one exception, a dose for one person from Semipalatinsk city was approximately 9 Gy. The variability of reconstructed doses within each of the settlements demonstrated heterogeneity of the deposited fallout as well as variations in lifestyle. The village mean external gamma doses for residents of nine settlements were in the range from a few tens of mGy to approximately 100 mGy.

  7. Dosimetry for radiocolloid therapy of cystic craniopharyngiomas

    CERN Document Server

    Rojas, E L; Lallena, A M; Bodineau, C; Galan, P; Al-Dweri, Feras M.O.; Lallena, Antonio M.; Bodineau, Coral; Galan, Pedro

    2003-01-01

    The dosimetry for radiocolloid therapy of cystic craniopharyngiomas is investigated. Analytical calculations based on the Loevinger and the Berger formulae for electrons and photons, respectively, are compared with Monte Carlo simulations. The role of the material of which the colloid introduced inside the craniopharyngioma is made of as well as that forming the cyst wall is analyzed. It is found that the analytical approaches provide a very good description of the simulated data in the conditions where they can be applied (i.e., in the case of a uniform and infinite homogeneous medium). However, the consideration of the different materials and interfaces produces a strong reduction of the dose delivered to the cyst wall in relation to that predicted by the Loevinger and the Berger formulae.

  8. EPR-dosimetry with carious teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholom, S.V. E-mail: sholom@leed1.kiev.ua; Haskell, E.H.; Hayes, R.B.; Chumak, V.V.; Kenner, G.H

    2000-12-15

    The effect of caries in EPR dosimetry of tooth enamel (in the dose range of 0-1 Gy) was investigated. The enamel of each tooth was divided into carious, non-carious and intermediate portions. The EPR signals of enamel at g=2.0018 (dosimetric) and g=2.0045 (native) were examined. The intensity of the dosimetric signal was the same for all three portions, while that of the native signal was higher for carious portions than for non-carious and intermediate portions. Reconstruction of the laboratory applied doses was done using all portions. Reasonable correlation between nominal and reconstructed doses was found in most cases. The effect of alkali treatment on the native and dosimetric signals of enamel was also tested. Reduction of the native signal intensity, particularly in the carious portions, was found to be the only significant effect. This resulted in a slight improvement in the accuracy of the reconstructed doses.

  9. Management system of personnel dosimetry based on ISO 9001:2008 for medical diagnostic; Sistema de gerenciamento da dosimetria pessoal baseado na ISO 9001:2008 para radiodiagnostico medico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Carlos E.B.; Gerber Junior, Walmoli; Jahn, Tiago R.; Hahn, Tiago T.; Fontana, Thiago S.; Bolzan, Vagner, E-mail: brasilrad@brasilrad.com.br [Brasilrad Consultoria em Radioprotecao, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    MDose is a computer management system of personal dosimetry in diagnostic radiology services physician based on ISO 9001:9008 management system. According to Brazilian law all service radiology should implement a control of personal dosimetry in addition to radiation doses greater than 1.5 mSv/year service should do research of high dose, which is to identify the causes the resulting dose increase professional. This work is based on the use of the PDCA cycle in a JAVA software developed as a management method in the analysis of high doses in order to promote systematic and continuous improvement within the organization of radiological protection of workers.

  10. Experience in the treatment of IMRT in prostate cancer. Planning, dosimetry and quality control; Experiencia en el tratamiento de IMRT en cancer de prostata. Planificacion, dosimetria y control de calidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Barrado, A.; Garcia Vicente, F.; Fernandez Bedoya, V.; Bermudez Luna, R.; Perez Gonzalez, L.; Torres Escobar, J. J.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study is to review the treatment of prostate cancer at our center. A description of the entire procedure, involving clinical dosimetry, and procedures for verification of treatment, including physical dosimetry and parallel computing system MSure (Standard Imaging, Inc., Middleton) as part of these procedures. This system is based on the model published by trifuente Yang et al. (Yang et al. 2002) for testing treatments regarding the number of monitor unit (MU) given. In addition, this software has a module for the testing of treatments for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), which will be analyzed in this study.

  11. Software engineering architecture-driven software development

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Richard F

    2013-01-01

    Software Engineering: Architecture-driven Software Development is the first comprehensive guide to the underlying skills embodied in the IEEE's Software Engineering Body of Knowledge (SWEBOK) standard. Standards expert Richard Schmidt explains the traditional software engineering practices recognized for developing projects for government or corporate systems. Software engineering education often lacks standardization, with many institutions focusing on implementation rather than design as it impacts product architecture. Many graduates join the workforce with incomplete skil

  12. In vivo dosimetry during tangential breast treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heukelom, S.; Lanson, J.H.; Tienhoven, G. van; Mijnheer, B.J. (Nederlands Kanker Inst. ' Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis' , Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1991-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) dose distribution as calculated in clinical practice for tangential breast treatment was verified through in vivo dosimetry. Clinical practice at Netherlands Cancer Institute implies use of 8MV X-ray beams, 2-D treatment planning system, collimator rotation and a limited set of patient data for dose calculations. By positioning diodes at the central beam axes as well as in the periphery of the breast the magnitude of dose values at the isocentre and in points situated in high-dose regions behind the lung could be assessed. The position of diodes was verified by means of an on-line portal imaging device. Reproducibility of these in vivo dose measurements was better than 2% (1SD). This study shows that on the average dose delivery at the isocentre is 2% less at the points behind the lung, 5.7% higher with respect to the calculated dose values. Detailed analysis of these in vivo dosimetry results, based on dose measurements performed with a breast shaped phantom, yielded the magnitudes of errors in predicted dose due to several limitations in dose calculation algorithms and dose calculation procedure. These limitations are each introducing an error of several percent but are compensating each other for the dose calculation at the isocentre. It is concluded that dose distribution in patient for this treatment technique and dose calculation procedure can be predicted with a 2-D treatment planning system in an acceptable way. A more accurate prediction of dose distribution can be performed but requires an estimation of the lack of scatter due to missing tissue, the change in the dose distribution due to oblique incident beams and incorporation of the actual output of the treatment machine in the assessment of the number of monitor units. (author). 28 refs.; 3 figs.; 4 tabs.

  13. Fast neutron activation dosimetry with TLDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, D.W.; Moran, P.R.

    1975-01-01

    Fast neutron activation using threshold reactions is the only neutron dosimetry method which offers complete discrimination against gamma-rays and preserves some information about the neutron energy. Conventional activation foil technique requires sensitive radiation detectors to count the decay of the neutron induced activity. For extensive measurements at low neutron fluences, vast outlays of counting equipment are required. TL dosimeters are inexpensive, extremely sensitive radiation detectors. The work of Mayhugh et al. (Proc. Third Int. Conf. on Luminescence Dosimetry, Riso Report 249, 1040, (1971)) showed that CaSO/sub 4/: DyTLDs could be used to measure the integrated dose from the decay of the radioactivity produced in the dosimeters by exposure to thermal neutrons. This neatly combines the activation detector and counter functions in one solid state device. This work has been expanded to fast neutron exposures and other TL phosphors. The reactions /sup 19/F(n, 2n)/sup 18/F, /sup 32/S(n,p)/sup 32/P, /sup 24/Mg(n,p)/sup 24/, and /sup 64/Zn(n,p)/sup 64/Cu were found useful for fast neutron activation in commercial TLDs. As each TLD is its own integrating decay particle counter, many activation measurements can be made at the same time. The subsequent readings of the TL signals can be done serially after the induced radioactivity has decayed, using only one TL reader. The neutron detection sensitivity is limited mainly by the number statistics of the neutron activations. The precision of the neutron measurement is within a factor of two of conventional foil activation for comparable mass detectors. Commercially available TLDs can measure neutron fluences of 10/sup 9/n/cm/sup 2/ with 10 percent precision.

  14. High sensitive radiation detector for radiology dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valente, M.; Malano, F. [Instituto de Fisica Enrique Gaviola, Oficina 102 FaMAF - UNC, Av. Luis Medina Allende, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Molina, W.; Vedelago, J., E-mail: valente@famac.unc.edu.ar [Laboratorio de Investigaciones e Instrumentacion en Fisica Aplicada a la Medicina e Imagenes por Rayos X, Laboratorio 448 FaMAF - UNC, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2014-08-15

    Fricke solution has a wide range of applications as radiation detector and dosimetry. It is particularly appreciated in terms of relevant comparative advantages, like tissue equivalence when prepared in aqueous media like gel matrix, continuous mapping capability, dose rate recorded and incident direction independence as well as linear dose response. This work presents the development and characterization of a novel Fricke gel system, based on modified chemical compositions making possible its application in clinical radiology. Properties of standard Fricke gel dosimeter for high dose levels are used as starting point and suitable chemical modifications are introduced and carefully investigated in order to attain high resolution for low dose ranges, like those corresponding to radiology interventions. The developed Fricke gel radiation dosimeter system achieves the expected typical dose dependency, actually showing linear response in the dose range from 20 up to 4000 mGy. Systematic investigations including several chemical compositions are carried out in order to obtain a good enough dosimeter response for low dose levels. A suitable composition among those studied is selected as a good candidate for low dose level radiation dosimetry consisting on a modified Fricke solution fixed to a gel matrix containing benzoic acid along with sulfuric acid, ferrous sulfate, xylenol orange and ultra-pure reactive grade water. Dosimeter samples are prepared in standard vials for its in phantom irradiation and further characterization by spectrophotometry measuring visible light transmission and absorbance before and after irradiation. Samples are irradiated by typical kV X-ray tubes and calibrated Farmer type ionization chamber is used as reference to measure dose rates inside phantoms in at vials locations. Once sensitive material composition is already optimized, dose-response curves show significant improvement regarding overall sensitivity for low dose levels. According to

  15. Personal Dosimetry Enhancement for Underground Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Thinová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal dosimetry for underground workers mainly concerns measurement of the concentration of radon (and its daughters and the correct application of the data in dose calculation, using a biokinetic model for lung dosimetry. A conservative approach for estimating the potential dose in caves (or underground is based on solid state alpha track detector measurements. The obtained dataset is converted into an annual effective dose in agreement with the ICRP recommendations using the “cave factor”, the value of which depends on the spectrum of aerosol particles, or on the proportional representation of the unattached and the attached fraction and on the equilibrium factor. The main difference between apartments and caves is the absence of aerosol sources, high humidity, low ventilation rate and the uneven surface in caves. A more precisely determined dose value would have a significant impact on radon remedies or on restricting the time workers stay underground. In order to determine  how the effective dose is calculated, it is necessary to divide these areas into distinct categories by the following measuring procedures: continual radon measurement (to capture the differences in EERC between working hours and night-time, and also between daily and seasonal radon concentration variations; regular measurements of radon and its daughters to estimate the equilibrium factor and the presence of 218Po; regular indoor air flow measurements to study the location of the radon supply and its transfer among individual areas of the cave; natural radioactive element content evaluation in subsoils and in water inside/outside, a study of the radon sources in the cave; aerosol particle-size spectrum measurements to determine the free fraction; monitoring the behaviour of guides and workers to record the actual time spent in the cave, in relation to the continuously monitored levels of Rn concentration. 

  16. Latest developments in silica fibre luminescence dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, D. A.; Abdul S, S. F.; Jafari, S. M.; Alanazi, A. [University of Surrey, Department of Physics, GU2 7XH Guildford, Surrey (United Kingdom); Amouzad M, G. [University of Malaya, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering, Integrated Lightwave Research Group, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Addul R, H. A.; Mizanur R, A. K. M.; Zubair, H. T.; Begum, M.; Yusoff, Z.; Omar, N. Y. M. [Multimedia University, Faculty of Engineering, 2010 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Maah, M. J. [University of Malaya, Department of Chemistry, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Collin, S. [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, TW11 OLW Middlesex (United Kingdom); Mat-Sharif, K. A.; Muhd-Yassin, S. Z.; Zulkifli, M. I., E-mail: d.a.bradley@surrey.ac.uk [Telekom Malaysia Research and Development Sdn Bhd., 63000 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Using tailor made sub-mm diameter doped-silica fibres, we are carrying out luminescence dosimetry studies for a range of situations, including thermoluminescence (Tl)investigations on a liquid alpha source formed of {sup 223}RaCl (the basis of the Bayer Health care product Xofigo), the Tl response to a 62 MeV proton source and Tl response to irradiation from an {sup 241}Am-Be neutron source. In regard to the former, in accord with the intrinsic high linear energy transfer (Let) and short path length (<100 um) of the α-particles in calcified tissue, the product is in part intended as a bone-seeking radionuclide for treatment of metastatic cancer, offering high specificity and efficacy. The Tl yield of Ge-doped SiO{sub 2} fibres has been investigated including for photonic crystal fibre un collapsed, flat fibres and single mode fibres, these systems offering many advantages over conventional passive dosimetry types. In particular, one can mention comparable and even superior sensitivity, an effective atomic number Z{sub eff} of the silica dosimetric material close to that of bone, and the glassy nature of the fibres offering the additional advantage of being able to place such dosimeters directly into liquid environments. Finally we review the use of our tailor made fibres for on-line radioluminescence measurements of radiotherapy beams. The outcome from these various lines of research is expected to inform development of doped fiber radiation dosimeters of versatile utility, ranging from clinical applications through to industrial studies and environmental evaluations. (Author)

  17. Dosimetry of low-energy beta radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, J.

    1996-08-01

    Useful techniques and procedures for determination of absorbed doses from exposure in a low-energy {beta} radiation field were studied and evaluated in this project. The four different techniques included were {beta} spectrometry, extrapolation chamber dosimetry, Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, and exoelectron dosimetry. As a typical low-energy {beta} radiation field a moderated spectrum from a {sup 14}C source (E{sub {beta}},{sub max} =156 keV) was chosen for the study. The measured response of a Si(Li) detector to photons (bremsstrahlung) showed fine agreement with the MC calculated photon response, whereas the difference between measured and MC calculated responses to electrons indicates an additional dead layer thickness of about 12 {mu}m in the Si(Li) detector. The depth-dose profiles measured with extrapolation chambers at two laboratories agreed very well, and it was confirmed that the fitting procedure previously reported for {sup 147}Pm depth-dose profiles is also suitable for {beta} radiation from {sup 14}C. An increasing difference between measured and MC calculated dose rates for increasing absorber thickness was found, which is explained by limitations of the EGS4 code for transport of very low-energy electrons (below 10-20 keV). Finally a study of the thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) response of BeO thin film dosemeters to {beta} radiation for radiation fields with maximum {beta} energies ranging from 67 keV to 2.27 MeV is reported. For maximum {beta} energies below approximately 500 keV, a decrease in the response amounting to about 20% was observed. It is thus concluded that a {beta} dose higher than about 10 {mu}Gy can be measured with these dosemeters to within 0 to -20% independently of the {beta}energy for E{sub {beta}},{sub max} values down to 67 keV. (au) 12 tabs., 38 ills., 71 refs.

  18. Development of the JAERI computational dosimetry system (JCDS) for boron neutron capture therapy. Cooperative research

    CERN Document Server

    Kumada, H; Matsumura, A; Nakagawa, Y; Nose, T; Torii, Y; Uchiyama, J; Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, T

    2003-01-01

    The Neutron Beam Facility at JRR-4 enables us to carry out boron neutron capture therapy with epithermal neutron beam. In order to make treatment plans for performing the epithermal neutron beam BNCT, it is necessary to estimate radiation doses in a patient's head in advance. The JAERI Computational Dosimetry System (JCDS), which can estimate distributions of radiation doses in a patient's head by simulating in order to support the treatment planning for epithermal neutron beam BNCT, was developed. JCDS is a software that creates a 3-dimentional head model of a patient by using CT and MRI images, and that generates a input data file automatically for calculation of neutron flux and gamma-ray dose distributions in the brain with the Monte Carlo code MCNP, and that displays these dose distributions on the head model for dosimetry by using the MCNP calculation results. JCDS has any advantages as follows; By using CT data and MRI data which are medical images, a detail three-dimensional model of patient's head is...

  19. Design and construction of an optical computed tomography scanner for polymer gel dosimetry application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakariaee, Seyed Salman; Mesbahi, Asghar; Keshtkar, Ahmad; Azimirad, Vahid

    2014-04-01

    Polymer gel dosimeter is the only accurate three dimensional (3D) dosimeter that can measure the absorbed dose distribution in a perfect 3D setting. Gel dosimetry by using optical computed tomography (OCT) has been promoted by several researches. In the current study, we designed and constructed a prototype OCT system for gel dosimetry. First, the electrical system for optical scanning of the gel container using a Helium-Neon laser and a photocell was designed and constructed. Then, the mechanical part for two rotational and translational motions was designed and step motors were assembled to it. The data coming from photocell was grabbed by the home-built interface and sent to a personal computer. Data processing was carried out using MATLAB software. To calibrate the system and tune up the functionality of it, different objects was designed and scanned. Furthermore, the spatial and contrast resolution of the system was determined. The system was able to scan the gel dosimeter container with a diameter up to 11 cm inside the water phantom. The standard deviation of the pixels within water flask image was considered as the criteria for image uniformity. The uniformity of the system was about ±0.05%. The spatial resolution of the system was approximately 1 mm and contrast resolution was about 0.2%. Our primary results showed that this system is able to obtain two-dimensional, cross-sectional images from polymer gel samples.

  20. Calculation codes in radioprotection, radio-physics and dosimetry; Codes de calcul en radioprotection, radiophysique et dosimetrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan, S.; Laedermann, J.P.; Bochud, F.; Ferragut, A.; Bordy, J.M.; Parisi, L.L.; Abou-Khalil, R.; Longeot, M.; Kitsos, S.; Groetz, J.E.; Villagrasa, C.; Daures, J.; Martin, E.; Henriet, J.; Tsilanizara, A.; Farah, J.; Uyttenhove, W.; Perrot, Y.; De Carlan, L.; Vivier, A.; Kodeli, I.; Sayah, R.; Hadid, L.; Courageot, E.; Fritsch, P.; Davesne, E.; Michel, X.

    2010-07-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during these conference days. Twenty seven presentations are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - GATE: calculation code for medical imaging, radiotherapy and dosimetry (S. Jan); 2 - estimation of conversion factors for the measurement of the ambient dose equivalent rate by in-situ spectroscopy (J.P. Laedermann); 3 - geometry specific calibration factors for nuclear medicine activity meters (F. Bochud); 4 - Monte Carlo simulation of a rare gases measurement system - calculation and validation, ASGA/VGM system (A. Ferragut); 5 - design of a realistic radiation field for the calibration of the dosemeters used in interventional radiology/cardiology (medical personnel dosimetry) (J.M. Bordy); 6 - determination of the position and height of the KALINA facility chimney at CEA Cadarache (L.L. Parisi); 7 - MERCURAD{sup TM} - 3D simulation software for dose rates calculation (R. Abou-Khalil); 8 - PANTHERE - 3D software for gamma dose rates simulation of complex nuclear facilities (M. Longeot); 9 - radioprotection, from the design to the exploitation of radioactive materials transportation containers (S. Kitsos); 10 - post-simulation processing of MCNPX responses in neutron spectroscopy (J.E. Groetz); 11 - last developments of the Geant4 Monte Carlo code for trace amounts simulation in liquid water at the molecular scale (C. Villagrasa); 12 - Calculation of H{sub p}(3)/K{sub air} conversion coefficients using PENELOPE Monte-Carlo code and comparison with MCNP calculation results (J. Daures); 13 - artificial neural networks, a new alternative to Monte Carlo calculations for radiotherapy (E. Martin); 14 - use of case-based reasoning for the reconstruction and handling of voxelized fantoms (J. Henriet); 15 - resolution of the radioactive decay inverse problem for dose calculation in radioprotection (A. Tsilanizara); 16 - use of NURBS-type fantoms for the study of the morphological factors influencing

  1. Review of the near-earth space radiation dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianming; Chen, Xiaoqian; Li, Shiyou

    2016-07-01

    The near-earth space radiation environment has a great effect to the spacecraft and maybe do harm to the astronaut's health. Thus, how to measure the radiation has become a serious challenge. In order to provide sufficient protection both for astronauts and for instruments on-board, dose equivalent and linear energy transfer should be measured instead of merely measuring total radiation dose. This paper reviews the methods of radiation measurement and presents a brief introduction of dosimetry instruments. The method can be divided into two different kinds, i.e., positive dosimetry and passive dosimetry. The former usually includes electronic devices which can be used for data storage and can offer simultaneous monitoring on space radiation. The passive dosimetry has a much simple structure, and need extra operation after on-orbit missions for measuring. To get more reliable data of radiation dosimetry, various instruments and methods had been applied in the spacecrafts and the manned spacecrafts in particular. The outlook of the development in the space radiation dosimetry measurement is also presented.

  2. Software Metrics to Estimate Software Quality using Software Component Reusability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakriti Trivedi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Today most of the applications developed using some existing libraries, codes, open sources etc. As a code is accessed in a program, it is represented as the software component. Such as in java beans and in .net ActiveX controls are the software components. These components are ready to use programming code or controls that excel the code development. A component based software system defines the concept of software reusability. While using these components the main question arise is whether to use such components is beneficial or not. In this proposed work we are trying to present the answer for the same question. In this work we are presenting a set of software matrix that will check the interconnection between the software component and the application. How strong this relation defines the software quality after using this software component. The overall metrics will return the final result in terms of the boundless of the component with application.

  3. Three dosimetry models of lipoma arborescens treated by {sup 90}Y synovectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Doherty, Jim, E-mail: jim.odoherty@kcl.ac.uk [Department of Medical Physics-Nuclear Medicine, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford GU2 7XX, United Kingdom and Division of Imaging Sciences, PET Imaging Centre at St. Thomas’ Hospital, King' s College London, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom); Clauss, Ralf [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford GU2 7XX (United Kingdom); Scuffham, James [Department of Medical Physics-Nuclear Medicine, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford GU2 7XX (United Kingdom); Khan, Aman [Department of Rheumatology, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford GU2 7XX (United Kingdom); Petitguillaume, Alice; Desbrée, Aurélie [Service de Dosimétrie Interne, Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, 92260 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Lipoma arborescens (LA) is a benign intra-articular lipomatous proliferation of the synovial membrane. This extremely rare condition has previously been treated by intra-articular{sup 90}Y radiosynoviorthesis but dosimetry literature on this form of radionuclide therapy is nonexistent. The authors detail methodology for successful treatment of LA and provide for the first time estimates of radiation dosimetry. The authors also analyze the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical over the course of the patient's treatment through sequential imaging. Methods: A patient with bilateral LA underwent intracavity injection of{sup 90}Y citrate colloid to the right and left knee joint spaces (181 and 198 MBq, respectively). SPECT/CT datasets were acquired over 9 days to quantify the biodistribution and kinetics of the radiopharmaceutical. Radiation dosimetry was performed using the MIRD schema (through OLINDA software), a custom voxel-based method, and a direct Monte Carlo calculation (OEDIPE). Results: Follow-up MRI showed marked reduction in LA size in both knees. Mean absorbed doses to the LA were 21.2 ± 0.8 and 42.9 ± 2.3 Gy using OLINDA, 8.1 ± 0.3 and 16.7 ± 0.5 Gy using voxel based methodology, and 8.2 ± 0.3 and 15.7 ± 0.5 Gy for OEDIPE in the right and left LA, respectively. Distribution of the radiopharmaceutical within the joint space alters over the imaging period, with less than 1% of the remaining activity having moved posteriorly in the knee cavity. No uptake was detected outside of the joint space after assessment with whole-body scintigraphy. Conclusions: An activity of approximately 185 MBq successfully relieved clinical symptoms of LA. There was good correlation between direct Monte Carlo and voxel based techniques, but OLINDA was shown to overestimate the absorbed dose to the tumor. Accurate dosimetry may help select an activity more tailored to the specific size and location of the LA.

  4. Practical IMRT QA dosimetry using Gafchromic film: a quick start guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennie, Nick; Metcalfe, Peter

    2016-06-01

    This work outlines a method for using Gafchromic film for dosimetry purposes, by scanning it with currently available commercial scanners. The scanners used were: Epson V800, Epson V700, Epson V37 series, specifically a V370 and a Canon multi-function office printer/scanner. The Epson scanners have 16 bit RGB resolution, the Canon has 8 bit RGB (Red Green Blue) resolution, and the V800 and V700 allow scanning in transmission mode. The V700 uses an Epson White Cold Cathode Florescent Lamp; the recently released V800 uses an Epson light emitting diode (LED) light source, while the V37 series uses a reflective mode and the Epson LED light source. The Epson V37 series scanners are designed for non-professional use so the cost has been kept at a low "entry level" point, so they would be a suitable option for a department wanting to use Gafchromic film or with limited needs that did not justify a more sophisticated and expensive unit. Note that the V800 or V700 scanners are not expensive in context, costing approximately the same as a 25 sheet box of Gafchromic film. The Canon was included to demonstrate that a scanner with 8 bit RGB resolution can be used for dosimetry. These general multi-function units are available in most departments, and they would allow Gafchromic film to be evaluated as a dosimetry tool without a significant investment. Furthermore, they are generally capable of scanning large format film (425 × 350 mm) in one part. Although this is not necessary for dosimetry, it is often useful for machine QA, where dividing the film into two parts to ensure accurate measurements is not practical. Moreover, this analytical method uses software that is freely or commonly available, particularly the image processing package ImageJ. Note ImageJ v1.48 was the version used. The results demonstrate that this method used with the scanners evaluated is a practical method of using Gafchromic film as a dosimeter for IMRT QA.

  5. The software life cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Ince, Darrel

    1990-01-01

    The Software Life Cycle deals with the software lifecycle, that is, what exactly happens when software is developed. Topics covered include aspects of software engineering, structured techniques of software development, and software project management. The use of mathematics to design and develop computer systems is also discussed. This book is comprised of 20 chapters divided into four sections and begins with an overview of software engineering and software development, paying particular attention to the birth of software engineering and the introduction of formal methods of software develop

  6. On line CALDose{sub X}: real time Monte Carlo calculation via Internet for dosimetry in radiodiagnostic; CALDose{sub X} online: Calculos de Monte Carlo em tempo real via Internet para dosimetria em radiodiagnostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Richard; Cassola, Vagner Ferreira; Lira, Carlos Alberto Brayner de Oliveira; Khoury, Helen Jamil, E-mail: rkramer@uol.com.b, E-mail: vagner.cassola@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Cavalcanti, Arthur; Lins, Rafael Dueire, E-mail: rdl@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Geociencias. Dept. de Eletronica e Sistemas

    2011-10-26

    The CALDose{sub X} 4.1 is a software which uses thr MASH and FASH phantoms. Patient dosimetry with reference phantoms is limited because the results can be applied only for patients which possess the same body mass and right height that the reference phantom. In this paper, the dosimetry of patients for diagnostic with X ray was extended by using a series of 18 phantoms with defined gender, different body masses and heights, in order to cover the real anatomy of the patients. It is possible to calculate absorbed doses in organs and tissues by real time Monte Carlo dosimetry through the Internet through a dosimetric service called CALDose{sub X} on line

  7. Dosimetry in HDR brachytherapy with Fricke-gel layers and Fricke-gel catheters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambarini, G; Carrara, M; Negri, A; Invernizzi, M; Tenconi, C; Scotti, A; Pirola, L; Borroni, M; Tomatis, S; Fallai, C, E-mail: grazia.gambarini@mi.infn.i

    2010-11-01

    Fricke-gel layer dosimeters (FGLD) and Fricke gel dosimetric catheters (FGDC) have been designed and tested with the aim of enquiring their suitability for HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy source control and for in-vivo dose verification during treatment. Anisotropy function measurements have been carried out with FGLDs in which a thin plastic tube has been placed in for the {sup 192}Ir source insertion. FGDCs are constituted by plastic tubes (3 mm of external diameter and 13 cm of length) filled with the dosimeter-gel. Absorbed dose images and profiles were attained by means of optical analysis. Dedicated software has been developed both for achieving anisotropy function values and for obtaining reliable results in visible light absorbance measurements across the thin cylindrical dosimeters. Preparation and analysis procedures have been optimised. The results confirm that the proposed methods are very promising for HDR brachytherapy dosimetry.

