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Sample records for dose-escalation study iside-bt-1

  1. A Phase I Dose-Escalation Study (ISIDE-BT-1) of Accelerated IMRT With Temozolomide in Patients With Glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morganti, Alessio G.; Balducci, Mario; Salvati, Maurizio; Esposito, Vincenzo; Romanelli, Pantaleo; Ferro, Marica; Calista, Franco; Digesu, Cinzia; Macchia, Gabriella; Ianiri, Massimo; Deodato, Francesco; Cilla, Savino; Piermattei, Angelo M.P.; Valentini, Vincenzo; Cellini, Numa; Cantore, Gian Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of fractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with temozolomide (TMZ) in patients with glioblastoma. Methods and Materials: A Phase I clinical trial was performed. Eligible patients had surgically resected or biopsy-proven glioblastoma. Patients started TMZ (75 mg/day) during IMRT and continued for 1 year (150-200 mg/day, Days 1-5 every 28 days) or until disease progression. Clinical target volume 1 (CTV1) was the tumor bed ± enhancing lesion with a 10-mm margin; CTV2 was the area of perifocal edema with a 20-mm margin. Planning target volume 1 (PTV1) and PTV2 were defined as the corresponding CTV plus a 5-mm margin. IMRT was delivered in 25 fractions over 5 weeks. Only the dose for PTV1 was escalated (planned dose escalation: 60 Gy, 62.5 Gy, 65 Gy) while maintaining the dose for PTV2 (45 Gy, 1.8 Gy/fraction). Dose limiting toxicities (DLT) were defined as any treatment-related nonhematological adverse effects rated as Grade ≥3 or any hematological toxicity rated as ≥4 by Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) criteria. Results: Nineteen consecutive glioblastoma were treated with step-and-shoot IMRT, planned with the inverse approach (dose to the PTV1: 7 patients, 60 Gy; 6 patients, 62.5 Gy; 6 patients, 65 Gy). Five coplanar beams were used to cover at least 95% of the target volume with the 95% isodose line. Median follow-up time was 23 months (range, 8-40 months). No patient experienced DLT. Grade 1-2 treatment-related neurologic and skin toxicity were common (11 and 19 patients, respectively). No Grade >2 late neurologic toxicities were noted. Conclusion: Accelerated IMRT to a dose of 65 Gy in 25 fractions is well tolerated with TMZ at a daily dose of 75 mg.

  2. Adalimumab dose escalation and dose de-escalation success rate and predictors in a large national cohort of Crohn's patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baert, Filip; Glorieus, Elien; Reenaers, Cathérine; D'Haens, Geert; Peeters, Harald; Franchimont, Dennis; Dewit, Olivier; Caenepeel, Philippe; Louis, Edouard; van Assche, Gert; D'Heygere, F.; George, C.; van Hootegem, P.; Ilegems, S.; Fontaine, F.; Colard, A.; Schoofs, N.; Belaiche, J.; Louis, E.; Reenaers, C.; van Kemseke, C.; Coche, J. C.; Dewit, O.; Rahier, J. F.; de Reuck, M.; Baert, F.; Decaestecker, J.; de Wulf, D.; Amininejad, L.; Franchimont, D.; van Gossum, A.; Du Ville, L.; Hendrickx, K.; Lepoutre, L.; Vandervoort, J.; van der Spek, P.; Sprengers, D.; van de Mierop, F.; Potvin, P.; Bontems, P.; Moreels, T.; van Outryve, M.; Mana, F.; de Looze, D.; de Vos, M.; Peeters, H.; Ferrante, M.; Rutgeerts, P.; van Assche, G.; Vermeire, S.

    2013-01-01

    Adalimumab is efficacious in inducing and maintaining remission in Crohn's disease but dose escalation is needed in 30-40% after 1 year. Attempts for dose de-escalation have not been studied. This study aimed to assess the need for, predictors, and outcome of dose escalation and de-escalation in a

  3. Innovative design for a phase 1 trial with intra-patient dose escalation: The Crotoxin study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Medioni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Crotoxin has a broad antitumor activity but has shown frequent neurotoxic toxicity. To induce tolerance and limit this toxicity, we propose a new design with intra-patient dose escalation. Methods: A new Dose Limiting Toxicity definition was used. The concept of Target Ceiling Dose was introduced. Results: Dose Limiting Toxicity was the inability to dose escalate twice. Target Ceiling Dose was the highest planned dose to be administered to a patient and could change for patients along time. Recommended Dose was defined similarly as in a (3 + 3 conventional design. Conclusion: This innovant design was used and the clinical trial is now closed for inclusions. Results will be presented later. Keywords: Clinical trial, Phase 1, Intra-patient dose escalation, Cancer

  4. Dose escalation of a curcuminoid formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crowell James

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Curcumin is the major yellow pigment extracted from turmeric, a commonly-used spice in India and Southeast Asia that has broad anticarcinogenic and cancer chemopreventive potential. However, few systematic studies of curcumin's pharmacology and toxicology in humans have been performed. Methods A dose escalation study was conducted to determine the maximum tolerated dose and safety of a single dose of standardized powder extract, uniformly milled curcumin (C3 Complex™, Sabinsa Corporation. Healthy volunteers were administered escalating doses from 500 to 12,000 mg. Results Seven of twenty-four subjects (30% experienced only minimal toxicity that did not appear to be dose-related. No curcumin was detected in the serum of subjects administered 500, 1,000, 2,000, 4,000, 6,000 or 8,000 mg. Low levels of curcumin were detected in two subjects administered 10,000 or 12,000 mg. Conclusion The tolerance of curcumin in high single oral doses appears to be excellent. Given that achieving systemic bioavailability of curcumin or its metabolites may not be essential for colorectal cancer chemoprevention, these findings warrant further investigation for its utility as a long-term chemopreventive agent.

  5. On-line conformal HDR dose escalation trial in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Alvaro; Stromberg, Jannifer; Edmundson, Gregory; Gustafson, Gary; Vicini, Frank; Brabbins, Donald

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To improve treatment results on prostatic adenocarcinoma, we began the first prospective Phase I/II dose-escalating clinical trial of conformal brachytherapy (CB) and concurrent external beam irradiation. Methods and Materials: Fifty-four patients with T2b-T3c prostatic adenocarcinoma received 172 transperineal conformal high-dose rate (HDR) boost implants. All patients received concomitant external beam pelvic irradiation. Dose escalation of the three HDR fractions were: 5.5 Gy (18 patients), 6 Gy (15 patients), and 6.5 Gy (21 patients). The urethra, anterior rectal wall, and prostate boundaries were identified individually and outlined at 5 mm intervals from the base to the apex of the gland. The CB using real-time ultrasound guidance with interactive online isodose distributions was performed on an outpatient basis. As needles were placed into the prostate, corrections for prostate displacement were recorded and the isodose distributions were recalculated to represent the new relationship between the needles, prostate, and normal structures. Results: Craniocaudal motion of the gland ranged from 0.5-2.0 cm (mean=1.0 cm), whereas lateral displacement was 0.1-0.4 cm. With the interactive online planning system, organ motion was immediately detected, accounted for, and corrected prior to each HDR treatment. The rectal dose has ranged from 45 to 87%, and the urethral dose from 97 to 112% of the prostate dose. Negative prostatic biopsies at 18 months were seen in (30(32)) patients. Biochemical (PSA <1.5 ng/ml) control at 36 months is is 89%. It is significant that operator dependence has been completely removed because the interactive online planning system uniformly guides the physicians. Conclusions: With ultrasound guidance and the interactive online dosimetry system, organ motion is insignificant because it can be corrected during the procedure. Common pitfalls of brachytherapy, including operator dependence and difficulty with reproducibility, have been

  6. Lack of benefit for the addition of androgen deprivation therapy to dose-escalated radiotherapy in the treatment of intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Krauss, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: Assessment of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) benefits for prostate cancer treated with dose-escalated radiotherapy (RT). METHODS AND MATERIALS: From 1991 to 2004, 1,044 patients with intermediate- (n = 782) or high-risk (n = 262) prostate cancer were treated with dose-escalated RT at William Beaumont Hospital. Patients received external-beam RT (EBRT) alone, brachytherapy (high or low dose rate), or high dose rate brachytherapy plus pelvic EBRT. Intermediate-risk patients had Gleason score 7, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) 10.0-19.9 ng\\/mL, or Stage T2b-T2c. High-risk patients had Gleason score 8-10, PSA >\\/=20, or Stage T3. Patients were additionally divided specifically by Gleason score, presence of palpable disease, and PSA level to further define subgroups benefitting from ADT. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 5 years; 420 patients received ADT + dose-escalated RT, and 624 received dose-escalated RT alone. For all patients, no advantages in any clinical endpoints at 8 years were associated with ADT administration. No differences in any endpoints were associated with ADT administration based on intermediate- vs. high-risk group or RT modality when analyzed separately. Patients with palpable disease plus Gleason >\\/=8 demonstrated improved clinical failure rates and a trend toward improved survival with ADT. Intermediate-risk patients treated with brachytherapy alone had improved biochemical control when ADT was given. CONCLUSION: Benefits of ADT in the setting of dose-escalated RT remain poorly defined. This question must continue to be addressed in prospective study.

  7. Dose escalation to rash for erlotinib plus gemcitabine for metastatic pancreatic cancer: the phase II RACHEL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cutsem, E; Li, C-P; Nowara, E; Aprile, G; Moore, M; Federowicz, I; Van Laethem, J-L; Hsu, C; Tham, C K; Stemmer, S M; Lipp, R; Zeaiter, A; Fittipaldo, A; Csutor, Z; Klughammer, B; Meng, X; Ciuleanu, T

    2014-11-25

    This phase II, open-label, randomised study evaluated whether patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer receiving erlotinib/gemcitabine derived survival benefits from increasing the erlotinib dose. After a 4-week run-in period (gemcitabine 1000 mg m(-2) once weekly plus erlotinib 100 mg per day), patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer who developed grade 0/1 rash were randomised to receive gemcitabine plus erlotinib dose escalation (150 mg, increasing by 50 mg every 2 weeks (maximum 250 mg); n=71) or gemcitabine plus standard-dose erlotinib (100 mg per day; n=75). The primary end point was to determine whether overall survival (OS) was improved by increasing the erlotinib dose. Secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS), incidence of grade ⩾2 rash, and safety. Erlotinib dose escalation induced grade ⩾2 rash in 29 out of 71 (41.4%) patients compared with 7 out of 75 (9.3%) patients on standard dose. Efficacy was not significantly different in the dose-escalation arm compared with the standard-dose arm (OS: median 7.0 vs 8.4 months, respectively, hazard ratio (HR), 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88-1.80; P=0.2026; PFS: median 3.5 vs 4.5 months, respectively, HR, 1.09, 95% CI: 0.77-1.54; P=0.6298). Incidence of adverse events was comparable between randomised arms. The erlotinib dose-escalation strategy induced rash in some patients; there was no evidence that the higher dose translated into increased benefit.

  8. Phase 1 dose-escalation study of the antiplacental growth factor monoclonal antibody RO5323441 combined with bevacizumab in patients with recurrent glioblastoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Ulrik; Chinot, Olivier L; McBain, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We conducted a phase 1 dose-escalation study of RO5323441, a novel antiplacental growth factor (PlGF) monoclonal antibody, to establish the recommended dose for use with bevacizumab and to investigate the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety/tolerability, and preliminary clinica...

  9. Capecitabine based postoperative accelerated chemoradiation of pancreatic carcinoma. A dose-escalation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morganti, Alessio G.; Picardi, Vincenzo; Ippolito, Edy; Massaccesi, Mariangela; Macchia, Gabriella; Deodato, Francesco; Caravatta, Luciana; Tambaro, Rosa; Mignogna, Samantha; Cellini, Numa; Valentini, Vincenzo; Mattiucci, Gian Carlo; Di Lullo, Liberato; Giglio, Gianfranco; Caprino, Paola; Sofo, Luigi; Ingrosso, Marcello

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of escalating up to 55 Gy within five weeks, the dose of external beam radiotherapy to the previous tumor site concurrently with a fixed daily dose of capecitabine, in patients with resected pancreatic cancer. Material and methods. Patients with resected pancreatic carcinoma were eligible for this study. Capecitabine was administered at a daily dose of 1600 mg/m 2 . Regional lymph nodes received a total radiation dose of 45 Gy with 1.8 Gy per fractions. The starting radiation dose to the tumor bed was 50.0 Gy (2.0 Gy/fraction, 25 fractions). Escalation was achieved up to a total dose of 55.0 Gy by increasing the fraction size by 0.2 Gy (2.2 Gy/fraction), while keeping the duration of radiotherapy to five weeks (25 fractions). A concomitant boost technique was used. Dose limiting toxicity (DLT) was defined as any grade>3 hematologic toxicity, grade>2 liver, renal, neurologic, gastrointestinal, or skin toxicity, by RTOG criteria, or any toxicity producing prolonged (> 10 days) radiotherapy interruption. Results and discussion. Twelve patients entered the study (median age: 64 years). In the first cohort (six patients), no patient experienced DLT. Similarly in the second cohort, no DLT occurred. All 12 patients completed the planned regimen of therapy. Nine patients experienced grade 1-2 nausea and/or vomiting. Grade 2 hematological toxicity occurred in four patients. The results of our study indicate that a total radiation dose up to 55.0 Gy/5 weeks can be safely administered to the tumor bed, concurrently with capecitabine (1600 mg/m 2 ) in patients with resected pancreatic carcinoma.

  10. Hyperfractionated conformal radiotherapy in locally advanced prostate cancer: results of a dose escalation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forman, Jeffrey D.; Duclos, Marie; Shamsa, Falah; Porter, Arthur T.; Orton, Colin

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: This study was initiated to assess the incidence of chronic complications and histologic and biochemical control following hyperfractionated conformal radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between October 1991 and October 1994, 49 patients with locally advanced prostate cancer were entered on the first two dose levels of a prospective dose-escalation study using hyperfractionated three dimensional conformal radiotherapy. The first 25 patients received a minimum tumor dose of 78 Gy to the prostate and seminal vesicles in 6 weeks at 1.3 Gy, b.i.d. No increase in chronic toxicity compared with conventional radiotherapy was noted; therefore, an additional 24 patients were treated to a minimum tumor dose of 82.8 Gy to the prostate and seminal vesicles in 7 weeks at 1.15 Gy, b.i.d. Toxicity was scored according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group morbidity grading scale. Efficacy was assessed through scheduled postradiation prostate specific antigen values and ultrasound-guided biopsies. The median follow-up for the entire group was 20 months. Results: The hyperfractionated external radiation was well tolerated with minimal acute morbidity. At 30 months, the actuarial probability of Grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicity was 17%. At 30 months, the actuarial probability of Grade 2 genitourinary toxicity was 16%. There was no statistically significant difference between the two dose levels. No Grade 3 or 4 gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicity was noted. At 12 months, 84% of patients had a prostate specific antigen ≤ 4; and 53%; ≤ 1 ng/ml. At 12 months, 71% of patients had post radiation biopsies that were either negative (55%) or showed a marked therapeutic effect (16%). Conclusion: The use of hyperfractionated conformal radiotherapy facilitated dose escalation with no increase in chronic toxicity compared to standard doses. The initial tumor response based on prostate specific antigen measurements and

  11. Early termination of prostate cancer hyperfractionated dose escalation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forman, Jeffrey D; Porter, Arthur T; Kocheril, Paul; Grignon, David; Orton, Colin

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: This study was initiated to determine the maximum tolerable dose of hyperfractionated radiation in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Forty-nine patients with locally advanced prostate cancer (T3-T4 Nx, 0, 1 M0 and/or Gleason Score ≥ 8) were treated on the first two steps of a prospective dose-escalation study using hyperfractionated conformal radiotherapy. The first 25 patients received a minimum dose of 78Gy to the clinical tumor volume (CTV) including the prostate, seminal vesicle and a 5mm margin at 1.3Gy b.i.d. The second group (24 patients) received a minimum dose to the CTV of 82.8Gy at 1.15Gy b.i.d. Twenty eight patients received neo-adjuvant hormonal therapy in conjunction with their radiation (8 of 25 patients at 78Gy and 20 of 24 patients at 82.8Gy). Toxicity was scored according to the RTOG grading scale. Efficacy was evaluated by PSA levels and ultrasound guided biopsies. Median follow up was 36 and 18 months for the 78Gy and 82.8Gy dose levels, respectively. Results: No grade 3 or 4 gastrointestinal (GI) or genitourinary (GU) toxicity was noted. At 36 months, the actuarial probability of Grade 2 GI and GU toxicity were 16 and 20%, respectively. Twelve to 18 months following radiation, 41 patients (86%) underwent ultrasound guided biopsy. At 78Gy, 60% of 20 patients had a biopsy which was negative or showed a marked therapeutic effect. At 82.8Gy, these combined rates were 95% in the 21 patients who had biopsies. Nine patients (50%) who did not receive neo-adjuvant hormones had positive biopsies. No patient who received neo-adjuvant hormones plus 78Gy (5 patients) or 82.8Gy (18 patients) had a positive biopsy. Conclusion: Proceeding to the next dose level (87.4Gy) was justified by the lack of severe chronic toxicity. However, in view of the high rate of histologic sterilization when hyperfractionated irradiation was given in conjunction with neo-adjuvant hormonal therapy, it was felt to be unethical to

  12. DOSE-ESCALATED EXTERNAL BEAM RADIOTHERAPY DURING HORMONO-RADIOTHERAPY FOR PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Gumenetskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The introduction of modern technologies of conformal external beam radiotherapy (EBRT into clinical practice for the treatment of prostate cancer requires proper quality assurance measures as well as a careful analysis of both the efficacy and toxicity data of treatments. The purpose of this study was to inves- tigate tolerance and the immediate efficacy of conformal dose-escalated EBRT during hormono-radiotherapy for prostate cancer. material and methods. The study involved 156 prostate cancer patients treated with EBRT. Among them, 30 patients received a total dose of 70 Gy, and in 126 patients the total dose was esca- lated to 72-76 Gy (median total dose - 74.0 Gy. Fifty-nine patients received intensity modulated radiation therapy. Results. The prescribed course of treatment was completed in all the patients with prostate cancer. Acute radiation-induced bladder reactions (RTOG were observed in 50 (32.1 % patients, of whom 48 (30.8 % experienced grade I reactions, and 2 (1.3 % experienced grade II reactions. Eighteen (11.5 % patients had radiation-induced rectum reactions, not above grade I. The development of grade II dysuric phenomena necessitated treatment interruption only in two patients. Of 9 (5.8 % patients who had late bladder complica- tions (RTOG/EORTC, 8 (5.1 % patients developed grade I complications, and one (0.6 % patient developed grade II complications. Of 11 (7.1 % patients who had rectum complications, 8 (5.1 % patients developed grade I complications, and 3 (1.9 % patients developed grade II complications. No patients experienced the increase in toxicity of treatment during dose escalation up to a total dose exceeding 70 Gy. During the follow-up period, only one patient developed recurrent disease. Conclusion. The results of our study suggest acceptable levels of toxicity following a continuous course of dose-escalated EBRT given in conjunction with hormono-radiotherapy to prostate cancer patients. Further

  13. Phase 1 Dose Escalation Study of Accelerated Radiation Therapy With Concurrent Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsey, Chris R., E-mail: christopher.kelsey@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Das, Shiva [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Gu, Lin [Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Dunphy, Frank R.; Ready, Neal E. [Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the maximum tolerated dose of radiation therapy (RT) given in an accelerated fashion with concurrent chemotherapy using intensity modulated RT. Methods and Materials: Patients with locally advanced lung cancer (non-small cell and small cell) with good performance status and minimal weight loss received concurrent cisplatin and etoposide with RT. Intensity modulated RT with daily image guidance was used to facilitate esophageal avoidance and delivered using 6 fractions per week (twice daily on Fridays with a 6-hour interval). The dose was escalated from 58 Gy to a planned maximum dose of 74 Gy in 4 Gy increments in a standard 3 + 3 trial design. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was defined as acute grade 3-5 nonhematologic toxicity attributed to RT. Results: A total of 24 patients were enrolled, filling all dose cohorts, all completing RT and chemotherapy as prescribed. Dose-limiting toxicity occurred in 1 patient at 58 Gy (grade 3 esophagitis) and 1 patient at 70 Gy (grade 3 esophageal fistula). Both patients with DLTs had large tumors (12 cm and 10 cm, respectively) adjacent to the esophagus. Three additional patients were enrolled at both dose cohorts without further DLT. In the final 74-Gy cohort, no DLTs were observed (0 of 6). Conclusions: Dose escalation and acceleration to 74 Gy with intensity modulated RT and concurrent chemotherapy was tolerable, with a low rate of grade ≥3 acute esophageal reactions.

  14. Dose Escalation Methods in Phase I Cancer Clinical Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Le Tourneau, Christophe; Lee, J. Jack; Siu, Lillian L.

    2009-01-01

    Phase I clinical trials are an essential step in the development of anticancer drugs. The main goal of these studies is to establish the recommended dose and/or schedule of new drugs or drug combinations for phase II trials. The guiding principle for dose escalation in phase I trials is to avoid exposing too many patients to subtherapeutic doses while preserving safety and maintaining rapid accrual. Here we review dose escalation methods for phase I trials, including the rule-based and model-...

  15. Dose escalation methods in phase I cancer clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Tourneau, Christophe; Lee, J Jack; Siu, Lillian L

    2009-05-20

    Phase I clinical trials are an essential step in the development of anticancer drugs. The main goal of these studies is to establish the recommended dose and/or schedule of new drugs or drug combinations for phase II trials. The guiding principle for dose escalation in phase I trials is to avoid exposing too many patients to subtherapeutic doses while preserving safety and maintaining rapid accrual. Here we review dose escalation methods for phase I trials, including the rule-based and model-based dose escalation methods that have been developed to evaluate new anticancer agents. Toxicity has traditionally been the primary endpoint for phase I trials involving cytotoxic agents. However, with the emergence of molecularly targeted anticancer agents, potential alternative endpoints to delineate optimal biological activity, such as plasma drug concentration and target inhibition in tumor or surrogate tissues, have been proposed along with new trial designs. We also describe specific methods for drug combinations as well as methods that use a time-to-event endpoint or both toxicity and efficacy as endpoints. Finally, we present the advantages and drawbacks of the various dose escalation methods and discuss specific applications of the methods in developmental oncotherapeutics.

  16. A systematic methodology review of phase I radiation dose escalation trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pijls-Johannesma, Madelon; Mastrigt, Ghislaine van; Hahn, Steve M.; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Baumert, Brigitta G.; Lammering, Guido; Buijsen, Jeroen; Bentzen, Soren M.; Lievens, Yolande; Kramar, Andrew; Lambin, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this review is to evaluate the methodology used in published phase I radiotherapy (RT) dose escalation trials. A specific emphasis was placed on the frequency of reporting late complications as endpoint. Materials and methods: We performed a systematic literature review using a predefined search strategy to identify all phase I trials reporting on external radiotherapy dose escalation in cancer patients. Results: Fifty-three trials (phase I: n = 36, phase I-II: n = 17) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of these, 20 used a modified Fibonacci design for the RT dose escalation, but 32 did not specify a design. Late toxicity was variously defined as >3 months (n = 43) or > 6 months (n = 3) after RT, or not defined (n = 7). In only nine studies the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was related to late toxicity, while only half the studies reported the minimum follow-up period for dose escalation (n = 26). Conclusion: In phase I RT trials, late complications are often not taken into account and there is currently no consensus on the methodology used for radiation dose escalation studies. We therefore propose a decision-tree algorithm which depends on the endpoint selected and whether a validated early surrogate endpoint is available, in order to choose the most appropriate study design.

  17. Phase 1 Study of Dose Escalation in Hypofractionated Proton Beam Therapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Daniel R., E-mail: dgomez@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gillin, Michael [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Liao, Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wei, Caimiao [Department of Biostatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Lin, Steven H.; Swanick, Cameron; Alvarado, Tina; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D.; Chang, Joe Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Background: Many patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cannot undergo concurrent chemotherapy because of comorbidities or poor performance status. Hypofractionated radiation regimens, if tolerable, may provide an option to these patients for effective local control. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five patients were enrolled in a phase 1 dose-escalation trial of proton beam therapy (PBT) from September 2010 through July 2012. Eligible patients had histologically documented lung cancer, thymic tumors, carcinoid tumors, or metastatic thyroid tumors. Concurrent chemotherapy was not allowed, but concurrent treatment with biologic agents was. The dose-escalation schema comprised 15 fractions of 3 Gy(relative biological effectiveness [RBE])/fraction, 3.5 Gy(RBE)/fraction, or 4 Gy(RBE)/fraction. Dose constraints were derived from biologically equivalent doses of standard fractionated treatment. Results: The median follow-up time for patients alive at the time of analysis was 13 months (range, 8-28 months). Fifteen patients received treatment to hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes. Two patients experienced dose-limiting toxicity possibly related to treatment; 1 received 3.5-Gy(RBE) fractions and experienced an in-field tracheoesophageal fistula 9 months after PBT and 1 month after bevacizumab. The other patient received 4-Gy(RBE) fractions and was hospitalized for bacterial pneumonia/radiation pneumonitis 4 months after PBT. Conclusion: Hypofractionated PBT to the thorax delivered over 3 weeks was well tolerated even with significant doses to the lungs and mediastinal structures. Phase 2/3 trials are needed to compare the efficacy of this technique with standard treatment for locally advanced NSCLC.

  18. Dose escalated radiotherapy for T1 and T2 nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, J. J.; Zhang, Q.; Lee, K. M.; Loh, K. S.; Tan, K. S.

    2008-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is most prevalent in the Guangzhou province in southern China, in Hong Kong and in Singapore. It also occurs in Europe and North America, partly due to its epidemiological association with the woodworking and shoe manufacturing industry. Because of its anatomical location, i.e. so close to vital organs at risk, such as the brain stem and eyes, the technique of radiotherapy and dose/fractionation prescription is of extreme importance. This communication describes our experience with dose escalation radiotherapy for stages T1 and T2 of NPC. (author)

  19. Ewing sarcoma localized on spine: a dose escalation study in child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogin, G.; Marchesi, V.; Biston, M.C.; Gassa, F.; Amessis, M.; Zefkili, S.; Helfre, S.; De Marzi, L.; Lacroix, F.; Leroy, A.

    2011-01-01

    The authors report the study of dose escalation for the treatment of spinal in two types of Ewing tumours. They used 5 dose levels at the rate of five 1,6 Gy per week. They compare different radiotherapy techniques: three-dimensional conformation radiotherapy, static intensity-modulated conformational radiotherapy, helical tomo-therapy, volume-modulated arc-therapy (VMAT), stereotactic radiotherapy, and proton-therapy (in passive diffusion). It appears that it is possible to safely and efficiently deliver until 70,4 Gy in some Ewing tumours. In child, exclusive radiotherapy might become a local treatment option and would require a clinic trial and comparison with exclusive surgery or post-operative radiotherapy. Short communication

  20. Increasing Use of Dose-Escalated External Beam Radiation Therapy for Men With Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swisher-McClure, Samuel; Mitra, Nandita; Woo, Kaitlin; Smaldone, Marc; Uzzo, Robert; Bekelman, Justin E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine recent practice patterns, using a large national cancer registry, to understand the extent to which dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) has been incorporated into routine clinical practice for men with prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective observational cohort study using the National Cancer Data Base, a nationwide oncology outcomes database in the United States. We identified 98,755 men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer between 2006 and 2011 who received definitive EBRT and classified patients into National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) risk groups. We defined dose-escalated EBRT as total prescribed dose of ≥75.6 Gy. Using multivariable logistic regression, we examined the association of patient, clinical, and demographic characteristics with the use of dose-escalated EBRT. Results: Overall, 81.6% of men received dose-escalated EBRT during the study period. The use of dose-escalated EBRT did not vary substantially by NCCN risk group. Use of dose-escalated EBRT increased from 70.7% of patients receiving treatment in 2006 to 89.8% of patients receiving treatment in 2011. On multivariable analysis, year of diagnosis and use of intensity modulated radiation therapy were significantly associated with receipt of dose-escalated EBRT. Conclusions: Our study results indicate that dose-escalated EBRT has been widely adopted by radiation oncologists treating prostate cancer in the United States. The proportion of patients receiving dose-escalated EBRT increased nearly 20% between 2006 and 2011. We observed high utilization rates of dose-escalated EBRT within all disease risk groups. Adoption of intensity modulated radiation therapy was strongly associated with use of dose-escalated treatment

  1. Strategies for Biologic Image-Guided Dose Escalation: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovik, Aste; Malinen, Eirik; Olsen, Dag Rune

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing interest in how to incorporate functional and molecular information obtained by noninvasive, three-dimensional tumor imaging into radiotherapy. The key issues are to identify radioresistant regions that can be targeted for dose escalation, and to develop radiation dose prescription and delivery strategies providing optimal treatment for the individual patient. In the present work, we review the proposed strategies for biologic image-guided dose escalation with intensity-modulated radiation therapy. Biologic imaging modalities and the derived images are discussed, as are methods for target volume delineation. Different dose escalation strategies and techniques for treatment delivery and treatment plan evaluation are also addressed. Furthermore, we consider the need for response monitoring during treatment. We conclude with a summary of the current status of biologic image-based dose escalation and of areas where further work is needed for this strategy to become incorporated into clinical practice

  2. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Dose-Escalation Planning Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lievens, Yolande; Nulens, An; Gaber, Mousa Amr; Defraene, Gilles; De Wever, Walter; Stroobants, Sigrid; Van den Heuvel, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential for dose escalation with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in positron emission tomography-based radiotherapy planning for locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC). Methods and Materials: For 35 LA-NSCLC patients, three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and IMRT plans were made to a prescription dose (PD) of 66 Gy in 2-Gy fractions. Dose escalation was performed toward the maximal PD using secondary endpoint constraints for the lung, spinal cord, and heart, with de-escalation according to defined esophageal tolerance. Dose calculation was performed using the Eclipse pencil beam algorithm, and all plans were recalculated using a collapsed cone algorithm. The normal tissue complication probabilities were calculated for the lung (Grade 2 pneumonitis) and esophagus (acute toxicity, grade 2 or greater, and late toxicity). Results: IMRT resulted in statistically significant decreases in the mean lung (p <.0001) and maximal spinal cord (p = .002 and 0005) doses, allowing an average increase in the PD of 8.6-14.2 Gy (p ≤.0001). This advantage was lost after de-escalation within the defined esophageal dose limits. The lung normal tissue complication probabilities were significantly lower for IMRT (p <.0001), even after dose escalation. For esophageal toxicity, IMRT significantly decreased the acute NTCP values at the low dose levels (p = .0009 and p <.0001). After maximal dose escalation, late esophageal tolerance became critical (p <.0001), especially when using IMRT, owing to the parallel increases in the esophageal dose and PD. Conclusion: In LA-NSCLC, IMRT offers the potential to significantly escalate the PD, dependent on the lung and spinal cord tolerance. However, parallel increases in the esophageal dose abolished the advantage, even when using collapsed cone algorithms. This is important to consider in the context of concomitant chemoradiotherapy schedules using IMRT.

  3. Phase I study of continuous MKC-1 in patients with advanced or metastatic solid malignancies using the modified Time-to-Event Continual Reassessment Method (TITE-CRM) dose escalation design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevaarwerk, Amye; Wilding, George; Eickhoff, Jens; Chappell, Rick; Sidor, Carolyn; Arnott, Jamie; Bailey, Howard; Schelman, William; Liu, Glenn

    2012-06-01

    MKC-1 is an oral cell-cycle inhibitor with broad antitumor activity in preclinical models. Clinical studies demonstrated modest antitumor activity using intermittent dosing schedule, however additional preclinical data suggested continuous dosing could be efficacious with additional effects against the mTor/AKT pathway. The primary objectives were to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and response of continuous MKC-1. Secondary objectives included characterizing the dose limiting toxicities (DLTs) and pharmacokinetics (PK). Patients with solid malignancies were eligible, if they had measurable disease, ECOG PS ≤1, and adequate organ function. Exclusions included brain metastases and inability to receive oral drug. MKC-1 was dosed twice daily, continuously in 28-day cycles. Other medications were eliminated if there were possible drug interactions. Doses were assigned using a TITE-CRM algorithm following enrollment of the first 3 pts. Disease response was assessed every 8 weeks. Between 5/08-9/09, 24 patients enrolled (15 M/9 F, median 58 years, range 44-77). Patients 1-3 received 120 mg/d of MKC-1; patients 4-24 were dosed per the TITE-CRM algorithm: 150 mg [n = 1], 180 [2], 200 [1], 230 [1], 260 [5], 290 [6], 320 [5]. The median time on drug was 8 weeks (range 4-28). The only DLT occurred at 320 mg (grade 3 fatigue). Stable disease occurred at 150 mg/d (28 weeks; RCC) and 320 mg/d (16 weeks; breast, parotid). Escalation halted at 320 mg/d. Day 28 pharmacokinetics indicated absorption and active metabolites. Continuous MKC-1 was well-tolerated; there were no RECIST responses, although clinical benefit occurred in 3/24 pts. Dose escalation stopped at 320 mg/d, and this is the MTD as defined by the CRM dose escalation algorithm; this cumulative dose/cycle exceeds that determined from intermittent dosing studies. A TITE-CRM allowed for rapid dose escalation and was able to account for late toxicities with continuous dosing via a modified algorithm.

  4. Re-distribution of brachytherapy dose using a differential dose prescription adapted to risk of local failure in low-risk prostate cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rylander, Susanne; Polders, Daniel; Steggerda, Marcel J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We investigated the application of a differential target- and dose prescription concept for low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy (LDR-BT), involving a re-distribution of dose according to risk of local failure and treatment-related morbidity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Our study......- and dose prescription concept of prescribing a lower dose to the whole gland and an escalated dose to the GTV using LDR-BT seed planning was technically feasible and resulted in a significant dose-reduction to urethra and bladder neck....

  5. A Phase 1 Study of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Dose Escalation for Borderline Resectable Pancreatic Cancer After Modified FOLFIRINOX (NCT01446458).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaib, Walid L; Hawk, Natalyn; Cassidy, Richard J; Chen, Zhengjia; Zhang, Chao; Brutcher, Edith; Kooby, David; Maithel, Shishir K; Sarmiento, Juan M; Landry, Jerome; El-Rayes, Bassel F

    2016-10-01

    A challenge in borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) management is the high rate of positive posterior margins (PM). Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) allows for higher radiation delivery dose with conformity. This study evaluated the maximal tolerated dose with a dose escalation plan level up to 45 Gy using SBRT in BRPC. A single-institution, 3 + 3 phase 1 clinical trial design was used to evaluate 4 dose levels of SBRT delivered in 3 fractions to the planning target volume (PTV) with a simultaneous in-field boost (SIB) to the PM. Dose level (DL) 1 was 30 Gy to the PTV, and for dose levels 2 through 4 (DL2-DL4) the dose was 36 Gy. The SIB dose to the PM was 6, 6, 7.5, and 9 Gy for DL-1, DL-2, DL-3, and DL-4, respectively. All patients received 4 treatments of modified FOLFIRINOX (fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan, oxaliplatin) before SBRT. Thirteen patients with a median age of 64 years were enrolled. The median follow-up time was 18 months. The locations of the cancer were head (n=12) and uncinate/neck (n=1). One patient did not undergo SBRT. There were no grade 3 or 4 toxicities. Five patients did not undergo resection because of disease progression (1 local, 4 distant); 8 had R0 resection in the PM, and 5 of 8 had vessel reconstruction. Two patients had disease downstaged to T1 and T2 from T3 disease. Four patients are still alive, and 3 are disease free. The median overall survival for resected patients was not reached (9.3: not reached). The SBRT dose of 36 Gy with a 9-Gy SIB to the PM (total 45 Gy) delivered in 3 fractions is safe and well tolerated. The dose-limiting toxicity for a 45-Gy dose was not reached, and further dose escalations are needed in future trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Phase 1 Study of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Dose Escalation for Borderline Resectable Pancreatic Cancer After Modified FOLFIRINOX (NCT01446458)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaib, Walid L.; Hawk, Natalyn; Cassidy, Richard J.; Chen, Zhengjia; Zhang, Chao; Brutcher, Edith; Kooby, David; Maithel, Shishir K.; Sarmiento, Juan M.; Landry, Jerome; El-Rayes, Bassel F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A challenge in borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) management is the high rate of positive posterior margins (PM). Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) allows for higher radiation delivery dose with conformity. This study evaluated the maximal tolerated dose with a dose escalation plan level up to 45 Gy using SBRT in BRPC. Methods and Materials: A single-institution, 3 + 3 phase 1 clinical trial design was used to evaluate 4 dose levels of SBRT delivered in 3 fractions to the planning target volume (PTV) with a simultaneous in-field boost (SIB) to the PM. Dose level (DL) 1 was 30 Gy to the PTV, and for dose levels 2 through 4 (DL2-DL4) the dose was 36 Gy. The SIB dose to the PM was 6, 6, 7.5, and 9 Gy for DL-1, DL-2, DL-3, and DL-4, respectively. All patients received 4 treatments of modified FOLFIRINOX (fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan, oxaliplatin) before SBRT. Results: Thirteen patients with a median age of 64 years were enrolled. The median follow-up time was 18 months. The locations of the cancer were head (n=12) and uncinate/neck (n=1). One patient did not undergo SBRT. There were no grade 3 or 4 toxicities. Five patients did not undergo resection because of disease progression (1 local, 4 distant); 8 had R0 resection in the PM, and 5 of 8 had vessel reconstruction. Two patients had disease downstaged to T1 and T2 from T3 disease. Four patients are still alive, and 3 are disease free. The median overall survival for resected patients was not reached (9.3: not reached). Conclusion: The SBRT dose of 36 Gy with a 9-Gy SIB to the PM (total 45 Gy) delivered in 3 fractions is safe and well tolerated. The dose-limiting toxicity for a 45-Gy dose was not reached, and further dose escalations are needed in future trials.

  7. A Phase 1 Study of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Dose Escalation for Borderline Resectable Pancreatic Cancer After Modified FOLFIRINOX (NCT01446458)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaib, Walid L.; Hawk, Natalyn [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Cassidy, Richard J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Chen, Zhengjia; Zhang, Chao [Department of Biostatistics, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Brutcher, Edith [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Kooby, David; Maithel, Shishir K.; Sarmiento, Juan M. [Department of Surgery, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Landry, Jerome [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); El-Rayes, Bassel F., E-mail: bassel.el-rayes@emoryhealthcare.org [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Purpose: A challenge in borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) management is the high rate of positive posterior margins (PM). Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) allows for higher radiation delivery dose with conformity. This study evaluated the maximal tolerated dose with a dose escalation plan level up to 45 Gy using SBRT in BRPC. Methods and Materials: A single-institution, 3 + 3 phase 1 clinical trial design was used to evaluate 4 dose levels of SBRT delivered in 3 fractions to the planning target volume (PTV) with a simultaneous in-field boost (SIB) to the PM. Dose level (DL) 1 was 30 Gy to the PTV, and for dose levels 2 through 4 (DL2-DL4) the dose was 36 Gy. The SIB dose to the PM was 6, 6, 7.5, and 9 Gy for DL-1, DL-2, DL-3, and DL-4, respectively. All patients received 4 treatments of modified FOLFIRINOX (fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan, oxaliplatin) before SBRT. Results: Thirteen patients with a median age of 64 years were enrolled. The median follow-up time was 18 months. The locations of the cancer were head (n=12) and uncinate/neck (n=1). One patient did not undergo SBRT. There were no grade 3 or 4 toxicities. Five patients did not undergo resection because of disease progression (1 local, 4 distant); 8 had R0 resection in the PM, and 5 of 8 had vessel reconstruction. Two patients had disease downstaged to T1 and T2 from T3 disease. Four patients are still alive, and 3 are disease free. The median overall survival for resected patients was not reached (9.3: not reached). Conclusion: The SBRT dose of 36 Gy with a 9-Gy SIB to the PM (total 45 Gy) delivered in 3 fractions is safe and well tolerated. The dose-limiting toxicity for a 45-Gy dose was not reached, and further dose escalations are needed in future trials.

  8. Life-History Traits of Spodoptera frugiperda Populations Exposed to Low-Dose Bt Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Fernanda F; Mendes, Simone M; Santos-Amaya, Oscar F; Araújo, Octávio G; Oliveira, Eugenio E; Pereira, Eliseu J G

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins in low- and moderate-dose transgenic crops may induce sublethal effects and increase the rate of Bt resistance evolution, potentially compromising control efficacy against target pests. We tested this hypothesis using the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda, a major polyphagous lepidopteran pest relatively tolerant to Bt notorious for evolving field-relevant resistance to single-gene Bt maize. Late-instar larvae were collected from Bt Cry1Ab and non-Bt maize fields in five locations in Brazil, and their offspring was compared for survival, development, and population growth in rearing environment without and with Cry1Ab throughout larval development. Larval survival on Cry1Ab maize leaves varied from 20 to 80% among the populations. Larvae reared on Cry1Ab maize had seven-day delay in development time in relation to control larvae, and such delay was shorter in offspring of armyworms from Cry1Ab maize. Population growth rates were 50-70% lower for insects continuously exposed to Cry1Ab maize relative to controls, showing the population-level effect of Cry1Ab, which varied among the populations and prior exposure to Cry1Ab maize in the field. In three out of five populations, armyworms derived from Bt maize reared on Cry1Ab maize showed higher larval weight, faster larval development and better reproductive performance than the armyworms derived from non-Bt maize, and one of these populations showed better performance on both Cry1Ab and control diets, indicating no fitness cost of the resistance trait. Altogether, these results indicate that offspring of armyworms that developed on field-grown, single-gene Bt Cry1Ab maize had reduced performance on Cry1Ab maize foliage in two populations studied, but in other three populations, these offspring had better overall performance on the Bt maize foliage than that of the armyworms from non-Bt maize fields, possibly because of Cry1Ab resistance alleles in these populations

  9. Can we avoid dose escalation for intermediate-risk prostate cancer in the setting of short-course neoadjuvant androgen deprivation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakespeare TP

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thomas P Shakespeare,1,2 Shea W Wilcox,1 Noel J Aherne1,2 1Department of Radiation Oncology, North Coast Cancer Institute, 2Faculty of Medicine, Rural Clinical School, The University of New South Wales, Coffs Harbour, New South Wales, Australia Background: Both dose-escalated external beam radiotherapy (DE-EBRT and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT improve the outcomes in patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Despite this, there are only few reports evaluating DE-EBRT for patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer receiving neoadjuvant ADT, and virtually no studies investigating dose escalation >74 Gy in this setting. We aimed to determine whether DE-EBRT >74 Gy improved the outcomes for patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer who received neoadjuvant ADT. Findings: In our institution, patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer were treated with neoadjuvant ADT and DE-EBRT, with doses sequentially increasing from 74 Gy to 76 Gy and then to 78 Gy between 2006 and 2012. We identified 435 patients treated with DE-EBRT and ADT, with a median follow-up of 70 months. For the 74 Gy, 76 Gy, and 78 Gy groups, five-year biochemical disease-free survival rates were 95.0%, 97.8%, and 95.3%, respectively; metastasis-free survival rates were 99.1%, 100.0%, and 98.6%, respectively; and prostate cancer-specific survival rate was 100% for all three dose levels. There was no significant benefit for dose escalation either on univariate or multivariate analysis for any outcome. Conclusion: There was no benefit for DE-EBRT >74 Gy in our cohort of intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant ADT. Given the higher risks of toxicity associated with dose escalation, it may be feasible to omit dose escalation in this group of patients. Randomized studies evaluating dose de-escalation should be considered. Keywords: radiotherapy, IMRT, dose, dose escalation, dose de-escalation, androgen deprivation therapy

  10. Does selective pleural irradiation of malignant pleural mesothelioma allow radiation dose escalation. A planning study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botticella, A.; Defraene, G.; Nackaerts, K.; Deroose, C.; Coolen, J.; Nafteux, P.; Vanstraelen, B.; Joosten, S.; Michiels, L.A.W.; Peeters, S.; Ruysscher, D. de

    2017-01-01

    After lung-sparing radiotherapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), local failure at sites of previous gross disease represents the dominant form of failure. Our aim is to investigate if selective irradiation of the gross pleural disease only can allow dose escalation. In all, 12 consecutive stage I-IV MPM patients (6 left-sided and 6 right-sided) were retrospectively identified and included. A magnetic resonance imaging-based pleural gross tumor volume (GTV) was contoured. Two sets of planning target volumes (PTV) were generated for each patient: (1) a ''selective'' PTV (S-PTV), originating from a 5-mm isotropic expansion from the GTV and (2) an ''elective'' PTV (E-PTV), originating from a 5-mm isotropic expansion from the whole ipsilateral pleural space. Two sets of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment plans were generated: a ''selective'' pleural irradiation plan (SPI plan) and an ''elective'' pleural irradiation plan (EPI plan, planned with a simultaneous integrated boost technique [SIB]). In the SPI plans, the average median dose to the S-PTV was 53.6 Gy (range 41-63.6 Gy). In 4 of 12 patients, it was possible to escalate the dose to the S-PTV to >58 Gy. In the EPI plans, the average median doses to the E-PTV and to the S-PTV were 48.6 Gy (range 38.5-58.7) and 49 Gy (range 38.6-59.5 Gy), respectively. No significant dose escalation was achievable. The omission of the elective irradiation of the whole ipsilateral pleural space allowed dose escalation from 49 Gy to more than 58 Gy in 4 of 12 chemonaive MPM patients. This strategy may form the basis for nonsurgical radical combined modality treatment of MPM. (orig.) [de

  11. SYSTEMS-2: A randomised phase II study of radiotherapy dose escalation for pain control in malignant pleural mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ashton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available SYSTEMS-2 is a randomised study of radiotherapy dose escalation for pain control in 112 patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM. Standard palliative (20 Gy/5# or dose escalated treatment (36 Gy/6# will be delivered using advanced radiotherapy techniques and pain responses will be compared at week 5. Data will guide optimal palliative radiotherapy in MPM.

  12. Antipsychotic dose escalation as a trigger for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS: literature review and case series report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langan Julie

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background “Neuroleptic malignant syndrome” (NMS is a potentially fatal idiosyncratic reaction to any medication which affects the central dopaminergic system. Between 0.5% and 1% of patients exposed to antipsychotics develop the condition. Mortality rates may be as high as 55% and many risk factors have been reported. Although rapid escalation of antipsychotic dose is thought to be an important risk factor, to date it has not been the focus of a published case series or scientifically defined. Description We aimed to identify cases of NMS and review risk factors for its development with a particular focus on rapid dose escalation in the 30 days prior to onset. A review of the literature on rapid dose escalation was undertaken and a pragmatic definition of “rapid dose escalation” was made. NMS cases were defined using DSM-IV criteria and systematically identified within a secondary care mental health service. A ratio of titration rate was calculated for each NMS patient and “rapid escalators” and “non rapid escalators” were compared. 13 cases of NMS were identified. A progressive mean dose increase 15 days prior to the confirmed episode of NMS was observed (241.7 mg/day during days 1–15 to 346.9 mg/day during days 16–30 and the mean ratio of dose escalation for NMS patients was 1.4. Rapid dose escalation was seen in 5/13 cases and non rapid escalators had markedly higher daily cumulative antipsychotic dose compared to rapid escalators. Conclusions Rapid dose escalation occurred in less than half of this case series (n = 5, 38.5%, although there is currently no consensus on the precise definition of rapid dose escalation. Cumulative antipsychotic dose – alongside other known risk factors - may also be important in the development of NMS.

  13. SU-E-T-622: Identification and Improvement of Patients Eligible for Dose Escalation with Matched Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, K; Holcombe, C; Kapp, D; Buyyounouski, M; Hancock, S; Xing, L; Atwood, T; King, M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation-therapy dose-escalation beyond 80Gy may improve tumor control rates for patients with localized prostate cancer. Since toxicity remains a concern, treatment planners must achieve dose-escalation while still adhering to dose-constraints for surrounding structures. Patientmatching is a machine-learning technique that identifies prior patients that dosimetrically match DVH parameters of target volumes and critical structures prior to actual treatment planning. We evaluated the feasibility of patient-matching in (1)identifying candidates for safe dose-escalation; and (2)improving DVH parameters for critical structures in actual dose-escalated plans. Methods: We analyzed DVH parameters from 319 historical treatment plans to determine which plans could achieve dose-escalation (8640cGy) without exceeding Zelefsky dose-constraints (rectal and bladder V47Gy<53%, and V75.6Gy<30%, max-point dose to rectum of 8550cGy, max dose to PTV< 9504cGy). We then estimated the percentage of cases that could achieve safe dose-escalation using software that enables patient matching (QuickMatch, Siris Medical, Mountain View, CA). We then replanned a case that had violated DVH constraints with DVH parameters from patient matching, in order to determine whether this previously unacceptable plan could be made eligible with this automated technique. Results: Patient-matching improved the percentage of patients eligible for dose-escalation from 40% to 63% (p=4.7e-4, t-test). Using a commercial optimizer augmented with patient-matching, we demonstrated a case where patient-matching improved the toxicity-profile such that dose-escalation would have been possible; this plan was rapidly achieved using patientmatching software. In this patient, all lower-dose constraints were met with both the denovo and patient-matching plan. In the patient-matching plan, maximum dose to the rectum was 8385cGy, while the denovo plan failed to meet the maximum rectal constraint at 8571c

  14. Elevated atmospheric ozone increases concentration of insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ac protein in Bt Brassica napus and reduces feeding of a Bt target herbivore on the non-transgenic parent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himanen, Sari J.; Nerg, Anne-Marja; Nissinen, Anne; Stewart, C. Neal; Poppy, Guy M.; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2009-01-01

    Sustained cultivation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic crops requires stable transgene expression under variable abiotic conditions. We studied the interactions of Bt toxin production and chronic ozone exposure in Bt cry1Ac-transgenic oilseed rape and found that the insect resistance trait is robust under ozone elevations. Bt Cry1Ac concentrations were higher in the leaves of Bt oilseed rape grown under elevated ozone compared to control treatment, measured either per leaf fresh weight or per total soluble protein of leaves. The mean relative growth rate of a Bt target herbivore, Plutella xylostella L. larvae was negative on Bt plants in all ozone treatments. On the non-transgenic plants, larval feeding damage was reduced under elevated ozone. Our results indicate the need for monitoring fluctuations in Bt toxin concentrations to reveal the potential of ozone exposure for altering dosing of Bt proteins to target and non-target herbivores in field environments experiencing increasing ozone pollution. - Elevated atmospheric ozone can induce fluctuations in insecticidal protein concentrations in transgenic plants

  15. Elevated atmospheric ozone increases concentration of insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ac protein in Bt Brassica napus and reduces feeding of a Bt target herbivore on the non-transgenic parent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himanen, Sari J. [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: sari.himanen@uku.fi; Nerg, Anne-Marja [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Nissinen, Anne [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Plant Protection, FIN-31600 Jokioinen (Finland); Stewart, C. Neal [University of Tennessee, Department of Plant Sciences, Knoxville, TN 37996-4561 (United States); Poppy, Guy M. [University of Southampton, School of Biological Sciences, Southampton SO16 7PX (United Kingdom); Holopainen, Jarmo K. [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2009-01-15

    Sustained cultivation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic crops requires stable transgene expression under variable abiotic conditions. We studied the interactions of Bt toxin production and chronic ozone exposure in Bt cry1Ac-transgenic oilseed rape and found that the insect resistance trait is robust under ozone elevations. Bt Cry1Ac concentrations were higher in the leaves of Bt oilseed rape grown under elevated ozone compared to control treatment, measured either per leaf fresh weight or per total soluble protein of leaves. The mean relative growth rate of a Bt target herbivore, Plutella xylostella L. larvae was negative on Bt plants in all ozone treatments. On the non-transgenic plants, larval feeding damage was reduced under elevated ozone. Our results indicate the need for monitoring fluctuations in Bt toxin concentrations to reveal the potential of ozone exposure for altering dosing of Bt proteins to target and non-target herbivores in field environments experiencing increasing ozone pollution. - Elevated atmospheric ozone can induce fluctuations in insecticidal protein concentrations in transgenic plants.

  16. Dose escalation of cisplatin with 5-fluorouracil in concurrent chemoradiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Qiang; Gao Xianshu; Qiao Xueying; Zhou Zhiguo; Zhang Jun; Yang Xiangran; Wan Xin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To define the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) and observe the side effect of escalating cisplatin with 5-fluorouracil in concurrent chemoradiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma in Chinese, with toxicity studied. Methods: Previously untreated fifteen Chinese patients suffering from esophageal carcinoma received conventional fractionation radiotherapy, with 5 daily fractions of 2.0 Gy per week. The total radiation dose was 60 Gy. Concurrent chemotherapy dose escalation was given by the relatively safe and kidney-sparing modified Fibonacci sequence. The starting dose was cisplatin 37.5 mg/m 2 D1 and 5-fluorouracil 500 mg/m 2 D1-5, respectively. This regimen was repeated 4 times every 28 days. Escalation dose was cisplatin 7.5 mg/m 2 and 5- fluorouracil 100 mg/m 2 . Every. cohort contained at least 3 patients. If no dose-limiting toxicity(DLT) was observed, the next dose level was opened for entry. These courses were repeated until DLT appeared. MTD was declared as one dose level below which DLT appeared. Results: DLT was defined as grade 3 radiation-induced esophagitis at the level of cisplatin 60 mg/m2, 5-fluorouracil 700 mg/m 2 . MTD was defined as cisplatin 52.5 mg/m 2 , 5- fiuorouracil 700 mg/m 2 . The major side effect were radiation-induced esophagitis, leucopenia, nausea, vomiting and anorexia. Conclusion: Maximun tolerated dose of cisplatin with 5-fiuorouracil in concurrent ehemoradiotherapy in the Chinese people with esophageal carcinoma were eisplatin 52.5 mg/m2 D1,5-fluorouracil 700 mg/m 2 D1-5, repeated 4 times every 28 days. (authors)

  17. Clinical Factors Associated With Dose Escalation of Solifenacin for the Treatment of Overactive Bladder in Real Life Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Youn Chun

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available PurposeTo determine the baseline clinical characteristics associated with dose escalation of solifenacin in patients with overactive bladder (OAB.MethodsWe analyzed the data of patients with OAB (micturition frequency ≥8/day and urgency ≥1/day who were treated with solifenacin and followed up for 24 weeks. According to our department protocol, all the patients kept voiding diaries, and OAB symptom scores (OABSS were monitored at baseline and after 4, 12, and 24 weeks of solifenacin treatment.ResultsIn total, 68 patients (mean age, 60.8±10.0 years were recruited. The dose escalation rate by the end of the study was 41.2%, from 23.5% at 4 weeks and 17.6% at 12 weeks. At baseline, the dose escalator group had significantly more OAB wet patients (53.6% vs. 20.0% and higher total OABSS (10.2±2.4 vs. 7.9±3.5, P=0.032 than the nonescalator group. OAB wet (odds ratio [OR], 4.615; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.578-13.499; P<0.05 and total OABSS (OR, 1.398; 95% CI, 1.046-1.869; P<0.05 were found to be independently associated with dose escalation.ConclusionsPatients who have urgency urinary incontinence and high total OABSS have a tendency for dose escalation of solifenacin.

  18. Can we avoid high levels of dose escalation for high-risk prostate cancer in the setting of androgen deprivation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakespeare TP

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Thomas P Shakespeare,1,2 Shea W Wilcox,1 Noel J Aherne1,2 1Department of Radiation Oncology, North Coast Cancer Institute, 2Rural Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Coffs Harbour, NSW, Australia Aim: Both dose-escalated external beam radiotherapy (DE-EBRT and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT improve outcomes in patients with high-risk prostate cancer. However, there is little evidence specifically evaluating DE-EBRT for patients with high-risk prostate cancer receiving ADT, particularly for EBRT doses >74 Gy. We aimed to determine whether DE-EBRT >74 Gy improves outcomes for patients with high-risk prostate cancer receiving long-term ADT. Patients and methods: Patients with high-risk prostate cancer were treated on an institutional protocol prescribing 3–6 months neoadjuvant ADT and DE-EBRT, followed by 2 years of adjuvant ADT. Between 2006 and 2012, EBRT doses were escalated from 74 Gy to 76 Gy and then to 78 Gy. We interrogated our electronic medical record to identify these patients and analyzed our results by comparing dose levels. Results: In all, 479 patients were treated with a 68-month median follow-up. The 5-year biochemical disease-free survivals for the 74 Gy, 76 Gy, and 78 Gy groups were 87.8%, 86.9%, and 91.6%, respectively. The metastasis-free survivals were 95.5%, 94.5%, and 93.9%, respectively, and the prostate cancer-specific survivals were 100%, 94.4%, and 98.1%, respectively. Dose escalation had no impact on any outcome in either univariate or multivariate analysis. Conclusion: There was no benefit of DE-EBRT >74 Gy in our cohort of high-risk prostate patients treated with long-term ADT. As dose escalation has higher risks of radiotherapy-induced toxicity, it may be feasible to omit dose escalation beyond 74 Gy in this group of patients. Randomized studies evaluating dose escalation for high-risk patients receiving ADT should be considered. Keywords: radiotherapy, IMRT, dose

  19. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Boost After Concurrent Chemoradiation for Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Phase 1 Dose Escalation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hepel, Jaroslaw T., E-mail: jhepel@lifespan.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts Medical Center, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Leonard, Kara Lynne [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts Medical Center, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Safran, Howard [Division of Medical Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Division of Medical Oncology, Miriam Hospital, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Ng, Thomas [Division of Thoracic Surgery, Rhode Island Hospital, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Taber, Angela [Division of Medical Oncology, Miriam Hospital, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Khurshid, Humera; Birnbaum, Ariel [Division of Medical Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Wazer, David E.; DiPetrillo, Thomas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts Medical Center, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) boost to primary and nodal disease after chemoradiation has potential to improve outcomes for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A dose escalation study was initiated to evaluate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Methods and Materials: Eligible patients received chemoradiation to a dose of 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions and had primary and nodal volumes appropriate for SBRT boost (<120 cc and <60 cc, respectively). SBRT was delivered in 2 fractions after chemoradiation. Dose was escalated from 16 to 28 Gy in 2 Gy/fraction increments, resulting in 4 dose cohorts. MTD was defined when ≥2 of 6 patients per cohort experienced any treatment-related grade 3 to 5 toxicity within 4 weeks of treatment or the maximum dose was reached. Late toxicity, disease control, and survival were also evaluated. Results: Twelve patients (3 per dose level) underwent treatment. All treatment plans met predetermined dose-volume constraints. The mean age was 64 years. Most patients had stage III disease (92%) and were medically inoperable (92%). The maximum dose level was reached with no grade 3 to 5 acute toxicities. At a median follow-up time of 16 months, 1-year local-regional control (LRC) was 78%. LRC was 50% at <24 Gy and 100% at ≥24 Gy (P=.02). Overall survival at 1 year was 67%. Late toxicity (grade 3-5) was seen in only 1 patient who experienced fatal bronchopulmonary hemorrhage (grade 5). There were no predetermined dose constraints for the proximal bronchial-vascular tree (PBV) in this study. This patient's 4-cc PBV dose was substantially higher than that received by other patients in all 4 cohorts and was associated with the toxicity observed: 20.3 Gy (P<.05) and 73.5 Gy (P=.07) for SBRT boost and total treatment, respectively. Conclusions: SBRT boost to both primary and nodal disease after chemoradiation is feasible and well tolerated. Local control rates are encouraging, especially at doses ≥24

  20. Dose escalation without split-course chemoradiation for anal cancer: results of a phase II RTOG study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, Madhu; Pajak, Thomas; Kreig, Richard; Pinover, Wayne H.; Myerson, Robert

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: An attempt at radiotherapy (RT) dose escalation (from 45 Gy to 59.6 Gy) in a Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) chemoradiation protocol for advanced anal cancers had resulted in an unexpectedly high 1-year colostomy rate (23%) and local failure (The Cancer Journal from Scientific American 2 (4):205-211, 1996). This was felt to be probably secondary to the split course chemoradiation (CR) that was mandated in the protocol. A second phase of this dose escalation study was therefore undertaken without a mandatory split and with an identical RT dose (59.6 Gy) and chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients with anal cancers ≥2 cms were treated with a concurrent combination of 59.6 Gy to the pelvis and perineum (1.8 Gy daily, 5 times per week in 33 fractions over 6 (1(2)) weeks) and two cycles of 5 fluorouracil infusion (1000 mg/m 2 over 24 hours for 4 days) and mitomycin C (10 mg/m 2 bolus). A 10 day rest period was allowed only for severe skin reactions. A comparative analysis was made with the 47 patients in the earlier phase of this study who were treated with the identical chemoradiation course but with a mandatory 2-week break at the 36.00 Gy level. RESULTS: Predominant Grade 3 and 4 toxicities in 18 evaluable patients with dermatitis ((14(18)) or 78%), hematologic ((14(18)) or 78%), infection ((3(18)) or 17%) and gastrointestinal ((5(18)) or 28%). There were no fatalities. Nine patients (50%) completed the planned course without a break; 9 others (50%) had their treatments interrupted for a median of 11 days (range 7-19 days) at a median dose of 41.4 Gy (range 32.4 to 48.6 Gy). This compared to (40(47)) patients (85%) who had a 12 day treatment interruption at 36 Gy total dose in a planned break group. One patient had an abdomino-perineal resection (APR) for persistent disease and another for an anal fissure for (2(18)) or 11% 1-year colostomy rate. This was again favorably comparable to 23% 1-year colostomy rate for the earlier group of

  1. Studying the efficacy of escalated dose conformal radiation therapy in prostate carcinoma – Pakistan experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Zamir

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: Our data were comparable to international studies of dose escalation using 3D and beneficial as compared to conventional radiation therapy delivered by 2D in terms of biochemical failure rate and treatment related toxicity.

  2. Preliminary Results of a Phase 1 Dose-Escalation Trial for Early-Stage Breast Cancer Using 5-Fraction Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Partial-Breast Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimi, Asal; Thomas, Kimberly; Spangler, Ann; Rao, Roshni; Leitch, Marilyn; Wooldridge, Rachel; Rivers, Aeisha; Seiler, Stephen; Albuquerque, Kevin; Stevenson, Stella; Goudreau, Sally; Garwood, Dan; Haley, Barbara; Euhus, David; Heinzerling, John; Ding, Chuxiong; Gao, Ang; Ahn, Chul; Timmerman, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the tolerability of a dose-escalated 5-fraction stereotactic body radiation therapy for partial-breast irradiation (S-PBI) in treating early-stage breast cancer after partial mastectomy; the primary objective was to escalate dose utilizing a robotic stereotactic radiation system treating the lumpectomy cavity without exceeding the maximum tolerated dose. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients included those with ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive nonlobular epithelial histologies and stage 0, I, or II, with tumor size <3 cm. Patients and physicians completed baseline and subsequent cosmesis outcome questionnaires. Starting dose was 30 Gy in 5 fractions and was escalated by 2.5 Gy total for each cohort to 40 Gy. Results: In all, 75 patients were enrolled, with a median age of 62 years. Median follow-up for 5 cohorts was 49.9, 42.5, 25.7, 20.3, and 13.5 months, respectively. Only 3 grade 3 toxicities were experienced. There was 1 dose-limiting toxicity in the overall cohort. Ten patients experienced palpable fat necrosis (4 of which were symptomatic). Physicians scored cosmesis as excellent or good in 95.9%, 100%, 96.7%, and 100% at baseline and 6, 12, and 24 months after S-PBI, whereas patients scored the same periods as 86.5%, 97.1%, 95.1%, and 95.3%, respectively. The disagreement rates between MDs and patients during those periods were 9.4%, 2.9%, 1.6%, and 4.7%, respectively. There have been no recurrences or distant metastases. Conclusion: Dose was escalated to the target dose of 40 Gy in 5 fractions, with the occurrence of only 1 dose-limiting toxicity. Patients felt cosmetic results improved within the first year after surgery and stereotactic body radiation therapy. Our results show minimal toxicity with excellent cosmesis; however, further follow-up is warranted in future studies. This study is the first to show the safety, tolerability, feasibility, and cosmesis results of a 5-fraction dose-escalated S-PBI treatment for

  3. Preliminary Results of a Phase 1 Dose-Escalation Trial for Early-Stage Breast Cancer Using 5-Fraction Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Partial-Breast Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimi, Asal, E-mail: asal.rahimi@utsouthwestern.edu [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Thomas, Kimberly; Spangler, Ann [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Rao, Roshni; Leitch, Marilyn; Wooldridge, Rachel; Rivers, Aeisha [Department of Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Seiler, Stephen [Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Albuquerque, Kevin; Stevenson, Stella [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Goudreau, Sally [Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Garwood, Dan [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Haley, Barbara [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Euhus, David [Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Heinzerling, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, Levine Cancer Institute, Charlotte, North Carolina (United States); Ding, Chuxiong [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Gao, Ang; Ahn, Chul [Department of Statistics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Timmerman, Robert [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the tolerability of a dose-escalated 5-fraction stereotactic body radiation therapy for partial-breast irradiation (S-PBI) in treating early-stage breast cancer after partial mastectomy; the primary objective was to escalate dose utilizing a robotic stereotactic radiation system treating the lumpectomy cavity without exceeding the maximum tolerated dose. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients included those with ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive nonlobular epithelial histologies and stage 0, I, or II, with tumor size <3 cm. Patients and physicians completed baseline and subsequent cosmesis outcome questionnaires. Starting dose was 30 Gy in 5 fractions and was escalated by 2.5 Gy total for each cohort to 40 Gy. Results: In all, 75 patients were enrolled, with a median age of 62 years. Median follow-up for 5 cohorts was 49.9, 42.5, 25.7, 20.3, and 13.5 months, respectively. Only 3 grade 3 toxicities were experienced. There was 1 dose-limiting toxicity in the overall cohort. Ten patients experienced palpable fat necrosis (4 of which were symptomatic). Physicians scored cosmesis as excellent or good in 95.9%, 100%, 96.7%, and 100% at baseline and 6, 12, and 24 months after S-PBI, whereas patients scored the same periods as 86.5%, 97.1%, 95.1%, and 95.3%, respectively. The disagreement rates between MDs and patients during those periods were 9.4%, 2.9%, 1.6%, and 4.7%, respectively. There have been no recurrences or distant metastases. Conclusion: Dose was escalated to the target dose of 40 Gy in 5 fractions, with the occurrence of only 1 dose-limiting toxicity. Patients felt cosmetic results improved within the first year after surgery and stereotactic body radiation therapy. Our results show minimal toxicity with excellent cosmesis; however, further follow-up is warranted in future studies. This study is the first to show the safety, tolerability, feasibility, and cosmesis results of a 5-fraction dose-escalated S-PBI treatment for

  4. Clinical Outcomes With Dose-Escalated Adaptive Radiation Therapy for Urinary Bladder Cancer: A Prospective Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, Vedang, E-mail: vmurthy@actrec.gov.in [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Centre, Parel, Mumbai (India); Masodkar, Renuka; Kalyani, Nikhil; Mahantshetty, Umesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Centre, Parel, Mumbai (India); Bakshi, Ganesh; Prakash, Gagan [Department of Surgical Oncology, Tata Memorial Centre, Parel, Mumbai (India); Joshi, Amit; Prabhash, Kumar [Department of Medical Oncology, Tata Memorial Centre, Parel, Mumbai (India); Ghonge, Sujata; Shrivastava, Shyamkishore [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Centre, Parel, Mumbai (India)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess feasibility, clinical outcomes, and toxicity in patients with bladder cancer treated with adaptive, image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) for bladder preservation as a part of trimodality treatment. The role of dose escalation was also studied. Methods and Materials: Forty-four patients with localized bladder cancer were enrolled in a prospective study. They underwent maximal safe resection of bladder tumor and concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy. Patients with large tumors were offered induction chemotherapy. Radiation therapy planning was done using either 3 (n=34) or 6 (n=10) concentrically grown planning target volumes (PTV). Patients received 64 Gy in 32 fractions to the whole bladder and 55 Gy to the pelvic nodes and, if appropriate, a simultaneous integrated boost to the tumor bed to 68 Gy (equivalent dose for 2-Gy fractions assuming α/β of 10 [EQD2]{sub 10} = 68.7 Gy). Daily megavoltage (MV) imaging helped to choose the most appropriate PTV encompassing bladder for the particular day (using plan-of-the-day approach). Results: Most patients (88%) had T2 disease. Sixteen patients (36%) received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. A majority of the patients (73%) received prophylactic nodal irradiation, whereas 55% of the patients received escalated dose to the tumor bed. With a median follow-up of 30 months, the 3-year locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival, and overall survival (OS) were 78%, 66%, and 67%, respectively. The bladder preservation rate was 83%. LRC (87% vs 68%, respectively, P=.748) and OS (74% vs 60%, respectively, P=.36) rates were better in patients receiving dose escalation. Instances of acute and late Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade 3 genitourinary toxicity was seen in 5 (11%) and 2 (4%) patients, respectively. There was no acute or late RTOG grade 3 or higher gastrointestinal toxicity. Conclusions: Adaptive IGRT using plan-of-the-day approach for bladder

  5. Clinical Outcomes With Dose-Escalated Adaptive Radiation Therapy for Urinary Bladder Cancer: A Prospective Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, Vedang; Masodkar, Renuka; Kalyani, Nikhil; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Bakshi, Ganesh; Prakash, Gagan; Joshi, Amit; Prabhash, Kumar; Ghonge, Sujata; Shrivastava, Shyamkishore

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess feasibility, clinical outcomes, and toxicity in patients with bladder cancer treated with adaptive, image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) for bladder preservation as a part of trimodality treatment. The role of dose escalation was also studied. Methods and Materials: Forty-four patients with localized bladder cancer were enrolled in a prospective study. They underwent maximal safe resection of bladder tumor and concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy. Patients with large tumors were offered induction chemotherapy. Radiation therapy planning was done using either 3 (n=34) or 6 (n=10) concentrically grown planning target volumes (PTV). Patients received 64 Gy in 32 fractions to the whole bladder and 55 Gy to the pelvic nodes and, if appropriate, a simultaneous integrated boost to the tumor bed to 68 Gy (equivalent dose for 2-Gy fractions assuming α/β of 10 [EQD2] 10  = 68.7 Gy). Daily megavoltage (MV) imaging helped to choose the most appropriate PTV encompassing bladder for the particular day (using plan-of-the-day approach). Results: Most patients (88%) had T2 disease. Sixteen patients (36%) received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. A majority of the patients (73%) received prophylactic nodal irradiation, whereas 55% of the patients received escalated dose to the tumor bed. With a median follow-up of 30 months, the 3-year locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival, and overall survival (OS) were 78%, 66%, and 67%, respectively. The bladder preservation rate was 83%. LRC (87% vs 68%, respectively, P=.748) and OS (74% vs 60%, respectively, P=.36) rates were better in patients receiving dose escalation. Instances of acute and late Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade 3 genitourinary toxicity was seen in 5 (11%) and 2 (4%) patients, respectively. There was no acute or late RTOG grade 3 or higher gastrointestinal toxicity. Conclusions: Adaptive IGRT using plan-of-the-day approach for bladder preservation

  6. ZD0473 pharmacokinetics in Japanese patients: a Phase I dose-escalation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, H; Tamura, T; Yamada, Y; Yamamoto, N; Ueda, Y; Shimoyama, T; Saijo, N

    2002-12-01

    ZD0473 is new platinum agent that was rationally designed to circumvent platinum resistance and reduce the potential for nephro-and neurotoxicity. This Phase I dose-escalating study investigated the pharmacokinetics, tolerability and efficacy of ZD0473 in Japanese patients with solid, refractory tumours. ZD0473 was administered as a 1-h intravenous infusion every 3 weeks. Nine patients received a total of 16 cycles of ZD0473 (median 1 cycle/patient), with 3 patients treated at each of 3 doses (60, 90, 120 mg/m2). The maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and the area under the concentration-time curve to infinity (AUC(0-infinity)) increased with dose in a linear fashion for both total platinum and ZD0473 in plasma ultrafiltrate, suggesting that the pharmacokinetics of ZD0473 are linear. Haematological and non-haematological toxicities such as nausea and vomiting were mild (grade 1 or 2) and transient. No clinically significant nephro-, oto- or neurotoxicity was observed. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was not observed and the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was not identified. ZD0473 treatment showed evidence of disease stabilisation in 3 patients (33%). In conclusion, ZD0473 appears to have linear pharmacokinetics, and an acceptable tolerability profile at doses up to 120 mg/m2 in Japanese patients with refractory solid malignancies. Following evaluation of the data from all the Western trials, the ZD0473 development programme changed and this Japanese trial was stopped.

  7. Inhomogeneous dose escalation increases expected local control for NSCLC patients with lymph node involvement without increased mean lung dose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tine B; Hansen, Olfred; Schytte, Tine

    2014-01-01

    in mediastinum, and the thorax wall. The dose was escalated using a TCP model implemented into the planning system. The difference in TCP values between the homogeneous and inhomogeneous plans were evaluated using two different TCP models. RESULTS: Dose escalation was possible for all patients. TCP values based...... to the mediastinum were observed: 2.5 Gy for aorta, 4.4 Gy for the connective tissue, 1.6 Gy for the heart, and 2.6 Gy for trachea + bronchi. CONCLUSION: Increased target doses and TCP values using inhomogeneous dose distributions could be achieved for all patients, regardless of lymph node involvement, tumour stage...

  8. Tomotherapy PET-guided dose escalation. A dosimetric feasibility study for patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maggio, Angelo; Cutaia, Claudia; Di Dia, Amalia; Bresciani, Sara; Miranti, Anna; Poli, Matteo; Stasi, Michele [Candiolo Cancer Institute - FPO, IRCCS, Medical Physics, Turin (Italy); Del Mastro, Elena; Garibaldi, Elisabetta; Gabriele, Pietro [Candiolo Cancer Institute - FPO, IRCCS, Radiotherapy Department, Turin (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a safe escalation of the dose to the pleural cavity and PET/CT-positive areas in patients with unresectable malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is possible using helical tomotherapy (HT). We selected 12 patients with MPM. Three planning strategies were investigated. In the first strategy (standard treatment), treated comprised a prescribed median dose to the planning target volume (PTV) boost (PTV{sub 1}) of 64.5 Gy (range: 56 Gy/28 fractions to 66 Gy/30 fractions) and 51 Gy (range: 50.4 Gy/28 fractions to 54 Gy/30 fractions) to the pleura PTV (PTV{sub 2}). Thereafter, for each patient, two dose escalation plans were generated prescribing 62.5 and 70 Gy (2.5 and 2.8 Gy/fraction, respectively) to the PTV{sub 1} and 56 Gy (2.24 Gy/fraction) to the PTV{sub 2}, in 25 fractions. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) constraints and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) calculations were used to evaluate the differences between the plans. For all plans, the 95 % PTVs received at least 95 % of the prescribed dose. For all patients, it was possible to perform the dose escalation in accordance with the Quantitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (QUANTEC) constraints for organs at risk (OARs). The average contralateral lung dose was < 8 Gy. NTCP values for OARs did not increase significantly compared with the standard treatment (p > 0.05), except for the ipsilateral lung. For all plans, the lung volume ratio was strongly correlated with the V{sub 20}, V{sub 30}, and V{sub 40} DVHs of the lung (p < 0.0003) and with the lung mean dose (p < 0.0001). The results of this study suggest that by using HT it is possible to safely escalate the dose delivery to at least 62.5 Gy in PET-positive areas while treating the pleural cavity to 56 Gy in 25 fractions without significantly increasing the dose to the surrounding normal organs. (orig.) [German] Ziel war es, zu untersuchen, ob mit der helikalen Tomotherapie (HT) eine

  9. Reply to: Mounting evidence indicates that escalating doses of allopurinol are unnecessary for cardiovascular protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, Brian W; Michaud, Kaleb; Bergman, Debra A; Mikuls, Ted R

    2018-05-08

    We thank Dr. Bredemeier for his comments regarding our manuscript on allopurinol dose escalation and mortality. He raises important evidence to consider in support of an interesting hypothesis that dose escalation may be unnecessary for allopurinol's cardiovascular (CV) protection and may actually be related to adverse CV outcomes. While we agree that evidence exists suggesting that low doses of allopurinol may be sufficient for CV protection, we believe that the studies cited highlight a number of areas where knowledge gaps remain which preclude any definitive conclusions about the effect of dose escalation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Oral sodium phenylbutyrate in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas: A dose escalation and pharmacologic study1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuphanich, Surasak; Baker, Sharyn D.; Grossman, Stuart A.; Carson, Kathryn A.; Gilbert, Mark R.; Fisher, Joy D.; Carducci, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    We determined the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), toxicity profile, pharmacokinetic parameters, and preliminary efficacy data of oral sodium phenylbutyrate (PB) in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas. Twenty-three patients with supratentorial recurrent malignant gliomas were enrolled on this dose escalation trial. Four dose levels of PB were studied: 9, 18, 27, and 36 g/day. Data were collected to assess toxicity, response, survival, and pharmacokinetics. All PB doses of 9, 18, and 27 g/day were well tolerated. At 36 g/day, two of four patients developed dose-limiting grade 3 fatigue and somnolence. At the MTD of 27 g/day, one of seven patients developed reversible grade 3 somnolence. Median survival from time of study entry was 5.4 months. One patient had a complete response for five years, and no partial responses were noted, which yielded an overall response rate of 5%. Plasma concentrations of 706, 818, 1225, and 1605 μM were achieved with doses of 9, 18, 27, and 36 g/day, respectively. The mean value for PB clearance in this patient population was 22 liters/h, which is significantly higher than the 16 liters/h reported in patients with other malignancies who were not receiving P450 enzyme–inducing anticonvulsant drugs (P = 0.038). This study defines the MTD and recommended phase 2 dose of PB at 27 g/day for heavily pretreated patients with recurrent gliomas. The pharmacology of PB appears to be affected by concomitant administration of P450-inducing anticonvulsants. PMID:15831235

  11. Can we avoid dose escalation for intermediate-risk prostate cancer in the setting of short-course neoadjuvant androgen deprivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, Thomas P; Wilcox, Shea W; Aherne, Noel J

    2016-01-01

    Both dose-escalated external beam radiotherapy (DE-EBRT) and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) improve the outcomes in patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Despite this, there are only few reports evaluating DE-EBRT for patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer receiving neoadjuvant ADT, and virtually no studies investigating dose escalation >74 Gy in this setting. We aimed to determine whether DE-EBRT >74 Gy improved the outcomes for patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer who received neoadjuvant ADT. In our institution, patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer were treated with neoadjuvant ADT and DE-EBRT, with doses sequentially increasing from 74 Gy to 76 Gy and then to 78 Gy between 2006 and 2012. We identified 435 patients treated with DE-EBRT and ADT, with a median follow-up of 70 months. For the 74 Gy, 76 Gy, and 78 Gy groups, five-year biochemical disease-free survival rates were 95.0%, 97.8%, and 95.3%, respectively; metastasis-free survival rates were 99.1%, 100.0%, and 98.6%, respectively; and prostate cancer-specific survival rate was 100% for all three dose levels. There was no significant benefit for dose escalation either on univariate or multivariate analysis for any outcome. There was no benefit for DE-EBRT >74 Gy in our cohort of intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant ADT. Given the higher risks of toxicity associated with dose escalation, it may be feasible to omit dose escalation in this group of patients. Randomized studies evaluating dose de-escalation should be considered.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of Escalating Doses of Oral Psilocybin in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Randall T; Nicholas, Christopher R; Cozzi, Nicholas V; Gassman, Michele C; Cooper, Karen M; Muller, Daniel; Thomas, Chantelle D; Hetzel, Scott J; Henriquez, Kelsey M; Ribaudo, Alexandra S; Hutson, Paul R

    2017-12-01

    Psilocybin is a psychedelic tryptamine that has shown promise in recent clinical trials for the treatment of depression and substance use disorders. This open-label study of the pharmacokinetics of psilocybin was performed to describe the pharmacokinetics and safety profile of psilocybin in sequential, escalating oral doses of 0.3, 0.45, and 0.6 mg/kg in 12 healthy adults. Eligible healthy adults received 6-8 h of preparatory counseling in anticipation of the first dose of psilocybin. The escalating oral psilocybin doses were administered at approximately monthly intervals in a controlled setting and subjects were monitored for 24 h. Blood and urine samples were collected over 24 h and assayed by a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay for psilocybin and psilocin, the active metabolite. The pharmacokinetics of psilocin were determined using both compartmental (NONMEM) and noncompartmental (WinNonlin) methods. No psilocybin was found in plasma or urine, and renal clearance of intact psilocin accounted for less than 2% of the total clearance. The pharmacokinetics of psilocin were linear within the twofold range of doses, and the elimination half-life of psilocin was 3 h (standard deviation 1.1). An extended elimination phase in some subjects suggests hydrolysis of the psilocin glucuronide metabolite. Variation in psilocin clearance was not predicted by body weight, and no serious adverse events occurred in the subjects studied. The small amount of psilocin renally excreted suggests that no dose reduction is needed for subjects with mild-moderate renal impairment. Simulation of fixed doses using the pharmacokinetic parameters suggest that an oral dose of 25 mg should approximate the drug exposure of a 0.3 mg/kg oral dose of psilocybin. Although doses of 0.6 mg/kg are in excess of likely therapeutic doses, no serious physical or psychological events occurred during or within 30 days of any dose. NCT02163707.

  13. Image-guided adaptive radiation therapy (IGART): Radiobiological and dose escalation considerations for localized carcinoma of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, William; Schaly, Bryan; Bauman, Glenn; Battista, Jerry; Van Dyk, Jake

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of various image-guided adaptive radiation therapy (IGART) techniques to deliver and escalate dose to the prostate in the presence of geometric uncertainties. Five prostate patients with 15-16 treatment CT studies each were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were planned with an 18 MV, six-field conformal technique with a 10 mm margin size and an initial prescription of 70 Gy in 35 fractions. The adaptive strategy employed in this work for patient-specific dose escalation was to increase the prescription dose in 2 Gy-per-fraction increments until the rectum normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) reached a level equal to that of the nominal plan NTCP (i.e., iso-NTCP dose escalation). The various target localization techniques simulated were: (1) daily laser-guided alignment to skin tattoo marks that represents treatment without image-guidance, (2) alignment to bony landmarks with daily portal images, and (3) alignment to the clinical target volume (CTV) with daily CT images. Techniques (1) and (3) were resimulated with a reduced margin size of 5 mm to investigate further dose escalation. When delivering the original clinical prescription dose of 70 Gy in 35 fractions, the 'CTV registration' technique yielded the highest tumor control probability (TCP) most frequently, followed by the 'bone registration' and 'tattoo registration' techniques. However, the differences in TCP among the three techniques were minor when the margin size was 10 mm (≤1.1%). Reducing the margin size to 5 mm significantly degraded the TCP values of the 'tattoo registration' technique in two of the five patients, where a large difference was found compared to the other techniques (≤11.8%). The 'CTV registration' technique, however, did maintain similar TCP values compared to their 10 mm margin counterpart. In terms of normal tissue sparing, the technique producing the lowest NTCP varied from patient to patient. Reducing the

  14. Integrated boost IMRT with FET-PET-adapted local dose escalation in glioblastomas. Results of a prospective phase II study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piroth, M.D.; Pinkawa, M.; Holy, R.; Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH

    2012-01-01

    Dose escalations above 60 Gy based on MRI have not led to prognostic benefits in glioblastoma patients yet. With positron emission tomography (PET) using [ 18 F]fluorethyl-L-tyrosine (FET), tumor coverage can be optimized with the option of regional dose escalation in the area of viable tumor tissue. In a prospective phase II study (January 2008 to December 2009), 22 patients (median age 55 years) received radiochemotherapy after surgery. The radiotherapy was performed as an MRI and FET-PET-based integrated-boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The prescribed dose was 72 and 60 Gy (single dose 2.4 and 2.0 Gy, respectively) for the FET-PET- and MR-based PTV-FET (72 Gy) and PTV-MR (60 Gy) . FET-PET and MRI were performed routinely for follow-up. Quality of life and cognitive aspects were recorded by the EORTC-QLQ-C30/QLQ Brain20 and Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), while the therapy-related toxicity was recorded using the CTC3.0 and RTOG scores. Median overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were 14.8 and 7.8 months, respectively. All local relapses were detected at least partly within the 95% dose volume of PTV-MR (60 Gy) . No relevant radiotherapy-related side effects were observed (excepted alopecia). In 2 patients, a pseudoprogression was observed in the MRI. Tumor progression could be excluded by FET-PET and was confirmed in further MRI and FET-PET imaging. No significant changes were observed in MMSE scores and in the EORTC QLQ-C30/QLQ-Brain20 questionnaires. Our dose escalation concept with a total dose of 72 Gy, based on FET-PET, did not lead to a survival benefit. Acute and late toxicity were not increased, compared with historical controls and published dose-escalation studies. (orig.)

  15. Integrated boost IMRT with FET-PET-adapted local dose escalation in glioblastomas. Results of a prospective phase II study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piroth, M.D.; Pinkawa, M.; Holy, R. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (DE). Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA) - Section JARA-Brain] (and others)

    2012-04-15

    Dose escalations above 60 Gy based on MRI have not led to prognostic benefits in glioblastoma patients yet. With positron emission tomography (PET) using [{sup 18}F]fluorethyl-L-tyrosine (FET), tumor coverage can be optimized with the option of regional dose escalation in the area of viable tumor tissue. In a prospective phase II study (January 2008 to December 2009), 22 patients (median age 55 years) received radiochemotherapy after surgery. The radiotherapy was performed as an MRI and FET-PET-based integrated-boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The prescribed dose was 72 and 60 Gy (single dose 2.4 and 2.0 Gy, respectively) for the FET-PET- and MR-based PTV-FET{sub (72 Gy)} and PTV-MR{sub (60 Gy)}. FET-PET and MRI were performed routinely for follow-up. Quality of life and cognitive aspects were recorded by the EORTC-QLQ-C30/QLQ Brain20 and Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), while the therapy-related toxicity was recorded using the CTC3.0 and RTOG scores. Median overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were 14.8 and 7.8 months, respectively. All local relapses were detected at least partly within the 95% dose volume of PTV-MR{sub (60 Gy)}. No relevant radiotherapy-related side effects were observed (excepted alopecia). In 2 patients, a pseudoprogression was observed in the MRI. Tumor progression could be excluded by FET-PET and was confirmed in further MRI and FET-PET imaging. No significant changes were observed in MMSE scores and in the EORTC QLQ-C30/QLQ-Brain20 questionnaires. Our dose escalation concept with a total dose of 72 Gy, based on FET-PET, did not lead to a survival benefit. Acute and late toxicity were not increased, compared with historical controls and published dose-escalation studies. (orig.)

  16. Dose-Escalation Study for Cardiac Radiosurgery in a Porcine Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanck, Oliver, E-mail: oliver.blanck@uksh.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Luebeck and University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck (Germany); CyberKnife Center Northern Germany, Guestrow (Germany); Bode, Frank [Medical Department II, University of Luebeck and University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck (Germany); Gebhard, Maximilian [Institute of Pathology, University of Luebeck and University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck (Germany); Hunold, Peter [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Luebeck and University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck (Germany); Brandt, Sebastian [Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University of Luebeck and University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck (Germany); Bruder, Ralf [Institute for Robotics and Cognitive Systems, University of Luebeck and University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck (Germany); Grossherr, Martin [Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University of Luebeck and University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck (Germany); Vonthein, Reinhard [Institute of Medical Biometry and Statistics, University of Luebeck and University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck (Germany); Rades, Dirk [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Luebeck and University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck (Germany); Dunst, Juergen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Luebeck and University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck (Germany); University Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To perform a proof-of-principle dose-escalation study to radiosurgically induce scarring in cardiac muscle tissue to block veno-atrial electrical connections at the pulmonary vein antrum, similar to catheter ablation. Methods and Materials: Nine mini-pigs underwent pretreatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation of heart function and electrophysiology assessment by catheter measurements in the right superior pulmonary vein (RSPV). Immediately after examination, radiosurgery with randomized single-fraction doses of 0 and 17.5-35 Gy in 2.5-Gy steps were delivered to the RSPV antrum (target volume 5-8 cm{sup 3}). MRI and electrophysiology were repeated 6 months after therapy, followed by histopathologic examination. Results: Transmural scarring of cardiac muscle tissue was noted with doses ≥32.5 Gy. However, complete circumferential scarring of the RSPV was not achieved. Logistic regressions showed that extent and intensity of fibrosis significantly increased with dose. The 50% effective dose for intense fibrosis was 31.3 Gy (odds ratio 2.47/Gy, P<.01). Heart function was not affected, as verified by MRI and electrocardiogram evaluation. Adjacent critical structures were not damaged, as verified by pathology, demonstrating the short-term safety of small-volume cardiac radiosurgery with doses up to 35 Gy. Conclusions: Radiosurgery with doses >32.5 Gy in the healthy pig heart can induce circumscribed scars at the RSPV antrum noninvasively, mimicking the effect of catheter ablation. In our study we established a significant dose-response relationship for cardiac radiosurgery. The long-term effects and toxicity of such high radiation doses need further investigation in the pursuit of cardiac radiosurgery for noninvasive treatment of atrial fibrillation.

  17. A phase I study of dose-escalated chemoradiation with accelerated intensity modulated radiotherapy in locally advanced head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero Urbano, Teresa; Clark, Catharine H.; Hansen, Vibeke N.; Adams, Elizabeth J.; A'Hern, Roger; Miles, Elizabeth A.; McNair, Helen; Bidmead, Margaret; Warrington, Alan P.; Dearnaley, David P.; Harrington, Kevin J.; Nutting, Christopher M.

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) allows the delivery of higher and more homogeneous radiation dose to head and neck tumours. This study aims to determine the safety of dose-escalated chemo-IMRT for larynx preservation in locally advanced head and neck cancer. Methods: Patients with T2-4, N1-3, M0 squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx or hypopharynx were treated with a simultaneous-boost IMRT. Two radiation dose levels (DL) were tested: In DL 1, 63 Gy/28F was delivered to primary tumour and involved nodes and 51.8 Gy/28F to elective nodes. In DL 2, the doses were 67.2 Gy/28F and 56 Gy/28F, respectively, representing a 9% dose escalation for the primary. All patients received 2 cycles of neoadjuvant cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil, and concomitant cisplatin. Acute (NCICTCv.2.0) and late toxicity (RTOG and modified LENTSOM) were collected. Results: Thirty patients were entered, 15 in each dose level. All patients completed the treatment schedule. In DL 1, the incidences of acute G3 toxicities were 27% (pain), 20% (radiation dermatitis), 0% (xerostomia) and 67% required gastrostomy tubes. For DL 2 the corresponding incidences were 40%, 20%, 7%, and 87%. G3 dysphagia and pain persisted longer in DL 2. With regard to mucositis, a prolonged healing time for DL 2 was found, with prevalence of G2 of 58% in week 10. No acute grade 4 toxicity was observed. At 6 months, 1 patient in DL 2 had G3 late toxicity (dysphagia). No dose limiting toxicity was found. Complete response rates were 80% in DL 1, and 87% in DL 2. Conclusion: Moderately accelerated chemo-IMRT is safe and feasible with good compliance and acceptable acute toxicity. Dose escalation was possible without a significant difference in acute toxicity. Longer follow-up is required to determine the incidence of late radiation toxicities, and tumour control rates

  18. A dose escalation study of concurrent chemoradiation therapy with nedaplatin for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatae, Masayuki; Takahashi, Takeshi; Kodama, Shoji

    2005-01-01

    Doses of nedaplatin (CDGP) were established for concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) for cervical cancer, and a collaborative dose escalation study involving 8 hospitals was conducted to investigate the safety and efficacy of this therapy. Radiotherapy was performed according to the standard treatment described in the Regulations of Cervical Carcinoma Treatment. CDGP at 80 mg/m 2 as Level 1 or at 90 mg/m 2 as Level 2 was administered on Days 1 and 29 of treatment. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was observed in 1 of 6 patients receiving 80 mg/m 2 of CDGP and in all 2 patients receiving 90 mg/m 2 of CDGP; therefore, Level 2 was regarded as the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), and Level 1 as the recommended dose. DLT signs consisted of delayed improvement in the leukocyte count in 2 patients and anorexia in 1 patient, suggesting that delayed improvement in the leukocyte count is the main DLT of this combination therapy. The main side effects were digestive disorders such as nausea and anorexia and bone marrow suppression, such as leukopenia, neutropenia, and thrombopenia. Side effects in the Level 1 group were more mild than in the Level 2 group. The efficacy was partial response (PR) or better in all patients. The complete response (CR) rates were 60% (6/10) in the Level 1 group and 50% (1/2) in the Level 2 group; there was no marked difference between the two groups. These results suggest that CCRT involving administration CDGP at 80 mg/m 2 on Days 1 and 29 is safe and effective. (author)

  19. A 12-week dose-escalating study of etelcalcetide (ONO-5163/AMG 416), a novel intravenous calcimimetic, for secondary hyperparathyroidism in Japanese hemodialysis patients
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Keitaro; Fukagawa, Masafumi; Shigematsu, Takashi; Akiba, Takashi; Fujii, Akifumi; Odani, Motoi; Akizawa, Tadao

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate dose-escalation of etelcalcetide (ONO-5163/AMG 416), a novel, intravenous (IV), long-acting calcium-sensing receptor agonist, for treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in Japanese hemodialysis patients. In this multicenter study, IV injections of etelcalcetide (3 times a week for 12 weeks) were administered, with dose escalation every 4 weeks depending on changes in serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and corrected calcium (cCa). A total of 24 patients participated in this study. Serum iPTH was reduced in a time- and dose-dependent manner, with reductions (in pg/mL) at 12 weeks of -226.1 ± 125.3, -362.5 ± 161.5, and -412.4 ± 130.2, respectively, for maximum doses of 5, 10, and 15 mg. At the end of the treatment, 50% of patients had serum iPTH levels within the target range (60 - 240 pg/mL). Serum cCa and phosphorus were reduced in parallel with iPTH. Adverse events (AEs) occurred in 20 patients (83.3%). The most frequently observed AEs (> 10%) were either mild or moderate nasopharyngitis (29.2%), decreased serum calcium (16.7%), and vomiting (12.5%). Dose-escalated triweekly etelcalcetide was effective for SHPT in Japanese hemodialysis patients and was satisfactorily tolerated.
.

  20. SU-C-BRB-02: Automatic Planning as a Potential Strategy for Dose Escalation for Pancreas SBRT?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S; Zheng, D; Ma, R; Lin, C; Zhu, X; Lei, Y; Enke, C; Zhou, S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has been suggested to provide high rates of local control for locally advanced pancreatic cancer. However, the close proximity of highly radiosensitive normal tissues usually causes the labor-intensive planning process, and may impede further escalation of the prescription dose. The present study evaluates the potential of an automatic planning system as a dose escalation strategy. Methods: Ten pancreatic cancer patients treated with SBRT were studied retrospectively. SBRT was delivered over 5 consecutive fractions with 6 ∼ 8Gy/fraction. Two plans were generated by Pinnacle Auto-Planning with the original prescription and escalated prescription, respectively. Escalated prescription adds 1 Gy/fraction to the original prescription. Manually-created planning volumes were excluded in the optimization goals in order to assess the planning efficiency and quality simultaneously. Critical organs with closest proximity were used to determine the plan normalization to ensure the OAR sparing. Dosimetric parameters including D100, and conformity index (CI) were assessed. Results: Auto-plans directly generate acceptable plans for 70% of the cases without necessity of further improvement, and two more iterations at most are necessary for the rest of the cases. For the pancreas SBRT plans with the original prescription, autoplans resulted in favorable target coverage and PTV conformity (D100 = 96.3% ± 1.48%; CI = 0.88 ± 0.06). For the plans with the escalated prescriptions, no significant target under-dosage was observed, and PTV conformity remains reasonable (D100 = 93.3% ± 3.8%, and CI = 0.84 ± 0.05). Conclusion: Automatic planning, without substantial human-intervention process, results in reasonable PTV coverage and PTV conformity on the premise of adequate OAR sparing for the pancreas SBRT plans with escalated prescription. The results highlight the potential of autoplanning as a dose escalation strategy for pancreas

  1. SU-C-BRB-02: Automatic Planning as a Potential Strategy for Dose Escalation for Pancreas SBRT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S; Zheng, D; Ma, R; Lin, C; Zhu, X; Lei, Y; Enke, C; Zhou, S [University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has been suggested to provide high rates of local control for locally advanced pancreatic cancer. However, the close proximity of highly radiosensitive normal tissues usually causes the labor-intensive planning process, and may impede further escalation of the prescription dose. The present study evaluates the potential of an automatic planning system as a dose escalation strategy. Methods: Ten pancreatic cancer patients treated with SBRT were studied retrospectively. SBRT was delivered over 5 consecutive fractions with 6 ∼ 8Gy/fraction. Two plans were generated by Pinnacle Auto-Planning with the original prescription and escalated prescription, respectively. Escalated prescription adds 1 Gy/fraction to the original prescription. Manually-created planning volumes were excluded in the optimization goals in order to assess the planning efficiency and quality simultaneously. Critical organs with closest proximity were used to determine the plan normalization to ensure the OAR sparing. Dosimetric parameters including D100, and conformity index (CI) were assessed. Results: Auto-plans directly generate acceptable plans for 70% of the cases without necessity of further improvement, and two more iterations at most are necessary for the rest of the cases. For the pancreas SBRT plans with the original prescription, autoplans resulted in favorable target coverage and PTV conformity (D100 = 96.3% ± 1.48%; CI = 0.88 ± 0.06). For the plans with the escalated prescriptions, no significant target under-dosage was observed, and PTV conformity remains reasonable (D100 = 93.3% ± 3.8%, and CI = 0.84 ± 0.05). Conclusion: Automatic planning, without substantial human-intervention process, results in reasonable PTV coverage and PTV conformity on the premise of adequate OAR sparing for the pancreas SBRT plans with escalated prescription. The results highlight the potential of autoplanning as a dose escalation strategy for pancreas

  2. Dose Escalation and Healthcare Resource Use among Ulcerative Colitis Patients Treated with Adalimumab in English Hospitals: An Analysis of Real-World Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Black

    Full Text Available To describe the real-world use of adalimumab for maintenance treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC and associated healthcare costs in English hospitals.Retrospective cohort study.Analysis of NHS Hospital Episode Statistics linked with pharmacy dispensing data in English hospitals.Adult UC patients receiving ≥240mg during adalimumab treatment induction, subsequently maintained on adalimumab.Frequency and pattern of adalimumab use and dose escalation during maintenance treatment and associated healthcare costs (prescriptions and hospital visits.191 UC patients completed adalimumab treatment induction. 83 (43.46% dose escalated during maintenance treatment by ≥100% (equivalent to weekly dosing (median time to dose escalation: 139 days. 56 patients (67.47% subsequently de-escalated by ≥50% (median time to dose de-escalation: 21 days. Mean all-cause healthcare costs for all patients ≤12 months of index were £13,892. Dose escalators incurred greater mean healthcare costs than non-escalators ≤12 months of index (£14,596 vs. £13,351. Prescriptions accounted for 96.49% of UC-related healthcare costs (£11,090 of £11,494 in all patients.Within the cohort, 43.46% of UC patients escalated their adalimumab dose by ≥100% and incurred greater costs than non-escalators. The apparent underestimation of adalimumab dose escalation in previous studies may have resulted in underestimated costs in healthcare systems.

  3. Feasibility of extreme dose escalation for glioblastoma multiforme using 4π radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Dan; Rwigema, Jean-Claude M; Yu, Victoria Y; Kaprealian, Tania; Kupelian, Patrick; Selch, Michael; Lee, Percy; Low, Daniel A; Sheng, Ke

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) frequently recurs at the same location after radiotherapy. Further dose escalation using conventional methods is limited by normal tissue tolerance. 4π non-coplanar radiotherapy has recently emerged as a new potential method to deliver highly conformal radiation dose using the C-arm linacs. We aim to study the feasibility of very substantial GBM dose escalation while maintaining normal tissue tolerance using 4π. 11 GBM patients previously treated with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT/RapidArc) on the NovalisTx™ platform to a prescription dose of either 59.4 Gy or 60 Gy were included. All patients were replanned with 30 non-coplanar beams using a 4π radiotherapy platform, which inverse optimizes both beam angles and fluence maps. Four different prescriptions were used including original prescription dose and PTV (4πPTV PD ), 100 Gy to the PTV and GTV (4πPTV 100Gy ), 100 Gy to the GTV only while maintaining prescription dose to the rest of the PTV (4πGTV 100Gy ), and a 5 mm margin expansion plan (4πPTV PD+5mm ). OARs included in the study are the normal brain (brain – PTV), brainstem, chiasm, spinal cord, eyes, lenses, optical nerves, and cochleae. The 4π plans resulted in superior dose gradient indices, as indicated by >20% reduction in the R50, compared to the clinical plans. Among all of the 4π cases, when compared to the clinical plans, the maximum and mean doses were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) by a range of 47.01-98.82% and 51.87-99.47%, respectively, or unchanged (p > 0.05) for all of the non-brain OARs. Both the 4πPTV PD and 4π GTV 100GY plans reduced the mean normal brain mean doses. 4π non-coplanar radiotherapy substantially increases the dose gradient outside of the PTV and better spares critical organs. Dose escalation to 100 Gy to the GTV or additional margin expansion while meeting clinical critical organ dose constraints is feasible. 100 Gy to the PTV result in higher normal brain doses but may

  4. An Hourly Dose-Escalation Desensitization Protocol for Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Justin R; Buchmiller, Brett L; Khan, David A

    2015-01-01

    Aspirin desensitization followed by maintenance therapy effectively improves symptom control in patients with aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD). The majority of current desensitization protocols use 3-hour dosing intervals and often require 2 to 3 days to complete. We evaluated hourly dose escalations in a subset of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyps, and asthma who historically reacted to aspirin within 1 hour or were avoiding aspirin with the goal of developing a safe and efficient desensitization protocol. Fifty-seven aspirin desensitizations were performed under the hourly protocol. All patients had refractory nasal polyposis as an indication for aspirin desensitization. The clinical characteristics of each subject were analyzed in relation to aspects of his or her reactions during the procedure. Ninety-eight percent of study patients were successfully treated under the hourly protocol, including those with a history of severe reactions and intubation. None required further medication than is available in an outpatient allergy clinic. A total of 96% of reactors recorded a bronchial or naso-ocular reaction within 1 hour of the preceding dose. Of the total patients on this protocol, 40% were able to complete the procedure in a single day, and 60% within 2 days. Patients with AERD who have a history of symptoms less than 1 hour after aspirin exposure can be safely desensitized with a 1-hour dose-escalation protocol that can often be completed in a single day. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Treating locally advanced lung cancer with a 1.5T MR-Linac - Effects of the magnetic field and irradiation geometry on conventionally fractionated and isotoxic dose-escalated radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Hannah E; Menten, Martin J; Fast, Martin F; Nill, Simeon; Oelfke, Uwe; McDonald, Fiona

    2017-11-01

    This study investigates the feasibility and potential benefits of radiotherapy with a 1.5T MR-Linac for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA NSCLC) patients. Ten patients with LA NSCLC were retrospectively re-planned six times: three treatment plans were created according to a protocol for conventionally fractionated radiotherapy and three treatment plans following guidelines for isotoxic target dose escalation. In each case, two plans were designed for the MR-Linac, either with standard (∼7mm) or reduced (∼3mm) planning target volume (PTV) margins, while one conventional linac plan was created with standard margins. Treatment plan quality was evaluated using dose-volume metrics or by quantifying dose escalation potential. All generated treatment plans fulfilled their respective planning constraints. For conventionally fractionated treatments, MR-Linac plans with standard margins had slightly increased skin dose when compared to conventional linac plans. Using reduced margins alleviated this issue and decreased exposure of several other organs-at-risk (OAR). Reduced margins also enabled increased isotoxic target dose escalation. It is feasible to generate treatment plans for LA NSCLC patients on a 1.5T MR-Linac. Margin reduction, facilitated by an envisioned MRI-guided workflow, enables increased OAR sparing and isotoxic target dose escalation for the respective treatment approaches. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Can we avoid high levels of dose escalation for high-risk prostate cancer in the setting of androgen deprivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, Thomas P; Wilcox, Shea W; Aherne, Noel J

    2016-01-01

    Both dose-escalated external beam radiotherapy (DE-EBRT) and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) improve outcomes in patients with high-risk prostate cancer. However, there is little evidence specifically evaluating DE-EBRT for patients with high-risk prostate cancer receiving ADT, particularly for EBRT doses >74 Gy. We aimed to determine whether DE-EBRT >74 Gy improves outcomes for patients with high-risk prostate cancer receiving long-term ADT. Patients with high-risk prostate cancer were treated on an institutional protocol prescribing 3-6 months neoadjuvant ADT and DE-EBRT, followed by 2 years of adjuvant ADT. Between 2006 and 2012, EBRT doses were escalated from 74 Gy to 76 Gy and then to 78 Gy. We interrogated our electronic medical record to identify these patients and analyzed our results by comparing dose levels. In all, 479 patients were treated with a 68-month median follow-up. The 5-year biochemical disease-free survivals for the 74 Gy, 76 Gy, and 78 Gy groups were 87.8%, 86.9%, and 91.6%, respectively. The metastasis-free survivals were 95.5%, 94.5%, and 93.9%, respectively, and the prostate cancer-specific survivals were 100%, 94.4%, and 98.1%, respectively. Dose escalation had no impact on any outcome in either univariate or multivariate analysis. There was no benefit of DE-EBRT >74 Gy in our cohort of high-risk prostate patients treated with long-term ADT. As dose escalation has higher risks of radiotherapy-induced toxicity, it may be feasible to omit dose escalation beyond 74 Gy in this group of patients. Randomized studies evaluating dose escalation for high-risk patients receiving ADT should be considered.

  7. Dose-escalated total body irradiation and autologous stem cell transplantation for refractory hematologic malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAfee, Steven L.; Powell, Simon N.; Colby, Christine; Spitzer, Thomas R.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of dose escalation of total body irradiation (TBI) above the previously reported maximally tolerated dose, we have undertaken a Phase I-II trial of dose-escalated TBI with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) for chemotherapy-refractory lymphoma. Methods and Materials: Nine lymphoma patients with primary refractory disease (PRD) or in resistant relapse (RR) received dose-escalated TBI and PBSCT. The three dose levels of fractionated TBI (200 cGy twice daily) were 1,600 cGy, 1,800 cGy, and 2,000 cGy. Lung blocks were used to reduce the TBI transmission dose by 50%, and the chest wall dose was supplemented to the prescribed dose using electrons. Shielding of the kidneys was performed to keep the maximal renal dose at 1,600 cGy. Three patients, two with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in RR and one with PRD Hodgkin's disease, received 1,600 cGy + PBSCT, three patients (two NHL in RR, one PRD) received 1,800 cGy + PBSCT, and three patients with NHL (two in RR, one PRD) received 2,000 cGy + PBSCT. Results: Toxicities associated with this high-dose TBI regimen included reversible hepatic veno-occlusive disease in 1 patient, Grade 2 mucositis requiring narcotic analgesics in 8 patients, and neurologic toxicities consisting of a symmetrical sensory neuropathy (n=4) and Lhermitte's syndrome (n=1). Interstitial pneumonitis developed in 1 patient who received 1,800 cGy after receiving recombinant α-interferon (with exacerbation after rechallenge with interferon). Six (66%) patients achieved a response. Four (44%) patients achieved complete responses, three of which were of a duration greater than 1 year, and 2 (22%) patients achieved a partial response. One patient remains disease-free more than 5 years posttransplant. Corticosteroid-induced gastritis and postoperative infection resulted in the death of 1 patient in complete response, 429 days posttransplant. Conclusion: TBI in a dose range 1,600-2,000 cGy as

  8. Escalation to High Dose Defibrotide in Patients with Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplett, Brandon M.; Kuttab, Hani I.; Kang, Guolian; Leung, Wing

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) is a serious complication of high-dose chemotherapy regimens, such as those utilized in hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients. Defibrotide is considered a safe and effective treatment when dosed at 25 mg/kg/day. However, patients who develop VOD still have increased mortality despite the use of defibrotide. Data are limited on the use of doses above 60 mg/kg/day for persistent VOD. In this prospective clinical trial, 34 patients received escalating doses of defibrotide. For patients with persistent VOD despite doses of 60 mg/kg/day, doses were increased to a maximum of 110 mg/kg/day. There was no observed increase in toxicity until doses rose beyond 100 mg/kg/day. Patients receiving doses between 10–100 mg/kg/day experienced an average of 3 bleeding episodes per 100 days of treatment, while those receiving doses >100 mg/kg/day experienced 13.2 bleeding episodes per 100 days (p=0.008). Moreover, dose reductions due to toxicity were needed at doses of 110 mg/kg/day more often than at lower doses. Defibrotide may be safely escalated to doses well above the current standard without an increase in bleeding risk. However, the efficacy of this dose escalation strategy remains unclear, as outcomes were similar to published cohorts of patients receiving standard doses of defibrotide for VOD. PMID:26278046

  9. Safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics of neratinib (HKI-272) in Japanese patients with advanced solid tumors: a Phase 1 dose-escalation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoshinori; Suenaga, Mitsukuni; Hatake, Kiyohiko; Takahashi, Shunji; Yokoyama, Masahiro; Onozawa, Yusuke; Yamazaki, Kentaro; Hironaka, Shuichi; Hashigami, Kiyoshi; Hasegawa, Hirotaka; Takenaka, Nobuko; Boku, Narikazu

    2012-04-01

    Neratinib (HKI-272), a potent, irreversible, small-molecule, orally administered, pan-ErbB inhibitor that blocks signal transduction via inhibition of three epidermal growth factor receptors [ErbB1, ErbB2 (Her2) and ErbB4], is being developed for the treatment of solid tumors, including breast cancer. This Phase 1 dose-escalation study assessed the safety, tolerability, maximum-tolerated dose, antitumor activity and pharmacokinetics of neratinib in Japanese patients with advanced solid tumors. Patients received neratinib 80, 160, 240 or 320 mg orally; each patient enrolled in only one dose cohort. Patients received a single dose in week 1, followed by daily continuous doses. Blood samples collected were on days 1 and 21 for pharmacokinetic analyses. Twenty-one patients were enrolled (3 breast cancer; 17 colorectal cancer; 1 gastric cancer). Neratinib-related adverse events (all grades) included diarrhea (20 patients), fatigue (14 patients), nausea and abdominal pain (9 patients each) and anorexia (8 patients). Grade ≥3 neratinib-related adverse events in two or more patients were diarrhea and anorexia (two patients each). Dose-limiting toxicities were diarrhea and anorexia (two patients, 320 mg dose). The maximum-tolerated dose and recommended dose was neratinib 240 mg once daily. Of 21 evaluable patients, 2 with breast cancer had partial response, 3 had stable disease ≥24 weeks, 7 had stable disease ≥16 weeks and 9 had progressive disease. Pharmacokinetic analyses indicated that neratinib exposures increased with dose. The safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetic profiles of neratinib are consistent with those reported for non-Japanese patients and warrant further investigation of neratinib in Japanese patients with solid tumors.

  10. Gemcitabine Plus Radiation Therapy for High-Grade Glioma: Long-Term Results of a Phase 1 Dose-Escalation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Michelle M., E-mail: michekim@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Camelo-Piragua, Sandra [Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Schipper, Matthew; Tao, Yebin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Normolle, Daniel [Department of Biostatistics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Junck, Larry; Mammoser, Aaron [Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Betz, Bryan L. [Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Cao, Yue [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Kim, Christopher J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Heth, Jason; Sagher, Oren [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Tsien, Christina I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of gemcitabine plus radiation therapy (RT) in this phase 1 study of patients with newly diagnosed malignant glioma (HGG). Patients and Methods: Between 2004 and 2012, 29 adults with HGG were enrolled. After any extent of resection, RT (60 Gy over 6 weeks) was given concurrent with escalating doses of weekly gemcitabine. Using a time-to-event continual reassessment method, 5 dose levels were evaluated starting at 500 mg/m{sup 2} during the last 2 weeks of RT and advanced stepwise into earlier weeks. The primary objective was to determine the recommended phase 2 dose of gemcitabine plus RT. Secondary objectives included progression-free survival, overall survival (OS), and long-term toxicity. Results: Median follow-up was 38.1 months (range, 8.9-117.5 months); 24 patients were evaluable for toxicity. After 2005 when standard practice changed, patients with World Health Organization grade 4 tumors were no longer enrolled. Median progression-free survival for 22 patients with grade 3 tumors was 26.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 15.6-inestimable), and OS was 48.5 months (95% CI 26.8-inestimable). In 4 IDH mutated, 1p/19q codeleted patients, no failures occurred, with all but 1 alive at time of last follow-up. Seven with IDH mutated, non-codeleted tumors with ATRX loss had intermediate OS of 73.5 months (95% CI 32.8-inestimable). Six nonmutated, non-codeleted patients had a median OS of 26.5 months (95% CI 25.4-inestimable). The recommended phase 2 dose of gemcitabine plus RT was 750 mg/m{sup 2}/wk given the last 4 weeks of RT. Dose reductions were most commonly due to grade 3 neutropenia; no grade 4 or 5 toxicities were seen. Conclusions: Gemcitabine concurrent with RT is well-tolerated and yields promising outcomes, including in patients with adverse molecular features. It is a candidate for further study, particularly for poor-prognosis patient subgroups with HGG.

  11. Optimization of tolerability and efficacy of the novel dual amylin and calcitonin receptor agonist KBP-089 through dose escalation and combination with a GLP-1 analog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gydesen, Sofie; Andreassen, Kim Vietz; Hjuler, Sara Toftegaard

    2017-01-01

    , and the following treatment with 2.5, 10, and 40 µg/kg resulted in an ~15% vehicle-corrected weight loss, a corresponding reduction in adipose tissue (AT), and, in all treatment groups, improved oral glucose tolerance (P weight evenly with no significant...... second day obtained equal weight loss at study end, albeit with an uneven reduction in both food intake and body weight in rats dosed every second day. In a 4-fold dose escalation, KBP-089 induced a transient reduction in food intake at every escalation step, with reducing magnitude over time...... reduction in food intake at either escalation step. KBP-089 (1.25 µg/kg) and liraglutide (50 µg/kg) reduced 24-h food intake by 29% and 37% compared with vehicle, respectively; however, when they were combined, 24-h food intake was reduced by 87%. Chronically, KBP-089 (1.25 µg/kg) and liraglutide (50 µg...

  12. Results of a phase I dose escalation study of eltrombopag in patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma receiving doxorubicin and ifosfamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chawla, Sant P; Staddon, Arthur; Hendifar, Andrew; Messam, Conrad A; Patwardhan, Rita; Kamel, Yasser Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this Phase I dose escalation study was to explore the safety and tolerability of eltrombopag, an oral, nonpeptide, thrombopoietin receptor agonist, in patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and thrombocytopenia due to treatment with doxorubicin and ifosfamide (AI) combination chemotherapy. Patients aged 18 or older with histologically confirmed, locally advanced or metastatic STS were treated with 1 cycle of AI followed by AI with eltrombopag starting at Cycle 2, using 2 different dosing schedules. The study design included an eltrombopag dose escalation phase starting at 75 mg daily to determine the optimal biological dose (OBD). Eighteen patients were enrolled and 15 received at least 1 dose of chemotherapy; 3 patients withdrew prior to receiving eltrombopag. Seven, 4, and 1 patients received 75 mg, 100 mg, and 150 mg eltrombopag daily, respectively. No dose-limiting toxicities were reported. Due to slow recruitment, the study was closed prior to identifying an OBD. The most common hematologic adverse events (AEs) were thrombocytopenia (80%), neutropenia (73%), and anemia (67%). The most common nonhematologic AEs were fatigue (53%), alanine aminotransferase increased, constipation, and nausea (47% each). Eleven of 12 patients who received eltrombopag completed at least 2 chemotherapy cycles; all had increased platelet counts on Day 1 of Cycle 2 (cycle with eltrombopag) compared to Day 1 of Cycle 1 (cycle without eltrombopag). Although data are limited, safety data were consistent with the known toxicities of AI combination chemotherapy or the side effect profile of eltrombopag seen in other studies. Available data suggest a potential pre- and post-chemotherapy dosing scheme for eltrombopag when administered with AI chemotherapy, and support further investigation of eltrombopag treatment in patients with chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia

  13. Phase I dose escalation safety study of nanoparticulate paclitaxel (CTI 52010) in normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axiak, Sandra M; Selting, Kim A; Decedue, Charles J; Henry, Carolyn J; Tate, Deborah; Howell, Jahna; Bilof, K James; Kim, Dae Y

    2011-01-01

    Paclitaxel is highly effective in the treatment of many cancers in humans, but cannot be routinely used in dogs as currently formulated due to the exquisite sensitivity of this species to surfactant-solubilizing agents. CTI 52010 is a formulation of nanoparticulate paclitaxel consisting of drug and normal saline. Our objectives were to determine the maximally tolerated dose, dose-limiting toxicities, and pharmacokinetics of CTI 52010 administered intravenously to normal dogs. Three normal adult hound dogs were evaluated by physical examination, complete blood count, chemistry profile, and urinalysis. Dogs were treated with staggered escalating dosages of CTI 52010 with a 28-day washout. All dogs were treated with a starting dosage of 40 mg/m(2), and subsequent dosages were escalated at 50% (dog 1), 100% (dog 2), or 200% (dog 3) with each cycle, to a maximum of 240 mg/m(2). Dogs were monitored by daily physical assessment and weekly laboratory evaluation. Standard criteria were used to grade adverse events. Plasma was collected at regular intervals to determine pharmacokinetics. Dogs were euthanized humanely, and necropsy was performed one week after the last treatment. The dose-limiting toxicity was grade 4 neutropenia and the maximum tolerated dosage was 120 mg/m(2). Grade 1-2 gastrointestinal toxicity was noted at higher dosages. Upon post mortem evaluation, no evidence of organ (liver, kidney, spleen) toxicity was noted. CTI 52010 was well tolerated when administered intravenously to normal dogs. A starting dosage for a Phase I/II trial in tumor-bearing dogs is 80 mg/m(2).

  14. Escalation to High-Dose Defibrotide in Patients with Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplett, Brandon M; Kuttab, Hani I; Kang, Guolian; Leung, Wing

    2015-12-01

    Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) is a serious complication of high-dose chemotherapy regimens, such as those used in hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients. Defibrotide is considered a safe and effective treatment when dosed at 25 mg/kg/day. However, patients who develop VOD still have increased mortality despite the use of defibrotide. Data are limited on the use of doses above 60 mg/kg/day for persistent VOD. In this prospective clinical trial 34 patients received escalating doses of defibrotide. For patients with persistent VOD despite doses of 60 mg/kg/day, doses were increased to a maximum of 110 mg/kg/day. Increased toxicity was not observed until doses rose beyond 100 mg/kg/day. Patients receiving doses between 10 and 100 mg/kg/day experienced an average of 3 bleeding episodes per 100 days of treatment, whereas those receiving doses >100 mg/kg/day experienced 13.2 bleeding episodes per 100 days (P = .008). Moreover, dose reductions due to toxicity were needed at doses of 110 mg/kg/day more often than at lower doses. Defibrotide may be safely escalated to doses well above the current standard without an increase in bleeding risk. However, the efficacy of this dose-escalation strategy remains unclear, because outcomes were similar to published cohorts of patients receiving standard doses of defibrotide for VOD. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dose Escalation for Prostate Cancer Using the Three-Dimensional Conformal Dynamic Arc Technique: Analysis of 542 Consecutive Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara A.; Vavassori, Andrea; Fodor, Cristiana; Santoro, Luigi; Zerini, Dario; Cattani, Federica; Garibaldi, Cristina; Cambria, Raffaella; Fodor, Andrei; Boboc, Genoveva Ionela; Vitolo, Viviana; Ivaldi, Giovanni Battista; Musi, Gennaro; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Orecchia, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To present the results of dose escalation using three-dimensional conformal dynamic arc radiotherapy (3D-ART) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Five hundred and forty two T1-T3N0M0 prostate cancer patients were treated with 3D-ART. Dose escalation (from 76 Gy/38 fractions to 80 Gy/40 fractions) was introduced in September 2003; 32% of patients received 80 Gy. In 366 patients, androgen deprivation was added to 3D-ART. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria and Houston definition (nadir + 2) were used for toxicity and biochemical failure evaluation, respectively. Median follow-up was 25 months. Results: Acute toxicity included rectal (G1-2 28.9%; G3 0.5%) and urinary events (G1-2 57.9%; G3-4 2.4%). Late toxicity included rectal (G1-2 15.8%; G3-4 3.1%) and urinary events (G1-2 26.9%; G3-4 1.6%). Two-year failure-free survival and overall survival rates were 94.1% and 97.9%, respectively. Poor prognostic group (GS, iPSA, T), transurethral prostate resection, and dose >76 Gy showed significant association to high risk of progression in multivariate analysis (p = 0.014, p = 0.045, and p 0.04, respectively). The negative effect of dose >76 Gy was not observed (p 0.10), when the analysis was limited to 353 patients treated after September 2003 (when dose escalation was introduced). Higher dose was not associated with higher late toxicity. Conclusions: Three-dimensional-ART is a feasible modality allowing for dose escalation (no increase in toxicity has been observed with higher doses). However, the dose increase from 76 to 80 Gy was not associated with better tumor outcome. Further investigation is warranted for better understanding of the dose effect for prostate cancer

  16. SU-C-202-04: Adapting Biologically Optimized Dose Escalation Based On Mid-Treatment PET/CT for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, P; Kuo, L; Yorke, E; Hu, Y; Lockney, N; Mageras, G; Deasy, J; Rimner, A [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a biological modeling strategy which incorporates the response observed on the mid-treatment PET/CT into a dose escalation design for adaptive radiotherapy of non-small-cell lung cancer. Method: FDG-PET/CT was acquired midway through standard fractionated treatment and registered to pre-treatment planning PET/CT to evaluate radiation response of lung cancer. Each mid-treatment PET voxel was assigned the median SUV inside a concentric 1cm-diameter sphere to account for registration and imaging uncertainties. For each voxel, the planned radiation dose, pre- and mid-treatment SUVs were used to parameterize the linear-quadratic model, which was then utilized to predict the SUV distribution after the full prescribed dose. Voxels with predicted post-treatment SUV≥2 were identified as the resistant target (response arm). An adaptive simultaneous integrated boost was designed to escalate dose to the resistant target as high as possible, while keeping prescription dose to the original target and lung toxicity intact. In contrast, an adaptive target volume was delineated based only on the intensity of mid-treatment PET/CT (intensity arm), and a similar adaptive boost plan was optimized. The dose escalation capability of the two approaches was compared. Result: Images of three patients were used in this planning study. For one patient, SUV prediction indicated complete response and no necessary dose escalation. For the other two, resistant targets defined in the response arm were multifocal, and on average accounted for 25% of the pre-treatment target, compared to 67% in the intensity arm. The smaller response arm targets led to a 6Gy higher mean target dose in the adaptive escalation design. Conclusion: This pilot study suggests that adaptive dose escalation to a biologically resistant target predicted from a pre- and mid-treatment PET/CT may be more effective than escalation based on the mid-treatment PET/CT alone. More plans and ultimately clinical

  17. Topical administration of regorafenib eye drops: phase I dose-escalation study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Torsten; Höchel, Joachim; Becka, Michael; Boettger, Michael K; Rohde, Beate; Schug, Barbara; Kunert, Kathleen S; Donath, Frank

    2018-05-01

    Regorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor under investigation for use in neovascular age-related macular degeneration. In this phase I study, regorafenib eye drops were administered to healthy volunteers to provide information on safety, tolerability and systemic exposure. This was a single-centre, randomized, double-masked, parallel-group, dose-escalation, placebo-controlled study. Subjects received regorafenib eye drops (30 mg ml -1 , 25 μl) as a 0.75 mg single dose (Cohort 1), 0.75 mg twice daily (bid) or thrice daily (tid) over 14 days (Cohorts 2 and 3, respectively), 1.5 mg tid unilaterally for 3 days, then bilaterally for up to 14 days (Cohort 4), or placebo. Plasma samples were taken to estimate systemic exposure. Safety and functional assessments were performed throughout the study. Thirty-six subjects received regorafenib and 12 received placebo. Regorafenib was safe and well tolerated over the dose range. No pathological changes occurred in the anterior, vitreous or posterior eye compartments. Mild eyelid redness, oedema and conjunctival hyperaemia were observed across all regorafenib cohorts; these were comparable with the effects seen with placebo. Predominant symptoms were blurred vision in the active and placebo groups. Systemic safety evaluations showed no clinically relevant findings. Absolute systemic exposure after multiple administrations of regorafenib eye drops at a dose of 0.75 mg was 600-700-fold lower than after multiple oral administration of 160 mg day -1 , the dose approved in cancer indications. These results indicate a favourable safety and tolerability profile of regorafenib eye drops up to 30 mg ml -1 tid for use in clinical studies. © 2018 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Pharmacological Society.

  18. Anuvasan Basti in escalating dose is an alternative for Snehapana before Vamana and Virechana: Trends from a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyadarshani Arvind Kadus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral administration of medicated fats (oil or ghee is termed as Snehapana. It is an essential step before Vamana (therapeutic emesis and Virechana (therapeutic purgation. Ayurveda physicians often experience a poor compliance in 10-15% patients for oral administration of medicated fats especially in escalating doses. Incomplete Snehapana sometimes creates a problem for a physician to prepare the patient for these processes. These inconveniences made us think about effective alternatives to counter drawbacks and improve acceptance of Snehapana. The present study was planned to assess the efficacy of Anuvasana Basti (oil enema in escalating doses as an alternative for Snehapana. Anuvasana Basti of medicated sesame oil with rock salt was administered in 10 patients for three to seven days till they showed signs and symptoms of complete Snehana. The symptoms of Snehana like semisolid or loose stools, feeling exhausted without much exertion, lightness of body and oiliness of skin were observed. Though the Snehana symptoms varied in intensity, they were similar as they are produced after oral administration of fats. This trend suggests Anuvasana Basti in escalating dose is an alternative for Snehapana before administration of Shodhana therapy like Vamana or Virechana.

  19. Anuvasan Basti in escalating dose is an alternative for Snehapana before Vamana and Virechana: Trends from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadus, Priyadarshani Arvind; Vedpathak, Surendra M

    2014-01-01

    Oral administration of medicated fats (oil or ghee) is termed as Snehapana. It is an essential step before Vamana (therapeutic emesis) and Virechana (therapeutic purgation). Ayurveda physicians often experience a poor compliance in 10-15% patients for oral administration of medicated fats especially in escalating doses. Incomplete Snehapana sometimes creates a problem for a physician to prepare the patient for these processes. These inconveniences made us think about effective alternatives to counter drawbacks and improve acceptance of Snehapana. The present study was planned to assess the efficacy of Anuvasana Basti (oil enema) in escalating doses as an alternative for Snehapana. Anuvasana Basti of medicated sesame oil with rock salt was administered in 10 patients for three to seven days till they showed signs and symptoms of complete Snehana. The symptoms of Snehana like semisolid or loose stools, feeling exhausted without much exertion, lightness of body and oiliness of skin were observed. Though the Snehana symptoms varied in intensity, they were similar as they are produced after oral administration of fats. This trend suggests Anuvasana Basti in escalating dose is an alternative for Snehapana before administration of Shodhana therapy like Vamana or Virechana.

  20. A dose-escalation study of combretastatin A4-phosphate in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abma, E; Smets, P; Daminet, S; Cornelis, I; De Clercq, K; Ni, Y; Vlerick, L; de Rooster, H

    2018-03-01

    Combretastatin A4-Phosphate (CA4P) is a vascular disrupting agent revealing promising results in cancer treatments for humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and adverse events of CA4P in healthy dogs as a prerequisite to application of CA4P in dogs with cancer. Ten healthy dogs were included. The effects of escalating doses of CA4P on physical, haematological and biochemical parameters, systolic arterial blood pressure, electrocardiogram, echocardiographic variables and general wellbeing were characterised. Three different doses were tested: 50, 75 and 100 mg m -2 . At all 3 CA4P doses, nausea, abdominal discomfort as well as diarrhoea were observed for several hours following administration. Likewise, a low-grade neutropenia was observed in all dogs. Doses of 75 and 100 mg m -2 additionally induced vomiting and elevation of serum cardiac troponine I levels. At 100 mg m -2 , low-grade hypertension and high-grade neurotoxicity were also observed. In healthy dogs, doses up to 75 mg m -2 seem to be well tolerated. The severity of the neurotoxicity observed at 100 mg m -2 , although transient, does not invite to use this dose in canine oncology patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. SU-E-T-183: Feasibility of Extreme Dose Escalation for Glioblastoma Multiforme Using 4π Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, D; Rwigema, J; Yu, V; Kaprealian, T; Kupelian, P; Selch, M; Low, D; Sheng, K

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: GBM recurrence primarily occurs inside or near the high-dose radiation field of original tumor site requiring greater than 100 Gy to significantly improve local control. We utilize 4π non-coplanar radiotherapy to test the feasibility of planning target volume (PTV) margin expansions or extreme dose escalations without incurring additional radiation toxicities. Methods: 11 GBM patients treated with VMAT to a prescription dose of 59.4 Gy or 60 Gy were replanned with 4π. Original VMAT plans were created with 2 to 4 coplanar or non-coplanar arcs using 3 mm hi-res MLC. The 4π optimization, using 5 mm MLC, selected and inverse optimized 30 beams from a candidate pool of 1162 beams evenly distributed through 4π steradians. 4π plans were first compared to clinical plans using the same prescription dose. Two more studies were then performed to respectively escalate the GTV and PTV doses to 100 Gy, followed by a fourth plan expanding the PTV by 5 mm and maintaining the prescription dose. Results: The standard 4π plan significantly reduced (p<0.01) max and mean doses to critical structures by a range of 47.0–98.4% and 61.0–99.2%, respectively. The high dose PTV/high dose GTV/expanded PTV studies showed a reduction (p<0.05) or unchanged* (p>0.05) maximum dose of 72.1%/86.7%/77.1% (chiasm), 7.2%*/27.7%*/30.7% (brainstem), 39.8%*/84.2%/51.9%* (spinal cord), 69.0%/87.0%/66.9% (L eye), 76.2%/88.1%/84.1% (R eye), 95.0%/98.6%/97.5% (L lens), 93.9%/98.8%/97.6% (R lens), 74.3%/88.5%/72.4% (L optical nerve), 80.4%/91.3%/75.7% (R optical nerve), 64.8%/84.2%/44.9%* (L cochlea), and 85.2%/93.0%/78.0% (R cochlea), respectively. V30 and V36 for both brain and (brain - PTV) were reduced for all cases except the high dose PTV plan. PTV dose coverage increased for all 4π plans. Conclusion: Extreme dose escalation or further margin expansion is achievable using 4π, maintaining or reducing OAR doses. This study indicates that clinical trials employing 4π delivery using

  2. A randomised controlled trial of the efficacy and safety of allopurinol dose escalation to achieve target serum urate in people with gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamp, Lisa K; Chapman, Peter T; Barclay, Murray L; Horne, Anne; Frampton, Christopher; Tan, Paul; Drake, Jill; Dalbeth, Nicola

    2017-09-01

    To determine the efficacy and safety of allopurinol dose escalation using a treat-to-target serum urate (SU) approach. A randomised, controlled, parallel-group, comparative clinical trial was undertaken. People with gout receiving at least creatinine clearance (CrCL)-based allopurinol dose for ≥1 month and SU ≥6 mg/dL were recruited. Participants were randomised to continue current dose (control) or allopurinol dose escalation for 12 months. In the dose escalation group, allopurinol was increased monthly until SU was gout. Allopurinol dose escalation is well tolerated. ANZCTR12611000845932; Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Phase I dose escalation safety study of nanoparticulate paclitaxel (CTI 52010 in normal dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axiak SM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Sandra M Axiak1, Kim A Selting1, Charles J Decedue2, Carolyn J Henry1,3, Deborah Tate1, Jahna Howell2, K James Bilof1, Dae Y Kim4 1Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA; 2CritiTech Inc, Lawrence, KS, USA; 3Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology; 4Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA Background: Paclitaxel is highly effective in the treatment of many cancers in humans, but cannot be routinely used in dogs as currently formulated due to the exquisite sensitivity of this species to surfactant-solubilizing agents. CTI 52010 is a formulation of nanoparticulate paclitaxel consisting of drug and normal saline. Our objectives were to determine the maximally tolerated dose, dose-limiting toxicities, and pharmacokinetics of CTI 52010 administered intravenously to normal dogs. Methods: Three normal adult hound dogs were evaluated by physical examination, complete blood count, chemistry profile, and urinalysis. Dogs were treated with staggered escalating dosages of CTI 52010 with a 28-day washout. All dogs were treated with a starting dosage of 40 mg/m2, and subsequent dosages were escalated at 50% (dog 1, 100% (dog 2, or 200% (dog 3 with each cycle, to a maximum of 240 mg/m2. Dogs were monitored by daily physical assessment and weekly laboratory evaluation. Standard criteria were used to grade adverse events. Plasma was collected at regular intervals to determine pharmacokinetics. Dogs were euthanized humanely, and necropsy was performed one week after the last treatment. Results: The dose-limiting toxicity was grade 4 neutropenia and the maximum tolerated dosage was 120 mg/m2. Grade 1–2 gastrointestinal toxicity was noted at higher dosages. Upon post mortem evaluation, no evidence of organ (liver, kidney, spleen toxicity was noted. Conclusion: CTI 52010 was well tolerated when administered intravenously to normal dogs. A starting

  4. Somatostatin-based radiotherapy with [90Y-DOTA]-TOC in neuroendocrine tumors: long-term outcome of a phase I dose escalation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marincek, Nicolas; Jörg, Ann-Catherine; Brunner, Philippe; Schindler, Christian; Koller, Michael T; Rochlitz, Christoph; Müller-Brand, Jan; Maecke, Helmut R; Briel, Matthias; Walter, Martin A

    2013-01-15

    We describe the long-term outcome after clinical introduction and dose escalation of somatostatin receptor targeted therapy with [90Y-DOTA]-TOC in patients with metastasized neuroendocrine tumors. In a clinical phase I dose escalation study we treated patients with increasing [90Y-DOTA]-TOC activities. Multivariable Cox regression and competing risk regression were used to compare efficacy and toxicities of the different dosage protocols. Overall, 359 patients were recruited; 60 patients were enrolled for low dose (median: 2.4 GBq/cycle, range 0.9-7.8 GBq/cycle), 77 patients were enrolled for intermediate dose (median: 3.3 GBq/cycle, range: 2.0-7.4 GBq/cycle) and 222 patients were enrolled for high dose (median: 6.7 GBq/cycle, range: 3.7-8.1 GBq/cycle) [90Y-DOTA]-TOC treatment. The incidences of hematotoxicities grade 1-4 were 65.0%, 64.9% and 74.8%; the incidences of grade 4/5 kidney toxicities were 8.4%, 6.5% and 14.0%, and the median survival was 39 (range: 1-158) months, 34 (range: 1-118) months and 29 (range: 1-113) months. The high dose protocol was associated with an increased risk of kidney toxicity (Hazard Ratio: 3.12 (1.13-8.59) vs. intermediate dose, p = 0.03) and a shorter overall survival (Hazard Ratio: 2.50 (1.08-5.79) vs. low dose, p = 0.03). Increasing [90Y-DOTA]-TOC activities may be associated with increasing hematological toxicities. The dose related hematotoxicity profile of [90Y-DOTA]-TOC could facilitate tailoring [90Y-DOTA]-TOC in patients with preexisting hematotoxicities. The results of the long-term outcome suggest that fractionated [90Y-DOTA]-TOC treatment might allow to reduce renal toxicity and to improve overall survival. (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00978211).

  5. An accelerated dose escalation with a grass pollen allergoid is safe and well-tolerated: a randomized open label phase II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaker, A M; Al-Kadah, B; Luther, U; Neumann, U; Wagenmann, M

    2015-01-01

    The number of injections in the dose escalation of subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) is small for some currently used hypoallergenic allergoids, but can still be inconvenient to patients and can impair compliance. The aim of this trial was to compare safety and tolerability of an accelerated to the conventional dose escalation scheme of a grass pollen allergoid. In an open label phase II trial, 122 patients were 1:1 randomized for SCIT using a grass pollen allergoid with an accelerated dose escalation comprising only 4 weekly injections (Group I) or a conventional dose escalation including 7 weekly injections (Group II). Safety determination included the occurrence of local and systemic adverse events. Tolerability was assessed by patients and physicians. Treatment-related adverse events were observed in 22 (36.1 %) patients in Group I and 15 (24.6 %) in Group II. Local reactions were reported by 18 patients in Group I and 11 in Group II. Five Grade 1 systemic reactions (WAO classification) were observed in Group I and 2 in Group II. Grade 2 reactions occurred 3 times in Group I and 2 times in Group II. Tolerability was rated as "good" or "very good" by 53 (86.9 %) patients in Group I and 59 (100 %) in Group II by investigators. Forty-eight patients in Group I (80.0 %) and 54 in Group II (91.5 %) rated tolerability as "good" or "very good". The dose escalation of a grass pollen allergoid can be accelerated with safety and tolerability profiles comparable to the conventional dose escalation.

  6. Subgroup analysis of patients with localized prostate cancer treated within the Dutch-randomized dose escalation trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mamgani, Abrahim; Heemsbergen, Wilma D.; Levendag, Peter C.; Lebesque, Joos V.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of dose escalation within prognostic risk groups in prostate cancer. Patients and methods: Between 1997 and 2003, 664 patients with localized prostate cancer were randomly assigned to receive 68- or 78-Gy of radiotherapy. Two prognostic models were examined: a risk group model (low-, intermediate-, and high-risk) and PSA-level groupings. High-risk patients with hormonal therapy (HT) were analyzed separately. Outcome variable was freedom from failure (FFF) (clinical failure or PSA nadir + 2 μg/L). Results: In relation to the advantage of high-dose radiotherapy, intermediate-risk patients benefited most from dose escalation. However no significant heterogeneity could be demonstrated between the risk groups. For two types of PSA-level groupings: PSA 8 μg/L, the test for heterogeneity was significant (p = 0.03 and 0.05, respectively). Patients with PSA 8-18 μg/L (n = 297, HR = 0.59) derived the greatest benefit from dose escalation. No heterogeneity could be demonstrated for high-risk patients with and without HT. Conclusion: Intermediate-risk group derived the greatest benefit for dose escalation. However, from this trial no indication was found to exclude low-risk or high-risk patients from high-dose radiotherapy. Patients could be selected for high-dose radiotherapy based on PSA-level groupings: for patients with a PSA < 8 μg/L high-dose radiotherapy is probably not indicated, but should be confirmed in other randomized studies.

  7. Randomised clinical trial: study of escalating doses of NRL001 given in rectal suppositories of different weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, D; Pediconi, C; Jacobs, A

    2014-03-01

    The application of α-adrenoceptor agonists can improve faecal incontinence symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic and systemic effects of NRL001 administered as different strengths in 1 or 2 g suppositories. This randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled study included 48 healthy subjects. Group 1 consisted of two cohorts of 12 subjects administered either four single doses of 1 or 2 g rectal suppository with either 5, 7.5 or 10 mg NRL001, or matching placebo. Group 2 consisted of two cohorts of 12 subjects administered either four single doses of 1 or 2 g rectal suppository with either 10, 12.5 or 15 mg NRL001, or matching placebo. Doses were given in an escalating manner with placebo at a random position within the sequence. Tmax was at ~4.5 h post-dose for all NRL001 doses. Median AUC0-tz , AUC0-∞ and Cmax increased with increasing dose for both suppository sizes. The estimate of ratios of geometric means comparing 2 g with 1 g suppository, and regression analysis for dose proportionality, was close to 1 for the variables AUC0-tz , AUC0-∞ and Cmax (P > 0.05). For both suppository sizes, 20-min mean pulse rate was significantly decreased compared with placebo with all doses (P < 0.05). Blood pressure decreased overall. There were 144 adverse events (AEs) and no serious AEs reported during the study. All AEs were mild in severity. The regression analysis concluded that the doses were dose proportional. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  8. A Phase I Dose Escalation Study of Hypofractionated IMRT Field-in-Field Boost for Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Multiforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monjazeb, Arta M., E-mail: arta.monjazeb@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [U.C. Davis School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Ayala, Deandra; Jensen, Courtney [Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Case, L. Douglas [Biostatistical Sciences, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Bourland, J. Daniel; Ellis, Thomas L. [Neurosurgery, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); McMullen, Kevin P.; Chan, Michael D. [Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Tatter, Stephen B. [Neurosurgery, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Lesser, Glen J. [Hematology Oncology, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Shaw, Edward G. [Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Objectives: To describe the results of a Phase I dose escalation trial for newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) using a hypofractionated concurrent intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) boost. Methods: Twenty-one patients were enrolled between April 1999 and August 2003. Radiotherapy consisted of daily fractions of 1.8 Gy with a concurrent boost of 0.7 Gy (total 2.5 Gy daily) to a total dose of 70, 75, or 80 Gy. Concurrent chemotherapy was not permitted. Seven patients were enrolled at each dose and dose limiting toxicities were defined as irreversible Grade 3 or any Grade 4-5 acute neurotoxicity attributable to radiotherapy. Results: All patients experienced Grade 1 or 2 acute toxicities. Acutely, 8 patients experienced Grade 3 and 1 patient experienced Grade 3 and 4 toxicities. Of these, only two reversible cases of otitis media were attributable to radiotherapy. No dose-limiting toxicities were encountered. Only 2 patients experienced Grade 3 delayed toxicity and there was no delayed Grade 4 toxicity. Eleven patients requiring repeat resection or biopsy were found to have viable tumor and radiation changes with no cases of radionecrosis alone. Median overall and progression-free survival for this cohort were 13.6 and 6.5 months, respectively. One- and 2-year survival rates were 57% and 19%. At recurrence, 15 patients received chemotherapy, 9 underwent resection, and 5 received radiotherapy. Conclusions: Using a hypofractionated concurrent IMRT boost, we were able to safely treat patients to 80 Gy without any dose-limiting toxicity. Given that local failure still remains the predominant pattern for GBM patients, a trial of dose escalation with IMRT and temozolomide is warranted.

  9. A Phase I Dose Escalation Study of Hypofractionated IMRT Field-in-Field Boost for Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monjazeb, Arta M.; Ayala, Deandra; Jensen, Courtney; Case, L. Douglas; Bourland, J. Daniel; Ellis, Thomas L.; McMullen, Kevin P.; Chan, Michael D.; Tatter, Stephen B.; Lesser, Glen J.; Shaw, Edward G.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the results of a Phase I dose escalation trial for newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) using a hypofractionated concurrent intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) boost. Methods: Twenty-one patients were enrolled between April 1999 and August 2003. Radiotherapy consisted of daily fractions of 1.8 Gy with a concurrent boost of 0.7 Gy (total 2.5 Gy daily) to a total dose of 70, 75, or 80 Gy. Concurrent chemotherapy was not permitted. Seven patients were enrolled at each dose and dose limiting toxicities were defined as irreversible Grade 3 or any Grade 4–5 acute neurotoxicity attributable to radiotherapy. Results: All patients experienced Grade 1 or 2 acute toxicities. Acutely, 8 patients experienced Grade 3 and 1 patient experienced Grade 3 and 4 toxicities. Of these, only two reversible cases of otitis media were attributable to radiotherapy. No dose-limiting toxicities were encountered. Only 2 patients experienced Grade 3 delayed toxicity and there was no delayed Grade 4 toxicity. Eleven patients requiring repeat resection or biopsy were found to have viable tumor and radiation changes with no cases of radionecrosis alone. Median overall and progression-free survival for this cohort were 13.6 and 6.5 months, respectively. One- and 2-year survival rates were 57% and 19%. At recurrence, 15 patients received chemotherapy, 9 underwent resection, and 5 received radiotherapy. Conclusions: Using a hypofractionated concurrent IMRT boost, we were able to safely treat patients to 80 Gy without any dose-limiting toxicity. Given that local failure still remains the predominant pattern for GBM patients, a trial of dose escalation with IMRT and temozolomide is warranted.