  8. Radiation protection dosimetry in medicine - Report of the working group n.9 of the European radiation dosimetry group (EURADOS) - coordinated network for radiation dosimetry (CONRAD - contract EC N) fp6-12684; Dosimetrie pour la radioprotection en milieu medical - rapport du groupe de travail n. 9 du European radiation dosimetry group (EURADOS) - coordinated netword for radiation dosimetry (CONRAD - contrat CE fp6-12684)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This report present the results achieved within the frame of the work the WP 7 (Radiation Protection Dosimetry of Medical Staff) of the coordination action CONRAD (Coordinated Network for Radiation Dosimetry) funded through the 6. EU Framework Program. This action was coordinated by EURADOS (European Radiation Dosimetry Group). EURADOS is an organization founded in 1981 to advance the scientific understanding and the technical development of the dosimetry of ionising radiation in the fields of radiation protection, radiobiology, radiation therapy and medical diagnosis by promoting collaboration between European laboratories. WP7 coordinates and promotes European research for the assessment of occupational exposures to staff in therapeutic and diagnostic radiology workplaces. Research is coordinated through sub-groups covering three specific areas: 1. Extremity dosimetry in nuclear medicine and interventional radiology: this sub-group coordinates investigations in the specific fields of the hospitals and studies of doses to different parts of the hands, arms, legs and feet; 2. Practice of double dosimetry: this sub-group reviews and evaluates the different methods and algorithms for the use of dosemeters placed above and below lead aprons in large exposure during interventional radiology procedures, especially to determine effective doses to cardiologists during cardiac catheterization; and 3. Use of electronic personal dosemeters in interventional radiology: this sub-group coordinates investigations in laboratories and hospitals, and intercomparisons with passive dosemeters with the aim to enable the formulation of standards. (authors)

  9. SIXTH ERDA WORKSHOP ON PERSONNEL NEUTRON DOSIMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallario, E. J.; Hankins, D. E.; Bramson, P. E.

    1977-07-11

    This workshop was the sixth of a series and was held on July 11 and 12, 1977, at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Those presenting papers at the Sixth Workshop prepared summary reports of their recent work for inclusion in this document. The reports are reproduced here as submitted by the participants, with only minor editing. This year's Workshop took a decidedly international flavor, with participants from seven countries in addition to the United States. The significance of this group's contributions has raised the possibility that the next Neutron Dosimetry Workshop may be held in Europe. Of particular interest at the Workshop was the keynote address by Dr. Harald Rossi. He commented that there is evidence that 1) accepted values of RBE for low absorbed doses of neutrons may be low by an order of magnitude or more and 2) the risk of leukemia is significant at 0.5 rad to the bone narrow. A reduction of the limit for permissible neutron exposure, which could result from consideration of this information, would necessitate major improvements in our "middle ages" neutron dosimetry. A number of participants reported conversions to thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) systems. This move has not been unanimous, however, as there were several reports of apparently satisfactory fission fragment, activation foil, and NTA film dosimeters. While thementionof NTA film resulted in the usual discussion of energy cut off and humidity effects, it seems the use of NTA in accelerator environments still has some merit. Discussion of fission fragment dosimeters centered around track etching techniques, which have shown some improvement. Of particular interest was Tommasino's report on the use of polycarbonate centrifuge tubes as the sensitive element. Thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE), never very popular for personnel dosimetry, has lost additional ground with the report that the neutron/gamma response ratio is much less than

  10. A probabilistic gastrointestinal tract dosimetry model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Chulhaeng

    In internal dosimetry, the tissues of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract represent one of the most radiosensitive organs of the body with the hematopoietic bone marrow. Endoscopic ultrasound is a unique tool to acquire in-vivo data on GI tract wall thicknesses of sufficient resolution needed in radiation dosimetry studies. Through their different echo texture and intensity, five layers of differing echo patterns for superficial mucosa, deep mucosa, submucosa, muscularis propria and serosa exist within the walls of organs composing the alimentary tract. Thicknesses for stomach mucosa ranged from 620 +/- 150 mum to 1320 +/- 80 mum (total stomach wall thicknesses from 2.56 +/- 0.12 to 4.12 +/- 0.11 mm). Measurements made for the rectal images revealed rectal mucosal thicknesses from 150 +/- 90 mum to 670 +/- 110 mum (total rectal wall thicknesses from 2.01 +/- 0.06 to 3.35 +/- 0.46 mm). The mucosa thus accounted for 28 +/- 3% and 16 +/- 6% of the total thickness of the stomach and rectal wall, respectively. Radiation transport simulations were then performed using the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code (MCNP) 4C transport code to calculate S values (Gy/Bq-s) for penetrating and nonpenetrating radiations such as photons, beta particles, conversion electrons and auger electrons of selected nuclides, I123, I131, Tc 99m and Y90 under two source conditions: content and mucosa sources, respectively. The results of this study demonstrate generally good agreement with published data for the stomach mucosa wall. The rectal mucosa data are consistently higher than published data compared with the large intestine due to different radiosensitive cell thicknesses (350 mum vs. a range spanning from 149 mum to 729 mum) and different geometry when a rectal content source is considered. Generally, the ICRP models have been designed to predict the amount of radiation dose in the human body from a "typical" or "reference" individual in a given population. The study has been performed to

  11. Cooling rate effects in thermoluminescence dosimetry grade lithium flouride. Implications for practical dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, E W; McKinlay, A F; Clark, I

    1976-01-01

    A systematic investigation of the effects of cooling rates in the range of 10(-1) to 2 X 10(5) degrees C min-1 applied to TLD-700, LiF thermoluminescence dosemeters has shown that the 'transfer sensitivity' effect observed by Booth, Johnson and Attix (1972) is only of importance for cooling rates greater than 10(3) degrees C min-1. Although it is concluded that for practical dosimetry purposes the effect may be ignored it is not clear why Booth et al. observed such large changes and until this discrepancy is explained it is recommended that a low temperature pre-irradiation anneal should be used.

  12. Amalgamation of Personal Software Process in Software ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    evolutionary series of personal software engineering techniques that an engineer learns and ... Article History: Received : 30-04- ... began to realize that software process, plans and methodologies for ..... Executive Strategy. Addison-Wesley ...

  13. Software attribute visualization for high integrity software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollock, G.M.

    1998-03-01

    This report documents a prototype tool developed to investigate the use of visualization and virtual reality technologies for improving software surety confidence. The tool is utilized within the execution phase of the software life cycle. It provides a capability to monitor an executing program against prespecified requirements constraints provided in a program written in the requirements specification language SAGE. The resulting Software Attribute Visual Analysis Tool (SAVAnT) also provides a technique to assess the completeness of a software specification.

  14. Ontologies for software engineering and software technology

    CERN Document Server

    Calero, Coral; Piattini, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Covers two applications of ontologies in software engineering and software technology: sharing knowledge of the problem domain and using a common terminology among all stakeholders; and filtering the knowledge when defining models and metamodels. This book is of benefit to software engineering researchers in both academia and industry.

  15. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2010-04-01

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with requirements of 10 CFR 835, the DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program, the DOE Richland Operations Office, DOE Office of River Protection, DOE Pacific Northwest Office of Science, and Hanford’s DOE contractors. The dosimetry system is operated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hanford External Dosimetry Program which provides dosimetry services to PNNL and all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since its inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. The first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture database was designated Revision 0. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving significant changes to all chapters in the document. Revision

  16. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2011-04-04

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with requirements of 10 CFR 835, the DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program, the DOE Richland Operations Office, DOE Office of River Protection, DOE Pacific Northwest Office of Science, and Hanford’s DOE contractors. The dosimetry system is operated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hanford External Dosimetry Program which provides dosimetry services to PNNL and all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since its inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. The first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture database was designated Revision 0. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving significant changes to all chapters in the document. Revision

  17. Dosimetry in nuclear power plants; Dosimetria en centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lastra B, J. A. [CFE, Central Laguna Verde, Km. 42.5 Carretera Cardel-Nautla, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2008-12-15

    To control the occupationally exposed personnel dose working at the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant, two types of dosemeters are used, the thermoluminescent (TLD) which is processed monthly, and the direct reading dosemeter that is electronic and works as daily control of personal dose. In the case of the electronic dosemeters of direct reading conventional, the readings and dose automatic registers and the user identity to which he was assigned to each dosemeter was to carry out the restricted area exit. In activities where the ionizing radiation sources are not fully characterized, it is necessary to relocate the personal dosemeter or assigned auxiliary dosemeters (TLDs and electronics) to determine the dose received by the user to both whole body and in any specific area of it. In jobs more complicated are used a tele dosimetry system where the radiation protection technician can be monitoring the user dose to remote control, the data transmission is by radio. The dosimetry activities are documented in procedures that include dosemeter inventories realization, the equipment and dosemeters calibration, the dosimetry quality control and the discrepancies investigation between the direct reading and TLD systems. TLD dosimetry to have technical expertise in direct and indirect dosimetry and two technicians in TLD dosimetry; electronic dosimetry to have 4 calibration technicians. For the electronic dosemeters are based on a calibrator source of Cesium-137. TLD dosemeters to have an automatic radiator, an automatic reader which can read up to 100 TLD dosemeters per hour and a semiautomatic reader. To keep the equipment under a quality process was development a process of initial entry into service and carried out a periodic verification of the heating cycles. It also has a maintenance contract for the equipment directly with the manufacturer to ensure their proper functioning. The vision in perspective of the dosimetry services of Laguna Verde nuclear power plant

  18. Macroscopic to Microscopic Scales of Particulate Dosimetry: From Source to Fate in the Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Additional perspective with regards to particle dosimetry is achieved by exploring dosimetry across a range of scales from macroscopic to microscopic in scope. Typically, one thinks of dosimetry as what happens when a particle is inhaled, where it is deposited, and how it is clea...

  19. Trends of personal dosimetry at atomic power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamura, Seini [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo Factory, Radiation Equipment Department, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    The individual dosimetry at the atomic power station is sorted for monthly dosimetry, daily dosimetry and special job dosimetry in high dose circumstance. Film badge (passive dosimeter) can measure gamma dose, beta dose and neutron dose respectively lower than about 0.1 mSv. While workers are in the radiation controlled area, they have to wear the dosimeters and the individual dose is accumulated for every one month. Recently the Silicon semiconductors detecting beta ray and neutron have been developed. With microcircuit technology and these new sensors, new multiple function dosimeter of the card size had been put to practical use. The result of dose measurement obtained by the electronic dosimeter is consistent well with the measurement of usual film badge and new dosimeter can determine the dose as low as 0.01 mSv. The result is stored in the non-volatile memory in the electronic personal dosimeter and held for more than one year without the power supply. The function to read data directly from the memory improves the reliability of the data protection. The realization of the unified radiation control system that uses the electronic personal dosimeter for monthly dosimetry is expected. (J.P.N.)

  20. Controlling Software Piracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Albert S.

    1992-01-01

    Explains what software manufacturers are doing to combat software piracy, recommends how managers should deal with this problem, and provides a role-playing exercise to help students understand the issues in software piracy. (SR)

  1. Space Flight Software Development Software for Intelligent System Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Luis C.; Crumbley, Tim

    2004-01-01

    The slide presentation examines the Marshall Space Flight Center Flight Software Branch, including software development projects, mission critical space flight software development, software technical insight, advanced software development technologies, and continuous improvement in the software development processes and methods.

  2. Software Engineering Guidebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, John; Wenneson, Greg

    1993-01-01

    The Software Engineering Guidebook describes SEPG (Software Engineering Process Group) supported processes and techniques for engineering quality software in NASA environments. Three process models are supported: structured, object-oriented, and evolutionary rapid-prototyping. The guidebook covers software life-cycles, engineering, assurance, and configuration management. The guidebook is written for managers and engineers who manage, develop, enhance, and/or maintain software under the Computer Software Services Contract.

  3. Millimeter wave dosimetry of human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, S I; Radzievsky, A A; Logani, M K; Ziskin, M C

    2008-01-01

    To identify the mechanisms of biological effects of mm waves it is important to develop accurate methods for evaluating absorption and penetration depth of mm waves in the epidermis and dermis. The main characteristics of mm wave skin dosimetry were calculated using a homogeneous unilayer model and two multilayer models of skin. These characteristics included reflection, power density (PD), penetration depth (delta), and specific absorption rate (SAR). The parameters of the models were found from fitting the models to the experimental data obtained from measurements of mm wave reflection from human skin. The forearm and palm data were used to model the skin with thin and thick stratum corneum (SC), respectively. The thin SC produced little influence on the interaction of mm waves with skin. On the contrary, the thick SC in the palm played the role of a matching layer and significantly reduced reflection. In addition, the palmar skin manifested a broad peak in reflection within the 83-277 GHz range. The viable epidermis plus dermis, containing a large amount of free water, greatly attenuated mm wave energy. Therefore, the deeper fat layer had little effect on the PD and SAR profiles. We observed the appearance of a moderate SAR peak in the therapeutic frequency range (42-62 GHz) within the skin at a depth of 0.3-0.4 mm. Millimeter waves penetrate into the human skin deep enough (delta = 0.65 mm at 42 GHz) to affect most skin structures located in the epidermis and dermis.

  4. Artificial neural networks in neutron dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H.R.; Hernandez D, V.M.; Manzanares A, E.; Mercado, G.A.; Perales M, W.A.; Robles R, J.A. [Unidades Academicas de Estudios Nucleares, UAZ, A.P. 336, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico); Gallego, E.; Lorente, A. [Depto. de Ingenieria Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    An artificial neural network has been designed to obtain the neutron doses using only the Bonner spheres spectrometer's count rates. Ambient, personal and effective neutron doses were included. 187 neutron spectra were utilized to calculate the Bonner count rates and the neutron doses. The spectra were transformed from lethargy to energy distribution and were re-binned to 31 energy groups using the MCNP 4C code. Re-binned spectra, UTA4 response matrix and fluence-to-dose coefficients were used to calculate the count rates in Bonner spheres spectrometer and the doses. Count rates were used as input and the respective doses were used as output during neural network training. Training and testing was carried out in Mat lab environment. The artificial neural network performance was evaluated using the {chi}{sup 2}- test, where the original and calculated doses were compared. The use of Artificial Neural Networks in neutron dosimetry is an alternative procedure that overcomes the drawbacks associated in this ill-conditioned problem. (Author)

  5. Calibration facility for environment dosimetry instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bercea, Sorin; Celarel, Aurelia; Cenusa, Constantin [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, 30 Reactorului St, Magurele, Jud Ilfov, P.O.B. MG-6, RO-077125 (Romania)

    2013-12-16

    In the last ten years, the nuclear activities, as well as the major nuclear events (see Fukushima accident) had an increasing impact on the environment, merely by contamination with radioactive materials. The most conferment way to quickly identify the presence of some radioactive elements in the environment, is to measure the dose-equivalent rate H. In this situation, information concerning the values of H due only to the natural radiation background must exist. Usually, the values of H due to the natural radiation background, are very low (∼10{sup −9} - 10{sup −8} Sv/h). A correct measurement of H in this range involve a performing calibration of the measuring instruments in the measuring range corresponding to the natural radiation background lead to important problems due to the presence of the natural background itself the best way to overlap this difficulty is to set up the calibration stand in an area with very low natural radiation background. In Romania, we identified an area with such special conditions at 200 m dept, in a salt mine. This paper deals with the necessary requirements for such a calibration facility, as well as with the calibration stand itself. The paper includes also, a description of the calibration stand (and images) as well as the radiological and metrological parameters. This calibration facilities for environment dosimetry is one of the few laboratories in this field in Europe.

  6. Beta-particle dosimetry in radiation synovectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Yanch, J.C. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Shortkroff, S. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Brigham and Women`s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Barnes, C.L. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Brigham and Women`s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Spitzer, A.I. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Brigham and Women`s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Sledge, C.B. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Brigham and Women`s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Beta-particle dosimetry of various radionuclides used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis was estimated using Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation coupled with experiments using reactor-produced radionuclides and radiachromic film dosimeters inserted into joint phantoms and the knees of cadavers. Results are presented as absorbed dose factors (cGy-cm{sup 2}/MBq-s) versus depth in a mathematical model of the rheumatoid joint which includes regions of bone, articular cartilage, joint capsule, and tissue (synovium) found in all synovial joints. The factors can be used to estimate absorbed dose and dose rate distributions in treated joints. In particular, guidance is provided for those interested in (a) a given radionuclide`s therapeutic range, (b) the amount of radioactivity to administer on a case-by-case basis, (c) the expected therapeutic dose to synovium, and (d) the radiation dose imparted to other, nontarget components in the joint, including bone and articular cartilage. (orig.). With 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Dosimetry of radioiodine for embryo and fetus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkovski, V.; Eckerman, K.F.; Phipps, A.W.; Nosske, D

    2003-07-01

    This paper discusses the biokinetic and dosimetric models adopted in ICRP Publication 88 for the evaluation of fetal doses resulting from maternal intakes of radioiodine. The biokinetic model is used to simulate the behaviour of iodine in both the mother and the fetus. Such simulations provide the basis for the estimation of the dose to the embryo and determine the distribution of maternal iodine at the beginning of the fetal period. The model considers iodine to accumulate in the fetal thyroid from the 11th week. The dose to the fetus delivered following birth is evaluated with the biokinetic and dosimetric models described in ICRP Publication 67. Although a substantial fraction of the emitted energy of electrons and photons is less than 10 keV, conventionally assumed to be non-penetrating radiation, these emissions can escape the small fetal thyroid. Absorbed fractions for both self-dose and crossfire were evaluated for the requirements of radioiodine dosimetry in ICRP Publication 88. (author)

  8. Oxygen measurements to improve singlet oxygen dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Michele M.; Penjweini, Rozhin; Ong, Yi Hong; Finlay, Jarod C.; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2017-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves interactions between the three main components of light fluence, photosensitizer concentration, and oxygenation. Currently, singlet oxygen explicit dosimetry (SOED) has focused on the first two of these components. The macroscopic model to calculate reacted singlet oxygen has previously involved a fixed initial ground state oxygen concentration. A phosphorescence-based oxygen probe was used to measure ground state oxygen concentration throughout treatments for mice bearing radioactively induced fibroscarcoma tumors. Photofrin-, BPD-, and HPPH-mediated PDT was performed on mice. Model-calculated oxygen and measured oxygen was compared to evaluate the macroscopic model as well as the photochemical parameters involved. Oxygen measurements at various depths were compared to calculated values. Furthermore, we explored the use of noninvasive diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) to measure tumor blood flow changes in response to PDT to improve the model calculation of reacted singlet oxygen. Mice were monitored after treatment to see the effect of oxygenation on long-term recurrence-free survival as well as the efficacy of using reacted singlet oxygen as a predictive measure of outcome. Measurement of oxygenation during treatment helps to improve SOED as well as confirm the photochemical parameters involved in the macroscopic model. Use of DCS in predicting oxygenation changes was also investigated.

  9. Reactor dosimetry and RPV life management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belousov, S.; Ilieva, K.; Mitev, M. [Inst. for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tsarigradsko 72, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-07-01

    Reactor dosimetry (RD) is a tool that provides data for neutron fluence accumulated over the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) during the reactor operation. This information, however, is not sufficient for RPV lifetime assessment. The life management of RPV is a multidisciplinary task. To assess whether the RPV steel properties at the current stage (for actual accumulated neutron fluence) of reactor operation are still 'safe enough,' the dependence of material properties on the fluence must be known; this is a task for material science (MS). Moreover, the mechanical loading over the RPV during normal operation and accidence have to be known, as well, for evaluation, if the RPV material integrity in this loading condition and existing cracks is provided. The crack loading path in terms of stress intensity factor is carried out by structural analyses (SA). Pressure and temperature distribution over RPV used in these analyses are obtained from a thermal hydraulic (TH) calculation. The conjunction of RD and other disciplines in RPV integrity assessment is analyzed in accordance with the FFP (fitness for purpose) approach. It could help to improve the efficiency in multi-disciplinary tasks solutions. (authors)

  10. Calibration facility for environment dosimetry instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercea, Sorin; Celarel, Aurelia; Cenusa, Constantin

    2013-12-01

    In the last ten years, the nuclear activities, as well as the major nuclear events (see Fukushima accident) had an increasing impact on the environment, merely by contamination with radioactive materials. The most conferment way to quickly identify the presence of some radioactive elements in the environment, is to measure the dose-equivalent rate H. In this situation, information concerning the values of H due only to the natural radiation background must exist. Usually, the values of H due to the natural radiation background, are very low (˜10-9 - 10-8 Sv/h). A correct measurement of H in this range involve a performing calibration of the measuring instruments in the measuring range corresponding to the natural radiation background lead to important problems due to the presence of the natural background itself the best way to overlap this difficulty is to set up the calibration stand in an area with very low natural radiation background. In Romania, we identified an area with such special conditions at 200 m dept, in a salt mine. This paper deals with the necessary requirements for such a calibration facility, as well as with the calibration stand itself. The paper includes also, a description of the calibration stand (and images) as well as the radiological and metrological parameters. This calibration facilities for environment dosimetry is one of the few laboratories in this field in Europe.

  11. Development and application of a complex numerical model and software for the computation of dose conversion factors for radon progenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Árpád; Balásházy, Imre

    2015-04-01

    A more exact determination of dose conversion factors associated with radon progeny inhalation was possible due to the advancements in epidemiological health risk estimates in the last years. The enhancement of computational power and the development of numerical techniques allow computing dose conversion factors with increasing reliability. The objective of this study was to develop an integrated model and software based on a self-developed airway deposition code, an own bronchial dosimetry model and the computational methods accepted by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to calculate dose conversion coefficients for different exposure conditions. The model was tested by its application for exposure and breathing conditions characteristic of mines and homes. The dose conversion factors were 8 and 16 mSv WLM(-1) for homes and mines when applying a stochastic deposition model combined with the ICRP dosimetry model (named PM-A model), and 9 and 17 mSv WLM(-1) when applying the same deposition model combined with authors' bronchial dosimetry model and the ICRP bronchiolar and alveolar-interstitial dosimetry model (called PM-B model). User friendly software for the computation of dose conversion factors has also been developed. The software allows one to compute conversion factors for a large range of exposure and breathing parameters and to perform sensitivity analyses. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Implementation of IMRT and VMAT using Delta4 phantom and portal dosimetry as dosimetry verification tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daci, Lulzime, E-mail: lulzime.daci@nodlandssykehuset.no [Nordland Hospital Trust, Bodø (Norway); Malkaj, Partizan, E-mail: malkaj-p@hotmail.com [Faculty of Mathematics Engineering and Physics Engineering, Polytechnic University of Tirana (Albania)

    2016-03-25

    In this study we analyzed and compared the dose distribution of different IMRT and VMAT plans with the intent to provide pre-treatment quality assurance using two different tools. Materials/Methods: We have used the electronic portal imaging device EPID after calibration to dose and correction for the background offset signal and also the Delta4 phantom after en evaluation of angular sensitivity. The Delta4 phantom has a two-dimensional array with ionization chambers. We analyzed three plans for each anatomical site calculated by Eclipse treatment planning system. The measurements were analyzed using γ-evaluation method with passing criteria 3% absolute dose and 3 mm distance to agreement (DTA). For all the plans the range of score has been from 97% to 99% for gantry fixed at 0° while for rotational planes there was a slightly decreased pass rates and above 95%. Point measurement with a ionization chamber were done in additional to see the accuracy of portal dosimetry and to evaluate the Delta4 device to various dose rates. Conclusions: Both Delt4 and Portal dosimetry shows good results between the measured and calculated doses. While Delta4 is more accurate in measurements EPID is more time efficient. We have decided to use both methods in the first steps of IMRT and VMAT implementation and later on to decide which of the tools to use depending on the complexity of plans, how much accurate we want to be and the time we have on the machine.

  13. Implementation of IMRT and VMAT using Delta4 phantom and portal dosimetry as dosimetry verification tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daci, Lulzime; Malkaj, Partizan

    2016-03-01

    In this study we analyzed and compared the dose distribution of different IMRT and VMAT plans with the intent to provide pre-treatment quality assurance using two different tools. Materials/Methods: We have used the electronic portal imaging device EPID after calibration to dose and correction for the background offset signal and also the Delta4 phantom after en evaluation of angular sensitivity. The Delta4 phantom has a two-dimensional array with ionization chambers. We analyzed three plans for each anatomical site calculated by Eclipse treatment planning system. The measurements were analyzed using γ-evaluation method with passing criteria 3% absolute dose and 3 mm distance to agreement (DTA). For all the plans the range of score has been from 97% to 99% for gantry fixed at 0° while for rotational planes there was a slightly decreased pass rates and above 95%. Point measurement with a ionization chamber were done in additional to see the accuracy of portal dosimetry and to evaluate the Delta4 device to various dose rates. Conclusions: Both Delt4 and Portal dosimetry shows good results between the measured and calculated doses. While Delta4 is more accurate in measurements EPID is more time efficient. We have decided to use both methods in the first steps of IMRT and VMAT implementation and later on to decide which of the tools to use depending on the complexity of plans, how much accurate we want to be and the time we have on the machine.

  14. Software and systems traceability

    CERN Document Server

    Cleland-Huang, Jane; Zisman, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    ""Software and Systems Traceability"" provides a comprehensive description of the practices and theories of software traceability across all phases of the software development lifecycle. The term software traceability is derived from the concept of requirements traceability. Requirements traceability is the ability to track a requirement all the way from its origins to the downstream work products that implement that requirement in a software system. Software traceability is defined as the ability to relate the various types of software artefacts created during the development of software syst

  15. On the clinical applicability of large-area 2-D TL dosimetry for verifying small photon radiotherapy beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabat, D.; Nahajowski, D.; Gora, E.; Rozwadowska-Bogusz, B.; Lesiak, J.; Polak, B. [Centre of Oncology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Institute, Krakow Branch, Garncarska 11, 31-115 Krakow (Poland); Czopyk, L.; Olko, P. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN), Krakow (Poland); Waligorski, M.P.R. [Centre of Oncology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Institute, Krakow Branch, Garncarska 11, 31-115 Krakow (Poland); Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN), Krakow (Poland)], E-mail: z5waligo@cyf-kr.edu.pl

    2008-02-15

    A two-dimensional (2-D) thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry system consisting of LiF:Mg,Cu,P (MCP-N)-ETFE (Teflon)-based TL foils and a large-area TLD reader equipped with a CCD camera, has been developed at the Institute of Nuclear Physics (IFJ PAN). At our radiotherapy department we tested the applicability of this system to verify 2-D dose distributions in a multileaf collimator-shaped 6 MV radiotherapy beam of size about 3x3cm{sup 2}. Water-immersible TL foils, of size 50x50mm{sup 2}, c. 0.2 mm thickness and density 1.95g/cm{sup 3} were placed in a water phantom and exposed at different depths, across or along the beam axis, read out using a 2-D TL reader equipped with a CCD camera and processed by reader software, yielding respective beam dose profiles in digital matrix form. We were also able to further process these matrices with the software of the therapy planning system (TPS) which we use routinely for clinical purposes. Satisfactory agreement found between dose distributions measured as percent depth dose or transverse beam profiles at different depths and respective distributions calculated by the TPS, confirms that the 2-D TL dosimetry is a promising technique for quality assurance of radiotherapy beams where steep dose gradients may occur over small field areas.