  10. Prognostic Significance of Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 in Unresectable Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Treated With Dose-Escalated Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Full-Dose Gemcitabine: Analysis of a Prospective Phase 1/2 Dose Escalation Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vainshtein, Jeffrey M.; Schipper, Matthew; Zalupski, Mark M.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Abrams, Ross; Francis, Isaac R.; Khan, Gazala; Leslie, William; Ben-Josef, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Although established in the postresection setting, the prognostic value of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) in unresectable locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) is less clear. We examined the prognostic utility of CA19-9 in patients with unresectable LAPC treated on a prospective trial of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dose escalation with concurrent gemcitabine. Methods and Materials: Forty-six patients with unresectable LAPC were treated at the University of Michigan on a phase 1/2 trial of IMRT dose escalation with concurrent gemcitabine. CA19-9 was obtained at baseline and during routine follow-up. Cox models were used to assess the effect of baseline factors on freedom from local progression (FFLP), distant progression (FFDP), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Stepwise forward regression was used to build multivariate predictive models for each endpoint. Results: Thirty-eight patients were eligible for the present analysis. On univariate analysis, baseline CA19-9 and age predicted OS, CA19-9 at baseline and 3 months predicted PFS, gross tumor volume (GTV) and black race predicted FFLP, and CA19-9 at 3 months predicted FFDP. On stepwise multivariate regression modeling, baseline CA19-9, age, and female sex predicted OS; baseline CA19-9 and female sex predicted both PFS and FFDP; and GTV predicted FFLP. Patients with baseline CA19-9 ≤90 U/mL had improved OS (median 23.0 vs 11.1 months, HR 2.88, P<.01) and PFS (14.4 vs 7.0 months, HR 3.61, P=.001). CA19-9 progression over 90 U/mL was prognostic for both OS (HR 3.65, P=.001) and PFS (HR 3.04, P=.001), and it was a stronger predictor of death than either local progression (HR 1.46, P=.42) or distant progression (HR 3.31, P=.004). Conclusions: In patients with unresectable LAPC undergoing definitive chemoradiation therapy, baseline CA19-9 was independently prognostic even after established prognostic factors were controlled for, whereas CA19-9 progression

  11. Prognostic Significance of Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 in Unresectable Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Treated With Dose-Escalated Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Full-Dose Gemcitabine: Analysis of a Prospective Phase 1/2 Dose Escalation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vainshtein, Jeffrey M., E-mail: jvainsh@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Schipper, Matthew [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Zalupski, Mark M. [Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Abrams, Ross [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Francis, Isaac R. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Khan, Gazala [Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Leslie, William [Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Rush Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Ben-Josef, Edgar [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: Although established in the postresection setting, the prognostic value of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) in unresectable locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) is less clear. We examined the prognostic utility of CA19-9 in patients with unresectable LAPC treated on a prospective trial of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dose escalation with concurrent gemcitabine. Methods and Materials: Forty-six patients with unresectable LAPC were treated at the University of Michigan on a phase 1/2 trial of IMRT dose escalation with concurrent gemcitabine. CA19-9 was obtained at baseline and during routine follow-up. Cox models were used to assess the effect of baseline factors on freedom from local progression (FFLP), distant progression (FFDP), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Stepwise forward regression was used to build multivariate predictive models for each endpoint. Results: Thirty-eight patients were eligible for the present analysis. On univariate analysis, baseline CA19-9 and age predicted OS, CA19-9 at baseline and 3 months predicted PFS, gross tumor volume (GTV) and black race predicted FFLP, and CA19-9 at 3 months predicted FFDP. On stepwise multivariate regression modeling, baseline CA19-9, age, and female sex predicted OS; baseline CA19-9 and female sex predicted both PFS and FFDP; and GTV predicted FFLP. Patients with baseline CA19-9 ≤90 U/mL had improved OS (median 23.0 vs 11.1 months, HR 2.88, P<.01) and PFS (14.4 vs 7.0 months, HR 3.61, P=.001). CA19-9 progression over 90 U/mL was prognostic for both OS (HR 3.65, P=.001) and PFS (HR 3.04, P=.001), and it was a stronger predictor of death than either local progression (HR 1.46, P=.42) or distant progression (HR 3.31, P=.004). Conclusions: In patients with unresectable LAPC undergoing definitive chemoradiation therapy, baseline CA19-9 was independently prognostic even after established prognostic factors were controlled for, whereas CA19-9 progression

  12. Avelumab for metastatic or locally advanced previously treated solid tumours (JAVELIN Solid Tumor): a phase 1a, multicohort, dose-escalation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heery, Christopher R; O'Sullivan-Coyne, Geraldine; Madan, Ravi A; Cordes, Lisa; Rajan, Arun; Rauckhorst, Myrna; Lamping, Elizabeth; Oyelakin, Israel; Marté, Jennifer L; Lepone, Lauren M; Donahue, Renee N; Grenga, Italia; Cuillerot, Jean-Marie; Neuteboom, Berend; Heydebreck, Anja von; Chin, Kevin; Schlom, Jeffrey; Gulley, James L

    2017-05-01

    Avelumab (MSB0010718C) is a human IgG1 monoclonal antibody that binds to PD-L1, inhibiting its binding to PD-1, which inactivates T cells. We aimed to establish the safety and pharmacokinetics of avelumab in patients with solid tumours while assessing biological correlatives for future development. This open-label, single-centre, phase 1a, dose-escalation trial (part of the JAVELIN Solid Tumor trial) assessed four doses of avelumab (1 mg/kg, 3 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, and 20 mg/kg), with dose-level cohort expansions to provide additional safety, pharmacokinetics, and target occupancy data. This study used a standard 3 + 3 cohort design and assigned patients sequentially at trial entry according to the 3 + 3 dose-escalation algorithm and depending on the number of dose-limiting toxicities during the first 3-week assessment period (the primary endpoint). Patient eligibility criteria included age 18 years or older, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-1, metastatic or locally advanced previously treated solid tumours, and adequate end-organ function. Avelumab was given as a 1-h intravenous infusion every 2 weeks. Patients in the dose-limiting toxicity analysis set were assessed for the primary endpoint of dose-limiting toxicity, and all patients enrolled in the dose-escalation part were assessed for the secondary endpoints of safety (treatment-emergent and treatment-related adverse events according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0), pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles (immunological effects), best overall response by Response Evaluation Criteria, and antidrug antibody formation. The population for the pharmacokinetic analysis included a subset of patients with rich pharmacokinetic samples from two selected disease-specific expansion cohorts at the same study site who had serum samples obtained at multiple early timepoints. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT

  13. FOLFIRI and regorafenib combination therapy with dose escalation of irinotecan as fourth-line treatment for patients with metastatic colon cancer according to UGT1A1 genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu CY

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chien-Yu Lu,1,2 Yung-Sung Yeh,3–5 Ching-Wen Huang,5,6, Cheng-Jen Ma,4,5 Fang-Jung Yu,1,2 Jaw-Yuan Wang4–10 1Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, 3Department of Emergency Medicine, Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, 4Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, 5Division of Gastroenterology and General Surgery, Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, 6Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, 7Cancer Center, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, 8Department of Genomic Medicine, 9Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 10Center for Biomarkers and Biotech Drugs, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Abstract: Here we report a case of metastatic colon cancer treated with 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and escalated doses of irinotecan (FOLFIRI combined with regorafenib in the fourth-line setting after uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1A1 genotyping analysis. A 66-year-old male was initially diagnosed with Union Internationale Contre le Cancer stage III descending colon cancer and underwent curative surgery. He received postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy; however, liver metastasis developed and a partial hepatectomy was performed thereafter. Unfortunately, pulmonary metastases and recurrent liver tumors were found despite a series of systemic treatments with multiple combinations of cytotoxic and biologic agents. Recently, a novel multikinase inhibitor, regorafenib, was approved for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer refractory to other therapeutic modalities. As further treatment, we combined regorafenib with FOLFIRI, which included dose escalations of irinotecan, after UGT1A1 genotyping analysis. The therapeutic results were promising, with the improvement in liver and pulmonary metastases being

  14. Does selective pleural irradiation of malignant pleural mesothelioma allow radiation dose escalation. A planning study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botticella, A.; Defraene, G. [KU Leuven - University of Leuven, Department of Oncology, Experimental Radiation Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); Nackaerts, K. [KU Leuven - University of Leuven, University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Deroose, C. [KU Leuven - University of Leuven, University Hospitals Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Coolen, J. [KU Leuven - University of Leuven, University Hospitals Leuven, Radiology Department, Leuven (Belgium); Nafteux, P. [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Leuven (Belgium); Vanstraelen, B. [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiation Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); Joosten, S.; Michiels, L.A.W. [Fontys University of Applied Science, Institute Paramedical Studies, Medical Imaging and Radiotherapeutic Techniques, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Peeters, S. [KU Leuven - University of Leuven, Department of Oncology, Experimental Radiation Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiation Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); Ruysscher, D. de [KU Leuven - University of Leuven, Department of Oncology, Experimental Radiation Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); Maastricht University Medical Center, GROW - School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO Clinic), Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2017-04-15

    After lung-sparing radiotherapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), local failure at sites of previous gross disease represents the dominant form of failure. Our aim is to investigate if selective irradiation of the gross pleural disease only can allow dose escalation. In all, 12 consecutive stage I-IV MPM patients (6 left-sided and 6 right-sided) were retrospectively identified and included. A magnetic resonance imaging-based pleural gross tumor volume (GTV) was contoured. Two sets of planning target volumes (PTV) were generated for each patient: (1) a ''selective'' PTV (S-PTV), originating from a 5-mm isotropic expansion from the GTV and (2) an ''elective'' PTV (E-PTV), originating from a 5-mm isotropic expansion from the whole ipsilateral pleural space. Two sets of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment plans were generated: a ''selective'' pleural irradiation plan (SPI plan) and an ''elective'' pleural irradiation plan (EPI plan, planned with a simultaneous integrated boost technique [SIB]). In the SPI plans, the average median dose to the S-PTV was 53.6 Gy (range 41-63.6 Gy). In 4 of 12 patients, it was possible to escalate the dose to the S-PTV to >58 Gy. In the EPI plans, the average median doses to the E-PTV and to the S-PTV were 48.6 Gy (range 38.5-58.7) and 49 Gy (range 38.6-59.5 Gy), respectively. No significant dose escalation was achievable. The omission of the elective irradiation of the whole ipsilateral pleural space allowed dose escalation from 49 Gy to more than 58 Gy in 4 of 12 chemonaive MPM patients. This strategy may form the basis for nonsurgical radical combined modality treatment of MPM. (orig.) [German] Beim malignen Pleuramesotheliom (MPM) ist nach lungenschonender Radiotherapie das lokale Scheitern an Stellen eines frueheren, sichtbaren Tumors die dominierende Form des Scheiterns. Unser Ziel ist es, zu untersuchen, ob die selektive

  15. Safety of dose escalation by simultaneous integrated boosting radiation dose within the primary tumor guided by 18FDG-PET/CT for esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Wen; Cai, Xu-Wei; Liu, Qi; Zhu, Zheng-Fei; Feng, Wen; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Ying-Jian; Yao, Zhi-Feng; Fu, Xiao-Long

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To observe the safety of selective dose boost to the pre-treatment high 18 F-deoxyglucose (FDG) uptake areas of the esophageal GTV. Methods: Patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were treated with escalating radiation dose of 4 levels, with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) to the pre-treatment 50% SUVmax area of the primary tumor. Patients received 4 monthly cycles of cisplatin and fluorouracil. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was defined as any Grade 3 or higher acute toxicities causing continuous interruption of radiation for over 1 week. Results: From April 2012 to February 2014, dose has been escalated up to LEVEL 4 (70 Gy). All of the 25 patients finished the prescribed dose without DLT, and 10 of them developed Grade 3 acute esophagitis. One patient of LEVEL 2 died of esophageal hemorrhage within 1 month after completion of radiotherapy, which was not definitely correlated with treatment yet. Late toxicities remained under observation. With median follow up of 8.9 months, one-year overall survival and local control was 69.2% and 77.4%, respectively. Conclusions: Dose escalation in esophageal cancer based on 18 FDG-PET/CT has been safely achieved up to 70 Gy using the SIB technique. Acute toxicities were well tolerated, whereas late toxicities and long-term outcomes deserved further observation

  16. Off-label biologic regimens in psoriasis: a systematic review of efficacy and safety of dose escalation, reduction, and interrupted biologic therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Brezinski

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: While off-label dosing of biologic treatments may be necessary in selected psoriasis patients, no systematic review exists to date that synthesizes the efficacy and safety of these off-label dosing regimens. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate efficacy and safety of off-label dosing regimens (dose escalation, dose reduction, and interrupted treatment with etanercept, adalimumab, infliximab, ustekinumab, and alefacept for psoriasis treatment. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: We searched OVID Medline from January 1, 1990 through August 1, 2011 for prospective clinical trials that studied biologic therapy for psoriasis treatment in adults. Individual articles were screened for studies that examined escalated, reduced, or interrupted therapy with etanercept, adalimumab, infliximab, ustekinumab, or alefacept. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 23 articles with 12,617 patients matched the inclusion and exclusion criteria for the systematic review. Data were examined for primary and secondary efficacy outcomes and adverse events including infections, malignancies, cardiovascular events, and anti-drug antibodies. The preponderance of data suggests that continuous treatment with anti-TNF agents and anti-IL12/23 agent was necessary for maintenance of disease control. Among non-responders, dose escalation with etanercept, adalimumab, ustekinumab, and alefacept typically resulted in greater efficacy than standard dosing. Dose reduction with etanercept and alefacept resulted in reduced efficacy. Withdrawal of the examined biologics led to an increase in disease activity; efficacy from retreatment did not result in equivalent initial response rates for most biologics. Safety data on off-label dosing regimens are limited. CONCLUSION: Dose escalation in non-responders generally resulted in increased efficacy in the examined biologics used to treat moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Continuous treatment with anti-TNF agents and anti-IL12/23 agent

  17. Clinical Outcome of Dose-Escalated Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Spinal Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guckenberger, Matthias; Goebel, Joachim; Wilbert, Juergen; Baier, Kurt; Richter, Anne; Sweeney, Reinhart A.; Bratengeier, Klaus; Flentje, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes after dose-escalated radiotherapy (RT) for spinal metastases and paraspinal tumors. Methods and Materials: A total of 14 patients, 12 with spinal metastases and a long life expectancy and 2 with paraspinal tumors, were treated for 16 lesions with intensity-modulated, image-guided RT. A median biologic effective dose of 74 Gy 10 (range, 55-86) in a median of 20 fractions (range, 3-34) was prescribed to the target volume. The spinal canal was treated to 40 Gy in 20 fractions using a second intensity-modulated RT dose level in the case of epidural involvement. Results: After median follow-up of 17 months, one local recurrence was observed, for an actuarial local control rate of 88% after 2 years. Local control was associated with rapid and long-term pain relief. Of 11 patients treated for a solitary spinal metastasis, 6 developed systemic disease progression. The actuarial overall survival rate for metastatic patients was 85% and 63% after 1 and 2 years, respectively. Acute Grade 2-3 skin toxicity was seen in 2 patients with no late toxicity greater than Grade 2. No radiation-induced myelopathy was observed. Conclusion: Dose-escalated irradiation of spinal metastases was safe and resulted in excellent local control. Oligometastatic patients with a long life expectancy and epidural involvement are considered to benefit the most from fractionated RT.

  18. Dose escalation by hypo fractionation in localized prostate cancer - a large single institution experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadevan, A.; Klein, E.; Kupelian, P.

    2003-01-01

    To report the outcomes of high dose radiation therapy using Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) with hypo fractionation in localized prostate cancer at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation. A total of 278 patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with IMRT between 1998 and 2001. All cases had available pretreatment PSA (iPSA) and biopsy Gleason scores (bGS), no nodal metastasis, a minimum 2 year follow-up, and >5 follow-up PSA levels. The frequency by T-stage was: T1-T2A in 86%, T2B-T2C in 9%, and T3 in 5%. The median iPSA was 8.35. The frequency by bGS was: =7 in 45%. The age range for the patients was from 48 to 85 years (median 68 years). The median follow-up was 33 months (range: 24-49 months). The median doses delivered were 83Gy (delivered at 2.5Gy per fraction to 70 Gy; this being equivalent to 83 Gy at standard fractionation of 1.8 Gy using an alpha/beta of 2). The ASTRO definition for biochemical failure was used. Toxicity was assessed using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) criteria. The 3-year biochemical relapse free survival (bRFS) for the entire cohort at three years was 91%. Any (grade 1 or higher) acute genito-urinary (GU) side effects were seen in 79% of patients. Grade 2 or higher acute GU toxicity was seen in 18% of patients. Any (grade 1 or higher) acute gastro-intestinal (GI) side effects were seen in 65% of patients. Grade 2 or higher acute GI toxicity was seen in 11% of patients. Any (grade 1 or higher) late GU side effects were seen in 3% of patients. Grade 2 or higher late GU toxicity was seen in 1.5% of patients. Any (grade 1 or higher) late GI side effects were seen in 13% of patients. Grade 2 or higher late GI toxicity was seen in 5% of patients. Higher doses of radiation delivered by IMRT resulted in excellent bRFS outcomes in patients with localized prostate cancer receiving external beam radiation therapy. IMRT can be effectively used to safely increase dose delivery without compromising on quality of life

  19. Somatostatin-based radiotherapy with [90Y-DOTA]-TOC in neuroendocrine tumors: long-term outcome of a phase I dose escalation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marincek Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe the long-term outcome after clinical introduction and dose escalation of somatostatin receptor targeted therapy with [90Y-DOTA]-TOC in patients with metastasized neuroendocrine tumors. Methods In a clinical phase I dose escalation study we treated patients with increasing [90Y-DOTA]-TOC activities. Multivariable Cox regression and competing risk regression were used to compare efficacy and toxicities of the different dosage protocols. Results Overall, 359 patients were recruited; 60 patients were enrolled for low dose (median: 2.4 GBq/cycle, range 0.9-7.8 GBq/cycle, 77 patients were enrolled for intermediate dose (median: 3.3 GBq/cycle, range: 2.0-7.4 GBq/cycle and 222 patients were enrolled for high dose (median: 6.7 GBq/cycle, range: 3.7-8.1 GBq/cycle [90Y-DOTA]-TOC treatment. The incidences of hematotoxicities grade 1–4 were 65.0%, 64.9% and 74.8%; the incidences of grade 4/5 kidney toxicities were 8.4%, 6.5% and 14.0%, and the median survival was 39 (range: 1–158 months, 34 (range: 1–118 months and 29 (range: 1–113 months. The high dose protocol was associated with an increased risk of kidney toxicity (Hazard Ratio: 3.12 (1.13-8.59 vs. intermediate dose, p = 0.03 and a shorter overall survival (Hazard Ratio: 2.50 (1.08-5.79 vs. low dose, p = 0.03. Conclusions Increasing [90Y-DOTA]-TOC activities may be associated with increasing hematological toxicities. The dose related hematotoxicity profile of [90Y-DOTA]-TOC could facilitate tailoring [90Y-DOTA]-TOC in patients with preexisting hematotoxicities. The results of the long-term outcome suggest that fractionated [90Y-DOTA]-TOC treatment might allow to reduce renal toxicity and to improve overall survival. (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00978211.

  20. Somatostatin-based radiotherapy with [90Y-DOTA]-TOC in neuroendocrine tumors: long-term outcome of a phase I dose escalation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background We describe the long-term outcome after clinical introduction and dose escalation of somatostatin receptor targeted therapy with [90Y-DOTA]-TOC in patients with metastasized neuroendocrine tumors. Methods In a clinical phase I dose escalation study we treated patients with increasing [90Y-DOTA]-TOC activities. Multivariable Cox regression and competing risk regression were used to compare efficacy and toxicities of the different dosage protocols. Results Overall, 359 patients were recruited; 60 patients were enrolled for low dose (median: 2.4 GBq/cycle, range 0.9-7.8 GBq/cycle), 77 patients were enrolled for intermediate dose (median: 3.3 GBq/cycle, range: 2.0-7.4 GBq/cycle) and 222 patients were enrolled for high dose (median: 6.7 GBq/cycle, range: 3.7-8.1 GBq/cycle) [90Y-DOTA]-TOC treatment. The incidences of hematotoxicities grade 1–4 were 65.0%, 64.9% and 74.8%; the incidences of grade 4/5 kidney toxicities were 8.4%, 6.5% and 14.0%, and the median survival was 39 (range: 1–158) months, 34 (range: 1–118) months and 29 (range: 1–113) months. The high dose protocol was associated with an increased risk of kidney toxicity (Hazard Ratio: 3.12 (1.13-8.59) vs. intermediate dose, p = 0.03) and a shorter overall survival (Hazard Ratio: 2.50 (1.08-5.79) vs. low dose, p = 0.03). Conclusions Increasing [90Y-DOTA]-TOC activities may be associated with increasing hematological toxicities. The dose related hematotoxicity profile of [90Y-DOTA]-TOC could facilitate tailoring [90Y-DOTA]-TOC in patients with preexisting hematotoxicities. The results of the long-term outcome suggest that fractionated [90Y-DOTA]-TOC treatment might allow to reduce renal toxicity and to improve overall survival. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov number:NCT00978211 PMID:23320604

  1. Dose De-escalation of Intrapleural Tissue Plasminogen Activator Therapy for Pleural Infection. The Alteplase Dose Assessment for Pleural Infection Therapy Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popowicz, Natalia; Bintcliffe, Oliver; De Fonseka, Duneesha; Blyth, Kevin G; Smith, Nicola A; Piccolo, Francesco; Martin, Geoffrey; Wong, Donny; Edey, Anthony; Maskell, Nick; Lee, Y C Gary

    2017-06-01

    Intrapleural therapy with a combination of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) 10 mg and DNase 5 mg administered twice daily has been shown in randomized and open-label studies to successfully manage over 90% of patients with pleural infection without surgery. Potential bleeding risks associated with intrapleural tPA and its costs remain important concerns. The aim of the ongoing Alteplase Dose Assessment for Pleural infection Therapy (ADAPT) project is to investigate the efficacy and safety of dose de-escalation for intrapleural tPA. The first of several planned studies is presented here. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a reduced starting dose regimen of 5 mg of tPA with 5 mg of DNase administered intrapleurally for pleural infection. Consecutive patients with pleural infection at four participating centers in Australia, the United Kingdom, and New Zealand were included in this observational, open-label study. Treatment was initiated with tPA 5 mg and DNase 5 mg twice daily. Subsequent dose escalation was permitted at the discretion of the attending physician. Data relating to treatment success, radiological and systemic inflammatory changes (blood C-reactive protein), volume of fluid drained, length of hospital stay, and treatment complications were extracted retrospectively from the medical records. We evaluated 61 patients (41 males; age, 57 ± 16 yr). Most patients (n = 58 [93.4%]) were successfully treated without requiring surgery for pleural infection. Treatment success was corroborated by clearance of pleural opacities visualized by chest radiography (from 42% [interquartile range, 22-58] to 16% [8-31] of hemithorax; P < 0.001), increase in pleural fluid drainage (from 175 ml in the 24 h preceding treatment to 2,025 ml [interquartile range, 1,247-2,984] over 72 h of therapy; P <  0.05) and a reduction in blood C-reactive protein (P < 0.05). Seven patients (11.5%) had dose escalation of tPA to 10 mg. Three patients underwent

  2. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) Dose-Escalation Studies in Prostate Cancer Using Anti-PSMA Antibody 177Lu-J591: RIT Alone and RIT in Combination with Docetaxel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vallabhajosula, Shankar

    2007-01-01

    Phase I dose escalation studies with 177Lu-DOTA-huJ591 using dose fractionation regimen will be performed in patients with PCa and who have recurrent and/or metastatic disease. The 177Lu dose (20-45 mCi/m2...

  3. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) Dose-Escalation Studies in Prostate Cancer Using Anti-PSMA Antibody 177Lu-J591: RIT Alone and RIT in Combination With Docetaxel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vallabhajosula, Shankar

    2006-01-01

    Phase I dose escalation studies with 177Lu-DOTA-huJ591 using dose fractionation regimen will be performed in patients with PCa and who have recurrent and/or metastatic disease. The 177Lu dose (20-45 mCi/m2...

  4. Gemcitabine and paclitaxel associated pneumonitis in non-small cell lung cancer: report of a phase I/II dose-escalating study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, A L; Cox, G; Sharma, R A; Steward, W P; Shields, F; Jeyapalan, K; Muller, S; O'Byrne, K J

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this phase I/II dose escalating study was to establish the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of gemcitabine and paclitaxel given in combination in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). 12 patients with stage IIIB and IV NSCLC received paclitaxel administered intravenously over 1 h followed by gemcitabine given over 30 min on days 1, 8 and 15 every 28 days. Pneumonitis was the principal side-effect observed with 4 patients affected. Of these, 1 experienced grade 3 toxicity after one cycle of treatment and the others had grade 2 toxicity. All 4 cases responded to prednisolone. No other significant toxicities were observed. Of the 8 evaluable patients, 3 had a partial response and 2 had minor responses. The study was discontinued due to this dose-limiting toxicity. The combination of paclitaxel and gemcitabine shows promising antitumour activity in NSCLC, however, this treatment schedule may predispose to pneumonitis.

  5. SU-G-BRC-12: Isotoxic Dose Escalation for Advanced Lung Cancer: Comparison of Different Boosting Strategiesfor Patients with Recurrent Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shusharina, N; Khan, F; Sharp, G; Choi, N [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the dose level and timing of the boost in locally advanced lung cancer patients with confirmed tumor recurrence by comparing different boosting strategies by an impact of dose escalation in improvement of the therapeutic ratio. Methods: We selected eighteen patients with advanced NSCLC and confirmed recurrence. For each patient, a base IMRT plan to 60 Gy prescribed to PTV was created. Then we compared three dose escalation strategies: a uniform escalation to the original PTV, an escalation to a PET-defined target planned sequentially and concurrently. The PET-defined targets were delineated by biologically-weighed regions on a pre-treatment 18F-FDG PET. The maximal achievable dose, without violating the OAR constraints, was identified for each boosting method. The EUD for the target, spinal cord, combined lung, and esophagus was compared for each plan. Results: The average prescribed dose was 70.4±13.9 Gy for the uniform boost, 88.5±15.9 Gy for the sequential boost and 89.1±16.5 Gy for concurrent boost. The size of the boost planning volume was 12.8% (range: 1.4 – 27.9%) of the PTV. The most prescription-limiting dose constraints was the V70 of the esophagus. The EUD within the target increased by 10.6 Gy for the uniform boost, by 31.4 Gy for the sequential boost and by 38.2 for the concurrent boost. The EUD for OARs increased by the following amounts: spinal cord, 3.1 Gy for uniform boost, 2.8 Gy for sequential boost, 5.8 Gy for concurrent boost; combined lung, 1.6 Gy for uniform, 1.1 Gy for sequential, 2.8 Gy for concurrent; esophagus, 4.2 Gy for uniform, 1.3 Gy for sequential, 5.6 Gy for concurrent. Conclusion: Dose escalation to a biologically-weighed gross tumor volume defined on a pre-treatment 18F-FDG PET may provide improved therapeutic ratio without breaching predefined OAR constraints. Sequential boost provides better sparing of OARs as compared with concurrent boost.

  6. SU-G-BRC-12: Isotoxic Dose Escalation for Advanced Lung Cancer: Comparison of Different Boosting Strategiesfor Patients with Recurrent Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shusharina, N; Khan, F; Sharp, G; Choi, N

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the dose level and timing of the boost in locally advanced lung cancer patients with confirmed tumor recurrence by comparing different boosting strategies by an impact of dose escalation in improvement of the therapeutic ratio. Methods: We selected eighteen patients with advanced NSCLC and confirmed recurrence. For each patient, a base IMRT plan to 60 Gy prescribed to PTV was created. Then we compared three dose escalation strategies: a uniform escalation to the original PTV, an escalation to a PET-defined target planned sequentially and concurrently. The PET-defined targets were delineated by biologically-weighed regions on a pre-treatment 18F-FDG PET. The maximal achievable dose, without violating the OAR constraints, was identified for each boosting method. The EUD for the target, spinal cord, combined lung, and esophagus was compared for each plan. Results: The average prescribed dose was 70.4±13.9 Gy for the uniform boost, 88.5±15.9 Gy for the sequential boost and 89.1±16.5 Gy for concurrent boost. The size of the boost planning volume was 12.8% (range: 1.4 – 27.9%) of the PTV. The most prescription-limiting dose constraints was the V70 of the esophagus. The EUD within the target increased by 10.6 Gy for the uniform boost, by 31.4 Gy for the sequential boost and by 38.2 for the concurrent boost. The EUD for OARs increased by the following amounts: spinal cord, 3.1 Gy for uniform boost, 2.8 Gy for sequential boost, 5.8 Gy for concurrent boost; combined lung, 1.6 Gy for uniform, 1.1 Gy for sequential, 2.8 Gy for concurrent; esophagus, 4.2 Gy for uniform, 1.3 Gy for sequential, 5.6 Gy for concurrent. Conclusion: Dose escalation to a biologically-weighed gross tumor volume defined on a pre-treatment 18F-FDG PET may provide improved therapeutic ratio without breaching predefined OAR constraints. Sequential boost provides better sparing of OARs as compared with concurrent boost.

  7. Pulsed Dose Rate (PDR - BT) brachytherapy in treatment of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skowronek, J.

    2007-01-01

    Breast conserving surgery (BCS) and radiotherapy (EBRT) of the conserved breast became widely accepted in the last decades for the treatment of early invasive breast cancer. The standard technique of RT after breast conservation is to treat the whole breast up to a total dose of 45 to 50 Gy. Initially brachytherapy for breast cancer was used in addition of external radiation to boost a portion of the breast to higher doses. However, over the past 10 years, the application of brachytherapy in breast cancer has changed. In early stage breast cancer, research has shown that the area that requires radiation treatment to prevent the cancer from returning is the breast tissue that surrounds the area where the initial cancer was removed. Because this typically includes only a part of the breast, brachytherapy is now being used to treat the targeted portion of the breast and as a result allows accelerated delivery of the radiation dose so that treatment is completed in four to five days. Another indications for PDR - BT as a part of treatment in locally advanced breast cancer or as a palliative treatment are discussed in the paper, too. Preliminary results with PDR - BT boost technique are promising. However, more experience and longer follow-up are required to define whether these methods might improve local tumor control for breast cancer patients. In this article the current status, indications, technical aspects and published results of PDR brachytherapy (PDR - BT) in breast cancer treatment are reviewed. (author)

  8. Post treatment PSA nadirs support continuing dose escalation study in patients with pretreatment PSA levels >10 ng/ml, but not in those with PSA <10 NG/ML

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herold, D.H.; Hanlon, A.L.; Movsas, B.; Hanks, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: We have recently shown that ICRU reporting point radiation doses above 71 Gy are not associated with improved bNED survival in prostate cancer patients with pretreatment PSA level 20 ng/ml we found a strong correlation between dose and nadir values < 1.0 ng/ml (p=.003) as well as for nadir's < 0.5 ng/ml (p=.04). This dose/nadir effect held at several dose levels, but 74 Gy for nadir values < 1.0 ng/ml and 72 Gy for nadir's < 0.5 ng/ml remained the most significant. 32% of these patients achieved a nadir < 1.0ng/ml and 15% < 0.5ng/ml. Conclusions: This analysis provides strong additional support that patients with pretreatment PSA values of < 10 ng/ml do not benefit from dose escalation beyond an ICRU reporting point dose of 71 Gy. For patients with pretreatment PSA's of 10-19.9 ng/ml there is no dose/nadir response evaluated at a nadir of 1.0 ng/ml; however, there is a borderline effect observed at a nadir of 0.5 ng/ml. Patients with pretreatment PSA's of 20 ng/ml or greater clearly benefit from higher doses as evaluated by PSA nadirs of 1.0 ng/ml, and 0.5 ng/ml. These studies support the continued investigation of dose escalation in treating patients with PSA levels over 10 ng/ml, they do not support continued investigation of dose escalation beyond 71 Gy in patients with pretreatment PSA levels < 10 ng/ml. The failure to demonstrate any dose response for the low PSA group and the finding of only a borderline effect for the intermediate PSA group may be influenced by the relatively small number of patients in our series treated to doses < 70 Gy and the fact that none of our patients were treated to doses below 65.98 Gy. The lower limit of acceptible dose has yet to be defined

  9. Radiobiological Determination of Dose Escalation and Normal Tissue Toxicity in Definitive Chemoradiation Therapy for Esophageal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Samantha, E-mail: Samantha.warren@oncology.ox.ac.uk [Department of Oncology, Gray Institute of Radiation Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Partridge, Mike [Department of Oncology, Gray Institute of Radiation Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Carrington, Rhys [Velindre Cancer Centre, Velindre Hospital, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Hurt, Chris [Wales Cancer Trials Unit, School of Medicine, Heath Park, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Crosby, Thomas [Velindre Cancer Centre, Velindre Hospital, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Hawkins, Maria A. [Department of Oncology, Gray Institute of Radiation Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the trade-off in tumor coverage and organ-at-risk sparing when applying dose escalation for concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CRT) of mid-esophageal cancer, using radiobiological modeling to estimate local control and normal tissue toxicity. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one patients with mid-esophageal cancer were selected from the SCOPE1 database (International Standard Randomised Controlled Trials number 47718479), with a mean planning target volume (PTV) of 327 cm{sup 3}. A boost volume, PTV2 (GTV + 0.5 cm margin), was created. Radiobiological modeling of tumor control probability (TCP) estimated the dose required for a clinically significant (+20%) increase in local control as 62.5 Gy/25 fractions. A RapidArc (RA) plan with a simultaneously integrated boost (SIB) to PTV2 (RA{sub 62.5}) was compared to a standard dose plan of 50 Gy/25 fractions (RA{sub 50}). Dose-volume metrics and estimates of normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for heart and lungs were compared. Results: Clinically acceptable dose escalation was feasible for 16 of 21 patients, with significant gains (>18%) in tumor control from 38.2% (RA{sub 50}) to 56.3% (RA{sub 62.5}), and only a small increase in predicted toxicity: median heart NTCP 4.4% (RA{sub 50}) versus 5.6% (RA{sub 62.5}) P<.001 and median lung NTCP 6.5% (RA{sub 50}) versus 7.5% (RA{sub 62.5}) P<.001. Conclusions: Dose escalation to the GTV to improve local control is possible when overlap between PTV and organ-at-risk (<8% heart volume and <2.5% lung volume overlap for this study) generates only negligible increase in lung or heart toxicity. These predictions from radiobiological modeling should be tested in future clinical trials.

  10. Pharmacogenetic testing for clopidogrel using the rapid INFINITI analyzer: a dose-escalation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladding, Patrick; White, Harvey; Voss, Jamie; Ormiston, John; Stewart, Jim; Ruygrok, Peter; Bvaldivia, Badi; Baak, Ruth; White, Catherine; Webster, Mark

    2009-11-01

    Our aim was to assess whether a higher clopidogrel maintenance dose has a greater antiplatelet effect in CYP2C19*2 allele carriers compared with noncarriers. Clopidogrel is a prodrug that is biotransformed by the cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP2C19, 2C9, and 3A4, 2B6, 1A2. The CYPC219*2 loss of function variant has been associated with a reduced antiplatelet response to clopidogrel and a 3-fold risk of stent thrombosis. Forty patients on standard maintenance dosage clopidogrel (75 mg), for 9.4 +/- 9.2 weeks, were enrolled into a dose escalation study. Platelet function was assessed at baseline and after 1 week of 150 mg once daily using the VerifyNow platelet function analyzer (Accumetrics Ltd., San Diego, California). Genomic DNA was hybridized to a BioFilmChip microarray on the INFINITI analyzer (AutoGenomics Inc., Carlsbad, California) and analyzed for the CYP19*2, *4, *17, and CYP2C9*2, *3 polymorphisms. Platelet inhibition increased over 1 week, mean +8.6 +/- 13.5% (p = 0.0003). Carriers of the CYP2C19*2 allele had significantly reduced platelet inhibition at baseline (median 18%, range 0% to 72%) compared with wildtype (wt) (median 59%, range 11% to 95%, p = 0.01) and at 1 week (p = 0.03). CYP2C19*2 allele carriers had an increase in platelet inhibition of (mean +9 +/- 11%, p = 0.03) and reduction in platelet reactivity (mean -26 +/- 38 platelet response unit, p = 0.04) with a higher dose. Together CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C9*3 loss of function carriers had a greater change in platelet inhibition with 150 mg daily than wt/wt (+10.9% vs. +0.7%, p = 0.04). Increasing the dose of clopidogrel in patients with nonresponder polymorphisms can increase antiplatelet response. Personalizing clopidogrel dosing using pharmacogenomics may be an effective method of optimizing treatment.

  11. The NARLAL2 dose escalation trial: dosimetric implications of inter-fractional changes in organs at risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Lone; Knap, Marianne Marquard; Khalil, Azza Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    and an escalated treatment plan. In the escalated arm, mean doses up to 95 Gy/33 fractions (tumour) and 74 Gy/33 fractions (lymph nodes) are delivered to the most 18fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (18FDG PET) active regions. The dose distributions are limited by strict constraints to OARs...

  12. Optimizing cancer radiotheraphy with 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Dose escalation studies in patients with glioblastoma multiforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, D.; Gupta, J.P. [Dharmshila Cancer Hospital, New Delhi (India); Banerji, A.K. [Vidyasagar Inst. of Mental Health and Neurosciences, New Delhi (India); Dwarakanath, B.S.; Tripathi, R.P.; Mathew, T.L.; Ravindranath, T. [Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Delhi (India); Jain, V. [Wright State University, Dayton, OH (United States). Kettering Medical Center

    2005-08-01

    Background and purpose: Higher rates of glucose utilization and glycolysis generally correlate with poor prognosis in several types of malignant tumors. Own earlier studies on model systems demonstrated that the nonmetabolizable glucose analog 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) could enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy in a dose-dependent manner by selectively sensitizing cancer cells while protecting normal cells. Phase I/II clinical trials indicated that the combination of 2-DG, at an oral dose of 200 mg/kg body weight (BW), with large fractions of {gamma}-radiation was well tolerated in cerebral glioma patients. Since higher 2-DG doses are expected to improve the therapeutic gain, present studies were undertaken to examine the tolerance and safety of escalating 2-DG dose during combined treatment (2-DG + radiotherapy) in glioblastoma multiforme patients. Patients and methods: Untreated patients with histologically proven glioblastoma multiforme (WHO criteria) were included in the study. Seven weekly fractions of {sup 60}C {gamma}-rays (5 Gy/fraction) were delivered to the tumor volume (presurgical CT/MRI evaluation) plus 3 cm margin. Escalating 2-DG doses (200-250-300 mg/kg BW) were administered orally 30 min before irradiation after overnight fasting. Acute toxicity and tolerance were studied by monitoring the vital parameters and side effects. Late radiation damage and treatment responses were studied radiologically and clinically in surviving patients. Results: Transient side effects similar to hypoglycemia were observed in most of the patients. Tolerance and patient compliance to the combined treatment were very good up to a 2-DG dose of 250 mg/kg BW. However, at the higher dose of 300 mg/kg BW, two out of six patients were very restless and could not complete treatment, though significant changes in the vital parameters were not observed even at this dose. No significant damage to the normal brain tissue was observed during follow-up in seven out of ten patients who

  13. Dose escalation by image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy leads to an increase in pain relief for spinal metastases: a comparison study with a regimen of 30 Gy in 10 fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinlan; Xiao, Jianghong; Peng, Xingchen; Duan, Baofeng; Li, Yan; Ai, Ping; Yao, Min; Chen, Nianyong

    2017-12-22

    Under the existing condition that the optimum radiotherapy regimen for spinal metastases is controversial, this study investigates the benefits of dose escalation by image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) with 60-66 Gy in 20-30 fractions for spinal metastases. In the dose-escalation group, each D50 of planning gross tumor volume (PGTV) was above 60 Gy and each Dmax of spinal cord planning organ at risk volume (PRV) was below 48 Gy. The median biological effective dose (BED) of Dmax of spinal cord was lower in the dose-escalation group compared with that in the 30-Gy group (69.70 Gy vs. 83.16 Gy, p pain responses were better in the dose-escalation group than those in the 30-Gy group ( p = 0.005 and p = 0.024), and the complete pain relief rates were respectively 73.69% and 34.29% ( p = 0.006), 73.69% and 41.38% ( p = 0.028) in two compared groups. In the dose-escalation group, there is a trend of a longer duration of pain relief, a longer overall survival and a lower incidence of acute radiation toxicities. No late radiation toxicities were observed in both groups. Dosimetric parameters and clinical outcomes, including pain response, duration of pain relief, radiation toxicities and overall survival, were compared among twenty-five metastatic spinal lesions irradiated with the dose-escalation regimen and among forty-four lesions treated with the 30-Gy regimen. Conventionally-fractionated IG-IMRT for spinal metastases could escalate dose to the vertebral lesions while sparing the spinal cord, achieving a better pain relief without increasing radiation complications.

  14. Radiation Therapy Dose Escalation for Glioblastoma Multiforme in the Era of Temozolomide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badiyan, Shahed N.; Markovina, Stephanie; Simpson, Joseph R.; Robinson, Clifford G.; DeWees, Todd [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Tran, David D.; Linette, Gerry [Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Jalalizadeh, Rohan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Dacey, Ralph; Rich, Keith M.; Chicoine, Michael R.; Dowling, Joshua L.; Leuthardt, Eric C.; Zipfel, Gregory J.; Kim, Albert H. [Department of Neurosurgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Huang, Jiayi, E-mail: jhuang@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: To review clinical outcomes of moderate dose escalation using high-dose radiation therapy (HDRT) in the setting of concurrent temozolomide (TMZ) in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), compared with standard-dose radiation therapy (SDRT). Methods and Materials: Adult patients aged <70 years with biopsy-proven GBM were treated with SDRT (60 Gy at 2 Gy per fraction) or with HDRT (>60 Gy) and TMZ from 2000 to 2012. Biological equivalent dose at 2-Gy fractions was calculated for the HDRT assuming an α/β ratio of 5.6 for GBM. Results: Eighty-one patients received SDRT, and 128 patients received HDRT with a median (range) biological equivalent dose at 2-Gy fractions of 64 Gy (61-76 Gy). Overall median follow-up time was 1.10 years, and for living patients it was 2.97 years. Actuarial 5-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates for patients that received HDRT versus SDRT were 12.4% versus 13.2% (P=.71), and 5.6% versus 4.1% (P=.54), respectively. Age (P=.001) and gross total/near-total resection (GTR/NTR) (P=.001) were significantly associated with PFS on multivariate analysis. Younger age (P<.0001), GTR/NTR (P<.0001), and Karnofsky performance status ≥80 (P=.001) were associated with improved OS. On subset analyses, HDRT failed to improve PFS or OS for those aged <50 years or those who had GTR/NTR. Conclusion: Moderate radiation therapy dose escalation above 60 Gy with concurrent TMZ does not seem to improve clinical outcomes for patients with GBM.

  15. [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for targeting radiation dose escalation for patients with glioblastoma multiforme: Clinical outcomes and patterns of failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, James G.; Stelzer, Keith J.; Mankoff, David A.; Tralins, Kevin S.; Krohn, Kenneth A.; Muzi, Mark; Silbergeld, Daniel L.; Rostomily, Robert C.; Scharnhorst, Jeffrey B.S.; Spence, Alexander M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging for brain tumors has been shown to identify areas of active disease. Radiation dose escalation in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme may lead to improved disease control. Based on these premises, we initiated a prospective study of FDG-PET for the treatment planning of radiation dose escalation for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme. Methods and Materials: Forty patients were enrolled. Patients were treated with standard conformal fractionated radiotherapy with volumes defined by MRI imaging. When patients reached a dose of 45-50.4 Gy, they underwent FDG-PET imaging for boost target delineation, for an additional 20 Gy (2 Gy per fraction) to a total dose of 79.4 Gy (n = 30). Results: The estimated 1-year and 2-year overall survival (OS) for the entire group was 70% and 17%, respectively, with a median overall survival of 70 weeks. The estimated 1-year and 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 18% and 3%, respectively, with a median of 24 weeks. No significant improvements in OS or PFS were observed for the study group in comparison to institutional historical controls. Conclusions: Radiation dose escalation to 79.4 Gy based on FDG-PET imaging demonstrated no improvement in OS or PFS. This study establishes the feasibility of integrating PET metabolic imaging into radiotherapy treatment planning

  16. Optimizing Collimator Margins for Isotoxically Dose-Escalated Conformal Radiation Therapy of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Samantha, E-mail: Samantha.warren@oncology.ox.ac.uk [Department of Oncology, Gray Institute of Radiation Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Oxford Cancer Centre, Oxford University Hospitals, Oxford (United Kingdom); Panettieri, Vanessa [William Buckland Radiotherapy Centre, Alfred Hospital, Commercial Road, Melbourne (Australia); Panakis, Niki; Bates, Nicholas [Oxford Cancer Centre, Oxford University Hospitals, Oxford (United Kingdom); Lester, Jason F. [Velindre Cancer Centre, Velindre Road, Whitchurch, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Jain, Pooja [Clatterbridge Cancer Centre, Clatterbridge Road, Wirral (United Kingdom); Landau, David B. [Department of Radiotherapy, Guy' s and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Nahum, Alan E.; Mayles, W. Philip M. [Clatterbridge Cancer Centre, Clatterbridge Road, Wirral (United Kingdom); Fenwick, John D. [Department of Oncology, Gray Institute of Radiation Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Oxford Cancer Centre, Oxford University Hospitals, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: Isotoxic dose escalation schedules such as IDEAL-CRT [isotoxic dose escalation and acceleration in lung cancer chemoradiation therapy] (ISRCTN12155469) individualize doses prescribed to lung tumors, generating a fixed modeled risk of radiation pneumonitis. Because the beam penumbra is broadened in lung, the choice of collimator margin is an important element of the optimization of isotoxic conformal radiation therapy for lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Twelve patients with stage I-III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were replanned retrospectively using a range of collimator margins. For each plan, the prescribed dose was calculated according to the IDEAL-CRT isotoxic prescription method, and the absolute dose (D{sub 99}) delivered to 99% of the planning target volume (PTV) was determined. Results: Reducing the multileaf collimator margin from the widely used 7 mm to a value of 2 mm produced gains of 2.1 to 15.6 Gy in absolute PTV D{sub 99}, with a mean gain ± 1 standard error of the mean of 6.2 ± 1.1 Gy (2-sided P<.001). Conclusions: For NSCLC patients treated with conformal radiation therapy and an isotoxic dose prescription, absolute doses in the PTV may be increased by using smaller collimator margins, reductions in relative coverage being offset by increases in prescribed dose.

  17. Mounting evidence indicates that escalating doses of allopurinol are unnecessary for cardiovascular protection: Comment on Coburn et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredemeier, Markus

    2018-05-09

    We read with interest the study by Coburn et al. (1), a methodologically sound propensity-score matched cohort study evaluating the effect of dose escalation of allopurinol on cardiovascular (CV) and overall mortality. The results indicate that increasing doses carry a higher risk of mortality, but the authors comment that failure in achieving doses up to 600 mg may have contributed to the absence of protective effect. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of whole brain radiation therapy on CSF penetration ability of Icotinib in EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer patients with brain metastases: Results of phase I dose-escalation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin; He, Jiazhuo; Xiong, Weijie; Liu, Yongmei; Xiang, Jing; Yu, Qin; Liang, Maozhi; Zhou, Xiaojuan; Ding, Zhenyu; Huang, Meijuan; Ren, Li; Zhu, Jiang; Li, Lu; Hou, Mei; Ding, Lieming; Tan, Fenlai; Lu, You

    2016-06-01

    Whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) and epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) are both treatment options for EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with brain metastases. However, the dose-escalation toxicity and efficacy of combination therapy, and the effect of WBRT on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) penetration of EGFR-TKIs are still unclear. EGFR-mutated NSCLC patients with brain metastases were enrolled in this study, and the cohorts were constructed with a 3+3 design. The patients received icotinib with escalating doses (125-625mg, tid), and the concurrent WBRT (37.5Gy/15f/3weeks) started a week later. The CSF penetration rates of icotinib were tested before, immediately after, and 4 weeks after WBRT, respectively. Potential toxicities and benefits from dose-escalation treatment were analyzed. Fifteen patients were included in this study, 3 at each dose level from 125mg-375mg and 6 at 500mg with 3 occurred dose-limiting toxicities. The maximal tolerated dose of icotinib was 375mg tid in this combination therapy. There was a significant correlation between icotinib concentration in the CSF and plasma (R(2)=0.599, Picotinib, from 1.2% to 9.7%, reached a maximum at 375mg (median, 6.1%). There was no significant difference for CSF penetration rates among the three test points (median, 4.1% vs. 2.8% vs. 2.8%, P=0.16). The intracranial objective response rate and median intracranial progression free survival are 80% and 18.9 months. WBRT plus concurrent icotinib is well tolerated in EGFR-mutated NSCLC patients with brain metastases, up to an icotinib dose of 375mg tid. The icotinib CSF concentration seemed to have a potential ceiling effect with the dose escalation, and WBRT seemed to have no significant impact on CSF penetration of icotinib till 4 weeks after the treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Radiation Dose Escalation in Esophageal Cancer Revisited: A Contemporary Analysis of the National Cancer Data Base, 2004 to 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, Jeffrey V. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Chen, Shuai [Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Bassetti, Michael F. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Yu, Menggang [Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Harari, Paul M.; Ritter, Mark A. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Baschnagel, Andrew M., E-mail: baschnagel@humonc.wisc.edu [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States)

    2016-12-01

    the INT-0123 trial. Furthermore, these data highlight that many radiation oncologists have not embraced the concept that dose escalation does not improve OS. Although local control, not investigated in the present study, might benefit from dose escalation, novel therapies are needed to improve the OS of patients with esophageal cancer.

  20. Dose Escalated Liver Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy at the Mean Respiratory Position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velec, Michael; Moseley, Joanne L.; Dawson, Laura A.; Brock, Kristy K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The dosimetric impact of dose probability based planning target volume (PTV) margins for liver cancer patients receiving stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) was compared with standard PTV based on the internal target volume (ITV). Plan robustness was evaluated by accumulating the treatment dose to ensure delivery of the intended plan. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients planned on exhale CT for 27 to 50 Gy in 6 fractions using an ITV-based PTV and treated free-breathing were retrospectively evaluated. Isotoxic, dose escalated plans were created on midposition computed tomography (CT), representing the mean breathing position, using a dose probability PTV. The delivered doses were accumulated using biomechanical deformable registration of the daily cone beam CT based on liver targeting at the exhale or mean breathing position, for the exhale and midposition CT plans, respectively. Results: The dose probability PTVs were on average 38% smaller than the ITV-based PTV, enabling an average ± standard deviation increase in the planned dose to 95% of the PTV of 4.0 ± 2.8 Gy (9 ± 5%) on the midposition CT (P<.01). For both plans, the delivered minimum gross tumor volume (GTV) doses were greater than the planned nominal prescribed dose in all 20 patients and greater than the planned dose to 95% of the PTV in 18 (90%) patients. Nine patients (45%) had 1 or more GTVs with a delivered minimum dose more than 5 Gy higher with the midposition CT plan using dose probability PTV, compared with the delivered dose with the exhale CT plan using ITV-based PTV. Conclusions: For isotoxic liver SBRT planned and delivered at the mean respiratory, reduced dose probability PTV enables a mean escalation of 4 Gy (9%) in 6 fractions over ITV-based PTV. This may potentially improve local control without increasing the risk of tumor underdosing

  1. Conformal technique dose escalation in prostate cancer: improved cancer control with higher doses in patients with pretreatment PSA {>=} 10 ngm/ml

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanks, G E; Lee, W R; Hanlon, A L; Kaplan, E; Epstein, B; Schultheiss, T

    1995-07-01

    Purpose: Single institutions and an NCI supported group of institutions have been investigating the value of dose escalation in patients with prostate cancer treated by conformal treatment techniques. Improvement in morbidity has been previously established, while this report identifies the pretreatment PSA level subgroups of patients who benefitted in cancer control from higher dose. Materials and Methods: We report actuarial bNED survival rates for 375 consecutive patients with known pretreatment PSA levels treated with conformal technique between 5/89 and 12/93. The whole pelvis was treated to 45 Gy in 25 fractions in all T2C,3, all Gleason 8, 9, 10 and all patients with pretreatment PSA {>=}20. The prostate {+-} seminal vesicles was boosted at 2.1 Gy/day to the center of the prostate to 65-79 Gy (65-69 N=50), 70-72.49 N=94, 72.5-74.9 N=82, 75-77.49 N=129 and {>=}77.5 N=20). The median followup is 21 mos with a range of 3 to 67 mos. The highest dose patients have the least followup, reducing the impact of the highest dose levels at this time. Patients are analyzed for the entire group divided at 71 Gy and at 73 Gy calculated at the center of the prostate. Each dose group is then subdivided by pretreatment PSA levels <10, 10-19.9, and {>=}20 ngm/ml and dose levels are compared within pretreatment PSA level group. bNED failure is defined as PSA {>=}1.5 ngm/ml and rising on two consecutive values. Results: Table 1 shows the bNED survival rates at 24 and 36 mos for all patients and the three pretreatment PSA level groups. For all patients pooled, there is an overall advantage to using doses {>=}71 Gy (64% vs 85% at 36 mo, p=.006) and {>=}73 Gy (71% vs 86% at 36 mo, p=.07). The subgroup of PSA <10 ngm/ml, however, shows no benefit in bNED survival when using doses over 71 Gy (90% vs 93% at 36 mo) or 73 Gy (91 vs 94% at 36 mo). The subgroup PSA 10 ngm/ml to 19.9 ngm/ml shows improved cancer control when using doses over 71 Gy (61% vs 88% at 36 mo, p=.03) and over 73

  2. A Phase I-II dose escalation study of fixed-dose rate gemcitabine, oxaliplatin and capecitabine every two weeks in advanced cholangiocarcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Ulrik V; Jensen, Lars Henrik; Sorensen, Morten

    2011-01-01

    (O) and capecitabine (C), and evaluate the safety and efficacy of this regimen in patients with advanced cholangiocarcinoma (CC). Methods. In the Phase I part of the study a dose-escalation schedule of FDR G, O and C, administered every two weeks, was performed in patients with solid tumours...... and no other treatments or advanced CC. In the Phase II part response rate, toxicity, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival was evaluated in patients with newly diagnosed advanced CC. Results. Thirty-six patients entered the Phase I part and G 1 000 mg/m(2) day 1 and 15, O 60 mg/m(2) day 1...... and 15, and C 1 000 mg/m(2) BID day 1-7 and day 15-21 were established as MTD. In the Phase II part, 41 patients with advanced CC were included. Overall response rate was 34% and 51% had stable disease, resulting in a clinical benefit rate of 85%. Grade III and IV adverse events were rare. Median...

  3. Combined management of retroperitoneal sarcoma with dose intensification radiotherapy and resection: Long-term results of a prospective trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smith, Myles J F

    2014-01-07

    Late failure is a challenging problem following resection of retroperitoneal sarcoma (RPS). We investigated the effects of preoperative XRT plus dose escalation with early postoperative brachytherapy (BT) on long-term survival and recurrence in RPS.

  4. Dose escalation of chart in non-small cell lung cancer: is three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy really necessary?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGibney, Carol; Holmberg, Ola; McClean, Brendan; Williams, Charles; McCrea, Pamela; Sutton, Phil; Armstrong, John

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate, pre clinically, the potential for dose escalation of continuous, hyperfractionated, accelerated radiation therapy (CHART) for non small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we examined the strategy of omission of elective nodal irradiation with and without the application of three-dimensional conformal radiation technology (3DCRT). Methods and Materials: 2D, conventional therapy plans were designed according to the specifications of CHART for 18 patients with NSCLC (Stages Ib, IIb, IIIa, and IIIb). Further plans were generated with the omission of elective nodal irradiation (ENI) from the treatment portals (2D minus ENI plans [2D-ENI plans]). Both sets were inserted in the patient's planning computed tomographies (CTs). These reconstructed plans were then compared to alternative, three-dimensional treatment plans which had been generated de novo, with the omission of ENI: 3D minus elective nodal irradiation (3D-ENI plans). Dose delivery to the planning target volumes (PTVs) and to the organs at risk were compared between the 3 sets of corresponding plans. The potential for dose escalation of each patient's 2D-ENI and 3D-ENI plan beyond 54 Gy, standard to CHART, was also determined. Results: PTV coverage was suboptimal in the 2D CHART and the 2D-ENI plans. Only in the 3D-ENI plans did 100% of the PTV get ≥95% of the dose prescribed (i.e., 51.5 Gy [51.3-52.2]). Using 3D-ENI plans significantly reduced the dose received by the spinal cord, the mean and median doses to the esophagus and the heart. It did not significantly reduce the lung dose when compared to 2D-ENI plans. Escalation of the dose (minimum ≥1 Gy) with optimal PTV coverage was possible in 55.5% of patients using 3D-ENI, but was possible only in 16.6% when using the 2D-ENI planning strategy. Conclusions: 3DCRT is fundamental to achieving optimal PTV coverage in NSCLC. A policy of omission of elective nodal irradiation alone (and using 2D technology) will not achieve optimal PTV coverage or

  5. Limits of dose escalation in lung cancer: a dose-volume histogram analysis comparing coplanar and non-coplanar techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derycke, S; Van Duyse, B; Schelfhout, J; De Neve, W

    1995-12-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of dose escalation in radiotherapy of inoperable lung cancer, a dose-volume histogram analysis was performed comparing standard coplanar (2D) with non-coplanar (3D) beam arrangements on a non-selected group of 20 patients planned by Sherouse`s GRATISTM 3D-planning system. Serial CT-scanning was performed and 2 Target Volumes (Tvs) were defined. Gross Tumor Volume (GTV) defined a high-dose Target Volume (TV-1). GTV plus location of node stations with > 10% probability of invasion (Minet et al.) defined an intermediate-dose Target Volume (TV-2). However, nodal regions which are incompatible with cure were excluded from TV-2. These are ATS-regions 1, 8, 9 and 14 all left and right as well as heterolateral regions. For 3D-planning, Beam`s Eye View selected (by an experienced planner) beam arrangements were optimised using Superdot, a method of target dose-gradient annihilation developed by Sherouse. A second 3D-planning was performed using 4 beam incidences with maximal angular separation. The linac`s isocenter for the optimal arrangement was located at the geometrical center of gravity of a tetraheder, the tetraheder`s comers being the consecutive positions of the virtual source. This ideal beam arrangement was approximated as close as possible, taking into account technical limitations (patient-couch-gantry collisions). Criteria for tolerance were met if no points inside the spinal cord exceeded 50 Gy and if at least 50% of the lung volume received less than 20Gy. If dose regions below 50 Gy were judged acceptable at TV-2, 2D- as well as 3D-plans allow safe escalation to 80 Gy at TV-1. When TV-2 needed to be encompassed by isodose surfaces exceeding 50Gy, 3D-plans were necessary to limit dose at the spinal cord below tolerance. For large TVs dose is limited by lung tolerance for 3D-plans. An analysis (including NTCP-TCP as cost functions) of rival 3D-plans is being performed.

  6. Use of radiobiological indices to guide dose escalation of the prostate cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burman, Chandra; Happersett, Laura; Kutcher, Gerald; Leibel, Steven; Zelefsky, Michael; Fuks, Zvi; Ling, C. Clifton

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: In the radiation treatment of localized prostate carcinoma, a portion of the anterior rectal wall is included in the planning target volume (PTV). Thus, in dose escalation studies, radiation induced rectal complication may limit the dose that can be delivered safely. In this study we investigate the potential of increasing tumor control without increasing rectal complication by limiting the rectal volume receiving the high prescription dose. The evaluation is with the aid of radiobiological indices. Methods and Materials: Two types of 3D conformal treatment plans were performed for a group of ten patients, for prescription doses of 75.6 to 95.0 Gy. Type I plan involved 6 fields (2 lateral, 2 anterior oblique and 2 posterior oblique), with the dose prescribed to the maximum isodose line encompassing the PTV. Type II plan comprised a primary treatment (using the 6 fields of the first plan) of 72 Gy to the PTV, and a boost with 6 posterior obliques to deliver the additional dose, except to the portion of the rectal wall included by the PTV. Based on the composite 3D dose distribution, TCP and rectal NTCP were calculated with the Goitein and Lyman models, respectively, using parameters derived from our clinical experience and from the 1991 NCI Collaborating Work Group publication. Results: In the figure, the calculated values of TCP, NTCP and TCP * [1-NTCP] (or uncomplicated control), averaged over the 10 patients, are plotted against the prescription dose. The dotted and solid lines are for type I (with uniform PTV dose) and type II (with reduction in rectal dose for the boost) plans, respectively, and the error bars represent the range of computed values for the 10 patients. For type I plans, the increase in TCP, from 75% at 75.6 Gy to 98% at 95 Gy, must be balanced against the rise in rectal NTCP to >20%. The TCP for type II plan is slightly less, but with little increase in NTCP with prescription dose. Thus, the uncomplicated control continues to increase

  7. PET-guided dose escalation tomotherapy in malignant pleural mesothelioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fodor, Andrei; Dell' Oca, Italo; Pasetti, Marcella; Di Muzio, Nadia Gisella [San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Fiorino, Claudio; Broggi, Sara; Cattaneo, Giovanni Mauro; Calandrino, Riccardo [San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy). Medical Physics; Gianolli, Luigi [San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    2011-11-15

    To test the feasibility of salvage radiotherapy using PET-guided helical tomotherapy in patients with progressive malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). A group of 12 consecutive MPM patients was treated with 56 Gy/25 fractions to the planning target volume (PTV); FDG-PET/CT simulation was always performed to include all positive lymph nodes and MPM infiltrations. Subsequently, a second group of 12 consecutive patients was treated with the same dose to the whole pleura adding a simultaneous integrated boost of 62.5 Gy to the FDG-PET/CT positive areas (BTV). Good dosimetric results were obtained in both groups. No grade 3 (RTOG/EORTC) acute or late toxicities were reported in the first group, while 3 cases of grade 3 late pneumonitis were registered in the second group: the duration of symptoms was 2-10 weeks. Median overall survival was 8 months (1.2-50.5 months) and 20 months (4.3-33.8 months) from the beginning of radiotherapy, for groups I and II, respectively (p = 0.19). A significant impact on local relapse from radiotherapy was seen (median time to local relapse: 8 vs 17 months; 1-year local relapse-free rate: 16% vs 81%, p = 0.003). The results of this pilot study support the planning of a phase III study of combined sequential chemoradiotherapy with dose escalation to BTV in patients not able to undergo resection. (orig.)

  8. Final toxicity results of a radiation-dose escalation study in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC): Predictors for radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, F.-M.; Hayman, James A.; Griffith, Kent A.; Kalemkerian, Gregory P.; Arenberg, Douglas; Lyons, Susan; Turrisi, Andrew; Lichter, Allen; Fraass, Benedick; Eisbruch, Avraham; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Haken, Randall K. ten

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: We aimed to report the final toxicity results on a radiation-dose escalation trial designed to test a hypothesis that very high doses of radiation could be safely administered to patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by quantifying the dose-volume toxicity relationship of the lung. Methods and Materials: A total of 109 patients with unresectable or medically inoperable NSCLC were enrolled and treated with radiation-dose escalation (on the basis of predicted normal-lung toxicity) either alone or with neoadjuvant chemotherapy by use of 3D conformal techniques. Eighty-four patients (77%) received more than 69 Gy, the trial was stopped after the dose reached 103 Gy. Estimated median follow-up was 110 months. Results: There were 17 (14.6%) Grade 2 to 3 pneumonitis and 15 (13.8%) Grade 2 to 3 fibrosis and no Grade 4 to 5 lung toxicity. Multivariate analyses showed them to be (1) not associated with the dose prescribed to the tumor, and (2) significantly (p < 0.001) associated with lung-dosimetric parameters such as the mean lung dose (MLD), volume of lung that received at least 20 Gy (V20), and the normal-tissue complication probability (NTCP) of the lung. If cutoffs are 30% for V20, 20 Gy for MLD, and 10% for NTCP, these factors have positive predictive values of 50% to 71% and negative predictive value of 85% to 89%. Conclusions: With long-term follow-up for toxicity, we have demonstrated that much higher doses of radiation than are traditionally administered can be safely delivered to a majority of patients with NSCLC. Quantitative lung dose-volume toxicity-based dose escalation can form the basis for individualized high-dose radiation treatment to maximize the therapeutic ratio in these patients

  9. Isotoxic dose escalation in the treatment of lung cancer by means of heterogeneous dose distributions in the presence of respiratory motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Mariwan; Nielsen, Morten; Hansen, Olfred

    2011-01-01

    To test, in the presence of intrafractional respiration movement, a margin recipe valid for a homogeneous and conformal dose distribution and to test whether the use of smaller margins combined with heterogeneous dose distributions allows an isotoxic dose escalation when respiratory motion...

  10. A phase I, dose-escalation study of TB-403, a monoclonal antibody directed against PlGF, in patients with advanced solid tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, U; Nielsen, D L; Sørensen, M

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: TB-403 (RO 5323441), a humanised monoclonal antibody, is a novel antiangiogenesis agent directed against placental growth factor. The safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and antitumour activity of TB-403 were assessed in a phase I, dose-escalation study in patients with advanced solid...

  11. Resolution of methylphenidate osmotic release oral system-induced hair loss in two siblings after dose escalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardic, Ulku Akyol; Ercan, Eyup Sabri

    2017-11-01

    This report describes the cases of two siblings who experienced hair loss after treatment with methylphenidate (MPH) osmotic release oral system (OROS). Hair loss was resolved after discontinuation of the drug, but the children re-initiated treatment, after which hair loss again occurred, but they continued the treatment. After dose escalation, the hair loss resolved. This is the first report to describe resolution of OROS-MPH-induced hair loss after dose escalation. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  12. Pelvic nodal dose escalation with prostate hypofractionation using conformal avoidance defined (H-CAD) intensity modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Theodore S.; Tome, Wolfgang A.; Jaradat, Hazim; Raisbeck, Bridget M.; Ritter, Mark A.

    2006-01-01

    The management of prostate cancer patients with a significant risk of pelvic lymph node involvement is controversial. Both whole pelvis radiotherapy and dose escalation to the prostate have been linked to improved outcome in such patients, but it is unclear whether conventional whole pelvis doses of only 45-50 Gy are optimal for ultimate nodal control. The purpose of this study is to examine the dosimetric and clinical feasibility of combining prostate dose escalation via hypofractionation with conformal avoidance-based IMRT (H-CAD) dose escalation to the pelvic lymph nodes. One conformal avoidance and one conventional plan were generated for each of eight patients. Conformal avoidance-based IMRT plans were generated that specifically excluded bowel, rectum, and bladder. The prostate and lower seminal vesicles (PTV 70) were planned to receive 70 Gy in 2.5 Gy/fraction while the pelvic lymph nodes (PTV 56) were to concurrently receive 56 Gy in 2 Gy/fraction. The volume of small bowel receiving >45 Gy was restricted to 300 ml or less. These conformal avoidance plans were delivered using helical tomotherapy or LINAC-based IMRT with daily imaging localization. All patients received neoadjuvant and concurrent androgen deprivation with a planned total of two years. The conventional, sequential plans created for comparison purposes for all patients consisted of a conventional 4-field pelvic box prescribed to 50.4 Gy (1.8 Gy/fraction) followed by an IMRT boost to the prostate of 25.2 Gy (1.8 Gy/fraction) yielding a final prostate dose of 75.6 Gy. For all plans, the prescription dose was to cover the target structure. Equivalent uniform dose (EUD) analyses were performed on all targets and dose-volume histograms (DVH) were displayed in terms of both physical and normalized total dose (NTD), i.e. dose in 2 Gy fraction equivalents. H-CAD IMRT plans were created for and delivered to all eight patients. Analysis of the H-CAD plans demonstrates prescription dose coverage of >95

  13. Oral sodium phenylbutyrate in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas: a dose escalation and pharmacologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuphanich, Surasak; Baker, Sharyn D; Grossman, Stuart A; Carson, Kathryn A; Gilbert, Mark R; Fisher, Joy D; Carducci, Michael A

    2005-04-01

    We determined the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), toxicity profile, pharmacokinetic parameters, and preliminary efficacy data of oral sodium phenylbutyrate (PB) in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas. Twenty-three patients with supratentorial recurrent malignant gliomas were enrolled on this dose escalation trial. Four dose levels of PB were studied: 9, 18, 27, and 36 g/day. Data were collected to assess toxicity, response, survival, and pharmacokinetics. All PB doses of 9, 18, and 27 g/day were well tolerated. At 36 g/day, two of four patients developed dose-limiting grade 3 fatigue and somnolence. At the MTD of 27 g/day, one of seven patients developed reversible grade 3 somnolence. Median survival from time of study entry was 5.4 months. One patient had a complete response for five years, and no partial responses were noted, which yielded an overall response rate of 5%. Plasma concentrations of 706, 818, 1225, and 1605 muM were achieved with doses of 9, 18, 27, and 36 g/day, respectively. The mean value for PB clearance in this patient population was 22 liters/h, which is significantly higher than the 16 liters/h reported in patients with other malignancies who were not receiving P450 enzyme-inducing anticonvulsant drugs (P = 0.038). This study defines the MTD and recommended phase 2 dose of PB at 27 g/day for heavily pretreated patients with recurrent gliomas. The pharmacology of PB appears to be affected by concomitant administration of P450-inducing anticonvulsants.

  14. Ewing sarcoma localized on spine: a dose escalation study in child; Sarcome d'Ewing localise au rachis: une etude d'escalade de dose chez l'enfant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogin, G.; Marchesi, V. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, Nancy (France); Biston, M.C.; Gassa, F. [Centre Leon-Berard, Lyon (France); Amessis, M.; Zefkili, S.; Helfre, S. [Institut Curie, Paris (France); De Marzi, L.; Lacroix, F.; Leroy, A. [Institut Curie, Orsay (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report the study of dose escalation for the treatment of spinal in two types of Ewing tumours. They used 5 dose levels at the rate of five 1,6 Gy per week. They compare different radiotherapy techniques: three-dimensional conformation radiotherapy, static intensity-modulated conformational radiotherapy, helical tomo-therapy, volume-modulated arc-therapy (VMAT), stereotactic radiotherapy, and proton-therapy (in passive diffusion). It appears that it is possible to safely and efficiently deliver until 70,4 Gy in some Ewing tumours. In child, exclusive radiotherapy might become a local treatment option and would require a clinic trial and comparison with exclusive surgery or post-operative radiotherapy. Short communication

  15. Fitness of Bt-resistant cabbage loopers on Bt cotton plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreau, Guillaume; Wang, Ran; Wang, Ping

    2017-10-01

    Development of resistance to the insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in insects is the major threat to the continued success of transgenic Bt crops in agriculture. The fitness of Bt-resistant insects on Bt and non-Bt plants is a key parameter that determines the development of Bt resistance in insect populations. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the fitness of Bt-resistant Trichoplusia ni strains on Bt cotton leaves was conducted. The Bt-resistant T. ni strains carried two genetically independent mechanisms of resistance to Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab. The effects of the two resistance mechanisms, individually and in combination, on the fitness of the T. ni strains on conventional non-Bt cotton and on transgenic Bt cotton leaves expressing a single-toxin Cry1Ac (Bollgard I) or two Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab (Bollgard II) were examined. The presence of Bt toxins in plants reduced the fitness of resistant insects, indicated by decreased net reproductive rate (R 0 ) and intrinsic rate of increase (r). The reduction in fitness in resistant T. ni on Bollgard II leaves was greater than that on Bollgard I leaves. A 12.4-day asynchrony of adult emergence between the susceptible T. ni grown on non-Bt cotton leaves and the dual-toxin-resistant T. ni on Bollgard II leaves was observed. Therefore, multitoxin Bt plants not only reduce the probability for T. ni to develop resistance but also strongly reduce the fitness of resistant insects feeding on the plants. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A Phase Ib dose-escalation study to evaluate safety and tolerability of the addition of the aminopeptidase inhibitor tosedostat (CHR-2797) to paclitaxel in patients with advanced solid tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M.L. Herpen (Carla); F.A.L.M. Eskens (Ferry); M.J.A. de Jonge (Maja); I.M.E. Desar (Ingrid); L. Hooftman (Leon); E. Bone (Elisabeth); J.N.H. Timmerbonte (Johanna); J. Verweij (Jaap)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: This Phase Ib dose-escalating study investigated safety, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), pharmacokinetics (PK) and clinical antitumour activity of tosedostat (CHR-2797), an orally bioavailable aminopeptidase inhibitor, in combination with

  17. Dose escalation for non-small cell lung cancer: Analysis and modelling of published literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, Mike; Ramos, Monica; Sardaro, Angela; Brada, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To review the published clinical data on non-small cell lung cancer treated with radical radiotherapy to confirm a dose-response relationship as a basis for further dose-escalation trials. Methods: Twenty-four published clinical trials were identified, 16 of which - with 29 different standard, hyper- and hypofractionated treatment schedules - were analysed. Prescription doses were converted to biologically-equivalent dose (BED), with a correction for repopulation. Disease-free survival data were corrected for the stage profile of each cohort to allow better comparison of results. We also analysed moderate (grade II and III) lung and oesophageal acute toxicity related to the corrected BED delivered to the tumour. Results: The clinical data analysed showed good agreement between the observed and modelled disease-free survival at 2 years when compared to the published models of Fenwick (correlation coefficient 0.525, p = 0.003) and Martel (correlation coefficient 0.492, p = 0.007), indicating a clear tumour dose-response. In the normally fractionated treatments (∼2 Gy per fraction), improved disease-free survival was generally observed in the shorter schedules (maximum around 6 weeks). However, the best outcomes were obtained for the hypofractionated schedules. No systematic relationship was seen between prescribed dose and lung or oesophageal acute toxicity, possibly due to dose selection depending on V 20 or MLD in some studies and the diversity of the patients analysed. Conclusions: We have demonstrated a dose-response relationship for NSCLC based on clinical data. The clinical data provide a rational basis for selection of dose escalation schedules to be tested in future randomised trials.

  18. Long term results of a prospective dose escalation phase-II trial: Interstitial pulsed-dose-rate brachytherapy as boost for intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettmaier, Sebastian; Lotter, Michael; Kreppner, Stephan; Strnad, Annedore; Fietkau, Rainer; Strnad, Vratislav

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We reviewed our seven year single institution experience with pulsed dose rate brachytherapy dose escalation study in patients with intermediate and high risk prostate cancer. Materials and methods: We treated a total of 130 patients for intermediate and high risk prostate cancer at our institution between 2000 and 2007 using PDR-brachytherapy as a boost after conformal external beam radiation therapy to 50.4 Gy. The majority of patients had T2 disease (T1c 6%, T2 75%, T3 19%). Seventy three patients had intermediate-risk and 53 patients had high-risk disease according to the D’Amico classification. The dose of the brachytherapy boost was escalated from 25 to 35 Gy – 33 pts. received 25 Gy (total dose 75 Gy), 63 pts. 30 Gy (total dose 80 Gy) and 34 pts. 35 Gy, (total dose 85 Gy) given in one session (dose per pulse was 0.60 Gy or 0.70 Gy/h, 24 h per day, night and day, with a time interval of 1 h between two pulses). PSA-recurrence-free survival according to Kaplan–Meier using the Phoenix definition of biochemical failure was calculated and also late toxicities according to Common Toxicity Criteria scale were assessed. Results: At the time of analysis with a median follow-up of 60 months biochemical control was achieved by 88% of patients – only 16/130 patients (12.3%) developed a biochemical relapse. Biochemical relapse free survival calculated according to Kaplan–Meier for all patients at 5 years was 85.6% (83.9% for intermediate-risk patients and 84.2% for high-risk patients) and at 9 years’ follow up it was 79.0%. Analysing biochemical relapse free survival separately for different boost dose levels, at 5 years it was 97% for the 35 Gy boost dose and 82% for the 25 and 30 Gy dose levels. The side effects of therapy were negligible: There were 18 cases (15%) of grade 1/2 rectal proctitis, one case (0.8%) of grade 3 proctitis, 18 cases (15%) of grade 1/2 cystitis, and no cases (0%) with dysuria grade 3. No patient had a bulbourethral

  19. A Phase Ib dose-escalation study to evaluate safety and tolerability of the addition of the aminopeptidase inhibitor tosedostat (CHR-2797) to paclitaxel in patients with advanced solid tumours.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpen, C.M.L. van; Eskens, F.A.; Jonge, M. de; Desar, I.M.E.; Hooftman, L.; Bone, E.A.; Timmer-Bonte, J.N.H.; Verweij, J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This Phase Ib dose-escalating study investigated safety, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), pharmacokinetics (PK) and clinical antitumour activity of tosedostat (CHR-2797), an orally bioavailable aminopeptidase inhibitor, in combination with paclitaxel. METHODS:

  20. Radiation Dose Escalation in Esophageal Cancer Revisited: A Contemporary Analysis of the National Cancer Data Base, 2004 to 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brower, Jeffrey V.; Chen, Shuai; Bassetti, Michael F.; Yu, Menggang; Harari, Paul M.; Ritter, Mark A.; Baschnagel, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    oncologists have not embraced the concept that dose escalation does not improve OS. Although local control, not investigated in the present study, might benefit from dose escalation, novel therapies are needed to improve the OS of patients with esophageal cancer.

  1. Effect of a simple dose-escalation schedule on tramadol tolerability : assessment in the clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagarro, I; Herrera, J; Barutell, C; Díez, M C; Marín, M; Samper, D; Busquet, C; Rodríguez, M J

    2005-01-01

    To assess the effect of a very simple dose-escalation schedule on tramadol tolerability in clinical practice. This schedule consists of starting treatment with sustained-release tramadol 50mg twice daily, and escalating the dose around 7 days later to 100mg twice daily. Data from 1925 outpatients with non-malignant chronic pain were collected in this multicentre, prospective, comparative, non-randomised, open, observational study. A total of 1071 patients (55.6%) were included in the dose-escalation group (50mg group) and 854 patients (44.4%) in the control group (sustained-release tramadol 100mg twice daily; 100mg group). The proportion of patients who interrupted tramadol treatment due to the occurrence of adverse reactions was significantly lower in the 50mg group (5.6%) than in the 100mg group (12.6%) [p = 0.001]. In line with this, the proportion of patients who experienced at least one adverse reaction was significantly lower in the 50mg group (18.4%) than in the 100mg group (30.4%) [p = 0.001] and, interestingly, the two most frequently reported adverse reactions, nausea and dizziness, were found with a significantly lower frequency in the 50mg group (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that the risk of safety-related treatment cessations was 2.3 times higher in the 100mg group than in the 50mg group, and 2.2 times higher in females than in males. The two treatments were equally effective in reducing pain intensity (p = 0.121), measured as a reduction in pain score obtained by means of a visual analogue scale. The instauration of tramadol treatment, starting with sustained-release 50mg capsules twice daily and escalating the dose some days later to 100mg twice daily, was shown to be an effective and easy way to improve tramadol tolerability in clinical practice, whilst maintaining its analgesic efficacy.

  2. Phase I Trial of Pelvic Nodal Dose Escalation With Hypofractionated IMRT for High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adkison, Jarrod B.; McHaffie, Derek R.; Bentzen, Soren M.; Patel, Rakesh R.; Khuntia, Deepak [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI (United States); Petereit, Daniel G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, John T. Vucurevich Regional Cancer Care Institute, Rapid City Regional Hospital, Rapid City, SD (United States); Hong, Theodore S.; Tome, Wolfgang [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI (United States); Ritter, Mark A., E-mail: ritter@humonc.wisc.edu [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Toxicity concerns have limited pelvic nodal prescriptions to doses that may be suboptimal for controlling microscopic disease. In a prospective trial, we tested whether image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can safely deliver escalated nodal doses while treating the prostate with hypofractionated radiotherapy in 5 Vulgar-Fraction-One-Half weeks. Methods and Materials: Pelvic nodal and prostatic image-guided IMRT was delivered to 53 National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) high-risk patients to a nodal dose of 56 Gy in 2-Gy fractions with concomitant treatment of the prostate to 70 Gy in 28 fractions of 2.5 Gy, and 50 of 53 patients received androgen deprivation for a median duration of 12 months. Results: The median follow-up time was 25.4 months (range, 4.2-57.2). No early Grade 3 Radiation Therapy Oncology Group or Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v.3.0 genitourinary (GU) or gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities were seen. The cumulative actuarial incidence of Grade 2 early GU toxicity (primarily alpha blocker initiation) was 38%. The rate was 32% for Grade 2 early GI toxicity. None of the dose-volume descriptors correlated with GU toxicity, and only the volume of bowel receiving {>=}30 Gy correlated with early GI toxicity (p = 0.029). Maximum late Grades 1, 2, and 3 GU toxicities were seen in 30%, 25%, and 2% of patients, respectively. Maximum late Grades 1 and 2 GI toxicities were seen in 30% and 8% (rectal bleeding requiring cautery) of patients, respectively. The estimated 3-year biochemical control (nadir + 2) was 81.2 {+-} 6.6%. No patient manifested pelvic nodal failure, whereas 2 experienced paraaortic nodal failure outside the field. The six other clinical failures were distant only. Conclusions: Pelvic IMRT nodal dose escalation to 56 Gy was delivered concurrently with 70 Gy of hypofractionated prostate radiotherapy in a convenient, resource-efficient, and well-tolerated 28-fraction schedule. Pelvic nodal dose

  3. Dominant inheritance of field-evolved resistance to Bt corn in Busseolafusca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Campagne

    Full Text Available Transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins have been adopted worldwide, notably in developing countries. In spite of their success in controlling target pests while allowing a substantial reduction of insecticide use, the sustainable control of these pest populations is threatened by the evolution of resistance. The implementation of the "high dose/refuge" strategy for managing insect resistance in transgenic crops aims at delaying the evolution of resistance to Bt crops in pest populations by promoting survival of susceptible insects. However, a crucial condition for the "high dose/refuge" strategy to be efficient is that the inheritance of resistance should be functionally recessive. Busseolafusca developed high levels of resistance to the Bt toxin Cry 1Ab expressed in Bt corn in South Africa. To test whether the inheritance of B. fusca resistance to the Bt toxin could be considered recessive we performed controlled crosses with this pest and evaluated its survival on Bt and non-Bt corn. Results show that resistance of B. fusca to Bt corn is dominant, which refutes the hypothesis of recessive inheritance. Survival on Bt corn was not lower than on non-Bt corn for both resistant larvae and the F1 progeny from resistant × susceptible parents. Hence, resistance management strategies of B. fusca to Bt corn must address non-recessive resistance.

  4. Strong oviposition preference for Bt over non-Bt maize in Spodoptera frugiperda and its implications for the evolution of resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Transgenic crops expressing Bt toxins have substantial benefits for growers in terms of reduced synthetic insecticide inputs, area-wide pest management and yield. This valuable technology depends upon delaying the evolution of resistance. The ‘high dose/refuge strategy’, in which a refuge of non-Bt plants is planted in close proximity to the Bt crop, is the foundation of most existing resistance management. Most theoretical analyses of the high dose/refuge strategy assume random oviposition across refugia and Bt crops. Results In this study we examined oviposition and survival of Spodoptera frugiperda across conventional and Bt maize and explored the impact of oviposition behavior on the evolution of resistance in simulation models. Over six growing seasons oviposition rates per plant were higher in Bt crops than in refugia. The Cry1F Bt maize variety retained largely undamaged leaves, and oviposition preference was correlated with the level of feeding damage in the refuge. In simulation models, damage-avoiding oviposition accelerated the evolution of resistance and either led to requirements for larger refugia or undermined resistance management altogether. Since larval densities affected oviposition preferences, pest population dynamics affected resistance evolution: larger refugia were weakly beneficial for resistance management if they increased pest population sizes and the concomitant degree of leaf damage. Conclusions Damaged host plants have reduced attractiveness to many insect pests, and crops expressing Bt toxins are generally less damaged than conventional counterparts. Resistance management strategies should take account of this behavior, as it has the potential to undermine the effectiveness of existing practice, especially in the tropics where many pests are polyvoltinous. Efforts to bring down total pest population sizes and/or increase the attractiveness of damaged conventional plants will have substantial benefits for slowing the

  5. Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy and Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Combined With Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization for Locally Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma: An Irradiation Dose Escalation Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Zhigang; Zhao Jiandong; Gu Ke; Chen Zhen; Lin Junhua; Xu Zhiyong; Hu Weigang; Zhou Zhenhua; Liu Luming; Jiang Guoliang

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT)/intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for locally advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Patients were assigned to two subgroups based on tumor diameter: Group 1 had tumors <10 cm; Group II had tumors ≥10 cm. Escalation was achieved by increments of 4.0 Gy for each cohort in both groups. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was defined as a grade of ≥3 acute liver or gastrointestinal toxicity or any grade 5 acute toxicity in other organs at risk or radiation-induced liver disease. The dose escalation would be terminated when ≥2 of 8 patients in a cohort experienced DLT. Results: From April 2005 to May 2008, 40 patients were enrolled. In Group I, 11 patients had grade ≤2 acute treatment-related toxicities, and no patient experienced DLT; and in Group II, 10 patients had grade ≤2 acute toxicity, and 1 patient in the group receiving 52 Gy developed radiation-induced liver disease. MTD was 62 Gy for Group I and 52 Gy for Group II. In-field progression-free and local progression-free rates were 100% and 69% at 1 year, and 93% and 44% at 2 years, respectively. Distant metastasis rates were 6% at 1 year and 15% at 2 years. Overall survival rates for 1-year and 2-years were 72% and 62%, respectively. Conclusions: The irradiation dose was safely escalated in hepatocellular carcinoma patients by using 3DCRT/IMRT with an active breathing coordinator. MTD was 62 Gy and 52 Gy for patients with tumor diameters of <10 cm and ≥10 cm, respectively.

  6. Predictors of Rectal Tolerance Observed in a Dose-Escalated Phase 1-2 Trial of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.W. Nathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Cho, L. Chinsoo [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Straka, Christopher [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Christie, Alana [Harold C. Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Lotan, Yair [Department of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Pistenmaa, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Kavanagh, Brian D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado (United States); Nanda, Akash [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida Health Cancer Center at Orlando Health, Orlando, Florida (United States); Kueplian, Patrick [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Brindle, Jeffrey [Prairie Lakes Hospital, Watertown, South Dakota (United States); Cooley, Susan; Perkins, Alida [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Raben, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado (United States); Xie, Xian-Jin [Harold C. Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Timmerman, Robert D., E-mail: robert.timmerman@utsouthwestern.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To convey the occurrence of isolated cases of severe rectal toxicity at the highest dose level tested in 5-fraction stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for localized prostate cancer; and to rationally test potential causal mechanisms to guide future studies and experiments to aid in mitigating or altogether avoiding such severe bowel injury. Methods and Materials: Clinical and treatment planning data were analyzed from 91 patients enrolled from 2006 to 2011 on a dose-escalation (45, 47.5, and 50 Gy in 5 fractions) phase 1/2 clinical study of SBRT for localized prostate cancer. Results: At the highest dose level, 6.6% of patients treated (6 of 91) developed high-grade rectal toxicity, 5 of whom required colostomy. Grade 3+ delayed rectal toxicity was strongly correlated with volume of rectal wall receiving 50 Gy >3 cm{sup 3} (P<.0001), and treatment of >35% circumference of rectal wall to 39 Gy (P=.003). Grade 2+ acute rectal toxicity was significantly correlated with treatment of >50% circumference of rectal wall to 24 Gy (P=.010). Conclusion: Caution is advised when considering high-dose SBRT for treatment of tumors near bowel structures, including prostate cancer. Threshold dose constraints developed from physiologic principles are defined, and if respected can minimize risk of severe rectal toxicity.

  7. A phase I dose-escalation study of lenalidomide in combination with gemcitabine in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav J Ullenhag

    Full Text Available Lenalidomide have both immunomodulatory and anti-angiogenic properties which could confer anti-cancer effects. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of combining lenalidomide with the standard treatment gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer patients with advanced disease.Eligible patients had locally advanced or metastatic adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Patients received lenalidomide days 1-21 orally and gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 intravenously (days 1, 8 and 15, each 28 day cycle. Three cohorts of lenalidomide were examined (Cohort I = 15 mg, Cohort II = 20 mg and Cohort III = 25 mg daily. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD of lenalidomide given in combination with gemcitabine was defined as the highest dose level at which no more than one out of four (25% subjects experiences a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT. Patients should also be able to receive daily low molecular weight heparin (LMWH (e.g. dalteparin 5000 IU s.c. daily as a prophylactic anticoagulant for venous thromboembolic events (VTEs. Twelve patients (n = 4, n = 3 and n = 5 in cohort I, II and III, respectively were enrolled in this study.Median duration of treatment was 11 weeks (range 1-66, and median number of treatment cycles were three (range 1-14. The only DLT was a cardiac failure grade 3 in cohort III. Frequent treatment-related adverse events (AEs (all grades included neutropenia, leucopenia and fatigue (83% each, but there was no febrile neutropenia; thrombocytopenia (75%; dermatological toxicity (75%; diarrhea and nausea (42% each; and neuropathy (42%.This phase I study demonstrates the feasibility of the combination of lenalidomide and gemcitabine as first-line treatment in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. The tolerability profile demonstrated in the dose escalation schedule of lenalidomide suggests the dosing of lenalidomide to be 25 mg daily on days 1-21 with standard dosing of gemcitabine and merits further evaluation in a phase II trial.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  8. A comparison of spider communities in Bt and non-Bt rice fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sue Yeon; Kim, Seung Tae; Jung, Jong Kook; Lee, Joon-Ho

    2014-06-01

    To assess the potential adverse effects of a Bt rice line (Japonica rice cultivar, Nakdong) expressing a synthetic cry1Ac1 gene, C7-1-9-1-B, which was highly active against all larval stages of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), we investigated the community structure of spiders in Bt and non-Bt rice fields during the rice-growing season in 2007 and 2008 in Chungcheongnam-do, Korea. Spiders were surveyed with a sweep net and suction device. Suction sampling captured more spiders, measured in terms of species level and abundance, than sweeping. Araneidae and Thomisidae were captured more by sweeping, and certain species were captured only by sweeping. These findings show that both suction and sweep sampling methods should be used because these methods are most likely complementary. In total, 29 species in 23 genera and nine families were identified from the 4,937 spiders collected, and both Bt and non-Bt rice fields showed a typical Korean spider assemblage. The temporal patterns of spider species richness and spider abundance were very similar between Bt and non-Bt rice, although significant differences in species richness were observed on a few occasions. Overall, spider community structure, including diversity, the dominant species, and abundance did not differ between Bt and non-Bt rice. The results of the study indicated that the transgenic Cry1Ac rice lines tested in this study had no adverse effects on the spider community structure of the rice fields.

  9. Effects of Soil Salinity on the Expression of Bt Toxin (Cry1Ac and the Control Efficiency of Helicoverpa armigera in Field-Grown Transgenic Bt Cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Yu Luo

    Full Text Available An increasing area of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt cotton is being planted in saline-alkaline soil in China. The Bt protein level in transgenic cotton plants and its control efficiency can be affected by abiotic stress, including high temperature, water deficiency and other factors. However, how soil salinity affects the expression of Bt protein, thus influencing the control efficiency of Bt cotton against the cotton bollworm (CBW Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner in the field, is poorly understood. Our objective in the present study was to investigate the effects of soil salinity on the expression of Bt toxin (Cry1Ac and the control efficiency of Helicoverpa armigera in field-grown transgenic Bt cotton using three natural saline levels (1.15 dS m-1 [low soil-salinity], 6.00 dS m-1 [medium soil-salinity] and 11.46 dS m-1 [high soil-salinity]. We found that the Bt protein content in the transgenic Bt cotton leaves and the insecticidal activity of Bt cotton against CBW decreased with the increasing soil salinity in laboratory experiments during the growing season. The Bt protein content of Bt cotton leaves in the laboratory were negatively correlated with the salinity level. The CBW populations were highest on the Bt cotton grown in medium-salinity soil instead of the high-salinity soil in field conditions. A possible mechanism may be that the relatively high-salinity soil changed the plant nutritional quality or other plant defensive traits. The results from this study may help to identify more appropriate practices to control CBW in Bt cotton fields with different soil salinity levels.

  10. Susceptibility and aversion of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to Cry1F Bt maize and considerations for insect resistance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binning, Rachel R; Coats, Joel; Kong, Xiaoxiao; Hellmich, Richard L

    2014-02-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize was developed primarily for North American pests such as European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner)). However, most Bt maize products are also cultivated outside of North America, where the primary pests may be different and may have lower susceptibility to Bt toxins. Fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda JE Smith) is an important pest and primary target of Bt maize in Central and South America. S. frugiperda susceptibility to Cry1F (expressed in event TC1507) is an example of a pest-by-toxin interaction that does not meet the high-dose definition. In this study, the behavioral and toxic response of S. frugiperda to Cry1F maize was investigated by measuring the percentage of time naive third instars spent feeding during a 3-min exposure. S. frugiperda also were exposed as third instars to Cry1F maize for 14 d to measure weight gain and survival. S. frugiperda demonstrated an initial, postingestive aversive response to Cry1F maize, and few larvae survived the 14 d exposure. The role of susceptibility and avoidance are discussed in the context of global IRM refuge strategy development for Bt products.

  11. Is Androgen Deprivation Therapy Necessary in All Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients Treated in the Dose Escalation Era?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castle, Katherine O.; Hoffman, Karen E.; Levy, Lawrence B.; Lee, Andrew K.; Choi, Seungtaek; Nguyen, Quynh N.; Frank, Steven J.; Pugh, Thomas J.; McGuire, Sean E.; Kuban, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The benefit of adding androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) to dose-escalated radiation therapy (RT) for men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer is unclear; therefore, we assessed the impact of adding ADT to dose-escalated RT on freedom from failure (FFF). Methods: Three groups of men treated with intensity modulated RT or 3-dimensional conformal RT (75.6-78 Gy) from 1993-2008 for prostate cancer were categorized as (1) 326 intermediate-risk patients treated with RT alone, (2) 218 intermediate-risk patients treated with RT and ≤6 months of ADT, and (3) 274 low-risk patients treated with definitive RT. Median follow-up was 58 months. Recursive partitioning analysis based on FFF using Gleason score (GS), T stage, and pretreatment PSA concentration was applied to the intermediate-risk patients treated with RT alone. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate 5-year FFF. Results: Based on recursive partitioning analysis, intermediate-risk patients treated with RT alone were divided into 3 prognostic groups: (1) 188 favorable patients: GS 6, ≤T2b or GS 3+4, ≤T1c; (2) 71 marginal patients: GS 3+4, T2a-b; and (3) 68 unfavorable patients: GS 4+3 or T2c disease. Hazard ratios (HR) for recurrence in each group were 1.0, 2.1, and 4.6, respectively. When intermediate-risk patients treated with RT alone were compared to intermediate-risk patients treated with RT and ADT, the greatest benefit from ADT was seen for the unfavorable intermediate-risk patients (FFF, 74% vs 94%, respectively; P=.005). Favorable intermediate-risk patients had no significant benefit from the addition of ADT to RT (FFF, 94% vs 95%, respectively; P=.85), and FFF for favorable intermediate-risk patients treated with RT alone approached that of low-risk patients treated with RT alone (98%). Conclusions: Patients with favorable intermediate-risk prostate cancer did not benefit from the addition of ADT to dose-escalated RT, and their FFF was nearly as good as patients with low-risk disease

  12. Hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy with concomitant integrated boost of 70-75 Gy in 5 weeks for advanced head and neck cancer. A phase I dose escalation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvek, J.; Skacelikova, E.; Otahal, B.; Halamka, M.; Feltl, D. [University Hospital Ostrava (Czech Republic). Dept. of Oncology; Kubes, J. [University Hospital Bulovka, Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Kominek, P. [University Hospital Ostrava (Czech Republic). Dept. of Otolaryngology

    2012-08-15

    Background and purpose: The present study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of a new, 5-week regimen of 70-75 Gy hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy with concomitant integrated boost (HARTCIB) for locally advanced, inoperable head and neck cancer. Methods and materials: A total of 39 patients with very advanced, stage IV nonmetastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (median gross tumor volume 72 ml) were included in this phase I dose escalation study. A total of 50 fractions intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were administered twice daily over 5 weeks. Prescribed total dose/dose per fraction for planning target volume (PTV{sub tumor}) were 70 Gy in 1.4 Gy fractions, 72.5 Gy in 1.45 Gy fractions, and 75 Gy in 1.5 Gy fractions for 10, 13, and 16 patients, respectively. Uninvolved lymphatic nodes (PTV{sub uninvolved}) were irradiated with 55 Gy in 1.1 Gy fractions using the concomitant integrated boost. Results: Acute toxicity was evaluated according to the RTOG/EORTC scale; the incidence of grade 3 mucositis was 51% in the oral cavity/pharynx and 0% in skin and the recovery time was {<=} 9 weeks for all patients. Late toxicity was evaluated in patients in complete remission according to the RTOG/EORTC scale. No grade 3/4 late toxicity was observed. The 1-year locoregional progression-free survival was 50% and overall survival was 55%. Conclusion: HARTCIB (75 Gy in 5 weeks) is feasible for patients deemed unsuitable for chemoradiation. Acute toxicity was lower than predicted from radiobiological models; duration of dysphagia and confluent mucositis were particularly short. Better conformity of radiotherapy allows the use of more intensive altered fractionation schedules compared with older studies. These results suggest that further dose escalation might be possible when highly conformal techniques (e.g., stereotactic radiotherapy) are used.

  13. Dose escalation of radical radiation therapy in non-small-cell lung cancer using positron emission tomography/computed tomography-defined target volumes: Are class solutions obsolete?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everitt, S.; Schneider-Kolsky, M.; Budd, R.; Yuen, K.; Manus, M Mac

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This study investigated the maximum theoretical radiation dose that could safely be delivered to 20 patients diagnosed with non-small-cell lung cancer. Two three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (RT) class-solution techniques (A and B) and an individualized three-dimensional conformal RT technique (C) were compared at the standard dose of 60 Gy (part I). Dose escalation was then attempted for each technique successfully at 60 Gy, constrained by predetermined limits for lung and spinal canal (part II). Part I and part II data were reanalysed to include oesophageal dose constraints (part III). In part I, 60 Gy was successfully planned using techniques A, B and C in 19 (95%), 18 (90%) and 20 (100%) patients, respectively. The mean escalated dose attainable for part II using techniques A, B and C were 76.4, 74 and 97.8 Gy, respectively (P < 0.0005). One (5%) patient was successfully planned for 120 Gy using techniques A and B, whereas four (20%) were successfully planned using technique C. Following the inclusion of additional constraints applied to the oesophagus in part III, the amount of escalated dose remained the same for all patients who were successfully planned at 60 Gy apart from two patients when technique C was applied. In conclusion, individualized three-dimensional conformal RT facilitated greater dose conformation and higher escalation of dose in most patients. With modern planning tools, simple class solutions are obsolete for conventional dose radical RT in non-small-cell lung cancer. Highly individualized conformal planning is essential for dose escalation.

  14. Modelling normal tissue isoeffect distribution in conformal radiotherapy of glioblastoma provides an alternative dose escalation pattern through hypofractionation without reducing the total dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangel, L.; Skriba, Z.; Major, T.; Polgar, C.; Fodor, J.; Somogyi, A.; Nemeth, G.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prove that by using conformal external beam radiotherapy (RT) normal brain structures can be protected even when applying an alternative approach of biological dose escalation: hypofractionation (HOF) without total dose reduction (TDR). Traditional 2-dimensional (2D) and conformal 3-dimensional (3D) treatment plans were prepared for 10 gliomas representing the subanatomical sites of the supratentorial brain. Isoeffect distributions were generated by the biologically effective dose (BED) formula to analyse the effect of conventionally fractionated (CF) and HOF schedules on both the spatial biological dose distribution and biological dose-volume histograms. A comparison was made between 2D-CF (2.0 Gy/day) and 3D-HOF (2.5 Gy/day) regimens, applying the same 60 Gy total doses. Integral biologically effective dose (IBED) and volumes received biologically equivalent to a dose of 54 Gy or more (V-BED54) were calculated for the lower and upper brain stem as organs of risk. The IBED values were lower with the 3D-HOF than with the 2D-CF schedule in each tumour location, means 22.7±17.1 and 40.4±16.9 in Gy, respectively (p<0.0001). The V-BED54 values were also smaller or equal in 90% of the cases favouring the 3D-HOF scheme. The means were 2.7±4.8 ccm for 3D-HOF and 10.7±12.7 ccm for 2D-CF (p=0.0006). Our results suggest that with conformal RT, fraction size can gradually be increased. HOF radiotherapy regimens without TDR shorten the treatment time and seem to be an alternative way of dose escalation in the treatment of glioblastoma

  15. Modelling normal tissue isoeffect distribution in conformal radiotherapy of glioblastoma provides an alternative dose escalation pattern through hypofractionation without reducing the total dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangel, L.; Skriba, Z.; Major, T.; Polgar, C.; Fodor, J.; Somogyi, A.; Nemeth, G. [National Research Inst. for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene, Budapest (Hungary)

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to prove that by using conformal external beam radiotherapy (RT) normal brain structures can be protected even when applying an alternative approach of biological dose escalation: hypofractionation (HOF) without total dose reduction (TDR). Traditional 2-dimensional (2D) and conformal 3-dimensional (3D) treatment plans were prepared for 10 gliomas representing the subanatomical sites of the supratentorial brain. Isoeffect distributions were generated by the biologically effective dose (BED) formula to analyse the effect of conventionally fractionated (CF) and HOF schedules on both the spatial biological dose distribution and biological dose-volume histograms. A comparison was made between 2D-CF (2.0 Gy/day) and 3D-HOF (2.5 Gy/day) regimens, applying the same 60 Gy total doses. Integral biologically effective dose (IBED) and volumes received biologically equivalent to a dose of 54 Gy or more (V-BED54) were calculated for the lower and upper brain stem as organs of risk. The IBED values were lower with the 3D-HOF than with the 2D-CF schedule in each tumour location, means 22.7{+-}17.1 and 40.4{+-}16.9 in Gy, respectively (p<0.0001). The V-BED54 values were also smaller or equal in 90% of the cases favouring the 3D-HOF scheme. The means were 2.7{+-}4.8 ccm for 3D-HOF and 10.7{+-}12.7 ccm for 2D-CF (p=0.0006). Our results suggest that with conformal RT, fraction size can gradually be increased. HOF radiotherapy regimens without TDR shorten the treatment time and seem to be an alternative way of dose escalation in the treatment of glioblastoma.

  16. Single-dose, subcutaneous recombinant phenylalanine ammonia lyase conjugated with polyethylene glycol in adult patients with phenylketonuria: an open-label, multicentre, phase 1 dose-escalation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Nicola; Harding, Cary O; Burton, Barbara K; Grange, Dorothy K; Vockley, Jerry; Wasserstein, Melissa; Rice, Gregory M; Dorenbaum, Alejandro; Neuenburg, Jutta K; Musson, Donald G; Gu, Zhonghua; Sile, Saba

    2014-07-05

    Phenylketonuria is an inherited disease caused by impaired activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase, the enzyme that converts phenylalanine to tyrosine, leading to accumulation of phenylalanine and subsequent neurocognitive dysfunction. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase is a prokaryotic enzyme that converts phenylalanine to ammonia and trans-cinnamic acid. We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetic characteristics, and efficacy of recombinant Anabaena variabilis phenylalanine ammonia lyase (produced in Escherichia coli) conjugated with polyethylene glycol (rAvPAL-PEG) in reducing phenylalanine concentrations in adult patients with phenylketonuria. In this open-label, phase 1, multicentre trial, single subcutaneous injections of rAvPAL-PEG were given in escalating doses (0·001, 0·003, 0·010, 0·030, and 0·100 mg/kg) to adults with phenylketonuria. Participants aged 18 years or older with blood phenylalanine concentrations of 600 μmol/L or higher were recruited from among patients attending metabolic disease clinics in the USA. The primary endpoints were safety and tolerability of rAvPAL-PEG. Secondary endpoints were the pharmacokinetic characteristics of the drug and its effect on concentrations of phenylalanine. Participants and investigators were not masked to assigned dose group. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00925054. 25 participants were recruited from seven centres between May 6, 2008, and April 15, 2009, with five participants assigned to each escalating dose group. All participants were included in the safety population. The most frequently reported adverse events were injection-site reactions and dizziness, which were self-limited and without sequelae. Two participants had serious adverse reactions to intramuscular medroxyprogesterone acetate, a drug that contains polyethylene glycol as an excipient. Three of five participants given the highest dose of rAvPAL-PEG (0·100 mg/kg) developed a generalised skin rash

  17. Larval development of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer fed on leaves of Bt maize expressing Cry1F and Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 proteins and its non-Bt isoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orcial Ceolin Bortolotto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate, in controlled laboratory conditions (temperature of 25±2 °C, relative humidity of 60±10%, and 14/10 h L/D photoperiod, the larval development of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer, 1784 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae fed with leaves of Bt maize expressing Cry1F and Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 insecticide proteins and its non-Bt isoline. Maize leaves triggered 100% of mortality on S. eridania larvae independently of being Bt or non-Bt plants. However, it was observed that in overall Bt maize (expressing a single or pyramided protein slightly affects the larval development of S. eridania, even under reduced leaf consumption. Therefore, these results showed that Cry1F and Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 can affect the larval development of S. eridania, although it is not a target pest of this plant; however, more research is needed to better understand this evidence. Finally, this study confirms that non-Bt maize leaves are unsuitable food source to S. eridania larvae, suggesting that they are not a potential pest in maize fields.

  18. Effects of feeding Bt MON810 maize to pigs for 110 days on peripheral immune response and digestive fate of the cry1Ab gene and truncated Bt toxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C Walsh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate potential long-term (110 days and age-specific effects of feeding genetically modified Bt maize on peripheral immune response in pigs and to determine the digestive fate of the cry1Ab gene and truncated Bt toxin. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Forty day old pigs (n = 40 were fed one of the following treatments: 1 isogenic maize-based diet for 110 days (isogenic; 2 Bt maize-based diet (MON810 for 110 days (Bt; 3 Isogenic maize-based diet for 30 days followed by Bt maize-based diet for 80 days (isogenic/Bt; and 4 Bt maize-based diet (MON810 for 30 days followed by isogenic maize-based diet for 80 days (Bt/isogenic. Blood samples were collected during the study for haematological analysis, measurement of cytokine and Cry1Ab-specific antibody production, immune cell phenotyping and cry1Ab gene and truncated Bt toxin detection. Pigs were sacrificed on day 110 and digesta and organ samples were taken for detection of the cry1Ab gene and the truncated Bt toxin. On day 100, lymphocyte counts were higher (P<0.05 in pigs fed Bt/isogenic than pigs fed Bt or isogenic. Erythrocyte counts on day 100 were lower in pigs fed Bt or isogenic/Bt than pigs fed Bt/isogenic (P<0.05. Neither the truncated Bt toxin nor the cry1Ab gene were detected in the organs or blood of pigs fed Bt maize. The cry1Ab gene was detected in stomach digesta and at low frequency in the ileum but not in the distal gastrointestinal tract (GIT, while the Bt toxin fragments were detected at all sites in the GIT. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Perturbations in peripheral immune response were thought not to be age-specific and were not indicative of Th 2 type allergenic or Th 1 type inflammatory responses. There was no evidence of cry1Ab gene or Bt toxin translocation to organs or blood following long-term feeding.

  19. Distribution and Metabolism of Bt-Cry1Ac Toxin in Tissues and Organs of the Cotton Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoya Zhao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Crystal (Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt have been widely used in transgenic crops due to their toxicity against insect pests. However, the distribution and metabolism of these toxins in insect tissues and organs have remained obscure because the target insects do not ingest much toxin. In this study, several Cry1Ac-resistant strains of Helicoverpa armigera, fed artificial diets containing high doses of Cry1Ac toxin, were used to investigate the distribution and metabolism of Cry1Ac in their bodies. Cry1Ac was only detected in larvae, not in pupae or adults. Also, Cry1Ac passed through the midgut into other tissues, such as the hemolymph and fat body, but did not reach the larval integument. Metabolic tests revealed that Cry1Ac degraded most rapidly in the fat body, followed by the hemolymph, peritrophic membrane and its contents. The toxin was metabolized slowly in the midgut, but was degraded in all locations within 48 h. These findings will improve understanding of the functional mechanism of Bt toxins in target insects and the biotransfer and the bioaccumulation of Bt toxins in arthropod food webs in the Bt crop ecosystem.

  20. Radiation therapy and concurrent fixed dose amifostine with escalating doses of twice-weekly gemcitabine in advanced pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, A. Aydin; Aydin, Fazil; Yavuz, Melek N.; Ilis, Esra; Ozdemir, Feyyaz

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) of twice-weekly gemcitabine (TW-G) when administered in conjunction with fixed dose amifostine (A) during external radiotherapy (RT) in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with previously untreated, locally advanced, or asymptomatic-metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma were enrolled in this study. RT was delivered by using the standard four-field technique (1.8 Gy daily fractions, 45 Gy followed by a boost of 5.4 Gy, in 5-1/2 weeks). The starting dose of TW-G was 60 mg/m 2 (i.v., 30-min infusion), which is equal to the upper limit of previously reported MTD of TW-G when given without A during RT. A was given just before the TW-G, at a fixed dose of 340 mg/m 2 (i.v., rapid infusion). TW-G doses were escalated by 30-mg/m 2 increments in successive cohorts of 3 to 6 additional patients until DLT was observed. Toxicities were graded using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria, version 2.0. Results: In general, therapy was well tolerated in patients treated at the first two dose levels of 60 mg/m 2 and 90 mg/m 2 . The DLT of TW-G given in conjunction with A during RT were neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and nausea/vomiting at the dose level of 120 mg/m 2 . Of the 10 patients eligible for a median follow-up of 10 months, 5 remain alive; 1 complete responder, 3 partial responders, and 1 with stable disease. Conclusion: A dose of TW-G at a level of 90 mg/m 2 produced tolerable toxicity and it may possess significant activity when delivered in conjunction with 340 mg/m 2 dose of A during RT of the upper abdomen. Due to the higher MTD of TW-G seen in our study, we consider that the A supplementation may optimize the therapeutic index of TW-G-based chemoradiotherapy protocols in patients with pancreatic carcinoma

  1. Vorinostat and Concurrent Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Brain Metastases: A Phase 1 Dose Escalation Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Clara Y H; Wakelee, Heather A; Neal, Joel W; Pinder-Schenck, Mary C; Yu, Hsiang-Hsuan Michael; Chang, Steven D; Adler, John R; Modlin, Leslie A; Harsh, Griffith R; Soltys, Scott G

    2017-09-01

    To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, given concurrently with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to treat non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) brain metastases. Secondary objectives were to determine toxicity, local failure, distant intracranial failure, and overall survival rates. In this multicenter study, patients with 1 to 4 NSCLC brain metastases, each ≤2 cm, were enrolled in a phase 1, 3 + 3 dose escalation trial. Vorinostat dose levels were 200, 300, and 400 mg orally once daily for 14 days. Single-fraction SRS was delivered on day 3. A dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was defined as any Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 grade 3 to 5 acute nonhematologic adverse event related to vorinostat or SRS occurring within 30 days. From 2009 to 2014, 17 patients were enrolled and 12 patients completed study treatment. Because no DLTs were observed, the MTD was established as 400 mg. Acute adverse events were reported by 10 patients (59%). Five patients discontinued vorinostat early and withdrew from the study. The most common reasons for withdrawal were dyspnea (n=2), nausea (n=1), and fatigue (n=2). With a median follow-up of 12 months (range, 1-64 months), Kaplan-Meier overall survival was 13 months. There were no local failures. One patient (8%) at the 400-mg dose level with a 2.0-cm metastasis developed histologically confirmed grade 4 radiation necrosis 2 months after SRS. The MTD of vorinostat with concurrent SRS was established as 400 mg. Although no DLTs were observed, 5 patients withdrew before completing the treatment course, a result that emphasizes the need for supportive care during vorinostat administration. There were no local failures. A larger, randomized trial may evaluate both the tolerability and potential local control benefit of vorinostat concurrent with SRS for brain metastases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dose-Escalated Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Is Feasible and May Improve Locoregional Control and Laryngeal Preservation in Laryngo-Hypopharyngeal Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, Aisha B.; Bhide, Shreerang A.; Guerrero-Urbano, M. Teresa; Clark, Catharine; Bidmead, A. Margaret; St Rose, Suzanne; Barbachano, Yolanda; A’Hern, Roger; Tanay, Mary; Hickey, Jennifer; Nicol, Robyn; Newbold, Kate L.; Harrington, Kevin J.; Nutting, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the safety and outcomes of induction chemotherapy followed by dose-escalated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with concomitant chemotherapy in locally advanced squamous cell cancer of the larynx and hypopharynx (LA-SCCL/H). Methods and Materials: A sequential cohort Phase I/II trial design was used to evaluate moderate acceleration and dose escalation. Patients with LA-SCCL/H received IMRT at two dose levels (DL): DL1, 63 Gy/28 fractions (Fx) to planning target volume 1 (PTV1) and 51.8 Gy/28 Fx to PTV2; DL2, 67.2 Gy/28 Fx and 56 Gy/28 Fx to PTV1 and PTV2, respectively. Patients received induction cisplatin/5-fluorouracil and concomitant cisplatin. Acute and late toxicities and tumor control rates were recorded. Results: Between September 2002 and January 2008, 60 patients (29 DL1, 31 DL2) with Stage III (41% DL1, 52% DL2) and Stage IV (52% DL1, 48% DL2) disease were recruited. Median (range) follow-up for DL1 was 51.2 (12.1–77.3) months and for DL2 was 36.2 (4.2–63.3) months. Acute Grade 3 (G3) dysphagia was higher in DL2 (87% DL2 vs. 59% DL1), but other toxicities were equivalent. One patient in DL1 required dilatation of a pharyngeal stricture (G3 dysphagia). In DL2, 2 patients developed benign pharyngeal strictures at 1 year. One underwent a laryngo-pharyngectomy and the other a dilatation. No other G3/G4 toxicities were reported. Overall complete response was 79% (DL1) and 84% (DL2). Two-year locoregional progression-free survival rates were 64.2% (95% confidence interval, 43.5–78.9%) in DL1 and 78.4% (58.1–89.7%) in DL2. Two-year laryngeal preservation rates were 88.7% (68.5–96.3%) in DL1 and 96.4% (77.7–99.5%) in DL2. Conclusions: At a mean follow-up of 36 months, dose-escalated chemotherapy–IMRT at DL2 has so far been safe to deliver. In this study, DL2 delivered high rates of locoregional control, progression-free survival, and organ preservation and has been selected as the experimental arm in a Cancer Research UK

  3. Dose-Escalated Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Is Feasible and May Improve Locoregional Control and Laryngeal Preservation in Laryngo-Hypopharyngeal Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, Aisha B; Bhide, Shreerang A; Guerrero-Urbano, M Teresa [Head and Neck Unit, The Royal Marsden National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); Clark, Catharine; Bidmead, A Margaret [Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); St Rose, Suzanne; Barbachano, Yolanda; A' Hern, Roger [Department of Statistics, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Tanay, Mary; Hickey, Jennifer; Nicol, Robyn; Newbold, Kate L [Head and Neck Unit, The Royal Marsden National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Harrington, Kevin J [Head and Neck Unit, The Royal Marsden National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); Nutting, Christopher M., E-mail: chris.nutting@rmh.nhs.uk [Head and Neck Unit, The Royal Marsden National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the safety and outcomes of induction chemotherapy followed by dose-escalated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with concomitant chemotherapy in locally advanced squamous cell cancer of the larynx and hypopharynx (LA-SCCL/H). Methods and Materials: A sequential cohort Phase I/II trial design was used to evaluate moderate acceleration and dose escalation. Patients with LA-SCCL/H received IMRT at two dose levels (DL): DL1, 63 Gy/28 fractions (Fx) to planning target volume 1 (PTV1) and 51.8 Gy/28 Fx to PTV2; DL2, 67.2 Gy/28 Fx and 56 Gy/28 Fx to PTV1 and PTV2, respectively. Patients received induction cisplatin/5-fluorouracil and concomitant cisplatin. Acute and late toxicities and tumor control rates were recorded. Results: Between September 2002 and January 2008, 60 patients (29 DL1, 31 DL2) with Stage III (41% DL1, 52% DL2) and Stage IV (52% DL1, 48% DL2) disease were recruited. Median (range) follow-up for DL1 was 51.2 (12.1-77.3) months and for DL2 was 36.2 (4.2-63.3) months. Acute Grade 3 (G3) dysphagia was higher in DL2 (87% DL2 vs. 59% DL1), but other toxicities were equivalent. One patient in DL1 required dilatation of a pharyngeal stricture (G3 dysphagia). In DL2, 2 patients developed benign pharyngeal strictures at 1 year. One underwent a laryngo-pharyngectomy and the other a dilatation. No other G3/G4 toxicities were reported. Overall complete response was 79% (DL1) and 84% (DL2). Two-year locoregional progression-free survival rates were 64.2% (95% confidence interval, 43.5-78.9%) in DL1 and 78.4% (58.1-89.7%) in DL2. Two-year laryngeal preservation rates were 88.7% (68.5-96.3%) in DL1 and 96.4% (77.7-99.5%) in DL2. Conclusions: At a mean follow-up of 36 months, dose-escalated chemotherapy-IMRT at DL2 has so far been safe to deliver. In this study, DL2 delivered high rates of locoregional control, progression-free survival, and organ preservation and has been selected as the experimental arm in a Cancer Research UK Phase III

  4. Dose-escalated intensity-modulated radiotherapy is feasible and may improve locoregional control and laryngeal preservation in laryngo-hypopharyngeal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Aisha B; Bhide, Shreerang A; Guerrero-Urbano, M Teresa; Clark, Catharine; Bidmead, A Margaret; St Rose, Suzanne; Barbachano, Yolanda; A'hern, Roger; Tanay, Mary; Hickey, Jennifer; Nicol, Robyn; Newbold, Kate L; Harrington, Kevin J; Nutting, Christopher M

    2012-02-01

    To determine the safety and outcomes of induction chemotherapy followed by dose-escalated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with concomitant chemotherapy in locally advanced squamous cell cancer of the larynx and hypopharynx (LA-SCCL/H). A sequential cohort Phase I/II trial design was used to evaluate moderate acceleration and dose escalation. Patients with LA-SCCL/H received IMRT at two dose levels (DL): DL1, 63 Gy/28 fractions (Fx) to planning target volume 1 (PTV1) and 51.8 Gy/28 Fx to PTV2; DL2, 67.2 Gy/28 Fx and 56 Gy/28 Fx to PTV1 and PTV2, respectively. Patients received induction cisplatin/5-fluorouracil and concomitant cisplatin. Acute and late toxicities and tumor control rates were recorded. Between September 2002 and January 2008, 60 patients (29 DL1, 31 DL2) with Stage III (41% DL1, 52% DL2) and Stage IV (52% DL1, 48% DL2) disease were recruited. Median (range) follow-up for DL1 was 51.2 (12.1-77.3) months and for DL2 was 36.2 (4.2-63.3) months. Acute Grade 3 (G3) dysphagia was higher in DL2 (87% DL2 vs. 59% DL1), but other toxicities were equivalent. One patient in DL1 required dilatation of a pharyngeal stricture (G3 dysphagia). In DL2, 2 patients developed benign pharyngeal strictures at 1 year. One underwent a laryngo-pharyngectomy and the other a dilatation. No other G3/G4 toxicities were reported. Overall complete response was 79% (DL1) and 84% (DL2). Two-year locoregional progression-free survival rates were 64.2% (95% confidence interval, 43.5-78.9%) in DL1 and 78.4% (58.1-89.7%) in DL2. Two-year laryngeal preservation rates were 88.7% (68.5-96.3%) in DL1 and 96.4% (77.7-99.5%) in DL2. At a mean follow-up of 36 months, dose-escalated chemotherapy-IMRT at DL2 has so far been safe to deliver. In this study, DL2 delivered high rates of locoregional control, progression-free survival, and organ preservation and has been selected as the experimental arm in a Cancer Research UK Phase III study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  5. IDEAL-CRT: A Phase 1/2 Trial of Isotoxic Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Chemotherapy in Patients With Stage II/III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landau, David B., E-mail: david.landau@kcl.ac.uk [Guy' s & St. Thomas' NHS Trust, King' s College London, London (United Kingdom); Hughes, Laura [Cancer Research UK and UCL Cancer Trials Centre, London (United Kingdom); Baker, Angela [Clatterbridge Cancer Centre, Bebington (United Kingdom); Bates, Andrew T. [Southampton General Hospital, Southampton (United Kingdom); Bayne, Michael C. [Poole Hospital, Poole (United Kingdom); Counsell, Nicholas [Cancer Research UK and UCL Cancer Trials Centre, London (United Kingdom); Garcia-Alonso, Angel [North Wales Cancer Centre, Rhyl (United Kingdom); Harden, Susan V. [Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Hicks, Jonathan D. [Beatson West of Scotland Cancer Centre, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Hughes, Simon R. [Guy' s & St. Thomas' NHS Trust, King' s College London, London (United Kingdom); Illsley, Marianne C. [Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guilford (United Kingdom); Khan, Iftekhar [Cancer Research UK and UCL Cancer Trials Centre, London (United Kingdom); Laurence, Virginia [Poole Hospital, Poole (United Kingdom); Malik, Zafar; Mayles, Helen; Mayles, William Philip M. [Clatterbridge Cancer Centre, Bebington (United Kingdom); Miles, Elizabeth [Mount Vernon Hospital, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Mohammed, Nazia [Beatson West of Scotland Cancer Centre, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Ngai, Yenting [Cancer Research UK and UCL Cancer Trials Centre, London (United Kingdom); Parsons, Emma [Mount Vernon Hospital, Middlesex (United Kingdom); and others

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: To report toxicity and early survival data for IDEAL-CRT, a trial of dose-escalated concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for non-small cell lung cancer. Patients and Methods: Patients received tumor doses of 63 to 73 Gy in 30 once-daily fractions over 6 weeks with 2 concurrent cycles of cisplatin and vinorelbine. They were assigned to 1 of 2 groups according to esophageal dose. In group 1, tumor doses were determined by an experimental constraint on maximum esophageal dose, which was escalated following a 6 + 6 design from 65 Gy through 68 Gy to 71 Gy, allowing an esophageal maximum tolerated dose to be determined from early and late toxicities. Tumor doses for group 2 patients were determined by other tissue constraints, often lung. Overall survival, progression-free survival, tumor response, and toxicity were evaluated for both groups combined. Results: Eight centers recruited 84 patients: 13, 12, and 10, respectively, in the 65-Gy, 68-Gy, and 71-Gy cohorts of group 1; and 49 in group 2. The mean prescribed tumor dose was 67.7 Gy. Five grade 3 esophagitis and 3 grade 3 pneumonitis events were observed across both groups. After 1 fatal esophageal perforation in the 71-Gy cohort, 68 Gy was declared the esophageal maximum tolerated dose. With a median follow-up of 35 months, median overall survival was 36.9 months, and overall survival and progression-free survival were 87.8% and 72.0%, respectively, at 1 year and 68.0% and 48.5% at 2 years. Conclusions: IDEAL-CRT achieved significant treatment intensification with acceptable toxicity and promising survival. The isotoxic design allowed the esophageal maximum tolerated dose to be identified from relatively few patients.

  6. Dose Escalation of Total Marrow Irradiation With Concurrent Chemotherapy in Patients With Advanced Acute Leukemia Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Jeffrey Y.C., E-mail: jwong@coh.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Forman, Stephen; Somlo, George [Department of Hematology/Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Rosenthal, Joseph [Department of Hematology/Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Department of Pediatrics, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Liu An; Schultheiss, Timothy; Radany, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Palmer, Joycelynne [Department of Biostatistics, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Stein, Anthony [Department of Hematology/Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We have demonstrated that toxicities are acceptable with total marrow irradiation (TMI) at 16 Gy without chemotherapy or TMI at 12 Gy and the reduced intensity regimen of fludarabine/melphalan in patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). This article reports results of a study of TMI combined with higher intensity chemotherapy regimens in 2 phase I trials in patients with advanced acute myelogenous leukemia or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (AML/ALL) who would do poorly on standard intent-to-cure HCT regimens. Methods and Materials: Trial 1 consisted of TMI on Days -10 to -6, etoposide (VP16) on Day -5 (60 mg/kg), and cyclophosphamide (CY) on Day -3 (100 mg/kg). TMI dose was 12 (n=3 patients), 13.5 (n=3 patients), and 15 (n=6 patients) Gy at 1.5 Gy twice daily. Trial 2 consisted of busulfan (BU) on Days -12 to -8 (800 {mu}M min), TMI on Days -8 to -4, and VP16 on Day -3 (30 mg/kg). TMI dose was 12 (n=18) and 13.5 (n=2) Gy at 1.5 Gy twice daily. Results: Trial 1 had 12 patients with a median age of 33 years. Six patients had induction failures (IF), and 6 had first relapses (1RL), 9 with leukemia blast involvement of bone marrow ranging from 10%-98%, 5 with circulating blasts (24%-85%), and 2 with chloromas. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed. Eleven patients achieved complete remission at Day 30. With a median follow-up of 14.75 months, 5 patients remained in complete remission from 13.5-37.7 months. Trial 2 had 20 patients with a median age of 41 years. Thirteen patients had IF, and 5 had 1RL, 2 in second relapse, 19 with marrow blasts (3%-100%) and 13 with peripheral blasts (6%-63%). Grade 4 dose-limiting toxicities were seen at 13.5 Gy (stomatitis and hepatotoxicity). Stomatitis was the most frequent toxicity in both trials. Conclusions: TMI dose escalation to 15 Gy is possible when combined with CY/VP16 and is associated with acceptable toxicities and encouraging outcomes. TMI dose escalation is not possible with BU/VP16 due to

  7. A brachytherapy photon radiation quality index Q(BT) for probe-type dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quast, Ulrich; Kaulich, Theodor W; Álvarez-Romero, José T; Carlsson Tedgren, Sa; Enger, Shirin A; Medich, David C; Mourtada, Firas; Perez-Calatayud, Jose; Rivard, Mark J; Zakaria, G Abu

    2016-06-01

    In photon brachytherapy (BT), experimental dosimetry is needed to verify treatment plans if planning algorithms neglect varying attenuation, absorption or scattering conditions. The detector's response is energy dependent, including the detector material to water dose ratio and the intrinsic mechanisms. The local mean photon energy E¯(r) must be known or another equivalent energy quality parameter used. We propose the brachytherapy photon radiation quality indexQ(BT)(E¯), to characterize the photon radiation quality in view of measurements of distributions of the absorbed dose to water, Dw, around BT sources. While the external photon beam radiotherapy (EBRT) radiation quality index Q(EBRT)(E¯)=TPR10(20)(E¯) is not applicable to BT, the authors have applied a novel energy dependent parameter, called brachytherapy photon radiation quality index, defined as Q(BT)(E¯)=Dprim(r=2cm,θ0=90°)/Dprim(r0=1cm,θ0=90°), utilizing precise primary absorbed dose data, Dprim, from source reference databases, without additional MC-calculations. For BT photon sources used clinically, Q(BT)(E¯) enables to determine the effective mean linear attenuation coefficient μ¯(E) and thus the effective energy of the primary photons Eprim(eff)(r0,θ0) at the TG-43 reference position Pref(r0=1cm,θ0=90°), being close to the mean total photon energy E¯tot(r0,θ0). If one has calibrated detectors, published E¯tot(r) and the BT radiation quality correction factor [Formula: see text] for different BT radiation qualities Q and Q0, the detector's response can be determined and Dw(r,θ) measured in the vicinity of BT photon sources. This novel brachytherapy photon radiation quality indexQ(BT) characterizes sufficiently accurate and precise the primary photon's penetration probability and scattering potential. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Phase I dose-escalation and pharmacokinetic study (TED 11576) of cabazitaxel in Japanese patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Hirofumi; Takahashi, Shunji; Nozawa, Masahiro; Onozawa, Yusuke; Miyazaki, Jun; Ohno, Keiji; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of the study is to analyze the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of cabazitaxel and evaluate its safety and tolerability as a 1-h IV infusion every 3 weeks in Japanese patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Seventeen patients were treated with cabazitaxel at doses of 20 and 25 mg/m(2) for PK analyses. Dose escalation was performed only in the absence of dose-limiting toxicity (DLT). The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was the highest dose at which less than 33 % of the patients developed DLT. Cabazitaxel exhibited a triphasic elimination profile with a long terminal half-life of 116 ± 29.0 or 113 ± 28.0 h after IV infusion of 20 or 25 mg/m(2) cabazitaxel, respectively. The major differences in the PK parameters of cabazitaxel and docetaxel were cabazitaxel's fairly high clearance rate, representing approximately half the hepatic flow, and its large volume of distribution at steady-state conditions. No DLT was observed during Cycle 1. Mild-to-moderate hematological adverse events (AEs), including neutropenia, and other AEs typically associated with taxanes were observed; all AEs were manageable. Cabazitaxel at 25 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks was selected as the MTD in Japanese patients. The PK parameters of cabazitaxel in Japanese CRPC patients were comparable with those previously determined in Caucasian subjects. The safety and tolerability of cabazitaxel were also comparable in both ethnic populations.

  9. Results of the Phase I Dose-Escalating Study of Motexafin Gadolinium With Standard Radiotherapy in Patients With Glioblastoma Multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Judith M.; Seiferheld, Wendy; Alger, Jeffrey R.; Wu, Genevieve; Endicott, Thyra J.; Mehta, Minesh; Curran, Walter; Phan, See-Chun

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Motexafin gadolinium (MGd) is a putative radiation enhancer initially evaluated in patients with brain metastases. This Phase I trial studied the safety and tolerability of a 2-6-week course (10-22 doses) of MGd with radiotherapy for glioblastoma multiforme. Methods and Materials: A total of 33 glioblastoma multiforme patients received one of seven MGd regimens starting at 10 doses of 4 mg/kg/d MGd and escalating to 22 doses of 5.3 mg/kg/d MGd (5 or 10 daily doses then three times per week). The National Cancer Institute Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program toxicity and stopping rules were applied. Results: The maximal tolerated dose was 5.0 mg/kg/d MGd (5 d/wk for 2 weeks, then three times per week) for 22 doses. The dose-limiting toxicity was reversible transaminase elevation. Adverse reactions included rash/pruritus (45%), chills/fever (30%), and self-limiting vesiculobullous rash of the thumb and fingers (42%). The median survival of 17.6 months prompted a case-matched analysis. In the case-matched analysis, the MGd patients had a median survival of 16.1 months (n = 31) compared with the matched Radiation Therapy Oncology Group database patients with a median survival of 11.8 months (hazard ratio, 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.20-0.94). Conclusion: The maximal tolerated dose of MGd with radiotherapy for glioblastoma multiforme in this study was 5 mg/kg/d for 22 doses (daily for 2 weeks, then three times weekly). The baseline survival calculations suggest progression to Phase II trials is appropriate, with the addition of MGd to radiotherapy with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide

  10. A study of the effects of internal organ motion on dose escalation in conformal prostate treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Happersett, Laura; Mageras, Gig S.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Burman, Chandra M.; Leibel, Steven A.; Chui Chen; Fuks, Zvi; Bull, Sarah; Ling, C. Clifton; Kutcher, Gerald J.

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: To assess the effect of internal organ motion on the dose distributions and biological indices for the target and non-target organs for three different conformal prostate treatment techniques. Materials and methods: We examined three types of treatment plans in 20 patients: (1) a six field plan, with a prescribed dose of 75.6 Gy; (2) the same six field plan to 72 Gy followed by a boost to 81 Gy; and (3) a five field plan with intensity modulated beams delivering 81 Gy. Treatment plans were designed using an initial CT data set (planning) and applied to three subsequent CT scans (treatment). The treatment CT contours were used to represent patient specific organ displacement; in addition, the dose distribution was convolved with a Gaussian distribution to model random setup error. Dose-volume histograms were calculated using an organ deformation model in which the movement between scans of individual points interior to the organs was tracked and the dose accumulated. The tumor control probability (TCP) for the prostate and proximal half of seminal vesicles (clinical target volume, CTV), normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for the rectum and the percent volume of bladder wall receiving at least 75 Gy were calculated. Results: The patient averaged increase in the planned TCP between plan types 2 and 1 and types 3 and 1 was 9.8% (range 4.9-12.5%) for both, whereas the corresponding increases in treatment TCP were 9.0% (1.3-16%) and 8.1% (-1.3-13.8%). In all patients, plans 2 and 3 (81 Gy) exhibited equal or higher treatment TCP than plan 1 (75.6 Gy). The maximum treatment NTCP for rectum never exceeded the planning constraint and percent volume of bladder wall receiving at least 75 Gy was similar in the planning and treatment scans for all three plans. Conclusion: For plans that deliver a uniform prescribed dose to the planning target volume (PTV) (plan 1), current margins are adequate. In plans that further escalate the dose to part

  11. FUM gene expression profile and fumonisin production by Fusarium verticillioides inoculated in Bt and non-Bt maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Oliveira Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the levels of fumonisins produced by F. verticillioides and FUM gene expression on Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis and non-Bt maize, post harvest, during different periods of incubation. Transgenic hybrids 30F35 YG, 2B710 Hx and their isogenic (30F35 and 2B710 were collected from the field and a subset of 30 samples selected for the experiments. Maize samples were sterilized by gamma radiation at a dose of 20 kGy. Samples were then inoculated with Fusarium verticillioides and analysed under controlled conditions of temperature and relative humidity for fumonisin B1 and B2 (FB¬1 and FB2 production and FUM1, FUM3, FUM6, FUM7, FUM8, FUM13, FUM14, FUM15 and FUM19 expression. 2B710 Hx and 30F35 YG kernel samples were virtually intact when compared to the non-Bt hybrids that came from the field. Statistical analysis showed that FB¬1 production was significantly lower in 30F35 YG and 2B710 Hx than in the 30F35 and 2B710 hybrids (P 0.05. The kernel injuries observed in the non-Bt samples have possibly facilitated F. verticillioides penetration and promoted FB1 production under controlled conditions. FUM genes were expressed by F. verticillioides in all of the samples. However, there was indication of lower expression of a few FUM genes in the Bt hybrids; and a weak association between FB1 production and the relative expression of some of the FUM genes were observed in the 30F35 YG hybrid.

  12. Dominance of Cry1F resistance in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on TC1507 Bt maize in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Juliano R; Andow, David A; Horikoshi, Renato J; Sorgatto, Rodrigo J; dos Santos, Antonio C; Omoto, Celso

    2016-05-01

    Dominance of resistance has been one of the major parameters affecting the rate of evolution of resistance to Bt crops. High dose is the capacity of Bt crops to kill heterozygous insects and has been an essential component of the most successful strategy to manage resistance to these crops. Experiments were conducted to evaluate directly and indirectly whether the TC1507 event is high dose to Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith). About 8% of heterozygote neonate larvae were able to survive, complete larval development and emerge as normal adults on TC1507 leaves, while susceptible larvae could not survive for 5 days. The estimated dominance of resistance was 0.15 ± 0.09 and significantly higher than zero; therefore, the resistance to Cry1F expressed in TC1507 was not completely recessive. A 25-fold dilution of TC1507 maize leaf tissue in an artificial diet was able to cause a maximum mortality of only 37%, with growth inhibition of 82% at 7 days after larval infestation. Resistance to Cry1F in TC1507 maize is incompletely recessive in S. frugiperda. TC1507 maize is not high dose for S. frugiperda. Additional or alternative resistance management strategies, such as the replacement of single-trait Bt maize with pyramided Bt maize, which produces multiple proteins targeting the same insect pests, should be implemented wherever this technology is in use and S. frugiperda is the major pest. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Accelerated hyperfractionated hepatic irradiation in the management of patients with liver metastases: Results of the RTOG dose escalating protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, A.H.; Clyde, C.; Wasserman, T.H.; Turner, S.S.; Rotman, M.

    1993-01-01

    This study was prepared to address two objectives: (a) to determine whether progressively higher total doses of hepatic irradiation can prolong survival in a selected population of patients with liver metastases and (b) to refine existing concepts of liver tolerance for fractionated external radiation. One hundred seventy-three analyzable patients with computed tomography measurable liver metastases from primary cancers of the gastrointestinal tract were entered on a dose escalating protocol of twice daily hepatic irradiation employing fractions of 1.5 Gy separated by 4 hr or longer. Sequential groups of patients received 27 Gy, 30 Gy, and 33 Gy to the entire liver and were monitored for acute and late toxicities, survival, and cause of death. Dose escalation was implemented following survival of 10 patients at each dose level for a period of 6 months or longer without clinical or biochemical evidence of radiation hepatitis. The use of progressively larger total doses of radiation did not prolong median survival or decrease the frequency with which liver metastases were the cause of death. None of 122 patients entered at the 27 Gy and 30 Gy dose levels revealed clinical or biochemical evidence of radiation induced liver injury. Five of 51 patients entered at the 33 Gy level revealed clinical or biochemical evidence of late liver injury with an actuarial risk of severe (Grade 3) radiation hepatitis of 10.0% at 6 months, resulting in closure of the study to patient entry. The study design could not credibly establish a safe dose for hepatic irradiation, however, it did succeed in determining that 33 Gy in fractions of 1.5 Gy is unsafe, carrying a substantial risk of delayed radiation injury. The absence of apparent late liver injury at the 27 Gy and 30 Gy dose levels suggests that a prior clinical trial of adjuvant hepatic irradiation in patients with resected colon cancer may have employed an insufficient radiation dose (21 Gy) to fully test the question

  14. Dose Escalation and Quality of Life in Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer Treated With Radiotherapy: Long-Term Results of the Dutch Randomized Dose-Escalation Trial (CKTO 96-10 Trial)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mamgani, Abrahim; Putten, Wim L.J. van; Wielen, Gerard J. van der; Levendag, Peter C.; Incrocci, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of dose escalation of radiotherapy on quality of life (QoL) in prostate cancer patients. Patients and Methods: Three hundred prostate cancer patients participating in the Dutch randomized trial (CKTO 69-10) comparing 68 Gy with 78 Gy were the subject of this analysis. These patients filled out the SF-36 QoL questionnaire before radiotherapy (baseline) and 6, 12, 24, and 36 months thereafter. Changes in QoL over time of ≥10 points were considered clinically relevant. Repeated-measures regression analyses were applied to estimate and test the QoL changes over time, the differences between the two arms, and for association with a number of covariates. Results: At 3-year follow-up, the summary score physical health was 73.2 for the 68-Gy arm vs. 71.6 for the 78-Gy arm (p = 0.81), and the summary score mental health was 76.7 for the 68-Gy arm vs. 76.1 for the 78-Gy arm (p = 0.97). Statistically significant (p 10 points) was seen for only two scales. None of the tested covariates were significantly correlated with QoL scores. Conclusion: Dose escalation did not result in significant deterioration of QoL in prostate cancer patients. In both randomization arms, statistically significant decreases in QoL scores over time were seen in six scales. The deterioration of QoL was more pronounced in the physical than in the mental health domain and in some scales more in the high- than in the low-dose arm, but the differences between arms were not statistically significant.

  15. Prevention and reversal of social stress-escalated cocaine self-administration in mice by intra-VTA CRFR1 antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao; DeBold, Joseph F; Miczek, Klaus A

    2017-09-01

    A history of brief intermittent social defeat stress can escalate cocaine self-administration and induce long-term adaptations in the mesolimbic dopamine system. Extra-hypothalamic corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) has been shown to be closely associated with stress-induced escalation of drug use. How repeated stress modulates CRF release in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the roles of CRF receptors during different phases of stress-induced cocaine self-administration remain to be defined. The current study examines the roles of CRF and CRF receptor 1 (CRFR1) in escalated intravenous cocaine self-administration after exposure to social defeat stress in mice. First, CRFR1 antagonist (CP 376,395, 15 mg/kg, i.p.) given 30 min prior to each social defeat episode prevented later escalated cocaine self-administration. When CP 376,395 (5 and 15 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 10 days after the last episode of social stress, the escalation of cocaine intake was dose-dependently reversed. Moreover, socially defeated mice showed increased CRF release in the VTA compared to controls. To further explore the role of CRFR1, CP 376,395 (0.5 and 1 μg/0.2 μl) was infused directly into the VTA before the cocaine self-administration session. Intra-VTA antagonism of CRFR1 was sufficient to reverse social defeat stress-escalated cocaine self-administration. These findings suggest that CRF and CRFR1 exert multiple roles in the response to social stress that are relevant to escalated cocaine self-administration.

  16. A phase I dose escalation study of hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy as salvage therapy for persistent or recurrent malignant glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudes, Richard S.; Corn, Benjamin W.; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Andrews, David; Rosenstock, Jeffrey; Thoron, Louisa; Downes, Beverly; Curran, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: A phase I dose escalation of hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (H-SRT) in recurrent or persistent malignant gliomas as a means of increasing the biologically effective dose and decreasing the high rate of reoperation due to toxicity associated with single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and brachytherapy. Materials and Methods: From November 1994 to September 1996, 25 lesions in 20 patients with clinical and/or imaging evidence of malignant glioma persistence or recurrence received salvage H-SRT. Nineteen patients at the time of initial diagnosis had glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and one patient had an anaplastic astrocytoma. All of these patients with tumor persistence or recurrence had received initial fractionated radiation therapy (RT) with a mean and median dose of 60 Gy (44.0-72.0 Gy). The median time from completion of initial RT to H-SRT was 3.1 months (0.7-45.5 months). Salvage H-SRT was delivered using daily 3.0-3.5 Gy fractions (fxs). Three different total dose levels were sequentially evaluated: 24.0 Gy/3.0 Gy fxs (five lesions), 30.0 Gy/3.0 Gy fxs (10 lesions), and 35.0 Gy/3.5 Gy fxs (nine lesions). Median treated tumor volume measured 12.66 cc (0.89-47.5 cc). The median ratio of prescription volume to tumor volume was 2.8 (1.4-5.0). Toxicity was judged by RTOG criteria. Response was determined by clinical neurologic improvement, a decrease in steroid dose without clinical deterioration, and/or radiologic imaging. Results: No grade 3 toxicities were observed and no reoperation due to toxicity was required. At the time of analysis, 13 of 20 patients had died. The median survival time from the completion of H-SRT is 10.5 months with a 1-year survival rate of 20%. Neurological improvement was found in 45% of patients. Decreased steroid requirements occurred in 60% of patients. Minor imaging response was noted in 22% of patients. Using Fisher's exact test, response of any kind correlated strongly to total dose (p = 0.0056). None

  17. Phase I dose-escalation study of the c-Met tyrosine kinase inhibitor SAR125844 in Asian patients with advanced solid tumors, including patients with MET-amplified gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitara, Kohei; Kim, Tae Min; Yokota, Tomoya; Goto, Masahiro; Satoh, Taroh; Ahn, Jin-Hee; Kim, Hyo Song; Assadourian, Sylvie; Gomez, Corinne; Harnois, Marzia; Hamauchi, Satoshi; Kudo, Toshihiro; Doi, Toshihido; Bang, Yung-Jue

    2017-10-03

    SAR125844 is a potent and selective inhibitor of the c-Met kinase receptor. This was an open-label, phase I, multicenter, dose-escalation, and dose-expansion trial of SAR125844 in Asian patients with solid tumors, a subgroup of whom had gastric cancer and MET amplification (NCT01657214). SAR125844 was administered by intravenous infusion (260-570 mg/m 2 ) on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 of each 28-day cycle. Objectives were to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and to evaluate SAR125844 safety and pharmacokinetic profile. Antitumor activity was also assessed. Of 38 patients enrolled (median age 64.0 years), 22 had gastric cancer, including 14 with MET amplification. In the dose-escalation cohort ( N = 19; unselected population, including three patients with MET -amplification [two with gastric cancer and one with lung cancer]), the MTD was not reached, and the recommended dose was established at 570 mg/m 2 . Most frequent treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) were nausea (36.8%), vomiting (34.2%), decreased appetite (28.9%), and fatigue or asthenia, constipation, and abdominal pains (each 21.1%); none appeared to be dose-dependent. Grade ≥ 3 AEs were observed in 39.5% of patients and considered drug-related in 7.9%. SAR125844 exposure increased slightly more than expected by dose proportionality; dose had no significant effect on clearance. No objective responses were observed in the dose-escalation cohort, with seven patients (three gastric cancer, two colorectal cancer, one breast cancer, and one with cancer of unknown primary origin) having stable disease. Modest antitumor activity was observed at 570 mg/m 2 in the dose-expansion cohort, comprising patients with MET -amplified tumors ( N = 19). Two gastric cancer patients had partial responses, seven patients had stable disease (six gastric cancer and one kidney cancer), and 10 patients had progressive disease. Single-agent SAR125844 administered up to 570 mg/m 2 has acceptable tolerability and modest

  18. LOBI test BT-15/BT-16 pre-test calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, B.J.

    1991-03-01

    LOBI is a higher pressure, electrically heated integral system facility simulating a KWU 1300 MW PWR scaled 1:712 by volume, although full scale has been maintained in the vertical direction. In order to complete the test programme before the facility is closed in 1991 a number of tests have been performed in tandem, where the test procedures were compatible. BT-15/BT-16 is one such composite test. In their original form both tests BT-15 and BT-16 simulated a loss of main feedwater transient with delayed auxiliary feedwater injection, with the pumps running in BT-15 and tripped in BT-16. The aim of each test was to investigate the loss of primary/secondary heat transfer as the steam generator secondary sides boiled down, and the subsequent recovery of heat transfer as the auxiliary feedwater was tripped on. Due to a re-scheduling of the test programme there was insufficient time to perform sensitivity studies and so only one, base case, calculation is presented. (author)

  19. The potential influence of cell protectors for dose escalation in cancer therapy: an analysis of amifostine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCumber, Linda M.

    2004-01-01

    The attempt to increase the therapeutic ratio in an effort to improve survival or quality of life is the goal of modern cancer therapy. It is commonly accepted that local and systemic tumor control would increase if the dose intensity of antineoplastic drugs, radiation therapy, or the combination were increased. Radiation dose escalation using intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), accelerated or hypofractionated radiation schemes, and multidrug chemotherapy regimens are being used to try to increase tumor kill while inflicting minimal injury to normal tissue. Modern chemoradiation techniques have led to improved local regional control and increased cure rates, but the potentially severe and debilitating adverse effects of the therapies prevent them from reaching the ultimate goal of curing the disease while leaving the patient with a good quality of life. Cell protectants such as amifostine function by reducing the effects of therapy on normal cells while maintaining tumor sensitivity to the therapy. In various studies, amifostine has been analyzed and appears to be a potentially powerful adjuvant to current cancer therapy. Administering amifostine may allow dose escalation with less or equal risk to surrounding normal tissues. This could improve therapeutic efficacy, survival, and quality of life for cancer patients

  20. Genetically modified rice Bt-Shanyou63 expressing Cry1Ab/c protein does not harm Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Guo, Ruqing; Fang, Zhixiang; Liu, Biao

    2016-10-01

    The genetically modified (GM) rice Bt-ShanYou63 (Bt-SY63) received an official biosafety certificate while its safety remained in dispute. In a lifelong study, Daphnia magna were experimentally fed a basal diet of rice flours from Bt-SY63 or its parental rice ShanYou63 (SY63) at concentrations of 0.2mg, 0.3mg, or 0.4mgC (per individual per day). Overall the survival, body size, and reproduction of the animals were comparable between Bt-SY63 and ShanYou63.. The results showed that no significant differences were observed in growth and reproduction parameters between D. magna fed GM and non-GM flour and no dose-related changes occurred in all the values. Based on the different parameters assessed, the GM rice Bt-SY63 is a safe food source for D. magna that does not differ in quality from non-GM rice. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Salvage brachytherapy (BT) of 85 T1 T2 oral cavity second head and neck primaries (SHNP) in previously irradiated patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peiffert, D; Hoffstetter, S; Pernot, M.; Aletti, P.; Luporsi, E.; Kozminski, P.; Lapeyre, M.; Dartois, D.; Bey, P.