  16. Maximizing ROI on software development

    CERN Document Server

    Sikka, Vijay

    2004-01-01

    A brief review of software development history. Software complexity crisis. Software development ROI. The case for global software development and testing. Software quality and test ROI. How do you implement global software development and testing. Case studies.

  17. Applied physics of external radiation exposure dosimetry and radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    Antoni, Rodolphe

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the interaction of living matter with photons, neutrons, charged particles, electrons and ions. The authors are specialists in the field of radiation protection. The book synthesizes many years of experiments with external radiation exposure in the fields of dosimetry and radiation shielding in medical, industrial and research fields. It presents the basic physical concepts including dosimetry and offers a number of tools to be used by students, engineers and technicians to assess the radiological risk and the means to avoid them by calculating the appropriate shields. The theory of radiation interaction in matter is presented together with empirical formulas and abacus. Numerous numerical applications are treated to illustrate the different topics. The state of the art in radiation protection and dosimetry is presented in detail, especially in the field of simulation codes for external exposure to radiation, medical projects and advanced research. Moreover, important data spread in differ...

  18. RCT: Module 2.04, Dosimetry, Course 8769

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillmer, Kurt T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-11

    This course will introduce the types of instruments used to measure external and internal radiation to people. Dosimetry is the quantitative assessment of radiation received by the human body. Several types of dosimeters are used worldwide. This information is valuable to all radiological control personnel because dosimeters are the only direct method to measure and document personnel radiation exposure and ensure regulatory compliance with applicable limits. This course will cover dosimetry terms, Department of Energy (DOE) limits, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) administrative guidelines, thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), LANL dosimetry, and bioassay assessment methods. This course will prepare the student with the skills necessary for radiological control technician (RCT) qualification by passing quizzes, tests, and the RCT Comprehensive Phase 1, Unit 2 Examination (TEST 27566) and providing in-thefield skills.

  19. An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for the ICRP reference adult female—internal electron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Shannon E.; DeWeese, Lindsay S.; Maynard, Matthew R.; Rajon, Didier A.; Wayson, Michael B.; Marshall, Emily L.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2016-12-01

    An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for internal electron sources was created for the ICRP-defined reference adult female. Many previous skeletal dosimetry models, which are still employed in commonly used internal dosimetry software, do not properly account for electron escape from trabecular spongiosa, electron cross-fire from cortical bone, and the impact of marrow cellularity on active marrow self-irradiation. Furthermore, these existing models do not employ the current ICRP definition of a 50 µm bone endosteum (or shallow marrow). Each of these limitations was addressed in the present study. Electron transport was completed to determine specific absorbed fractions to both active and shallow marrow of the skeletal regions of the University of Florida reference adult female. The skeletal macrostructure and microstructure were modeled separately. The bone macrostructure was based on the whole-body hybrid computational phantom of the UF series of reference models, while the bone microstructure was derived from microCT images of skeletal region samples taken from a 45 years-old female cadaver. The active and shallow marrow are typically adopted as surrogate tissue regions for the hematopoietic stem cells and osteoprogenitor cells, respectively. Source tissues included active marrow, inactive marrow, trabecular bone volume, trabecular bone surfaces, cortical bone volume, and cortical bone surfaces. Marrow cellularity was varied from 10 to 100 percent for active marrow self-irradiation. All other sources were run at the defined ICRP Publication 70 cellularity for each bone site. A total of 33 discrete electron energies, ranging from 1 keV to 10 MeV, were either simulated or analytically modeled. The method of combining skeletal macrostructure and microstructure absorbed fractions assessed using MCNPX electron transport was found to yield results similar to those determined with the PIRT model applied to the UF adult male skeletal dosimetry model. Calculated

  20. A practical three-dimensional dosimetry system for radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Pengyi; Adamovics, John; Oldham, Mark

    2006-10-01

    There is a pressing need for a practical three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry system, convenient for clinical use, and with the accuracy and resolution to enable comprehensive verification of the complex dose distributions typical of modern radiation therapy. Here we introduce a dosimetry system that can achieve this challenge, consisting of a radiochromic dosimeter (PRESAGE) and a commercial optical computed tomography (CT) scanning system (OCTOPUS). PRESAGE is a transparent material with compelling properties for dosimetry, including insensitivity of the dose response to atmospheric exposure, a solid texture negating the need for an external container (reducing edge effects), and amenability to accurate optical CT scanning due to radiochromic optical contrast as opposed to light-scattering contrast. An evaluation of the performance and viability of the PRESAGE/OCTOPUS, combination for routine clinical 3D dosimetry is presented. The performance of the two components (scanner and dosimeter) was investigated separately prior to full system test. The optical CT scanner has a spatial resolution of OCTOPUS system was evaluated with respect to a simple known 3D dose distribution, by comparison with GAFCHROMIC EBT film and the calculated dose from a commissioned planning system. The "measured" dose distribution in a cylindrical PRESAGE dosimeter (16 cm diameter and 11 cm height) was determined by optical-CT, using a filtered backprojection reconstruction algorithm. A three-way Gamma map comparison (4% dose difference and 4 mm distance to agreement), between the PRESAGE, EBT and calculated dose distributions, showed full agreement in measurable region of PRESAGE dosimeter (approximately 90% of radius). The EBT and PRESAGE distributions agreed more closely with each other than with the calculated plan, consistent with penumbral blurring in the planning data which was acquired with an ion chamber. In summary, our results support the conclusion that the PRESAGE optical

  1. Perspectives in Medical Applications of Monte Carlo Simulation Software for Clinical Practice in Radiotherapy Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschini, Matteo; Giani, Simone; Ivanchenko, Vladimir; Rancoita, Pier-Giorgio

    2006-04-01

    We discuss the physics requirements to accurately model radiation dosimetry in the human body as performed for oncological radiotherapy treatment. Recent advancements in computing hardware and software simulation technology allow precise dose calculation in real-life imaging output, with speed suitable for clinical needs. An experimental programme, based on physics published literature, is proposed to demonstrate the actual possibility to improve the precision of radiotherapy treatment planning.

  2. Accuracy of helium accumulation fluence monitor for fast reactor dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Chikara; Aoyama, Takafumi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1998-03-01

    A helium (He) accumulation fluence monitor (HAFM) has been developed for fast reactor dosimetry. In order to evaluate the measurement accuracy of neutron fluence by the HAFM method, the HAFMs of enriched boron (B) and beryllium (Be) were irradiated in the Fast Neutron Source Reactor `YAYOI`. The number of He atoms produced in the HAFMs were measured and compared with the calculated values. As a result of this study, it was confirmed that the neutron fluence could be measured within 5 % by the HAFM method, and that met the required accuracy for fast reactor dosimetry. (author)

  3. Current state of the art brachytherapy treatment planning dosimetry algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagiannis, P; Pantelis, E; Karaiskos, P

    2014-09-01

    Following literature contributions delineating the deficiencies introduced by the approximations of conventional brachytherapy dosimetry, different model-based dosimetry algorithms have been incorporated into commercial systems for (192)Ir brachytherapy treatment planning. The calculation settings of these algorithms are pre-configured according to criteria established by their developers for optimizing computation speed vs accuracy. Their clinical use is hence straightforward. A basic understanding of these algorithms and their limitations is essential, however, for commissioning; detecting differences from conventional algorithms; explaining their origin; assessing their impact; and maintaining global uniformity of clinical practice.

  4. Thermoluminescence dosimetry of rare earth doped calcium aluminate phosphors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Madhukumar; K Rajendra Babu; K C Ajith Prasad; J James; T S Elias; V Padmanabhan; C M K Nair

    2006-04-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) properties of calcium aluminate (CaAl2O4) doped with different rare earth ions have been studied and their suitability for radiation dosimetry applications is discussed. It is observed that monocalcium aluminate doped with cerium is a good dosimeter having linear response up to about 4 kGy of radiation doses. Dopant concentration of 0.25 mol% cerium gives maximum TL emission. The well-defined single peak observed at 295°C can be advantageously used for high temperature dosimetry applications.

  5. Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program Manual, PNL-MA-552

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbaugh, Eugene H.; Bihl, Donald E.; Maclellan, Jay A.

    2009-09-24

    This manual is a guide to the services provided by the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program (IDP), which is operated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.( ) for the U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office, Office of River Protection and their Hanford Site contractors. The manual describes the roles of and relationships between the IDP and the radiation protection programs of the Hanford Site contractors. Recommendations and guidance are also provided for consideration in implementing bioassay monitoring and internal dosimetry elements of radiation protection programs.

  6. Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry. Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-01-01

    This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

  7. Applicability of superheated drop (bubble) detectors to reactor dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    d`Errico, F.; Curzio, G. [Univ. degli Studi di Pisa (Italy). Dipt. di Costruzioni Meccaniche e Nucleari; Alberts, W.G. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Apfel, R.E.; Guldbakke, S. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1994-12-31

    The characteristics of superheated drop (bubble) detectors (SDD`s) have been reviewed with respect to the possible application of these devices in reactor dosimetry. In particular, their ability to measure neutrons in the presence of a high noise level, elevated temperatures and intense {gamma} background has been investigated. Based on these studies, the use of SDD`s is proposed for the monitoring and analysis of neutron emission from spent fuel assemblies. Finally, the possibility to employ these detectors in radiation protection dosimetry around power plants is discussed.

  8. 4D dosimetry and its applications to pre-treatment quality control and real-time in vivo dosimetry of VMAT treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, F.; Wetterstedt, S. af; Bäck, S. Å. J.

    2013-06-01

    In this study, a 4D dosimetry concept was developed. This concept included a method for calculation of 3D reference absorbed dose matrices at every control point of the delivery using a clinical treatment planning system (TPS). Further, the gamma evaluation method was extended to incorporate the 4th dimension of the TPS calculated dose distributions. The applications of the 4D dosimetry concept on pre-treatment quality control and real-time in vivo dosimetry were investigated.

  9. Integration between in vivo dosimetry and image guided radiotherapy for lung tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piermattei, Angelo; Cilla, Savino; Grimaldi, Luca; Sabatino, Domenico; Fidanzio, Andrea; Greco, Francesca; Mameli, Alessandra; Balducci, Mario; Mattiucci, Gian Carlo; Frascino, Vincenzo; Stimato, Gerardina; Gaudino, Diego; Ramella, Sara; Trodella, Lucio; D'Onofrio, Guido; Zini, Giampaolo; Macchia, Gabriella; Digesu', Cinzia; Morganti, Alessio G; Clemente, Stefania; Cozzolino, Mariella; Pedicini, Piernicola; Fusco, Vincenzo

    2009-06-01

    The article reports a feasibility study about the potentiality of an in vivo dosimetry method for the adaptive radiotherapy of the lung tumors treated by 3D conformal radiotherapy techniques (3D CRTs). At the moment image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) has been used for this aim, but it requires taking many periodic radiological images during the treatment that increase workload and patient dose. In vivo dosimetry reported here can reduce the above efforts, alerting the medical staff for the commissioning of new radiological images for an eventual adaptive plan. The in vivo dosimetry method applied on 20 patients makes use of the transit signal St on the beam central axis measured by a small ion chamber positioned on an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) or by the EPID itself. The reconstructed in vivo dosimetry at the isocenter point Diso requires a convolution between the transit signal St and a dose reconstruction factor C that essentially depends on (i) tissue inhomogeneities along the beam central axis and (ii) the in-patient isocenter depth. The C factors, one for every gantry angle, are obtained by processing the patient's computed tomography scan. The method has been recently applied in some Italian centers to check the radiotherapy of pelvis, breast, head, and thorax treatments. In this work the dose reconstruction was carried out in five centers to check the Diso in the lung tumor during the 3D CRT, and the results have been used to detect the interfraction tumor anatomy variations that can require new CT imaging and an adaptive plan. In particular, in three centers a small ion chamber was positioned below the patient and used for the St measurement. In two centers, the St signal was obtained directly by 25 central pixels of an a-Si EPID, equipped with commercial software that enabled its use as a stable detector. A tolerance action level of +/- 6% for every checked beam was assumed. This means that when a difference greater than 6% between the predicted

  10. Improving Software Developer's Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsson, Pekka; Kautz, Karlheinz; Sieppi, Heikki

    2002-01-01

    Emerging agile software development methods are people oriented development approaches to be used by the software industry. The personal software process (PSP) is an accepted method for improving the capabilities of a single software engineer. Five original hypotheses regarding the impact...

  11. Ensuring Software IP Cleanliness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshad Koohgoli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available At many points in the life of a software enterprise, determination of intellectual property (IP cleanliness becomes critical. The value of an enterprise that develops and sells software may depend on how clean the software is from the IP perspective. This article examines various methods of ensuring software IP cleanliness and discusses some of the benefits and shortcomings of current solutions.

  12. Improving Software Developer's Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsson, Pekka; Kautz, Karlheinz; Sieppi, Heikki

    2002-01-01

    Emerging agile software development methods are people oriented development approaches to be used by the software industry. The personal software process (PSP) is an accepted method for improving the capabilities of a single software engineer. Five original hypotheses regarding the impact...

  13. Agile Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biju, Soly Mathew

    2008-01-01

    Many software development firms are now adopting the agile software development method. This method involves the customer at every level of software development, thus reducing the impact of change in the requirement at a later stage. In this article, the principles of the agile method for software development are explored and there is a focus on…

  14. Software distribution using xnetlib

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J.J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (US). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (US); Rowan, T.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (US); Wade, R.C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (US). Dept. of Computer Science

    1993-06-01

    Xnetlib is a new tool for software distribution. Whereas its predecessor netlib uses e-mail as the user interface to its large collection of public-domain mathematical software, xnetlib uses an X Window interface and socket-based communication. Xnetlib makes it easy to search through a large distributed collection of software and to retrieve requested software in seconds.

  15. Image Processing Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosio, M. A.

    1990-11-01

    ABSTRACT: A brief description of astronomical image software is presented. This software was developed in a Digital Micro Vax II Computer System. : St presenta una somera descripci6n del software para procesamiento de imagenes. Este software fue desarrollado en un equipo Digital Micro Vax II. : DATA ANALYSIS - IMAGE PROCESSING

  16. Agile Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biju, Soly Mathew

    2008-01-01

    Many software development firms are now adopting the agile software development method. This method involves the customer at every level of software development, thus reducing the impact of change in the requirement at a later stage. In this article, the principles of the agile method for software development are explored and there is a focus on…

  17. Software productivity improvement through software engineering technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgarry, F. E.

    1985-01-01

    It has been estimated that NASA expends anywhere from 6 to 10 percent of its annual budget on the acquisition, implementation and maintenance of computer software. Although researchers have produced numerous software engineering approaches over the past 5-10 years; each claiming to be more effective than the other, there is very limited quantitative information verifying the measurable impact htat any of these technologies may have in a production environment. At NASA/GSFC, an extended research effort aimed at identifying and measuring software techniques that favorably impact productivity of software development, has been active over the past 8 years. Specific, measurable, software development technologies have been applied and measured in a production environment. Resulting software development approaches have been shown to be effective in both improving quality as well as productivity in this one environment.

  18. Subwavelength films for standoff radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvine, Kyle J.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L.; Suter, Jonathan D.

    2015-05-22

    We present optical subwavelength nanostructure architecture suitable for standoff radiation dosimetry with remote optical readout in the visible or infrared spectral regions. To achieve this, films of subwavelength structures are fabricated over several square inches via the creation of a 2D non-close packed (NCP) array template of radiation-sensitive polymeric nanoparticles, followed by magnetron sputtering of a metallic coating to form a 2D array of separated hemispherical nanoscale metallic shells. The nanoshells are highly reflective at resonance in the visible or infrared depending on design. These structures and their behavior are based on the open ring resonator (ORR) architecture and have their analog in resonant inductive-capacitive (LC) circuits, which display a resonance wavelength that is inversely proportional to the square root of the product of the inductance and capacitance. Therefore, any modification of the nanostructure material properties due to radiation alters the inductive or capacitive behavior of the subwavelength features, which in turn changes their optical properties resulting in a shift in the optical resonance. This shift in resonance may be remotely interrogated actively using either laser illumination or passively by hyperspectral or multispectral sensing with broadband illumination. These structures may be designed to be either anisotropic or isotropic, which can also offer polarization-sensitive interrogation. We present experimental measurements of a radiation induced shift in the optical resonance of a subwavelength film after exposure to an absorbed dose of gamma radiation from 2 Mrad up to 62 Mrad demonstrating the effect. Interestingly the resonance shift is non-monotonic for this material system and possible radiation damage mechanisms to the nanoparticles are discussed.

  19. Tenth ORNL Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaja, R.E.; Chou, T.L.; Sims, C.S.; Greene, R.T.

    1985-03-01

    The Tenth Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory during April 9-11, 1984. Dosemeter badges from 31 participating organizations were mounted on 40cm Lucite phantoms and exposed to a range of dose equivalents which could be encountered during routine personnel monitoring in mixed radiation fields. The Health Physics Research Reactor served as the only source of radiation for eight of the ten irradiations which included a low (approx. 0.50 mSv) and high (approx. 10.00 mSv) neutron dose equivalent run for each of four shield conditions. Two irradiations were also conducted for which concrete- and Lucite-shield reactor irradiations were gamma-enhanced using a /sup 137/Cs source. Results indicated that some participants had difficulty obtaining measurable indication of neutron and gamma exposures at dose equivalents less than about 0.50 mSv and 0.20 mSv, respectively. Albedo dosemeters provided the best overall accuracy and precision for the neutron measurements. Direct interaction TLD systems showed significant variation in accuracy with incident spectrum, and threshold neutron dosemeters (film and recoil track) underestimated reference values by more than 50%. Gamma dose equivalents estimated in the mixed fields were higher than reference values with TL gamma dosemeters generally yielding more accurate results than film. Under the conditions of this study in which participants had information concerning exposure conditions and radiation field characteristics prior to dosemeter evaluation, only slightly more than half of all reported results met regulatory standards for neutron and gamma accuracy. 19 refs., 2 figs., 29 tabs.

  20. Subwavelength films for standoff radiation dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvine, Kyle J.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan; Suter, Jonathan D.

    2015-05-01

    We present optical subwavelength nanostructure architecture suitable for standoff radiation dosimetry with remote optical readout in the visible or infrared spectral regions. To achieve this, films of subwavelength structures are fabricated over several square inches via the creation of a 2D non-close packed (NCP) array template of radiationsensitive polymeric nanoparticles, followed by magnetron sputtering of a metallic coating to form a 2D array of separated hemispherical nanoscale metallic shells. The nanoshells are highly reflective at resonance in the visible or infrared depending on design. These structures and their behavior are based on the open ring resonator (ORR) architecture and have their analog in resonant inductive-capacitive (LC) circuits, which display a resonance wavelength that is inversely proportional to the square root of the product of the inductance and capacitance. Therefore, any modification of the nanostructure material properties due to radiation alters the inductive or capacitive behavior of the subwavelength features, which in turn changes their optical properties resulting in a shift in the optical resonance. This shift in resonance may be remotely interrogated actively using either laser illumination or passively by hyperspectral or multispectral sensing with broadband illumination. These structures may be designed to be either anisotropic or isotropic, which can also offer polarization-sensitive interrogation. We present experimental measurements of a radiation induced shift in the optical resonance of a subwavelength film after exposure to an absorbed dose of gamma radiation from 2 Mrad up to 62 Mrad demonstrating the effect. Interestingly the resonance shift is non-monotonic for this material system and possible radiation damage mechanisms to the nanoparticles are discussed.

  1. How flatbed scanners upset accurate film dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Battum, L J; Huizenga, H; Verdaasdonk, R M; Heukelom, S

    2016-01-21

    Film is an excellent dosimeter for verification of dose distributions due to its high spatial resolution. Irradiated film can be digitized with low-cost, transmission, flatbed scanners. However, a disadvantage is their lateral scan effect (LSE): a scanner readout change over its lateral scan axis. Although anisotropic light scattering was presented as the origin of the LSE, this paper presents an alternative cause. Hereto, LSE for two flatbed scanners (Epson 1680 Expression Pro and Epson 10000XL), and Gafchromic film (EBT, EBT2, EBT3) was investigated, focused on three effects: cross talk, optical path length and polarization. Cross talk was examined using triangular sheets of various optical densities. The optical path length effect was studied using absorptive and reflective neutral density filters with well-defined optical characteristics (OD range 0.2-2.0). Linear polarizer sheets were used to investigate light polarization on the CCD signal in absence and presence of (un)irradiated Gafchromic film. Film dose values ranged between 0.2 to 9 Gy, i.e. an optical density range between 0.25 to 1.1. Measurements were performed in the scanner's transmission mode, with red-green-blue channels. LSE was found to depend on scanner construction and film type. Its magnitude depends on dose: for 9 Gy increasing up to 14% at maximum lateral position. Cross talk was only significant in high contrast regions, up to 2% for very small fields. The optical path length effect introduced by film on the scanner causes 3% for pixels in the extreme lateral position. Light polarization due to film and the scanner's optical mirror system is the main contributor, different in magnitude for the red, green and blue channel. We concluded that any Gafchromic EBT type film scanned with a flatbed scanner will face these optical effects. Accurate dosimetry requires correction of LSE, therefore, determination of the LSE per color channel and dose delivered to the film.

  2. Standard Guide for Performance Characterization of Dosimeters and Dosimetry Systems for Use in Radiation Processing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides guidance on determining the performance characteristics of dosimeters and dosimetry systems used in radiation processing. 1.2 This guide describes the influence quantities that might affect the performance of dosimeters and dosimetry systems and that should be considered during dosimeter/dosimetry system characterization. 1.3 Users of this guide are directed to existing standards and literature for procedures to determine the effects from individual influence quantities and from combinations of more than one influence quantity. 1.4 Guidance is provided regarding the roles of the manufacturers, suppliers, and users in the characterization of dosimeters and dosimetry systems. 1.5 This guide does not address how the dosimeter/dosimetry system characterization information is to be used in radiation processing applications or in the calibration of dosimetry systems. Note 1—For guidance on the use of dosimeter/dosimetry system characterization information for the selection and use o...

  3. Great software debates

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, A

    2004-01-01

    The industry’s most outspoken and insightful critic explains how the software industry REALLY works. In Great Software Debates, Al Davis, shares what he has learned about the difference between the theory and the realities of business and encourages you to question and think about software engineering in ways that will help you succeed where others fail. In short, provocative essays, Davis fearlessly reveals the truth about process improvement, productivity, software quality, metrics, agile development, requirements documentation, modeling, software marketing and sales, empiricism, start-up financing, software research, requirements triage, software estimation, and entrepreneurship.

  4. Interest of numerical dosimetry in radiation protection: mean of substitution or measurements consolidation?; Interet de la dosimetrie numerique en radioprotection: moyen de substitution ou de consolidation des mesures?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahaye, T.; Chau, Q. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN/DPHD/SDOS), Service Dosimetrie, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Ferragut, A.; Gillot, J.Y. [SAPHYMO, 91 - Massy (France)

    2003-07-01

    The use of calculation codes allows to reduce the costs and the time limits. These codes brings to operators elements to reinforce their projected dosimetry. In the cases of accidental overexposure, the numerical dosimetry comes in complement of clinical and biological investigations to give an estimation as precise as possible of the received dose. For particular situations where it does not exist an adapted instrumentation, the numerical dosimetry can substitute to conventional techniques used by regulatory dosimetry (project for aviation personnel). (N.C.)

  5. Software Engineering for Practiced Software Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Yadav

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Software development scenario particularly in IT industries is very competitive and demands for development with minimum resources. Software development started and prevailed up to an extent in industry without the use of software engineering practices, which was perceived as an overhead. This approach causes over use of resources, such as money, man-hours, hardware components. This paper attempts to present the causes of inefficiencies in an almost exhaustive way. Further, an attempt has been made to elaborate the software engineering methods as remedies against the listed causes of inefficiencies of development.

  6. Software Metrics for Identifying Software Size in Software Development Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S.P Vidanapathirana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Measurements are fundamental any engineering discipline. They indicate the amount, extent, dimension or capacity of an attribute or a product, in a quantitative manner. The analyzed results of the measured data can be given as the basic idea of metrics. It is a quantitative representation of the measurements of the degree to which a system, component, or process possesses a given attribute. When it comes to software, the metrics are a wide scope of measurements of computer programming. The size oriented metrics takes a main role in it since they can be used as the key for better estimations, to improve trust and confidence, and to have a better control over the software products. Software professionals traditionally have been measuring the size of software applications by using several methods. In this paper the researchers discuss about the software size metrics for identifying software size and it is mainly focused on the software development projects in today’s Information Technology (IT industry.

  7. Software Cost Estimation Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ongere, Alphonce

    2013-01-01

    Software cost estimation is the process of predicting the effort, the time and the cost re-quired to complete software project successfully. It involves size measurement of the soft-ware project to be produced, estimating and allocating the effort, drawing the project schedules, and finally, estimating overall cost of the project. Accurate estimation of software project cost is an important factor for business and the welfare of software organization in general. If cost and effort estimat...

  8. Software Partitioning Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-29

    1 Software Partitioning Technologies Tim Skutt Smiths Aerospace 3290 Patterson Ave. SE Grand Rapids, MI 49512-1991 (616) 241-8645 skutt_timothy...Limitation of Abstract UU Number of Pages 12 2 Agenda n Software Partitioning Overview n Smiths Software Partitioning Technology n Software Partitioning...Partition Level OS Core Module Level OS Timers MMU I/O API Layer Partitioning Services 6 Smiths Software Partitioning Technology n Smiths has developed

  9. ERI and initial clinical experience with dosimetry check, a commercial software for dosimetry in vivo volumetric; ERI y experiencia clinica inicial con dosimetry check, un software comercial para dosimetria in vivo volumetrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujades Claumarchirant, M. C.; Gimeno Olmos, J.; Garcia Martinez, T.; Carmona Meseguer, V.; Lliso Valverde, F.; Palomo Llinares, R.; Ballester Pallares, F.; Perez Calatayud, J.

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this work is to study the differences in dose at a point of reference between the result of calculation of dose and the planning system to establish a level of uncertainty of the system. In addition, evaluates its use in clinical routine and presents results obtained with the first patients. (Author)

  10. Image-based dosimetry for selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) using yttrium-90 microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selwyn, Reed G.