    1996-01-01

    The occurrence of a SNHP (20%) represents a major therapeutic dilemma for salvage treatment. BT achieves a local conservative treatment but neglects the node areas. The aim of the study is to evaluate the local control, the late complications, and the survival. Materials and Methods. From 1976 to 1994, 85 patients were treated by salvage BT for a T1 T2 SHNP (38 mobile tongues and 47 floors of mouth). All of them had been previously irradiated for a first head and neck primary by external beam irradiation (80 patients, mean dose = 55 Gy) and/or BT (31 patients, mean dose 39 Gy). A tumour resection had been performed in 33 patients. Results: They were 81 males and 4 females, their mean age was 59 (range 40-80). 78 had infiltrative squamous cell carcinomas, and 7 micro-invasive or intra-epithelial carcinomas. They were 20 T1N0, 17 T2 N0 and 1 T2 N1 mobile tongue, and 39 T1 N0, 8 T2 N0 floor of mouth tumours. The mean follow-up was 46 months (range 1-130). The BT used Ir 192 wires, at low dose rate (mean = 0.58 Gy/h, range 0.3-1.1), and delivered a mean dose of 62 Gy (range 26-70) in the 85% ref. isodose of the Paris System. For the tongue and the floor respectively, the 5 years overall survival was 41% and 26%, and the 5 years specific survival 74% and 94%. The causes of death were respectively the tumour for 32% and 5%, and another primary for 42% and 66%. The local relapse rate was respectively 18% and 8.5%, half of them occurring in the first year of follow-up, the nodal relapses were 8% and 4%. Only one patient developed a distant metastasis. 5 patients developed osteoradionecrosis (3 grade 3 with fracture and/or mandible resection) and 19 soft tissue necrosis (2 grade 3 treated by local excision, and 9 grade 2 treated by hyperbaric 02). 47 patients developed other primaries, especially in the oesophagus (18 patients) explaining the low overall survival. Conclusion: Salvage BT is a useful treatment for T1 T2 oral cavity SHNP occurring in previous irradiated

  2. Moderate Hypofractionated Protracted Radiation Therapy and Dose Escalation for Prostate Cancer: Do Dose and Overall Treatment Time Matter?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kountouri, Melpomeni; Zilli, Thomas; Rouzaud, Michel; Dubouloz, Angèle [Department of Radiation Oncology, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland); Linero, Dolors; Escudé, Lluís; Jorcano, Sandra [Radiation Oncology, Teknon Oncologic Institute, Barcelona (Spain); Miralbell, Raymond, E-mail: Raymond.Miralbell@hcuge.ch [Department of Radiation Oncology, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland); Radiation Oncology, Teknon Oncologic Institute, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-02-01

    Purpose: This was a retrospective study of 2 sequential dose escalation regimens of twice-weekly 4 Gy/fractions hypofractionated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT): 56 Gy and 60 Gy delivered within a protracted overall treatment time (OTT) of 6.5 and 7 weeks, respectively. Methods and Materials: 163 prostate cancer patients with cT1c-T3a disease and nodal involvement risk ≤20% (Roach index) were treated twice weekly to the prostate ± seminal vesicles with 2 sequential dose-escalated IMRT schedules: 56 Gy (14 × 4 Gy, n=81) from 2003 to 2007 and 60 Gy (15 × 4 Gy, n=82) from 2006 to 2010. Patient repositioning was made with bone matching on portal images. Gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicities were scored according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 grading scale. Results: There were no significant differences regarding the acute GU and GI toxicities in the 2 dose groups. The median follow-up times were 80.2 months (range, 4.5-121 months) and 56.5 months (range, 1.4-91.2 months) for patients treated to 56 and 60 Gy, respectively. The 5-year grade ≥2 late GU toxicity-free survivals with 56 Gy and 60 Gy were 96 ± 2.3% and 78.2 ± 5.1% (P=.001), respectively. The 5-year grade ≥2 late GI toxicity-free survivals with 56 Gy and 60 Gy were 98.6 ± 1.3% and 85.1 ± 4.5% (P=.005), respectively. Patients treated with 56 Gy showed a 5-year biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS) of 80.8 ± 4.7%, worse than patients treated with 60 Gy (93.2 ± 3.9%, P=.007). A trend for a better 5-year distant metastasis-free survival was observed among patients treated in the high-dose group (95.3 ± 2.7% vs 100%, P=.073, respectively). On multivariate analysis, only the 60-Gy group predicted for a better bPFS (P=.016, hazard ratio = 4.58). Conclusions: A single 4-Gy additional fraction in patients treated with a hypofractionated protracted IMRT schedule of 14 × 4 Gy resulted in

  3. A case to study population dynamics of bemisia tabaci and thrips tabaci on bt and non-bt cotton genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, M.; Hussain, M.; Ahmed, S.; Hafeez, F.; Farooq, M.; Arshad, M.

    2013-01-01

    Studies were conducted to investigate the performance of eight bt and five non-bt cotton genotypes against whitefly and thrips and impact of abiotic factors on the population fluctuation of these sucking pests, at cotton research station, multan, during 2010 and 2011. The results exhibited that bt genotypes found more susceptible host for the whitefly and thirps than non-bt genotypes, during the course of years of study. Among bt genotypes, maximum and minimum temperature showed significant and positive effect on whitefly population whereas relative humidity exerted negative effect during 2010. During 2011, the effect of all the factors was non significant. On cumulative basis, there was positive correlation between population of whitefly and minimum temperature. But in case of non-bt, it has negative with maximum temperature whereas relative humidity had a positive effect on whitefly population. similar trend was observed for thrips population on bt varieties during both years but on non-bt varieties only minimum temperature exerted strong positive impact on thrips population. Hierarchical regression models for whitefly and thrips revealed that minimum temperature was the most important factor (Bt and non-Bt varieties). Maximum temperature was the major contributing factor for whitefly fluctuation on bt varieties during 2010. (author)

  4. Focal Radiation Therapy Dose Escalation Improves Overall Survival in Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Patients Receiving Induction Chemotherapy and Consolidative Chemoradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Sunil, E-mail: skrishnan@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Chadha, Awalpreet S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Suh, Yelin [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Chen, Hsiang-Chun [Department of Biostatistics, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Rao, Arvind [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Das, Prajnan; Minsky, Bruce D.; Mahmood, Usama; Delclos, Marc E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Sawakuchi, Gabriel O. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Beddar, Sam [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Katz, Matthew H.; Fleming, Jason B. [Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Javle, Milind M.; Varadhachary, Gauri R.; Wolff, Robert A. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Crane, Christopher H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Purpose: To review outcomes of locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) patients treated with dose-escalated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with curative intent. Methods and Materials: A total of 200 patients with LAPC were treated with induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation between 2006 and 2014. Of these, 47 (24%) having tumors >1 cm from the luminal organs were selected for dose-escalated IMRT (biologically effective dose [BED] >70 Gy) using a simultaneous integrated boost technique, inspiration breath hold, and computed tomographic image guidance. Fractionation was optimized for coverage of gross tumor and luminal organ sparing. A 2- to 5-mm margin around the gross tumor volume was treated using a simultaneous integrated boost with a microscopic dose. Overall survival (OS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), local-regional and distant RFS, and time to local-regional and distant recurrence, calculated from start of chemoradiation, were the outcomes of interest. Results: Median radiation dose was 50.4 Gy (BED = 59.47 Gy) with a concurrent capecitabine-based (86%) regimen. Patients who received BED >70 Gy had a superior OS (17.8 vs 15.0 months, P=.03), which was preserved throughout the follow-up period, with estimated OS rates at 2 years of 36% versus 19% and at 3 years of 31% versus 9% along with improved local-regional RFS (10.2 vs 6.2 months, P=.05) as compared with those receiving BED ≤70 Gy. Degree of gross tumor volume coverage did not seem to affect outcomes. No additional toxicity was observed in the high-dose group. Higher dose (BED) was the only predictor of improved OS on multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Radiation dose escalation during consolidative chemoradiation therapy after induction chemotherapy for LAPC patients improves OS and local-regional RFS.

  5. A dose planning study on applicator guided stereotactic IMRT boost in combination with 3D MRI based brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assenholt, Marianne S.; Petersen, Joergen B.; Nielsen, Soeren K.; Lindegaard, Jacob C.; Tanderup, Kari

    2008-01-01

    Purpose. Locally advanced cervical cancer is usually treated with external beam radiotherapy followed by brachytherapy (BT). However, if response or tumour topography is unfavourable it may be difficult to reach a sufficient BT dose. The purpose of this study was to explore whether an applicator guided stereotactic IMRT boost could be combined with brachytherapy to improve dose volume parameters. Material and methods. Dose plans of 6 patients with HR CTV volumes of 31-100cc at the time of BT were analysed. MRI was performed with a combined intracavitary (IC)-interstitial (IS) ring applicator in situ. A radiotherapy schedule consisting of 45Gy (1.8Gyx25) IMRT followed by boost of 28Gy (7Gyx4fx) was modelled. Four different boost techniques were evaluated: IC-BT, IC/IS-BT, IC-BT+IMRT and IMRT. Dose plans were optimised for maximal tumour dose (D90) and coverage (V85Gy) while respecting DVH constraints in organs at risk: D2cc <75Gy in rectum and sigmoid and <90Gy in bladder (EQD2). In combined BT+IMRT dose plans, the IMRT plan was optimised on top of the BT dose distribution. Volumes irradiated to more than 60 Gy EQD2 (V60Gy) were evaluated. Results. Median dose coverage in IC plans was 74% [66-93%]. By using IC/IS or IC-BT+IMRT boost, the median coverage was improved to 95% [78-99%], and to 96% [69-99%] respectively. For IMRT alone, a median coverage of 98% [90-100%] was achieved, but V60Gy volumes were significantly increased by a median factor of 2.0 [1.4-2.3] as compared to IC/IS. It depended on the individual tumour topography whether IC/IS-BT or IC-BT+IMRT boost was the most favourable technique. Conclusion. It is technically possible to create dose plans that combine image guided BT and IMRT. In this study the dose coverage could be significantly increased by adding IS-BT or IMRT boost to the intracavitary dose. Using IMRT alone for boost cannot be advocated since this results in a significant increase of the volume irradiated to 60Gy

  6. A dose-escalation trial with the adaptive radiotherapy process as a delivery system in localized prostate cancer: Analysis of chronic toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brabbins, Donald; Martinez, Alvaro; Yan Di; Lockman, David; Wallace, Michell; Gustafson, Gary; Chen, Peter; Vicini, Frank; Wong, John

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the validity of the chosen adaptive radiotherapy (ART) dose-volume constraints while testing the hypothesis that toxicity would not be greater at higher tumor dose levels. Materials and methods: In the ART dose escalation/selection trial, treatment was initiated with a generic planning target volume (PTV) formed as a 1-cm expansion of the clinical target volume (CTV). After the first week of therapy, the patient was replanned with a patient-specific PTV, constructed with CT and electronic portal images obtained in the first 4 days of treatment. A new multileaf collimator beam aperture was used. A minimum dose prescribed to the patient-specific PTV, ranging 70.2-79.2 Gy, was determined on the basis of the following rectal and bladder constraints: 82 Gy, 75.6 Gy, 75.6 Gy, and the maximum bladder dose is 85 Gy. A conformal four-field and/or intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) technique was used. Independent reviewers scored toxicities. The worst toxicity score seen was used as per the Common Toxicity Criteria grade scale (version 2). We divided the patients into three separate groups: 70.2-72 Gy, >72-75.6 Gy, and >75.6-79.2 Gy. Toxicities in each group were quantified and compared by the Pearson chi-squared test to validate our dose escalation/selection model. Grades 0, 1, 2, and 3 were censored as none vs. each category and none vs. any. Results: We analyzed patients with follow-up greater than 1 year. The mean duration of follow-up was 29 months (range, 12-46 months). We report on 280 patients, mean age 72 years (range, 51-87 years). Only 60 patients received adjuvant hormones. Mean pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level was 9.3 ng/mL (range, 0.6-120 ng/mL). Mean Gleason score was 6 (range, 3-9). The lowest dose level was given to 49 patients, the intermediate dose to 131 patients, and 100 patients received the highest dose escalation. One hundred eighty-one patients (65%) were treated to a prostate field only and 99 patients (35%) to

  7. Phase I dose escalation study of KOS-1584, a novel epothilone, in patients with advanced solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Elaine T; Goel, Sanjay; Schaaf, Larry J; Cropp, Gillian F; Hannah, Alison L; Zhou, Yiqing; McCracken, Barbara; Haley, Brandi I; Johnson, Robert G; Mani, Sridhar; Villalona-Calero, Miguel A

    2012-02-01

    First-in-man study of KOS-1584, a second generation epothilone. Patients with advanced solid malignancies received KOS-1584 every 3 weeks until disease progression. Using a modified Fibonacci dose escalation scheme, one patient was enrolled at each dose level until the first instance of grade 2 toxicity. Thereafter, a standard 3 + 3 design was utilized. Sixty-six patients in 14 cohorts were dosed from 0.8 to 48 mg/m(2). Diarrhea, arthralgias, and encephalopathy were dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) at doses ≥36 mg/m(2). At the recommended phase II dose (RP2D), the most common adverse effects were peripheral neuropathy (low grade), fatigue, arthralgias/myalgias, and diarrhea (31, 6%). The incidence of neutropenia was low. The overall clearance, volume of distribution, and half-life of KOS-1584 were 11 ± 6.17 L/h/m(2), 327 ± 161 L/m(2), and 21.9 ± 8.75 h, respectively. The half-life for the seco-metabolite (KOS-1891) was 29.6 ± 13.8 h. KOS-1584 exhibited linear pharmacokinetics. A dose-dependent increase in microtubulin bundle formation was observed at doses ≥27 mg/m(2). Two patients achieved partial responses and 24 patients had stable disease (SD). The RP2D of KOS-1584 is 36 mg/m(2). The lack of severe neurologic toxicity, diarrhea, neutropenia, or hypersensitivity reactions; favorable pharmacokinetic profile; and early evidence of activity support further evaluation.

  8. Synthetic Polymer Affinity Ligand for Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt) Cry1Ab/Ac Protein: The Use of Biomimicry Based on the Bt Protein-Insect Receptor Binding Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingming; Huang, Rong; Weisman, Adam; Yu, Xiaoyang; Lee, Shih-Hui; Chen, Yalu; Huang, Chao; Hu, Senhua; Chen, Xiuhua; Tan, Wenfeng; Liu, Fan; Chen, Hao; Shea, Kenneth J

    2018-05-24

    We report a novel strategy for creating abiotic Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt) protein affinity ligands by biomimicry of the recognition process that takes place between Bt Cry1Ab/Ac proteins and insect receptor cadherin-like Bt-R 1 proteins. Guided by this strategy, a library of synthetic polymer nanoparticles (NPs) was prepared and screened for binding to three epitopes 280 FRGSAQGIEGS 290 , 368 RRPFNIGINNQQ 379 and 436 FRSGFSNSSVSIIR 449 located in loop α8, loop 2 and loop 3 of domain II of Bt Cry1Ab/Ac proteins. A negatively charged and hydrophilic nanoparticle (NP12) was found to have high affinity to one of the epitopes, 368 RRPFNIGINNQQ 379 . This same NP also had specific binding ability to both Bt Cry1Ab and Bt Cry1Ac, proteins that share the same epitope, but very low affinity to Bt Cry2A, Bt Cry1C and Bt Cry1F closely related proteins that lack epitope homology. To locate possible NP- Bt Cry1Ab/Ac interaction sites, NP12 was used as a competitive inhibitor to block the binding of 865 NITIHITDTNNK 876 , a specific recognition site in insect receptor Bt-R 1 , to 368 RRPFNIGINNQQ 379 . The inhibition by NP12 reached as high as 84%, indicating that NP12 binds to Bt Cry1Ab/Ac proteins mainly via 368 RRPFNIGINNQQ 379 . This epitope region was then utilized as a "target" or "bait" for the separation and concentration of Bt Cry1Ac protein from the extract of transgenic Bt cotton leaves by NP12. This strategy, based on the antigen-receptor recognition mechanism, can be extended to other biotoxins and pathogen proteins when designing biomimic alternatives to natural protein affinity ligands.

  9. Phase I dose-escalation study to examine the safety and tolerability of LY2603618, a checkpoint 1 kinase inhibitor, administered 1 day after pemetrexed 500 mg/m(2) every 21 days in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Glen J; Donehower, Ross C; Iyengar, Tara; Ramanathan, Ramesh K; Lewandowski, Karen; Westin, Eric; Hurt, Karla; Hynes, Scott M; Anthony, Stephen P; McKane, Scott

    2013-02-01

    This phase I study aims at assessing the safety and tolerability of LY2603618, a selective inhibitor of Checkpoint Kinase 1, in combination with pemetrexed and determining the maximum tolerable dose and the pharmacokinetic parameters. This was an open-label, multicenter, dose-escalation study in patients with advanced solid tumors. Increasing doses of LY2603618 (40-195 mg/m(2)) were combined with 500 mg/m(2) of pemetrexed. LY2603618 was administered on Days 1 and 9 and pemetrexed on Day 8 in a 28-day cycle. For all subsequent 21-day cycles, pemetrexed was administered on Day 1 and LY2603618 on Day 2. Antitumor activity was evaluated as per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors 1.0. A total of 31 patients were enrolled into six cohorts (three at 40 mg/m(2) over 4.5-hour infusion, 1-hour infusion in subsequent cohorts: three each at 40 mg/m(2), 70 mg/m(2), and 195 mg/m(2); 13 at 105 mg/m(2); six at 150 mg/m(2)). Four patients experienced a dose-limiting toxicity: diarrhea (105 mg/m(2)); reversible infusion-related reaction (150 mg/m(2)); thrombocytopenia (195 mg/m(2)); and fatigue (195 mg/m(2)). The maximum tolerated dose was defined as 150 mg/m(2). The pharmacokinetic data demonstrated that the exposure of LY2603618 increased in a dose-dependent manner, displayed a suitable half-life for maintaining required human exposures while minimizing the intra- and inter-cycle accumulation, and was unaffected by the pemetrexed administration. The pharmacokinetic-defined biologically efficacious dose was achieved at doses ≥105 mg/m(2). LY2603618 administered approximately 24 h after pemetrexed showed acceptable safety and pharmacokinetic profiles.

  10. Open-label, dose escalation phase I study in healthy volunteers to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of a human monoclonal antibody to Clostridium difficile toxin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Claribel P; Tummala, Sanjeev; Molrine, Deborah; Davidson, Lisa; Farrell, Richard J; Lembo, Anthony; Hibberd, Patricia L; Lowy, Israel; Kelly, Ciaran P

    2008-06-25

    Recent data suggest that Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea is becoming more severe and difficult to treat. Antibody responses to C. difficile toxin A are protective against symptomatic disease and recurrence. We examined the safety and pharmacokinetics (pk) of a novel neutralizing human monoclonal antibody against C. difficile toxin A (CDA1) in healthy adults. Five cohorts with 6 subjects each received a single intravenous infusion of CDA1 at escalating doses of 0.3, 1, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg. Safety evaluations took place on days 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56 post-infusion. Samples for pk analysis were obtained before and after infusion, and at each safety evaluation. Serum CDA1 antibody concentrations and human anti-human antibody (HAHA) titers were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. A noncompartmental model was used for pk analysis. Thirty subjects were enrolled. The median age was 27.5 yrs. There were no serious adverse events (AE) related to CDA1. Twenty-one of the 48 reported non-serious adverse events were possibly related to CDA1, and included transient blood pressure changes requiring no treatment, nasal congestion, headache, abdominal cramps, nausea, and self-limited diarrhea. Serum CDA1 concentrations increased with escalating doses: mean C(max) ranged from 6.82 microg/ml for the 0.3 mg/kg cohort to 511 microg/ml for the 20 mg/kg cohort. The geometric mean values of the half-life of CDA1 ranged between 25.3 and 31.8 days, and the volume of distribution approximated serum. No subject formed detectable HAHA titers. Administration of CDA1 as a single intravenous infusion was safe and well tolerated. C(max) increased proportionally with increasing doses. A randomized study of CDA1 in patients with C. difficile associated diarrhea is underway.

  11. Dose-Escalated Robotic SBRT for Stage I-II Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eMeier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT is the precise external delivery of very high-dose radiotherapy to targets in the body, with treatment completed in one to five fractions. SBRT should be an ideal approach for organ-confined prostate cancer because (I dose escalation should yield improved rates of cancer control; (II the unique radiobiology of prostate cancer favors hypofractionation and (III the conformal nature of SBRT minimizes high-dose radiation delivery to immediately adjacent organs, potentially reducing complications. This approach is also more convenient for patients, and is cheaper than intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT. Several external beam platforms are capable of delivering SBRT for early-stage prostate cancer, although most of the mature reported series have employed a robotic non-coplanar platform (i.e., CyberKnife. Several large studies report 5-year biochemical relapse rates which compare favorably to IMRT. Rates of late GU toxicity are similar to those seen with IMRT, and rates of late rectal toxicity may be less than with IMRT and low dose rate (LDR brachytherapy. Patient-reported quality of life (QOL outcomes appear similar to IMRT in the urinary domain. Bowel QOL may be less adversely affected by SBRT than with other radiation modalities. After five years of follow-up, SBRT delivered on a robotic platform is yielding outcomes at least as favorable as IMRT, and may be considered appropriate therapy for stage I-II prostate cancer.

  12. A multicenter dose-escalation study of the analgesic and adverse effects of an oral cannabis extract (Cannador) for postoperative pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdcroft, Anita; Maze, Mervyn; Doré, Caroline; Tebbs, Susan; Thompson, Simon

    2006-05-01

    Cannabinoids have dose-related antinociceptive effects in animals. This clinical study aimed to investigate whether a single oral dose of cannabis plant extract (Cannador; Institute for Clinical Research, IKF, Berlin, Germany) could provide pain relief with minimal side effects for postoperative pain. Patients (aged 18-75 yr) were recruited and consented before surgery if patient-controlled analgesia was planned for provision of postoperative pain relief. Each patient received a single dose of 5, 10, or 15 mg Cannador if he or she had at least moderate pain after stopping patient-controlled analgesia. Starting with 5 mg, dose escalation was based on the number of patients requesting rescue analgesia and adverse effects. Pain relief, pain intensity, and side effects were recorded over 6 h and analyzed using tests for trend with dose. Rescue analgesia was requested by all 11 patients (100%) receiving 5 mg, 15 of 30 patient (50%) receiving 10 mg, and 6 of 24 patients (25%) receiving 15 mg Cannador (log rank test for trend in time to rescue analgesia with dose P analgesics without frequent adverse effects.

  13. Low dose rate brachytherapy (LDR-BT) as monotherapy for early stage prostate cancer in Italy: practice and outcome analysis in a series of 2237 patients from 11 institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellin, Giovanni; Mirri, Maria A; Santoro, Luigi; Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara A; Divan, Claudio; Mussari, Salvatore; Ziglio, Francesco; La Face, Beniamino; Barbera, Fernando; Buglione, Michela; Bandera, Laura; Ghedi, Barbara; Di Muzio, Nadia G; Losa, Andrea; Mangili, Paola; Nava, Luciano; Chiarlone, Renato; Ciscognetti, Nunzia; Gastaldi, Emilio; Cattani, Federica; Spoto, Ruggero; Vavassori, Andrea; Giglioli, Francesca R; Guarneri, Alessia; Cerboneschi, Valentina; Mignogna, Marcello; Paoluzzi, Mauro; Ravaglia, Valentina; Chiumento, Costanza; Clemente, Stefania; Fusco, Vincenzo; Santini, Roberto; Stefanacci, Marco; Mangiacotti, Francesco P; Martini, Marco; Palloni, Tiziana; Schinaia, Giuseppe; Lazzari, Grazia; Silvano, Giovanni; Magrini, Stefano; Ricardi, Umberto; Santoni, Riccardo; Orecchia, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Low-dose-rate brachytherapy (LDR-BT) in localized prostate cancer is available since 15 years in Italy. We realized the first national multicentre and multidisciplinary data collection to evaluate LDR-BT practice, given as monotherapy, and outcome in terms of biochemical failure. Between May 1998 and December 2011, 2237 patients with early-stage prostate cancer from 11 Italian community and academic hospitals were treated with iodine-125 ((125)I) or palladium-103 LDR-BT as monotherapy and followed up for at least 2 years. (125)I seeds were implanted in 97.7% of the patients: the mean dose received by 90% of target volume was 145 Gy; the mean target volume receiving 100% of prescribed dose (V100) was 91.1%. Biochemical failure-free survival (BFFS), disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated using Kaplan-Meier method. Log-rank test and multivariable Cox regression were used to evaluate the relationship of covariates with outcomes. Median follow-up time was 65 months. 5- and 7-year DSS, OS and BFFS were 99 and 98%, 94 and 89%, and 92 and 88%, respectively. At multivariate analysis, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network score (p LDR-BT. This first multicentre Italian report confirms LDR-BT as an excellent curative modality for low-/intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Multidisciplinary teams may help to select adequately patients to be treated with brachytherapy, with a direct impact on the implant quality and, possibly, on outcome.

  14. Cross-resistance to purified Bt proteins, Bt corn and Bt cotton in a Cry2Ab2-corn resistant strain of Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Kerns, David L; Head, Graham P; Price, Paula; Huang, Fangneng

    2017-12-01

    Gene-pyramiding by combining two or more dissimilar Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins into a crop has been used to delay insect resistance. The durability of gene-pyramiding can be reduced by cross-resistance. Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, is a major target pest of the Cry2Ab2 protein used in pyramided Bt corn and cotton. Here, we provide the first experimental evaluation of cross-resistance in S. frugiperda selected with Cry2Ab2 corn to multiple Bt sources including purified Bt proteins, Bt corn and Bt cotton. Concentration - response bioassays showed that resistance ratios for Cry2Ab2-resistant (RR) relative to Cry2Ab2-susceptible (SS) S. frugiperda were -1.4 for Cry1F, 1.2 for Cry1A.105, >26.7 for Cry2Ab2, >10.0 for Cry2Ae and -1.1 for Vip3A. Larvae of Cry2Ab2-heterozygous (RS), SS and RR S. frugiperda were all susceptible to Bt corn and Bt cotton containing Cry1 (Cry1F or Cry1A.105) and/or Vip3A proteins. Pyramided Bt cotton containing Cry1Ac + Cry2Ab2 or Cry1Ab + Cry2Ae were also effective against SS and RS, but not RR. These findings suggest that Cry2Ab2-corn-selected S. frugiperda is not cross-resistant to Cry1F, Cry1A.105 or Vip3A protein, or corn and cotton plants containing these Bt proteins, but it can cause strong cross-resistance to Cry2Ae and Bt crops expressing similar Bt proteins. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Improvement in dose escalation using off-line and on-line image feedback in the intensity modulated beam design for prostate cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, D.; Birkner, M.; Nuesslin, F.; Wong, J.; Martinez, A.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To test the capability of dose escalation in the IMRT process where the organ/patient temporal geometric variation, measured using either off-line or on-line treatment CT and portal images, are adapted for the optimal design of intensity modulated beam. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study was performed on five prostate cancer patients with multiple CT scans (14∼17/patient) and daily portal images obtained during the treatment course. These images were used to determine the displacements of each subvolume in the organs of interest caused by the daily patient setup and internal organ motion/deformation. The temporal geometric information was processed in order of treatment time and fed into an inverse planning system. The inverse planning engine was specifically implemented to adapt the design of intensity modulated beam to the temporal subvolume displacement and patient internal density changes. Three image feedback strategies were applied to each patient and evaluated with respect to the capability of safe dose escalation. The first one is off-line image feedback, which designs the beam intensity based on the patient images measured within the first week of treatment. The second is an on-line 'the target of the day' strategy, which designs the beam intensity in daily bases by using 'the image of the day' alone. The last one is also the on-line based. However, it designs the instantaneous beam intensity based on also dose distribution in each organ of interest received prior to the current treatment. For each of the treatment strategies, the minimum dose delivered to the CTV was determined by applying the identical normal tissue constraints of partial dose/volumes. This minimum dose was used to represent the treatment dose for each patient. Results: The off-line strategy appears feasible after 5 days of image feedback. The average treatment dose among the patients can be 10% higher than the one in the conventional IMRT treatment where the inverse

  16. Late Gastrointestinal Toxicity After Dose-Escalated Conformal Radiotherapy for Early Prostate Cancer: Results From the UK Medical Research Council RT01 Trial (ISRCTN47772397)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syndikus, Isabel; Morgan, Rachel C.; Sydes, Matthew R.; Graham, John D.; Dearnaley, David P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In men with localized prostate cancer, dose-escalated conformal radiotherapy (CFRT) improves efficacy outcomes at the cost of increased toxicity. We present a detailed analysis to provide further information about the incidence and prevalence of late gastrointestinal side effects. Methods and Materials: The UK Medical Research Council RT01 trial included 843 men with localized prostate cancer, who were treated for 6 months with neoadjuvant radiotherapy and were randomly assigned to either 64-Gy or 74-Gy CFRT. Toxicity was evaluated before CFRT and during long-term follow-up using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grading, the Late Effects on Normal Tissue: Subjective, Objective, Management (LENT/SOM) scale, and Royal Marsden Hospital assessment scores. Patients regularly completed Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy--Prostate (FACT-P) and University of California, Los Angeles, Prostate Cancer Index (UCLA-PCI) questionnaires. Results: In the dose-escalated group, the hazard ratio (HR) for rectal bleeding (LENT/SOM grade ≥2) was 1.55 (95% CI, 1.17-2.04); for diarrhea (LENT/SOM grade ≥2), the HR was 1.79 (95% CI, 1.10-2.94); and for proctitis (RTOG grade ≥2), the HR was 1.64 (95% CI, 1.20-2.25). Compared to baseline scores, the prevalence of moderate and severe toxicities generally increased up to 3 years and than lessened. At 5 years, the cumulative incidence of patient-reported severe bowel problems was 6% vs. 8% (standard vs. escalated, respectively) and severe distress was 4% vs. 5%, respectively. Conclusions: There is a statistically significant increased risk of various adverse gastrointestinal events with dose-escalated CFRT. This remains at clinically acceptable levels, and overall prevalence ultimately decreases with duration of follow-up.

  17. Towards biologically conformal radiation therapy (BCRT): Selective IMRT dose escalation under the guidance of spatial biology distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yong; Xing Lei

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that the spatial biology distribution (e.g., clonogen density, radiosensitivity, tumor proliferation rate, functional importance) in most tumors and sensitive structures is heterogeneous. Recent progress in biological imaging is making the mapping of this distribution increasingly possible. The purpose of this work is to establish a theoretical framework to quantitatively incorporate the spatial biology data into intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) inverse planning. In order to implement this, we first derive a general formula for determining the desired dose to each tumor voxel for a known biology distribution of the tumor based on a linear-quadratic model. The desired target dose distribution is then used as the prescription for inverse planning. An objective function with the voxel-dependent prescription is constructed with incorporation of the nonuniform dose prescription. The functional unit density distribution in a sensitive structure is also considered phenomenologically when constructing the objective function. Two cases with different hypothetical biology distributions are used to illustrate the new inverse planning formalism. For comparison, treatments with a few uniform dose prescriptions and a simultaneous integrated boost are also planned. The biological indices, tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), are calculated for both types of plans and the superiority of the proposed technique over the conventional dose escalation scheme is demonstrated. Our calculations revealed that it is technically feasible to produce deliberately nonuniform dose distributions with consideration of biological information. Compared with the conventional dose escalation schemes, the new technique is capable of generating biologically conformal IMRT plans that significantly improve the TCP while reducing or keeping the NTCPs at their current levels. Biologically conformal radiation therapy (BCRT

  18. Dose escalation using conformal high-dose-rate brachytherapy improves outcome in unfavorable prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alvaro A; Gustafson, Gary; Gonzalez, José; Armour, Elwood; Mitchell, Chris; Edmundson, Gregory; Spencer, William; Stromberg, Jannifer; Huang, Raywin; Vicini, Frank

    2002-06-01

    To overcome radioresistance for patients with unfavorable prostate cancer, a prospective trial of pelvic external beam irradiation (EBRT) interdigitated with dose-escalating conformal high-dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy was performed. Between November 1991 and August 2000, 207 patients were treated with 46 Gy pelvic EBRT and increasing HDR brachytherapy boost doses (5.50-11.5 Gy/fraction) during 5 weeks. The eligibility criteria were pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level >or=10.0 ng/mL, Gleason score >or=7, or clinical Stage T2b or higher. Patients were divided into 2 dose levels, low-dose biologically effective dose 93 Gy (149 patients). No patient received hormones. We used the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology definition for biochemical failure. The median age was 69 years. The mean follow-up for the group was 4.4 years, and for the low and high-dose levels, it was 7.0 and 3.4 years, respectively. The actuarial 5-year biochemical control rate was 74%, and the overall, cause-specific, and disease-free survival rate was 92%, 98%, and 68%, respectively. The 5-year biochemical control rate for the low-dose group was 52%; the rate for the high-dose group was 87% (p failure. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 3 gastrointestinal/genitourinary complications ranged from 0.5% to 9%. The actuarial 5-year impotency rate was 51%. Pelvic EBRT interdigitated with transrectal ultrasound-guided real-time conformal HDR prostate brachytherapy boost is both a precise dose delivery system and a very effective treatment for unfavorable prostate cancer. We demonstrated an incremental beneficial effect on biochemical control and cause-specific survival with higher doses. These results, coupled with the low risk of complications, the advantage of not being radioactive after implantation, and the real-time interactive planning, define a new standard for treatment.

  19. Phase I dose-escalation study of the c-Met tyrosine kinase inhibitor SAR125844 in Asian patients with advanced solid tumors, including patients with MET-amplified gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Shitara, Kohei; Kim, Tae Min; Yokota, Tomoya; Goto, Masahiro; Satoh, Taroh; Ahn, Jin-Hee; Kim, Hyo Song; Assadourian, Sylvie; Gomez, Corinne; Harnois, Marzia; Hamauchi, Satoshi; Kudo, Toshihiro; Doi, Toshihido; Bang, Yung-Jue

    2017-01-01

    SAR125844 is a potent and selective inhibitor of the c-Met kinase receptor. This was an open-label, phase I, multicenter, dose-escalation, and dose-expansion trial of SAR125844 in Asian patients with solid tumors, a subgroup of whom had gastric cancer and MET amplification (NCT01657214). SAR125844 was administered by intravenous infusion (260–570 mg/m2) on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 of each 28-day cycle. Objectives were to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and to evaluate SAR125844 safety...

  20. A phase 1/2, dose-escalation trial of deferasirox for the treatment of iron overload in HFE-related hereditary hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatak, Pradyumna; Brissot, Pierre; Wurster, Mark; Adams, Paul C; Bonkovsky, Herbert L; Gross, John; Malfertheiner, Peter; McLaren, Gordon D; Niederau, Claus; Piperno, Alberto; Powell, Lawrie W; Russo, Mark W; Stoelzel, Ulrich; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Griffel, Louis; Lynch, Nicola; Zhang, Yiyun; Pietrangelo, Antonello

    2010-11-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is characterized by increased intestinal iron absorption that may result in iron overload. Although phlebotomy is widely practiced, it is poorly tolerated or contraindicated in patients with anemias, severe heart disease, or poor venous access, and compliance can vary. The once-daily, oral iron chelator, deferasirox (Exjade) may provide an alternative treatment option. Patients with HH carrying the HFE gene who were homozygous for the Cys282Tyr mutation, serum ferritin levels of 300-2000 ng/mL, transferrin saturation ≥ 45%, and no known history of cirrhosis were enrolled in this dose-escalation study to characterize the safety and efficacy of deferasirox, comprising a core and an extension phase (each 24 weeks). Forty-nine patients were enrolled and received starting deferasirox doses of 5 (n = 11), 10 (n = 15), or 15 (n = 23) mg/kg/day. Adverse events were generally dose-dependent, the most common being diarrhea, headache, and nausea (n = 18, n = 10, and n = 8 in the core and n = 1, n = 1, and n = 0 in the extension, respectively). More patients in the 15 mg/kg/day than in the 5 or 10 mg/kg/day cohorts experienced increases in alanine aminotransferase and serum creatinine levels during the 48-week treatment period; six patients had alanine aminotransferase > 3 × baseline and greater than the upper limit of normal range, and eight patients had serum creatinine > 33% above baseline and greater than upper limit of normal on two consecutive occasions. After receiving deferasirox for 48 weeks, median serum ferritin levels decreased by 63.5%, 74.8%, and 74.1% in the 5, 10, and 15 mg/kg/day cohorts, respectively. In all cohorts, median serum ferritin decreased to < 250 ng/mL. Deferasirox doses of 5, 10, and 15 mg/kg/day can reduce iron burden in patients with HH. Based on the safety and efficacy results, starting deferasirox at 10 mg/kg/day appears to be most appropriate for further study in this patient population.

  1. Bt crops producing Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab and Cry1F do not harm the green lacewing, Chrysoperla rufilabris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ce Tian

    Full Text Available The biological control function provided by natural enemies is regarded as a protection goal that should not be harmed by the application of any new pest management tool. Plants producing Cry proteins from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt, have become a major tactic for controlling pest Lepidoptera on cotton and maize and risk assessment studies are needed to ensure they do not harm important natural enemies. However, using Cry protein susceptible hosts as prey often compromises such studies. To avoid this problem we utilized pest Lepidoptera, cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni and fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda, that were resistant to Cry1Ac produced in Bt broccoli (T. ni, Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab produced in Bt cotton (T. ni, and Cry1F produced in Bt maize (S. frugiperda. Larvae of these species were fed Bt plants or non-Bt plants and then exposed to predaceous larvae of the green lacewing Chrysoperla rufilabris. Fitness parameters (larval survival, development time, fecundity and egg hatch of C. rufilabris were assessed over two generations. There were no differences in any of the fitness parameters regardless if C. rufilabris consumed prey (T. ni or S. frugiperda that had consumed Bt or non-Bt plants. Additional studies confirmed that the prey contained bioactive Cry proteins when they were consumed by the predator. These studies confirm that Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab and Cry1F do not pose a hazard to the important predator C. rufilabris. This study also demonstrates the power of using resistant hosts when assessing the risk of genetically modified plants on non-target organisms.

  2. Interim report of image-guided conformal high-dose-rate brachytherapy for patients with unfavorable prostate cancer: the William Beaumont Phase II dose-escalating trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Alvaro A.; Kestin, Larry L.; Stromberg, Jannifer S.; Gonzalez, Jose A.; Wallace, Michelle; Gustafson, Gary S.; Edmundson, Gregory K.; Spencer, William; Vicini, Frank A.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: We analyzed our institution's experience treating patients with unfavorable prostate cancer in a prospective Phase II dose-escalating trial of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) integrated with conformal high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy boosts. This interim report discusses treatment outcome and prognostic factors using this treatment approach. Methods and Materials: From November 1991 through February 1998, 142 patients with unfavorable prostate cancer were prospectively treated in a dose-escalating trial with pelvic EBRT in combination with outpatient HDR brachytherapy at William Beaumont Hospital. Patients with any of the following characteristics were eligible: pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≥ 10.0 ng/ml, Gleason score ≥ 7, or clinical stage T2b or higher. All patients received pelvic EBRT to a median total dose of 46.0 Gy. Pelvic EBRT was integrated with ultrasound-guided transperineal conformal interstitial iridium-192 HDR implants. From 1991 to 1995, 58 patients underwent three conformal interstitial HDR implants during the first, second, and third weeks of pelvic EBRT. After October 1995, 84 patients received two interstitial implants during the first and third weeks of pelvic EBRT. The dose delivered via interstitial brachytherapy was escalated from 5.50 Gy to 6.50 Gy for each implant in those patients receiving three implants, and subsequently, from 8.25 Gy to 9.50 Gy per fraction in those patients receiving two implants. To improve implant quality and reduce operator dependency, an on-line, image-guided interactive dose optimization program was utilized during each HDR implant. No patient received hormonal therapy unless treatment failure was documented. The median follow-up was 2.1 years (range: 0.2-7.2 years). Biochemical failure was defined according to the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Consensus Panel definition. Results: The pretreatment PSA level was ≥ 10.0 ng/ml in 51% of patients. The

  3. Role and time of brachytherapy (BT) in the radiosurgical treatment of early endometrial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poitevin, A; Gerbaulet, A; Rey, A; Albano, M

    1996-01-01

    Introduction: Endometrial carcinoma is the most frequent gynecological cancer in developed countries. Until the latest FIGO classification on 1988, the times of BT and surgery were uncertain for early stages. This paper reviews the results of the retrospective analysis of patients with early endometrial carcinoma (stages I and II) treated with pre- or postoperative BT +/- external radiotherapy (ERT) at the Institute Gustave Roussy from january 1985 to december 1989. Materials and Methods: 220 patients stage I and 21 patients stage II were eligible. The protocol was primary BT (106 patients) 50 Gy to the upper third of the vagina, an immediate radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymph node picking and according to the histological results, ERT (33 patients). After the surgical classification, postop BT was performed in 47 patients. 55 patients received another radiosurgical treatment. Results: With a follow-up of 3 years, the results were: after primary BT, the dose to pelvic walls, the kerma, the volume thickness and the reference isodose volume were higher. Surgery post BT was performed on a mean of 12 days, and postop BT on a mean of 97 days. Among 181 lymph node dissections, only 5 patients had N+, 38 histologies showed no myometrial invasion: 112, (1(3)); 64, (2(2)); and 20, (3(3)). The differentiation of the tumor was indirectly correlated with myometrial invasion. 88 patients received ERT, to a mean dose of 45 Gy. The overall survival was 91% at 2 years and 81% at 5 years. For patients with primary BT, the survival was 96% at 2 and 5 years. For primary surgery was 98 and 88% at 2 and 5 years DFS at 2 and 5 years for preop BT was 85% and 76%, for postop BT 95% and 92%, 5 patients had grade 3 complications. The metastases, including paraaortic lymph nodes were 6. 14 recurrences occurred, in external iliac nodes, common iliacs, pelvis, abdomen, and 4 in vagina. The prognostic factors were in univariate study, the surgical stage. In multivariate, myometrial invasion

  4. An open-label dose escalation study to evaluate the safety of administration of nonviral stromal cell-derived factor-1 plasmid to treat symptomatic ischemic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Marc S; Mendelsohn, Farrell O; Schaer, Gary L; Sherman, Warren; Farr, Maryjane; Pastore, Joseph; Rouy, Didier; Clemens, Ruth; Aras, Rahul; Losordo, Douglas W

    2013-03-01

    Preclinical studies indicate that adult stem cells induce tissue repair by activating endogenous stem cells through the stromal cell-derived factor-1:chemokine receptor type 4 axis. JVS-100 is a DNA plasmid encoding human stromal cell-derived factor-1. We tested in a phase 1, open-label, dose-escalation study with 12 months of follow-up in subjects with ischemic cardiomyopathy to see if JVS-100 improves clinical parameters. Seventeen subjects with ischemic cardiomyopathy, New York Heart Association class III heart failure, with an ejection fraction ≤40% on stable medical therapy, were enrolled to receive 5, 15, or 30 mg of JVS-100 via endomyocardial injection. The primary end points for safety and efficacy were at 1 and 4 months, respectively. The primary safety end point was a major adverse cardiac event. Efficacy end points were change in quality of life, New York Heart Association class, 6-minute walk distance, single photon emission computed tomography, N-terminal pro-brain natruretic peptide, and echocardiography at 4 and 12 months. The primary safety end point was met. At 4 months, all of the cohorts demonstrated improvements in 6-minute walk distance, quality of life, and New York Heart Association class. Subjects in the 15- and 30-mg dose groups exhibited improvements in 6-minute walk distance (15 mg: median [range]: 41 minutes [3-61 minutes]; 30 mg: 31 minutes [22-74 minutes]) and quality of life (15 mg: -16 points [+1 to -32 points]; 30 mg: -24 points [+17 to -38 points]) over baseline. At 12 months, improvements in symptoms were maintained. These data highlight the importance of defining the molecular mechanisms of stem cell-based tissue repair and suggest that overexpression of stromal cell-derived factor-1 via gene therapy is a strategy for improving heart failure symptoms in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy.

  5. Vaginal dose de-escalation in image guided adaptive brachytherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Sandy; Lindegaard, Jacob Christian; de Leeuw, Astrid A C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Vaginal stenosis is a major problem following radiotherapy in cervical cancer. We investigated a new dose planning strategy for vaginal dose de-escalation (VDD). Materials and methods Fifty consecutive locally advanced cervical cancer patients without lower or middle vaginal involvement...... at diagnosis from 3 institutions were analysed. External beam radiotherapy was combined with MRI-guided brachytherapy. VDD was obtained by decreasing dwell times in ovoid/ring and increasing dwell times in tandem/needles. The aim was to maintain the target dose (D90 of HR-CTV ⩾ 85 Gy EQD2) while reducing...... bladder and rectum (D2cm3) were reduced by 2 ± 2 Gy and 3 ± 2 Gy, respectively (p

  6. Cardiac Toxicity After Radiotherapy for Stage III Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Pooled Analysis of Dose-Escalation Trials Delivering 70 to 90 Gy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eblan, Michael J.; Deal, Allison M.; Lipner, Matthew; Zagar, Timothy M.; Wang, Yue; Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Lee, Carrie B.; Jensen, Brian C.; Rosenman, Julian G.; Socinski, Mark A.; Stinchcombe, Thomas E.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The significance of radiotherapy (RT) –associated cardiac injury for stage III non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is unclear, but higher heart doses were associated with worse overall survival in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0617 study. We assessed the impact of heart dose in patients treated at our institution on several prospective dose-escalation trials. Patients and Methods From 1996 to 2009, 127 patients with stage III NSCLC (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, 0 to 1) received dose-escalated RT to 70 to 90 Gy (median, 74 Gy) in six trials. RT plans and cardiac doses were reviewed. Records were reviewed for the primary end point: symptomatic cardiac events (symptomatic pericardial effusion, acute coronary syndrome, pericarditis, significant arrhythmia, and heart failure). Cardiac risk was assessed by noting baseline coronary artery disease and calculating the WHO/International Society of Hypertension score. Competing risks analysis was used. Results In all, 112 patients were analyzed. Median follow-up for surviving patients was 8.8 years. Twenty-six patients (23%) had one or more events at a median of 26 months to first event (effusion [n = 7], myocardial infarction [n = 5], unstable angina [n = 3], pericarditis [n = 2], arrhythmia [n = 12], and heart failure [n = 1]). Heart doses (eg, heart mean dose; hazard ratio, 1.03/Gy; P = .002,), coronary artery disease (P < .001), and WHO/International Society of Hypertension score (P = .04) were associated with events on univariable analysis. Heart doses remained significant on multivariable analysis that accounted for baseline risk. Two-year competing risk–adjusted event rates for patients with heart mean dose < 10 Gy, 10 to 20 Gy, or ≥ 20 Gy were 4%, 7%, and 21%, respectively. Heart doses were not associated with overall survival. Conclusion Cardiac events were relatively common after high-dose thoracic RT and were independently associated with both heart dose and

  7. Hypoxia imaging with [18F]-FMISO-PET for guided dose escalation with intensity-modulated radiotherapy in head-and-neck cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques de Figueiredo, B. [Institut Bergonie, Department of Radiotherapy, Bordeaux (France); INCIA UMR-CNRS 5287, Bordeaux (France); Zacharatou, C. [Institut Bergonie, Department of Radiotherapy, Bordeaux (France); Galland-Girodet, S.; Benech, J. [Hospital Haut-Leveque, Department of Radiotherapy, CHRU Bordeaux (France); Clermont-Gallerande, H. de [Hospital Pellegrin, Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHRU Bordeaux (France); Lamare, F. [INCIA UMR-CNRS 5287, Bordeaux (France); Hospital Haut-Leveque, Department of Radiotherapy, CHRU Bordeaux (France); Hatt, M. [LaTIM INSERM U1101, Brest (France); Digue, L. [Hospital Saint-Andre, Department of Clinical Oncology, CHRU Bordeaux (France); Mones del Pujol, E. de [Department of Oto-rhino-laryngology, CHRU Bordeaux (France); Fernandez, P. [INCIA UMR-CNRS 5287, Bordeaux (France); Hospital Pellegrin, Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHRU Bordeaux (France); University Bordeaux 2, Bordeaux (France)

    2014-09-23

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with [{sup 18}F]-fluoromisonidazole ([{sup 18}F]-FMISO) provides a non-invasive assessment of hypoxia. The aim of this study is to assess the feasibility of a dose escalation with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) guided by [{sup 18}F]-FMISO-PET for head-and-neck cancers (HNC). Ten patients with inoperable stages III-IV HNC underwent [{sup 18}F]-FMISO-PET before radiotherapy. Hypoxic target volumes (HTV) were segmented automatically by using the fuzzy locally adaptive Bayesian method. Retrospectively, two VMAT plans were generated delivering 70 Gy to the gross tumour volume (GTV) defined on computed tomography simulation or 79.8 Gy to the HTV. A dosimetric comparison was performed, based on calculations of tumour control probability (TCP), normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for the parotid glands and uncomplicated tumour control probability (UTCP). The mean hypoxic fraction, defined as the ratio between the HTV and the GTV, was 0.18. The mean average dose for both parotids was 22.7 Gy and 25.5 Gy without and with dose escalation respectively. FMISO-guided dose escalation led to a mean increase of TCP, NTCP for both parotids and UTCP by 18.1, 4.6 and 8 % respectively. A dose escalation up to 79.8 Gy guided by [{sup 18}F]-FMISO-PET with VMAT seems feasible with improvement of TCP and without excessive increase of NTCP for parotids. (orig.) [German] Die Positronenemissionstomographie (PET) mit [{sup 18}F]-Fluoromisonidazol ([{sup 18}F]-FMISO) ermoeglicht eine nichtinvasive Beurteilung der Hypoxie. Ziel dieser Studie ist es, die Durchfuehrbarkeit einer [{sup 18}F]-FMISO-PET-gefuehrten Dosissteigerung bei volumetrisch modulierter Arc-Therapie (VMAT) von Kopf-Hals-Tumoren (KHT) zu bewerten. Zehn Patienten mit inoperablen KHT der Stadien III-IV erhielten vor der Strahlentherapie eine [{sup 18}F]-FMISO-PET. Hypoxische Zielvolumina (HV) wurden automatisch mit Hilfe des FLAB(Fuzzy Locally Adaptive Bayesian

  8. A phase I open-label dose-escalation study of the anti-HER3 monoclonal antibody LJM716 in patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus or head and neck and HER2-overexpressing breast or gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Kerry Lynn; Bedard, Philippe L; Lee, Se-Hoon; Lin, Chia-Chi; Tabernero, Josep; Alsina, Maria; Cohen, Ezra; Baselga, José; Blumenschein, George; Graham, Donna M; Garrido-Laguna, Ignacio; Juric, Dejan; Sharma, Sunil; Salgia, Ravi; Seroutou, Abdelkader; Tian, Xianbin; Fernandez, Rose; Morozov, Alex; Sheng, Qing; Ramkumar, Thiruvamoor; Zubel, Angela; Bang, Yung-Jue

    2017-09-12

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (HER3) is important in maintaining epidermal growth factor receptor-driven cancers and mediating resistance to targeted therapy. A phase I study of anti-HER3 monoclonal antibody LJM716 was conducted with the primary objective to identify the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and/or recommended dose for expansion (RDE), and dosing schedule. Secondary objectives were to characterize safety/tolerability, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and preliminary antitumor activity. This open-label, dose-finding study comprised dose escalation, followed by expansion in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck or esophagus, and HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer or gastric cancer. During dose escalation, patients received LJM716 intravenous once weekly (QW) or every two weeks (Q2W), in 28-day cycles. An adaptive Bayesian logistic regression model was used to guide dose escalation and establish the RDE. Exploratory pharmacodynamic tumor studies evaluated modulation of HER3 signaling. Patients received LJM716 3-40 mg/kg QW and 20 mg/kg Q2W (54 patients; 36 patients at 40 mg/kg QW). No dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were reported during dose-escalation. One patient experienced two DLTs (diarrhea, hypokalemia [both grade 3]) in the expansion phase. The RDE was 40 mg/kg QW, providing drug levels above the preclinical minimum effective concentration. One patient with gastric cancer had an unconfirmed partial response; 17/54 patients had stable disease, two lasting >30 weeks. Down-modulation of phospho-HER3 was observed in paired tumor samples. LJM716 was well tolerated; the MTD was not reached, and the RDE was 40 mg/kg QW. Further development of LJM716 is ongoing. Clinicaltrials.gov registry number NCT01598077 (registered on 4 May, 2012).

  9. First-in-Man Dose-Escalation Study of the Selective BRAF Inhibitor RG7256 in Patients with BRAF V600-Mutated Advanced Solid Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dienstmann, Rodrigo; Lassen, Ulrik; Cebon, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    V600-mutated advanced solid tumors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients received RG7256 orally over 8 dose levels from 200 mg once a day (QD) to 2400 mg twice a day (BID) (50-, 100- and 150-mg tablets) using a classic 3 + 3 dose escalation design. RESULTS: In total, 45 patients were enrolled; most (87...... %) had advanced melanoma (94 % BRAF V600E). RG7256 was rapidly absorbed, with limited accumulation and dose-proportional increase in exposure up to 1950 mg BID. The maximal tolerated dose (MTD) was not reached. The most common drug-related adverse events (AEs) were dyspepsia (20 %), dry skin (18 %), rash...

  10. Escalating dose, multiple binge methamphetamine regimen does not impair recognition memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robert E; Kuczenski, Ronald; Segal, David S

    2007-07-01

    Rats exposed to methamphetamine (METH) in an acute high dose "binge" pattern have been reported to exhibit a persistent deficit in a novel object recognition (NOR) task, which may suggest a potential risk for human METH abusers. However, most high dose METH abusers initially use lower doses before progressively increasing the dose, only eventually engaging in multiple daily administrations. To simulate this pattern of METH exposure, we administered progressively increasing doses of METH to rats over a 14 day interval, then treated them with daily METH binges for 11 days. This treatment resulted in a persistent deficit in striatal dopamine (DA) levels of approximately 20%. We then tested them in a NOR task under a variety of conditions. We could not detect a deficit in their performance in the NOR task under any of the testing conditions. These results suggest that mechanisms other than or additional to the decrement in striatal DA associated with an acute METH binge are responsible for the deficit in the NOR task, and that neuroadaptations consequential to prolonged escalating dose METH pretreatment mitigate against these mechanisms.

  11. The cultivation of Bt corn producing Cry1Ac toxins does not adversely affect non-target arthropods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Guo

    Full Text Available Transgenic corn producing Cry1Ac toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt provides effective control of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée, and thus reduces insecticide applications. However, whether Bt corn exerts undesirable effects on non-target arthropods (NTAs is still controversial. We conducted a 2-yr study in Shangzhuang Agricultural Experiment Station to assess the potential impact of Bt corn on field population density, biodiversity, community composition and structure of NTAs. On each sampling date, the total abundance, Shannon's diversity index, Pielou's evenness index and Simpson's diversity index were not significantly affected by Bt corn as compared to non-Bt corn. The "sampling dates" had a significant effect on these indices, but no clear tendencies related to "Bt corn" or "sampling dates X corn variety" interaction were recorded. Principal response curve analysis of variance indicated that Bt corn did not alter the distribution of NTAs communities. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity and distance analysis showed that Cry1Ac toxin exposure did not increase community dissimilarities between Bt and non-Bt corn plots and that the evolution of non-target arthropod community was similar on the two corn varieties. The cultivation of Bt corn failed to show any detrimental evidence on the density of non-target herbivores, predators and parasitoids. The composition of herbivores, predators and parasitoids was identical in Bt and non-Bt corn plots. Taken together, results from the present work support that Bt corn producing Cry1Ac toxins does not adversely affect NTAs.

  12. Initial mechanisms for the decomposition of electronically excited energetic materials: 1,5′-BT, 5,5′-BT, and AzTT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Bing; Yu, Zijun; Bernstein, Elliot R.

    2015-01-01

    Decomposition of nitrogen-rich energetic materials 1,5′-BT, 5,5′-BT, and AzTT (1,5′-Bistetrazole, 5,5′-Bistetrazole, and 5-(5-azido-(1 or 4)H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)tetrazole, respectively), following electronic state excitation, is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The N 2 molecule is observed as an initial decomposition product from the three materials, subsequent to UV excitation, with a cold rotational temperature (<30 K). Initial decomposition mechanisms for these three electronically excited materials are explored at the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) level. Potential energy surface calculations at the CASSCF(12,8)/6-31G(d) level illustrate that conical intersections play an essential role in the decomposition mechanism. Electronically excited S 1 molecules can non-adiabatically relax to their ground electronic states through (S 1 /S 0 ) CI conical intersections. 1,5′-BT and 5,5′-BT materials have several (S 1 /S 0 ) CI conical intersections between S 1 and S 0 states, related to different tetrazole ring opening positions, all of which lead to N 2 product formation. The N 2 product for AzTT is formed primarily by N–N bond rupture of the –N 3 group. The observed rotational energy distributions for the N 2 products are consistent with the final structures of the respective transition states for each molecule on its S 0 potential energy surface. The theoretically derived vibrational temperature of the N 2 product is high, which is similar to that found for energetic salts and molecules studied previously

  13. Trigeminal Neuralgia Treated With Stereotactic Radiosurgery: The Effect of Dose Escalation on Pain Control and Treatment Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotecha, Rupesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Kotecha, Ritesh [MidMichigan Medical Center, Midland, Michigan (United States); Modugula, Sujith [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Murphy, Erin S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Jones, Mark; Kotecha, Rajesh [MidMichigan Medical Center, Midland, Michigan (United States); Reddy, Chandana A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Suh, John H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Barnett, Gene H. [Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Neyman, Gennady [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Machado, Andre; Nagel, Sean [Department of Neurosurgery, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Chao, Samuel T., E-mail: chaos@ccf.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Purpose: To analyze the effect of dose escalation on treatment outcome in patients undergoing stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for trigeminal neuralgia (TN). Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was performed of 870 patients who underwent SRS for a diagnosis of TN from 2 institutions. Patients were typically treated using a single 4-mm isocenter placed at the trigeminal nerve dorsal root entry zone. Patients were divided into groups based on treatment doses: ≤82 Gy (352 patients), 83 to 86 Gy (85 patients), and ≥90 Gy (433 patients). Pain response was classified using a categorical scoring system, with fair or poor pain control representing treatment failure. Treatment-related facial numbness was classified using the Barrow Neurological Institute scale. Log-rank tests were performed to test differences in time to pain failure or development of facial numbness for patients treated with different doses. Results: Median age at first pain onset was 63 years, median age at time of SRS was 71 years, and median follow-up was 36.5 months from the time of SRS. A majority of patients (827, 95%) were clinically diagnosed with typical TN. The 4-year rate of excellent to good pain relief was 87% (95% confidence interval 84%-90%). The 4-year rate of pain response was 79%, 82%, and 92% in patients treated to ≤82 Gy, 83 to 86 Gy, and ≥90 Gy, respectively. Patients treated to doses ≤82 Gy had an increased risk of pain failure after SRS, compared with patients treated to ≥90 Gy (hazard ratio 2.0, P=.0007). Rates of treatment-related facial numbness were similar among patients treated to doses ≥83 Gy. Nine patients (1%) were diagnosed with anesthesia dolorosa. Conclusions: Dose escalation for TN to doses >82 Gy is associated with an improvement in response to treatment and duration of pain relief. Patients treated at these doses, however, should be counseled about the increased risk of treatment-related facial numbness.

  14. Trigeminal Neuralgia Treated With Stereotactic Radiosurgery: The Effect of Dose Escalation on Pain Control and Treatment Outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotecha, Rupesh; Kotecha, Ritesh; Modugula, Sujith; Murphy, Erin S.; Jones, Mark; Kotecha, Rajesh; Reddy, Chandana A.; Suh, John H.; Barnett, Gene H.; Neyman, Gennady; Machado, Andre; Nagel, Sean; Chao, Samuel T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the effect of dose escalation on treatment outcome in patients undergoing stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for trigeminal neuralgia (TN). Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was performed of 870 patients who underwent SRS for a diagnosis of TN from 2 institutions. Patients were typically treated using a single 4-mm isocenter placed at the trigeminal nerve dorsal root entry zone. Patients were divided into groups based on treatment doses: ≤82 Gy (352 patients), 83 to 86 Gy (85 patients), and ≥90 Gy (433 patients). Pain response was classified using a categorical scoring system, with fair or poor pain control representing treatment failure. Treatment-related facial numbness was classified using the Barrow Neurological Institute scale. Log-rank tests were performed to test differences in time to pain failure or development of facial numbness for patients treated with different doses. Results: Median age at first pain onset was 63 years, median age at time of SRS was 71 years, and median follow-up was 36.5 months from the time of SRS. A majority of patients (827, 95%) were clinically diagnosed with typical TN. The 4-year rate of excellent to good pain relief was 87% (95% confidence interval 84%-90%). The 4-year rate of pain response was 79%, 82%, and 92% in patients treated to ≤82 Gy, 83 to 86 Gy, and ≥90 Gy, respectively. Patients treated to doses ≤82 Gy had an increased risk of pain failure after SRS, compared with patients treated to ≥90 Gy (hazard ratio 2.0, P=.0007). Rates of treatment-related facial numbness were similar among patients treated to doses ≥83 Gy. Nine patients (1%) were diagnosed with anesthesia dolorosa. Conclusions: Dose escalation for TN to doses >82 Gy is associated with an improvement in response to treatment and duration of pain relief. Patients treated at these doses, however, should be counseled about the increased risk of treatment-related facial numbness.

  15. Phase I dose escalation, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study of naptumomab estafenatox alone in patients with advanced cancer and with docetaxel in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghaei, Hossein; Alpaugh, Katherine; Hedlund, Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    recognizing the tumor-associated antigen 5T4. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), pancreatic cancer (PC), and renal cell cancer (RCC) received 5 daily boluses of ABR-217620 (3-month cycles) in escalating doses to determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD; ABR-217620 dose...

  16. Phase I Escalating-Dose Trial of CAR-T Therapy Targeting CEA+ Metastatic Colorectal Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengcheng; Wang, Zhe; Yang, Zhi; Wang, Meiling; Li, Shiqi; Li, Yunyan; Zhang, Rui; Xiong, Zhouxing; Wei, Zhihao; Shen, Junjie; Luo, Yongli; Zhang, Qianzhen; Liu, Limei; Qin, Hong; Liu, Wei; Wu, Feng; Chen, Wei; Pan, Feng; Zhang, Xianquan; Bie, Ping; Liang, Houjie; Pecher, Gabriele; Qian, Cheng

    2017-05-03

    Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cells have shown promising efficacy in treatment of hematological malignancies, but its applications in solid tumors need further exploration. In this study, we investigated CAR-T therapy targeting carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA)-positive colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with metastases to evaluate its safety and efficacy. Five escalating dose levels (DLs) (1 × 10 5 to 1 × 10 8 /CAR + /kg cells) of CAR-T were applied in 10 CRC patients. Our data showed that severe adverse events related to CAR-T therapy were not observed. Of the 10 patients, 7 patients who experienced progressive disease (PD) in previous treatments had stable disease after CAR-T therapy. Two patients remained with stable disease for more than 30 weeks, and two patients showed tumor shrinkage by positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) and MRI analysis, respectively. Decline of serum CEA level was apparent in most patients even in long-term observation. Furthermore, we observed persistence of CAR-T cells in peripheral blood of patients receiving high doses of CAR-T therapy. Importantly, we observed CAR-T cell proliferation especially in patients after a second CAR-T therapy. Taken together, we demonstrated that CEA CAR-T cell therapy was well tolerated in CEA + CRC patients even in high doses, and some efficacy was observed in most of the treated patients. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Retrospective Evaluation Reveals That Long-term Androgen Deprivation Therapy Improves Cause-Specific and Overall Survival in the Setting of Dose-Escalated Radiation for High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Felix Y.; Blas, Kevin; Olson, Karin; Stenmark, Matthew; Sandler, Howard; Hamstra, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and duration for high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with dose-escalated radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with dose-escalated RT (minimum 75 Gy) with or without ADT was performed. The relationship between ADT use and duration with biochemical failure (BF), metastatic failure (MF), prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), non-prostate cancer death (NPCD), and overall survival (OS) was assessed as a function of pretreatment characteristics, comorbid medical illness, and treatment using Fine and Gray's cumulative incidence methodology. Results: The median follow-up time was 64 months. In men with National Comprehensive Cancer Network defined high-risk prostate cancer treated with dose-escalated RT, on univariate analysis, both metastasis (P<.0001; hazard ratio 0.34; 95% confidence interval 0.18-0.67; cumulative incidence at 60 months 13% vs 35%) and PCSM (P=.015; hazard ratio 0.41; 95% confidence interval 0.2-1.0; cumulative incidence at 60 months 6% vs 11%) were improved with the use of ADT. On multivariate analysis for all high-risk patients, Gleason score was the strongest negative prognostic factor, and long-term ADT (LTAD) improved MF (P=.002), PCSM (P=.034), and OS (P=.001). In men with prostate cancer and Gleason scores 8 to 10, on multivariate analysis after adjustment for other risk features, there was a duration-dependent improvement in BF, metastasis, PCSM, and OS, all favoring LTAD in comparison with STAD or RT alone. Conclusion: For men with high-risk prostate cancer treated with dose-escalated EBRT, this retrospective study suggests that the combination of LTAD and RT provided a significant improvement in clinical outcome, which was especially true for those with Gleason scores of 8 to 10

  18. Whole Brain Irradiation With Hippocampal Sparing and Dose Escalation on Multiple Brain Metastases: A Planning Study on Treatment Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokic, Vesna; Wiedenmann, Nicole; Fels, Franziska; Schmucker, Marianne; Nieder, Carsten; Grosu, Anca-Ligia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a new treatment planning strategy in patients with multiple brain metastases. The goal was to perform whole brain irradiation (WBI) with hippocampal sparing and dose escalation on multiple brain metastases. Two treatment concepts were investigated: simultaneously integrated boost (SIB) and WBI followed by stereotactic fractionated radiation therapy sequential concept (SC). Methods and Materials: Treatment plans for both concepts were calculated for 10 patients with 2-8 brain metastases using volumetric modulated arc therapy. In the SIB concept, the prescribed dose was 30 Gy in 12 fractions to the whole brain and 51 Gy in 12 fractions to individual brain metastases. In the SC concept, the prescription was 30 Gy in 12 fractions to the whole brain followed by 18 Gy in 2 fractions to brain metastases. All plans were optimized for dose coverage of whole brain and lesions, simultaneously minimizing dose to the hippocampus. The treatment plans were evaluated on target coverage, homogeneity, and minimal dose to the hippocampus and organs at risk. Results: The SIB concept enabled more successful sparing of the hippocampus; the mean dose to the hippocampus was 7.55 ± 0.62 Gy and 6.29 ± 0.62 Gy, respectively, when 5-mm and 10-mm avoidance regions around the hippocampus were used, normalized to 2-Gy fractions. In the SC concept, the mean dose to hippocampus was 9.8 ± 1.75 Gy. The mean dose to the whole brain (excluding metastases) was 33.2 ± 0.7 Gy and 32.7 ± 0.96 Gy, respectively, in the SIB concept, for 5-mm and 10-mm hippocampus avoidance regions, and 37.23 ± 1.42 Gy in SC. Conclusions: Both concepts, SIB and SC, were able to achieve adequate whole brain coverage and radiosurgery-equivalent dose distributions to individual brain metastases. The SIB technique achieved better sparing of the hippocampus, especially when a10-mm hippocampal avoidance region was used.

  19. Increased frequency of pink bollworm resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wan

    Full Text Available Transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt kill some key insect pests, but evolution of resistance by pests can reduce their efficacy. The main approach for delaying pest adaptation to Bt crops uses non-Bt host plants as "refuges" to increase survival of susceptible pests. To delay evolution of pest resistance to transgenic cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac, the United States and some other countries have required refuges of non-Bt cotton, while farmers in China have relied on "natural" refuges of non-Bt host plants other than cotton. The "natural" refuge strategy focuses on cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera, the primary target of Bt cotton in China that attacks many crops, but it does not apply to another major pest, pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella, which feeds almost entirely on cotton in China. Here we report data showing field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac by pink bollworm in the Yangtze River Valley of China. Laboratory bioassay data from 51 field-derived strains show that the susceptibility to Cry1Ac was significantly lower during 2008 to 2010 than 2005 to 2007. The percentage of field populations yielding one or more survivors at a diagnostic concentration of Cry1Ac increased from 0% in 2005-2007 to 56% in 2008-2010. However, the median survival at the diagnostic concentration was only 1.6% from 2008 to 2010 and failure of Bt cotton to control pink bollworm has not been reported in China. The early detection of resistance reported here may promote proactive countermeasures, such as a switch to transgenic cotton producing toxins distinct from Cry1A toxins, increased planting of non-Bt cotton, and integration of other management tactics together with Bt cotton.

  20. Surface chemistry of photoluminescent F8BT conjugated polymer nanoparticles determines protein corona formation and internalization by phagocytic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Khanbeigi, Raha; Abelha, Thais Fedatto; Woods, Arcadia; Rastoin, Olivia; Harvey, Richard D; Jones, Marie-Christine; Forbes, Ben; Green, Mark A; Collins, Helen; Dailey, Lea Ann

    2015-03-09

    Conjugated polymer nanoparticles are being developed for a variety of diagnostic and theranostic applications. The conjugated polymer, F8BT, a polyfluorene derivative, was used as a model system to examine the biological behavior of conjugated polymer nanoparticle formulations stabilized with ionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate; F8BT-SDS; ∼207 nm; -31 mV) and nonionic (pegylated 12-hydroxystearate; F8BT-PEG; ∼175 nm; -5 mV) surfactants, and compared with polystyrene nanoparticles of a similar size (PS200; ∼217 nm; -40 mV). F8BT nanoparticles were as hydrophobic as PS200 (hydrophobic interaction chromatography index value: 0.96) and showed evidence of protein corona formation after incubation with serum-containing medium; however, unlike polystyrene, F8BT nanoparticles did not enrich specific proteins onto the nanoparticle surface. J774A.1 macrophage cells internalized approximately ∼20% and ∼60% of the F8BT-SDS and PS200 delivered dose (calculated by the ISDD model) in serum-supplemented and serum-free conditions, respectively, while cell association of F8BT-PEG was minimal (<5% of the delivered dose). F8BT-PEG, however, was more cytotoxic (IC50 4.5 μg cm(-2)) than F8BT-SDS or PS200. The study results highlight that F8BT surface chemistry influences the composition of the protein corona, while the properties of the conjugated polymer nanoparticle surfactant stabilizer used determine particle internalization and biocompatibility profile.

  1. Phase I, Dose-Escalation, Two-Part Trial of the PARP Inhibitor Talazoparib in Patients with Advanced Germline BRCA1/2 Mutations and Selected Sporadic Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bono, Johann; Ramanathan, Ramesh K; Mina, Lida; Chugh, Rashmi; Glaspy, John; Rafii, Saeed; Kaye, Stan; Sachdev, Jasgit; Heymach, John; Smith, David C; Henshaw, Joshua W; Herriott, Ashleigh; Patterson, Miranda; Curtin, Nicola J; Byers, Lauren Averett; Wainberg, Zev A

    2017-06-01

    Talazoparib inhibits PARP catalytic activity, trapping PARP1 on damaged DNA and causing cell death in BRCA1/2 -mutated cells. We evaluated talazoparib therapy in this two-part, phase I, first-in-human trial. Antitumor activity, MTD, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of once-daily talazoparib were determined in an open-label, multicenter, dose-escalation study (NCT01286987). The MTD was 1.0 mg/day, with an elimination half-life of 50 hours. Treatment-related adverse events included fatigue (26/71 patients; 37%) and anemia (25/71 patients; 35%). Grade 3 to 4 adverse events included anemia (17/71 patients; 24%) and thrombocytopenia (13/71 patients; 18%). Sustained PARP inhibition was observed at doses ≥0.60 mg/day. At 1.0 mg/day, confirmed responses were observed in 7 of 14 (50%) and 5 of 12 (42%) patients with BRCA mutation-associated breast and ovarian cancers, respectively, and in patients with pancreatic and small cell lung cancer. Talazoparib demonstrated single-agent antitumor activity and was well tolerated in patients at the recommended dose of 1.0 mg/day. Significance: In this clinical trial, we show that talazoparib has single-agent antitumor activity and a tolerable safety profile. At its recommended phase II dose of 1.0 mg/day, confirmed responses were observed in patients with BRCA mutation-associated breast and ovarian cancers and in patients with pancreatic and small cell lung cancer. Cancer Discov; 7(6); 620-9. ©2017 AACR. This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 539 . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Precision Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy in Poor Performing Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Phase 1 Dose Escalation Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westover, Kenneth D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Loo, Billy W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Gerber, David E. [Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Iyengar, Puneeth; Choy, Hak [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Diehn, Maximilian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Hughes, Randy; Schiller, Joan; Dowell, Jonathan [Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Wardak, Zabi [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Sher, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Christie, Alana; Xie, Xian-Jin [Department of Clinical Science, Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Corona, Irma [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Sharma, Akanksha [School of Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Wadsworth, Margaret E. [Radiation Oncology of Mississippi, Jackson, Mississippi (United States); Timmerman, Robert, E-mail: Robert.Timmerman@utsouthwestern.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: Treatment regimens for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) give suboptimal clinical outcomes. Technological advancements such as radiation therapy, the backbone of most treatment regimens, may enable more potent and effective therapies. The objective of this study was to escalate radiation therapy to a tumoricidal hypofractionated dose without exceeding the maximally tolerated dose (MTD) in patients with locally advanced NSCLC. Methods and Materials: Patients with stage II to IV or recurrent NSCLC and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or greater and not candidates for surgical resection, stereotactic radiation, or concurrent chemoradiation were eligible. Highly conformal radiation therapy was given to treat intrathoracic disease in 15 fractions to a total of 50, 55, or 60 Gy. Results: Fifty-five patients were enrolled: 15 at the 50-Gy, 21 at the 55-Gy, and 19 at the 60-Gy dose levels. A 90-day follow-up was completed in each group without exceeding the MTD. With a median follow-up of 12.5 months, there were 93 grade ≥3 adverse events (AEs), including 39 deaths, although most AEs were considered related to factors other than radiation therapy. One patient from the 55- and 60-Gy dose groups developed grade ≥3 esophagitis, and 5, 4, and 4 patients in the respective dose groups experienced grade ≥3 dyspnea, but only 2 of these AEs were considered likely related to therapy. There was no association between fraction size and toxicity (P=.24). The median overall survival was 6 months with no significant differences between dose levels (P=.59). Conclusions: Precision hypofractionated radiation therapy consisting of 60 Gy in 15 fractions for locally advanced NSCLC is generally well tolerated. This treatment regimen could provide patients with poor performance status a potent alternative to chemoradiation. This study has implications for the cost effectiveness of lung cancer therapy. Additional studies of long

  3. Dose escalation using conformal high-dose-rate brachytherapy improves outcome in unfavorable prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Alvaro A.; Gustafson, Gary; Gonzalez, Jose; Armour, Elwood; Mitchell, Chris; Edmundson, Gregory; Spencer, William; Stromberg, Jannifer; Huang, Raywin; Vicini, Frank

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To overcome radioresistance for patients with unfavorable prostate cancer, a prospective trial of pelvic external beam irradiation (EBRT) interdigitated with dose-escalating conformal high-dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy was performed. Methods and Materials: Between November 1991 and August 2000, 207 patients were treated with 46 Gy pelvic EBRT and increasing HDR brachytherapy boost doses (5.50-11.5 Gy/fraction) during 5 weeks. The eligibility criteria were pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level ≥10.0 ng/mL, Gleason score ≥7, or clinical Stage T2b or higher. Patients were divided into 2 dose levels, low-dose biologically effective dose 93 Gy (149 patients). No patient received hormones. We used the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology definition for biochemical failure. Results: The median age was 69 years. The mean follow-up for the group was 4.4 years, and for the low and high-dose levels, it was 7.0 and 3.4 years, respectively. The actuarial 5-year biochemical control rate was 74%, and the overall, cause-specific, and disease-free survival rate was 92%, 98%, and 68%, respectively. The 5-year biochemical control rate for the low-dose group was 52%; the rate for the high-dose group was 87% (p<0.001). Improvement occurred in the cause-specific survival in favor of the brachytherapy high-dose level (p=0.014). On multivariate analysis, a low-dose level, higher Gleason score, and higher nadir value were associated with increased biochemical failure. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 3 gastrointestinal/genitourinary complications ranged from 0.5% to 9%. The actuarial 5-year impotency rate was 51%. Conclusion: Pelvic EBRT interdigitated with transrectal ultrasound-guided real-time conformal HDR prostate brachytherapy boost is both a precise dose delivery system and a very effective treatment for unfavorable prostate cancer. We demonstrated an incremental beneficial effect on biochemical control and cause

  4. Penile bulb dose and impotence after three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer on RTOG 9406: Findings from a prospective, multi-institutional, phase I/II dose-escalation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, Mack; Winter, Kathryn; Michalski, Jeffrey M.; Cox, James D.; Purdy, James A.; Bosch, Walter; Lin Xiao; Shipley, William S.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the relationship between the dose to the bulb of the penis and the risk of impotence in men treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 9406. Methods and materials: Men enrolled on a Phase I/II dose-escalation study, RTOG 9406, who were reported to be potent at entry and evaluable (n = 158) were selected for inclusion. Follow-up evaluations were scheduled every 3, 4, and 6 months for the first, second, and the third through fifth years, then annually. At each follow-up visit an assessment of potency status was made. Penile structures were defined by a single observer blinded to the potency status, using Web-based, on-line software. The dosimetry for penile structures was calculated at the Quality Assurance Center at Washington University and provided to RTOG Statistical Headquarters to determine whether there was a relationship between dose and impotence. Results: Patients whose median penile dose was ≥52.5 Gy had a greater risk of impotence compared with those receiving <52.5 Gy (p = 0.039). In a multivariate analysis neither age, the dose to the prostate, nor the use of hormonal therapy correlated with the risk of impotence. Conclusions: Dose to the bulb of the penis seems to be associated with the risk of radiation-induced impotence

  5. Deep inspiration breath-hold technique for lung tumors: the potential value of target immobilization and reduced lung density in dose escalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanley, J.; Debois, M.M.; Raben, A.; Mageras, G.S.; Lutz, W.R.; Mychalczak, B.; Schwartz, L.H.; Gloeggler, P.J.; Leibel, S.A.; Fuks, Z.; Kutcher, G.J.

    1996-01-01

    compared to assess the improvement due to target immobilization and reduced lung density. To estimate the role of target immobilization alone, an additional plan is generated using the DIBH PTV, but with the assumption it is surrounded by free-breathing, not deep inspiration, density lung. Results: The results of the study suggest that the DIBH technique can reduce the mass of lung irradiated to high dose, so that the possibility for dose escalation is increased. The relative contribution of reduced lung density and reduced margin for motion vary depending on the tumor size, level of DIBH and extent of tumor motion in free-breathing. An example treatment plan comparison for a typical patient is shown in the figure, which is a cumulative dose mass histogram (DMH) depicting the mass of normal lung tissue receiving at least a certain dose. The lung DMHs shown are for three plans: (A) Free-breathing; (B) Target immobilization only; (C) Target immobilization plus reduced lung density. It is observed that the mass of lung tissue treated to high doses is less for cases B and C. For example, the mass receiving >24.5 Gy is 235 g for free-breathing (A), 180 g for immobilization alone (B) and 150 g for DIBH (C). For this patient, target immobilization alone would allow a dose escalation from 75.6 Gy to 95 Gy for the same level of NTCP as the free-breathing plan, the added effect of reduced density would then enable a further escalation from 95 Gy to 110 Gy. For this study, the measured tumor motions ranged from 5 to 12 mm for free-breathing and 1 to 3 mm for DIBH. For the example shown in the figure the tumor motion was 10 mm and DIBH reproducibility was 3 mm. Additional details on the DIBH technique and results for a group of patients will be presented. Conclusions: Compared to conventional free-breathing treatment the DIBH technique benefits from reduced margins, as a result of the suppressed target motion, as well as a decreased lung density - both contribute to moving normal lung

  6. Post-nerve-sparing prostatectomy, dose-escalated intensity-modulated radiotherapy: effect on erectile function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastasch, Michael D.; Teh, Bin S.; Mai, W.-Y.; Carpenter, L. Steven; Lu, Hsin H.; Chiu, J. Kam; Woo, Shiao Y.; Grant, Walter H.; Miles, Brian J.; Kadmon, Dov; Butler, E. Brian

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The advent of widespread prostate-specific antigen screening has resulted in more younger, potent men being diagnosed with early-stage, organ-confined prostate cancer amenable to definitive surgery. Nerve-sparing prostatectomy is a relatively new surgical advance in the treatment of prostate cancer. Very few data exist on the effect of postoperative radiotherapy (RT) on erectile function after nerve-sparing prostatectomy. They are based on conventional techniques using moderate doses of radiation, 45-54 Gy. Intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) is becoming more widespread because it allows dose escalation with increased sparing of the surrounding normal tissue. We investigated the effect of postprostatectomy, high-dose IMRT on patients' erectile function. Methods and Materials: A review of patient records found 51 patients treated between April 1998 and December 2000 with IMRT after unilateral or bilateral nerve-sparing prostatectomy. The pathologic disease stage in these patients was T2 in 47.4% and T3 in 52.6%. Postoperatively, 4 patients received hormonal ablation consisting of one injection of Lupron Depot (30 mg) 2 months before RT. The median age was 65 years (range 46-77) at the time of RT. The prescribed dose was 64 Gy (range 60-66). The mean dose was 69.6 Gy (range 64.0-72.3). Erectile function was assessed before and after RT by questionnaires. Sexual potency was defined as erectile rigidity adequate for vaginal penetration. Results: Of the 51 patients, 18 (35.3%) maintained their potency and 33 (64.7%) became impotent after nerve-sparing prostatectomy. Patients who underwent bilateral nerve-sparing prostatectomy had higher rates of postoperative potency than did those who underwent unilateral nerve-sparing surgery (72.2% vs. 27.8%; p=0.025). The follow-up for the entire group was 19.5 months. All 18 patients (100%) who were potent postoperatively remained potent after RT. The median follow-up for the 18 potent patients was 27.2 months, significantly

  7. Molecular and biochemical analysis of the plastidic ADP-glucose transporter (ZmBT1) from Zea mays.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchberger, S.; Leroch, M.; Huynen, M.A.; Wahl, M.; Neuhaus, H.E.; Tjaden, J.

    2007-01-01

    Physiological studies on the Brittle1 maize mutant have provided circumstantial evidence that ZmBT1 (Zea mays Brittle1 protein) is involved in the ADP-Glc transport into maize endosperm plastids, but up to now, no direct ADP-Glc transport mediated by ZmBT1 has ever been shown. The heterologous

  8. Molecular and biochemical analysis of the plastidic ADP-glucose transporter (ZmBT1) from Zea mays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchberger, S.; Leroch, M.; Huynen, M.A.; Wahl, M.; Neuhaus, H.E.; Tjaden, J.

    2007-01-01

    Physiological studies on the Brittle1 maize mutant have provided circumstantial evidence that ZmBT1 (Zea mays Brittle1 protein) is involved in the ADP-Glc transport into maize endosperm plastids, but up to now, no direct ADP-Glc transport mediated by ZmBT1 has ever been shown. The heterologous

  9. High-dose radiation improved local tumor control and overall survival in patients with inoperable/unresectable non-small-cell lung cancer: Long-term results of a radiation dose escalation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, F.-M.; Haken, Randall K. ten; Schipper, Matthew J.; Sullivan, Molly A.; Chen, Ming; Lopez, Carlos; Kalemkerian, Gregory P.; Hayman, James A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether high-dose radiation leads to improved outcomes in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: This analysis included 106 patients with newly diagnosed or recurrent Stages I-III NSCLC, treated with 63-103 Gy in 2.1-Gy fractions, using three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) per a dose escalation trial. Targets included the primary tumor and any lymph nodes ≥1 cm, without intentionally including negative nodal regions. Nineteen percent of patients (20/106) received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Patient, tumor, and treatment factors were evaluated for association with outcomes. Estimated median follow-up was 8.5 years. Results: Median survival was 19 months, and 5-year overall survival (OS) was 13%. Multivariate analysis revealed weight loss (p = 0.011) and radiation dose (p = 0.0006) were significant predictors for OS. The 5-year OS was 4%, 22%, and 28% for patients receiving 63-69, 74-84, and 92-103 Gy, respectively. Although presence of nodal disease was negatively associated with locoregional control under univariate analysis, radiation dose was the only significant predictor when multiple variables were included (p = 0.015). The 5-year control rate was 12%, 35%, and 49% for 63-69, 74-84, and 92-103 Gy, respectively. Conclusions: Higher dose radiation is associated with improved outcomes in patients with NSCLC treated in the range of 63-103 Gy

  10. Perineural Invasion Predicts Increased Recurrence, Metastasis, and Death From Prostate Cancer Following Treatment With Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Felix Y.; Qian Yushen; Stenmark, Matthew H.; Halverson, Schuyler; Blas, Kevin; Vance, Sean; Sandler, Howard M.; Hamstra, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the prognostic value of perineural invasion (PNI) for patients treated with dose-escalated external-beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Outcomes were analyzed for 651 men treated for prostate cancer with EBRT to a minimum dose ≥75 Gy. We assessed the impact of PNI as well as pretreatment and treatment-related factors on freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF), freedom from metastasis (FFM), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival. Results: PNI was present in 34% of specimens at biopsy and was significantly associated with higher Gleason score (GS), T stage, and prostate-specific antigen level. On univariate and multivariate analysis, the presence of PNI was associated with worse FFBF (hazard ratio = 1.7, p <0.006), FFM (hazard ratio = 1.8, p <0.03), and CSS (HR = 1.4, p <0.05) compared with absence of PNI; there was no difference in overall survival. Seven-year rates of FFBF, FFM, and CCS were 64% vs. 80%, 84% vs. 92%, and 91% vs. 95% for those patients with and without PNI, respectively. On recursive partitioning analysis, PNI predicted for worse FFM and CSS in patients with GS 8–10, with FFM of 67% vs. 89% (p <0.02), and CSS of 69% vs. 91%, (p <0.04) at 7 years for those with and without PNI, respectively. Conclusions: The presence of PNI in the prostate biopsy predicts worse clinical outcome for patients treated with dose-escalated external-beam radiation therapy. Particularly in patients with GS 8–10 disease, the presence of PNI suggests an increased risk of metastasis and prostate cancer death.

  11. Perineural Invasion Predicts Increased Recurrence, Metastasis, and Death From Prostate Cancer Following Treatment With Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Felix Y. [University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ann Arbor Veteran Affairs Medical System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Qian Yushen; Stenmark, Matthew H.; Halverson, Schuyler; Blas, Kevin; Vance, Sean [University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Sandler, Howard M. [Cedars Sinai Medical System, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Hamstra, Daniel A., E-mail: dhamm@med.umich.edu [University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To assess the prognostic value of perineural invasion (PNI) for patients treated with dose-escalated external-beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Outcomes were analyzed for 651 men treated for prostate cancer with EBRT to a minimum dose {>=}75 Gy. We assessed the impact of PNI as well as pretreatment and treatment-related factors on freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF), freedom from metastasis (FFM), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival. Results: PNI was present in 34% of specimens at biopsy and was significantly associated with higher Gleason score (GS), T stage, and prostate-specific antigen level. On univariate and multivariate analysis, the presence of PNI was associated with worse FFBF (hazard ratio = 1.7, p <0.006), FFM (hazard ratio = 1.8, p <0.03), and CSS (HR = 1.4, p <0.05) compared with absence of PNI; there was no difference in overall survival. Seven-year rates of FFBF, FFM, and CCS were 64% vs. 80%, 84% vs. 92%, and 91% vs. 95% for those patients with and without PNI, respectively. On recursive partitioning analysis, PNI predicted for worse FFM and CSS in patients with GS 8-10, with FFM of 67% vs. 89% (p <0.02), and CSS of 69% vs. 91%, (p <0.04) at 7 years for those with and without PNI, respectively. Conclusions: The presence of PNI in the prostate biopsy predicts worse clinical outcome for patients treated with dose-escalated external-beam radiation therapy. Particularly in patients with GS 8-10 disease, the presence of PNI suggests an increased risk of metastasis and prostate cancer death.

  12. Intraarterial 192Ir high-dose-rate brachytherapy for prophylaxis of restenosis after femoropopliteal percutaneous transluminal angioplasty: the prospective randomized Vienna-2-trial radiotherapy parameters and risk factors analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokrajac, Boris; Poetter, Richard; Maca, Thomas; Fellner, Claudia; Mittlboeck, Martina; Ahmadi, Ramazanali; Seitz, Wolfgang; Minar, Erich

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the Vienna-2-trial was to compare the restenosis rate of femoropopliteal arteries after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) with or without intraarterial high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy (BT) using an 192 Ir source. Materials and Methods: A prospective, randomized trial was conducted from 11/96 to 8/98. A total of 113 patients (63 men, 50 women), with a mean age of 71 years (range, 43-89 years) were included. Inclusion criteria were (1) claudication or critical limb ischemia, (2) de-novo stenosis of 5 cm or more, (3) restenosis after former PTA of any length, and (4) no stent implantation. Patients were randomized after successful PTA for BT vs. no further treatment. A well-balanced patient distribution was achieved for the criteria used for stratification, as there were 'de-novo stenosis vs. restenosis after former PTA', 'stenosis vs. occlusion', 'claudication vs. critical limb ischemia' and above these for 'diabetes vs. nondiabetes'. PTA length was not well balanced between the treatment arms: a PTA length of 4-10 cm was seen in 19 patients in the PTA alone group and in 11 patients in the PTA+BT group, whereas a PTA length of greater than10 cm was seen in 35 patients and 42 patients, respectively. A dose of 12 Gy was prescribed in 3-mm distance from the source axis. According to AAPM recommendations, the dose was 6.8 Gy in 5-mm distance (vessel radius + 2 mm). Primary endpoint of the study was femoropopliteal patency after 6 months. Results: PTA and additional BT were feasible and well tolerated by all 57 pts in this treatment arm. No acute, subacute, and late adverse side effects related to BT were seen after a mean follow up of 12 months (6-24 months) in 107 patients (PTA n = 54; PTA+ BT n = 53). Crude restenosis rate at 6 months was in the PTA arm 54% vs. 28% in the PTA + BT arm (χ 2 test; p 10 cm) showed significant decrease of the restenosis rate, if BT was added. Significant reduction was not achieved in diabetes patients

  13. Bt Jute Expressing Fused δ-Endotoxin Cry1Ab/Ac for Resistance to Lepidopteran Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuvobrata Majumder

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Jute (Corchorus sp. is naturally occurring, biodegradable, lignocellulosic-long, silky, golden shiny fiber producing plant that has great demands globally. Paper and textile industries are interested in jute because of the easy availability, non-toxicity and high yield of cellulosic biomass produced per acre in cultivation. Jute is the major and most industrially used bast fiber-producing crop in the world and it needs protection from insect pest infestation that decreases its yield and quality. Single locus integration of the synthetically fused cry1Ab/Ac gene of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt in Corchorus capsularis (JRC 321 by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated shoot tip transformation provided 5 potent Bt jute lines BT1, BT2, BT4, BT7 and BT8. These lines consistently expressed the Cry1Ab/Ac endotoxin ranging from 0.16 to 0.35 ng/mg of leaf, in the following generations (analyzed upto T4. The effect of Cry1Ab/Ac endotoxin was studied against 3 major Lepidopteran pests of jute- semilooper (Anomis sabulifera Guenee, hairy caterpillar (Spilarctia obliqua Walker and indigo caterpillar (Spodoptera exigua Hubner by detached leaf and whole plant insect bioassay on greenhouse-grown transgenic plants. Results confirm that larvae feeding on transgenic plants had lower food consumption, body size, body weight and dry weight of excreta compared to non-transgenic controls. Insect mortality range among transgenic feeders was 66–100% for semilooper and hairy caterpillar and 87.50% for indigo caterpillar. Apart from insect resistance, the transgenic plants were at par with control plants in terms of agronomic parameters and fiber quality. Hence, these Bt jutes in the field would survive Lepidopteran pest infestation, minimize harmful pesticide usage and yield good quality fiber.

  14. De-escalation of tyrosine kinase inhibitor dose in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia with stable major molecular response (DESTINY): an interim analysis of a non-randomised, phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Richard E; Polydoros, Fotios; Apperley, Jane F; Milojkovic, Dragana; Pocock, Christopher; Smith, Graeme; Byrne, Jenny L; de Lavallade, Hugues; O'Brien, Stephen G; Coffey, Tony; Foroni, Letizia; Copland, Mhairi

    2017-07-01

    Discontinuation of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy is feasible for some patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia with deep molecular responses; however, patients with stable major molecular response (MMR), but not MR4, have not been studied, nor has the effect of treatment de-escalation rather than outright cessation. We aimed to examine the effects of treatment de-escalation as a prelude to complete cessation, not only in patients with MR4 or greater, but also in those with MMR but not MR4. We did this interim analysis of a non-randomised, phase 2 trial at 20 hospitals in the UK. We recruited patients (aged ≥18 years) with chronic myeloid leukaemia in first chronic phase who had received TKI for 3 years or more and were either in stable MR4 (BCR-ABL1:ABL1 ratio 0·1%) on two consecutive samples. The primary endpoint of this interim analysis was the proportion of patients who lost MMR on de-escalation and regained MMR on TKI resumption. Analyses were by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01804985. Between Dec 16, 2013 and April 10, 2015, we enrolled 174 patients into the MMR cohort (n=49) or the MR4 cohort (n=125). During the 12 months of half-dose therapy, 12 patients (7%) had molecular recurrence, all of whom regained MMR within 4 months of full-dose TKI resumption (median time to recovery 77 days). Recurrence was significantly lower in the MR4 cohort (three [2%; 90% CI 0·2-4·8] of 121 evaluable patients) than in the MMR cohort (nine [19%; 90% CI 9·5-28·0] of 48 evaluable patients; hazard ratio 0·12, 90% CI 0·04-0·37; p=0·0007), but was unrelated to previous TKI or TKI therapy duration. Adverse events (eg, lethargy, diarrhoea, rash, and nausea) improved during the first 3 months of de-escalation, though not thereafter. 16 serious adverse events were reported, including one fatality due to worsening pre-existing peripheral arterial occlusive disease in a patient who had received only imatinib. TKI de-escalation

  15. Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Exhibits No Preference between Bt and Non-Bt Maize Fed Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Carla C.; Koch, Robert L.; Burkness, Eric C.; Meissle, Michael; Romeis, Joerg; Hutchison, William D.; Fernandes, Marcos G.

    2012-01-01

    A recent shift in managing insect resistance to genetically engineered (GE) maize consists of mixing non-GE seed with GE seed known as “refuge in a bag”, which increases the likelihood of predators encountering both prey fed Bt and prey fed non-Bt maize. We therefore conducted laboratory choice-test feeding studies to determine if a predator, Harmonia axyridis, shows any preference between prey fed Bt and non-Bt maize leaves. The prey species was Spodoptera frugiperda, which were fed Bt maize (MON-810), expressing the single Cry1Ab protein, or non-Bt maize. The predators were third instar larvae and female adults of H. axyridis. Individual predators were offered Bt and non-Bt fed prey larvae that had fed for 24, 48 or 72 h. Ten and 15 larvae of each prey type were offered to third instar and adult predators, respectively. Observations of arenas were conducted at 1, 2, 3, 6, 15 and 24 h after the start of the experiment to determine the number and type of prey eaten by each individual predator. Prey larvae that fed on non-Bt leaves were significantly larger than larvae fed Bt leaves. Both predator stages had eaten nearly all the prey by the end of the experiment. However, in all combinations of predator stage and prey age, the number of each prey type consumed did not differ significantly. ELISA measurements confirmed the presence of Cry1Ab in leaf tissue (23–33 µg/g dry weight) and S. frugiperda (2.1–2.2 µg/g), while mean concentrations in H. axyridis were very low (0.01–0.2 µg/g). These results confirm the predatory status of H. axyridis on S. frugiperda and that both H. axyridis adults and larvae show no preference between prey types. The lack of preference between Bt-fed and non-Bt-fed prey should act in favor of insect resistance management strategies using mixtures of GE and non-GE maize seed. PMID:23024772

  16. Clinical Outcomes for Patients with Gleason Score 9-10 Prostate Adenocarcinoma Treated With Radiotherapy or Radical Prostatectomy: A Multi-institutional Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishan, Amar U; Shaikh, Talha; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Reiter, Robert E; Said, Jonathan; Raghavan, Govind; Nickols, Nicholas G; Aronson, William J; Sadeghi, Ahmad; Kamrava, Mitchell; Demanes, David Jeffrey; Steinberg, Michael L; Horwitz, Eric M; Kupelian, Patrick A; King, Christopher R

    2017-05-01

    The long natural history of prostate cancer (CaP) limits comparisons of efficacy between radical prostatectomy (RP) and external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), since patients treated years ago received treatments considered suboptimal by modern standards (particularly with regards to androgen deprivation therapy [ADT] and radiotherapy dose-escalation]. Gleason score (GS) 9-10 CaP is particularly aggressive, and clinically-relevant endpoints occur early, facilitating meaningful comparisons. To compare outcomes of patients with GS 9-10 CaP following EBRT, extremely-dose escalated radiotherapy (as exemplified by EBRT+brachytherapy [EBRT+BT]), and RP. Retrospective analysis of 487 patients with biopsy GS 9-10 CaP treated between 2000 and 2013 (230 with EBRT, 87 with EBRT+BT, and 170 with RP). Most radiotherapy patients received ADT and dose-escalated radiotherapy. Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariate Cox regression estimated and compared 5-yr and 10-yr rates of distant metastasis-free survival, cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS). The median follow-up was 4.6 yr. Local salvage and systemic salvage were performed more frequently in RP patients (49.0% and 30.1%) when compared with either EBRT patients (0.9% and 19.7%) or EBRT+BT patients (1.2% and 16.1%, pRadiotherapy and RP provide equivalent CSS and OS. Extremely dose-escalated radiotherapy with ADT in particular offers improved systemic control when compared with either EBRT or RP. These data suggest that extremely dose-escalated radiotherapy with ADT might be the optimal upfront treatment for patients with biopsy GS 9-10 CaP. While some prostate cancers are slow-growing requiring many years, sometimes decades, of follow-up in order to compare between radiation and surgery, high-risk and very aggressive cancers follow a much shorter time course allowing such comparisons to be made and updated as treatments, especially radiation, rapidly evolve. We showed that radiation-based treatments and surgery

  17. Phase I dose escalation clinical trial of phenylbutyrate sodium administered twice daily to patients with advanced solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Luis H; Olson, Jon; Tong, William P; Young, Charles W; Spriggs, David R; Malkin, Mark G

    2007-04-01

    Phenylbutyrate (PBA), and its metabolite phenylacetate (PAA), induce growth inhibition and cellular differentiation in multiple tumor models. However, despite their potential anti-cancer properties, several pharmacodynamic aspects remain unknown. We conducted a dose escalating trial to evaluate twice-daily intravenous PBA infusions for two consecutive weeks (Monday through Friday) every month at five dose levels (60-360 mg/kg/day). Twenty-one patients with the following malignancies were treated: colon carcinoma 4, non-small cell lung carcinoma 4; anaplastic astrocytoma 3, glioblastoma multiforme 3, bladder carcinoma 2, sarcoma 2, and ovarian carcinoma, rectal hemangiopericytoma, and pancreatic carcinoma 1 each. Conversion of PBA to PAA and phenylacetylglutamine (PAG) was documented without catabolic saturation. Plasma content of PBA > or =1 mM was documented for only 3 h following each dose at the top two dosages. The therapy was well tolerated overall. Common adverse effects included grade 1 nausea/vomiting, fatigue, and lightheadedness. Dose limiting toxicities were short-term memory loss, sedation, confusion, nausea, and vomiting. Two patients with anaplastic astrocytoma and a patient with glioblastoma remained stable without tumor progression for 5, 7, and 4 months respectively. Administration of PBA in a twice-daily infusion schedule is safe. The maximum tolerated dose is 300 mg/kg/day. Study designs with more convenient treatment schedules and specific molecular correlates may help to further delineate the mechanism of action of this compound. Future studies evaluating PBA's ability to induce histone acetylation and cell differentiation alone or in combination with other anti-neoplastics are recommended.

  18. Dose escalation with 3-D CRT in prostate cancer: five year dose responses and optimal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanks, Gerald; Hanlon, Alexandra; Pinover, Wayne; Hunt, Margie; Movsas, Benjamin; Schultheiss, Timothy

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To report 5 yr dose responses in prostate cancer patients treated with 3D-CRT and describe optimal treatment based on dose response. Methods: Dose escalation was studied in 233 consecutive patients treated with 3D-CRT between 3/89 and 10/92. All surviving patients have >32 mo follow-up, the median follow-up is 55 mo. Estimated logistic cumulative distribution functions (logit response models) fit to 5 yr actuarial bNED outcome are reported for 3 dose groups in each of 3 pretreatment PSA groupings (10-19.9 ng/ml and 20+ ng/ml); no dose response is observed for patients with pretreatment PSA <10 ng/ml. Logit response models fit to 5 yr actuarial late morbidity rates (grade 2 GI, grade 2 GU, grade 3,4 GI) are also reported for 4 dose groups. Patients are treated with CT planned 4-field conformal technique where the PTV encompasses the CTV by 1.0 cm in all directions including the anterior rectal wall margin. Patients are followed at 6 mo intervals with PSA and DRE, and bNED failure is defined as PSA ≥1.5 ng/ml and rising on two consecutive measures. The Fox Chase modification of the LENT morbidity scale is used for GI morbidity including any blood transfusion and/or more than 2 coagulations as a grade 3 event. GU morbidity follows the RTOG scale. Results: The logit response models based on 5 yr bNED results have slopes of 27% and 18% for pretreatment PSA grouping 10-19.9 ng/ml and 20+ ng/ml, respectively. The 50% bNED response is observed at 71 Gy and 80 Gy respectively, while the 80% bNED response is observed at 76 Gy for the 10-19.9 ng/ml group and estimated at 88 Gy for the 20+ ng/ml group. Logit dose response models for grade 2 GI and grade 2 GU morbidity show markedly different slopes, 23% versus 4%, respectively. The slope for grade 3,4 GI is 12%. The dose response model indicates grade 3,4 GI complication rates at 5 yrs are 8% at 76 Gy and 12% at 80 Gy. Conclusion: Based on 5 yr results, we can draw some conclusions about appropriate dose from these

  19. Sodium phenylbutyrate in Huntington's disease: a dose-finding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Penelope; Lovrecic, Luca; Krainc, Dimitri

    2007-10-15

    Transcriptional dysregulation in Huntington's disease (HD) is mediated in part by aberrant patterns of histone acetylation. We performed a dose-finding study in human HD of sodium phenylbutyrate (SPB), a histone deacetylase inhibitor that ameliorates the HD phenotype in animal models. We used a dose-escalation/de-escalation design, using prespecified toxicity criteria and standard clinical and laboratory safety measures. The maximum tolerated dose was 15 g/day. At higher doses, toxicity included vomiting, lightheadedness, confusion, and gait instability. We saw no significant laboratory or electrocardiographic abnormalities. Gene expression changes in blood suggested an inverse dose-response. In conclusion, SPB at 12 to 15 g/day appears to be safe and well-tolerated in human HD. 2007 Movement Disorder Society

  20. Predator Preference for Bt-Fed Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Prey: Implications for Insect Resistance Management in Bt Maize Seed Blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svobodová, Z; Burkness, E C; Skoková Habuštová, O; Hutchison, W D

    2017-06-01

    Understanding indirect, trophic-level effects of genetically engineered plants, expressing insecticidal proteins derived from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), is essential to the ecological risk assessment process. In this study, we examine potential indirect, trophic-level effects of Bt-sensitive prey using the predator, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), feeding upon Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) larvae, which had delayed development (lower body mass) following ingestion of Cry1Ab maize leaves. We found no adverse effects on development and survival when H. axyridis larvae were fed S. frugiperda larvae that had fed on Cry1Ab maize tissue. Presence of Cry1Ab in H. axyridis decreased considerably after switching to another diet within 48 h. In a no-choice assay, H. axyridis larvae consumed more Bt-fed S. frugiperda than non-Bt-fed larvae. Preference for S. frugiperda feeding on Bt maize was confirmed in subsequent choice assays with H. axyridis predation on Bt-fed, 1-5-d-old S. frugiperda larvae. We suggest that H. axyridis preferred prey, not based on whether it had fed on Bt or non-Bt maize, but rather on larval mass, and they compensated for the nutritional deficiency of lighter larvae through increased consumption. Pest larvae with variable levels of resistance developing on Bt diet are often stunted versus sensitive larvae developing on non-Bt diet. It is possible that such larvae may be preferentially removed from local field populations. These results may have implications for insect resistance management and may be played out under field conditions where seed blends of Bt and non-Bt hybrids are planted. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With Simultaneous Integrated Boost in Patients With Brain Oligometastases: A Phase 1 Study (ISIDE-BM-1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferro, Marica [Radiotherapy Unit, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura “Giovanni Paolo II,” Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Campobasso (Italy); Chiesa, Silvia [Department of Radiotherapy, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario “A. Gemelli,” Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Rome (Italy); Macchia, Gabriella, E-mail: gmacchia@rm.unicatt.it [Radiotherapy Unit, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura “Giovanni Paolo II,” Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Campobasso (Italy); Cilla, Savino [Medical Physics Unit, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura “Giovanni Paolo II,” Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Campobasso (Italy); Bertini, Federica [Radiation Oncology Center, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Frezza, Giovanni [Radiotherapy Department, Ospedale Bellaria, Bologna (Italy); Farioli, Andrea [Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Cammelli, Silvia [Radiation Oncology Center, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Balducci, Mario [Department of Radiotherapy, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario “A. Gemelli,” Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Rome (Italy); Ianiro, Anna [Medical Physics Unit, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura “Giovanni Paolo II,” Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Campobasso (Italy); Angelini, Anna Lisa; Compagnone, Gaetano [Medical Physics Unit, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna (Italy); and others

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the maximum tolerated dose of intensity modulated radiation therapy simultaneous integrated boost whole-brain radiation therapy for palliative treatment of patients with <5 brain metastases using a standard linear accelerator. Materials and Methods: The whole brain plus 3-mm margin was defined as the planning target volume (PTV{sub wb}), whereas each brain metastasis, defined as the contrast-enhancing tumor on MRI T1 scans, plus a 3-mm isotropic margin, was defined as metastases PTV (PTV{sub m}). Radiation therapy was delivered in 10 daily fractions (2 weeks). Only the dose to PTV{sub m} was progressively increased in the patient cohorts (35 Gy, 40 Gy, 45 Gy, 50 Gy), whereas the PTV{sub wb} was always treated with 30 Gy (3 Gy per fraction) in all patients. The dose-limiting toxicity was evaluated providing that 3 months of follow-up had occurred after the treatment of a 6-patient cohort. Results: Thirty patients were enrolled in the study (dose PTV{sub m}: 35 Gy, 8 patients; 40 Gy, 6 patients; 45 Gy, 6 patients; 50 Gy, 10 patients). The number of treated brain metastases was 1 in 18 patients, 2 in 5 patients, 3 in 6 patients, and 4 in 1 patient. Three patients experienced dose-limiting toxicity: 1 patient at dose level 2 presented grade 3 (G3) skin toxicity; 1 patient at dose level 4 presented G3 neurologic toxicity; and 1 patient at the same level showed brain hemorrhage. Most patients showed G1 to 2 acute toxicity, in most cases skin (n=19) or neurologic (n=10). Twenty-seven were evaluable for response: 6 (22%) stable disease, 18 (67%) partial response, and 3 (11%) complete response. Median survival and 1-year overall survival were 12 months and 53%, respectively. No patient showed late toxicity. Conclusions: In this first prospective trial on the use of intensity modulated radiation therapy simultaneous integrated boost delivered with a standard linear accelerator in patients with brain oligometastases, a boost dose up to 50

  2. Evidence of field-evolved resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda to Bt corn expressing Cry1F in Brazil that is still sensitive to modified Bt toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnerat, Rose; Martins, Erica; Macedo, Cristina; Queiroz, Paulo; Praça, Lilian; Soares, Carlos Marcelo; Moreira, Helio; Grisi, Isabella; Silva, Joseane; Soberon, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Brazil ranked second only to the United States in hectares planted to genetically modified crops in 2013. Recently corn producers in the Cerrado region reported that the control of Spodoptera frugiperda with Bt corn expressing Cry1Fa has decreased, forcing them to use chemicals to reduce the damage caused by this insect pest. A colony of S. frugiperda was established from individuals collected in 2013 from Cry1Fa corn plants (SfBt) in Brazil and shown to have at least more than ten-fold higher resistance levels compared with a susceptible colony (Sflab). Laboratory assays on corn leaves showed that in contrast to SfLab population, the SfBt larvae were able to survive by feeding on Cry1Fa corn leaves. The SfBt population was maintained without selection for eight generations and shown to maintain high levels of resistance to Cry1Fa toxin. SfBt showed higher cross-resistance to Cry1Aa than to Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac toxins. As previously reported, Cry1A toxins competed the binding of Cry1Fa to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from SfLab insects, explaining cross-resistance to Cry1A toxins. In contrast Cry2A toxins did not compete Cry1Fa binding to SfLab-BBMV and no cross-resistance to Cry2A was observed, although Cry2A toxins show low toxicity to S. frugiperda. Bioassays with Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod show that they are highly active against both the SfLab and the SfBt populations. The bioassay data reported here show that insects collected from Cry1Fa corn in the Cerrado region were resistant to Cry1Fa suggesting that resistance contributed to field failures of Cry1Fa corn to control S. frugiperda.

  3. Is it beneficial to selectively boost high-risk tumor subvolumes? A comparison of selectively boosting high-risk tumor subvolumes versus homogeneous dose escalation of the entire tumor based on equivalent EUD plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yusung; To me, Wolfgang A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose. To quantify and compare expected local tumor control and expected normal tissue toxicities between selective boosting IMRT and homogeneous dose escalation IMRT for the case of prostate cancer. Methods. Four different selective boosting scenarios and three different high-risk tumor subvolume geometries were designed to compare selective boosting and homogeneous dose escalation IMRT plans delivering the same equivalent uniform dose (EUD) to the entire PTV. For each scenario, differences in tumor control probability between both boosting strategies were calculated for the high-risk tumor subvolume and remaining low-risk PTV, and were visualized using voxel based iso-TCP maps. Differences in expected rectal and bladder complications were quantified using radiobiological indices (generalized EUD (gEUD) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP)) as well as %-volumes. Results. For all investigated scenarios and high-risk tumor subvolume geometries, selective boosting IMRT improves expected TCP compared to homogeneous dose escalation IMRT, especially when lack of control of the high-risk tumor subvolume could be the cause for tumor recurrence. Employing, selective boosting IMRT significant increases in expected TCP can be achieved for the high-risk tumor subvolumes. The three conventional selective boosting IMRT strategies, employing physical dose objectives, did not show significant improvement in rectal and bladder sparing as compared to their counterpart homogeneous dose escalation plans. However, risk-adaptive optimization, utilizing radiobiological objective functions, resulted in reduction in NTCP for the rectum when compared to its corresponding homogeneous dose escalation plan. Conclusions. Selective boosting is a more effective method than homogeneous dose escalation for achieving optimal treatment outcomes. Furthermore, risk-adaptive optimization increases the therapeutic ratio as compared to conventional selective boosting IMRT

  4. Sublethal effects of Cry 1F Bt corn and clothianidin on black cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larval development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullik, Sigrun A; Sears, Mark K; Schaafsma, Arthur W

    2011-04-01

    Black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an occasional pest of maize (corn), Zea mays L., that may cause severe stand losses and injury to corn seedlings. The efficacy of the neonicotinoid seed treatment clothianidin at two commercially available rates and their interaction with a transgenic corn hybrid (Bt corn), trait expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis variety aizawai insecticidal toxin Cry 1Fa2, against black cutworm larvae was investigated. Clothianidin at a rate of 25 mg kernel(-1) on Bt corn increased larval mortality and reduced larval weight gains additively. In contrast, weights of larvae fed non-Bt corn seedlings treated with clothianidin at a rate of 25 mg kernel(-1) increased significantly, suggesting either compensatory overconsumption, hormesis, or hormoligosis. Both Bt corn alone and clothianidin at a rate of 125 mg kernel(-1) applied to non-Bt corn seedlings caused increased mortality and reduced larval weight gains. In two field trials, plots planted with Bt corn hybrids consistently had the highest plant populations and yields, regardless of whether they were treated with clothianidin at the lower commercial rate of 25 mg kernel(-1) The use of Bt corn alone or in combination with the low rate of clothianidin (25 mg kernel(-1)) seems suitable as a means of suppressing black cutworm in no-tillage cornfields, although rescue treatments may still be necessary under severe infestations. Clothianidin alone at the low rate of 25 mg kernel(-1) is not recommended for black cutworm control until further studies of its effects on larval physiology and field performance have been completed.

  5. Dose-Volume Parameters of the Corpora Cavernosa Do Not Correlate With Erectile Dysfunction After External Beam Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer: Results From a Dose-Escalation Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielen, Gerard J. van der; Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Dohle, Gert R.; Putten, Wim L.J. van; Incrocci, Luca

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the correlation between dose-volume parameters of the corpora cavernosa and erectile dysfunction (ED) after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between June 1997 and February 2003, a randomized dose-escalation trial comparing 68 Gy and 78 Gy was conducted. Patients at our institute were asked to participate in an additional part of the trial evaluating sexual function. After exclusion of patients with less than 2 years of follow-up, ED at baseline, or treatment with hormonal therapy, 96 patients were eligible. The proximal corpora cavernosa (crura), the superiormost 1-cm segment of the crura, and the penile bulb were contoured on the planning computed tomography scan and dose-volume parameters were calculated. Results: Two years after EBRT, 35 of the 96 patients had developed ED. No statistically significant correlations between ED 2 years after EBRT and dose-volume parameters of the crura, the superiormost 1-cm segment of the crura, or the penile bulb were found. The few patients using potency aids typically indicated to have ED. Conclusion: No correlation was found between ED after EBRT for prostate cancer and radiation dose to the crura or penile bulb. The present study is the largest study evaluating the correlation between ED and radiation dose to the corpora cavernosa after EBRT for prostate cancer. Until there is clear evidence that sparing the penile bulb or crura will reduce ED after EBRT, we advise to be careful in sparing these structures, especially when this involves reducing treatment margins

  6. Biological effective doses in the intracavitary high dose rate brachytherapy of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Sobita Devi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate the decrease of biological equivalent dose and its correlation withlocal/loco-regional control of tumour in the treatment of cervical cancer when the strength of the Ir-192 high dose rate(HDR brachytherapy (BT source is reduced to single, double and triple half life in relation to original strength of10 Ci (~ 4.081 cGy x m2 x h–1. Material and methods: A retrospective study was carried out on 52 cervical cancer patients with stage II and IIItreated with fractionated HDR-BT following external beam radiation therapy (EBRT. International Commission onRadiation Units and Measurement (ICRU points were defined according to ICRU Report 38, using two orthogonal radiographimages taken by Simulator (Simulix HQ. Biologically effective dose (BED was calculated at point A for diffe -rent Ir-192 source strength and its possible correlation with local/loco-regional tumour control was discussed. Result: The increase of treatment time per fraction of dose due to the fall of dose rate especially in HDR-BT of cervicalcancer results in reduction in BED of 2.59%, 7.02% and 13.68% with single, double and triple half life reduction ofsource strength, respectively. The probabilities of disease recurrence (local/loco-regional within 26 months are expectedas 0.12, 0.12, 0.16, 0.39 and 0.80 for source strength of 4.081, 2.041, 1.020, 0.510 and 0.347 cGy x m2 x h–1, respectively.The percentages of dose increase required to maintain the same BED with respect to initial BED were estimated as1.71, 5.00, 11.00 and 15.86 for the dose rate of 24.7, 12.4, 6.2 and 4.2 Gy/hr at point A, respectively. Conclusions: This retrospective study of cervical cancer patients treated with HDR-BT at different Ir-192 sourcestrength shows reduction in disease free survival according to the increase in treatment time duration per fraction.The probable result could be associated with the decrease of biological equivalent dose to point A. Clinical

  7. Methods, safety, and early clinical outcomes of dose escalation using simultaneous integrated and sequential boosts in patients with locally advanced gynecologic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, John; Craciunescu, Oana; Steffey, Beverly; Cai, Jing; Chino, Junzo

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the safety of dose escalated radiotherapy using a simultaneous integrated boost technique in patients with locally advanced gynecological malignancies. Thirty-nine women with locally advanced gynecological malignancies were treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy utilizing a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) technique for gross disease in the para-aortic and/or pelvic nodal basins, sidewall extension, or residual primary disease. Women were treated to 45Gy in 1.8Gy fractions to elective nodal regions. Gross disease was simultaneously treated to 55Gy in 2.2Gy fractions (n=44 sites). An additional sequential boost of 10Gy in 2Gy fractions was delivered if deemed appropriate (n=29 sites). Acute and late toxicity, local control in the treated volumes (LC), overall survival (OS), and distant metastases (DM) were assessed. All were treated with a SIB to a dose of 55Gy. Twenty-four patients were subsequently treated with a sequential boost to a median dose of 65Gy. Median follow-up was 18months. Rates of acute>grade 2 gastrointestinal (GI), genitourinary (GU), and hematologic (heme) toxicities were 2.5%, 0%, and 30%, respectively. There were no grade 4 acute toxicities. At one year, grade 1-2 late GI toxicities were 24.5%. There were no grade 3 or 4 late GI toxicities. Rates of grade 1-2 late GU toxicities were 12.7%. There were no grade 3 or 4 late GU toxicities. Dose escalated radiotherapy using a SIB results in acceptable rates of acute toxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A Clinical phase I/II trial to investigate preoperative dose-escalated intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT and intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT in patients with retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roeder Falk

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Local control rates in patients with retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcoma (RSTS remain disappointing even after gross total resection, mainly because wide margins are not achievable in the majority of patients. In contrast to extremity sarcoma, postoperative radiation therapy (RT has shown limited efficacy due to its limitations in achievable dose and coverage. Although Intraoperative Radiation Therapy (IORT has been introduced in some centers to overcome the dose limitations and resulted in increased outcome, local failure rates are still high even if considerable treatment related toxicity is accepted. As postoperative administration of RT has some general disadvantages, neoadjuvant approaches could offer benefits in terms of dose escalation, target coverage and reduction of toxicity, especially if highly conformal techniques like intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT are considered. Methods/design The trial is a prospective, one armed, single center phase I/II study investigating a combination of neoadjuvant dose-escalated IMRT (50–56 Gy followed by surgery and IORT (10–12 Gy in patients with at least marginally resectable RSTS. The primary objective is the local control rate after five years. Secondary endpoints are progression-free and overall survival, acute and late toxicity, surgical resectability and patterns of failure. The aim of accrual is 37 patients in the per-protocol population. Discussion The present study evaluates combined neoadjuvant dose-escalated IMRT followed by surgery and IORT concerning its value for improved local control without markedly increased toxicity. Trial registration NCT01566123

  9. A Clinical phase I/II trial to investigate preoperative dose-escalated intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) in patients with retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeder, Falk; Hensley, Frank W; Buechler, Markus W; Debus, Juergen; Koch, Moritz; Weitz, Juergen; Bischof, Marc; Schulz-Ertner, Daniela; Nikoghosyan, Anna V; Huber, Peter E; Edler, Lutz; Habl, Gregor; Krempien, Robert; Oertel, Susanne; Saleh-Ebrahimi, Ladan

    2012-01-01

    Local control rates in patients with retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcoma (RSTS) remain disappointing even after gross total resection, mainly because wide margins are not achievable in the majority of patients. In contrast to extremity sarcoma, postoperative radiation therapy (RT) has shown limited efficacy due to its limitations in achievable dose and coverage. Although Intraoperative Radiation Therapy (IORT) has been introduced in some centers to overcome the dose limitations and resulted in increased outcome, local failure rates are still high even if considerable treatment related toxicity is accepted. As postoperative administration of RT has some general disadvantages, neoadjuvant approaches could offer benefits in terms of dose escalation, target coverage and reduction of toxicity, especially if highly conformal techniques like intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) are considered. The trial is a prospective, one armed, single center phase I/II study investigating a combination of neoadjuvant dose-escalated IMRT (50–56 Gy) followed by surgery and IORT (10–12 Gy) in patients with at least marginally resectable RSTS. The primary objective is the local control rate after five years. Secondary endpoints are progression-free and overall survival, acute and late toxicity, surgical resectability and patterns of failure. The aim of accrual is 37 patients in the per-protocol population. The present study evaluates combined neoadjuvant dose-escalated IMRT followed by surgery and IORT concerning its value for improved local control without markedly increased toxicity. NCT01566123

  10. Dose painting based on tumor uptake of Cu-ATSM and FDG: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, Malene Martini; Hansen, Anders Elias; Lundemann, Michael; Hollensen, Christian; Pommer, Tobias; Munck af Rosenschöld, Per; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri; Kjær, Andreas; McEvoy, Fintan J; Engelholm, Svend Aage

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia and increased glycolytic activity of tumors are associated with poor prognosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in radiotherapy (RT) dose painting based on the uptake of 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and the proposed hypoxia tracer, copper(II)diacetyl-bis(N 4 )-methylsemithiocarbazone (Cu-ATSM) using spontaneous clinical canine tumor models. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans of five spontaneous canine sarcomas and carcinomas were obtained; FDG on day 1 and 64 Cu-ATSM on day 2 and 3 (approx. 3 and 24 hours pi.). Sub-volumes for dose escalation were defined by a threshold-based method for both tracers and five dose escalation levels were formed in each sub-volume. Volumetric modulated arc therapy plans were optimized based on the dose escalation regions for each scan for a total of three dose plans for each dog. The prescription dose for the GTV was 45 Gy (100%) and it was linearly escalated to a maximum of 150%. The correlations between dose painting plans were analyzed with construction of dose distribution density maps and quality volume histograms (QVH). Correlation between high-dose regions was investigated with Dice correlation coefficients. Comparison of dose plans revealed varying degree of correlation between cases. Some cases displayed a separation of high-dose regions in the comparison of FDG vs. 64 Cu-ATSM dose plans at both time points. Among the Dice correlation coefficients, the high dose regions showed the lowest degree of agreement, indicating potential benefit of using multiple tracers for dose painting. QVH analysis revealed that FDG-based dose painting plans adequately covered approximately 50% of the hypoxic regions. Radiotherapy plans optimized with the current approach for cut-off values and dose region definitions based on FDG, 64 Cu-ATSM 3 h and 24 h uptake in canine tumors had different localization of the regional dose escalation levels. This indicates that 64 Cu-ATSM at two

  11. HER2-Specific Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Modified Virus-Specific T Cells for Progressive Glioblastoma: A Phase 1 Dose-Escalation Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nabil; Brawley, Vita; Hegde, Meenakshi; Bielamowicz, Kevin; Kalra, Mamta; Landi, Daniel; Robertson, Catherine; Gray, Tara L; Diouf, Oumar; Wakefield, Amanda; Ghazi, Alexia; Gerken, Claudia; Yi, Zhongzhen; Ashoori, Aidin; Wu, Meng-Fen; Liu, Hao; Rooney, Cliona; Dotti, Gianpietro; Gee, Adrian; Su, Jack; Kew, Yvonne; Baskin, David; Zhang, Yi Jonathan; New, Pamela; Grilley, Bambi; Stojakovic, Milica; Hicks, John; Powell, Suzanne Z; Brenner, Malcolm K; Heslop, Helen E; Grossman, Robert; Wels, Winfried S; Gottschalk, Stephen

    2017-08-01

    Glioblastoma is an incurable tumor, and the therapeutic options for patients are limited. To determine whether the systemic administration of HER2-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified virus-specific T cells (VSTs) is safe and whether these cells have antiglioblastoma activity. In this open-label phase 1 dose-escalation study conducted at Baylor College of Medicine, Houston Methodist Hospital, and Texas Children's Hospital, patients with progressive HER2-positive glioblastoma were enrolled between July 25, 2011, and April 21, 2014. The duration of follow-up was 10 weeks to 29 months (median, 8 months). Monotherapy with autologous VSTs specific for cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, or adenovirus and genetically modified to express HER2-CARs with a CD28.ζ-signaling endodomain (HER2-CAR VSTs). Primary end points were feasibility and safety. The key secondary end points were T-cell persistence and their antiglioblastoma activity. A total of 17 patients (8 females and 9 males; 10 patients ≥18 years [median age, 60 years; range, 30-69 years] and 7 patients VSTs (1 × 106/m2 to 1 × 108/m2) without prior lymphodepletion. Infusions were well tolerated, with no dose-limiting toxic effects. HER2-CAR VSTs were detected in the peripheral blood for up to 12 months after the infusion by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Of 16 evaluable patients (9 adults and 7 children), 1 had a partial response for more than 9 months, 7 had stable disease for 8 weeks to 29 months, and 8 progressed after T-cell infusion. Three patients with stable disease are alive without any evidence of progression during 24 to 29 months of follow-up. For the entire study cohort, median overall survival was 11.1 months (95% CI, 4.1-27.2 months) from the first T-cell infusion and 24.5 months (95% CI, 17.2-34.6 months) from diagnosis. Infusion of autologous HER2-CAR VSTs is safe and can be associated with clinical benefit for patients with progressive glioblastoma

  12. Dose-Escalated Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Patients With Intermediate- and High-Risk Prostate Cancer: Initial Dosimetry Analysis and Patient Outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotecha, Rupesh; Djemil, Toufik; Tendulkar, Rahul D.; Reddy, Chandana A.; Thousand, Richard A.; Vassil, Andrew; Stovsky, Mark; Berglund, Ryan K.; Klein, Eric A.; Stephans, Kevin L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To report the short-term clinical outcomes and acute and late treatment-related genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities in patients with intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer treated with dose-escalated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Between 2011 and 2014, 24 patients with prostate cancer were treated with SBRT to the prostate gland and proximal seminal vesicles. A high-dose avoidance zone (HDAZ) was created by a 3-mm expansion around the rectum, urethra, and bladder. Patients were treated to a minimum dose of 36.25 Gy in 5 fractions, with a simultaneous dose escalation to a dose of 50 Gy to the target volume away from the HDAZ. Acute and late GU and GI toxicity outcomes were measured according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events toxicity scale, version 4. Results: The median follow-up was 25 months (range, 18-45 months). Nine patients (38%) experienced an acute grade 2 GU toxicity, which was medically managed, and no patients experienced an acute grade 2 GI toxicity. Two patients (8%) experienced late grade 2 GU toxicity, and 2 patients (8%) experienced late grade 2 GI toxicity. No acute or late grade ≥3 GU or GI toxicities were observed. The 24-month prostate-specific antigen relapse-free survival outcome for all patients was 95.8% (95% confidence interval 75.6%-99.4%), and both biochemical failures occurred in patients with high-risk disease. All patients are currently alive at the time of this analysis and continue to be followed. Conclusions: A heterogeneous prostate SBRT planning technique with differential treatment volumes (low dose: 36.25 Gy; and high dose: 50 Gy) with an HDAZ provides a safe method of dose escalation. Favorable rates of biochemical control and acceptably low rates of acute and long-term GU and GI toxicity can be achieved in patients with intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer treated with SBRT.

  13. Dose-Escalated Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Patients With Intermediate- and High-Risk Prostate Cancer: Initial Dosimetry Analysis and Patient Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotecha, Rupesh; Djemil, Toufik; Tendulkar, Rahul D.; Reddy, Chandana A.; Thousand, Richard A.; Vassil, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Stovsky, Mark; Berglund, Ryan K.; Klein, Eric A. [Department of Urology, Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Stephans, Kevin L., E-mail: stephak@ccf.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: To report the short-term clinical outcomes and acute and late treatment-related genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities in patients with intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer treated with dose-escalated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Between 2011 and 2014, 24 patients with prostate cancer were treated with SBRT to the prostate gland and proximal seminal vesicles. A high-dose avoidance zone (HDAZ) was created by a 3-mm expansion around the rectum, urethra, and bladder. Patients were treated to a minimum dose of 36.25 Gy in 5 fractions, with a simultaneous dose escalation to a dose of 50 Gy to the target volume away from the HDAZ. Acute and late GU and GI toxicity outcomes were measured according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events toxicity scale, version 4. Results: The median follow-up was 25 months (range, 18-45 months). Nine patients (38%) experienced an acute grade 2 GU toxicity, which was medically managed, and no patients experienced an acute grade 2 GI toxicity. Two patients (8%) experienced late grade 2 GU toxicity, and 2 patients (8%) experienced late grade 2 GI toxicity. No acute or late grade ≥3 GU or GI toxicities were observed. The 24-month prostate-specific antigen relapse-free survival outcome for all patients was 95.8% (95% confidence interval 75.6%-99.4%), and both biochemical failures occurred in patients with high-risk disease. All patients are currently alive at the time of this analysis and continue to be followed. Conclusions: A heterogeneous prostate SBRT planning technique with differential treatment volumes (low dose: 36.25 Gy; and high dose: 50 Gy) with an HDAZ provides a safe method of dose escalation. Favorable rates of biochemical control and acceptably low rates of acute and long-term GU and GI toxicity can be achieved in patients with intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer treated with SBRT.

  14. A Dosimetric Comparison of Dose Escalation with Simultaneous Integrated Boost for Locally Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjuan Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many studies have demonstrated that a higher radiotherapy dose is associated with improved outcomes in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. We performed a dosimetric planning study to assess the dosimetric feasibility of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB in locally advanced NSCLC. Methods. We enrolled twenty patients. Five different dose plans were generated for each patient. All plans were prescribed a dose of 60 Gy to the planning tumor volume (PTV. In the three SIB groups, the prescribed dose was 69 Gy, 75 Gy, and 81 Gy in 30 fractions to the internal gross tumor volume (iGTV. Results. The SIB-IMRT plans were associated with a significant increase in the iGTV dose (P < 0.05, without increased normal tissue exposure or prolonged overall treatment time. Significant differences were not observed in the dose to the normal lung in terms of the V5 and V20 among the four IMRT plans. The maximum dose (Dmax in the esophagus moderately increased along with the prescribed dose (P < 0.05. Conclusions. Our results indicated that escalating the dose by SIB-IMRT is dosimetrically feasible; however, systematic evaluations via clinical trials are still warranted. We have designed a further clinical study (which is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02841228.

  15. Biosafety assessment of transgenic Bt cotton on model animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Bano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: To know the effects of transgenic crops on soil microorganisms, animals and other expected hazards due to the introduction of GM crops into the environment is critical both scientifically and environmentally. The work was conducted to study the effect of insecticidal Bt protein on Rats and Earthworms. Methods: For this purpose, animals like rat and soil organisms like Earthworm were selected. Rats were selected on the basis of its 95% homology on genomic, cellular and enzymatic level with human while earthworm were preferred on the basis of their direct contact with soil to evaluate the impact of Bt (Cry1AC crop field soil on earthworm, secreted by root exudates of Bt cotton. Several physical, molecular, biochemical and histological analyses were performed on both Rats/Earthworms fed on standard diet (control group as well containing Bt protein (experimental group. Results: Molecular analyses such as immune Dot blot, SDS-PAGE, ELISA and PCR, confirmed the absence of Cry1Ac protein in blood and urine samples of rats, which were fed with Bt protein in their diet. Furthermore, histological studies showed that there was no difference in cellular architecture in liver, heart, kidney and intestine of Bt and non-Bt diet fed rats. To see the effect of Bt on earthworm two different groups were studied, one with transgenic plant field soil supplemented with grinded leaves of cotton and second group with non-Bt field soil. Conclusions: No lethal effects of transgenic Bt protein on the survival of earthworm and rats were observed. Bradford assay, Dipstick assay ELISA demonstrated the absence of Cry1Ac protein in the mid-gut epithelial tissue of earthworm. The results of present study will be helpful in successful deployment and commercial release of genetically modified crop in Pakistan.

  16. Microarray detection and qPCR screening of potential biomarkers of Folsomia candida (Collembola: Isotomidae) exposed to Bt proteins (Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Yiyang; Krogh, Paul Henning; Bai, Xue; Roelofs, Dick; Chen, Fajun; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Liang, Yuyong; Sun, Yucheng; Ge, Feng

    2014-01-01

    The impact of Bt proteins on non-target arthropods is less understood than their effects on target organisms where the mechanism of toxic action is known. Here, we report the effects of two Bt proteins, Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac, on gene expression in the non-target collembolan, Folsomia candida. A customized microarray was used to study gene expression in F. candida specimens that were exposed to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. All selected transcripts were subsequently confirmed by qPCR. Eleven transcripts were finally verified, and three of them were annotated. The responses of all eleven transcripts were tested in specimens for both Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac at a series of concentrations. These transcripts were separated into two and three groups for Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac, respectively, depend on their expression levels. However, those eleven transcripts did not respond to the Bt proteins in Bt-rice residues. -- Highlights: • We examined the effects of Bt proteins on gene expression of Folsomia candida. • Eleven transcripts were up-regulated by Bt proteins (Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac). • Only three of the eleven transcripts were annotated. • The responses of 11 transcripts were tested on both Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. • These transcripts did not respond to the Bt proteins in Bt-rice residues. -- Eleven potential molecular biomarkers of Folsomia candida to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac were screened by microarray and qPCR analysis

  17. Effect of irradiation on physiological and biochemical properties of Bt rice seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhonghua; Chen Xiaojian; Bao Xusheng; Chen Yuling; Gu Qinqin

    2011-01-01

    The seeds of two varieties of Bt rice were treated by 60 Co γ-rays at the doses of 50, 100, 150, 250 and 350 Gy, respectively, their original parent was used as control material. The seedlings cultured from above seeds were used to detect the root activity, seedling growth, chlorophyll content,activities of phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), catalase(CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and amylase to investigate the effect of irradiation treatment on the physiological and biochemical properties of Bt rice. The results showed that root activity, chlorophyll content, activities of PAL, PPO, CAT, SOD of Bt rice seedlings and amylase of germinating seeds were lower than those of the control group after irradiation treatment of < 250 Gy, but the differences were not significant, which was similar to those of original parent. Meanwhile, it was found that with dose increasing, the seedling height was increased, suggesting that irradiation treatment could stimulate the seedling growth. Therefore, Bt transgene can not change the irradiation sensitivity of rice and the conventional method of rice can be used in Bt rice irradiation mutation breeding. (authors)

  18. Disulfonated tetraphenyl chlorin (TPCS2a)-induced photochemical internalisation of bleomycin in patients with solid malignancies: a phase 1, dose-escalation, first-in-man trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Ahmed A; Jerjes, Waseem; Berg, Kristian; Høgset, Anders; Mosse, Charles A; Hamoudi, Rifat; Hamdoon, Zaid; Simeon, Celia; Carnell, Dawn; Forster, Martin; Hopper, Colin

    2016-09-01

    Photochemical internalisation, a novel minimally invasive treatment, has shown promising preclinical results in enhancing and site-directing the effect of anticancer drugs by illumination, which initiates localised chemotherapy release. We assessed the safety and tolerability of a newly developed photosensitiser, disulfonated tetraphenyl chlorin (TPCS2a), in mediating photochemical internalisation of bleomycin in patients with advanced and recurrent solid malignancies. In this phase 1, dose-escalation, first-in-man trial, we recruited patients (aged ≥18 to internalisation were either local, resulting from the local inflammatory process, or systemic, mostly as a result of the skin-photosensitising effect of TPCS2a. The most common grade 3 or worse adverse events were unexpected higher transient pain response (grade 3) localised to the treatment site recorded in nine patients, and respiratory failure (grade 4) noted in two patients. One dose-limiting toxicity was reported in the 1·0 mg/kg cohort (skin photosensitivity [grade 2]). Dose-limiting toxicities were reported in two of three patients at a TPCS2a dose of 1·5 mg/kg (skin photosensitivity [grade 3] and wound infection [grade 3]); thus, the maximum tolerated dose of TPCS2a was 1·0 mg/kg. Administration of TPCS2a was found to be safe and tolerable by all patients. No deaths related to photochemical internalisation treatment occurred. TPCS2a-mediated photochemical internalisation of bleomycin is safe and tolerable. We identified TPCS2a 0·25 mg/kg as the recommended treatment dose for future trials. PCI Biotech. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of ensiling of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize (MON810) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the degradation of the Bt protein (Cry1Ab) in Bt maize during ensiling and chemical composition of the silage. Two laboratory studies were conducted at the University of Fort Hare. One Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize cultivar (DKC80-12B) and its isoline (DKC80-10) in the 2008/2009 study and two Bt ...

  20. An individualized radiation dose escalation trial in non-small cell lung cancer based on FDG-PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanet, Marie; Goossens, Samuel; Lee, John Aldo; Janssens, Guillaume; Bol, Anne; Geets, Xavier [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Center of Molecular Imaging, Radiotherapy and Oncology (MIRO), Institut de Recherche Experimentale et Clinique, Brussels (Belgium); Delor, Antoine [Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Department of Radiation Oncology, Brussels (Belgium); Hanin, Francois-Xavier [Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brussels (Belgium); Ghaye, Benoit [Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium); Maanen, Aline van [Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Statistical Support Unit, Cancer Centre, Brussels (Belgium); Remouchamps, Vincent; Clermont, Christian [Clinique et Maternite Sainte Elisabeth, Department of Radiation Oncology, CHU UCL Namur (Belgium)

    2017-10-15

    The aim of the study was to assess the feasibility of an individualized 18F fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)-guided dose escalation boost in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and to assess its impact on local tumor control and toxicity. A total of 13 patients with stage II-III NSCLC were enrolled to receive a dose of 62.5 Gy in 25 fractions to the CT-based planning target volume (PTV; primary tumor and affected lymph nodes). The fraction dose was increased within the individual PET-based PTV (PTV{sub PET}) using intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) until the predefined organ-at-risk (OAR) threshold was reached. Tumor response was assessed during follow-up by means of repeat FDG-PET/computed tomography. Acute and late toxicity were recorded and classified according to the CTCAE criteria (Version 4.0). Local progression-free survival was determined using the Kaplan-Meier method. The average dose to PTV{sub PET} reached 89.17 Gy for peripheral and 75 Gy for central tumors. After a median follow-up period of 29 months, seven patients were still alive, while six had died (four due to distant progression, two due to grade 5 toxicity). Local progression was seen in two patients in association with further recurrences. One and 2-year local progression free survival rates were 76.9% and 52.8%, respectively. Three cases of acute grade 3 esophagitis were seen. Two patients with central tumors developed late toxicity and died due to severe hemoptysis. These results suggest that a non-uniform and individualized dose escalation based on FDG-PET in IMRT delivery is feasible. The doses reached were higher in patients with peripheral compared to central tumors. This strategy enables good local control to be achieved at acceptable toxicity rates. However, dose escalation in centrally located tumors with direct invasion of mediastinal organs must be performed with great caution in order to avoid severe

  1. Cry1F resistance in fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda: single gene versus pyramided Bt maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fangneng; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Meagher, Robert L; Reisig, Dominic D; Head, Graham P; Andow, David A; Ni, Xinzi; Kerns, David; Buntin, G David; Niu, Ying; Yang, Fei; Dangal, Vikash

    2014-01-01

    Evolution of insect resistance to transgenic crops containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes is a serious threat to the sustainability of this technology. However, field resistance related to the reduced efficacy of Bt maize has not been documented in any lepidopteran pest in the mainland U.S. after 18 years of intensive Bt maize planting. Here we report compelling evidence of field resistance in the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), to Cry1F maize (TC 3507) in the southeastern region of the U.S. An F2 screen showed a surprisingly high (0.293) Cry1F resistance allele frequency in a population collected in 2011 from non-Bt maize in south Florida. Field populations from non-Bt maize in 2012-2013 exhibited 18.8-fold to >85.4-fold resistance to purified Cry1F protein and those collected from unexpectedly damaged Bt maize plants at several locations in Florida and North Carolina had >85.4-fold resistance. In addition, reduced efficacy and control failure of Cry1F maize against natural populations of S. frugiperda were documented in field trials using Cry1F-based and pyramided Bt maize products in south Florida. The Cry1F-resistant S. frugiperda also showed a low level of cross-resistance to Cry1A.105 and related maize products, but not to Cry2Ab2 or Vip3A. The occurrence of Cry1F resistance in the U.S. mainland populations of S. frugiperda likely represents migration of insects from Puerto Rico, indicating the great challenges faced in achieving effective resistance management for long-distance migratory pests like S. frugiperda.

  2. Development, survival and fitness performance of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in MON810 Bt field corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, T A; Dively, G P; Herbert, D A

    2003-06-01

    Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) development, survival, and feeding injury in MON810 transgenic ears of field corn (Zea mays L.) expressing Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki (Bt) Cry1Ab endotoxins were compared with non-Bt ears at four geographic locations over two growing seasons. Expression of Cry1Ab endotoxin resulted in overall reductions in the percentage of damaged ears by 33% and in the amount of kernels consumed by 60%. Bt-induced effects varied significantly among locations, partly because of the overall level and timing of H. zea infestations, condition of silk tissue at the time of egg hatch, and the possible effects of plant stress. Larvae feeding on Bt ears produced scattered, discontinuous patches of partially consumed kernels, which were arranged more linearly than the compact feeding patterns in non-Bt ears. The feeding patterns suggest that larvae in Bt ears are moving about sampling kernels more frequently than larvae in non-Bt ears. Because not all kernels express the same level of endotoxin, the spatial heterogeneity of toxin distribution within Bt ears may provide an opportunity for development of behavioral responses in H. zea to avoid toxin. MON810 corn suppressed the establishment and development of H. zea to late instars by at least 75%. This level of control is considered a moderate dose, which may increase the risk of resistance development in areas where MON810 corn is widely adopted and H. zea overwinters successfully. Sublethal effects of MON810 corn resulted in prolonged larval and prepupal development, smaller pupae, and reduced fecundity of H. zea. The moderate dose effects and the spatial heterogeneity of toxin distribution among kernels could increase the additive genetic variance for both physiological and behavioral resistance in H. zea populations. Implications of localized population suppression are discussed.

  3. Long-term tolerance and outcomes for dose escalation in early salvage post-prostatectomy radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safdieh, Joseph; Schwartz, David; Weiner, Joseph; Weiss, Jeffrey P.; Madeb, Isaac; Rotman, Marvin; Schreiber, David; Rineer, Justin

    2014-01-01

    To study the long-term outcomes and tolerance in our patients who received dose escalated radiotherapy in the early salvage post-prostatectomy setting. The medical records of 54 consecutive patients who underwent radical prostatectomy subsequently followed by salvage radiation therapy (SRT) to the prostate bed between 2003-2010 were analyzed. Patients included were required to have a pre-radiation prostate specific antigen level (PSA) of 2 ng/mL or less. The median SRT dose was 70.2 Gy. Biochemical failure after salvage radiation was defined as a PSA level >0.2 ng/mL. Biochemical control and survival endpoints were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis were used to identify the potential impact of confounding factors on outcomes. The median pre-SRT PSA was 0.45 ng/mL and the median follow-up time was 71 months. The 4- and 7-year actuarial biochemical control rates were 75.7% and 63.2%, respectively. The actuarial 4- and 7-year distant metastasis-free survival was 93.7% and 87.0%, respectively, and the actuarial 7-year prostate cancer specific survival was 94.9%. Grade 3 late genitourinary toxicity developed in 14 patients (25.9%), while grade 4 late genitourinary toxicity developed in 2 patients (3.7%). Grade 3 late gastrointestinal toxicity developed in 1 patient (1.9%), and grade 4 late gastrointestinal toxicity developed in 1 patient (1.9%). In this series with long-term follow-up, early SRT provided outcomes and toxicity profiles similar to those reported from the three major randomized trials studying adjuvant radiation therapy.