    90Y-loaded microspheres are currently used as a palliative treatment for patients with primary and metastatic solid liver tumors. These microspheres contain radioactive 90Y, which decays via beta-minus transition to 90Zr. While the normal liver receives about 75% of its blood supply from the portal vein, hepatic tumors receive their blood supply almost exclusively from the hepatic artery. Taking advantage of this unique blood flow, radioactive microspheres are injected into the hepatic artery resulting in a preferential distribution to tumor sites within the liver. Studies show that the single best prognostic indicator for patient response is the tumor-to-normal tissue (T:N) activity uptake ratio. However, 90Y emits very few photons its broad bremsstrahlung spectrum leads to diffuse, low resolution images, which are insufficient for accurate T:N quantification. Thus, the first objective was to develop a PET-labeled microsphere as a surrogate for the therapeutic microsphere to provide accurate biodistribution information. Furthermore, patient outcome is also suspected to be linked to the mean tumor dose and tumor dose volume histogram. Therefore, a second objective was to develop and validate a method to calculate the dose distribution within the tumor and normal liver tissue. Computer software that generates three-dimensional (3D) dose distributions was validated by comparing results to experimental measurements. The novel development of a 3D gel dosimeter will be discussed as well as a new protocol for 2D film dosimetry. Both dosimetry methods were validated but only film provided the desired accuracy. The overall accuracy of the dose distribution depends on the uncertainty of the 90Y assay, which can extend to 15% at 1sigma. Therefore, the third objective was to develop an accurate non-destructive assay of 90Y. To this end, a new 90Y positron branching ratio was measured and a clinically relevant transfer standard was developed. In summation, this thesis will

  11. Quantifying the performance of in vivo portal dosimetry in detecting four types of treatment parameter variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojechko, C.; Ford, E. C., E-mail: eford@uw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: To quantify the ability of electronic portal imaging device (EPID) dosimetry used during treatment (in vivo) in detecting variations that can occur in the course of patient treatment. Methods: Images of transmitted radiation from in vivo EPID measurements were converted to a 2D planar dose at isocenter and compared to the treatment planning dose using a prototype software system. Using the treatment planning system (TPS), four different types of variability were modeled: overall dose scaling, shifting the positions of the multileaf collimator (MLC) leaves, shifting of the patient position, and changes in the patient body contour. The gamma pass rate was calculated for the modified and unmodified plans and used to construct a receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve to assess the detectability of the different parameter variations. The detectability is given by the area under the ROC curve (AUC). The TPS was also used to calculate the impact of the variations on the target dose–volume histogram. Results: Nine intensity modulation radiation therapy plans were measured for four different anatomical sites consisting of 70 separate fields. Results show that in vivo EPID dosimetry was most sensitive to variations in the machine output, AUC = 0.70 − 0.94, changes in patient body habitus, AUC = 0.67 − 0.88, and systematic shifts in the MLC bank positions, AUC = 0.59 − 0.82. These deviations are expected to have a relatively small clinical impact [planning target volume (PTV) D{sub 99} change <7%]. Larger variations have even higher detectability. Displacements in the patient’s position and random variations in MLC leaf positions were not readily detectable, AUC < 0.64. The D{sub 99} of the PTV changed by up to 57% for the patient position shifts considered here. Conclusions: In vivo EPID dosimetry is able to detect relatively small variations in overall dose, systematic shifts of the MLC’s, and changes in the patient habitus. Shifts in the

  12. In vivo dosimetry: trends and prospects for brachytherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kertzscher, Gustavo; Rosenfeld, A.; Beddar, S.

    2014-01-01

    The error types during brachytherapy (BT) treatments and their occurrence rates are not well known. The limited knowledge is partly attributed to the lack of independent verification systems of the treatment progression in the clinical workflow routine. Within the field of in vivo dosimetry (IVD)...

  13. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station ISS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long duration human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature from that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Therefore the determination and the control of the radiation load on astronauts is a moral obligation of the space faring nations. The requirements for radiation detectors in space are very different to that on earth. Limitations in mass, power consumption and the complex nature of the space radiation environment define and limit the overall construction of radiation detectors. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is accomplished to one part as "operational" dosimetry accomplished to one part as "operational" dosimetry aiming for area monitoring of the radiation environment as well as astronaut surveillance. Another part focuses on "scientific" dosimetry aiming for a better understanding of the radiation environment and its constitutes. Various research activities for a more detailed quantification of the radiation environment as well as its distribution in and outside the space station have been accomplished in the last years onboard the ISS. The paper will focus on the current radiation detectors onboard the ISS, their results, as well as on future planned activities.

  14. In vivo dosimetry with silicon diodes in total body irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, F. F.; Amaral, L. L.; Costa, A. M.; Netto, T. G.

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this work is the characterization and application of silicon diode detectors for in vivo dosimetry in total body irradiation (TBI) treatments. It was evaluated the diode response with temperature, dose rate, gantry angulations and field size. A maximum response variation of 2.2% was obtained for temperature dependence. The response variation for dose rate and angular was within 1.2%. For field size dependence, the detector response increased with field until reach a saturation region, where no more primary radiation beam contributes for dose. The calibration was performed in a TBI setup. Different lateral thicknesses from one patient were simulated and then the calibration factors were determined by means of maximum depth dose readings. Subsequent to calibration, in vivo dosimetry measurements were performed. The response difference between diode readings and the prescribed dose for all treatments was below 4%. This difference is in agreement as recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), which is ±5%. The present work to test the applicability of a silicon diode dosimetry system for performing in vivo dose measurements in TBI techniques presented good results. These measurements demonstrated the value of diode dosimetry as a treatment verification method and its applicability as a part of a quality assurance program in TBI treatments.

  15. Fiber-coupled Luminescence Dosimetry in Therapeutic and Diagnostic Radiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Erik

    2011-01-01

    Fiber-coupled luminescence dosimetry is an emerging technology with several potentially attractive features of relevance for uses in therapeutic and diagnostic radiology: direct water equivalence (i.e. no significant perturbation of the radiation field in a water phantom or a patient), sub...

  16. Retrospective dosimetry using unheated quartz: A feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Murray, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    Most attempts to apply retrospective dosimetry to building materials have made use of heated (sensitised) items such as brick or tile ceramic. Unfired materials, such as concrete, are far more widespread in the industrial environment, but unfortunately these cannot be assumed to contain a negligi...

  17. Dosimetry studies on prototype 241Am sources for brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, R; Gray, L

    1987-06-01

    Sealed sources of 241Am emit primarily 60 keV photons which, because of multiple Compton scattering, produce dose distributions in water that are comparable to those from 226Ra or 137Cs. However, americium gamma rays can be shielded by thin layers of high atomic number materials since the half value layer thickness is only 1/8th of a mm of lead for americium gamma rays as compared to a value of 12 mm for 226Ra gamma rays. This may allow effective in vivo shielding of critical organs, for example; the bladder can be partially shielded by hypaque solution, and the rectum and sigmoid colon by barium sulfate. In addition, the exposure to medical personnel involved in intracavitary application and patient care may be reduced substantially by the use of relatively thin lead aprons and light weight, portable shields. To investigate the feasibility of 241Am sources for intracavitary irradiation, dosimetry studies on prototype 241Am sources have been performed and a computer model for the determination of dose distributions around encapsulated cylindrical sources of 241Am has been developed and tested. Results of dosimetry measurements using ionization chambers, lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters, a scanning scintillation probe, and film dosimetry, confirm theoretical predictions that these sources can deliver dose rates adequate for intracavitary irradiation. Further dosimetry measurements in simulated clinical situations using lead foils and test tubes filled with hypaque or barium sulfate, confirm the predicted effectiveness of in vivo shielding which can be readily achieved with 241Am sources.

  18. Carbon beam dosimetry using VIP polymer gel and MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantemiris, I; Petrokokkinos, L; Angelopoulos, A

    2009-01-01

    VIP polymer gel dosimeter was used for Carbon ion beam dosimetry using a 150 MeV/n beam with 10 Gy plateau dose and a SOBP irradiation scheme with 5 Gy Bragg peak dose. The results show a decrease by 8 mm in the expected from Monte Carlo simulation range in water, suggesting that the dosimeter...

  19. Advances in kilovoltage x-ray beam dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Robin; Healy, Brendan; Holloway, Lois; Kuncic, Zdenka; Thwaites, David; Baldock, Clive

    2014-03-01

    This topical review provides an up-to-date overview of the theoretical and practical aspects of therapeutic kilovoltage x-ray beam dosimetry. Kilovoltage x-ray beams have the property that the maximum dose occurs very close to the surface and thus, they are predominantly used in the treatment of skin cancers but also have applications for the treatment of other cancers. In addition, kilovoltage x-ray beams are used in intra operative units, within animal irradiators and in on-board imagers on linear accelerators and kilovoltage dosimetry is important in these applications as well. This review covers both reference and relative dosimetry of kilovoltage x-ray beams and provides recommendations for clinical measurements based on the literature to date. In particular, practical aspects for the selection of dosimeter and phantom material are reviewed to provide suitable advice for medical physicists. An overview is also presented of dosimeters other than ionization chambers which can be used for both relative and in vivo dosimetry. Finally, issues related to the treatment planning and the use of Monte Carlo codes for solving radiation transport problems in kilovoltage x-ray beams are presented.

  20. Eurados trial performance test for neutron personal dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordy, J.M.; Stadtmann, H.; Ambrosi, P.;

    2001-01-01

    measured, but particular problems were noted in the determination of intermediate energy fields and large incident angles, demonstrating the difficulties of neutron personal dosimetry. Of particular concern from a radiological protection point of view was the large number of results underestimating...... personal dose equivalent. A considerable over-response was noted in a few cases....

  1. Application of spherical micro diodes for brachytherapy dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broisman, Andrey, E-mail: andreybr@ariel.ac.i [Medical Physics, Ariel University Center, Ariel 40700 (Israel); Shani, Gad [Biomedical Engineering, Ben Gurion University, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2011-03-15

    The research presented in this paper demonstrates the feasibility and the advantages of using spherical micro diodes for radiation dosimetry. The spherical symmetry of the diode response is demonstrated, compared to that of planar diodes. The application of the spherical diode described here is for radiotherapy dosimetry, particularly brachytherapy. Measurements were done in PMMA phantoms. The advantage of the spherical diode is that it can be used for radiation measurement in a 4{pi} geometry, it was demonstrated by measurements in both axial and azimuthal planes. The diodes were found to respond equally to radiation coming from all directions, directly from the source or due to scattered radiation within the medium. In the present work 1.8 mm diameter silicone diodes were used. The small size of these spherical diodes provides local dose measurement and can be used for in situ dosimetry while treatment takes place. Treatment planning correction can be made accordingly. Commercially available seeds of the isotopes I{sup 125} and Pd{sup 103} were used as radiation sources. The spherical diodes response was compared with that of planar diodes XRB generally used for UV and X-ray dosimetry, and with TLD measurements. We have also compared the measured results with Monte Carlo simulation, applying the MCNP code and with calculations shown in the TG-43 report.

  2. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry using natural and synthetic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; McKeever, S.W.S.

    1996-01-01

    The application of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) for use in radiation dosimetry is reviewed. A broad description is given of OSL techniques developed at Riso National Laboratory and at Oklahoma State University, and recent collaborative investigations on the properties of a variety...

  3. Graphite mixed magnesium borate TL dosemeters for beta ray dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prokic, M; Christensen, Poul

    1984-01-01

    Sintered MgB4O7:Dy dosemeters with graphite contents from 1 to 10% were investigated for application for personnel dosimetry. Data are given on dose response, dose threshold, reproducibility, beta energy response and fading. Furthermore, results from practical field experiments are presented...

  4. Fast 2D phantom dosimetry for scanning proton beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, SN; van Luijk, P; Schippers, JM; Meertens, H; Denis, JM; Vynckier, S; Medin, J; Grusell, E

    1998-01-01

    A quality control system especially designed for dosimetry in scanning proton beams has been designed and tested. The system consists of a scintillating screen (Gd2O2S:Tb), mounted at the beam-exit side of a phantom, and observed by a low noise CCD camera with a long integration time. The purpose of

  5. Preclinical animal research on therapy dosimetry with dual isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W. Konijnenberg (Mark); M. de Jong (Marion)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPreclinical research into radionuclide therapies based on radiation dosimetry will enable the use of any LET-equivalent radionuclide. Radiation dose and dose rate have significant influence on dose effects in the tumour depending on its radiation sensitivity, possibilities for repair of

  6. Workshop on dosimetry for radon and radon daughters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, J.E.; Holoway, C.F.; Loebl, A.S. (eds.)

    1978-05-01

    Emphasis is placed on the dosimetry for radon and daughters, rather than on monitoring and instrumentation. The objectives of the meeting were to exchange scientific information, to identify problem areas in radon-daughter dosimetry, and to make any observations or recommendations by the participants through issuance of this report. The discussion topics included the history of dosimetry for radon and daughters, human data, aerosols, deposition and movement in the respiratory tract, dose calculations, dose-to-working-level-month (WLM) conversion factors, animal experiments, and the development of regulations and remedial criteria for reducing population exposures to radon daughters. This report contains a summary of Workshop discussions plus individual statements contributed by several of the participants. The outstanding problem areas from the standpoint of dosimetry appear to involve the appropriate lung organ mass to be used (average lung-tissue dose vs. high-level local dose); recognition of the discrete, rather than continuous, structure of the mucus; lack of knowledge about lung clearance; the variability of dose with the degree of disequilibrium and the unattached fraction of radon daughters for a given WLM; and questions about the character of uranium mine atmospheres actually breathed in the older mines from which much of the epidemiological information originates. The development of criteria for taking remedial action to reduce exposures involves additional concerns of basing long-term risk assessment on short-term sampling and applying WLM data for miners to general populations.

  7. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry using natural and synthetic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; McKeever, S.W.S.

    1996-01-01

    The application of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) for use in radiation dosimetry is reviewed. A broad description is given of OSL techniques developed at Riso National Laboratory and at Oklahoma State University, and recent collaborative investigations on the properties of a variety of n......, and unseparated materials such as bricks and porcelain items....

  8. Quality control for X-ray dosimetry with Fricke dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vivianne Lucia Bormann de [Centro Regional de Cincias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)]. E-mail: lsouza@cnen.gov.br; Austerlitz, C. [East Carolina University, NC (United States)]. E-mail: camposc@ecu.edu

    2007-07-01

    It is a well-established fact that the success of radiation therapy is dependent on the accurate dosimetry of the radiation beam used. This dosimetry must include equipment performance as well. A system for Fricke dosimetry was used for this purpose. The Fricke solution and a parallel ionization chamber (used for comparison) were irradiated with an X-ray beam from a Pantak X-ray equipment. The ionization chamber was positioned at a distance of 500 mm of the focal point, in the central axis of the X-ray field which is defined as 100x100 mm{sup 2} at the calibration distance. A plexiglas phantom appropriate to hold the polypropylene tube was used to irradiate the vials with the Fricke solution. The irradiated solutions were transferred directly from the polypropylene vials to 10 mm length cuvettes and the optical densities were measured in 304 nm using a Beckman Counter Model DU 640 spectrophotometer. Three institutions were visited to verify their procedures and two were in accordance with the lAEA recommended procedures for soft X-ray dosimetry. The results of the measurements performed in the institutions visited show that the Fricke dosimeter system developed can be used for quality control for soft X-ray equipment. (author)

  9. Chemical dosimetry techniques for various applications under different geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, B L; Narayan, G R; Nilekani, S R

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives the results of dosimetry for various applications under different geometrical arrangements. These applications include: gamma chambers, blood irradiators, radiotherapy using both sup 6 sup 0 Co and accelerators, animal irradiations with different types of radiation sources, fluid irradiators for sludge and rubber latex and industrial electron irradiators. The dosimeters used were Fricke, FBX and alanine/glutamine (spectrophotometric readout).

  10. Precision dosimetry system suited for low temperature radiation damage experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.H.; Hanke, C.C.; Sørensen, H.

    1967-01-01

    A calorimetric system for dosimetry on a beam of charged particles is described. The calorimeter works at liquid helium temperature. The total dose may be measured with an accuracy of 0.3%, and the dose per area with 0.4%. No theoretical corrections are needed. © 1967 The American Institute...

  11. Preclinical animal research on therapy dosimetry with dual isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W. Konijnenberg (Mark); M. de Jong (Marion)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPreclinical research into radionuclide therapies based on radiation dosimetry will enable the use of any LET-equivalent radionuclide. Radiation dose and dose rate have significant influence on dose effects in the tumour depending on its radiation sensitivity, possibilities for repair of

  12. Software Engineering Program: Software Process Improvement Guidebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide experience-based guidance in implementing a software process improvement program in any NASA software development or maintenance community. This guidebook details how to define, operate, and implement a working software process improvement program. It describes the concept of the software process improvement program and its basic organizational components. It then describes the structure, organization, and operation of the software process improvement program, illustrating all these concepts with specific NASA examples. The information presented in the document is derived from the experiences of several NASA software organizations, including the SEL, the SEAL, and the SORCE. Their experiences reflect many of the elements of software process improvement within NASA. This guidebook presents lessons learned in a form usable by anyone considering establishing a software process improvement program within his or her own environment. This guidebook attempts to balance general and detailed information. It provides material general enough to be usable by NASA organizations whose characteristics do not directly match those of the sources of the information and models presented herein. It also keeps the ideas sufficiently close to the sources of the practical experiences that have generated the models and information.

  13. Payload software technology: Software technology development plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Programmatic requirements for the advancement of software technology are identified for meeting the space flight requirements in the 1980 to 1990 time period. The development items are described, and software technology item derivation worksheets are presented along with the cost/time/priority assessments.

  14. Neutron spectrometry and dosimetry using NSDAAN; Espectrometria y dosimetria de neutrones usando NSDAAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez B, M. R.; Vega C, H. R. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Cipres 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Ortiz R, J. M. [Departamento de Electrotecnia y Electronica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Av. Menendez Pidal s/n, 14004 Cordoba (Spain)], e-mail: mrosariomb@yahoo.com.mx

    2009-10-15

    The reconstruction of neutron spectra from count rates of a Bonner spheres spectrometric system is performed using various methods such as Monte Carlo methods, the parameterization and iterative methods. The weight of the Bonner spheres spectrometric system, the procedure for the reconstruction of the spectra, the need of an experienced user, the high consumer of time, the need of use a reconstruction code as the BUNKI, SAND, among others, and the resolution of the spectrum are some problems that this system presents. This has motivated the development of complementary procedures such as maximum entropy, genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks. In previous work, has reported a new method called robust design methodology of artificial neural networks, to construct various network topologies capable of solving the problems of neutron spectrometry and dosimetry, however, due to the newness of this technology, be noted that there are not tools to end-user that allow test and validate the designed networks. This paper presents a software for the neutron spectrometry and dosimetry, designed from the information extracted of an artificial neural network designed by robust design methodology of artificial neural networks. This tool has the following characteristics: was designed in a user graphical interface easy to use, requires not knowledge of neural networks or neutron spectrometry by the user; execution speed of the application; unlike the deconvolution codes are not required to select an initial spectrum for the spectrum reconstruction; as an additional element to this tool, besides the spectrum, the calculation is performed simultaneous to H(10), E, H{sub p},{sub s}(10,{theta}) from just counting rates from a Bonner spheres spectrometric system. (author)

  15. Development of the JAERI computational dosimetry system (JCDS) for boron neutron capture therapy. Cooperative research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumada, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi; Torii, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Junzo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Matsumura, Akira; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Nose, Tadao [Tsukuba Univ., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Nakagawa, Yoshinobu [National Sanatorium Kagawa-Children' s Hospital, Kagawa (Japan); Kageji, Teruyoshi [Tokushima Univ., Tokushima (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The Neutron Beam Facility at JRR-4 enables us to carry out boron neutron capture therapy with epithermal neutron beam. In order to make treatment plans for performing the epithermal neutron beam BNCT, it is necessary to estimate radiation doses in a patient's head in advance. The JAERI Computational Dosimetry System (JCDS), which can estimate distributions of radiation doses in a patient's head by simulating in order to support the treatment planning for epithermal neutron beam BNCT, was developed. JCDS is a software that creates a 3-dimentional head model of a patient by using CT and MRI images, and that generates a input data file automatically for calculation of neutron flux and gamma-ray dose distributions in the brain with the Monte Carlo code MCNP, and that displays these dose distributions on the head model for dosimetry by using the MCNP calculation results. JCDS has any advantages as follows; By using CT data and MRI data which are medical images, a detail three-dimensional model of patient's head is able to be made easily. The three-dimensional head image is editable to simulate the state of a head after its surgical processes such as skin flap opening and bone removal in the BNCT with craniotomy that are being performed in Japan. JCDS can provide information for the Patient Setting System which can support to set the patient to an actual irradiation position swiftly and accurately. This report describes basic design of JCDS and functions in several processing, calculation methods, characteristics and performance of JCDS. (author)

  16. Development of probabilistic internal dosimetry computer code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Siwan; Kwon, Tae-Eun; Lee, Jai-Ki

    2017-02-01

    Internal radiation dose assessment involves biokinetic models, the corresponding parameters, measured data, and many assumptions. Every component considered in the internal dose assessment has its own uncertainty, which is propagated in the intake activity and internal dose estimates. For research or scientific purposes, and for retrospective dose reconstruction for accident scenarios occurring in workplaces having a large quantity of unsealed radionuclides, such as nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and facilities in which nuclear medicine is practiced, a quantitative uncertainty assessment of the internal dose is often required. However, no calculation tools or computer codes that incorporate all the relevant processes and their corresponding uncertainties, i.e., from the measured data to the committed dose, are available. Thus, the objective of the present study is to develop an integrated probabilistic internal-dose-assessment computer code. First, the uncertainty components in internal dosimetry are identified, and quantitative uncertainty data are collected. Then, an uncertainty database is established for each component. In order to propagate these uncertainties in an internal dose assessment, a probabilistic internal-dose-assessment system that employs the Bayesian and Monte Carlo methods. Based on the developed system, we developed a probabilistic internal-dose-assessment code by using MATLAB so as to estimate the dose distributions from the measured data with uncertainty. Using the developed code, we calculated the internal dose distribution and statistical values ( e.g. the 2.5th, 5th, median, 95th, and 97.5th percentiles) for three sample scenarios. On the basis of the distributions, we performed a sensitivity analysis to determine the influence of each component on the resulting dose in order to identify the major component of the uncertainty in a bioassay. The results of this study can be applied to various situations. In cases of

  17. SEVENTH DOE WORKSHOP ON PERSONNEL NEUTRON DOSIMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallario, E J

    1978-10-24

    This workshop was the seventh of a series and was held on October 23-24. 1978, at the Central Electricity Generating Board, HQ, London, England. Typically~ attendees at the Workshop were concerned with one of three activities: studying and refining existing techniques in an attempt to quantify already-known parameters with greater precision, looking for ways to apply existing neutron dosirr:etry techniques to a specific local problem, identifying the needs and weaknesses of existing systems, with the goal of improving and passibly simplifying field measurements. The types of neutron dosimetry techniques discussed by participants included albedo dosimeters, track etch, and TLD. One speaker reported on NTA film, noting that fading could be eliminated by drying the emulsion in dry nitrogen before field use. There were no reports on tissue equivalent proportional counters or activation analysis. One participant discussed a metal oxide silicon dosimeter. The need to develop a consistent standard terminology, as well as calibration sources and techniques, on both the national and international level was evident. The need for standardization is particularly acute in the U.S. Techniques for evaluating dosimeter response in the field should he standardized, since several different instruments with widely different response characteristics are currently being used. The choice of instruments is often parochial. Also. the type and use of phantoms should be standardized. Neutron dose assignment is significantly affected by the position of the dosimeter on the body. for example, a typical albedo dosimeter may give differences of up to 20% depending on whether it is worn on the belt or chest. Larger errors are encountered with front-to-back (angular} orientation. 1n an attempt to minimize such errors~ at least two European facilities are using neutron dosimeter belts, which provide dosimeters both in front and in back of the wearer. The gamma-to-neutron ratio around nuclear power

  18. Pragmatic Software Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Ivan; Jensen, Rikke Hagensby

    2014-01-01

    We understand software innovation as concerned with introducing innovation into the development of software intensive systems, i.e. systems in which software development and/or integration are dominant considerations. Innovation is key in almost any strategy for competitiveness in existing markets......, for creating new markets, or for curbing rising public expenses, and software intensive systems are core elements in most such strategies. Software innovation therefore is vital for about every sector of the economy. Changes in software technologies over the last decades have opened up for experimentation...

  19. Generalized EPID calibration for in vivo transit dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidanzio, Andrea; Cilla, Savino; Greco, Francesca; Gargiulo, Laura; Azario, Luigi; Sabatino, Domenico; Piermattei, Angelo

    2011-01-01

    Many researchers are studying new in vivo dosimetry methods based on the use of Elelctronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) that are simple and efficient in their daily use. However the need of time consuming implementation measurements with solid water phantoms for the in vivo dosimetry implementation can discourage someone in their use. In this paper a procedure has been proposed to calibrate aSi EPIDs for in vivo transit dosimetry. The dosimetric equivalence of three aSi Varian EPIDs has been investigated in terms of signal reproducibility and long term stability, signal linearity with MU and dose per pulse and signal dependence on the field dimensions. The signal reproducibility was within ± 0.5% (2SD), while the long term signal stability has been maintained well within ± 2%. The signal linearity with the monitor units (MU) was within ± 2% and within ± 0.5% for the EPIDs controlled by the IAS 2, and IAS 3 respectively. In particular it was verified that the correction factor for the signal linearity with the monitor units, k(lin), is independent of the beam quality, and the dose per pulse absorbed by the EPID. For 6, 10 and 15 MV photon beams, a generalized set of correlation functions F(TPR,w,L) and empirical factors f(TPR,d,L) as a function of the Tissue Phantom Ratio (TPR), the phantom thickness, w, the square field side, L, and the distance, d, between the phantom mid-plane and the isocentre were determined to reconstruct the isocenter dose. The tolerance levels of the present in vivo dosimetry method ranged between ± 5% and ± 6% depending on the tumor body location. In conclusion, the procedure proposed, that use generalized correlation functions, reduces the effort for the in vivo dosimetry method implementation for those photon beams with TPR within ± 0.3% as respect those here used.

  20. Pragmatic Software Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Ivan; Jensen, Rikke Hagensby

    2014-01-01

    We understand software innovation as concerned with introducing innovation into the development of software intensive systems, i.e. systems in which software development and/or integration are dominant considerations. Innovation is key in almost any strategy for competitiveness in existing markets......, for creating new markets, or for curbing rising public expenses, and software intensive systems are core elements in most such strategies. Software innovation therefore is vital for about every sector of the economy. Changes in software technologies over the last decades have opened up for experimentation......, learning, and flexibility in ongoing software projects, but how can this change be used to facilitate software innovation? How can a team systematically identify and pursue opportunities to create added value in ongoing projects? In this paper, we describe Deweyan pragmatism as the philosophical foundation...

  1. Software Engineering Improvement Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    In performance of this task order, bd Systems personnel provided support to the Flight Software Branch and the Software Working Group through multiple tasks related to software engineering improvement and to activities of the independent Technical Authority (iTA) Discipline Technical Warrant Holder (DTWH) for software engineering. To ensure that the products, comments, and recommendations complied with customer requirements and the statement of work, bd Systems personnel maintained close coordination with the customer. These personnel performed work in areas such as update of agency requirements and directives database, software effort estimation, software problem reports, a web-based process asset library, miscellaneous documentation review, software system requirements, issue tracking software survey, systems engineering NPR, and project-related reviews. This report contains a summary of the work performed and the accomplishments in each of these areas.

  2. Paladin Software Support Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Paladin Software Support Environment (SSE) occupies 2,241 square-feet. It contains the hardware and software tools required to support the Paladin Automatic Fire...

  3. ATLAS software packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Rybkin, G

    2012-01-01

    Software packaging is indispensable part of build and prerequisite for deployment processes. Full ATLAS software stack consists of TDAQ, HLT, and Offline software. These software groups depend on some 80 external software packages. We present tools, package PackDist, developed and used to package all this software except for TDAQ project. PackDist is based on and driven by CMT, ATLAS software configuration and build tool, and consists of shell and Python scripts. The packaging unit used is CMT project. Each CMT project is packaged as several packages - platform dependent (one per platform available), source code excluding header files, other platform independent files, documentation, and debug information packages (the last two being built optionally). Packaging can be done recursively to package all the dependencies. The whole set of packages for one software release, distribution kit, also includes configuration packages and contains some 120 packages for one platform. Also packaged are physics analysis pro...

  4. Commercial Data Mining Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingyu; Segall, Richard S.

    This chapter discusses selected commercial software for data mining, supercomputing data mining, text mining, and web mining. The selected software are compared with their features and also applied to available data sets. The software for data mining are SAS Enterprise Miner, Megaputer PolyAnalyst 5.0, PASW (formerly SPSS Clementine), IBM Intelligent Miner, and BioDiscovery GeneSight. The software for supercomputing are Avizo by Visualization Science Group and JMP Genomics from SAS Institute. The software for text mining are SAS Text Miner and Megaputer PolyAnalyst 5.0. The software for web mining are Megaputer PolyAnalyst and SPSS Clementine . Background on related literature and software are presented. Screen shots of each of the selected software are presented, as are conclusions and future directions.

  5. Performance of the CEDS Accident Dosimetry System at the 1995 Los Alamos National Laboratory Nuclear Accident Dosimetry Intercomparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahan, K.L.; Schwanke, L.J.

    1996-12-01

    In July 1995, LANL hosted an accident dosimetry intercomparison. When all reactors on the Oak Ridge Reservation were idled in 1988, the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR), which had been used for 22 previous intercomparisons dating from 1965, was shut down for an indefinite period. The LANL group began characterization of two critical assemblies for dosimetry purposes. As a result, NAD-23 was conceived and 10 DOE facilities accepted invitations to participate in the intercomparison. This report is a summary of the performance of one of the participants, the Centralized External Dosimetry System (CEDS). The CEDS is a cooperative personnel dosimetry arrangement between three DOE sites in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Many successes and failures are reported herein. Generally, the TL dosimeters performed poorly and always over-reported the delivered dose. The TLD processing procedures contain efforts that would lead to large biases in the reported absorbed dose, and omit several key steps in the TLD reading process. The supralinear behavior of lithium fluoride (LiF) has not been characterized for this particular dosimeter and application (i.e., in high-dose mixed neutron/gamma fields). The use of TLD materials may also be precluded given the limitations of the LiF material itself, the TLD reading system, and the upper dose level to which accident dosimetry systems are required to perform as set forth in DOE regulations. The indium foil results confirm the expected inability of that material to predict the magnitude of the wearer`s dose reliably, although it is quite suitable as a quick-sort material. Biological sample (hair) results were above the minimum detectable activity (MDA) for only one of the tests. Several questions as to the best methods for sample handling and processing remain.

  6. Software Testing Requires Variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2003-01-01

    Software variability is the ability of a software system or artefact to be changed, customized or configured for use in a particular context. Variability in software systems is important from a number of perspectives. Some perspectives rightly receive much attention due to their direct economic...... impact in software production. As is also apparent from the call for papers these perspectives focus on qualities such as reuse, adaptability, and maintainability....

  7. Software engineer's pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Software Engineer's Pocket Book provides a concise discussion on various aspects of software engineering. The book is comprised of six chapters that tackle various areas of concerns in software engineering. Chapter 1 discusses software development, and Chapter 2 covers programming languages. Chapter 3 deals with operating systems. The book also tackles discrete mathematics and numerical computation. Data structures and algorithms are also explained. The text will be of great use to individuals involved in the specification, design, development, implementation, testing, maintenance, and qualit

  8. Software Testing Requires Variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2003-01-01

    Software variability is the ability of a software system or artefact to be changed, customized or configured for use in a particular context. Variability in software systems is important from a number of perspectives. Some perspectives rightly receive much attention due to their direct economic...... impact in software production. As is also apparent from the call for papers these perspectives focus on qualities such as reuse, adaptability, and maintainability....

  9. Software engineering measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Munson, PhD, John C

    2003-01-01

    By demonstrating how to develop simple experiments for the empirical validation of theoretical research and showing how to convert measurement data into meaningful and valuable information, this text fosters more precise use of software measurement in the computer science and software engineering literature. Software Engineering Measurement shows you how to convert your measurement data to valuable information that can be used immediately for software process improvement.

  10. Software variability management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, J; Nord, RL

    2004-01-01

    During recent years, the amount of variability that has to be supported by a software artefact is growing considerably and its management is evolving into a major challenge during development, usage, and evolution of software artefacts. Successful management of variability in software leads to

  11. Software Language Evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermolen, S.D.

    2012-01-01

    Software plays a critical role in our daily life. Vast amounts of money are spent on more and more complex systems. All software, regardless if it controls a plane or the game on your phone is never finished. Software changes when it contains bugs or when new functionality is added. This process of

  12. Software Architecture Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Many software systems eventually undergo changes to their basic architectural structure. Such changes may be prompted by new feature requests, new quality attribute requirements, changing technology, or other reasons. Whatever the causes, architecture evolution is commonplace in real-world software projects. Today's software architects, however,…

  13. Java for flight software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, E.; Niessner, A.

    2003-01-01

    This work involves developing representative mission-critical spacecraft software using the Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ). This work currently leverages actual flight software used in the design of actual flight software in the NASA's Deep Space 1 (DSI), which flew in 1998.

  14. Software Language Evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermolen, S.D.

    2012-01-01

    Software plays a critical role in our daily life. Vast amounts of money are spent on more and more complex systems. All software, regardless if it controls a plane or the game on your phone is never finished. Software changes when it contains bugs or when new functionality is added. This process of

  15. Software Engineering for Portability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanchev, Ivan

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of the portability of educational software focuses on the software design and development process. Topics discussed include levels of portability; the user-computer dialog; software engineering principles; design techniques for student performance records; techniques of courseware programing; and suggestions for further research and…

  16. Software Architecture Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Many software systems eventually undergo changes to their basic architectural structure. Such changes may be prompted by new feature requests, new quality attribute requirements, changing technology, or other reasons. Whatever the causes, architecture evolution is commonplace in real-world software projects. Today's software architects, however,…

  17. Study of the positioning of the films of the MLC by a Test of bands and your influence in the clinic dosimetry in IMRT; Estudio del posicionamiento de las laminas del MLC mediante un test de bandas y su influencia en la dosimetria clinica en IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano Zabaleta, S.; Millan Cebrian, E.; Calvo Carrillo, S.; Alba Escorihuela, V.; Garcia Romero, A.; Ortega Pardina, P.; Canella Anoz, M.; Hernandez Vitoria, A.

    2015-07-01

    We performed a test of adjacent bands inspired by the proposed in AAPM Report No. 72, we provides a parameter characterizing the state of the MLC as to the actual position of its blades. This test has been validated by studying repeatability and reproducibility and has found the correlation between the parameter and creep detected by the ILD. Subsequently it has studied the impact of changes in the positioning of the blades on clinical dosimetry in IMRT patients, reconstructing the patient dose by Matrix Evolution team and Compass software, IBA Dosimetry. (Author)

  18. User's manual of a supporting system for treatment planning in boron neutron capture therapy. JAERI computational dosimetry system

    CERN Document Server

    Kumada, H

    2002-01-01

    A boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) with epithermal neutron beam is expected to treat effectively for malignant tumor that is located deeply in the brain. It is indispensable to estimate preliminarily the irradiation dose in the brain of a patient in order to perform the epithermal neutron beam BNCT. Thus, the JAERI Computational Dosimetry System (JCDS), which can calculate the dose distributions in the brain, has been developed. JCDS is a software that creates a 3-dimensional head model of a patient by using CT and MRI images and that generates a input data file automatically for calculation neutron flux and gamma-ray dose distribution in the brain by the Monte Carlo code: MCNP, and that displays the dose distribution on the head model for dosimetry by using the MCNP calculation results. JCDS has any advantages as follows; By treating CT data and MRI data which are medical images, a detail three-dimensional model of patient's head is able to be made easily. The three-dimensional head image is editable to ...

  19. EPR/PTFE dosimetry for test reactor environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehar, D.W.; Griffin, P.J.; Quirk, T.J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1146 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The use of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy with materials such as alanine is well established as a technique for measurement of ionizing radiation absorbed dose in photon and electron fields such as Co-60, high-energy bremsstrahlung and electron-beam fields [1]. In fact, EPR/Alanine dosimetry has become a routine transfer standard for national standards bodies such as NIST and NPL. In 1992 the Radiation Metrology Laboratory (RML) at Sandia National Laboratories implemented EPR/Alanine capabilities for use in routine and calibration activities at its Co-60 and pulsed-power facilities. At that time it also investigated the usefulness of the system for measurement of absorbed dose in the mixed neutron/photon environments of reactors such as the Sandia Pulsed Reactor and the Annular Core Research Reactor used for hardness testing of electronics. The RML concluded that the neutron response of alanine was a sufficiently high fraction of the overall dosimeter response that the resulting uncertainties in the photon dose would be unacceptably large for silicon-device testing. However, it also suggested that non-hydrogenous materials such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) would exhibit smaller neutron response and might be useful in mixed environments. Preliminary research with PTFE in photon environments indicated considerable promise, but further development was not pursued at that time. Because of renewed interest in absorbed dose measurements that could better define the individual contributions of photon and neutron components to the overall dose delivered to a test object, the RML has re-initiated the development of an EPR/PTFE dosimetry system. This effort consists of three stages: 1) Identification of PTFE materials that may be suitable for dosimetry applications. It was speculated that the inconsistency of EPR signatures in the earlier samples may have been due to variability in PTFE manufacturing processes. 2) Characterization of dosimetry in

  20. Software Maintenance Success Recipes

    CERN Document Server

    Reifer, Donald J

    2011-01-01

    Dispelling much of the folklore surrounding software maintenance, Software Maintenance Success Recipes identifies actionable formulas for success based on in-depth analysis of more than 200 real-world maintenance projects. It details the set of factors that are usually present when effective software maintenance teams do their work and instructs on the methods required to achieve success. Donald J. Reifer--an award winner for his contributions to the field of software engineering and whose experience includes managing the DoD Software Initiatives Office--provides step-by-step guidance on how t

  1. Funding Research Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momcheva, Ivelina G.

    2017-01-01

    Astronomical software is used by each and every member of our scientific community. Purpose-build software is becoming ever more critical as we enter the regime of large datasets and simulations of increasing complexity. However, financial investments in building, maintaining and renovating the software infrastructure have been uneven. In this talk I will summarize past and current funding sources for astronomical software development, discuss other models of funding and introduce a new initiative for supporting community software at STScI. The purpose of this talk is to prompt discussion about how we allocate resources to this vital infrastructure.

  2. TU-F-201-01: General Aspects of Radiochromic Film Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niroomand-Rad, A.

    2015-06-15

    Since the introduction of radiochromic films (RCF) for radiation dosimetry, the scope of RCF dosimetry has expanded steadily to include many medical applications, such as radiation therapy and diagnostic radiology. The AAPM Task Group (TG) 55 published a report on the recommendations for RCF dosimetry in 1998. As the technology is advancing rapidly, and its routine clinical use is expanding, TG 235 has been formed to provide an update to TG-55 on radiochromic film dosimetry. RCF dosimetry applications in clinical radiotherapy have become even more widespread, expanding from primarily brachytherapy and radiosurgery applications, and gravitating towards (but not limited to) external beam therapy (photon, electron and protons), such as quality assurance for IMRT, VMAT, Tomotherapy, SRS/SRT, and SBRT. In addition, RCF applications now extend to measurements of radiation dose in particle beams and patients undergoing medical exams, especially fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures and CT. The densitometers/scanners used for RCF dosimetry have also evolved from the He-Ne laser scanner to CCD-based scanners, including roller-based scanner, light box-based digital camera, and flatbed color scanner. More recently, multichannel RCF dosimetry introduced a new paradigm for external beam dose QA for its high accuracy and efficiency. This course covers in detail the recent advancements in RCF dosimetry. Learning Objectives: Introduce the paradigm shift on multichannel film dosimetry Outline the procedures to achieve accurate dosimetry with a RCF dosimetry system Provide comprehensive guidelines on RCF dosimetry for various clinical applications One of the speakers has a research agreement from Ashland Inc., the manufacturer of Gafchromic film.

  3. The creation of voxel phantoms for the purpose of environmental dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffrey, E.; Higley, K. [Oregon State University (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Basic geometric shapes have long been used as the standard for calculating radiation dose rates in non-human biota (NHB). Regulation standards have seen a shift recently, towards protection of NHB as its own endpoint. As such, there has been a growing interest in improving the calculations for NHB dose rates. To address calls for additional data, the development of voxelized models for the International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) twelve reference animal and plants (RAP) has been undertaken. Voxel models of a crab (Metacarcinus magister), flatfish (Pleuronectiformes), trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), worm (Lumbricina), honey bee (Apis), frog (Anura), and rat, (Rattus) have been created to date. The purpose of this submission is to describe the processes of creating these voxel phantoms from radiological imaging data (i.e., Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), etc.). CT/MRI images of the organism are obtained and uploaded into a software package capable of segmenting the images (3D Doctor was used for the crab, flatfish, trout, worm, and honey bee). On each image slice, individual organs and other relevant anatomical features (e.g. bones or other structural tissues) are identified and segmented. Once segmentation is complete, a boundary file that describes the positioning of the organs and tissues in lattice geometry format is exported into software called Voxelizer, created by the Human Monitoring Laboratory of Canada. This software writes the boundary file geometry into an input file for Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) based simulations. The user can then add appropriate materials, densities, and a desired source term. These simulations yield absorbed fraction (AF) values that are used in subsequent dose calculations with environmental concentration data. AFs are now available for the crab, flatfish, trout, worm, and honey bee at twelve photon and nine electron energies, consistent with ICRP AFs for human dosimetry

  4. Dosimetric comparison between three dimensional treatment planning system, Monte Carlo simulation and gel dosimetry in nasopharynx phantom for high dose rate brachytherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynab Fazli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: For the treatment of nasopharnx carcinoma (NPC using brachytherapy methods and high-energy photon sources are common techniques. In the common three dimensional (3D treatments planning, all of the computed tomography images are assumed homogeneous. This study presents the results of Monte Carlo calculations for non-homogeneous nasopharynx phantom, MAGICA normoxic gel dosimetry and 3D treatment planning system (TPS. Materials and Methods: The head phantom was designed with Plexiglas cylinder, head bone, and nasopharynx brachytherapy silicon applicator. For the simulations, version 5 of the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code (MCNP5 was used. 3D treatment planning was performed in Flexiplan software. A normoxic radiosensitive polymer gel was fabricated under normal atmospheric conditions and poured into test tubes (for calibration curve and the head phantom. In addition, the head phantom was irradiated with Flexitron afterloader brachytherapy machine with 192 Ir source. To obtain calibration curves, 11 dosimeters were irradiated with dose range of 0-2000 cGy. Evaluations of dosimeters were performed on 1.5T scanner. Results: Two-dimensional iso-dose in coronal plan at distances of z = +0.3, –0.3 cm was calculated. There was a good accordance between 3D TPS and MCNP5 simulation and differences in various distances were between 2.4% and 6.1%. There was a predictable accordance between MAGICA gel dosimetry and MCNP5 simulation and differences in various distances were between 5.7% and 7.4%. Moreover, there was an acceptable accordance between MAGICA gel dosimetry and MCNP5 data and differences in various distances were between 5.2% and 9.4%. Conclusion: The sources of differences in this comparison are divided to calculations variation and practical errors that was added in experimental dosimetry. The result of quality assurance of nasopharynx high dose rate brachytherapy is consistent with international standards.

  5. Dosimetric comparison between three dimensional treatment planning system, Monte Carlo simulation and gel dosimetry in nasopharynx phantom for high dose rate brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazli, Zeynab; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Zahmatkesh, M H; Mahdavi, Seied Rabei; Tenreiro, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    For the treatment of nasopharnx carcinoma (NPC) using brachytherapy methods and high-energy photon sources are common techniques. In the common three dimensional (3D) treatments planning, all of the computed tomography images are assumed homogeneous. This study presents the results of Monte Carlo calculations for non-homogeneous nasopharynx phantom, MAGICA normoxic gel dosimetry and 3D treatment planning system (TPS). The head phantom was designed with Plexiglas cylinder, head bone, and nasopharynx brachytherapy silicon applicator. For the simulations, version 5 of the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code (MCNP5) was used. 3D treatment planning was performed in Flexiplan software. A normoxic radiosensitive polymer gel was fabricated under normal atmospheric conditions and poured into test tubes (for calibration curve) and the head phantom. In addition, the head phantom was irradiated with Flexitron afterloader brachytherapy machine with (192)Ir source. To obtain calibration curves, 11 dosimeters were irradiated with dose range of 0-2000 cGy. Evaluations of dosimeters were performed on 1.5T scanner. Two-dimensional iso-dose in coronal plan at distances of z = +0.3, -0.3 cm was calculated. There was a good accordance between 3D TPS and MCNP5 simulation and differences in various distances were between 2.4% and 6.1%. There was a predictable accordance between MAGICA gel dosimetry and MCNP5 simulation and differences in various distances were between 5.7% and 7.4%. Moreover, there was an acceptable accordance between MAGICA gel dosimetry and MCNP5 data and differences in various distances were between 5.2% and 9.4%. The sources of differences in this comparison are divided to calculations variation and practical errors that was added in experimental dosimetry. The result of quality assurance of nasopharynx high dose rate brachytherapy is consistent with international standards.

  6. SU-C-201-06: Utility of Quantitative 3D SPECT/CT Imaging in Patient Specific Internal Dosimetry of 153-Samarium with GATE Monte Carlo Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallahpoor, M; Abbasi, M [Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Vali-Asr Hospital, Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sen, A [University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Parach, A [Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kalantari, F [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Patient-specific 3-dimensional (3D) internal dosimetry in targeted radionuclide therapy is essential for efficient treatment. Two major steps to achieve reliable results are: 1) generating quantitative 3D images of radionuclide distribution and attenuation coefficients and 2) using a reliable method for dose calculation based on activity and attenuation map. In this research, internal dosimetry for 153-Samarium (153-Sm) was done by SPECT-CT images coupled GATE Monte Carlo package for internal dosimetry. Methods: A 50 years old woman with bone metastases from breast cancer was prescribed 153-Sm treatment (Gamma: 103keV and beta: 0.81MeV). A SPECT/CT scan was performed with the Siemens Simbia-T scanner. SPECT and CT images were registered using default registration software. SPECT quantification was achieved by compensating for all image degrading factors including body attenuation, Compton scattering and collimator-detector response (CDR). Triple energy window method was used to estimate and eliminate the scattered photons. Iterative ordered-subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) with correction for attenuation and distance-dependent CDR was used for image reconstruction. Bilinear energy mapping is used to convert Hounsfield units in CT image to attenuation map. Organ borders were defined by the itk-SNAP toolkit segmentation on CT image. GATE was then used for internal dose calculation. The Specific Absorbed Fractions (SAFs) and S-values were reported as MIRD schema. Results: The results showed that the largest SAFs and S-values are in osseous organs as expected. S-value for lung is the highest after spine that can be important in 153-Sm therapy. Conclusion: We presented the utility of SPECT-CT images and Monte Carlo for patient-specific dosimetry as a reliable and accurate method. It has several advantages over template-based methods or simplified dose estimation methods. With advent of high speed computers, Monte Carlo can be used for treatment planning

  7. Dosimetry using HS GafChromic films the influence of readout light on sensitivity of dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secerov, Bojana [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Mike Alasa BB, Belgrade 11000 (Serbia); Dakovic, Marko [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Physical Chemistry, Studentski trg 12-16, Belgrade 11000 (Serbia); Borojevic, Nenad [National Cancer Research Center of Serbia, Pasterova 14, Belgrade 11000 (Serbia); Bacic, Goran, E-mail: ggbacic@ffh.bg.ac.r [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Physical Chemistry, Studentski trg 12-16, Belgrade 11000 (Serbia)

    2011-03-21

    Various forms of Gafchromic films that are increasingly used for dosimetry in radiotherapy offer the prospect of reproducible and accurate high-resolution two-dimensional dose measurements, but there are many unresolved issues regarding the optimal choice of densitometric procedure used for the film's optical density (OD) readout. There are conflicting requirements for scanners (sensitivity, availability, price) and commercial document scanners appears to be a reasonable option, hence we analyzed the measured sublinear dose response of these scanners. Using measured film absorption spectra we were able to make quantitative distinction between various factors affecting the sublinearity and to demonstrate that the dose response curve can be predicted for any selected light source used for scanning. We also used the commercial narrow bandpass filters in conjunction with document scanners to investigate whether such an inexpensive option can improve their sensitivity, but results were not encouraging. Finally, we analyzed the suitability of proposed fitting equations for the calibration of the dose response and found that their reliability largely depends on the dose range used for the calibration.

  8. Radiation effects analysis in a group of interventional radiologists using biological and physical dosimetry methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, M., E-mail: WEMLmirapas@iqn.upv.e [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Montoro, A.; Almonacid, M. [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe Valencia (Spain); Ferrer, S. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Barquinero, J.F. [Biological Dosimetry Service, Unit of Anthropology, Department of Animal and Vegetable Biology and Ecology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB) (Spain); Tortosa, R. [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe Valencia (Spain); Verdu, G. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Rodriguez, P. [Biological Dosimetry Service, Unit of Anthropology, Department of Animal and Vegetable Biology and Ecology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB) (Spain); Barrios, L.L. [Department of Physiology and Cellular Biology, Unit of Cellular Biology (UAB) (Spain); Villaescusa, J.I. [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe Valencia (Spain)

    2010-08-15

    Interventional radiologists and staff members are frequently exposed to protracted and fractionated low doses of ionizing radiation, which extend during all their professional activities. These exposures can derive, due to the effects of direct and scattered radiation, in deterministic effects (radiodermitis, aged skin, cataracts, telangiectasia in nasal region, vasocellular epitelioms, hands depilation) and/or stochastic ones (cancer incidence). A methodology has been proposed for estimating the radiation risk or detriment from a group of six exposed interventional radiologists of the Hospital Universitario La Fe (Valencia, Spain), which had developed general exposition symptoms attributable to deterministic effects of ionizing radiation. Equivalent doses have been periodically registered using TLD's and wrist dosimeters, H{sub p}(10) and H{sub p}(0.07), respectively, and estimated through the observation of translocations in lymphocytes of peripheral blood (biological methods), by extrapolating the yield of translocations to their respective dose-effect curves. The software RADRISK has been applied for estimating radiation risks in these occupational radiation exposures. This software is based on transport models from epidemiological studies of population exposed to external sources of ionizing radiation, such as Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors [UNSCEAR, Sources and effects of ionizing radiation: 2006 report to the general assembly, with scientific annexes. New York: United Nations; 2006]. The minimum and maximum average excess ratio for skin cancer has been, using wrist physical doses, of [1.03x10{sup -3}, 5.06x10{sup -2}], concluding that there is not an increased risk of skin cancer incidence. The minimum and maximum average excess ratio for leukemia has been, using TLD physical doses, of [7.84x10{sup -2}, 3.36x10{sup -1}], and using biological doses, of [1.40x10{sup -1}, 1.51], which is considerably higher than incidence rates, showing an

  9. Phantom positioning variation in the Gamma Knife® Perfexion dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Nathalia Almeida; Potiens, Maria da Penha Albuquerque [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleres (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Saraiva, Crystian [Hospital do Coracao, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The use of small volume ionization chamber has become required for the dosimetry of equipment that use small radiation fields. A pinpoint ionization chamber is ideal for the dosimetry of a Gamma Knife® Perfexion (GKP) unit. In this work, this chamber was inserted into the phantom, and measurements were performed with the phantom in different positions, in order to verify if the change in the phantom positioning affects the dosimetry of the GKP. Three different phantom positions were performed. The variation in the result is within the range allowed for the dosimetry of a GKP equipment. (author)

  10. Application of biological dosimetry in accidental radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosal, M.; Batora, I.; Kolesar, D.; Stojkovic, J. (Komenskeho Univ., Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Lekarska Fakulta); Gaal, P.; Sklovsky, A. (Krajska Hygienicka Stanica, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia)); Cizova, O. (Sexuologicka Ambulancia KUNZ, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia))

    1982-03-01

    The case is described of accidental irradiation of a male person with /sup 137/Cs of an activity of 24.71 GBq. The first estimate induced a reasonable suspicion that the absorbed dose could be very high and life-threatening. On the other hand the clinical picture, usual laboratory examinations, findings in the fluorescent blood count, the analysis of chromosomal count of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, the spermiogram, and the negative post-irradiation porphyrinuria suggested that the absorbed dose could be much lower than the original estimate. The results of dosimetry obtained after the reconstruction of the accident by measuring on a phantom revealed that the actual dose was very close to that presumed from the results of biological dosimetry during the first days of examination of the patient.

  11. Relative dosimetry by Ebt-3; Dosimetria relativa por EBT3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leon A, M. A.; Rivera M, T. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Av. Legaria 694, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Hernandez O, J. O., E-mail: madla16@hotmail.com [Hospital General de Mexico, Dr. Balmis 148, Col. Doctores, 06726 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    In the present work relative dosimetry in two linear accelerator for radiation therapy was studied. Both Varian Oncology systems named Varian Clinac 2100-Cd and MLC Varian Clinac i X were used. Gaf Chromic Ebt-3 film was used. Measurements have been performed in a water equivalent phantom, using 6 MV and 18 MV photon beams on both Linacs. Both calibration and Electron irradiations were carried out with the ionization chamber placed at the isocenter, below a stack of solid water slabs, at the depth of dose maximum (D max), with a Source-to-Surface Distance (SSD) of 100 cm and a field size of 10 cm x 10 cm. Calibration and dosimetric measurements photons were carried out under IAEA-TRS 398 protocol. Results of relative dosimetry in the present work are discussed. (Author)

  12. ACS Algorithm in Discrete Ordinates for Pressure Vessel Dosimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walters William

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Adaptive Collision Source (ACS method can solve the Linear Boltzmann Equation (LBE more efficiently by adaptation of the angular quadrature order. This is similar to, and essentially an extension of, the first collision source method. Previously, the ACS methodology has been implemented into the TITAN discrete ordinates code, and has shown speedups of 2–4 on a simple test problem, with very little loss of accuracy (within a provided adaptive tolerance. This work examines the use of the ACS method for a more realistic problem: pressure vessel dosimetry with the VENUS-2 MOX-fuelled reactor dosimetry benchmark. The ACS method proved to be able to obtain accurate results while being approximately twice as efficient as using a constant quadrature in a standard source iteration scheme.

  13. Alternative statistical methods for cytogenetic radiation biological dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Fornalski, Krzysztof Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents alternative statistical methods for biological dosimetry, such as the Bayesian and Monte Carlo method. The classical Gaussian and robust Bayesian fit algorithms for the linear, linear-quadratic as well as saturated and critical calibration curves are described. The Bayesian model selection algorithm for those curves is also presented. In addition, five methods of dose estimation for a mixed neutron and gamma irradiation field were described: two classical methods, two Bayesian methods and one Monte Carlo method. Bayesian methods were also enhanced and generalized for situations with many types of mixed radiation. All algorithms were presented in easy-to-use form, which can be applied to any computational programming language. The presented algorithm is universal, although it was originally dedicated to cytogenetic biological dosimetry of victims of a nuclear reactor accident.