  4. Dose-escalated intensity-modulated radiotherapy and irradiation of subventricular zones in relation to tumor control outcomes of patients with glioblastoma multiforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusumawidjaja G

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Grace Kusumawidjaja,1 Patricia Zhun Hong Gan,1 Whee Sze Ong,2 Achiraya Teyateeti,3 Pittaya Dankulchai,3 Daniel Yat Harn Tan,1 Eu Tiong Chua,1 Kevin Lee Min Chua,1 Chee Kian Tham,4 Fuh Yong Wong,1 Melvin Lee Kiang Chua1,5 1Division of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Centre, Singapore; 2Division of Clinical Trials and Epidemiological Sciences, National Cancer Centre, Singapore; 3Department of Radiology, Division of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Thailand; 4Division of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Centre, Singapore; 5Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore Background: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most aggressive primary brain tumor with high relapse rate. In this study, we aimed to determine if dose-escalated (DE radiotherapy improved tumor control and survival in GBM patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 49 and 23 newly-diagnosed histology-proven GBM patients, treated with DE radiotherapy delivered in 70 Gy (2.33 Gy per fraction and conventional doses (60 Gy, respectively, between 2007 and 2013. Clinical target volumes for 70 and 60 Gy were defined by 0.5 and 2.0 cm expansion of magnetic resonance imaging T1-gadolinium-enhanced tumor/surgical cavity, respectively. Bilateral subventricular zones (SVZ were contoured on a co-registered pre-treatment magnetic resonance imaging and planning computed tomography dataset as a 5 mm wide structure along the lateral margins of the lateral ventricles. Survival outcomes of both cohorts were compared using log-rank test. Radiation dose to SVZ in the DE cohort was evaluated. Results: Median follow-up was 13.6 and 15.1 months for the DE- and conventionally-treated cohorts, respectively. Median overall survival (OS of patients who received DE radiotherapy was 15.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI] =11.0–18.6, while median OS of the latter cohort was 18.4 months (95% CI =12.5–31.4, P=0.253. Univariate analyses of

  5. Effect of Iranian Bt cotton on life table of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Alyrodidae and Cry 1Ab detection in the whitefly honeydew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Azimi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic cotton expressing the Cry 1Ab protein of Bacillus thuringiensis developing against Helocoverpa armigera may be affect on secondary pest such as Bemisia tabaci. In this study effects of Bt cotton on demographic parameters of B. tabaci were assessed and the data analyzed using the age specific, two-sex life table parameters. Results showed that getting to the adulthood stage, was faster on non-Bt cotton in comparison with Bt cotton. Also the fecundity was higher on non-Bt cotton than that on Bt cotton. Some of the population parameters (r, R0 and T of B. tabaci were affected by the Bt cotton significantly. The intrinsic rate of increase (r on Bt and non-Bt cotton was 0.07 day-1 and 0.1 day-1 , respectively. The net reproductive rate (R0 was 20.68 and 15.04 offspring/individual on Bt and non-Bt cotton, respectively. Mean generation time (T in non-Bt cotton was 27.22 and 34.62 days in Bt cotton. The results indicated that the life history of B. tabaci in the laboratory condition was influenced by host plant quality and Bt cotton was not a suitable host for B. tabaci. The western immunoblot method showed that the Cry protein detection in honeydew was positive which indicated that the Cry protein was ingested. Results revealed that the transgenic cotton could adversely affect the secondary pest and the natural enemies which feed on such pests as a host or their honeydew as a food source should be considered.

  6. Dose escalation with 3D conformal treatment: five year outcomes, treatment optimization, and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanks, Gerald E.; Hanlon, Alexandra L. M.S.; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Pinover, Wayne H.; Movsas, Benjamin; Epstein, Barry E.; Hunt, Margie

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To report the 5-year outcomes of dose escalation with 3D conformal treatment (3DCRT) of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Two hundred thirty-two consecutive patients were treated with 3DCRT alone between 6/89 and 10/92 with ICRU reporting point dose that increased from 63 to 79 Gy. The median follow-up was 60 months, and any patient free of clinical or biochemical evidence of disease was termed bNED. Biochemical failure was defined as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) rising on two consecutive recordings and exceeding 1.5 ng/ml. Morbidity was reported by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) scale, the Late Effects Normal Tissue (LENT) scale, and a Fox Chase modification of the latter (FC-LENT). All patients were treated with a four-field technique with a 1 cm clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV) margin to the prostate or prostate boost; the CTV and gross tumor volume (GTV) were the same. Actuarial rates of outcome were calculated by Kaplan-Meier and cumulative incidence methods and compared using the log rank and Gray's test statistic, respectively. Cox regression models were used to establish prognostic factors predictive of the various measures of outcome. Five-year Kaplan-Meier bNED rates were utilized by dose group to estimate logit response models for bNED and late morbidity. Results: PSA 10 ng/ml based on 5-year bNED results. No dose response was observed for patients with pretreatment PSA 10 ng/ml strongly suggests that clinical trials employing radiation should investigate the use of 3DCRT and prostate doses of 76-80 Gy

  7. No direct effects of two transgenic Bt rice lines, T1C-19 and T2A-1, on the arthropod communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z B; Tian, J C; Han, N S; Hu, C; Peng, Y F; Stanley, David; Ye, G Y

    2014-10-01

    A 2-yr field trial was conducted to assess the impacts of two new transgenic Bt rice lines, T1C-19 expressing Cry1C protein and T2A-1 expressing Cry2A protein, on the arthropod community sampled via vacuum. All the arthropods were classified into five guilds, including herbivores, parasitoids, predators, detritivores, and others. The seasonal density and dominance distribution of each guild and community-level indices (species richness, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Simpson diversity index, and evenness index) were compared among rice types. Principal response curves were used to investigate the differences of entire arthropod community of Bt rice plots relative to non-Bt rice plots. The results showed no significant difference was detected in the community-level indices and dominance distribution of guilds between Bt and non-Bt rice plots. The seasonal density of herbivores, detritivores, and others as well as density of the arthropod overall community were also not significantly affected by rice types in either year, although the density of predators and parasitoids in Bt rice plots was significantly lower than those in non-Bt rice plots. The lower abundances of Braconidae, Eulophidae, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Miridae), and Theridiidae in Bt rice plots are likely attributed to the lower abundances of prey species or hosts. Principal response curves revealed that arthropod community in Bt was similar with that in non-Bt rice plots. In conclusion, our findings indicate that these two tested Bt rice lines had no marked negative effects on the arthropod community in the paddy fields.

  8. Heterogeneous FDG-guided dose-escalation for locally advanced NSCLC (the NARLAL2 trial): Design and early dosimetric results of a randomized, multi-centre phase-III study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ditte Sloth; Nielsen, Tine Bjørn; Brink, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose: Local recurrence is frequent in locally advanced NSCLC and is primarily located in FDG-avid parts of tumour and lymph nodes. Aiming at improving local control without increasing toxicity, we designed a multi-centre phase-III trial delivering inhomogeneous dose-escalation d......Background and purpose: Local recurrence is frequent in locally advanced NSCLC and is primarily located in FDG-avid parts of tumour and lymph nodes. Aiming at improving local control without increasing toxicity, we designed a multi-centre phase-III trial delivering inhomogeneous dose...

  9. Comparison of escalating, constant, and reduction energy output in ESWL for renal stones: multi-arm prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabah, Danny M; Mabrouki, Mohamed S; Farhat, Karim H; Seida, Mohamed A; Arafa, Mostafa A; Talic, Riyadh F

    2017-06-01

    This study was designed to find out the optimized energy delivery strategy in Shock Wave Lithotripsy (SWL) that yield to the best stone-free rate (SFR). In this clinical trial, 150 consecutive patients were randomized into three groups: (a) Dose escalation, 1500 SW at 18 kV, followed by 1500 SW at 20 kV then 1500 SW at 22 kV. (b) Constant dose, 4500 SW at 20 kV. All patients undergo plain X-ray film of the urinary tract at day 1, 14, and 90 to assess stone-free rate (SFR) which was defined as no stones or painless fragments less than 4 mm. (c) Dose reduction, 1500 SW at 22 kV, followed by 1500 SW at 20 kV and then 1500 SW at 18 kV. The three treatment groups were comparable in terms of age, sex, stone size and distribution of the kidneys, and the need for Double J stent use. On day 90, the SFR achieved was 82, 90, and 84 % in the escalating, constant, and reduction energy groups, respectively. However, this rate was not statistically significant (x 2  = 1.38, p level = 0.28). At a slow rate of 60 shocks, there was no difference in stone-free rate between different voltages at 1, 14, and 90 days. Our randomized clinical trial showed no statistically significant difference in SFR between the three groups while using the slow SWL rate. Our trial is the first randomized trial comparing the three strategies. As such, a dose adjustment strategy while delivering SWL in slow rate was not recommended.

  10. Sexual Function After Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer: Results From a Dose-Escalation Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielen, Gerard J. van der; Putten, Wim van; Incrocci, Luca

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to provide information about sexual function (SF) after three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for prostate cancer while taking important factors into account that influence SF. Methods and Materials: Between June 1997 and February 2003, a total of 268 patients from a randomized dose-escalation trial comparing 68 Gy and 78 Gy agreed to participate in an additional part of the trial that evaluated SF. Results: At baseline 28% of patients had erectile dysfunction (ED). After 1 year, 27% of the pretreatment potent patients had developed ED. After 2 years this percentage had increased to 36%. After 3 years it almost stabilized at 38%. Satisfaction with sexual life was significantly correlated with ED. After 2 years one third of the pre-treatment potent patients still had considerable to very much sexual desire and found sex (very) important. No significant differences were found between the two dose-arms. Potency aids were used on a regular base by 14% of the patients. Conclusion: By taking adjuvant hormonal therapy (HT), HT during follow-up and potency aids into account, we found a lower percentage of ED after 3D-CRT than reported in previous prospective studies. A large group of patients still had sexual desire, considered sex important and 14% used potency aids after 3D-CRT

  11. IT-BT convergence technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    This book explains IT-BT convergence technology as the future technology, which includes a prolog, easy IT-BT convergence technology that has infinite potentials for new value, policy of IT-BT convergence technology showing the potential of smart Korea, IT-BT convergence opening happy future, for the new future of IT powerful nation Korea with IT-BT convergence technology and an epilogue. This book reveals the conception, policy, performance and future of IT-BT convergence technology.

  12. Changes in Actinomycetes community structure under the influence of Bt transgenic brinjal crop in a tropical agroecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit Kishore; Singh, Major; Dubey, Suresh Kumar

    2013-05-29

    The global area under brinjal cultivation is expected to be 1.85 million hectare with total fruit production about 32 million metric tons (MTs). Brinjal cultivars are susceptible to a variety of stresses that significantly limit productivity. The most important biotic stress is caused by the Brinjal fruit and shoot Borer (FSB) forcing farmers to deploy high doses of insecticides; a matter of serious health concern. Therefore, to control the adverse effect of insecticides on the environment including the soil, transgenic technology has emerged as the effective alternative. However, the reports, regarding the nature of interaction of transgenic crops with the native microbial community are inconsistent. The effect of a Bt transgenic brinjal expressing the bio-insecticidal protein (Cry1Ac) on the rhizospheric community of actinomycetes has been assessed and compared with its non-transgenic counterpart. Significant variation in the organic carbon observed between the crops (non-Bt and Bt brinjal) may be due to changes in root exudates quality and composition mediated by genetic attributes of Bt transgenic brinjal. Real time quantitative PCR indicated significant differences in the actinomycetes- specific 16S rRNA gene copy numbers between the non-Bt (5.62-27.86) × 1011 g-1 dws and Bt brinjal planted soil (5.62-24.04) × 1011 g-1 dws. Phylogenetic analysis indicated 14 and 11, actinomycetes related groups in soil with non-Bt and Bt brinjal crop, respectively. Micrococaceaea and Nocardiodaceae were the dominant groups in pre-vegetation, branching, flowering, maturation and post-harvest stage. However, Promicromonosporaceae, Streptosporangiaceae, Mycobacteriaceae, Geodermatophilaceae, Frankiaceae, Kineosporaceae, Actisymmetaceae and Streptomycetaceae were exclusively detected in a few stages in non-Bt brinjal rhizosphere soil while Nakamurellaceae, Corynebactericeae, Thermomonosporaceae and Pseudonocardiaceae in Bt brinjal counterpart. Field trails envisage

  13. Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) with field-evolved resistance to Bt maize are susceptible to Bt pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakka, S R K; Knight, V R; Jurat-Fuentes, J L

    2014-10-01

    Field-evolved resistance to maize event TC1507 expressing the Cry1Fa toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) was detected in populations of Spodoptera frugiperda from Puerto Rico. We tested for cross-resistance to purified Cry1A toxins and commercial Bt pesticides in susceptible (Benzon) and TC1507-resistant (456) strains of S. frugiperda. Larvae from the 456 strain exhibited cross-resistance to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxins, while no differences in susceptibility to XenTari WG and DiPel ES pesticides were detected. These data support cross-resistance to toxins that share binding sites with Cry1Fa and no cross-resistance to Bt pesticides in S. frugiperda with field-evolved resistance to Bt maize. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. SU-E-T-500: Dose Escalation Strategy for Lung Cancer Patients Using a Biologically- Guided Target Definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shusharina, N; Khan, F; Choi, N; Sharp, G [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Dose escalation strategy for lung cancer patients can lead to late symptoms such as pneumonitis and cardiac injury. We propose a strategy to increase radiation dose for improving local tumor control while simultaneously striving to minimize the injury of organs at risk (OAR). Our strategy is based on defining a small, biologically-guided target volume for receiving additional radiation dose. Methods: 106 patients with lung cancer treated with radiotherapy were selected for patients diagnosed with stage II and III disease. Previous research has shown that 50% of the maximum SUV threshold in FDG-PET imaging is appropriate for delineation of the most aggressive part of a tumor. After PET- and CT-derived targets were contoured, an IMRT treatment plan was designed to deliver 60 Gy to the GTV as delineated on a 4D CT (Plan 1). A second plan was designed with additional dose of 18 Gy to the PET-derived volume (Plan 2). A composite plan was generated by the addition of Plan 1 and Plan 2. Results: Plan 1 was compared to the composite plan and increases in OAR dose were assessed. For seven patients on average, lung V5 was increased by 1.4% and V20 by 4.2% for ipsilateral lung and by 13.5% and 7% for contralateral lung. For total lung, V5 and V20 were increased by 4.5% and 4.8% respectively. Mean lung dose was increased by 9.7% for the total lung. The maximum dose to the spinal cord increased by 16% on average. For the heart, V20 increased by 4.2% and V40 by 5.2%. Conclusion: It seems feasible that an additional 18 Gy of radiation dose can be delivered to FDG PET-derived subvolume of the CT-based GTV of the primary tumor without significant increase in total dose to the critical organs such as lungs, spinal cord and heart.

  15. SU-E-T-500: Dose Escalation Strategy for Lung Cancer Patients Using a Biologically- Guided Target Definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shusharina, N; Khan, F; Choi, N; Sharp, G

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Dose escalation strategy for lung cancer patients can lead to late symptoms such as pneumonitis and cardiac injury. We propose a strategy to increase radiation dose for improving local tumor control while simultaneously striving to minimize the injury of organs at risk (OAR). Our strategy is based on defining a small, biologically-guided target volume for receiving additional radiation dose. Methods: 106 patients with lung cancer treated with radiotherapy were selected for patients diagnosed with stage II and III disease. Previous research has shown that 50% of the maximum SUV threshold in FDG-PET imaging is appropriate for delineation of the most aggressive part of a tumor. After PET- and CT-derived targets were contoured, an IMRT treatment plan was designed to deliver 60 Gy to the GTV as delineated on a 4D CT (Plan 1). A second plan was designed with additional dose of 18 Gy to the PET-derived volume (Plan 2). A composite plan was generated by the addition of Plan 1 and Plan 2. Results: Plan 1 was compared to the composite plan and increases in OAR dose were assessed. For seven patients on average, lung V5 was increased by 1.4% and V20 by 4.2% for ipsilateral lung and by 13.5% and 7% for contralateral lung. For total lung, V5 and V20 were increased by 4.5% and 4.8% respectively. Mean lung dose was increased by 9.7% for the total lung. The maximum dose to the spinal cord increased by 16% on average. For the heart, V20 increased by 4.2% and V40 by 5.2%. Conclusion: It seems feasible that an additional 18 Gy of radiation dose can be delivered to FDG PET-derived subvolume of the CT-based GTV of the primary tumor without significant increase in total dose to the critical organs such as lungs, spinal cord and heart

  16. Microarray detection and qPCR screening of potential biomarkers of Folsomia candida (Collembola: Isotomidae) exposed to Bt proteins (Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Yiyang; Krogh, Paul Henning; Bai, Xue

    2014-01-01

    The impact of Bt proteins on non-target arthropods is less understood than their effects on target organisms where the mechanism of toxic action is known. Here, we report the effects of two Bt proteins, Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac, on gene expression in the non-target collembolan, Folsomia candida....... A customized microarray was used to study gene expression in F. candida specimens that were exposed to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. All selected transcripts were subsequently confirmed by qPCR. Eleven transcripts were finally verified, and three of them were annotated. The responses of all eleven transcripts were...... tested in specimens for both Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac at a series of concentrations. These transcripts were separated into two and three groups for Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac, respectively, depend on their expression levels. However, those eleven transcripts did not respond to the Bt proteins in Bt-rice residues....

  17. SU-E-T-69: A Radiobiological Investigation of Dose Escalation in Lower Oesophageal Tumours with a Focus On Gastric Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrington, R [Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales (United Kingdom); Staffurth, J; Spezi, E; Crosby, T [Velindre Cancer Centre, Cardiff, Wales (United Kingdom); Warren, S; Partridge, M; Hawkins, M [CRUK/MRC Oxford Institute for Radiation Oncology, Oxford (United Kingdom); Gwynne, S [Singleton Hospital, Swansea, Wales (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    The incidence of lower third oesophageal tumours is increasing in most Western populations. With the role of radiotherapy dose escalation being identified as a research priority in improving outcomes, it is important to quantify the increased toxicity that this may pose to sites such as the lower oesophagus. This study therefore aims to investigate the feasibility of lower oesophageal dose escalation with a focus on stomach tissue toxicity.The original 3D-conformal plans (50Gy3D) from 10 patients in the SCOPE1 trial were reviewed and compared to two RapidArc plans created retrospectively to represent the treatment arms of the forthcoming SCOPE2 trial: 50GyRA and 60GyRA (50Gy to PTV1 with a simultaneously integrated boost of 60Gy to PTV2). The stomach was contoured as stomach wall and dose constraints set according to QUANTEC. Normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) was estimated for the stomach wall for an endpoint of gastric bleeding. There was a mean increase of 5.93% in NTCP from 50Gy3D to 60GyRA and a mean increase of 8.15% in NTCP from the 50GyRA to 60GyRA. With NTCP modelling restricted to volumes outside PTV2, there was a mean decrease of 0.92% in NTCP from the 50Gy3D to 60GyRA, and a mean increase of 2.25% from 50GyRA to 60GyRA. There was a strong correlation between the NTCP and Stomach Wall/PTV1 overlap volume for all plans (R=0.80, 0.77 and 0.77 for 60GyRA, 50GyRA and 50Gy3D respectively). There was also a strong correlation between NTCP and the Stomach Wall/PTV2 overlap volume for 60GyRA (R= 0.82).Radiobiological modelling suggests that increasing the prescribed dose to 60Gy may be associated with a significantly increased risk of toxicity to the stomach within the boost volume. It is recommended that stomach toxicity be closely monitored prospectively when treating patients with lower oesophageal tumours in the forthcoming SCOPE 2 trial. Rhys Carrington received a PhD studentship grant from Cancer Research Wales. Grant number: 2445; Dr Warren and

  18. A Phase I/II Trial of Intensity Modulated Radiation (IMRT) Dose Escalation With Concurrent Fixed-dose Rate Gemcitabine (FDR-G) in Patients With Unresectable Pancreatic Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Josef, Edgar; Schipper, Mathew; Francis, Isaac R.; Hadley, Scott; Ten-Haken, Randall; Lawrence, Theodore; Normolle, Daniel; Simeone, Diane M.; Sonnenday, Christopher; Abrams, Ross; Leslie, William; Khan, Gazala; Zalupski, Mark M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Local failure in unresectable pancreatic cancer may contribute to death. We hypothesized that intensification of local therapy would improve local control and survival. The objectives were to determine the maximum tolerated radiation dose delivered by intensity modulated radiation with fixed-dose rate gemcitabine (FDR-G), freedom from local progression (FFLP), and overall survival (OS). Methods and Materials: Eligibility included pathologic confirmation of adenocarcinoma, radiographically unresectable, performance status of 0-2, absolute neutrophil count of ≥1500/mm 3 , platelets ≥100,000/mm 3 , creatinine 2 /100 min intravenously) was given on days −22 and −15, 1, 8, 22, and 29. Intensity modulated radiation started on day 1. Dose levels were escalated from 50-60 Gy in 25 fractions. Dose-limiting toxicity was defined as gastrointestinal toxicity grade (G) ≥3, neutropenic fever, or deterioration in performance status to ≥3 between day 1 and 126. Dose level was assigned using TITE-CRM (Time-to-Event Continual Reassessment Method) with the target dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) rate set to 0.25. Results: Fifty patients were accrued. DLTs were observed in 11 patients: G3/4 anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and/or dehydration (7); duodenal bleed (3); duodenal perforation (1). The recommended dose is 55 Gy, producing a probability of DLT of 0.24. The 2-year FFLP is 59% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 32-79). Median and 2-year overall survival are 14.8 months (95% CI: 12.6-22.2) and 30% (95% CI 17-45). Twelve patients underwent resection (10 R0, 2 R1) and survived a median of 32 months. Conclusions: High-dose radiation therapy with concurrent FDR-G can be delivered safely. The encouraging efficacy data suggest that outcome may be improved in unresectable patients through intensification of local therapy.

  19. Androgen Suppression Combined with Elective Nodal and Dose Escalated Radiation Therapy (the ASCENDE-RT Trial): An Analysis of Survival Endpoints for a Randomized Trial Comparing a Low-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Boost to a Dose-Escalated External Beam Boost for High- and Intermediate-risk Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, W. James, E-mail: jmorris@bccancer.bc.ca [Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); BC Cancer Agency–Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Tyldesley, Scott [Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); BC Cancer Agency–Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Rodda, Sree [Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Halperin, Ross [Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); BC Cancer Agency–Centre for the Southern Interior, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Pai, Howard [Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); BC Cancer Agency–Vancouver Island Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); McKenzie, Michael; Duncan, Graeme [Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); BC Cancer Agency–Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Morton, Gerard [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Hamm, Jeremy [Department of Population Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Murray, Nevin [BC Cancer Agency–Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: To report the primary endpoint of biochemical progression-free survival (b-PFS) and secondary survival endpoints from ASCENDE-RT, a randomized trial comparing 2 methods of dose escalation for intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: ASCENDE-RT enrolled 398 men, with a median age of 68 years; 69% (n=276) had high-risk disease. After stratification by risk group, the subjects were randomized to a standard arm with 12 months of androgen deprivation therapy, pelvic irradiation to 46 Gy, followed by a dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy (DE-EBRT) boost to 78 Gy, or an experimental arm that substituted a low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy (LDR-PB) boost. Of the 398 trial subjects, 200 were assigned to DE-EBRT boost and 198 to LDR-PB boost. The median follow-up was 6.5 years. Results: In an intent-to-treat analysis, men randomized to DE-EBRT were twice as likely to experience biochemical failure (multivariable analysis [MVA] hazard ratio [HR] 2.04; P=.004). The 5-, 7-, and 9-year Kaplan-Meier b-PFS estimates were 89%, 86%, and 83% for the LDR-PB boost versus 84%, 75%, and 62% for the DE-EBRT boost (log-rank P<.001). The LDR-PB boost benefited both intermediate- and high-risk patients. Because the b-PFS curves for the treatment arms diverge sharply after 4 years, the relative advantage of the LDR-PB should increase with longer follow-up. On MVA, the only variables correlated with reduced overall survival were age (MVA HR 1.06/y; P=.004) and biochemical failure (MVA HR 6.30; P<.001). Although biochemical failure was associated with increased mortality and randomization to DE-EBRT doubled the rate of biochemical failure, no significant overall survival difference was observed between the treatment arms (MVA HR 1.13; P=.62). Conclusions: Compared with 78 Gy EBRT, men randomized to the LDR-PB boost were twice as likely to be free of biochemical failure at a median follow-up of 6.5 years.

  20. Persistent escalation of alcohol consumption by mice exposed to brief episodes of social defeat stress: suppression by CRF-R1 antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Emily L; Albrechet-Souza, Lucas; Andrew, Peter M; Auld, John G; Burk, Kelly C; Hwa, Lara S; Zhang, Eric Y; DeBold, Joseph F; Miczek, Klaus A

    2018-06-01

    Episodic bouts of social stress can precede the initiation, escalation, or relapse to disordered alcohol intake. Social stress may engender neuroadaptations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and in extrahypothalamic stress circuitry to promote the escalation of alcohol intake. We aimed to (1) confirm a pattern of escalated drinking in socially defeated mice and to (2) test drugs that target distinct aspects of the HPA axis and extrahypothalamic neural substrates for their effectiveness in reducing murine, stress-escalated drinking. Male C57BL/6J (B6) mice were socially defeated by resident Swiss-derived males for ten consecutive days receiving 30 bites/day. Ten days after the final defeat, cohorts of B6 mice received continuous or intermittent access to 20% EtOH (w/v) and water. After 4 weeks of drinking, mice were injected with weekly, systemic doses of the CRF-R1 antagonist, CP376395; the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, mifepristone; the 11-beta-hydroxylase inhibitor, metyrapone; or the 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. Prior to drug treatments, defeated mice reliably consumed more EtOH than non-defeated controls, and mice given alcohol intermittently consumed more EtOH than those with continuous access. CP376395 (17-30 mg/kg) reduced continuous, but not intermittent EtOH intake (g/kg) in socially defeated mice. Mifepristone (100 mg/kg), however, increased drinking by defeated mice with intermittent access to alcohol while reducing drinking during continuous access. When administered finasteride (100 mg/kg) or metyrapone (50 mg/kg), all mice reduced their EtOH intake while increasing their water consumption. Mice with a history of episodic social defeat stress were selectively sensitive to the effects of CRF-R1 antagonism, suggesting that CRF-R1 may be a potential target for treating alcohol use disorders in individuals who escalate their drinking after exposure to repeated bouts of psychosocial stress. Future studies will clarify

  1. The early toxicity of escalated versus standard dose conformal radiotherapy with neo-adjuvant androgen suppression for patients with localised prostate cancer: Results from the MRC RT01 trial (ISRCTN47772397)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, David P.; Sydes, Matthew R.; Langley, Ruth E.; Graham, John D.; Huddart, Robert A.; Syndikus, Isabel; Matthews, John H.L.; Scrase, Christopher D.; Jose, Chakiath C.; Logue, John; Stephens, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Five-year disease-free survival rates for localised prostate cancer following standard doses of conventional radical external beam radiotherapy are around 80%. Conformal radiotherapy (CFRT) raises the possibility that radiotherapy doses can be increased and long-term efficacy outcomes improved, with safety an important consideration. Methods: MRC RT01 is a randomised controlled trial of 862 men with localised prostate cancer comparing Standard CFRT (64 Gy/32 f) versus Escalated CFRT (74 Gy/37 f), both administered with neo-adjuvant androgen suppression. Early toxicity was measured using physician-reported instruments (RTOG, LENT/SOM, Royal Marsden Scales) and patient-reported questionnaires (MOS SF-36, UCLA Prostate Cancer Index, FACT-P). Results: Overall early radiotherapy toxicity was similar, apart from increased bladder, bowel and sexual toxicity, in the Escalated Group during a short immediate post-radiotherapy period. Toxicity in both groups had abated by week 12. Using RTOG Acute Toxicity scores, cumulative Grade ≥2 bladder and bowel toxicity was 38% and 30% for Standard Group and 39% and 33% in Escalated Group, respectively. Urinary frequency (Royal Marsden Scale) improved in both groups from pre-androgen suppression to 6 months post-radiotherapy (p < 0.001), but bowel and sexual functioning deteriorated. This pattern was supported by patient-completed assessments. Six months after starting radiotherapy the incidence of RTOG Grade ≥2 side-effects was low (<1%); but there were six reports of rectal ulceration (6 Escalated Group), six haematuria (5 Escalated Group) and eight urethral stricture (6 Escalated Group). Conclusions: The two CFRT schedules with neo-adjuvant androgen suppression have broadly similar early toxicity profiles except for the immediate post-RT period. At 6 months and compared to before hormone therapy, bladder symptoms improved, whereas bowel and sexual symptoms worsened. These assessments of early treatment safety will be

  2. ASCENDE-RT: An Analysis of Treatment-Related Morbidity for a Randomized Trial Comparing a Low-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Boost with a Dose-Escalated External Beam Boost for High- and Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodda, Sree; Tyldesley, Scott; Morris, W. James; Keyes, Mira; Halperin, Ross; Pai, Howard; McKenzie, Michael; Duncan, Graeme; Morton, Gerard; Hamm, Jeremy; Murray, Nevin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To report the genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) morbidity and erectile dysfunction in a randomized trial comparing 2 methods of dose escalation for high- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: ASCENDE-RT (Androgen Suppression Combined with Elective Nodal and Dose Escalated Radiation Therapy) enrolled 398 men, median age 68 years, who were then randomized to either a standard arm that included 12 months of androgen deprivation therapy and pelvic irradiation to 46 Gy followed by a dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy (DE-EBRT) boost to 78 Gy, or an experimental arm that substituted a low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy (LDR-PB) boost. At clinic visits, investigators recorded GU and GI morbidity and information on urinary continence, catheter use, and erectile function. Exclusion of 15 who received nonprotocol treatment and correction of 14 crossover events left 195 men who actually received a DE-EBRT boost and 188, an LDR-PB boost. Median follow-up was 6.5 years. Results: The LDR-PB boost increased the risk of needing temporary catheterization and/or requiring incontinence pads. At 5 years the cumulative incidence of grade 3 GU events was 18.4% for LDR-PB, versus 5.2% for DE-EBRT (P<.001). Compared with the cumulative incidence, the 5-year prevalence of grade 3 GU morbidity was substantially lower for both arms (8.6% vs 2.2%, P=.058). The 5-year cumulative incidence of grade 3 GI events was 8.1% for LDR-PB, versus 3.2% for DE-EBRT (P=.124). The 5-year prevalence of grade 3 GI toxicity was lower than the cumulative incidence for both arms (1.0% vs 2.2%, respectively). Among men reporting adequate baseline erections, 45% of LDR-PB patients reported similar erectile function at 5 years, versus 37% after DE-EBRT (P=.30). Conclusions: The incidence of acute and late GU morbidity was higher after LDR-PB boost, and there was a nonsignificant trend for worse GI morbidity. No differences in the frequency of

  3. ASCENDE-RT: An Analysis of Treatment-Related Morbidity for a Randomized Trial Comparing a Low-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Boost with a Dose-Escalated External Beam Boost for High- and Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodda, Sree [British Columbia (BC) Cancer Agency, Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Tyldesley, Scott [British Columbia (BC) Cancer Agency, Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Morris, W. James, E-mail: jmorris@bccancer.bc.ca [British Columbia (BC) Cancer Agency, Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Keyes, Mira [British Columbia (BC) Cancer Agency, Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Halperin, Ross [Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); BC Cancer Agency, Centre for the Southern Interior, Kelowna, British Columbia (Canada); Pai, Howard [Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); McKenzie, Michael; Duncan, Graeme [British Columbia (BC) Cancer Agency, Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Morton, Gerard [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Hamm, Jeremy [Department of Population Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Murray, Nevin [British Columbia (BC) Cancer Agency, Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: To report the genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) morbidity and erectile dysfunction in a randomized trial comparing 2 methods of dose escalation for high- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: ASCENDE-RT (Androgen Suppression Combined with Elective Nodal and Dose Escalated Radiation Therapy) enrolled 398 men, median age 68 years, who were then randomized to either a standard arm that included 12 months of androgen deprivation therapy and pelvic irradiation to 46 Gy followed by a dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy (DE-EBRT) boost to 78 Gy, or an experimental arm that substituted a low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy (LDR-PB) boost. At clinic visits, investigators recorded GU and GI morbidity and information on urinary continence, catheter use, and erectile function. Exclusion of 15 who received nonprotocol treatment and correction of 14 crossover events left 195 men who actually received a DE-EBRT boost and 188, an LDR-PB boost. Median follow-up was 6.5 years. Results: The LDR-PB boost increased the risk of needing temporary catheterization and/or requiring incontinence pads. At 5 years the cumulative incidence of grade 3 GU events was 18.4% for LDR-PB, versus 5.2% for DE-EBRT (P<.001). Compared with the cumulative incidence, the 5-year prevalence of grade 3 GU morbidity was substantially lower for both arms (8.6% vs 2.2%, P=.058). The 5-year cumulative incidence of grade 3 GI events was 8.1% for LDR-PB, versus 3.2% for DE-EBRT (P=.124). The 5-year prevalence of grade 3 GI toxicity was lower than the cumulative incidence for both arms (1.0% vs 2.2%, respectively). Among men reporting adequate baseline erections, 45% of LDR-PB patients reported similar erectile function at 5 years, versus 37% after DE-EBRT (P=.30). Conclusions: The incidence of acute and late GU morbidity was higher after LDR-PB boost, and there was a nonsignificant trend for worse GI morbidity. No differences in the frequency of

  4. Characterization of NCAM expression and function in BT4C and BT4Cn glioma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Moran, N; Gaardsvoll, H

    1991-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule, NCAM, plays an important role in cell-cell adhesion. Therefore, we have studied NCAM expression in the glioma cell lines BT4C and BT4Cn. We demonstrate that the 2 cell lines differ in their metastatic ability; while BT4C cells have a very low capacity for produc...

  5. Fusarium verticillioides and fumonisin contamination in Bt and non-Bt maize cultivated in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Vinícius M; Rocha, Liliana O; Reis, Tatiana A; Reis, Gabriela M; Duarte, Aildson P; Michelotto, Marcos D; Correa, Benedito

    2017-05-01

    Fusarium verticillioides is one of the main pathogens of maize, causing ear and stalk rots. This fungus is also able to produce high levels of fumonisins, which have been linked to various illnesses in humans and animals. Previous studies have shown that maize hybrids genetically modified with the cry genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) presented lower incidence of F. verticillioides and fumonisin levels, presumably through the reduction of insects, which could act as vectors of fungi. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of F. verticillioides and the concentration of fumonisins in Bt and isogenic non-Bt hybrids (2B710Hx, 30F35YG, 2B710, and 30F35, respectively). The samples of 2B710Hx and 30F35YG presented lower F. verticillioides frequency than 2B710 and 30F35 samples. However, there was no statistical difference between fumonisin contamination when Bt and non-Bt samples were compared (P > 0.05). The results suggest that other environmental parameters could possibly trigger fumonisin production during plant development in the field; consequently, other management strategies should be applied to aid controlling fumonisin contamination in maize.

  6. Three-dimensional dose accumulation in pseudo-split-field IMRT and brachytherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baozhou; Yang, Deshan; Esthappan, Jackie; Garcia-Ramirez, Jose; Price, Samantha; Mutic, Sasa; Schwarz, Julie K; Grigsby, Perry W; Tanderup, Kari

    2015-01-01

    Dose accumulation of split-field external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and brachytherapy (BT) is challenging because of significant EBRT and BT dose gradients in the central pelvic region. We developed a method to determine biologically effective dose parameters for combined split-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and image-guided BT in locally advanced cervical cancer. Thirty-three patients treated with split-field-IMRT to 45.0-51.2 Gy in 1.6-1.8 Gy per fraction to the elective pelvic lymph nodes and to 20 Gy to the central pelvis region were included in this study. Patients received six weekly fractions of high-dose rate BT to 6.5-7.3 Gy per fraction. A dose tracker software was developed to compute the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD2) to gross tumor volume (GTV), organs-at-risk and point A. Total dose-volume histogram parameters were computed on the 3D combined EQD2 dose based on rigid image registration. The dose accumulation uncertainty introduced by organ deformations between IMRT and BT was evaluated. According to International Commission on Radiation Unit and Measurement and GEC European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology recommendations, D98, D90, D50, and D2cm3 EQD2 dose-volume histogram parameters were computed. GTV D98 was 84.0 ± 26.5 Gy and D2cc was 99.6 ± 13.9 Gy, 67.4 ± 12.2 Gy, 75.0 ± 10.1 Gy, for bladder, rectum, and sigmoid, respectively. The uncertainties induced by organ deformation were estimated to be -1 ± 4 Gy, -3 ± 5 Gy, 2 ± 3 Gy, and -3 ± 5 Gy for bladder, rectum, sigmoid, and GTV, respectively. It is feasible to perform 3D EQD2 dose accumulation to assess high and intermediate dose regions for combined split-field IMRT and BT. Copyright © 2015 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A toxin-binding alkaline phosphatase fragment synergizes Bt toxin Cry1Ac against susceptible and resistant Helicoverpa armigera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Chen

    Full Text Available Evolution of resistance by insects threatens the continued success of pest control using insecticidal crystal (Cry proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt in sprays and transgenic plants. In this study, laboratory selection with Cry1Ac yielded five strains of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, with resistance ratios at the median lethal concentration (LC50 of activated Cry1Ac ranging from 22 to 1700. Reduced activity and reduced transcription of an alkaline phosphatase protein that binds Cry1Ac was associated with resistance to Cry1Ac in the four most resistant strains. A Cry1Ac-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase from H. armigera (HaALP1f was not toxic by itself, but it increased mortality caused by Cry1Ac in a susceptible strain and in all five resistant strains. Although synergism of Bt toxins against susceptible insects by toxin-binding fragments of cadherin and aminopeptidase N has been reported previously, the results here provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by a toxin-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase. The results here also provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by any toxin-binding peptide against resistant insects.

  8. A Phase I Dose-Escalation Study of Antibody BI-505 in Relapsed/Refractory Multiple Myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Markus; Gimsing, Peter; Badros, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: This multicenter, first-in-human study evaluated safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of BI-505, a human anti-ICAM-1 monoclonal antibody, in advanced relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma patients. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: BI-505 was given intravenously, every 2 weeks...... generally mild to moderate, and those attributed to study medication were mostly limited to the first dose and manageable with premedication and slower infusion. No maximum tolerated dose was identified. BI-505's half-life increased with dose while clearance decreased, suggesting target-mediated clearance...

  9. Dose-escalated simultaneous integrated-boost treatment of prostate cancer patients via helical tomotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, M.; Astner, S.T.; Duma, M.N.; Putzhammer, J.; Winkler, C.; Molls, M.; Geinitz, H. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie; Jacob, V. [Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde; Nieder, C. [Nordland Hospital, Bodoe (Norway). Dept. of Oncology and Palliative Care; Tromsoe Univ. (Norway). Inst. of Clinical Medicine

    2012-05-15

    The goal of this work was to assess the feasibility of moderately hypofractionated simultaneous integrated-boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy (SIB-IMRT) with helical tomotherapy in patients with localized prostate cancer regarding acute side effects and dose-volume histogram data (DVH data). Acute side effects and DVH data were evaluated of the first 40 intermediate risk prostate cancer patients treated with a definitive daily image-guided SIB-IMRT protocol via helical tomotherapy in our department. The planning target volume including the prostate and the base of the seminal vesicles with safety margins was treated with 70 Gy in 35 fractions. The boost volume containing the prostate and 3 mm safety margins (5 mm craniocaudal) was treated as SIB to a total dose of 76 Gy (2.17 Gy per fraction). Planning constraints for the anterior rectal wall were set in order not to exceed the dose of 76 Gy prescribed to the boost volume. Acute toxicity was evaluated prospectively using a modified CTCAE (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events) score. SIB-IMRT allowed good rectal sparing, although the full boost dose was permitted to the anterior rectal wall. Median rectum dose was 38 Gy in all patients and the median volumes receiving at least 65 Gy (V65), 70 Gy (V70), and 75 Gy (V75) were 13.5%, 9%, and 3%, respectively. No grade 4 toxicity was observed. Acute grade 3 toxicity was observed in 20% of patients involving nocturia only. Grade 2 acute intestinal and urological side effects occurred in 25% and 57.5%, respectively. No correlation was found between acute toxicity and the DVH data. This institutional SIB-IMRT protocol using daily image guidance as a precondition for smaller safety margins allows dose escalation to the prostate without increasing acute toxicity. (orig.)

  10. Field response of aboveground non-target arthropod community to transgenic Bt-Cry1Ab rice plant residues in postharvest seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yao-Yu; Yan, Rui-Hong; Ye, Gong-Yin; Huang, Fangneng; Wangila, David S; Wang, Jin-Jun; Cheng, Jia-An

    2012-10-01

    Risk assessments of ecological effects of transgenic rice expressing lepidoptera-Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) on non-target arthropods have primarily focused on rice plants during cropping season, whereas few studies have investigated the effects in postharvest periods. Harvested rice fallow fields provide a critical over-wintering habitat for arthropods in the Chinese rice ecosystems, particularly in the southern region of the country. During 2006-08, two independent field trials were conducted in Chongqing, China to investigate the effects of transgenic Cry1Ab rice residues on non-target arthropod communities. In each trial, pitfall traps were used to sample arthropods in field plots planted with one non-Bt variety and two Bt rice lines expressing the Cry1Ab protein. Aboveground arthropods in the trial plots during the postharvest season were abundant, while community densities varied significantly between the two trials. A total of 52,386 individual insects and spiders, representing 93 families, was captured in the two trials. Predominant arthropods sampled were detritivores, which accounted for 91.9% of the total captures. Other arthropods sampled included predators (4.2%), herbivores (3.2%), and parasitoids (0.7%). In general, there were no significant differences among non-Bt and Bt rice plots in all arthropod community-specific parameters for both trials, suggesting no adverse impact of the Bt rice plant residues on the aboveground non-target arthropod communities during the postharvest season. The results of this study provide additional evidence that Bt rice is safe to non-target arthropod communities in the Chinese rice ecosystems.

  11. The ΦBT1 large serine recombinase catalyzes DNA integration at pseudo-attB sites in the genus Nocardia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Herisse

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Plasmid vectors based on bacteriophage integrases are important tools in molecular microbiology for the introduction of foreign DNA, especially into bacterial species where other systems for genetic manipulation are limited. Site specific integrases catalyze recombination between phage and bacterial attachment sites (attP and attB, respectively and the best studied integrases in the actinomycetes are the serine integrases from the Streptomyces bacteriophages ΦC31 and ΦBT1. As this reaction is unidirectional and highly stable, vectors containing phage integrase systems have been used in a number of genetic engineering applications. Plasmids bearing the ΦBT1 integrase have been used to introduce DNA into Streptomyces and Amycolatopsis strains; however, they have not been widely studied in other actinobacterial genera. Here, we show that vectors based on ΦBT1 integrase can stably integrate into the chromosomes of a range of Nocardia species, and that this integration occurs despite the absence of canonical attB sites in these genomes. Furthermore, we show that a ΦBT1 integrase-based vector can insert at multiple pseudo-attB sites within a single strain and we determine the sequence of a pseudo-attB motif. These data suggest that ΦBT1 integrase-based vectors can be used to readily and semi-randomly introduce foreign DNA into the genomes of a range of Nocardia species. However, the precise site of insertion will likely require empirical determination in each species to avoid unexpected off-target effects.

  12. Safety, tolerability, and preliminary activity of CUDC-907, a first-in-class, oral, dual inhibitor of HDAC and PI3K, in patients with relapsed or refractory lymphoma or multiple myeloma: an open-label, dose-escalation, phase 1 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Anas; Berdeja, Jesus G; Patel, Manish R; Flinn, Ian; Gerecitano, John F; Neelapu, Sattva S; Kelly, Kevin R; Copeland, Amanda R; Akins, Amy; Clancy, Myles S; Gong, Lucy; Wang, Jing; Ma, Anna; Viner, Jaye L; Oki, Yasuhiro

    2016-05-01

    Treatment options for patients with relapsed or refractory lymphoma and multiple myeloma are limited. CUDC-907 is an oral, first-in-class, small molecule that is designed to inhibit both histone deacetylase (HDAC) and PI3K enzymes, which are members of common oncogenic pathways in haematological malignancies. We aimed to assess overall safety and preliminary activity in this dose-escalation study of CUDC-907 monotherapy in patients with relapsed or refractory lymphoma and multiple myeloma. This open-label, first-in-man, phase 1 trial recruited adult patients (aged ≥18 years) with lymphoma or multiple myeloma who were refractory to or had relapsed after two or more previous regimens, from four US cancer centres. CUDC-907 was orally administered in a standard 3 + 3 dose-escalation design at four different dosing schedules, to which participants were sequentially assigned as follows: once daily, intermittently (twice or three times weekly; simultaneous enrolment), and daily for 5 days followed by a 2-day break (5/2), in 21-day cycles. Dosing started at 30 mg for the once-daily schedule and 60 mg for other schedules, escalating in 30 mg increments. Patients continued to receive CUDC-907 until disease progression or until other treatment discontinuation criteria were met. The primary objective was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended phase 2 dose, assessed in patients who received at least 66% of cycle 1 doses without modification and those who had a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) in cycle 1 irrespective of dose modification. We assessed safety in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This ongoing trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01742988. Between Jan 23, 2013, and July 27, 2015, we enrolled 44 patients, of whom ten were sequentially assigned to CUDC-907 once-daily (MTD 60 mg), 12 to twice-weekly (MTD 150 mg), 15 to three-times-weekly (MTD 150 mg), and seven to the 5/2 dosing schedule (MTD 60 mg). 37

  13. Long-term outcomes from dose-escalated image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy with androgen deprivation: encouraging results for intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilcox SW

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Shea W Wilcox,1,4 Noel J Aherne,2,4 Linus C Benjamin,1 Bosco Wu,1 Thomaz de Campos Silva,3 Craig S McLachlan,4 Michael J McKay,3,5 Andrew J Last,1 Thomas P Shakespeare1–4 1North Coast Cancer Institute, Port Macquarie, NSW, Australia; 2North Coast Cancer Institute, Coffs Harbour, NSW, Australia; 3North Coast Cancer Institute, Lismore, NSW, Australia; 4The University of New South Wales, Rural Clinical School, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 5The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Purpose: Dose-escalated (DE radiotherapy in the setting of localized prostate cancer has been shown to improve biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS in several studies. In the same group of patients, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT has been shown to confer a survival benefit when combined with radiotherapy doses of up to 70 Gy; however, there is currently little long-term data on patients who have received high-dose intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT with ADT. We report the long-term outcomes in a large cohort of patients treated with the combination of DE image-guided IMRT (IG-IMRT and ADT. Methods and materials: Patients with localized prostate cancer were identified from a centralized database across an integrated cancer center. All patients received DE IG-IMRT, combined with ADT, and had a minimum follow up of 12 months post-radiotherapy. All relapse and toxicity data were collected prospectively. Actuarial bDFS, metastasis-free survival, prostate cancer-specific survival, and multivariate analyses were calculated using the SPSS v20.0 statistical package. Results: Seven hundred and eighty-two eligible patients were identified with a median follow up of 46 months. Overall, 4.3% of patients relapsed, 2.0% developed distant metastases, and 0.6% died from metastatic prostate cancer. At 5-years, bDFS was 88%, metastasis-free survival was 95%, and prostate cancer-specific survival was 98%. Five-year grade 2 genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity was 2.1

  14. Strategy of Using Intratreatment Hypoxia Imaging to Selectively and Safely Guide Radiation Dose De-escalation Concurrent With Chemotherapy for Locoregionally Advanced Human Papillomavirus–Related Oropharyngeal Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Nancy; Schoder, Heiko; Beattie, Brad; Lanning, Ryan; Riaz, Nadeem; McBride, Sean; Katabi, Nora; Li, Duan; Yarusi, Brett; Chan, Susie; Mitrani, Lindsey; Zhang, Zhigang; Pfister, David G.; Sherman, Eric; Baxi, Shrujal; Boyle, Jay; Morris, Luc G.T.; Ganly, Ian; Wong, Richard; Humm, John

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To report a small substudy of an ongoing large, multi-arm study using functional imaging to assess pre-/intratreatment hypoxia for all head and neck cancer, in which we hypothesized that pre- and early-treatment hypoxia assessment using functional positron emission tomography (PET) imaging may help select which human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive (HPV"+) oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) patients can safely receive radiation de-escalation without jeopardizing treatment outcomes. Methods and Materials: Patients with HPV"+ oropharyngeal carcinoma were enrolled on an institutional review board–approved prospective study of which de-escalation based on imaging response was done for node(s) only. Pretreatment "1"8F-fluorodeoxyglucose and dynamic "1"8F-FMISO (fluoromisonidazole) positron emission tomography (PET) scans were performed. For patients with pretreatment hypoxia on"1"8F-FMISO PET (defined as a >1.2 tumor to muscle standard uptake value ratio), a repeat scan was done 1 week after chemoradiation. Patients without pretreatment hypoxia or with resolution of hypoxia on repeat scan received a 10-Gy dose reduction to metastatic lymph node(s). The 2-year local, regional, distant metastasis–free, and overall survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method. A subset of patients had biopsy of a hypoxic node done under image guidance. Results: Thirty-three HPV"+ OPC patients were enrolled in this pilot study. One hundred percent showed pretreatment hypoxia (at primary site and/or node[s]), and among these, 48% resolved (at primary site and/or node[s]); 30% met criteria and received 10-Gy reduction to the lymph node(s). At the median follow-up of 32 months (range, 21-61 months), the 2-year locoregional control rate was 100%. One patient failed distantly with persistence of hypoxia on "1"8F-FMISO PET. The 2-year distant metastasis–free rate was 97%. The 2-year OS rate was 100%. Hypoxia on imaging was confirmed pathologically

  15. Practice Tests for the TOEFL iBT

    CERN Document Server

    Stirling, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Practice Tests for the TOEFL iBT contains four TOEFL tests, with answer keys. Perfect for self-study and classrooms. Each TOEFL iBT Practice Test...* reflects the design of the official TOEFL internet-based test* tests academic English-language proficiency expected of university students in the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, Scotland and England* provides extra practice before you take the official TOEFL iBT* will help you identify those areas of academic English you need to improve for a higher TOEFL iBT score* will give you an unofficial, TOEFL iBT range score within

  16. A Phase I/II Trial of Intensity Modulated Radiation (IMRT) Dose Escalation With Concurrent Fixed-dose Rate Gemcitabine (FDR-G) in Patients With Unresectable Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Josef, Edgar, E-mail: edgar.ben-josef@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Schipper, Mathew [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Francis, Isaac R. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Hadley, Scott; Ten-Haken, Randall; Lawrence, Theodore; Normolle, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Simeone, Diane M.; Sonnenday, Christopher [Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Abrams, Ross [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Leslie, William [Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Rush Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Khan, Gazala; Zalupski, Mark M. [Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: Local failure in unresectable pancreatic cancer may contribute to death. We hypothesized that intensification of local therapy would improve local control and survival. The objectives were to determine the maximum tolerated radiation dose delivered by intensity modulated radiation with fixed-dose rate gemcitabine (FDR-G), freedom from local progression (FFLP), and overall survival (OS). Methods and Materials: Eligibility included pathologic confirmation of adenocarcinoma, radiographically unresectable, performance status of 0-2, absolute neutrophil count of {>=}1500/mm{sup 3}, platelets {>=}100,000/mm{sup 3}, creatinine <2 mg/dL, bilirubin <3 mg/dL, and alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase {<=}2.5 Multiplication-Sign upper limit of normal. FDR-G (1000 mg/m{sup 2}/100 min intravenously) was given on days -22 and -15, 1, 8, 22, and 29. Intensity modulated radiation started on day 1. Dose levels were escalated from 50-60 Gy in 25 fractions. Dose-limiting toxicity was defined as gastrointestinal toxicity grade (G) {>=}3, neutropenic fever, or deterioration in performance status to {>=}3 between day 1 and 126. Dose level was assigned using TITE-CRM (Time-to-Event Continual Reassessment Method) with the target dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) rate set to 0.25. Results: Fifty patients were accrued. DLTs were observed in 11 patients: G3/4 anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and/or dehydration (7); duodenal bleed (3); duodenal perforation (1). The recommended dose is 55 Gy, producing a probability of DLT of 0.24. The 2-year FFLP is 59% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 32-79). Median and 2-year overall survival are 14.8 months (95% CI: 12.6-22.2) and 30% (95% CI 17-45). Twelve patients underwent resection (10 R0, 2 R1) and survived a median of 32 months. Conclusions: High-dose radiation therapy with concurrent FDR-G can be delivered safely. The encouraging efficacy data suggest that outcome may be improved in unresectable patients through intensification of local

  17. Larval development of Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera frugiperda fed on fresh ear of field corn expressing the Bt proteins (Cry1F and Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2)

    OpenAIRE

    Bortolotto,Orcial Ceolin; Bueno,Adeney de Freitas; Queiroz,Ana Paula de; Silva,Gabriela Vieira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate extent of larval period, larval survival (%), food consumption, and pupal biomass of Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae ) fed on fresh ears of field corn expressing Bt proteins (Cry1F and Cry1F+Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2). Larvae of Spodoptera spp. survived less than two days when they consumed Bt corncobs and showed 100% mortality. Spodoptera eridania reared on non-Bt corn cobs showed higher larval development (...

  18. Effect of Standard vs Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy for Patients With Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer: The NRG Oncology RTOG 0126 Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Jeff M; Moughan, Jennifer; Purdy, James; Bosch, Walter; Bruner, Deborah W; Bahary, Jean-Paul; Lau, Harold; Duclos, Marie; Parliament, Matthew; Morton, Gerard; Hamstra, Daniel; Seider, Michael; Lock, Michael I; Patel, Malti; Gay, Hiram; Vigneault, Eric; Winter, Kathryn; Sandler, Howard

    2018-03-15

    Optimizing radiation therapy techniques for localized prostate cancer can affect patient outcomes. Dose escalation improves biochemical control, but no prior trials were powered to detect overall survival (OS) differences. To determine whether radiation dose escalation to 79.2 Gy compared with 70.2 Gy would improve OS and other outcomes in prostate cancer. The NRG Oncology/RTOG 0126 randomized clinical trial randomized 1532 patients from 104 North American Radiation Therapy Oncology Group institutions March 2002 through August 2008. Men with stage cT1b to T2b, Gleason score 2 to 6, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of 10 or greater and less than 20 or Gleason score of 7 and PSA less than 15 received 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy or intensity-modulated radiation therapy to 79.2 Gy in 44 fractions or 70.2 Gy in 39 fractions. Time to OS measured from randomization to death due to any cause. American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO)/Phoenix definitions were used for biochemical failure. Acute (≤90 days of treatment start) and late radiation therapy toxic effects (>90 days) were graded using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria, version 2.0, and the RTOG/European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring Scheme, respectively. With a median follow-up of 8.4 (range, 0.02-13.0) years in 1499 patients (median [range] age, 71 [33-87] years; 70% had PSA <10 ng/mL, 84% Gleason score of 7, 57% T1 disease), there was no difference in OS between the 751 men in the 79.2-Gy arm and the 748 men in the 70.2-Gy arm. The 8-year rates of OS were 76% with 79.2 Gy and 75% with 70.2 Gy (hazard ratio [HR], 1.00; 95% CI, 0.83-1.20; P = .98). The 8-year cumulative rates of distant metastases were 4% for the 79.2-Gy arm and 6% for the 70.2-Gy arm (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.42-1.01; P = .05). The ASTRO and Phoenix biochemical failure rates at 5 and 8 years were 31% and 20% with 79.2 Gy

  19. Open-label, dose-escalation, safety, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic study of intravenously administered CNF1010 (17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin [17-AAG]) in patients with solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saif, M W; Erlichman, C; Dragovich, T; Mendelson, D; Toft, D; Burrows, F; Storgard, C; Von Hoff, D

    2013-05-01

    17-(Allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) is a benzoquinone ansamycin that binds to and inhibits the Hsp90 family of molecular chaperones leading to the proteasomal degradation of client proteins critical in malignant cell proliferation and survival. We have undertaken a Phase 1 trial of CNF1010, an oil-in-water nanoemulsion of 17-AAG. Patients with advanced solid tumors and adequate organ functions received CNF1010 by 1-h intravenous (IV) infusion, twice a week, 3 out of 4 weeks. Doses were escalated sequentially in single-patient (6 and 12 mg/m(2)/day) and three-to-six-patient (≥25 mg/m(2)/day) cohorts according to a modified Fibonacci's schema. Plasma pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles and biomarkers, including Hsp70 in PBMCs, HER-2 extracellular domain, and IGFBP2 in plasma, were performed. Thirty-five patients were treated at doses ranging from 6 to 225 mg/m(2). A total of 10 DLTs in nine patients (2 events of fatigue, 83 and 175 mg/m(2); shock, abdominal pain, ALT increased, increased transaminases, and pain in extremity at 175 mg/m(2); extremity pain, atrial fibrillation, and metabolic encephalopathy at 225 mg/m(2)) were noted. The PK profile of 17-AAG after the first dose appeared to be linear up to 175 mg/m(2), with a dose-proportional increase in C max and AUC0-inf. Hsp70 induction in PBMCs and inhibition of serum HER-2 neu extracellular domain indicated biological effects of CNF1010 at doses >83 mg/m(2). The maximum tolerated dose was not formally established. Hsp70 induction in PBMCs and inhibition of serum HER-2 neu extracellular domain indicated biological effects. The CNF1010 clinical program is no longer being pursued due to the toxicity profile of the drug and the development of second-generation Hsp90 molecules.

  20. {sup 188}Re-HDD/lipiodol therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: an activity escalation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Bieke; Vos, Filip de; Wiele, Christophe van de [Ghent University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Division, Gent (Belgium); Bacher, Klaus; Thierens, Hubert [Ghent University, Department of Medical Physics, Gent (Belgium); Defreyne, Luc [Ghent University Hospital, Division of Interventional Radiology, Gent (Belgium); Vlierberghe, Hans van [Ghent University Hospital, Division of Gastroenterology, Gent (Belgium); Jeong, Jae Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea); Wang, Rong Fu [Beijing University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Beijing (China); Meerbeeck, Jan van [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Respiratory Diseases, Gent (Belgium); Smeets, Peter [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Gent (Belgium); Troisi, Roberto [Ghent University Hospital, Division of Abdominal Surgery and Liver Transplantation, Gent (Belgium)

    2006-03-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of administering increasing activities of {sup 188}Re-4-hexadecyl-1-2,9,9-tetramethyl-4,7-diaza-1,10-decanethiol/lipiodol ({sup 188}Re-HDD/lipiodol) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with well-compensated cirrhosis. The activity levels were increased by 1.1 GBq/step after a 6-week interval without unacceptable adverse events in at least five consecutive patients. Absorbed doses to the various organs were calculated according to the MIRD formalism, based on three gamma-scintigraphic studies. Response was assessed by means of MRI and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) monitoring. Thirty-five treatments were carried out in 28 patients. Activities from 4.8 to 7.0 GBq {sup 188}Re-HDD/lipiodol were administered via a transfemoral catheter. The mean absorbed dose to the liver (including tumour) was 7.6{+-}2.2, 9.8{+-}4.9 and 15.2{+-}4.9 Gy for the 4.8-, 5.9- and 7.0-GBq groups, respectively. Treatment was well tolerated at all activity levels. Further escalation of the administered activity was not feasible owing to limitations related to the radiolabelling procedure. Response assessment on MRI showed partial response, stable disease and disease progression in 1, 28 and 2 assessable treatments, respectively. In 8 of 17 treatment sessions with an initially elevated AFP, a reduction ranging from 19% to 97% was observed 6 weeks later. (orig.)

  1. Simple DVH parameter addition as compared to deformable registration for bladder dose accumulation in cervix cancer brachytherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Else Stougård; Noe, Karsten Østergaaard; Sørensen, Thomas Sangild

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: Variations in organ position, shape, and volume cause uncertainties in dose assessment for brachytherapy (BT) in cervix cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate uncertainties associated with bladder dose accumulation based on DVH parameter addition (previously...... called "the worst case assumption") in fractionated BT. Materials and methods: Forty-seven patients treated for locally advanced cervical cancer were included. All patients received EBRT combined with two individually planned 3D image-guided adaptive BT fractions. D2 and D0.1 were estimated by DVH...

  2. Choline PET based dose-painting in prostate cancer - Modelling of dose effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niyazi, Maximilian; Bartenstein, Peter; Belka, Claus; Ganswindt, Ute

    2010-01-01

    Several randomized trials have documented the value of radiation dose escalation in patients with prostate cancer, especially in patients with intermediate risk profile. Up to now dose escalation is usually applied to the whole prostate. IMRT and related techniques currently allow for dose escalation in sub-volumes of the organ. However, the sensitivity of the imaging modality and the fact that small islands of cancer are often dispersed within the whole organ may limit these approaches with regard to a clear clinical benefit. In order to assess potential effects of a dose escalation in certain sub-volumes based on choline PET imaging a mathematical dose-response model was developed. Based on different assumptions for α/β, γ50, sensitivity and specificity of choline PET, the influence of the whole prostate and simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) dose on tumor control probability (TCP) was calculated. Based on the given heterogeneity of all potential variables certain representative permutations of the parameters were chosen and, subsequently, the influence on TCP was assessed. Using schedules with 74 Gy within the whole prostate and a SIB dose of 90 Gy the TCP increase ranged from 23.1% (high detection rate of choline PET, low whole prostate dose, high γ50/ASTRO definition for tumor control) to 1.4% TCP gain (low sensitivity of PET, high whole prostate dose, CN + 2 definition for tumor control) or even 0% in selected cases. The corresponding initial TCP values without integrated boost ranged from 67.3% to 100%. According to a large data set of intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients the resulting TCP gains ranged from 22.2% to 10.1% (ASTRO definition) or from 13.2% to 6.0% (CN + 2 definition). Although a simplified mathematical model was employed, the presented model allows for an estimation in how far given schedules are relevant for clinical practice. However, the benefit of a SIB based on choline PET seems less than intuitively expected. Only under the

  3. Conflict escalation in paediatric services: findings from a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Forbat, Liz; Teuten, Bea; Barclay, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore clinician and family experiences of conflict in paediatric services, in order to map the trajectory of conflict escalation. Design Qualitative interview study, employing extreme-case sampling. Interviews were analysed using an iterative thematic approach to identify common themes regarding the experience and escalation of conflict. Participants Thirty-eight health professionals and eight parents. All participants had direct experience of conflict, including physical assau...

  4. The role and strategy of IMRT in radiotherapy of pelvic tumors: Dose escalation and critical organ sparing in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.-M.; Shiau, C.-Y.; Lee, M.-L.; Huang, P.-I.; Hsieh, C.-M.; Chen, P.-H.; Lin, Y.-H.; Wang, L.-W.; Yen, S.-H.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) strategy in dose escalation of prostate and pelvic lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: Plan dosimetric data of 10 prostate cancer patients were compared with two-dimensional (2D) or IMRT techniques for pelvis (two-dimensional whole pelvic radiation therapy [2D-WPRT] or IM-WPRT) to receive 50 Gy or 54 Gy and additional prostate boost by three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy or IMRT (3D-PBRT or IM-PBRT) techniques up to 72 Gy or 78 Gy. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs), normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP) of critical organ, and conformity of target volume in various combinations were calculated. Results: In DVH analysis, the plans with IM-WPRT (54 Gy) and additional boost up to 78 Gy had lower rectal and bladder volume percentage at 50 Gy and 60 Gy, compared with those with 2D-WPRT (50 Gy) and additional boost up to 72 Gy or 78 Gy. Those with IM-WPRT (54 Gy) also had better small bowel sparing at 30 Gy and 50 Gy, compared with those with 2D-WPRT (50 Gy). In NTCP, those with IM-WPRT and total dose of 78 Gy achieved lower complication rates in rectum and small bowel, compared with those of 2D-WPRT with total dose of 72 Gy. In conformity, those with IM-WPRT had better conformity compared with those with 2D-WPRT with significance (p < 0.005). No significant difference in DVHs, NTCP, or conformity was found between IM-PBRT and 3D-PBRT after IM-WPRT. Conclusions: Initial pelvic IMRT is the most important strategy in dose escalation and critical organ sparing. IM-WPRT is recommended for patients requiring WPRT. There is not much benefit for critical organ sparing by IMRT after 2D-WPRT

  5. Performance and cross-crop resistance of Cry1F-maize selected Spodoptera frugiperda on transgenic Bt cotton: implications for resistance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Kerns, David L; Brown, Sebe; Kurtz, Ryan; Dennehy, Tim; Braxton, Bo; Head, Graham; Huang, Fangneng

    2016-06-15

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins have become a primary tool in pest management. Due to the intensive use of Bt crops, resistance of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, to Cry1F maize has occurred in Puerto Rico, Brazil, and some areas of the southeastern U.S. The sustainability of Bt crops faces a great challenge because the Cry1F-maize resistant S. frugiperda may also infest other Bt crops in multiple cropping ecosystems. Here we examined the survival and plant injury of a S. frugiperda population selected with Cry1F maize on three single-gene and five pyramided Bt cotton products. Larvae of Cry1F-susceptible (SS), -heterozygous (RS), and -resistant (RR) genotypes of S. frugiperda were all susceptible to the pyramided cotton containing Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab, Cry1Ac/Cry1F/Vip3A, Cry1Ab/Cry2Ae, or Cry1Ab/Cry2Ae/Vip3A, and the single-gene Cry2Ae cotton. Pyramided cotton containing Cry1Ac/Cry1F was effective against SS and RS, but not for RR. These findings show that the Cry1F-maize selected S. frugiperda can cause cross-crop resistance to other Bt crops expressing similar insecticidal proteins. Resistance management and pest management programs that utilize diversify mortality factors must be implemented to ensure the sustainability of Bt crops. This is especially important in areas where resistance to single-gene Bt crops is already widespread.

  6. A phase I dose escalation trial of AXP107-11, a novel multi-component crystalline form of genistein, in combination with gemcitabine in chemotherapy-naive patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löhr, Johannes-Matthias; Karimi, Masoud; Omazic, Brigitta; Kartalis, Nikolaos; Verbeke, Caroline Sabine; Berkenstam, Anders; Frödin, Jan-Erik

    2016-01-01

    AXP107-11 is a novel, multi-component crystalline form of the naturally occurring compound genistein. AXP107-11 has improved physiochemical properties and oral bioavailability compared to the natural form of genistein, and it is possible that combining AXP107-11 with chemotherapy may increase the effect and reduce chemoresistance. The purpose of this dose escalation phase Ib study was to assess the safety, maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and pharmacokinetics (PK) of AXP107-11 in combination with gemcitabine in treatment-naïve patients with inoperable pancreatic carcinoma. AXP107-11 was given orally in escalating doses (400 mg-1600 mg daily) in combination with standard gemcitabine treatment (1000 mg/m(2)/week) for the first seven of eight weeks and thereafter for a maximum of four × four-week treatment cycles. PK, safety, MTD and efficacy of AXP107-11 in combination with gemcitabine were evaluated. Sixteen patients were enrolled and received AXP107-11. The maximum concentration in serum of unconjugated (free) genistein was 1 μM. Neither dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) nor signs of hematological or non-hematological toxicities related to AXP107-11 were observed over a period ranging from 0.7 to 13.2 months. The median overall survival time was 4.9 months (range 1.5-19.5 months). Seven patients (44%) survived longer than six months and 19% were alive at the one-year follow-up. Treatment of pancreatic cancer patients with AXP107-11 in combination with gemcitabine resulted in a favorable PK-profile with high serum levels without signs of either hematological or non-hematological toxicity. Accordingly, we suggest further studies with AXP107-11 in pancreatic cancer patients. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt rice is safer to aquatic ecosystems than its non-transgenic counterpart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangsheng Li

    Full Text Available Rice lines genetically modified with the crystal toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt have experienced rapid development, with biosafety certificates for two Bt rice lines issued in 2009. There has still been no commercial release of these lines yet due to public concerns about human health and environmental risks. Some studies confirmed that Bt rice was as safe as conventional rice to non-target organisms when pesticides were not applied, however, pesticides are still required in Bt rice to control non-lepidopteran pests. In this study, we assessed the environmental effects of two Bt rice lines expressing either the cry1Ab/1Ac or cry2A genes, respectively, by using zooplanktons as indicator species under normal field management practices using pesticides when required. In the whole rice growing season, non-Bt rice was sprayed 5 times while Bt rice was sprayed 2 times, which ensured both rice achieved a normal yield. Field investigations showed that rice type (Bt and non-Bt significantly influenced zooplankton abundance and diversity, which were up to 95% and 80% lower in non-Bt rice fields than Bt rice fields. Laboratory rearing showed that water from non-Bt rice fields was significantly less suitable for the survival and reproduction of Daphnia magna and Paramecium caudatum in comparison with water from Bt rice fields. Higher pesticide residues were detected in the water from non-Bt than Bt rice fields, accounting for the bad performance of zooplankton in non-Bt field water. Our results demonstrate that Bt rice is safer to aquatic ecosystems than non-Bt rice, and its commercialization will be beneficial for biodiversity restoration in rice-based ecosystems.

  8. Safety and immunogenicity in man of a cell culture derived trivalent live attenuated seasonal influenza vaccine: a Phase I dose escalating study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldens, Jacco; Hulskotte, Ellen; Voeten, Theo; Breedveld, Belinda; Verweij, Pierre; van Duijnhoven, Wilbert; Rudenko, Larissa; van Damme, Pierre; van den Bosch, Han

    2014-09-03

    Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) offers the promise of inducing a variety of immune responses thereby conferring protection to circulating field strains. LAIVs are based on cold adapted and temperature sensitive phenotypes of master donor viruses (MDVs) containing the surface glycoprotein genes of seasonal influenza strains. Two types of MDV lineages have been described, the Ann Arbor lineages and the A/Leningrad/17 and B/USSR/60 lineages. Here the safety and immunogenicity of a Madin Darby Canine Kidney - cell culture based, intranasal LAIV derived from A/Leningrad/17 and B/USSR, was evaluated in healthy influenza non-naive volunteers 18-50 years of age. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled design, single escalating doses of 1×10(5), 1×10(6), or 1×10(7) tissue culture infectious dose 50% (TCID50) of vaccine containing each of the three influenza virus re-assortants recommended by the World Health Organization for the 2008-2009 season were administered intranasally. A statistically significant geometric mean increase in hemagglutination inhibition titer was reached for influenza strain A/H3N2 after immunization with all doses of LAIV. For the A/H1N1 and B strains, the GMI in HI titer did not increase for any of the doses. Virus neutralization antibody titers showed a similar response pattern. A dose-response effect could not be demonstrated for any of the strains, neither for the HI antibody nor for the VN antibody responses. No influenza like symptoms, no nasal congestions, no rhinorrhea, or other influenza related upper respiratory tract symptoms were observed. In addition, no difference in the incidence or nature of adverse events was found between vaccine and placebo treated subjects. Overall, the results indicated that the LAIV for nasal administration is immunogenic (i.e. able to provoke an immune response) and safe both from the perspective of the attenuated virus and the MDCK cell line from which it was derived, and it warrants

  9. Acute gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and dermatological toxicity during dose-escalated 3D-conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) using an intrarectal balloon for prostate gland localization and immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woel, Rosemonde; Beard, Clair; Chen, Ming-Hui; Hurwitz, Mark; Loffredo, Marian; McMahon, Elizabeth; Ching, Jane; Lopes, Lynn; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: We determined the acute gastrointestinal (GI), genitourinary (GU), and dermatologic (D) toxicity during dose-escalated three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT). A modified intrarectal balloon (Medrad) was used for prostate gland localization and immobilization. Methods: Forty-six men with clinical category T1c to T3a, and at least one high-risk feature (PSA >10, Gleason ≥7, or MRI evidence of extracapsular extension or seminal vesical invasion) comprised the study cohort. Treatment consisted of hormonal therapy and 4-field 3DCRT using an intrarectal balloon for the initial 15 of 40 treatments. Planning treatment volume dose was 72 Gy (95% normalization). A Mantel-Haenzel Chi-square test compared the distribution of GU, GI, and D symptoms at baseline and at end of treatment (EOT). Results: There was no significant difference between the 2 time points in the proportion of patients with bowel symptoms (p = 0.73), tenesmus (p = 0.27), nocturia (p = 1.00), or GU urgency (p = 0.40). However, there was a significant decrease in GU frequency (70% vs. 50%, p = 0.46) as a result of medical interventions and a significant increase in hemorrhoidal irritation (4% vs. 20%, p = 0.02) and anal cutaneous skin reaction (0% vs. 70%, p < 0.001). By 3 months after EOT compared to baseline, there was no significant difference in the proportion of patients experiencing hemorrhoidal bleeding (4% vs. 8%, p = 0.52), requiring intervention for hemorrhoidal symptoms (7% vs. 5%, p = 0.8), or experiencing persistent anal cutaneous skin reaction (0% vs. 3%, p = 0.31). Conclusion: Dose-escalated 3DCRT using an intrarectal balloon for prostate localization and immobilization was well tolerated. Acute GU, GI, and D symptoms resolved with standard dietary or medical interventions by the EOT or shortly thereafter

  10. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1BT8B-1EN5B [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e>KGLKK----GTTLQ >H ---- > ATOM ...bChain>B 1BT8B KNMAPKGSAPERPT cture>H ...DChain> LVLKG--DKLAV >EEEE -- EEEE...ence>LVWDPLGKRINT >EEEE EEEEe> AT...re> ATOM 2237 CA LYS B 80 12.251 15.102 18.409 1.00 11.94 C

  11. Gut microbiota and tacrolimus dosing in kidney transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R Lee

    Full Text Available Tacrolimus dosing to establish therapeutic levels in recipients of organ transplants is a challenging task because of much interpatient and intrapatient variability in drug absorption, metabolism, and disposition. In view of the reported impact of gut microbial species on drug metabolism, we investigated the relationship between the gut microbiota and tacrolimus dosing requirements in this pilot study of adult kidney transplant recipients. Serial fecal specimens were collected during the first month of transplantation from 19 kidney transplant recipients who either required a 50% increase from initial tacrolimus dosing during the first month of transplantation (Dose Escalation Group, n=5 or did not require such an increase (Dose Stable Group, n=14. We characterized bacterial composition in the fecal specimens by deep sequencing of the PCR amplified 16S rRNA V4-V5 region and we investigated the hypothesis that gut microbial composition is associated with tacrolimus dosing requirements. Initial tacrolimus dosing was similar in the Dose Escalation Group and in the Stable Group (4.2 ± 1.1 mg/day vs. 3.8 ± 0.8 mg/day, respectively, P=0.61, two-way between-group ANOVA using contrasts but became higher in the Dose Escalation Group than in the Dose Stable Group by the end of the first transplantation month (9.6 ± 2.4 mg/day vs. 3.3 ± 1.5 mg/day, respectively, P<0.001. Our systematic characterization of the gut microbial composition identified that fecal Faecalibacterium prausnitzii abundance in the first week of transplantation was 11.8% in the Dose Escalation Group and 0.8% in the Dose Stable Group (P=0.002, Wilcoxon Rank Sum test, P<0.05 after Benjamini-Hochberg correction for multiple hypotheses. Fecal Faecalibacterium prausnitzii abundance in the first week of transplantation was positively correlated with future tacrolimus dosing at 1 month (R=0.57, P=0.01 and had a coefficient ± standard error of 1.0 ± 0.6 (P=0.08 after multivariable linear

  12. Risk of Late Toxicity in Men Receiving Dose-Escalated Hypofractionated Intensity Modulated Prostate Radiation Therapy: Results From a Randomized Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Karen E., E-mail: khoffman1@mdanderson.org; Voong, K. Ranh; Pugh, Thomas J.; Skinner, Heath; Levy, Lawrence B.; Takiar, Vinita; Choi, Seungtaek; Du, Weiliang; Frank, Steven J.; Johnson, Jennifer; Kanke, James; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Lee, Andrew K.; Mahmood, Usama; McGuire, Sean E.; Kuban, Deborah A.