  14. On multichannel film dosimetry with channel-independent perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Méndez, Ignasi; Hudej, Rihard; Strojnik, Andrej; Casar, Božidar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Different multichannel methods for film dosimetry have been proposed in the literature. Two of them are the weighted mean method and the method put forth by Micke et al and Mayer et al. The purpose of this work was to compare their results and to develop a generalized channel-independent perturbations framework in which both methods enter as special cases. Methods: Four models of channel-independent perturbations were compared: weighted mean, Micke-Mayer method, uniform distribution and truncated normal distribution. A closed-form formula to calculate film doses and the associated Type B uncertainty for all four models was deduced. To evaluate the models, film dose distributions were compared with planned and measured dose distributions. At the same time, several elements of the dosimetry process were compared: film type EBT2 versus EBT3, different waiting-time windows, reflection mode versus transmission mode scanning, and planned versus measured dose distribution for film calibration and for gamma-...

  15. Medical radiation dosimetry theory of charged particle collision energy loss

    CERN Document Server

    McParland, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Accurate radiation dosimetry is a requirement of radiation oncology, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. It is necessary so as to satisfy the needs of patient safety, therapeutic and diagnostic optimisation, and retrospective epidemiological studies of the biological effects resulting from low absorbed doses of ionising radiation. The radiation absorbed dose received by the patient is the ultimate consequence of the transfer of kinetic energy through collisions between energetic charged particles and atoms of the tissue being traversed. Thus, the ability of the medical physicist to both measure and calculate accurately patient dosimetry demands a deep understanding of the physics of charged particle interactions with matter. Interestingly, the physics of charged particle energy loss has an almost exclusively theoretical basis, thus necessitating an advanced theoretical understanding of the subject in order to apply it appropriately to the clinical regime. ​ Each year, about one-third of the worl...

  16. Identification and dosimetry of irradiated walnuts (Juglans regia) using EPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghraby, A.; Salama, E.; Sami, A.; Mansour, A.; El-Sayed, M.

    2012-03-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is an easy, fast, and reliable tool for identification of irradiated food. Untreated nuts may encounter hazards of carrying several pathogens or microbial contamination; walnuts are of specific importance due to their nutritional and medicinal values, and hence walnut processing via gamma irradiation is a necessary step. EPR was employed for the identification and dosimetry of Cs-137 gamma-irradiated walnuts (shells and kernels). Several important parameters were studied, such as spectral features, microwave power dependence of signal intensities, and short- and long-term time dependences. Responses of walnut shells and kernels to different radiation doses in the range 0-10 kGy were investigated. Results confirmed that EPR is a suitable tool for the identification and dosimetry of irradiated walnuts using either their shells or only kernels.

  17. The specifics of dosimetry for food irradiation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Florent; Strasser, Alain

    2016-12-01

    Dose measurement applied to food irradiation is obviously a very important and critical aspect of this process. It is described in many standards and guides. The application of appropriate dosimetry tools is explained. This helps to ensure traceability of this measurement and number of dosimeters available on the market are well studied even though theirs response should be characterized while used in routine processing conditions. When employed in low energy radiation fields, these dosimeters may exhibit specific response compared to the usual Cobalt 60 source irradiation. Traceable calibration or correction factor assessment of this energy dependency is mandatory. It is to mention that the absorbed dose is measured in the dosimeter itself and unfortunately not in/on the food product. However, existing dosimetry systems fulfill all relevant requirements.

  18. Dosimetry using environmental and biological materials. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskell, E.; Kenner, G.; Hayes, R.

    1998-02-01

    This report summarizes a five year effort to improve the sensitivity and reliability of retrospective dosimetry methods, to collaborate with laboratories engaged in related research and to share the technology with startup laboratories seeking similar capabilities. This research program has focused on validation of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) as a dosimetry tool and on optimization of the technique by reducing the lower limits of detection, simplifying the process of sample preparation and analysis and speeding analysis to allow greater throughput in routine measurement situations. The authors have investigated the dosimetric signal of hard tissues in enamel, deorganified dentin, synthetic carbonated apatites and synthetic hydroxyapatite. This research has resulted in a total of 27 manuscripts which have been published, are in press, or have been submitted for publication. Of these manuscripts, 14 are included in this report and were indexed separately for inclusion in the data base.

  19. Radiation Protection and Dosimetry An Introduction to Health Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stabin, Michael G

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive text provides an overview of all relevant topics in the field of radiation protection (health physics). Radiation Protection and Dosimetry serves as an essential handbook for practicing health physics professionals, and is also ideal as a teaching text for courses at the university level. The book is organized to introduce the reader to basic principles of radiation decay and interactions, to review current knowledge and historical aspects of the biological effects of radiation, and to cover important operational topics such as radiation shielding and dosimetry. In addition to presenting the most up to date treatment of the topics and references to the literature, most chapters contain numerical problems with their solutions for use in teaching or self assessment. One chapter is devoted to Environmental Health Physics, which was written in collaboration with leading professionals in the area.

  20. Computer simulations for internal dosimetry using voxel models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinase, Sakae; Mohammadi, Akram; Takahashi, Masa; Saito, Kimiaki; Zankl, Maria; Kramer, Richard

    2011-07-01

    In the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, several studies have been conducted on the use of voxel models for internal dosimetry. Absorbed fractions (AFs) and S values have been evaluated for preclinical assessments of radiopharmaceuticals using human voxel models and a mouse voxel model. Computational calibration of in vivo measurement system has been also made using Japanese and Caucasian voxel models. In addition, for radiation protection of the environment, AFs have been evaluated using a frog voxel model. Each study was performed by using Monte Carlo simulations. Consequently, it was concluded that these data of Monte Carlo simulations and voxel models could adequately reproduce measurement results. Voxel models were found to be a significant tool for internal dosimetry since the models are anatomically realistic. This fact indicates that several studies on correction of the in vivo measurement efficiency for the variability of human subjects and interspecies scaling of organ doses will succeed.

  1. A new technique for dosimetry reaction cross-section evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badikov, S.A. [JSC Energy and Industry Analytica, 127287, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    Document available in abstract form only, full text of document follows: An objective of this paper is a unification of the procedure for dosimetry reaction cross-section evaluation. A set of requirements for the unified evaluation procedure is presented. A new code (ORTHO) was developed in order to meet these requirements. A statistical model, an algorithm, and the basic formulae employed in the code are described. The code was used for Ti48(n,p) reaction cross-section evaluation. The results of the evaluation are compared to International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF)-2002 data. The evaluated cross-sections and their correlations from this work are in good agreement with the IRDF-2002 evaluated data, whereas the uncertainties of the evaluated cross-sections are inconsistent. (authors)

  2. Development of CVD diamond detectors for clinical dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piliero, M. A.; Hugtenburg, R. P.; Ryde, S. J. S.; Oliver, K.

    2014-11-01

    The use of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) methods for the manufacture of diamonds could lead to detectors for high-resolution radiotherapy dosimetry that are cheaper and more reproducible than detectors based on natural diamonds. In this work two prototype designs (Diamond Detectors Ltd, Poole) of CVD diamond detectors were considered. The detectors were encapsulated in a water-proof housing in a form-factor that would be suitable for dosimetry measurements in water, as well as solid material phantoms. Stability of the dosimeter over time, the dose-response, dose-rate response and angular-response were examined. The study demonstrated that the detector behaviour conformed with theory in terms of the dose-rate response and had acceptable properties for use in the clinic.

  3. High-dose dosimetry using natural silicate minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, Lucas S. do; Mendes, Leticia, E-mail: isatiro@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Watanabe, Shigueo; Rao, Gundu; Lucas, Natasha; Sato, Karina, E-mail: lacifid@if.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Departamento de Fisica Nuclear; Barbosa, Renata F., E-mail: profcelta@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Santos, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias do Mar

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, certain natural silicate minerals such as aquamarine (AB), morganite (PB), goshenite (WB), white jadeite (JW), green jadeite (JG), pink tourmaline (PT) and two varieties of jadeite-like quartz, denoted here by JQ1 and JQ2, were investigated using the thermoluminescence technique to evaluate their potential for use as very-high- and high-dose dosimeters. These minerals respond to high doses of γ-rays of up to 1000 kGy and often to very high doses of up to 3000 kGy. The TL response of these minerals may be considered to be satisfactory for applications in high-dose dosimetry. Investigations of electron paramagnetic resonance and optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry are in progress. (author)

  4. Software Maintenance and Evolution: The Implication for Software ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... ... the test of time. Keywords: Software, software maintenance, software evolution, reverse engineering, ... area of human endeavour be it automobile, software, etc. at .... greater efficiency and productivity in the maintenance ...

  5. Three-dimensional verification of prostate cancer patients treated with VMAT by Matrixx detector and COMPASS software IBA; Verificacion tridimensional de pacientes con cancer de prostata tratados con VMAT mediante el detector Matrixx y software COMPASS de IBA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateos, J. C.; Luis, F. J.; Cabrera, P.; Carrasco, M.; Sanchez, G.; Herrador, M.

    2011-07-01

    Described in this paper the verification of prostate cancer patients treated with VMAT planned in our hospital, with a prescribed dose of 76 Gy. The ability to simultaneously analyze the patient by any plane COMPASS software (IBA, Germany), together with the detector array Matrixx-Evolution, this system gives a particularly interesting feature. The aim of this paper is to describe the operation of this equipment and validated for patient dosimetry in IMRT and VMAT treatments.

  6. Dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources; Dosimetria de fuentes {beta} extensas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E.L.; Lallena R, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    In this work, we have been studied, making use of the Penelope Monte Carlo simulation code, the dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources in situations of spherical geometry including interfaces. These configurations are of interest in the treatment of the called cranealfaringyomes of some synovia leisure of knee and other problems of interest in medical physics. Therefore, its application can be extended toward problems of another areas with similar geometric situation and beta sources. (Author)

  7. Report on the Personnel Dosimetry at AB Atomenergi during 1965

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edvardsson, K.A.

    1966-10-15

    This report presents the results of the personnel dosimetry at AB Atomenergi during 1965. No doses exceeding the recommendations of ICRP were reported. For AB Atomenergi the average external total body dose during the year was 60 mrem which corresponds to 89.4 manrem. 31200 gamma films and 5850 neutron films were evaluated. 2067 urine analyses and 692 measurements of body activity were made.

  8. JENDL dosimetry file 99 (JENDL/D-99)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Katsuhei [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Institute; Iguchi, Tetsuo [Nagoya Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Iwasaki, Shin [Tohoku Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Sendai, Miyagi (JP)] [and others

    2002-01-01

    The JENDL Dosimetry File 99 (JENDL/D-99), which is a revised version of the JENDL Dosimetry File 91 (JENDL/D-91), has been compiled and released for the determination of neutron flux and energy spectra. This work was undertaken to remove the inconsistency between the cross sections and their covariances in JENDL/D-91 since the covariances were mainly taken from IRDF-85 although the cross sections were based on JENDL-3. Dosimetry cross sections have been evaluated for 67 reactions on 47 nuclides together with covariances. The cross sections for 34 major reactions and their covariances were simultaneously generated, and the remaining 33 reaction data were mainly taken from JENDL/D-91. Latest measurements were taken into account in the evaluation. The resultant evaluated data are given in the neutron energy region below 20 MeV in both of point-wise and group-wise files in the ENDF-6 format. In order to confirm the reliability of the evaluated data, several integral tests have been carried out: comparisons with average cross sections measured in fission neutron fields, fast/thermal reactor spectra, DT neutron fields and Li(d,n) neutron fields. It was found from the comparisons that the cross sections calculated from JENDL/D-99 are generally in good agreement with the measured data. The contents of JENDL/D-99 and the results of the integral tests are described in this report. All of the dosimetry cross sections are shown in a graphical form in the Appendix. (author)

  9. Monte Carlo physical dosimetry for small photon beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perucha, M.; Rincon, M.; Leal, A.; Carrasco, E. [Sevilla Univ. (Spain). Dept. Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica; Sanchez-Doblado, F. [Sevilla Univ. (Spain). Dept. Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica]|[Hospital Univ. Virgen Macarena, Sevilla (Spain). Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica; Nunez, L. [Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain). Servicio de Radiofisica; Arrans, R.; Sanchez-Calzado, J.A.; Errazquin, L. [Hospital Univ. Virgen Macarena, Sevilla (Spain). Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica

    2001-07-01

    Small field dosimetry is complicated due to the lack of electronic equilibrium and to the high steep dose gradients. This works compares PDD curves, profiles and output factors measured with conventional detectors (film, diode, TLD and ionisation chamber) and calculated with Monte Carlo. The 6 MV nominal energy from a Philips SL-18 linac has been simulated by using the OMEGA code. MC calculation reveals itself as a convenient method to validate OF and profiles in special conditions, such as small fields. (orig.)

  10. Monte Carlo simulations to replace film dosimetry in IMRT verification

    OpenAIRE

    Goetzfried, Thomas; Rickhey, Mark; Treutwein, Marius; Koelbl, Oliver; Bogner, Ludwig

    2011-01-01

    Patient-specific verification of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans can be done by dosimetric measurements or by independent dose or monitor unit calculations. The aim of this study was the clinical evaluation of IMRT verification based on a fast Monte Carlo (MC) program with regard to possible benefits compared to commonly used film dosimetry. 25 head-and-neck IMRT plans were recalculated by a pencil beam based treatment planning system (TPS) using an appropriate quality assu...

  11. Luminescence dosimetry: recent developments in theory and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeever, S.W.S. [Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078-3072 (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Thermally and optically stimulated luminescence have been used in applications in solid state physics, radiation dosimetry and geological dating for several decades. This paper gives a generalized description of these methods in terms of non-equilibrium thermodynamics and in doing so highlights similarities and differences between the methods. Recent advances in both the theory and application of the techniques are highlighted with numerous specific examples. (Author)

  12. NASA software documentation standard software engineering program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Software Documentation Standard (hereinafter referred to as Standard) can be applied to the documentation of all NASA software. This Standard is limited to documentation format and content requirements. It does not mandate specific management, engineering, or assurance standards or techniques. This Standard defines the format and content of documentation for software acquisition, development, and sustaining engineering. Format requirements address where information shall be recorded and content requirements address what information shall be recorded. This Standard provides a framework to allow consistency of documentation across NASA and visibility into the completeness of project documentation. This basic framework consists of four major sections (or volumes). The Management Plan contains all planning and business aspects of a software project, including engineering and assurance planning. The Product Specification contains all technical engineering information, including software requirements and design. The Assurance and Test Procedures contains all technical assurance information, including Test, Quality Assurance (QA), and Verification and Validation (V&V). The Management, Engineering, and Assurance Reports is the library and/or listing of all project reports.

  13. New luminescence measurement facilities in retrospective dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lapp, Torben; Jain, Mayank; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov

    2012-01-01

    thermoelectrically cooled NIR sensitive PMT (detection window peak at 855 nm, FWHM 27 nm). Software and electronics have been modified to allow standard TL and OSL measurements in the same sequence as RL measurements. Together with a new bleaching source based on a high-power UV LED (395 nm; 700 mW/cm2......This paper gives a review of recent developments in luminescence measurement facilities on the Risø TL/OSL reader including radio-luminescence (RL), exo-electron and violet stimulation attachments, and a method for characterising and if necessary correcting for beta irradiation source non......-uniformity.We first describe improvements to the existing RL option to allow near infra-red detection (NIR) during irradiation by the built-in 90Sr/90Y beta source. The RL optical signal is collected by a liquid light guide through an F34-901 interference filter and detection is based on a dedicated...

  14. In Vitro Exposure Systems and Dosimetry Assessment Tools ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2009, the passing of The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act facilitated the establishment of the FDA Center for Tobacco Products (CTP) and gave it regulatory authority over the marketing, manufacture and distribution of tobacco products, including those termed “modified risk”. On 4-6 April 2016, the Institute for In Vitro Sciences, Inc. (IIVS) convened a workshop conference titled “In Vitro Exposure Systems and Dosimetry Assessment Tools for Inhaled Tobacco Products” to bring together stakeholders representing regulatory agencies, academia, and industry to address the research priorities articulated by the FDA CTP. Specific topics were covered to assess the status of current in vitro smoke and aerosol/vapor exposure systems, as well as the various approaches and challenges to quantifying the complex exposures, in in vitro pulmonary models developed for evaluating adverse pulmonary events resulting from tobacco product exposures. The four core topics covered were, 1) Tobacco Smoke And E-Cigarette Aerosols, 2) Air-Liquid Interface-In Vitro Exposure Systems, 3) Dosimetry Approaches For Particles And Vapors; In Vitro Dosimetry Determinations and 4) Exposure Microenvironment/Physiology Of Cells. The two and a half day workshop included presentations from 20 expert speakers, poster sessions, networking discussions, and breakout sessions which identified key findings and provided recommendations to advance these technologies. Here, we will re

  15. Advanced Corneal Cross-Linking System with Fluorescence Dosimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc D. Friedman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This paper describes an advanced system that combines corneal cross-linking with riboflavin with fluorescence dosimetry, the ability to measure riboflavin diffusion within the cornea both before and during UVA treatment. Methods and Results. A corneal cross-linking system utilizing a digital micromirror device (DMD was assembled and used to measure diffusion coefficients of 0.1% riboflavin in 20% dextran in porcine eyes. A value of (3.3±0.2×10−7 cm2/s was obtained for the stroma. Diffusion coefficients for the transepithelial formulation of 0.1% riboflavin in 0.44% saline and 0.02% BAK were also measured to be 4.7±0.3×10−8 cm2/s for epithelium only and (4.6±0.4×10−7 cm2/s for stroma only. Riboflavin consumption during a UVA treatment was also demonstrated. Conclusion. A new advanced corneal cross-linking system with fluorescence dosimetry of riboflavin has been demonstrated. It is hoped that this method may play a significant role in determining the underlying mechanisms of corneal cross-linking and assist with the development of additional riboflavin formulations. Moreover, dosimetry may prove valuable in providing a method to account for the biological differences between individuals, potentially informing cornea-specific UVA treatment doses in real time.

  16. Characterisation of OSL and OSLN droplets for dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, L F; D'Agostino, E; Vaniqui, A C S; Saldarriaga, C; Vanhavere, F; De Deene, Y

    2014-10-01

    In spite of considerable progress in neutron dosimetry, there is no dosemeter that is capable of measuring neutron doses independently of the neutron spectrum with good accuracy. Carbon-doped aluminium oxide (Al2O3:C) is a sensitive material for ionising radiation (beta-ray, X ray and electron) and has been used for applications in personal and medical dosimetry as an optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosemeter. Al2O3:C has a low sensitivity to neutron radiation; this prevents its application to neutron fields, representing a disadvantage of Al2O3:C-OSL when compared with LiF, which is used as a thermoluminescent detector. Recently an improvement for neutron dosimetry (Passmore and Kirr. Neutron response characterisation of an OSL neutron dosemeter. Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 2011; 144: 155-60) uses Al2O3:C coated with (6)Li2CO3 (OSLN),which gives the high-sensitive response as known for Al2O3:C with the advantage of being also sensitive to thermal neutrons. In this article, the authors compare small-size detectors (droplets) of Al2O3:C (OSL) and of Al2O3:C+(6)Li2CO3 (OSLN) and discuss the advantages and drawbacks of both materials, regarding size vs. response.

  17. The Chernobyl experience in the area of retrospective dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumak, Vadim V

    2012-03-01

    The Chernobyl accident, which occurred on 26 April 1986 at a nuclear power plant located less than 150 km north of Kiev, was the largest nuclear accident to date. The unprecedented scale of the accident was determined not only by the amount of released activity, but also by the number of workers and of the general public involved, and therefore exposed to increased doses of ionising radiation. Due to the unexpected and large scale of the accident, dosimetry techniques and practices were far from the optimum; personal dosimetry of cleanup workers (liquidators) was not complete, and there were no direct measurements of the exposures of members of the public. As a result, an acute need for retrospective dose assessment was dictated by radiation protection and research considerations. In response, substantial efforts have been made to reconstruct doses for the main exposed cohorts, using a broad variety of newly developed methods: analytical, biological and physical (electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of teeth, thermoluminescence of quartz) and modelling. This paper reviews the extensive experience gained by the National Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences, Ukraine in the field of retrospective dosimetry of large cohorts of exposed population and professionals. These dose reconstruction projects were implemented, in particular, in the framework of epidemiological studies, designed to follow-up the medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident and study health effects of ionizing radiation, particularly Ukrainian-American studies of cataracts and leukaemia among liquidators.

  18. Proceedings of the second conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaja, R. E.; Sims, C. S. [eds.

    1988-11-01

    The Second Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 31--November 3, 1988, at the Holiday Inn, Crowne Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To facilitate meeting these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical sessions included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, calibration, standards and regulations, instrumentation, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. This document provides a summary of the conference technical program and a partial collection of full papers for the oral presentations in order of delivery. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  19. Dosimetry with phantom for total body irradiation (TBI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tezuka, Takako; Sakakura, Noriyuki; Obata, Yasunori; Tabushi, Katuyoshi; Kondou, Satoru [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Health Sciences; Koyama, Syuuji; Aoyama, Yuuichi; Shimohira, Akiyo [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Hospital

    2002-04-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) is being used as a method of preparation for bone marrow transplantation (BMT). In TBI, the dose calculation is based on dosimetry using a phantom. We measured the basic dose with a phantom using a 10 MV X-rays. We confirmed the accuracy of the dose calculation performed in our facilities and investigated a method of more accurate dosimetry. We measured the variation in dose according to the size of the phantom and the depth using a tough water phantom, and examined the difference in TMR according to SCD, field size, and size of the phantom. Consequently, the dose has been changed regardless of the size of the phantom at larger than 80 x 30 x 30 cm{sup 3}, and it is about 1% larger than 30 x 30 x 30 cm{sup 3}. Also TMR has changed according to various conditions, including the size of the phantom, field size, and SCD. Therefore, it was found that dosimetry using the 30 x 30 x 30 cm{sup 3} phantom leads to underestimation in dose calculation, and there is no difference in dose between the field size of 151.5 x 160 cm{sup 2} and 151.5 x 80 cm{sup 2}. It is also necessary to consider the effect of the vertical size of the phantom. (author)

  20. Dosimetry checking of treatment in stereotactic conditions by portal imager; Verification dosimetrique des traitements en conditions stereotaxiques par imageur portal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoro, L.; Ailleres, N.; Simeon, S.; Fenoglietto, P. [IRCM, institut de Recherche en Cancerologie, 34 - Montpellier (France)

    2009-10-15

    Objective: The irradiations in stereotactic conditions require specific tools of measurements for the dosimetry software configuration. The spatial resolution of these systems is the crucial point of this modeling and it is always difficult to make this measurement for the edge beams <1.5 cm. The checking of treatment plans is also very important because of the single dose irradiation of the target volume and if the irradiation geometry parameters are checked on the device before the patient installation, it is often difficult for temporal reasons to check and validate the dose distribution in a phantom. A fast validation process of the treatment supply is studied in our institution. Conclusion: A checking of the planned dose distribution can be realised before the patient positioning in the case of treatment in stereotactic conditions. A study realised on less than 3 cm beams is under way. (N.C.)

  1. Software Defined Networking Demands on Software Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galinac Grbac, T.; Caba, Cosmin Marius; Soler, José

    2015-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) is a networking approach based on a centralized control plane architecture with standardised interfaces between control and data planes. SDN enables fast configuration and reconfiguration of the network to enhance resource utilization and service performances....... This new approach enables a more dynamic and flexible network, which may adapt to user needs and application requirements. To this end, systemized solutions must be implemented in network software, aiming to provide secure network services that meet the required service performance levels. In this paper......, we review this new approach to networking from an architectural point of view, and identify and discuss some critical quality issues that require new developments in software technologies. These issues we discuss along with use case scenarios. Here in this paper we aim to identify challenges...

  2. Dosimetry in radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid diseases. Background and practice; Dosimetrie bei Radioiodtherapie benigner Schilddruesenerkrankungen. Hintergrund und Durchfuehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockisch, A.; Sonnenschein, W.; Jentzen, W.; Hartung, V.; Goerges, R. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2008-09-15

    Radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid diseases (focal = [toxic adenoma], multifocal, disseminated autonomy, Grave's disease or clinical relevant goitre) needs to be and can be performed individually for each patient. Most frequently a radioiodine test is performed applying a small activity of iodine-131 ({sup 131}I). The paper discusses some protocols for pre- or posttherapeutic dosimetry and discusses their advantages and disadvantages. All are based on the volumetry of the target tissue as well as the radioiodine kinetics in the target volume what may be represented by maximum uptake and half life of iodine retention in the thyroid. Possible disturbances and measuring uncertainties of these parameters are presented and discussed. In spite of the discussed uncertainties in dosimetry, due to its high therapeutic width radioiodine therapy is a very successful procedure to cure hyperthyroidism or to reduce goitre volume with only little side effects. (orig.)

  3. Trace Software Pipelining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王剑; AndreasKrall; 等

    1995-01-01

    Global software pipelining is a complex but efficient compilation technique to exploit instruction-level parallelism for loops with branches.This paper presents a novel global software pipelining technique,called Trace Software Pipelining,targeted to the instruction-level parallel processors such as Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW) and superscalar machines.Trace software pipelining applies a global code scheduling technique to compact the original loop body.The resulting loop is called a trace software pipelined (TSP) code.The trace softwrae pipelined code can be directly executed with special architectural support or can be transformed into a globally software pipelined loop for the current VLIW and superscalar processors.Thus,exploiting parallelism across all iterations of a loop can be completed through compacting the original loop body with any global code scheduling technique.This makes our new technique very promising in practical compilers.Finally,we also present the preliminary experimental results to support our new approach.

  4. COTS software selection process.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, William M. (Strike Wire Technologies, Louisville, CO); Lin, Han Wei; McClelland, Kelly (U.S. Security Associates, Livermore, CA); Ullrich, Rebecca Ann; Khanjenoori, Soheil; Dalton, Karen; Lai, Anh Tri; Kuca, Michal; Pacheco, Sandra; Shaffer-Gant, Jessica

    2006-05-01

    Today's need for rapid software development has generated a great interest in employing Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) software products as a way of managing cost, developing time, and effort. With an abundance of COTS software packages to choose from, the problem now is how to systematically evaluate, rank, and select a COTS product that best meets the software project requirements and at the same time can leverage off the current corporate information technology architectural environment. This paper describes a systematic process for decision support in evaluating and ranking COTS software. Performed right after the requirements analysis, this process provides the evaluators with more concise, structural, and step-by-step activities for determining the best COTS software product with manageable risk. In addition, the process is presented in phases that are flexible to allow for customization or tailoring to meet various projects' requirements.

  5. Social software in global software development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Social software (SoSo) is defined by Farkas as tools that (1) allow people to communicate, collaborate, and build community online (2) can be syndicated, shared, reused or remixed and (3) let people learn easily from and capitalize on the behavior and knowledge of others. [1]. SoSo include a wide...... variety of tools such as: instant messaging, internet forums, mailing lists, blogs, wikis, social network sites, social bookmarking, social libraries, virtual worlds. Though normally rather belonging to the private realm, the use of social software in corporate context has been reported, e.g. as a way...

  6. Social software in global software development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Social software (SoSo) is defined by Farkas as tools that (1) allow people to communicate, collaborate, and build community online (2) can be syndicated, shared, reused or remixed and (3) let people learn easily from and capitalize on the behavior and knowledge of others. [1]. SoSo include a wide...... variety of tools such as: instant messaging, internet forums, mailing lists, blogs, wikis, social network sites, social bookmarking, social libraries, virtual worlds. Though normally rather belonging to the private realm, the use of social software in corporate context has been reported, e.g. as a way...

  7. Software Quality Assurance in Software Projects: A Study of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Shafique Butt

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Software quality is specific property which tells what kind of standard software should have. In a software project, quality is the key factor of success and decline of software related organization. Many researches have been done regarding software quality. Software related organization follows standards introduced by Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI to achieve good quality software. Quality is divided into three main layers which are Software Quality Assurance (SQA, Software Quality Plan (SQP and Software Quality Control (SQC. So In this study, we are discussing the quality standards and principles of software projects in Pakistan software Industry and how these implemented quality standards are measured and managed. In this study, we will see how many software firms are following the rules of CMMI to create software. How many are reaching international standards and how many firms are measuring the quality of their projects. The results show some of the companies are using software quality assurance techniques in Pakstan.

  8. Software engineering the current practice

    CERN Document Server

    Rajlich, Vaclav

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION History of Software EngineeringSoftware PropertiesOrigins of SoftwareBirth of Software EngineeringThird Paradigm: Iterative ApproachSoftware Life Span ModelsStaged ModelVariants of Staged ModelSoftware Technologies Programming Languages and CompilersObject-Oriented TechnologyVersion Control SystemSoftware ModelsClass DiagramsUML Activity DiagramsClass Dependency Graphs and ContractsSOFTWARE CHANGEIntroduction to Software ChangeCharacteristics of Software ChangePhases of Software ChangeRequirements and Their ElicitationRequirements Analysis and Change InitiationConcepts and Concept

  9. Real World Software Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-15

    semester addresses the remaining principles of a complete, mature software development process [ Humphrey 88]. In order to provide an instructional...Software Innovations Technology, 1083 Mandarin Drive N.E.. Palm Bay FL 32905-4706 [ Humphrey 88] W. S. Humphrey , "Characterizing the Software Process: A...Copies of all the forms mentioned are available via electronic mail from the authors. 40 [1) Doris Carver, "Comparison of Techniques In Project-Based

  10. Software configuration management

    CERN Document Server

    Keyes, Jessica

    2004-01-01

    Software Configuration Management discusses the framework from a standards viewpoint, using the original DoD MIL-STD-973 and EIA-649 standards to describe the elements of configuration management within a software engineering perspective. Divided into two parts, the first section is composed of 14 chapters that explain every facet of configuration management related to software engineering. The second section consists of 25 appendices that contain many valuable real world CM templates.

  11. Software Process Improvement Defined

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    This paper argues in favor of the development of explanatory theory on software process improvement. The last one or two decades commitment to prescriptive approaches in software process improvement theory may contribute to the emergence of a gulf dividing theorists and practitioners....... It is proposed that this divide be met by the development of theory evaluating prescriptive approaches and informing practice with a focus on the software process policymaking and process control aspects of improvement efforts...

  12. Software evolution with XVCL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Weishan; Jarzabek, Stan; Zhang, Hongyu

    2004-01-01

    This chapter introduces software evolution with XVCL (XML-based Variant Configuration Language), which is an XML-based metaprogramming technique. As the software evolves, a large number of variants may arise, especially whtn such kinds of evolutions are related to multiple platforms as shown in our...... case study. Handling variants and tracing the impact of variants across the development lifecycle is a challenge. This chapter shows how we can maintain different versions of software in a reuse-based way....

  13. Software systems for astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Conrad, Albert R

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the use and development of software for astronomy. It describes the control systems used to point the telescope and operate its cameras and spectrographs, as well as the web-based tools used to plan those observations. In addition, the book also covers the analysis and archiving of astronomical data once it has been acquired. Readers will learn about existing software tools and packages, develop their own software tools, and analyze real data sets.

  14. Lean software development

    OpenAIRE

    Hefnerová, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this bachelor thesis is the emergence of the clear Czech written material concerning the concept of Lean Software Development, which has been gaining significant attention in the field of software development, recently. Another goal of this thesis is to summarize the possible approaches of categorizing the concept and to summarize the possible approaches of defining the relationship between Lean and Agile software development. The detailed categorization of the tools potentia...

  15. Essential software architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Gorton, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Job titles like ""Technical Architect"" and ""Chief Architect"" nowadays abound in software industry, yet many people suspect that ""architecture"" is one of the most overused and least understood terms in professional software development. Gorton's book tries to resolve this dilemma. It concisely describes the essential elements of knowledge and key skills required to be a software architect. The explanations encompass the essentials of architecture thinking, practices, and supporting technologies. They range from a general understanding of structure and quality attributes through technical i

  16. Software Process Improvement Defined

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    This paper argues in favor of the development of explanatory theory on software process improvement. The last one or two decades commitment to prescriptive approaches in software process improvement theory may contribute to the emergence of a gulf dividing theorists and practitioners....... It is proposed that this divide be met by the development of theory evaluating prescriptive approaches and informing practice with a focus on the software process policymaking and process control aspects of improvement efforts...

  17. Solar Asset Management Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iverson, Aaron [Ra Power Management, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States); Zviagin, George [Ra Power Management, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    Ra Power Management (RPM) has developed a cloud based software platform that manages the financial and operational functions of third party financed solar projects throughout their lifecycle. RPM’s software streamlines and automates the sales, financing, and management of a portfolio of solar assets. The software helps solar developers automate the most difficult aspects of asset management, leading to increased transparency, efficiency, and reduction in human error. More importantly, our platform will help developers save money by improving their operating margins.

  18. Software evolution and maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Tripathy, Priyadarshi

    2014-01-01

    Software Evolution and Maintenance: A Practitioner's Approach is an accessible textbook for students and professionals, which collates the advances in software development and provides the most current models and techniques in maintenance.Explains two maintenance standards: IEEE/EIA 1219 and ISO/IEC14764Discusses several commercial reverse and domain engineering toolkitsSlides for instructors are available onlineInformation is based on the IEEE SWEBOK (Software Engineering Body of Knowledge)

  19. Software Architecture Technology Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    2008 Carnegie Mellon University 2008 PLS March 2008 © 2008 Carnegie Mellon University Software Architecture Technology Initiative SATURN 2008...SUBTITLE Software Architecture Technology Initiative 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES presented at the SEI Software Architecture Technology User Network (SATURN) Workshop, 30 Apr ? 1 May 2008, Pittsburgh, PA. 14

  20. Gammasphere software development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piercey, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    Activities of the nuclear physics group are described. Progress was made in organizing the Gammasphere Software Working Group, establishing a nuclear computing facility, participating in software development at Lawrence Berkeley, developing a common data file format, and adapting the ORNL UPAK software to run at Gammasphere. A universal histogram object was developed that defines a file format and provides for an objective-oriented programming model. An automated liquid nitrogen fill system was developed for Gammasphere (110 Ge detectors comprise the sphere).

  1. Parallel Software Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-08

    JAN 2015 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Parallel Software Model Checking 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...AND ADDRESS(ES) Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9...3: ∧ ≥ 10 ∧ ≠ 10 ⇒ : Parallel Software Model Checking Team Members Sagar Chaki, Arie Gurfinkel

  2. Gammasphere software development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piercey, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    Activities of the nuclear physics group are described. Progress was made in organizing the Gammasphere Software Working Group, establishing a nuclear computing facility, participating in software development at Lawrence Berkeley, developing a common data file format, and adapting the ORNL UPAK software to run at Gammasphere. A universal histogram object was developed that defines a file format and provides for an objective-oriented programming model. An automated liquid nitrogen fill system was developed for Gammasphere (110 Ge detectors comprise the sphere).

  3. Metrological aspects of the dosimetry in X-ray diagnostics; Metrologische Aspekte der Dosimetrie in der Roentgendiagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueermann, Ludwig [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' Dosimetrie fuer die Roentgendiagnostik'

    2013-06-15

    The author describes the evaluation methods in dosimetry with special regards to the air kerma. Furthermore application-specific quantities in radiography, mammography, and computer tomography are described. Then quality assurance in X-ray diagnostics and the determination of the organ dosis and the effective patient dosis are described. Finally the requirements on the uncertainties of dose measurements in X-ray diagnostics are considered. (HSI)

  4. Dose Estimation from Daily and Weekly Dosimetry Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrouchov, G.

    2001-11-16

    Statistical analyses of data from epidemiologic studies of workers exposed to radiation have been based on recorded annual radiation doses (yearly dose of record). It is usually assumed that the dose values are known exactly, although it is generally recognized that the data contain uncertainty due to measurement error and bias. In our previous work with weekly data, a probability distribution was used to describe an individual's dose during a specific period of time and statistical methods were developed for estimating it from weekly film dosimetry data. This study showed that the yearly dose of record systematically underestimates doses for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) workers. This could result in biased estimates of dose-response coefficients and their standard errors. The results of this evaluation raise serious questions about the suitability of the yearly dose of record for direct use in low-dose studies of nuclear industry workers. Here, we extend our previous work to use full information in Pocket meter data and develop the Data Synthesis for Individual Dose Estimation (DSIDE) methodology. Although the DSIDE methodology in this study is developed in the context of daily and weekly data to produce a cumulative yearly dose estimate, in principle it is completely general and can be extended to other time period and measurement combinations. The new methodology takes into account the ''measurement error'' that is produced by the film and pocket-meter dosimetry systems, the biases introduced by policies that lead to recording left-censored doses as zeros, and other measurement and recording practices. The DSIDE method is applied to a sample of dose histories obtained from hard copy dosimetry records at ORNL for the years 1945 to 1955. First, the rigorous addition of daily pocket-meter information shows that the negative bias is generally more severe than was reported in our work based on weekly film data only, however, the

  5. Updating and extending the IRDF-2002 dosimetry library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capote, R. [International Atomic Energy Agency, NAPC-Nuclear Data Section, Vienna (Austria); Zolotarev, K.I.; Pronyaev, V.G. [Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation); Trkov, A. [Jozef Stefan Inst., Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2011-07-01

    The International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF)-2002 released in 2004 by the IAEA (see http://www-nds.iaea.org/irdf2002/) contains cross-section data and corresponding uncertainties for 66 dosimetry reactions. New cross-section evaluations have become available recently that re-define some of these dosimetry reactions including: (1) high-fidelity evaluation work undertaken by one of the authors (KIZ); (2) evaluations from the US ENDF/B-VII.0 and candidate evaluations from the US ENDF/B-VII.1 libraries that cover reactions within the International Evaluation of Neutron Cross-Section Standards; (3) European JEFF3.1 library; and (4) Japanese JENDL-4.0 library. Additional high-threshold reactions not included in IRDF-2002 (e.g., {sup 59C}o(n,3n) and {sup 209}Bi(n,3n)) have been also evaluated to characterize higher-energy neutron fields. Overall, 37 new evaluations of dosimetry reactions have been assessed and intercomparisons made with integral measurements in reference neutron fields to determine whether they should be adopted to update and improve IRDF-2002. Benchmark calculations performed for newly evaluated reactions using the ENDF/B-VII.0 {sup 235}U thermal fission and {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission neutron spectra show that calculated integral cross sections exhibit improved agreement with evaluated experimental data when compared with the equivalent data from the IRDF-2002 library. Data inconsistencies or deficiencies of new evaluations have been identified for {sup 63}Cu(n,2n), {sup 60}Ni(n,p) {sup 60m+g}Co, {sup 55}Mn(n,{gamma}), and {sup 232}Th(n,f) reactions. Compared with IRDF-2002, the upper neutron energy boundary was formally increased from the actual maximum energy of typically 20 MeV up to 60 MeV by using the TENDL-2010 cross sections and covariance matrices. This extension would allow the updated IRDF library to be also used in fusion dosimetry applications. Uncertainties in the cross sections for all new evaluations are given in the form of

  6. Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry Program of Ulchin Unit 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Mi Joung; Kim, Byoung Chul; Kim, Kyung Sik; Jeon, Young Kyou [Korea Reactor Integrity Surveillance Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    This paper presents the analysis of the first Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry (EVND) set of the Unit 4. The analysis is part of the comprehensive EVND surveillance program in all PWRs in Korea. Currently, EVND sets are installed in 16 PWR operating in Korea and dosimetry sets have been analyzed. On the other hand, unique design features arising from the KSNP's cavity configuration as well as special transport analysis considerations are discussed in this paper. Because of the geometrical similitude of the KSNPs, the design considerations of the Ulchin Unit 4 EVND are also applicable to the KSNP Yonggwang Units 3 through 6 and Ulchin Units 3, 5 and 6. The results show quantitative comparison between the analytical results and the dosimetry measurements irradiated during cycle 9. The Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 50, Appendix H, requires that neutron dosimetry be present to monitor the reactor vessel throughout plant life and that material specimens be used to measure damage associated with the end-of-life fast neutron exposure of the reactor vessel. The EVND Program at Korean PWRs has been designed primarily to provide a long term monitoring of fast neutron exposure distributions within the reactor vessel wall that could experience significant radiation induced increases in reference nil ductility transition temperature (RT{sub NDT}) over the service lifetime of the plant. When used in conjunction with dosimetry from internal surveillance capsules and with the results of neutron transport calculations, the EVND measurements allow the projection of embrittlement gradients with a minimum uncertainty. Through plant walk downs it was determined that conventional installation from the nozzle gallery was not possible due to the fact that the reactor vessel insulation support C-channels are welded to the bottom of the Upper Lateral Support, thus, precluding the lowering of EVND support chains. A solution was developed that would required the installation

  7. Essence: Facilitating Software Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Ivan

    2008-01-01

      This paper suggests ways to facilitate creativity and innovation in software development. The paper applies four perspectives – Product, Project, Process, and People –to identify an outlook for software innovation. The paper then describes a new facility–Software Innovation Research Lab (SIRL......) – and a new method concept for software innovation – Essence – based on views, modes, and team roles. Finally, the paper reports from an early experiment using SIRL and Essence and identifies further research....

  8. Global Software Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebert, Christof; Kuhrmann, Marco; Prikladnicki, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Professional software products and IT systems and services today are developed mostly by globally distributed teams, projects, and companies. Successfully orchestrating Global Software Engineering (GSE) has become the major success factor both for organizations and practitioners. Yet, more than...... and experience reported at the IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering (ICGSE) series. The outcomes of our analysis show GSE as a field highly attached to industry and, thus, a considerable share of ICGSE papers address the transfer of Software Engineering concepts and solutions to the global stage...

  9. Agile software development

    CERN Document Server

    Dingsoyr, Torgeir; Moe, Nils Brede

    2010-01-01

    Agile software development has become an umbrella term for a number of changes in how software developers plan and coordinate their work, how they communicate with customers and external stakeholders, and how software development is organized in small, medium, and large companies, from the telecom and healthcare sectors to games and interactive media. Still, after a decade of research, agile software development is the source of continued debate due to its multifaceted nature and insufficient synthesis of research results. Dingsoyr, Dyba, and Moe now present a comprehensive snapshot of the kno

  10. Software architecture 1

    CERN Document Server

    Oussalah , Mourad Chabane

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, software architectures have significantly contributed to the development of complex and distributed systems. Nowadays, it is recognized that one of the critical problems in the design and development of any complex software system is its architecture, i.e. the organization of its architectural elements. Software Architecture presents the software architecture paradigms based on objects, components, services and models, as well as the various architectural techniques and methods, the analysis of architectural qualities, models of representation of architectural template

  11. Managing Software Process Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book focuses on the design, development, management, governance and application of evolving software processes that are aligned with changing business objectives, such as expansion to new domains or shifting to global production. In the context of an evolving business world, it examines...... essential insights and tips to help readers manage process evolutions. And last but not least, it provides a wealth of examples and cases on how to deal with software evolution in practice. Reflecting these topics, the book is divided into three parts. Part 1 focuses on software business transformation...... the organization and management of (software development) projects and process improvements projects....

  12. Global Software Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebert, Christof; Kuhrmann, Marco; Prikladnicki, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Professional software products and IT systems and services today are developed mostly by globally distributed teams, projects, and companies. Successfully orchestrating Global Software Engineering (GSE) has become the major success factor both for organizations and practitioners. Yet, more than...... and experience reported at the IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering (ICGSE) series. The outcomes of our analysis show GSE as a field highly attached to industry and, thus, a considerable share of ICGSE papers address the transfer of Software Engineering concepts and solutions to the global stage...

  13. Software architecture 2

    CERN Document Server

    Oussalah, Mourad Chabanne

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, software architectures have significantly contributed to the development of complex and distributed systems. Nowadays, it is recognized that one of the critical problems in the design and development of any complex software system is its architecture, i.e. the organization of its architectural elements. Software Architecture presents the software architecture paradigms based on objects, components, services and models, as well as the various architectural techniques and methods, the analysis of architectural qualities, models of representation of architectural templa

  14. MYOB software for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Curtis, Veechi

    2012-01-01

    Your complete guide to MYOB® AccountRight softwareNow in its seventh edition, MYOB® Software For Dummies walks you through everything you need to know, from starting your MYOB® file from scratch and recording payments and receipts, to tracking profit and analysing sales. This new edition includes all the information you need on the new generation of MYOB® AccountRight software, including the new cloud computing features. Set up MYOB® software - understand how to make it work the first time Keep track of purchases and sales - monitor customer accounts and ensure you get pai

  15. An international dosimetry exchange for BNCT part II: computational dosimetry normalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, K J; Binns, P J; Harling, O K; Albritton, J R; Kiger, W S; Rezaei, A; Sköld, K; Seppälä, T; Savolainen, S; Auterinen, I; Marek, M; Viererbl, L; Nievaart, V A; Moss, R L

    2008-12-01

    The meaningful sharing and combining of clinical results from different centers in the world performing boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) requires improved precision in dose specification between programs. To this end absorbed dose normalizations were performed for the European clinical centers at the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Petten (The Netherlands), Nuclear Research Institute, Rez (Czech Republic), VTT, Espoo (Finland), and Studsvik, Nyköping (Sweden). Each European group prepared a treatment plan calculation that was bench-marked against Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) dosimetry performed in a large, water-filled phantom to uniformly evaluate dose specifications with an estimated precision of +/-2%-3%. These normalizations were compared with those derived from an earlier exchange between Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and MIT in the USA. Neglecting the uncertainties related to biological weighting factors, large variations between calculated and measured dose are apparent that depend upon the 10B uptake in tissue. Assuming a boron concentration of 15 microg g(-1) in normal tissue, differences in the evaluated maximum dose to brain for the same nominal specification of 10 Gy(w) at the different facilities range between 7.6 and 13.2 Gy(w) in the trials using boronophenylalanine (BPA) as the boron delivery compound and between 8.9 and 11.1 Gy(w) in the two boron sulfhydryl (BSH) studies. Most notably, the value for the same specified dose of 10 Gy(w) determined at the different participating centers using BPA is significantly higher than at BNL by 32% (MIT), 43% (VTT), 49% (JRC), and 74% (Studsvik). Conversion of dose specification is now possible between all active participants and should be incorporated into future multi-center patient analyses.

  16. New tools for digital medical image processing implemented in DIP software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Erica A.C.; Santana, Ivan E. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Fernando R.A., E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares, (CRCN/NE-CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Viera, Jose W. [Escola Politecnica de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The anthropomorphic models used in computational dosimetry, also called phantoms, are mostly built from stacks of images CT (Computed Tomography) or MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) obtained from scans of patients or volunteers. The construction of voxel phantoms requires computational processing for transforming image formats, dimensional image compression (2D) to form three-dimensional arrays (3D), quantization, resampling, enhancement, restoration and image segmentation, among others. Hardly the computational dosimetry researcher finds all these skills into a single software and often it results in a decreased development of their research or inadequate use of alternative tools. The need to integrate the various tasks of the original digital image processing to obtain an image that can be used in a computational model of exposure led to the development of software DIP (Digital Image Processing). This software reads, writes and edits binary files containing the 3D matrix corresponding to a stack of cross-sectional images of a given geometry that can be a human body or other volume of interest. It can also read any type of computer image and do conversions. When the task involves only one output image, it is saved in the JPEG standard Windows. When it involves a stack of images, the binary output file is called SGI (Interactive Graphic Simulations, a symbol already used in other publications of the Research Group in Numerical Dosimetry). The following paper presents the third version of the DIP software and emphasizes the new tools it implemented. Currently it has the menus Basics, Views, Spatial Domain, Frequency Domain, Segmentations and Study. Each menu contains items and subitems with features that generally require an image as input and produce an image or an attribute in the output. (author)

  17. Teaching Social Software with Social Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejias, Ulises

    2006-01-01

    Ulises Mejias examines how social software--information and communications technologies that facilitate the collaboration and exchange of ideas--enables students to participate in distributed research, an approach to learning in which knowledge is collectively constructed and shared. During Fall 2005, Mejias taught a graduate seminar that provided…

  18. ATLAS software packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybkin, Grigory

    2012-12-01

    Software packaging is indispensable part of build and prerequisite for deployment processes. Full ATLAS software stack consists of TDAQ, HLT, and Offline software. These software groups depend on some 80 external software packages. We present tools, package PackDist, developed and used to package all this software except for TDAQ project. PackDist is based on and driven by CMT, ATLAS software configuration and build tool, and consists of shell and Python scripts. The packaging unit used is CMT project. Each CMT project is packaged as several packages—platform dependent (one per platform available), source code excluding header files, other platform independent files, documentation, and debug information packages (the last two being built optionally). Packaging can be done recursively to package all the dependencies. The whole set of packages for one software release, distribution kit, also includes configuration packages and contains some 120 packages for one platform. Also packaged are physics analysis projects (currently 6) used by particular physics groups on top of the full release. The tools provide an installation test for the full distribution kit. Packaging is done in two formats for use with the Pacman and RPM package managers. The tools are functional on the platforms supported by ATLAS—GNU/Linux and Mac OS X. The packaged software is used for software deployment on all ATLAS computing resources from the detector and trigger computing farms, collaboration laboratories computing centres, grid sites, to physicist laptops, and CERN VMFS and covers the use cases of running all applications as well as of software development.

  19. Human eye analytical and mesh-geometry models for ophthalmic dosimetry using MCNP6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelocci, Lucas V.; Fonseca, Gabriel P.; Yoriyaz, Helio, E-mail: hyoriyaz@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Eye tumors can be treated with brachytherapy using Co-60 plaques, I-125 seeds, among others materials. The human eye has regions particularly vulnerable to ionizing radiation (e.g. crystalline) and dosimetry for this region must be taken carefully. A mathematical model was proposed in the past [1] for the eye anatomy to be used in Monte Carlo simulations to account for dose distribution in ophthalmic brachytherapy. The model includes the description for internal structures of the eye that were not treated in previous works. The aim of this present work was to develop a new eye model based on the Mesh geometries of the MCNP6 code. The methodology utilized the ABAQUS/CAE (Simulia 3DS) software to build the Mesh geometry. For this work, an ophthalmic applicator containing up to 24 model Amersham 6711 I-125 seeds (Oncoseed) was used, positioned in contact with a generic tumor defined analytically inside the eye. The absorbed dose in eye structures like cornea, sclera, choroid, retina, vitreous body, lens, optical nerve and optical nerve wall were calculated using both models: analytical and MESH. (author)

  20. A physiological biokinetic model for the [7(N)-{sup 3}H]-cholesterol dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Adriano dos Santos; Martins, Joao Francisco Trencher; Velo, Alexandre Franca; Hamada, Margarida M.; Mesquita, Carlos Henrique de, E-mail: adriano_oliveira@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a major source of deaths worldwide according to WHO (World Health Organization). It is well-known that the change of the level of plasma lipoproteins, which are responsible for the cholesterol transport in the bloodstream, is a main cause of these diseases. For this reason, to know the biokinetic parameters of plasma lipoproteins and quantifies them is important to correct and deepen the understanding of associated diseases. The main objective of this work is to provide a biokinetic model in order to estimate the radiometric dose, due to the intake of [7(N){sup -3}H] –Cholesterol in physiological issues, in metabolic studies. The internal dosimetry is important to know the biological effects of radiation. The model was based on Schwartz et al (2004), using parameters for the plasmatic lipoproteins and ICRP 30 (1979) gastrointestinal tract; the dose in the compartments were calculated using the MIRD methodology and the compartmental analysis by Matlab® software. The coefficients were estimated for an adult phantom with a body mass of 73.3 kg. (author)

  1. Realistic multi-cellular dosimetry for (177)Lu-labelled antibodies: model and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcatili, S; Pichard, A; Courteau, A; Ladjohounlou, R; Navarro-Teulon, I; Repetto-Llamazares, A; Heyerdahl, H; Dahle, J; Pouget, J P; Bardiès, M

    2016-10-07

    Current preclinical dosimetric models often fail to take account of the complex nature of absorbed dose distribution typical of in vitro clonogenic experiments in targeted radionuclide therapy. For this reason, clonogenic survival is often expressed as a function of added activity rather than the absorbed dose delivered to cells/cell nuclei. We designed a multi-cellular dosimetry model that takes into account the realistic distributions of cells in the Petri dish, for the establishment of survival curves as a function of the absorbed dose. General-purpose software tools were used for the generation of realistic, randomised 3D cell culture geometries based on experimentally determined parameters (cell size, cell density, cluster density, average cluster size, cell cumulated activity). A mixture of Monte Carlo and analytical approaches was implemented in order to achieve as accurate as possible results while reducing calculation time. The model was here applied to clonogenic survival experiments carried out to compare the efficacy of Betalutin(®), a novel (177)Lu-labelled antibody radionuclide conjugate for the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, to that of (177)Lu-labelled CD20-specific (rituximab) and non-specific antibodies (Erbitux) on lymphocyte B cells. The 3D cellular model developed allowed a better understanding of the radiative and non-radiative processes associated with cellular death. Our approach is generic and can also be applied to other radiopharmaceuticals and cell distributions.

  2. Realistic multi-cellular dosimetry for 177Lu-labelled antibodies: model and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcatili, S.; Pichard, A.; Courteau, A.; Ladjohounlou, R.; Navarro-Teulon, I.; Repetto-Llamazares, A.; Heyerdahl, H.; Dahle, J.; Pouget, J. P.; Bardiès, M.

    2016-10-01

    Current preclinical dosimetric models often fail to take account of the complex nature of absorbed dose distribution typical of in vitro clonogenic experiments in targeted radionuclide therapy. For this reason, clonogenic survival is often expressed as a function of added activity rather than the absorbed dose delivered to cells/cell nuclei. We designed a multi-cellular dosimetry model that takes into account the realistic distributions of cells in the Petri dish, for the establishment of survival curves as a function of the absorbed dose. General-purpose software tools were used for the generation of realistic, randomised 3D cell culture geometries based on experimentally determined parameters (cell size, cell density, cluster density, average cluster size, cell cumulated activity). A mixture of Monte Carlo and analytical approaches was implemented in order to achieve as accurate as possible results while reducing calculation time. The model was here applied to clonogenic survival experiments carried out to compare the efficacy of Betalutin®, a novel 177Lu-labelled antibody radionuclide conjugate for the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, to that of 177Lu-labelled CD20-specific (rituximab) and non-specific antibodies (Erbitux) on lymphocyte B cells. The 3D cellular model developed allowed a better understanding of the radiative and non-radiative processes associated with cellular death. Our approach is generic and can also be applied to other radiopharmaceuticals and cell distributions.