    2014-04-01

    Objective: To report late toxicity outcomes from a randomized trial comparing conventional and hypofractionated prostate radiation therapy and to identify dosimetric and clinical parameters associated with late toxicity after hypofractionated treatment. Methods and Materials: Men with localized prostate cancer were enrolled in a trial that randomized men to either conventionally fractionated intensity modulated radiation therapy (CIMRT, 75.6 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions) or to dose-escalated hypofractionated IMRT (HIMRT, 72 Gy in 2.4-Gy fractions). Late (≥90 days after completion of radiation therapy) genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity were prospectively evaluated and scored according to modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Results: 101 men received CIMRT and 102 men received HIMRT. The median age was 68, and the median follow-up time was 6.0 years. Twenty-eight percent had low-risk, 71% had intermediate-risk, and 1% had high-risk disease. There was no difference in late GU toxicity in men treated with CIMRT and HIMRT. The actuarial 5-year grade ≥2 GU toxicity was 16.5% after CIMRT and 15.8% after HIMRT (P=.97). There was a nonsignificant numeric increase in late GI toxicity in men treated with HIMRT compared with men treated with CIMRT. The actuarial 5-year grade ≥2 GI toxicity was 5.1% after CIMRT and 10.0% after HIMRT (P=.11). In men receiving HIMRT, the proportion of rectum receiving 36.9 Gy, 46.2 Gy, 64.6 Gy, and 73.9 Gy was associated with the development of late GI toxicity (P<.05). The 5-year actuarial grade ≥2 GI toxicity was 27.3% in men with R64.6Gy ≥ 20% but only 6.0% in men with R64.6Gy < 20% (P=.016). Conclusions: Dose-escalated IMRT using a moderate hypofractionation regimen (72 Gy in 2.4-Gy fractions) can be delivered safely with limited grade 2 or 3 late toxicity. Minimizing the proportion of rectum that receives moderate and high dose decreases the risk of late rectal toxicity after this

  13. Risk of Late Toxicity in Men Receiving Dose-Escalated Hypofractionated Intensity Modulated Prostate Radiation Therapy: Results From a Randomized Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, Karen E.; Voong, K. Ranh; Pugh, Thomas J.; Skinner, Heath; Levy, Lawrence B.; Takiar, Vinita; Choi, Seungtaek; Du, Weiliang; Frank, Steven J.; Johnson, Jennifer; Kanke, James; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Lee, Andrew K.; Mahmood, Usama; McGuire, Sean E.; Kuban, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To report late toxicity outcomes from a randomized trial comparing conventional and hypofractionated prostate radiation therapy and to identify dosimetric and clinical parameters associated with late toxicity after hypofractionated treatment. Methods and Materials: Men with localized prostate cancer were enrolled in a trial that randomized men to either conventionally fractionated intensity modulated radiation therapy (CIMRT, 75.6 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions) or to dose-escalated hypofractionated IMRT (HIMRT, 72 Gy in 2.4-Gy fractions). Late (≥90 days after completion of radiation therapy) genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity were prospectively evaluated and scored according to modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Results: 101 men received CIMRT and 102 men received HIMRT. The median age was 68, and the median follow-up time was 6.0 years. Twenty-eight percent had low-risk, 71% had intermediate-risk, and 1% had high-risk disease. There was no difference in late GU toxicity in men treated with CIMRT and HIMRT. The actuarial 5-year grade ≥2 GU toxicity was 16.5% after CIMRT and 15.8% after HIMRT (P=.97). There was a nonsignificant numeric increase in late GI toxicity in men treated with HIMRT compared with men treated with CIMRT. The actuarial 5-year grade ≥2 GI toxicity was 5.1% after CIMRT and 10.0% after HIMRT (P=.11). In men receiving HIMRT, the proportion of rectum receiving 36.9 Gy, 46.2 Gy, 64.6 Gy, and 73.9 Gy was associated with the development of late GI toxicity (P<.05). The 5-year actuarial grade ≥2 GI toxicity was 27.3% in men with R64.6Gy ≥ 20% but only 6.0% in men with R64.6Gy < 20% (P=.016). Conclusions: Dose-escalated IMRT using a moderate hypofractionation regimen (72 Gy in 2.4-Gy fractions) can be delivered safely with limited grade 2 or 3 late toxicity. Minimizing the proportion of rectum that receives moderate and high dose decreases the risk of late rectal toxicity after this

  14. Density Dependence and Growth Rate: Evolutionary Effects on Resistance Development to Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jeannette C; Caprio, Michael A; Friedenberg, Nicholas A

    2018-02-09

    It has long been recognized that pest population dynamics can affect the durability of a pesticide, but dose remains the primary component of insect resistance management (IRM). For transgenic pesticidal traits such as Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae)), dose (measured as the mortality of susceptibles caused by a toxin) is a relatively fixed characteristic and often falls below the standard definition of high dose. Hence, it is important to understand how pest population dynamics modify durability and what targets they present for IRM. We used a deterministic model of a generic arthropod pest to examine how timing and strength of density dependence interacted with population growth rate and Bt mortality to affect time to resistance. As in previous studies, durability typically reached a minimum at intermediate doses. However, high population growth rates could eliminate benefits of high dose. The timing of density dependence had a more subtle effect. If density dependence operated simultaneously with Bt mortality, durability was insensitive to its strengths. However, if density dependence was driven by postselection densities, decreasing its strength could increase durability. The strength of density dependence could affect durability of both single traits and pyramids, but its influence depended on the timing of density dependence and size of the refuge. Our findings suggest the utility of a broader definition of high dose, one that incorporates population-dynamic context. That maximum growth rates and timing and strength of interactions causing density dependent mortality can all affect durability, also highlights the need for ecologically integrated approaches to IRM research. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The halo effect: suppression of pink bollworm on non-Bt cotton by Bt cotton in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wan

    Full Text Available In some previously reported cases, transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt have suppressed insect pests not only in fields planted with such crops, but also regionally on host plants that do not produce Bt toxins. Here we used 16 years of field data to determine if Bt cotton caused this "halo effect" against pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella in six provinces of the Yangtze River Valley of China. In this region, the percentage of cotton hectares planted with Bt cotton increased from 9% in 2000 to 94% in 2009 and 2010. We found that Bt cotton significantly decreased the population density of pink bollworm on non-Bt cotton, with net decreases of 91% for eggs and 95% for larvae on non-Bt cotton after 11 years of Bt cotton use. Insecticide sprays targeting pink bollworm and cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera decreased by 69%. Previously reported evidence of the early stages of evolution of pink bollworm resistance to Bt cotton in China has raised concerns that if unchecked, such resistance could eventually diminish or eliminate the benefits of Bt cotton. The results reported here suggest that it might be possible to find a percentage of Bt cotton lower than the current level that causes sufficient regional pest suppression and reduces the risk of resistance.

  16. Dose study of the multikinase inhibitor, LY2457546, in patients with relapsed acute myeloid leukemia to assess safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wacheck, Volker; Lahn, Michael; Dickinson, Gemma; Füreder, Wolfgang; Meyer, Renata; Herndlhofer, Susanne; Füreder, Thorsten; Dorfner, Georg; Pillay, Sada; André, Valérie; Burkholder, Timothy P; Akunda, Jacqueline K; Flye-Blakemore, Leann; Van Bockstaele, Dirk; Schlenk, Richard F; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Valent, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a life-threatening malignancy with limited treatment options in chemotherapy-refractory patients. A first-in-human dose study was designed to investigate a safe and biologically effective dose range for LY2457546, a novel multikinase inhibitor, in patients with relapsed AML. In this nonrandomized, open-label, dose escalation Phase I study, LY2457546 was administered orally once a day. Safety, pharmacokinetics, changes in phosphorylation of target kinases in AML blasts, and risk of drug–drug interactions (DDI) were assessed. Five patients were treated at the starting and predicted minimal biologically effective dose of 50 mg/day. The most commonly observed adverse events were febrile neutropenia, epistaxis, petechiae, and headache. The majority of adverse events (81%) were Grade 1 or 2. One patient had generalized muscle weakness (Grade 3), which was deemed to be a dose-limiting toxicity. Notably, the pharmacokinetic profile of LY2457546 showed virtually no elimination of LY2457546 within 24 hours, and thus prevented further dose escalation. No significant DDI were observed. Ex vivo flow cytometry studies showed downregulation of the phosphoproteins, pcKIT, pFLT3, and pS6, in AML blasts after LY2457546 administration. No medically relevant responses were observed in the five treated patients. No biologically effective dose could be established for LY2457546 in chemotherapy-resistant AML patients. Lack of drug clearance prevented safe dose escalation, and the study was terminated early. Future efforts should be made to develop derivatives with a more favorable pharmacokinetic profile

  17. A Study of the Use of the "TOEFL iBT"® Test Speaking and Listening Scores for International Teaching Assistant Screening. "TOEFL iBT"® Research Report. TOEFL iBT-27. ETS Research Report. RR-16-18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Elvis

    2016-01-01

    Although the speaking section of the "TOEFL iBT"® test is used by many universities to determine if international teaching assistants (ITAs) have the oral proficiency necessary to be classroom instructors, relatively few studies have investigated the validity of using TOEFL iBT scores for ITA screening. The primary purpose of this study…

  18. Effects of Bt-maize material on the life cycle of the land snail Cantareus aspersus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramarz, Paulina; de Vaufleury, Annette; Gimbert, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    ). For snails not previously exposed to Bt material, hatchability of eggs was similar in the soils tested. The outcome of the experiments indicates that, in growing snails, long-term exposure is needed to reveal an effect of Bt-maize. The hazard analysis of Bt-maize which we performed, based on a worst......Insect resistant Bt-maize (MON 810) expresses active Cry1Ab endotoxin derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Snails constitute non-target soil species potentially exposed to Bt-toxin through consumption of plant material and soil in fields where transgenic plants have been grown. We studied...... the effect of the Cry1Ab toxin on survival, growth and egg hatchability of the snail Cantareus aspersus. From the age of 4 to 88 weeks, snails were fed either powdered Bt-maize or non-Bt-maize and exposed to soil samples collected after harvesting either the Bt-maize or non-Bt-maize. We applied four...

  19. Calculation and Analysis of B/T (Burning and/or Transmutation Rate of Minor Actinides and Plutonium Performed by Fast B/T Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsodi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Calculation and analysis of B/T (Burning and/or Transmutation rate of MA (minor actinides and Pu (Plutonium has been performed in fast B/T reactor. The study was based on the assumption that the spectrum shift of neutron flux to higher side of neutron energy had a potential significance for designing the fast B/T reactor and a remarkable effect for increasing the B/T rate of MA and/or Pu. The spectrum shifts of neutron have been performed by change MOX to metallic fuel. Blending fraction of MA and or Pu in B/T fuel and the volume ratio of fuel to coolant in the reactor core were also considered. Here, the performance of fast B/T reactor was evaluated theoretically based on the calculation results of the neutronics and burn-up analysis. In this study, the B/T rate of MA and/or Pu increased by increasing the blending fraction of MA and or Pu and by changing the F/C ratio. According to the results, the total B/T rate, i.e. [B/T rate]MA + [B/T rate]Pu, could be kept nearly constant under the critical condition, if the sum of the MA and Pu inventory in the core is nearly constant. The effect of loading structure was examined for inner or outer loading of concentric geometry and for homogeneous loading. Homogeneous loading of B/T fuel was the good structure for obtaining the higher B/T rate, rather than inner or outer loading

  20. Impact of Cry3Bb1-expressing Bt maize on adults of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissle, Michael; Hellmich, Richard L; Romeis, Jörg

    2011-07-01

    Genetically engineered maize producing insecticidal Cry3Bb1 protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is protected from root damage by corn rootworm larvae. An examination was made to establish whether western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) adults are affected by Cry3Bb1-expressing maize (MON88017) when feeding on above-ground tissue. In laboratory bioassays, adult D. v. virgifera were fed for 7 weeks with silk, leaves or pollen from Bt maize or the corresponding near-isoline. Male, but not female, survival was reduced in the Bt-leaf treatment compared with the control. Female weight was lower when fed Bt maize, and egg production was reduced in the Bt-silk treatment. ELISA measurements demonstrated that beetles feeding on silk were exposed to higher Cry3Bb1 concentrations than beetles collected from Bt-maize fields in the United States. In contrast to silk and pollen, feeding on leaves resulted in high mortality and low fecundity. Females feeding on pollen produced more eggs than on silk. C:N ratios indicated that silk does not provide enough nitrogen for optimal egg production. Direct effects of Cry3Bb1 on adult beetles could explain the observed effects, but varietal differences between Bt and control maize are also possible. The impact of Bt maize on adult populations, however, is likely to be limited. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Characterization of Asian Corn Borer Resistance to Bt Toxin Cry1Ie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueqin Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A strain of the Asian corn borer (ACB, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée, has evolved >800-fold resistance to Cry1Ie (ACB-IeR after 49 generations of selection. The inheritance pattern of resistance to Cry1Ie in ACB-IeR strain and its cross-resistance to other Bt toxins were determined through bioassay by exposing neonates from genetic-crosses to toxins incorporated into the diet. The response of progenies from reciprocal F1 crosses were similar (LC50s: 76.07 vs. 74.32 μg/g, which suggested the resistance was autosomal. The effective dominance (h decreased as concentration of Cry1Ie increased. h was nearly recessive or incompletely recessive on Cry1Ie maize leaf tissue (h = 0.02, but nearly dominant or incompletely dominant (h = 0.98 on Cry1Ie maize silk. Bioassay of the backcross suggested that the resistance was controlled by more than one locus. In addition, the resistant strain did not perform cross-resistance to Cry1Ab (0.8-fold, Cry1Ac (0.8-fold, Cry1F (0.9-fold, and Cry1Ah (1.0-fold. The present study not only offers the manifestation for resistance management, but also recommends that Cry1Ie will be an appropriate candidate for expression with Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1F, or Cry1Ah for the development of Bt maize.

  2. Characterization of Asian Corn Borer Resistance to Bt Toxin Cry1Ie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yueqin; Yang, Jing; Quan, Yudong; Wang, Zhenying; Cai, Wanzhi; He, Kanglai

    2017-06-07

    A strain of the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), has evolved >800-fold resistance to Cry1Ie (ACB-IeR) after 49 generations of selection. The inheritance pattern of resistance to Cry1Ie in ACB-IeR strain and its cross-resistance to other Bt toxins were determined through bioassay by exposing neonates from genetic-crosses to toxins incorporated into the diet. The response of progenies from reciprocal F₁ crosses were similar (LC 50 s: 76.07 vs. 74.32 μg/g), which suggested the resistance was autosomal. The effective dominance ( h ) decreased as concentration of Cry1Ie increased. h was nearly recessive or incompletely recessive on Cry1Ie maize leaf tissue ( h = 0.02), but nearly dominant or incompletely dominant ( h = 0.98) on Cry1Ie maize silk. Bioassay of the backcross suggested that the resistance was controlled by more than one locus. In addition, the resistant strain did not perform cross-resistance to Cry1Ab (0.8-fold), Cry1Ac (0.8-fold), Cry1F (0.9-fold), and Cry1Ah (1.0-fold). The present study not only offers the manifestation for resistance management, but also recommends that Cry1Ie will be an appropriate candidate for expression with Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1F, or Cry1Ah for the development of Bt maize.

  3. Comparative diversity of arthropods on Bt maize and non-Bt maize in two different cropping systems in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truter, J; Van Hamburg, H; Van Den Berg, J

    2014-02-01

    The biodiversity of an agroecosystem is not only important for its intrinsic value but also because it influences ecological functions that are vital for crop production in sustainable agricultural systems and the surrounding environment. A concern about genetically modified (GM) crops is the potential negative impact that such crops could have on diversity and abundance of nontarget organisms, and subsequently on ecosystem functions. Therefore, it is essential to assess the potential environmental risk of the release of a GM crop and to study its effect on species assemblages within that ecosystem. Assessment of the impact of Bt maize on the environment is hampered by the lack of basic checklists of species present in maize agroecosystems. The aims of the study were to compile a checklist of arthropods that occur on maize in South Africa and to compare the diversity and abundance of arthropods and functional groups on Bt maize and non-Bt maize. Collections of arthropods were carried out during two growing seasons on Bt maize and non-Bt maize plants at two localities. Three maize fields were sampled per locality during each season. Twenty plants, each of Bt maize and non-Bt maize, were randomly selected from the fields at each site. The arthropods collected during this study were classified to morphospecies level and grouped into the following functional groups: detritivores, herbivores, predators, and parasitoids. Based on feeding strategy, herbivores and predators were further divided into sucking herbivores or predators (piercing-sucking mouthparts) and chewing herbivores or predators (chewing mouthparts). A total of 8,771 arthropod individuals, comprising 288 morphospecies and presenting 20 orders, were collected. Results from this short-term study indicated that abundance and diversity of arthropods in maize and the different functional guilds were not significantly affected by Bt maize, either in terms of diversity or abundance.

  4. A dosimetric selectivity intercomparison of HDR brachytherapy, IMRT and helical tomotherapy in prostate cancer radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermesse, Johanne; Biver, Sylvie; Jansen, Nicolas; Coucke, Philippe [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Liege Univ. Hospital (Belgium); Lenaerts, Eric [Dept. of Medical Physics, Liege Univ. Hospital (Belgium); De Patoul, Nathalie; Vynckier, Stefaan [Dept. of Medical Physics, St Luc Univ. Hospital, Brussels (Belgium); Scalliet, Pierre [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, St Luc Univ. Hospital, Brussels (Belgium); Nickers, Philippe [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Oscar Lambret Center, Lille (France)

    2009-11-15

    Background and purpose: dose escalation in order to improve the biochemical control in prostate cancer requires the application of irradiation techniques with high conformality. The dosimetric selectivity of three radiation modalities is compared: high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT), intensity-modulated radiation radiotherapy (IMRT), and helical tomotherapy (HT). Patients and methods: ten patients with prostate adenocarcinoma treated by a 10-Gy HDR-BT boost after external-beam radiotherapy were investigated. For each patient, HDR-BT, IMRT and HT theoretical treatment plans were realized using common contour sets. A 10-Gy dose was prescribed to the planning target volume (PTV). The PTVs and critical organs' dose-volume histograms obtained were compared using Student's t-test. Results: HDR-BT delivers spontaneously higher mean doses to the PTV with smaller cold spots compared to IMRT and HT. 33% of the rectal volume received a mean HDR-BT dose of 3.86 {+-} 0.3 Gy in comparison with a mean IMRT dose of 6.57 {+-} 0.68 Gy and a mean HT dose of 5.58 {+-} 0.71 Gy (p < 0.0001). HDR-BT also enables to better spare the bladder. The hot spots inside the urethra are greater with HDR-BT. The volume of healthy tissue receiving 10% of the prescribed dose is reduced at least by a factor of 8 with HDR-BT (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: HDR-BT offers better conformality in comparison with HT and IMRT and reduces the volume of healthy tissue receiving a low dose. (orig.)

  5. Modeling evolution of resistance of sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to transgenic Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J; Huang, F; Onstad, D W

    2014-08-01

    Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a target pest of transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein, and the first evidence of resistance by D. saccharalis to Cry1Ab corn was detected in a field population in northeast Louisiana in 2004. We used a model of population dynamics and genetics of D. saccharalis to 1) study the effect of interfield dispersal, the first date that larvae enter diapause for overwintering, toxin mortality, the proportion of non-Bt corn in the corn patch, and the area of a crop patch on Bt resistance evolution; and 2) to identify gaps in empirical knowledge for managing D. saccharalis resistance to Bt corn. Increasing, the proportion of corn refuge did not always improve the durability of Bt corn if the landscape also contained sugarcane, sorghum, or rice. In the landscape, which consisted of 90% corn area, 5% sorghum area, and 5% rice area, the durability of single-protein Bt corn was 40 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.2 but 16 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.5. The Bt resistance evolution was sensitive to a change (from Julian date 260 to 272) in the first date larvae enter diapause for overwintering and moth movement. In the landscapes with Bt corn, non-Bt corn, sugarcane, sorghum, and rice, the evolution of Bt resistance accelerated when larvae entered diapause for overwintering early. Intermediate rates of moth movement delayed evolution of resistance more than either extremely low or high rates. This study suggested that heterogeneity in the agrolandscapes may complicate the strategy for managing Bt resistance in D. saccharalis, and designing a Bt resistance management strategy for D. saccharalis is challenging because of a lack of empirical data about overwintering and moth movement.

  6. Effects of temperature on the feeding behavior of Alabama argillacea (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae on Bt and non-Bt cotton plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO S. RAMALHO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The host acceptance behavior and environmental factors as temperature affect the feeding behavior of Lepidoptera pests. Thus, they must be considered in studies about the risk potential of resistance evolution. The current study sets the differences in the feeding behavior of neonate Alabama argillacea (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae exposed to Bt and non-Bt cotton plants, under different temperatures and time gap after hatching. Two cotton cultivars were used: the Bt (DP 404 BG - bollgard and the non-transformed isoline, DP 4049. We found that the feeding behavior of neonate A. argillacea is significantly different between Bt and non-Bt cotton. Based on the number of larvae with vegetal tissue in their gut found on the plant and in the organza as well as on the amount of vegetal tissue ingested by the larvae. A. argillacea shows feeding preference for non-Bt cotton plants, in comparison to that on the Bt. However, factors such as temperature and exposure time may affect detection capacity and plant abandonment by the larvae and it results in lower ingestion of vegetal tissue. Such results are relevant to handle the resistance of Bt cotton cultivars to A. argillacea and they also enable determining how the cotton seeds mix will be a feasible handling option to hold back resistance evolution in A. argillacea populations on Bt cotton, when it is compared to other refuge strategies. The results can also be useful to determine which refuge distribution of plants is more effective for handling Bt cotton resistance to A. argillacea.

  7. Consequences for Protaphorura armata (Collembola: Onychiuridae) following exposure to genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize and non-Bt maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckmann, Lars-Henrik; Griffiths, Bryan S; Caul, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Studies on the effect of genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops on true soil dwelling non-target arthropods are scarce. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of a 4-week exposure to two Bt maize varieties (Cry1Ab) Cascade and MEB307 on the collembolan Protaphorur...

  8. Characterization of neutral lipase BT-1 isolated from the labial gland of Bombus terrestris males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Brabcová

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In addition to their general role in the hydrolysis of storage lipids, bumblebee lipases can participate in the biosynthesis of fatty acids that serve as precursors of pheromones used for sexual communication. RESULTS: We studied the temporal dynamics of lipolytic activity in crude extracts from the cephalic part of Bombus terrestris labial glands. Extracts from 3-day-old males displayed the highest lipolytic activity. The highest lipase gene expression level was observed in freshly emerged bumblebees, and both gene expression and lipase activity were lower in bumblebees older than 3 days. Lipase was purified from labial glands, further characterized and named as BT-1. The B. terrestris orthologue shares 88% sequence identity with B. impatiens lipase HA. The molecular weight of B. terrestris lipase BT-1 was approximately 30 kDa, the pH optimum was 8.3, and the temperature optimum was 50°C. Lipase BT-1 showed a notable preference for C8-C10 p-nitrophenyl esters, with the highest activity toward p-nitrophenyl caprylate (C8. The Michaelis constant (Km and maximum reaction rate (Vmax for p-nitrophenyl laurate hydrolysis were Km = 0.0011 mM and Vmax = 0.15 U/mg. CONCLUSION: This is the first report describing neutral lipase from the labial gland of B. terrestris. Our findings help increase understanding of its possible function in the labial gland.

  9. Strategy of Using Intratreatment Hypoxia Imaging to Selectively and Safely Guide Radiation Dose De-escalation Concurrent With Chemotherapy for Locoregionally Advanced Human Papillomavirus–Related Oropharyngeal Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Nancy, E-mail: leen2@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Schoder, Heiko [Molecular Imaging and Therapy Service, Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Beattie, Brad [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Lanning, Ryan; Riaz, Nadeem; McBride, Sean [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Katabi, Nora [Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Li, Duan [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Yarusi, Brett; Chan, Susie; Mitrani, Lindsey [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Zhang, Zhigang [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Pfister, David G.; Sherman, Eric; Baxi, Shrujal [Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Boyle, Jay; Morris, Luc G.T.; Ganly, Ian; Wong, Richard [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Humm, John [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Purpose: To report a small substudy of an ongoing large, multi-arm study using functional imaging to assess pre-/intratreatment hypoxia for all head and neck cancer, in which we hypothesized that pre- and early-treatment hypoxia assessment using functional positron emission tomography (PET) imaging may help select which human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive (HPV{sup +}) oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) patients can safely receive radiation de-escalation without jeopardizing treatment outcomes. Methods and Materials: Patients with HPV{sup +} oropharyngeal carcinoma were enrolled on an institutional review board–approved prospective study of which de-escalation based on imaging response was done for node(s) only. Pretreatment {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose and dynamic {sup 18}F-FMISO (fluoromisonidazole) positron emission tomography (PET) scans were performed. For patients with pretreatment hypoxia on{sup 18}F-FMISO PET (defined as a >1.2 tumor to muscle standard uptake value ratio), a repeat scan was done 1 week after chemoradiation. Patients without pretreatment hypoxia or with resolution of hypoxia on repeat scan received a 10-Gy dose reduction to metastatic lymph node(s). The 2-year local, regional, distant metastasis–free, and overall survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method. A subset of patients had biopsy of a hypoxic node done under image guidance. Results: Thirty-three HPV{sup +} OPC patients were enrolled in this pilot study. One hundred percent showed pretreatment hypoxia (at primary site and/or node[s]), and among these, 48% resolved (at primary site and/or node[s]); 30% met criteria and received 10-Gy reduction to the lymph node(s). At the median follow-up of 32 months (range, 21-61 months), the 2-year locoregional control rate was 100%. One patient failed distantly with persistence of hypoxia on {sup 18}F-FMISO PET. The 2-year distant metastasis–free rate was 97%. The 2-year OS rate was 100%. Hypoxia on imaging was

  10. Using generalized equivalent uniform dose atlases to combine and analyze prospective dosimetric and radiation pneumonitis data from 2 non-small cell lung cancer dose escalation protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fan; Yorke, Ellen D; Belderbos, José S A; Borst, Gerben R; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E; Lebesque, Joos V; Jackson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    To demonstrate the use of generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) atlas for data pooling in radiation pneumonitis (RP) modeling, to determine the dependence of RP on gEUD, to study the consistency between data sets, and to verify the increased statistical power of the combination. Patients enrolled in prospective phase I/II dose escalation studies of radiation therapy of non-small cell lung cancer at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) (78 pts) and the Netherlands Cancer Institute (NKI) (86 pts) were included; 10 (13%) and 14 (17%) experienced RP requiring steroids (RPS) within 6 months after treatment. gEUD was calculated from dose-volume histograms. Atlases for each data set were created using 1-Gy steps from exact gEUDs and RPS data. The Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model was fit to the atlas and exact gEUD data. Heterogeneity and inconsistency statistics for the fitted parameters were computed. gEUD maps of the probability of RPS rate≥20% were plotted. The 2 data sets were homogeneous and consistent. The best fit values of the volume effect parameter a were small, with upper 95% confidence limit around 1.0 in the joint data. The likelihood profiles around the best fit a values were flat in all cases, making determination of the best fit a weak. All confidence intervals (CIs) were narrower in the joint than in the individual data sets. The minimum P value for correlations of gEUD with RPS in the joint data was .002, compared with P=.01 and .05 for MSKCC and NKI data sets, respectively. gEUD maps showed that at small a, RPS risk increases with gEUD. The atlas can be used to combine gEUD and RPS information from different institutions and model gEUD dependence of RPS. RPS has a large volume effect with the mean dose model barely included in the 95% CI. Data pooling increased statistical power. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Conflict escalation in paediatric services: findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbat, Liz; Teuten, Bea; Barclay, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    To explore clinician and family experiences of conflict in paediatric services, in order to map the trajectory of conflict escalation. Qualitative interview study, employing extreme-case sampling. Interviews were analysed using an iterative thematic approach to identify common themes regarding the experience and escalation of conflict. Thirty-eight health professionals and eight parents. All participants had direct experience of conflict, including physical assault and court proceedings, at the interface of acute and palliative care. Two teaching hospitals, one district general hospital and two paediatric hospices in England, in 2011. Conflicts escalate in a predictable manner. Clearly identifiable behaviours by both clinicians and parents are defined as mild, moderate and severe. Mild describes features like the insensitive use of language and a history of unresolved conflict. Moderate involves a deterioration of trust, and a breakdown of communication and relationships. Severe marks disintegration of working relationships, characterised by behavioural changes including aggression, and a shift in focus from the child's best interests to the conflict itself. Though conflicts may remain at one level, those which escalated tended to move sequentially from one level to the next. Understanding how conflicts escalate provides clinicians with a practical, evidence-based framework to identify the warning signs of conflict in paediatrics. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Real-time dose compensation methods for scanned ion beam therapy of moving tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luechtenborg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Scanned ion beam therapy provides highly tumor-conformal treatments. So far, only tumors showing no considerable motion during therapy have been treated as tumor motion and dynamic beam delivery interfere, causing dose deteriorations. One proposed technique to mitigate these deteriorations is beam tracking (BT), which adapts the beam position to the moving tumor. Despite application of BT, dose deviations can occur in the case of non-translational motion. In this work, real-time dose compensation combined with beam tracking (RDBT) has been implemented into the control system to compensate these dose changes by adaptation of nominal particle numbers during irradiation. Compared to BT, significantly reduced dose deviations were measured using RDBT. Treatment planning studies for lung cancer patients including the increased biological effectiveness of ions revealed a significantly reduced over-dose level (3/5 patients) as well as significantly improved dose homogeneity (4/5 patients) for RDBT. Based on these findings, real-time dose compensated re-scanning (RDRS) has been proposed that potentially supersedes the technically complex fast energy adaptation necessary for BT and RDBT. Significantly improved conformity compared to re-scanning, i.e., averaging of dose deviations by repeated irradiation, was measured in film irradiations. Simulations comparing RDRS to BT revealed reduced under- and overdoses of the former method.

  13. Continual reassessment method for dose escalation clinical trials in oncology: a comparison of prior skeleton approaches using AZD3514 data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Gareth D; Symeonides, Stefan N; Marshall, Jayne; Young, Julia; Clack, Glen

    2016-08-31

    The continual reassessment method (CRM) requires an underlying model of the dose-toxicity relationship ("prior skeleton") and there is limited guidance of what this should be when little is known about this association. In this manuscript the impact of applying the CRM with different prior skeleton approaches and the 3 + 3 method are compared in terms of ability to determine the true maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and number of patients allocated to sub-optimal and toxic doses. Post-hoc dose-escalation analyses on real-life clinical trial data on an early oncology compound (AZD3514), using the 3 + 3 method and CRM using six different prior skeleton approaches. All methods correctly identified the true MTD. The 3 + 3 method allocated six patients to both sub-optimal and toxic doses. All CRM approaches allocated four patients to sub-optimal doses. No patients were allocated to toxic doses from sigmoidal, two from conservative and five from other approaches. Prior skeletons for the CRM for phase 1 clinical trials are proposed in this manuscript and applied to a real clinical trial dataset. Highly accurate initial skeleton estimates may not be essential to determine the true MTD, and, as expected, all CRM methods out-performed the 3 + 3 method. There were differences in performance between skeletons. The choice of skeleton should depend on whether minimizing the number of patients allocated to suboptimal or toxic doses is more important. NCT01162395 , Trial date of first registration: July 13, 2010.

  14. 18 CFR Table 1 to Part 301 - Functionalization and Escalation Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Functionalization and Escalation Codes 1 Table 1 to Part 301 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS FOR FEDERAL POWER MARKETING ADMINISTRATIONS AVERAGE SYSTEM COST...

  15. Dose-Escalated Hypofractionated Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in High-Risk Carcinoma of the Prostate: Outcome and Late Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Thomson

    2012-01-01

    Results. Median followup was 84 months. Five-year overall survival (OS was 83% and biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS was 50% for 57 Gy. Five-year OS was 75% and bPFS 58% for 60 Gy. At 7 years, toxicity by RTOG criteria was acceptable with no grade 3 or above toxicity. Compared with baseline, there was no significant change in urinary symptoms at 2 or 7 years. Bowel symptoms were stable between 2 and 7 years. All patients continued to have significant sexual dysfunction. Conclusion. In high-risk prostate cancer, dose-escalated hypofractionated radiotherapy using IMRT results in encouraging outcomes and acceptable late toxicity.

  16. First-In-Human, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized, Dose-Escalation Study of BG00010, a Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Family Member, in Subjects with Unilateral Sciatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolan, Paul E; O'Neill, Gilmore; Versage, Eve; Rana, Jitesh; Tang, Yongqiang; Galluppi, Gerald; Aycardi, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of single doses of BG00010 (neublastin, artemin, enovin) in subjects with unilateral sciatica. This was a single-center, blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized Phase 1 sequential-cohort, dose-escalation study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00961766; funded by Biogen Idec). Adults with unilateral sciatica were enrolled at The Royal Adelaide Hospital, Australia. Four subjects were assigned to each of eleven cohorts (intravenous BG00010 0.3, 1, 3, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, or 800 μg/kg, or subcutaneous BG00010 50 μg/kg) and were randomized 3:1 to receive a single dose of BG00010 or placebo. The primary safety and tolerability assessments were: adverse events; clinical laboratory parameters and vital signs; pain as measured by a Likert rating scale; intra-epidermal nerve fiber density; and longitudinal assessment of quantitative sensory test parameters. Blood, serum, and plasma samples were collected for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic assessments. Subjects were blinded to treatment assignment throughout the study. The investigator was blinded to treatment assignment until the Data Safety Review Committee review of unblinded data, which occurred after day 28. Beyond the planned enrollment of 44 subjects, four additional subjects were enrolled into to the intravenous BG00010 200 μg/kg cohort after one original subject experienced mild generalized pruritus. Therefore, a total of 48 subjects were enrolled between August 2009 and December 2011; all were included in the safety analyses. BG00010 was generally well tolerated: in primary analyses, the most common treatment-emergent adverse events were changes in temperature perception, pruritus, rash, or headache; no trends were observed in clinical laboratory parameters, vital signs, intra-epidermal nerve fiber density, or quantitative sensory testing. BG00010 was not associated with any clear, dose-dependent trends in Likert pain scores. BG00010 was

  17. Phase I Study of Conformal Radiotherapy and Concurrent Full-Dose Gemcitabine With Erlotinib for Unresected Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, John M., E-mail: jrobertson@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Margolis, Jeffrey [Division of Medical Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Jury, Robert P. [Department of Surgery, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Balaraman, Savitha; Cotant, Matthew B.; Ballouz, Samer; Boxwala, Iqbal G.; Jaiyesimi, Ishmael A.; Nadeau, Laura [Division of Medical Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Hardy-Carlson, Maria [Division of Radiation Oncology, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Marvin, Kimberly S.; Wallace, Michelle; Ye Hong [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the recommended dose of radiotherapy when combined with full-dose gemcitabine and erlotinib for unresected pancreas cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients with unresected pancreatic cancer (Zubrod performance status 0-2) were eligible for the present study. Gemcitabine was given weekly for 7 weeks (1,000 mg/m{sup 2}) with erlotinib daily for 8 weeks (100 mg). A final toxicity assessment was performed in Week 9. Radiotherapy (starting at 30 Gy in 2-Gy fractions, 5 d/wk) was given to the gross tumor plus a 1-cm margin starting with the first dose of gemcitabine. A standard 3 plus 3 dose escalation (an additional 4 Gy within 2 days for each dose level) was used, except for the starting dose level, which was scheduled to contain 6 patients. In general, Grade 3 or greater gastrointestinal toxicity was considered a dose-limiting toxicity, except for Grade 3 anorexia or Grade 3 fatigue alone. Results: A total of 20 patients were treated (10 men and 10 women). Nausea, vomiting, and infection were significantly associated with the radiation dose (p = .01, p = .03, and p = .03, respectively). Of the 20 patients, 5 did not complete treatment and were not evaluable for dose-escalation purposes (3 who developed progressive disease during treatment and 2 who electively discontinued it). Dose-limiting toxicity occurred in none of 6 patients at 30 Gy, 2 of 6 at 34 Gy, and 1 of 3 patients at 38 Gy. Conclusion: The results of the present study have indicated that the recommended Phase II dose is 30 Gy in 15 fractions.

  18. Phase I Study of Conformal Radiotherapy and Concurrent Full-Dose Gemcitabine With Erlotinib for Unresected Pancreatic Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, John M.; Margolis, Jeffrey; Jury, Robert P.; Balaraman, Savitha; Cotant, Matthew B.; Ballouz, Samer; Boxwala, Iqbal G.; Jaiyesimi, Ishmael A.; Nadeau, Laura; Hardy-Carlson, Maria; Marvin, Kimberly S.; Wallace, Michelle; Ye Hong

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the recommended dose of radiotherapy when combined with full-dose gemcitabine and erlotinib for unresected pancreas cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients with unresected pancreatic cancer (Zubrod performance status 0–2) were eligible for the present study. Gemcitabine was given weekly for 7 weeks (1,000 mg/m 2 ) with erlotinib daily for 8 weeks (100 mg). A final toxicity assessment was performed in Week 9. Radiotherapy (starting at 30 Gy in 2-Gy fractions, 5 d/wk) was given to the gross tumor plus a 1-cm margin starting with the first dose of gemcitabine. A standard 3 plus 3 dose escalation (an additional 4 Gy within 2 days for each dose level) was used, except for the starting dose level, which was scheduled to contain 6 patients. In general, Grade 3 or greater gastrointestinal toxicity was considered a dose-limiting toxicity, except for Grade 3 anorexia or Grade 3 fatigue alone. Results: A total of 20 patients were treated (10 men and 10 women). Nausea, vomiting, and infection were significantly associated with the radiation dose (p = .01, p = .03, and p = .03, respectively). Of the 20 patients, 5 did not complete treatment and were not evaluable for dose-escalation purposes (3 who developed progressive disease during treatment and 2 who electively discontinued it). Dose-limiting toxicity occurred in none of 6 patients at 30 Gy, 2 of 6 at 34 Gy, and 1 of 3 patients at 38 Gy. Conclusion: The results of the present study have indicated that the recommended Phase II dose is 30 Gy in 15 fractions.

  19. [Research of the Bt crop biomass dynamics upon the invasion of Bt-resistant pests. A mathematical model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusakov, A V; Medvinskiĭ, A B; Li, B -L; Gonik, M M

    2009-01-01

    The results of simulations of some consequences of the invasion of Bt-resistant pests into an agricultural ecosystem containing a Bt crop are presented. It is shown that the invasion of Bt-resistant pests leads to changes in the plant biomass dynamics, a decrease in the Bt crop production, and the deterioration of the predictability of the Bt crop production. We show that the parameter values at which the badly predictable Bt crop production takes place, occupy a minor area in the model parameter space. The size of the area depends on the insect reproduction period and the duration of the growing season.

  20. Larval development of Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera frugiperda fed on fresh ear of field corn expressing the Bt proteins (Cry1F and Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orcial Ceolin Bortolotto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate extent of larval period, larval survival (%, food consumption, and pupal biomass of Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae fed on fresh ears of field corn expressing Bt proteins (Cry1F and Cry1F+Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2. Larvae of Spodoptera spp. survived less than two days when they consumed Bt corncobs and showed 100% mortality. Spodoptera eridania reared on non-Bt corn cobs showed higher larval development (21.6 days than S. frugiperda (18.4 days and lower viability (56.4% and 80.2% for S. eridania and S. frugiperda , respectively. A higher amount of corn grains was consumed by S. eridania (5.4g than by S. frugiperda (3.9g. In summary, this study demonstrated that the toxins Cry1F and Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 expressed in fresh corn cobs contributed to protect ears of corn against S. frugiperda and the non-target pest S. eridania . However, itis important to monitor non-Bt cornfields because of the potential of both species to cause damage to ear sof corn.

  1. Three-dimensional dose accumulation in pseudo-split-field IMRT and brachytherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Baozhou; Yang, Deshan; Esthappan, Jackie

    2015-01-01

    -field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and image-guided BT in locally advanced cervical cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Thirty-three patients treated with split-field-IMRT to 45.0-51.2 Gy in 1.6-1.8 Gy per fraction to the elective pelvic lymph nodes and to 20 Gy to the central pelvis region were...... included in this study. Patients received six weekly fractions of high-dose rate BT to 6.5-7.3 Gy per fraction. A dose tracker software was developed to compute the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD2) to gross tumor volume (GTV), organs-at-risk and point A. Total dose-volume histogram parameters were...

  2. Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) as Predicting Marker for Clinical Outcome and Evaluation of Early Toxicity Rate after High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy (HDR-BT) in Combination with Additional External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT) for High Risk Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecke, Thorsten H; Huang-Tiel, Hui-Juan; Golka, Klaus; Selinski, Silvia; Geis, Berit Christine; Koswig, Stephan; Bathe, Katrin; Hallmann, Steffen; Gerullis, Holger

    2016-11-10

    High-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is a common treatment option for locally advanced prostate cancer (PCa). Seventy-nine male patients (median age 71 years, range 50 to 79) with high-risk PCa underwent HDR-BT following EBRT between December 2009 and January 2016 with a median follow-up of 21 months. HDR-BT was administered in two treatment sessions (one week interval) with 9 Gy per fraction using a planning system and the Ir192 treatment unit GammaMed Plus iX. EBRT was performed with CT-based 3D-conformal treatment planning with a total dose administration of 50.4 Gy with 1.8 Gy per fraction and five fractions per week. Follow-up for all patients was organized one, three, and five years after radiation therapy to evaluate early and late toxicity side effects, metastases, local recurrence, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value measured in ng/mL. The evaluated data included age, PSA at time of diagnosis, PSA density, BMI (body mass index), Gleason score, D'Amico risk classification for PCa, digital rectal examination (DRE), PSA value after one/three/five year(s) follow-up (FU), time of follow-up, TNM classification, prostate volume, and early toxicity rates. Early toxicity rates were 8.86% for gastrointestinal, and 6.33% for genitourinary side effects. Of all treated patients, 84.81% had no side effects. All reported complications in early toxicity were grade 1. PSA density at time of diagnosis ( p = 0.009), PSA on date of first HDR-BT ( p = 0.033), and PSA on date of first follow-up after one year ( p = 0.025) have statistical significance on a higher risk to get a local recurrence during follow-up. HDR-BT in combination with additional EBRT in the presented design for high-risk PCa results in high biochemical control rates with minimal side-effects. PSA is a negative predictive biomarker for local recurrence during follow-up. A longer follow-up is needed to assess long-term outcome and toxicities.

  3. Dosimetric Considerations to Determine the Optimal Technique for Localized Prostate Cancer Among External Photon, Proton, or Carbon-Ion Therapy and High-Dose-Rate or Low-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georg, Dietmar, E-mail: Dietmar.Georg@akhwien.at [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna/Allgemeines Krankenhaus der Stadt Wien, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna/Allgemeines Krankenhaus der Stadt Wien, Vienna (Austria); Hopfgartner, Johannes [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna/Allgemeines Krankenhaus der Stadt Wien, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna/Allgemeines Krankenhaus der Stadt Wien, Vienna (Austria); Gòra, Joanna [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna/Allgemeines Krankenhaus der Stadt Wien, Vienna (Austria); Kuess, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna/Allgemeines Krankenhaus der Stadt Wien, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna/Allgemeines Krankenhaus der Stadt Wien, Vienna (Austria); Kragl, Gabriele [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna/Allgemeines Krankenhaus der Stadt Wien, Vienna (Austria); Berger, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna/Allgemeines Krankenhaus der Stadt Wien, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna/Allgemeines Krankenhaus der Stadt Wien, Vienna (Austria); Hegazy, Neamat [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna/Allgemeines Krankenhaus der Stadt Wien, Vienna (Austria); Goldner, Gregor; Georg, Petra [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna/Allgemeines Krankenhaus der Stadt Wien, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna/Allgemeines Krankenhaus der Stadt Wien, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To assess the dosimetric differences among volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), scanned proton therapy (intensity-modulated proton therapy, IMPT), scanned carbon-ion therapy (intensity-modulated carbon-ion therapy, IMIT), and low-dose-rate (LDR) and high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy (BT) treatment of localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Ten patients were considered for this planning study. For external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), planning target volume was created by adding a margin of 5 mm (lateral/anterior–posterior) and 8 mm (superior–inferior) to the clinical target volume. Bladder wall (BW), rectal wall (RW), femoral heads, urethra, and pelvic tissue were considered as organs at risk. For VMAT and IMPT, 78 Gy(relative biological effectiveness, RBE)/2 Gy were prescribed. The IMIT was based on 66 Gy(RBE)/20 fractions. The clinical target volume planning aims for HDR-BT ({sup 192}Ir) and LDR-BT ({sup 125}I) were D{sub 90%} ≥34 Gy in 8.5 Gy per fraction and D{sub 90%} ≥145 Gy. Both physical and RBE-weighted dose distributions for protons and carbon-ions were converted to dose distributions based on 2-Gy(IsoE) fractions. From these dose distributions various dose and dose–volume parameters were extracted. Results: Rectal wall exposure 30-70 Gy(IsoE) was reduced for IMIT, LDR-BT, and HDR-BT when compared with VMAT and IMPT. The high-dose region of the BW dose–volume histogram above 50 Gy(IsoE) of IMPT resembled the VMAT shape, whereas all other techniques showed a significantly lower high-dose region. For all 3 EBRT techniques similar urethra D{sub mean} around 74 Gy(IsoE) were obtained. The LDR-BT results were approximately 30 Gy(IsoE) higher, HDR-BT 10 Gy(IsoE) lower. Normal tissue and femoral head sparing was best with BT. Conclusion: Despite the different EBRT prescription and fractionation schemes, the high-dose regions of BW and RW expressed in Gy(IsoE) were on the same order of magnitude. Brachytherapy techniques

  4. Dosimetric Considerations to Determine the Optimal Technique for Localized Prostate Cancer Among External Photon, Proton, or Carbon-Ion Therapy and High-Dose-Rate or Low-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georg, Dietmar; Hopfgartner, Johannes; Gòra, Joanna; Kuess, Peter; Kragl, Gabriele; Berger, Daniel; Hegazy, Neamat; Goldner, Gregor; Georg, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the dosimetric differences among volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), scanned proton therapy (intensity-modulated proton therapy, IMPT), scanned carbon-ion therapy (intensity-modulated carbon-ion therapy, IMIT), and low-dose-rate (LDR) and high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy (BT) treatment of localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Ten patients were considered for this planning study. For external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), planning target volume was created by adding a margin of 5 mm (lateral/anterior–posterior) and 8 mm (superior–inferior) to the clinical target volume. Bladder wall (BW), rectal wall (RW), femoral heads, urethra, and pelvic tissue were considered as organs at risk. For VMAT and IMPT, 78 Gy(relative biological effectiveness, RBE)/2 Gy were prescribed. The IMIT was based on 66 Gy(RBE)/20 fractions. The clinical target volume planning aims for HDR-BT ( 192 Ir) and LDR-BT ( 125 I) were D 90% ≥34 Gy in 8.5 Gy per fraction and D 90% ≥145 Gy. Both physical and RBE-weighted dose distributions for protons and carbon-ions were converted to dose distributions based on 2-Gy(IsoE) fractions. From these dose distributions various dose and dose–volume parameters were extracted. Results: Rectal wall exposure 30-70 Gy(IsoE) was reduced for IMIT, LDR-BT, and HDR-BT when compared with VMAT and IMPT. The high-dose region of the BW dose–volume histogram above 50 Gy(IsoE) of IMPT resembled the VMAT shape, whereas all other techniques showed a significantly lower high-dose region. For all 3 EBRT techniques similar urethra D mean around 74 Gy(IsoE) were obtained. The LDR-BT results were approximately 30 Gy(IsoE) higher, HDR-BT 10 Gy(IsoE) lower. Normal tissue and femoral head sparing was best with BT. Conclusion: Despite the different EBRT prescription and fractionation schemes, the high-dose regions of BW and RW expressed in Gy(IsoE) were on the same order of magnitude. Brachytherapy techniques were clearly superior in

  5. Assessing Potential Impact of Bt Eggplants on Non-Target Arthropods in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navasero, Mario V.; Candano, Randolph N.; Hautea, Desiree M.; Hautea, Randy A.; Shotkoski, Frank A.; Shelton, Anthony M.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on potential adverse effects of genetically engineered crops are part of an environmental risk assessment that is required prior to the commercial release of these crops. Of particular concern are non-target organisms (NTOs) that provide important ecosystem services. Here, we report on studies conducted in the Philippines over three cropping seasons with Bt eggplants expressing Cry1Ac for control of the eggplant fruit and shoot borer (EFSB), Leucinodes orbonalis, to examine potential effects on field abundance, community composition, structure and biodiversity of NTO’s, particularly non-target arthropod (NTA) communities. We document that many arthropod taxa are associated with Bt eggplants and their non-Bt comparators and that the number of taxa and their densities varied within season and across trials. However, we found few significant differences in seasonal mean densities of arthropod taxa between Bt and non-Bt eggplants. As expected, a lower abundance of lepidopteran pests was detected in Bt eggplants. Higher abundance of a few non-target herbivores was detected in non-Bt eggplants as were a few non-target beneficials that might control them. Principal Response Curve (PRC) analyses showed no statistically significant impact of Bt eggplants on overall arthropod communities through time in any season. Furthermore, we found no significant adverse impacts of Bt eggplants on species abundance, diversity and community dynamics, particularly for beneficial NTAs. These results support our previous studies documenting that Bt eggplants can effectively and selectively control the main pest of eggplant in Asia, the EFSB. The present study adds that it can do so without adverse effects on NTAs. Thus, Bt eggplants can be a foundational component for controlling EFSB in an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program and dramatically reduce dependence on conventional insecticides. PMID:27798662

  6. Deep convolutional neural network with transfer learning for rectum toxicity prediction in cervical cancer radiotherapy: a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Xin; Chen, Jiawei; Zhong, Zichun; Hrycushko, Brian; Zhou, Linghong; Jiang, Steve; Albuquerque, Kevin; Gu, Xuejun

    2017-11-01

    Better understanding of the dose-toxicity relationship is critical for safe dose escalation to improve local control in late-stage cervical cancer radiotherapy. In this study, we introduced a convolutional neural network (CNN) model to analyze rectum dose distribution and predict rectum toxicity. Forty-two cervical cancer patients treated with combined external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and brachytherapy (BT) were retrospectively collected, including twelve toxicity patients and thirty non-toxicity patients. We adopted a transfer learning strategy to overcome the limited patient data issue. A 16-layers CNN developed by the visual geometry group (VGG-16) of the University of Oxford was pre-trained on a large-scale natural image database, ImageNet, and fine-tuned with patient rectum surface dose maps (RSDMs), which were accumulated EBRT  +  BT doses on the unfolded rectum surface. We used the adaptive synthetic sampling approach and the data augmentation method to address the two challenges, data imbalance and data scarcity. The gradient-weighted class activation maps (Grad-CAM) were also generated to highlight the discriminative regions on the RSDM along with the prediction model. We compare different CNN coefficients fine-tuning strategies, and compare the predictive performance using the traditional dose volume parameters, e.g. D 0.1/1/2cc, and the texture features extracted from the RSDM. Satisfactory prediction performance was achieved with the proposed scheme, and we found that the mean Grad-CAM over the toxicity patient group has geometric consistence of distribution with the statistical analysis result, which indicates possible rectum toxicity location. The evaluation results have demonstrated the feasibility of building a CNN-based rectum dose-toxicity prediction model with transfer learning for cervical cancer radiotherapy.

  7. Changes in bacillus thuringiensis tolerance levels due to hybridization of Bt-tolerant and susceptible silkworm populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begumad, H.A.; Hassana, E.; Dingleb, J.; Alshehic, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Males and females of a Bt-tolerant mulberry silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) population were crossed with females and males of a Bt-susceptible population, to produce Bt-tolerant silkworm hybrids, and to determine the expression of the Bt-tolerance pattern in the F 1 hybrids. It was observed that when a Bt-tolerant (42% larval mortality) female (BtT ) silkworm was crossed with a Bt-susceptible (85% larval mortality) male (BtS ), the resultant F 1 offspring showed lower levels of Bt-tolerance (87% larval mortality). On the other hand, when a Bt-tolerant male (BtT ) was crossed with a Bt-susceptible female (BtS ), the F 1 hybrid showed higher levels of Bt-tolerance (35% larval mortality) characteristic. The probit statistics showed that both hybrids expressed Bt-tolerance or susceptible levels similar to their male parents. These different patterns of Bt-tolerance in F 1 hybrids might be due to the transferring of a Bt-tolerant gene, from the parents to offspring, through the homozygotic male (ZZ) silkworm. (author)

  8. Adoption of Bt Cotton: Threats and Challenges Adopción de Algodón Bt: Desafíos y Amenazas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Faisal Bilal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Adopting new technology always involves advantages and risks; Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. is a new technology well known in developed countries for its many advantages, such as reduced pesticide application, better insect pest control, and higher lint yield. However, its success in developing countries is still a question mark. Global adoption of Bt cotton has risen dramatically from 0.76 million ha when introduced in 1996 to 7.85 million ha in the 2005 cotton-growing season where 54% of the cotton crops in the USA, 76% in China, and 80% in Australia were grown with single or multiple Bt genes. Bollworms are serious cotton pests causing 30-40% yield reduction in Pakistan and 20-66% potential crop losses in India. The major advances shown in this review include: (1 Evolution of Bt cotton may prove to be a green revolution to enhance cotton yield; (2 adoption of Bt cotton by farmers is increasing due to its beneficial environmental effects by reducing pesticide application: however, a high seed price has compelled farmers to use illegal non-approved Bt causing huge damage to crops because of low tolerance to insect pests; and (3 some factors responsible for changes in the efficiency of the Bt gene and Bt cotton yield include internal phenology (genetics, atmospheric changes (CO2 concentration, nutrition, insect pests, boll distribution pattern, disease and nematodes, removal of fruiting branch and/or floral bud, introduction of Bt gene, and terpenoids and tannin production in the plant body.La adopción de nueva tecnología siempre involucra ventajas y riesgos; algodón Bt (Gossypium hirsutum L. es una nueva tecnología bien conocida en países desarrollados por muchas ventajas como reducida aplicación de pesticidas, mejor control de insectos plaga, y mayor producción de fibra, pero su éxito en países en desarrollo aún conlleva dudas. La adopción global de algodón Bt ha aumentado dramáticamente de 0,76 millones de hectáreas en su

  9. WHAT IS THE VALUE OF BT CORN?

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, Terrance M.; Mitchell, Paul D.; Rice, Marlin E.

    2001-01-01

    A common perception is that the value of Bt corn arises from two components-Bt corn increases expected profit and reduces profit variability. This perception encourages farmers and the policy makers to add a risk benefit to estimates of the value of Bt corn to account for the variability reduction. However, a conceptual model generates a useful decomposition of the value of Bt corn and a condition determining the impact of Bt corn on profit variability. An empirical model finds that Bt corn i...

  10. Pulsed dose rate and fractionated high dose rate brachytherapy: choice of brachytherapy schedules to replace low dose rate treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, Andries G.; Aardweg, Gerard J.M.J. van den; Levendag, Peter C.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Pulsed dose rate (PDR) brachytherapy is a new type of afterloading brachytherapy (BT) in which a continuous low dose rate (LDR) treatment is simulated by a series of 'pulses,' i.e., fractions of short duration (less than 0.5 h) with intervals between fractions of 1 to a few hours. At the Dr. Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, the term 'PDR brachytherapy' is used for treatment schedules with a large number of fractions (at least four per day), while the term 'fractionated high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy' is used for treatment schedules with just one or two brachytherapy fractions per day. Both treatments can be applied as alternatives for LDR BT. This article deals with the choice between PDR and fractionated HDR schedules and proposes possible fractionation schedules. Methods and Materials: To calculate HDR and PDR fractionation schedules with the intention of being equivalent to LDR BT, the linear-quadratic (LQ) model has been used in an incomplete repair formulation as given by Brenner and Hall, and by Thames. In contrast to earlier applications of this model, both the total physical dose and the overall time were not kept identical for LDR and HDR/PDR schedules. A range of possible PDR treatment schedules is presented, both for booster applications (in combination with external radiotherapy (ERT) and for BT applications as a single treatment. Because the knowledge of both α/β values and the half time for repair of sublethal damage (T (1(2)) ), which are required for these calculations, is quite limited, calculations regarding the equivalence of LDR and PDR treatments have been performed for a wide range of values of α/β and T (1(2)) . The results are presented graphically as PDR/LDR dose ratios and as ratios of the PDR/LDR tumor control probabilities. Results: If the condition that total physical dose and overall time of a PDR treatment must be exactly identical to the values for the corresponding LDR treatment regimen is not applied, there appears

  11. Prostate cancer: Doses and volumes of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennequin, C.; Rivera, S.; Quero, L.; Latorzeff, I.

    2010-01-01

    Radiotherapy is nowadays a major therapeutic option in prostate cancer. Technological improvements allowed dose escalation without increasing late toxicity. Some randomized trials have shown that dose escalation decreases the biochemical failure rate, without any benefit in survival with the present follow-up. However, some studies indicate that the distant metastases rate is also decreased. Most of these studies have been done without hormonal treatment, and the role of dose escalation in case of long-term androgen deprivation is unknown. The target volume encompassed the whole gland: however, complete or partial focal treatment of the prostate can be done with sophisticated IMRT technique and must be evaluated. Proximal part of the seminal vesicles must be included in the target volumes. The role of nodal irradiation is another debate, but it could be logically proposed for the unfavourable group. (authors)

  12. Continued Benefit to Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy Across Multiple Definitions of High-Risk Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenmark, Matthew H.; Blas, Kevin; Halverson, Schuyler; Sandler, Howard M.; Feng, Felix Y.; Hamstra, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze prognostic factors in patients with high-risk prostate cancer treated with dose-escalated external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and androgen deprivation (ADT). Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2008 at University of Michigan Medical Center, 718 men were consecutively treated with EBRT to at least 75 Gy. Seven definitions of high-risk prostate cancer, applying to 11–33% of patients, were evaluated. Biochemical failure (BF), salvage ADT use, metastatic progression, and prostate cancer–specific mortality (PCSM) were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: Each high-risk definition was associated with increased BF (hazard ratio [HR] 2.8–3.9, p < 0.0001), salvage ADT use (HR 3.9–6.3, p < 0.0001), metastasis (HR 3.7–6.6, p < 0.0001), and PCSM (HR 3.7–16.2, p < 0.0001). Furthermore, an increasing number of high-risk features predicted worse outcome. Adjuvant ADT yielded significant reductions in both metastases (HR 0.19–0.38, p < 0.001) and PCSM (HR 0.38–0.50, p < 0.05) for all high-risk definitions (with the exception of clinical Stage T3–4 disease) but improved BF only for those with elevated Gleason scores (p < 0.03, HR 0.25–0.48). When treated with ADT and dose-escalated EBRT, patients with Gleason scores 8 to 10, without other high-risk features, had 8-year freedom from BF of 74%, freedom from distant metastases of 93%, and cause-specific survival of 92%, with salvage ADT used in 16% of patients. Conclusion: Adjuvant ADT results in a significant improvement in clinical progression and PCSM across multiple definitions of high-risk disease even with dose-escalated EBRT. There is a subset of patients, characterized by multiple high-risk features or the presence of Gleason Pattern 5, who remain at significant risk for metastasis and PCSM despite current treatment.

  13. A high-throughput liquid bead array-based screening technology for Bt presence in GMO manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei; Wang, Huiyu; Wang, Chenguang; Mei, Lin; Lin, Xiangmei; Han, Xueqing; Zhu, Shuifang

    2016-03-15

    The number of species and planting areas of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has been rapidly developed during the past ten years. For the purpose of GMO inspection, quarantine and manipulation, we have now devised a high-throughput Bt-based GMOs screening method based on the liquid bead array. This novel method is based on the direct competitive recognition between biotinylated antibodies and beads-coupled antigens, searching for Bt presence in samples if it contains Bt Cry1 Aa, Bt Cry1 Ab, Bt Cry1 Ac, Bt Cry1 Ah, Bt Cry1 B, Bt Cry1 C, Bt Cry1 F, Bt Cry2 A, Bt Cry3 or Bt Cry9 C. Our method has a wide GMO species coverage so that more than 90% of the whole commercialized GMO species can be identified throughout the world. Under our optimization, specificity, sensitivity, repeatability and availability validation, the method shows a high specificity and 10-50 ng/mL sensitivity of quantification. We then assessed more than 1800 samples in the field and food market to prove capacity of our method in performing a high throughput screening work for GMO manipulation. Our method offers an applicant platform for further inspection and research on GMO plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Emergency Department Escalation in Theory and Practice: A Mixed-Methods Study Using a Model of Organizational Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Jonathan; Ross, Alastair J; Duncan, Myanna D; Jaye, Peter; Henderson, Katherine; Anderson, Janet E

    2017-11-01

    Escalation policies are used by emergency departments (EDs) when responding to an increase in demand (eg, a sudden inflow of patients) or a reduction in capacity (eg, a lack of beds to admit patients). The policies aim to maintain the ability to deliver patient care, without compromising safety, by modifying "normal" processes. The study objective is to examine escalation policies in theory and practice. This was a mixed-method study involving a conceptual analysis of National Health Service escalation policies (n=12) and associated escalation actions (n=92), as well as a detailed ethnographic study of escalation in situ during a 16-month period in a large UK ED (n=30 observations). The conceptual analysis of National Health Service escalation policies found that their use requires the ability to dynamically reconfigure resources (staff and equipment), change work flow, and relocate patients. In practice, it was discovered that when the ED is under pressure, these prerequisites cannot always be attained. Instead, escalation processes were adapted to manage pressures informally. This adaptive need ("work as done") was found to be incompletely specified in policies ("work as imagined"). Formal escalation actions and their implementation in practice differed and varied in their effectiveness. Monitoring how escalation works in practice is essential in understanding whether and how escalation policies help to manage workload. Copyright © 2017 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cry1Ab protein from Bt transgenic rice does not residue in rhizosphere soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haiyan; Ye Qingfu; Wang Wei; Wu Licheng; Wu Weixiang

    2006-01-01

    Expression of Cry1Ab protein in Bt transgenic rice (KMD) and its residue in the rhizosphere soil during the whole growth in field, as well as degradation of the protein from KMD straw in five soils under laboratory incubation were studied. The residue of Cry1Ab protein in KMD rhizosphere soil was undetectable (below the limit of 0.5 ng/g air-dried soil). The Cry1Ab protein contents in the shoot and root of KMD were 3.23-8.22 and 0.68-0.89 μg/g (fresh weight), respectively. The half-lives of the Cry1Ab protein in the soils amended with KMD straw (4%, w/w) ranged from 11.5 to 34.3 d. The residence time of the protein varied significantly in a Fluvio-marine yellow loamy soil amended with KMD straw at the rate of 3, 4 and 7%, with half-lives of 9.9, 13.8 and 18 d, respectively. In addition, an extraction method for Cry1Ab protein in soil was developed, with extraction efficiencies of 46.4-82.3%. - Cry1Ab protein was not detected in the rhizosphere soil of field-grown Bt transgenic rice

  16. Sixteen Years of Bt Maize in the EU Hotspot: Why Has Resistance Not Evolved?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Castañera

    Full Text Available The majority of Bt maize production in the European Union (EU is concentrated in northeast Spain, which is Europe's only hotspot where resistance might evolve, and the main target pest, Sesamia nonagrioides, has been exposed to Cry1Ab maize continuously since 1998. The cropping system in northeast Spain has some similar characteristics to those that probably led to rapid resistance failures in two other target noctuid maize pests. These include repeated cultivation of Bt maize in the same fields, low use of refuges, recurring exposure of larvae to non-high dose concentrations of Cry1Ab toxin during the first years of cultivation, low migratory potential, and production concentrated in an irrigated region with few alternative hosts. Available data reveal no evidence of resistance in S. nonagrioides after 16 years of use. We explore the possible reasons for this resistance management success using evolutionary models to consider factors expected to accelerate resistance, and those expected to delay resistance. Low initial adoption rates and the EU policy decision to replace Event 176 with MON 810 Bt maize were key to delaying resistance evolution. Model results suggest that if refuge compliance continues at the present 90%, Bt maize might be used sustainably in northeast Spain for at least 20 more years before resistance might occur. However, obtaining good estimates of the present R allele frequency and level of local assortative mating are crucial to reduce uncertainty about the future success of resistance management.

  17. Insect pests management of bt cotton through the manipulation of different eco-friendly techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, N.; Khan, M.H.; Tofique, M.

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to manage insect pests of Bt cotton through the manipulation of different eco-friendly techniques. A perusal of data, based on the overall performance of different treatments reflected that lowest population of jassids (0.29) was observed in bio-control treated Bt cotton followed by bio-control treated conventional cotton (0.41). Mean per leaf population of thrips was found lowest in insecticide treated Bt cotton (0.97) which was statically at par with bi-control treated conventional cotton (0.95), biocontrol treated Bt cotton (1.09) and colour traps treated Bt cotton (1.50). In case of white flies, bio-control treated Bt cotton and bio-control treated conventional cotton again proved effective in maintaining the population at lower levels per leaf (0.33 and 0.35 respectively). No bollworms infestation was recorded in transgenic cotton whereas higher attack of the same was observed in the untreated conventional cotton block. The best results were achieved with the application of bio-control agents in combination with Bt cotton resulting in least infestation by insect pests and maximum seed yield of 3657 kg/ha. The population of Chrysoperla carnea was significantly higher in Bt and conventional cotton treated with bio-control agents as compared to the other treatments. The parasitism percentage of Trichogramma chilonis was observed significantly higher in bio-control treated conventional cotton. The studies manifested that combination of bio-control technology with Bt cotton effectively preserves the local beneficial insect fauna indicating its potential to be used as integrated management system against different insect pests of cotton. (author)

  18. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic crop: an environment friendly insect-pest management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh; Chandra, Amaresh; Pandey, K C

    2008-09-01

    Introduction of DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) and following move towards indiscriminate use of synthetic chemical insecticides led to the contamination of water and food sources, poisoning of non-target beneficial insects and development of insect-pests resistant to the chemical insecticides. Increased public concems about the adverse environmental effects of indiscriminate use of chemical insecticides prompted search of altemative methods for insect-pest control. One of the promising alternatives has been the use of biological control agents. There is well-documented history of safe application of Bt (B. thuringiensis, a gram positive soil bacterium) as effective biopesticides and a number of reports of expression of delta-endotoxin gene(s) in crop plants are available. Only a few insecticidal sprays are required on Bt transgenic crops, which not only save cost and time, but also reduce health risks. Insects exhibit remarkable ability to develop resistance to different insecticidal compounds, which raises concern about the unsystematic use of Bt transgenic technology also. Though resistance to Bt products among insect species under field conditions has been rare, laboratory studies show that insects are capable of developing high levels of resistance to one ormore Cry proteins. Now it is generally agreed that 'high-dose/refuge strategy' is the most promising and practical approach to prolong the effectiveness of Bt toxins. Although manybiosafety concerns, ethical and moral issues exist, area under Bt transgenic crops is rapidly increasing and they are cultivated on more than 32 million hectares world over Even after reservation of European Union (EU) for acceptance of geneticaly modified (GM) crops, 6 out of 25 countries have already adopted Bt crops and many otherindustrial countries will adopt Bt transgenic crops in near future. While the modem biotechnology has been recognized to have a great potential for the promotion of human well-being, adoption

  19. Evidence of multiple/cross resistance to Bt and organophosphate insecticides in Puerto Rico population of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu Cheng; Blanco, Carlos A; Portilla, Maribel; Adamczyk, John; Luttrell, Randall; Huang, Fangneng

    2015-07-01

    Fall armyworm (FAW) is a damaging pest of many economic crops. Long-term use of chemical control prompted resistance development to many insecticide classes. Many populations were found to be significantly less susceptible to major Bt toxins expressed in transgenic crops. In this study, a FAW strain collected from Puerto Rico (PR) with 7717-fold Cry1F-resistance was examined to determine if it had also developed multiple/cross resistance to non-Bt insecticides. Dose response assays showed that the PR strain developed 19-fold resistance to acephate. Besides having a slightly smaller larval body weight and length, PR also evolved a deep (2.8%) molecular divergence in mitochondrial oxidase subunit II. Further examination of enzyme activities in the midgut of PR larvae exhibited substantial decreases of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aminopeptidase (APN), 1-NA- and 2-NA-specific esterase, trypsin, and chymotrypsin activities, and significant increases of PNPA-specific esterase and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities. When enzyme preparations from the whole larval body were examined, all three esterase, GST, trypsin, and chymotrypsin activities were significantly elevated in the PR strain, while ALP and APN activities were not significantly different from those of susceptible strain. Data indicated that multiple/cross resistances may have developed in the PR strain to both Bt toxins and conventional insecticides. Consistently reduced ALP provided evidence to support an ALP-mediated Bt resistance mechanism. Esterases and GSTs may be associated with acephate resistance through elevated metabolic detoxification. Further studies are needed to clarify whether and how esterases, GSTs, and other enzymes (such as P450s) are involved in cross resistance development to Bt and other insecticide classes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Dose response in prostate cancer with 8-12 years' follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanks, Gerald E.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Epstein, Barry; Horwitz, Eric M.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This communication reports the long-term results of the original group of prostate cancer patients who participated in the first prospective Fox Chase Cancer Center radiation dose escalation study for which 8-12 years of follow-up is now available. Methods and Materials: Between March 1, 1989 and October 31, 1992, 232 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer received three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy only at Fox Chase Cancer Center in a prospective dose-escalation study. Of these patients, 229 were assessable. The 8-, 10-, and 12-year actuarial rates of biochemical control (biochemically no evidence of disease [bNED]), freedom from distant metastasis (FDM), and morbidity were calculated. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess multivariately the predictors of bNED control and FDM, including pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level (continuous), tumor stage (T1/T2a vs. T2b/T3), Gleason score (2-6 vs. 7-10), and radiation dose (continuous). The median total dose for all patients was 74 Gy (range 67-81). The median follow-up for living patients was 110 months (range 89-147). bNED control was defined using the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology consensus definition. Results: The actuarial bNED control for all patients included in this series was 55% at 5 years, 48% at 10 years, and 48% at 12 years. Patients with pretreatment PSA levels of 10-20 ng/mL had statistically significant differences (19% vs. 31% vs. 84%, p=0.0003) in bNED control when stratified by dose ( 75.6 Gy, respectively) on univariate analysis. For the 229 patients with follow-up, 124 (54%) were clinically and biochemically without evidence of disease. Sixty-nine patients were alive at the time of last follow-up, and 55 patients were dead of intercurrent disease. On multivariate analysis, radiation dose was a statistically significant predictor of bNED control for all patients and for unfavorable patients with a pretreatment PSA 20