  3. Relationship between student selection criteria and learner success for medical dosimetry students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jamie; Tucker, Debra; Raynes, Edilberto; Aitken, Florence; Allen, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Medical dosimetry education occupies a specialized branch of allied health higher education. Noted international shortages of health care workers, reduced university funding, limitations on faculty staffing, trends in learner attrition, and increased enrollment of nontraditional students force medical dosimetry educational leadership to reevaluate current admission practices. Program officials wish to select medical dosimetry students with the best chances of successful graduation. The purpose of the quantitative ex post facto correlation study was to investigate the relationship between applicant characteristics (cumulative undergraduate grade point average (GPA), science grade point average (SGPA), prior experience as a radiation therapist, and previous academic degrees) and the successful completion of a medical dosimetry program, as measured by graduation. A key finding from the quantitative study was the statistically significant positive correlation between a student׳s previous degree and his or her successful graduation from the medical dosimetry program. Future research investigations could include a larger research sample, representative of more medical dosimetry student populations, and additional studies concerning the relationship of previous work as a radiation therapist and the effect on success as a medical dosimetry student. Based on the quantitative correlation analysis, medical dosimetry leadership on admissions committees could revise student selection rubrics to place less emphasis on an applicant׳s undergraduate cumulative GPA and increase the weight assigned to previous degrees.

  4. Methods and Models of the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, PNNL-MA-860

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbaugh, Eugene H.; Bihl, Donald E.; Maclellan, Jay A.

    2003-01-03

    This manual describes the technical basis for the design of the routine radiobioassay monitoring program and assessments of internal dose. Its purpose is to provide a historical record of the methods, models, and assumptions used for internal dosimetry at Hanford, and serve as a technical reference for radiation protection and dosimetry staff.

  5. Strategies for CT tissue segmentation for Monte Carlo calculations in nuclear medicine dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braad, Poul-Erik; Andersen, Thomas; Hansen, Søren Baarsgaard;

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: CT images are used for patient specific Monte Carlo treatment planning in radionuclide therapy. The authors investigated the impact of tissue classification, CT image segmentation, and CT errors on Monte Carlo calculated absorbed dose estimates in nuclear medicine. Methods: CT errors...... patient specific dosimetry in nuclear medicine. Accurate dosimetry was obtained with a 13-tissue ramp that included five different bone types....

  6. Software for multistate analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, Frans; Putter, H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The growing interest in pathways, the increased availability of life-history data, innovations in statistical and demographic techniques, and advances in software technology have stimulated the development of software packages for multistate modeling of life histories. Objective: In the

  7. Software for multistate analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, Frans; Putter, H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The growing interest in pathways, the increased availability of life-history data, innovations in statistical and demographic techniques, and advances in software technology have stimulated the development of software packages for multistate modeling of life histories.Objective: In the

  8. Software evolution with XVCL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Weishan; Jarzabek, Stan; Zhang, Hongyu

    2004-01-01

    This chapter introduces software evolution with XVCL (XML-based Variant Configuration Language), which is an XML-based metaprogramming technique. As the software evolves, a large number of variants may arise, especially whtn such kinds of evolutions are related to multiple platforms as shown in o...

  9. Software Project Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    on software management obstacles and ways Chakrabarty, which held that genetically altered to cope with them are presented. Standardization is... algorith - MacProject89 mic models used to estimate software costs (SLIM, MacProject 11. Claris Corp., Mountain View, Calif., COCOMO, Function Points

  10. Software Quality Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    March 1979, pp. 121-128. Gorla, Narasimhaiah, Alan C. Benander, and Barbara A. Benander, "Debugging Effort Estimation Using Software Metrics", IEEE...Society, IEEE Guide for the Use of IEEE Standard Dictionary of Measures to Produce Reliable Software, IEEE Std 982.2-1988, June 1989. Jones, Capers

  11. Software Engineering Education Directory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    The C Programming Language by Kernighan, Brian W. and Ritchie, Dennis M. Compilers: C Computers: NCR Tower 32/600 running UNIX System V...Sun Microsystems, Ada Eiffel 3B2) Software Testing CS 429 U P E O 10 Textbooks: Software Testing Techniques by Beizer, Boris Systems

  12. Marketing Mix del Software.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudith del Carmen Rodríguez Pérez

    2006-03-01

    Por ello, en este trabajo se define el concepto de producto software, se caracteriza al mismo y se exponen sus atributos de calidad. Además, se aborda la mezcla de marketing del software necesaria y diferente a la de otros productos para que este triunfe en el mercado.

  13. Software engineering ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bown, Rodney L.

    1991-01-01

    Software engineering ethics is reviewed. The following subject areas are covered: lack of a system viewpoint; arrogance of PC DOS software vendors; violation od upward compatibility; internet worm; internet worm revisited; student cheating and company hiring interviews; computing practitioners and the commodity market; new projects and old programming languages; schedule and budget; and recent public domain comments.

  14. Software Assurance Competency Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    2010a]: Application of technologies and processes to achieve a required level of confidence that software systems and services function in the...for specific projects. L5: Analyze assurance technologies and contribute to the development of new ones. Assured Software Development L1

  15. Threats to Bitcoin Software

    OpenAIRE

    Kateraas, Christian H

    2014-01-01

    Collect and analyse threat models to the Bitcoin ecosystem and its software. The create misuse case, attack trees, and sequence diagrams of the threats. Create a malicious client from the gathered threat models. Once the development of the client is complete, test the client and evaluate its performance. From this, assess the security of the Bitcoin software.

  16. Software cost estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemstra, F.J.

    1992-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the state of the art of software cost estimation (SCE). The main questions to be answered in the paper are: (1) What are the reasons for overruns of budgets and planned durations? (2) What are the prerequisites for estimating? (3) How can software development effort be

  17. Cactus: Software Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Hartley

    2009-01-01

    The early eighties saw a period of rapid change in computing and teachers lost control of how they used computers in their classrooms. Software companies produced computer tools that looked so good that teachers forgot about writing their own classroom materials and happily purchased software--that offered much more than teachers needed--from…

  18. Selecting the Right Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearn, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    Selection of administrative software requires analyzing present needs and, to meet future needs, choosing software that will function with a more powerful computer system. Other important factors to include are a professional system demonstration, maintenance and training, and financial considerations that allow leasing or renting alternatives.…

  19. Systematic Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhrmann, Marco; Méndez Fernández, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The speed of innovation and the global allocation of resources to accelerate development or to reduce cost put pressure on the software industry. In the global competition, especially so-called high-price countries have to present arguments why the higher development cost is justified and what...... makes these countries an attractive host for software companies. Often, high-quality engineering and excellent quality of products, e.g., machinery and equipment, are mentioned. Yet, the question is: Can such arguments be also found for the software industry? We aim at investigating the degree...... of professionalism and systematization of software development to draw a map of strengths and weaknesses. To this end, we conducted as a first step an exploratory survey in Germany, presented in this paper. In this survey, we focused on the perceived importance of the two general software engineering process areas...

  20. Software architecture evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barais, Olivier; Le Meur, Anne-Francoise; Duchien, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    Software architectures must frequently evolve to cope with changing requirements, and this evolution often implies integrating new concerns. Unfortunately, when the new concerns are crosscutting, existing architecture description languages provide little or no support for this kind of evolution....... The software architect must modify multiple elements of the architecture manually, which risks introducing inconsistencies. This chapter provides an overview, comparison and detailed treatment of the various state-of-the-art approaches to describing and evolving software architectures. Furthermore, we discuss...... one particular framework named Tran SAT, which addresses the above problems of software architecture evolution. Tran SAT provides a new element in the software architecture descriptions language, called an architectural aspect, for describing new concerns and their integration into an existing...

  1. Software quality in 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C. [Software Productivity Research, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    1997-11-01

    For many years, software quality assurance lagged behind hardware quality assurance in terms of methods, metrics, and successful results. New approaches such as Quality Function Deployment (QFD) the ISO 9000-9004 standards, the SEI maturity levels, and Total Quality Management (TQM) are starting to attract wide attention, and in some cases to bring software quality levels up to a parity with manufacturing quality levels. Since software is on the critical path for many engineered products, and for internal business systems as well, the new approaches are starting to affect global competition and attract widespread international interest. It can be hypothesized that success in mastering software quality will be a key strategy for dominating global software markets in the 21st century.

  2. Revisiting software ecosystems research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Software ecosystems’ is argued to first appear as a concept more than 10 years ago and software ecosystem research started to take off in 2010. We conduct a systematic literature study, based on the most extensive literature review in the field up to date, with two primarily aims: (a) to provide...... an updated overview of the field and (b) to document evolution in the field. In total, we analyze 231 papers from 2007 until 2014 and provide an overview of the research in software ecosystems. Our analysis reveals a field that is rapidly growing both in volume and empirical focus while becoming more mature...... from evolving. We propose means for future research and the community to address them. Finally, our analysis shapes the view of the field having evolved outside the existing definitions of software ecosystems and thus propose the update of the definition of software ecosystems....

  3. Software Requirements Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Altalbe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Requirements are defined as the desired set of characteristics of a product or a service. In the world of software development, it is estimated that more than half of the failures are attributed towards poor requirements management. This means that although the software functions correctly, it is not what the client requested. Modern software requirements management methodologies are available to reduce the occur-rence of such incidents. This paper performs a review on the available literature in the area while tabulating possible methods of managing requirements. It also highlights the benefits of following a proper guideline for the requirements management task. With the introduction of specific software tools for the requirements management task, better software products are now been developed with lesser resources.

  4. Software licenses: Stay honest!

    CERN Document Server

    Computer Security Team

    2012-01-01

    Do you recall our article about copyright violation in the last issue of the CERN Bulletin, “Music, videos and the risk for CERN”? Now let’s be more precise. “Violating copyright” not only means the illegal download of music and videos, it also applies to software packages and applications.   Users must respect proprietary rights in compliance with the CERN Computing Rules (OC5). Not having legitimately obtained a program or the required licenses to run that software is not a minor offense. It violates CERN rules and puts the Organization at risk! Vendors deserve credit and compensation. Therefore, make sure that you have the right to use their software. In other words, you have bought the software via legitimate channels and use a valid and honestly obtained license. This also applies to “Shareware” and software under open licenses, which might also come with a cost. Usually, only “Freeware” is complete...

  5. Software safety hazard analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Techniques for analyzing the safety and reliability of analog-based electronic protection systems that serve to mitigate hazards in process control systems have been developed over many years, and are reasonably well understood. An example is the protection system in a nuclear power plant. The extension of these techniques to systems which include digital computers is not well developed, and there is little consensus among software engineering experts and safety experts on how to analyze such systems. One possible technique is to extend hazard analysis to include digital computer-based systems. Software is frequently overlooked during system hazard analyses, but this is unacceptable when the software is in control of a potentially hazardous operation. In such cases, hazard analysis should be extended to fully cover the software. A method for performing software hazard analysis is proposed in this paper.

  6. Developing Software Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Hall

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Programs in education and business often require learners to develop and demonstrate competence in specified areas and then be able to effectively apply this knowledge. One method to aid in developing a skill set in these areas is through the use of software simulations. These simulations can be used for learner demonstrations of competencies in a specified course as well as a review of the basic skills at the beginning of subsequent courses. The first section of this paper discusses ToolBook, the software used to develop our software simulations. The second section discusses the process of developing software simulations. The third part discusses how we have used software simulations to assess student knowledge of research design by providing simulations that allow the student to practice using SPSS and Excel.

  7. DIVERSIFICATION IN SOFTWARE ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Er.Kirtesh Jailia,

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine the factors that have promoted the iversification of software process models. The intention is to understand more clearly the problem-solving process in software engineering & try to find out the efficient way to manage the risk. A review of software process modeling is given first, followed by a discussion of process evaluation techniques. A taxonomy for categorizing process models, based on establishing decision criteria,is identified that can guide selecting the appropriate model from a set of alternatives on the basis of model characteristics and software project needs. We are proposing a model in this paper, for dealing with the diversification in software engineering.

  8. Trends in software testing

    CERN Document Server

    Mohanty, J; Balakrishnan, Arunkumar

    2017-01-01

    This book is focused on the advancements in the field of software testing and the innovative practices that the industry is adopting. Considering the widely varied nature of software testing, the book addresses contemporary aspects that are important for both academia and industry. There are dedicated chapters on seamless high-efficiency frameworks, automation on regression testing, software by search, and system evolution management. There are a host of mathematical models that are promising for software quality improvement by model-based testing. There are three chapters addressing this concern. Students and researchers in particular will find these chapters useful for their mathematical strength and rigor. Other topics covered include uncertainty in testing, software security testing, testing as a service, test technical debt (or test debt), disruption caused by digital advancement (social media, cloud computing, mobile application and data analytics), and challenges and benefits of outsourcing. The book w...

  9. AUTOMATED SOFTWARE DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Strasheim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Automated distribution of computer software via electronic means in large corporate networks is growing in popularity. The relative importance of personal computer software, in financial and logistical terms, is described and the developing need for automated software distribution explained. An actual comparitive example of alternative software distribution strategies is presented and discussed proving the viability of Electronic Software Distribution.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Geoutomatiseerde verspreiding van rekenaarprogrammatuur met behulp van elektroniese metodes in groot korporatiewe netwerke, is toenemend populer, Die relatiewe belangrikheid van persoonlike rekenaarprogrammatuur in finansiele en logistieke terme word bespreek en die groeiende behoefte na geoutomatiseerde programmatuurverspreiding verduidelik. 'n Werklike vergelykende voorbeeld van alternatiewe programmatuurverspreidingsstrategiee word aangebied en bespreek wat die lewensvatbaarheid van Elektroniese Programmatuurverspreiding bewys.

  10. Developing Software Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Hall

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Programs in education and business often require learners to develop and demonstrate competence in specified areas and then be able to effectively apply this knowledge. One method to aid in developing a skill set in these areas is through the use of software simulations. These simulations can be used for learner demonstrations of competencies in a specified course as well as a review of the basic skills at the beginning of subsequent courses. The first section of this paper discusses ToolBook, the software used to develop our software simulations. The second section discusses the process of developing software simulations. The third part discusses how we have used software simulations to assess student knowledge of research design by providing simulations that allow the student to practice using SPSS and Excel.

  11. Technical considerations for implementation of x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilts, M.; Jirasek, A.; Duzenli, C.

    2005-04-01

    Gel dosimetry is the most promising 3D dosimetry technique in current radiation therapy practice. X-ray CT has been shown to be a feasible method of reading out polymer gel dosimeters and, with the high accessibility of CT scanners to cancer hospitals, presents an exciting possibility for clinical implementation of gel dosimetry. In this study we report on technical considerations for implementation of x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry. Specifically phantom design, CT imaging methods, imaging time requirements and gel dose response are investigated. Where possible, recommendations are made for optimizing parameters to enhance system performance. The dose resolution achievable with an optimized system is calculated given voxel size and imaging time constraints. Results are compared with MRI and optical CT polymer gel dosimetry results available in the literature.

  12. Preliminary study for precision dosimetry using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) in radiotherapy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shehzadi, N. N.; Kim, I. J.; Yi, C. Y. [Center for Ionizing Radiation, Korea Research for Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    EPR (Electron paramagnetic resonance) dosimetry for radiotherapy dose range (1-10 Gy) is still being established.Alanine is an important material for EPR dosimetry because in terms of density and radiation absorption properties, it is water equivalent. High repeatability and high reproducibility of alanine spectrum measurement makes it possible to estimate the irradiation dose accurately. This baseline study has been carried out to establish precision EPR dosimetry in therapeutic photon range. For that purpose, an EPR dosimetry system has been setup and repeatability as well as reproducibility of measurements using alanine dosimeter have been evaluated. Effect of anisotropy of alanine dosimeter in spectrometer cavity has also been observed. EPR dosimetry system is set up at KRISS. It is found that reproducibility of the system at therapeutic photon range is 1.5 % - 6.6 %.

  13. Comparison of Different Internal Dosimetry Systems for Selected Radionuclides Important to Nuclear Power Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; Manger, Ryan P [ORNL

    2013-08-01

    This report compares three different radiation dosimetry systems currently applied by various U.S. Federal agencies and dose estimates based on these three dosimetry systems for a set of radionuclides often identified in power reactor effluents. These dosimetry systems were developed and applied by the International Commission on Radiological Protection at different times over the past six decades. Two primary modes of intake of radionuclides are addressed: ingestion in drinking water and inhalation. Estimated doses to individual organs and to the whole body based on each dosimetry system are compared for each of four age groups: infant, child, teenager, and adult. Substantial differences between dosimetry systems in estimated dose per unit intake are found for some individual radionuclides, but differences in estimated dose per unit intake generally are modest for mixtures of radionuclides typically found in nuclear power plant effluents.

  14. Technical basis for external dosimetry at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, E.W. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wu, C.F.; Goff, T.E. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

    1993-12-31

    The WIPP External Dosimetry Program, administered by Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Waste Isolation Division, for the US Department of Energy (DOE), provides external dosimetry support services for operations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site. These operations include the receipt, experimentation with, storage, and disposal of transuranic (TRU) wastes. This document describes the technical basis for the WIPP External Radiation Dosimetry Program. The purposes of this document are to: (1) provide assurance that the WIPP External Radiation Dosimetry Program is in compliance with all regulatory requirements, (2) provide assurance that the WIPP External Radiation Dosimetry Program is derived from a sound technical base, (3) serve as a technical reference for radiation protection personnel, and (4) aid in identifying and planning for future needs. The external radiation exposure fields are those that are documented in the WIPP Final Safety Analysis Report.

  15. Scientific Software Component Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, S.; Dykman, N.; Kumfert, G.; Smolinski, B.

    2000-02-16

    We are developing new software component technology for high-performance parallel scientific computing to address issues of complexity, re-use, and interoperability for laboratory software. Component technology enables cross-project code re-use, reduces software development costs, and provides additional simulation capabilities for massively parallel laboratory application codes. The success of our approach will be measured by its impact on DOE mathematical and scientific software efforts. Thus, we are collaborating closely with library developers and application scientists in the Common Component Architecture forum, the Equation Solver Interface forum, and other DOE mathematical software groups to gather requirements, write and adopt a variety of design specifications, and develop demonstration projects to validate our approach. Numerical simulation is essential to the science mission at the laboratory. However, it is becoming increasingly difficult to manage the complexity of modern simulation software. Computational scientists develop complex, three-dimensional, massively parallel, full-physics simulations that require the integration of diverse software packages written by outside development teams. Currently, the integration of a new software package, such as a new linear solver library, can require several months of effort. Current industry component technologies such as CORBA, JavaBeans, and COM have all been used successfully in the business domain to reduce software development costs and increase software quality. However, these existing industry component infrastructures will not scale to support massively parallel applications in science and engineering. In particular, they do not address issues related to high-performance parallel computing on ASCI-class machines, such as fast in-process connections between components, language interoperability for scientific languages such as Fortran, parallel data redistribution between components, and massively

  16. The UF family of hybrid phantoms of the developing human fetus for computational radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maynard, Matthew R; Geyer, John W; Bolch, Wesley [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Aris, John P [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Shifrin, Roger Y, E-mail: wbolch@ufl.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2011-08-07

    Historically, the development of computational phantoms for radiation dosimetry has primarily been directed at capturing and representing adult and pediatric anatomy, with less emphasis devoted to models of the human fetus. As concern grows over possible radiation-induced cancers from medical and non-medical exposures of the pregnant female, the need to better quantify fetal radiation doses, particularly at the organ-level, also increases. Studies such as the European Union's SOLO (Epidemiological Studies of Exposed Southern Urals Populations) hope to improve our understanding of cancer risks following chronic in utero radiation exposure. For projects such as SOLO, currently available fetal anatomic models do not provide sufficient anatomical detail for organ-level dose assessment. To address this need, two fetal hybrid computational phantoms were constructed using high-quality magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography image sets obtained for two well-preserved fetal specimens aged 11.5 and 21 weeks post-conception. Individual soft tissue organs, bone sites and outer body contours were segmented from these images using 3D-DOCTOR(TM) and then imported to the 3D modeling software package Rhinoceros(TM) for further modeling and conversion of soft tissue organs, certain bone sites and outer body contours to deformable non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces. The two specimen-specific phantoms, along with a modified version of the 38 week UF hybrid newborn phantom, comprised a set of base phantoms from which a series of hybrid computational phantoms was derived for fetal ages 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 38 weeks post-conception. The methodology used to construct the series of phantoms accounted for the following age-dependent parameters: (1) variations in skeletal size and proportion, (2) bone-dependent variations in relative levels of bone growth, (3) variations in individual organ masses and total fetal masses and (4) statistical percentile variations

  17. A study of four radiochromic films currently used for (2D) radiation dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Tiantian; Luthjens, Leonard H.; Gasparini, Alessia; Warman, John M.

    2017-04-01

    We have measured the dose, D, and dose rate, D', dependences of the radiation-induced change in optical absorption of four radiochromic films currently used for (2D) dosimetry: GafChromic® types EBT3, MD-V3, HD-V2 and HD-810. We have irradiated the films using two 60Co γ-ray sources with dose rates of 2 and 30 Gy/min and a 200 kVp X-ray source with dose rates from 0.2 to 1.0 Gy/min. The 48-bit RGB image files of the films, obtained using an Epson V700 flatbed scanner, were color-channel separated and the red, green and blue pixel levels, P(D), were determined using ImageJ software. The relationship P(D)/P(0)=[1+hD/m]/[1+D/m] is found to provide a good description of the dose dependence for all four films at all dose rates. The parameter h is the "plateau level" of P(D)/P(0) approached at high doses, i.e. P(∞)/P(0). The parameter m is the "median-dose" for which P(D)/P(0)(1+h)/2 which is the half point in the dynamic range of the particular film. The best-fit values of m over the dose rate range from 0.2 to 25 Gy/min using the red pixels were 1.42±0.03, 11.1±0.4, 63.6±0.9 and 60.6±1.6 Gy for EBT3, MD-V3, HD-V2 and HD-810 respectively. Using the green pixels the median dose is 1.8 times larger for the first 3 films and 2.5 times larger for HD-810. The blue pixels are considered unsuitable for dosimetry because of the large value of h (>0.4) and the resulting small dynamic range.

  18. The UF family of hybrid phantoms of the developing human fetus for computational radiation dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Matthew R.; Geyer, John W.; Aris, John P.; Shifrin, Roger Y.; Bolch, Wesley

    2011-08-01

    Historically, the development of computational phantoms for radiation dosimetry has primarily been directed at capturing and representing adult and pediatric anatomy, with less emphasis devoted to models of the human fetus. As concern grows over possible radiation-induced cancers from medical and non-medical exposures of the pregnant female, the need to better quantify fetal radiation doses, particularly at the organ-level, also increases. Studies such as the European Union's SOLO (Epidemiological Studies of Exposed Southern Urals Populations) hope to improve our understanding of cancer risks following chronic in utero radiation exposure. For projects such as SOLO, currently available fetal anatomic models do not provide sufficient anatomical detail for organ-level dose assessment. To address this need, two fetal hybrid computational phantoms were constructed using high-quality magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography image sets obtained for two well-preserved fetal specimens aged 11.5 and 21 weeks post-conception. Individual soft tissue organs, bone sites and outer body contours were segmented from these images using 3D-DOCTOR™ and then imported to the 3D modeling software package Rhinoceros™ for further modeling and conversion of soft tissue organs, certain bone sites and outer body contours to deformable non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces. The two specimen-specific phantoms, along with a modified version of the 38 week UF hybrid newborn phantom, comprised a set of base phantoms from which a series of hybrid computational phantoms was derived for fetal ages 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 38 weeks post-conception. The methodology used to construct the series of phantoms accounted for the following age-dependent parameters: (1) variations in skeletal size and proportion, (2) bone-dependent variations in relative levels of bone growth, (3) variations in individual organ masses and total fetal masses and (4) statistical percentile variations in

  19. Epid cine acquisition mode for in vivo dosimetry in dynamic arc radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fidanzio, Andrea [U.O. di Fisica Sanitaria Policlinico A. Gemelli, Universita Cattolica S. Cuore, Rome (Italy)], E-mail: andrea.fidanzio@rm.unicatt.it; Mameli, Alessandra; Placidi, Elisa; Greco, Francesca [U.O. di Fisica Sanitaria Policlinico A. Gemelli, Universita Cattolica S. Cuore, Rome (Italy); Stimato, Gerardina; Gaudino, Diego; Ramella, Sara; D' Angelillo, Rolando; Cellini, Francesco; Trodella, Lucio [U.O. di Radioterapia, Universita Campus Bio-Medico, Rome (Italy); Cilla, Savino; Grimaldi, Luca; D' Onofrio, Guido [U.O. di Fisica Sanitaria, Centro di Ricerca e Formazione ad Alta Tecnologia nelle Scienze Biomediche dell' Universita Cattolica S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Azario, Luigi; Piermattei, Angelo [Istituto di Fisica, Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Rome (Italy)

    2008-02-15

    In this paper the cine acquisition mode of an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) has been calibrated and tested to determine the in vivo dose for dynamic conformal arc radiation therapy (DCAT). The EPID cine acquisition mode, that allows a frame acquisition rate of one image every 1.66 s, was studied with a monitor unit rate equal to 100 UM/min. In these conditions good signal stability, {+-}1% (2SD) evaluated during three months, signal reproducibility within {+-}0.8% (2SD) and linearity with dose and dose rate within {+-}1% (2SD) were obtained. The transit signal, S{sub t}, (due to the transmitted beam below the phantom) measured by the EPID cine acquisition mode was used to determine, (i) a set of correlation functions, F(w,L), defined as the ratio between S{sub t} and the dose at half thickness, D{sub m}, measured in solid water phantoms of different thicknesses, w and with square fields of side L, (ii) a set of factors, f(d,L), that take into account the different X-ray scatter contribution from the phantom to the S{sub t} signal as a function of the variation, d, of the air gap between the phantom and the EPID. The reconstruction of the isocenter dose, D{sub iso}, for DCAT was obtained convolving the transit signal values, obtained at different gantry angles, with the respective reconstruction factors determined by a house-made software. The method was tested with cylindrical and anthropomorphic phantoms and the results show that the reconstructed D{sub iso} values can be obtained with an accuracy within {+-}2.5% in cylindrical phantom and within {+-}3.4% for anthropomorphic phantom. In conclusion, the transit dosimetry by EPID was assessed to be adequate to perform DCAT in vivo dosimetry, that is not realizable with the other traditional techniques. Moreover, the method proposed here could be implemented to supply in vivo dose values in real time.

  20. User Guide for the STAYSL PNNL Suite of Software Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Johnson, Christian D.

    2013-02-27

    The STAYSL PNNL software suite provides a set of tools for working with neutron activation rates measured in a nuclear fission reactor, an accelerator-based neutron source, or any neutron field to determine the neutron flux spectrum through a generalized least-squares approach. This process is referred to as neutron spectral adjustment since the preferred approach is to use measured data to adjust neutron spectra provided by neutron physics calculations. The input data consist of the reaction rates based on measured activities, an initial estimate of the neutron flux spectrum, neutron activation cross sections and their associated uncertainties (covariances), and relevant correction factors. The output consists of the adjusted neutron flux spectrum and associated covariance matrix, which is useful for neutron dosimetry and radiation damage calculations.