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Sample records for doped tio2 nanoparticles

  1. Electrochemical Behavior of TiO2 Nanoparticle Doped WO3 Thin Films

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    Suvarna R. Bathe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticle TiO2 doped WO3 thin films by pulsed spray pyrolysis technique have been studied on fluorine tin doped (FTO and glass substrate. XRD shows amorphous nature for undoped and anatase phase of TiO2 having (101 plane for nanoparticle TiO2 doped WO3 thin film. SEM shows microfibrous reticulated porous network for WO3 with 600 nm fiber diameter and nanocrystalline having size 40 nm for TiO2 nanoparticle doped WO3 thin film. TiO2 nanoparticle doped WO3 thin film shows ~95% reversibility due to may be attributed to nanocrystalline nature of the film, which helpful for charge insertion and deinsertion process. The diffusion coefficient for TiO2 nanoparticle doped WO3 film is less than undoped WO3.

  2. Photocatalytic treatment of municipal wastewater using modified neodymium doped TiO(2) hybrid nanoparticles.

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    Shahmoradi, Behzad; Ibrahim, Ibrahim A; Sakamoto, Naonori; Ananda, Sannaiah; Somashekar, Rudrappa; Row, Tagur N Guru; Byrappa, Kullaiah

    2010-08-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of municipal wastewater was investigated using reagent grade TiO(2) and modified neodymium doped TiO(2) hybrid nanoparticles. For the first time, surface modification of Nd(3 +) doped TiO(2) hybrid nanoparticles were carried out with n-butylamine as surface modifier under mild hydrothermal conditions. The modified nanoparticles obtained were characterized by Powder XRD, FTIR, DLS, TEM, BET surface area, zeta potential and UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The characterization results indicated better morphology, particle size distribution and low agglomeration of the nanoparticles synthesized. It was found that photodegradation of wastewater using surface modified neodymium doped TiO(2) nanoparticles was more compared to pure TiO(2), which can be attributed to the doping and modification with n-butylamine.

  3. STM and STS investigations of Ce-doped TiO2 nanoparticles

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    HOU Tinghong; MAO Jian; ZHU Xiaodong; TU Mingjing

    2006-01-01

    Ce-doped titanium oxide nanoparticles were investigated in the paper. The surface structures of undoped and Ce-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were observed by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The experimental results of scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) show that the surface electronic structures of TiO2 nanoparticles are modified by introducing new electronic states in the surface band gap through cerium ion doping. The results are discussed in terms of the influence of doping concentration on the surface band gap of TiO2.

  4. Sensitized Emission in Ln3+-Doped TiO2 Semiconductor Nanoparticles

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    Stouwdam, Jan W.; Veggel, van Frank C.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The doping of lanthanide ions in semiconductor TiO2 nanoparticles is studied. The presence of the TiO2 absorption band in the excitation spectrum of the lanthanide (see graphic; excitation and emission) proves the existence of energy transfer from the host material to the lanthanide ion. Energy tran

  5. Structural and photocatalytic studies of Mn doped TiO2 nanoparticles.

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    Chauhan, Ruby; Kumar, Ashavani; Chaudhary, Ram Pal

    2012-12-01

    Mn-doped TiO(2) nanoparticles (Ti(1-)(x)Mn(x)O(2); where x=0.00-0.10) were synthesized by sol-gel method. The synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and UV-Vis spectrometer. The SEM and TEM micrographs revealed the agglomerated spherical-like morphology and measurements show that the size of crystallites is in the range of 10-20 nm. Optical measurements indicated a red shift in the absorption band edge after Mn doping. Direct allowed band gap of undoped and Mn-doped TiO(2) nanoparticles measured by UV-Vis spectrometer were 3.00 and 2.95 eV at 300 °C, respectively. Photocatalytic activities of TiO(2) and Mn doped TiO(2) were evaluated by irradiating the sample solution of methylene blue (MB) dye under ultraviolet and visible light exposure. It was found that Mn-doped TiO(2) bleaches MB much faster than undoped TiO(2) upon its exposure to the visible light as comparison to ultraviolet light. The experiment demonstrated that the photodegradation efficiency of Mn-doped TiO(2) was significantly higher than that of undoped TiO(2) upon its exposure to visible light.

  6. Fe-Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles Produced via MOCVD: Synthesis, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Activity

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    Siti Hajar Othman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles were produced via the metallorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD method at 700∘C. Different amounts of ferrocene as the Fe dopant source (0.001–0.05 g were introduced inside the reactor together with the titanium precursor in order to synthesize different Fe dopant concentrations of TiO2 nanoparticles. Nitrogen (N2 adsorption results showed that increasing the Fe dopant concentration caused a slight increase in the surface area of the nanoparticles due to the decrease in nanoparticle size. The UV-diffuse reflectance spectra demonstrated an absorption shift in Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles to longer wavelengths, thus showing an enhancement of the absorption in the visible spectrum. Bandgap energy values determined from the UV-diffuse reflectance spectra data decreased with an increase in the Fe dopant concentrations. The photocatalytic activity of Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles was investigated via degradation of methylene blue under UV and fluorescent light. It was found that Fe doping reduced the photocatalytic activity of the samples. Based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS results, it is believed that this is due to the unfavourable location of Fe3+ inside the interior matrix of the TiO2 nanoparticles rather than on the exterior surface, which would affect photocatalytic behaviour.

  7. Structure and high photocatalytic activity of (N, Ta)-doped TiO2 nanoparticles

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    Le, N. T. H.; Thanh, T. D.; Pham, V.-T.; Phan, T. L.; Lam, V. D.; Manh, D. H.; Anh, T. X.; Le, T. K. C.; Thammajak, N.; Hong, L. V.; Yu, S. C.

    2016-10-01

    A hydrothermal method was used to prepare three nano-crystalline samples of TiO2 (S1), N-doped TiO2 (S2), and (N, Ta)-codoped TiO2 (S3) with average crystallite sizes (D) of 13-25 nm. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed a single phase of the samples with a tetragonal/anatase structure. A slight increase in the lattice parameters was observed when N and/or Ta dopants were doped into the TiO2 host lattice. Detailed analyses of extended X-ray absorption spectra indicated that N- and/or Ta-doping into TiO2 nanoparticles influenced the co-ordination number and radial distance (R) of Ti ions in the anatase structure. Concerning their absorption spectra, (N, Ta)-doping narrowed the band gap (Eg) of TiO2 from 3.03 eV for S1 through 2.94 eV for S2 to 2.85 eV for S3. Such results revealed the applicability of these nanoparticles in the photocatalytic field working in the ultraviolet (UV)-visible region. Among these, photocatalytic activity of S3 was the strongest. By using S3 as a catalyst powder, the degradation efficiency of methylene blue solution was about 99% and 93% after irradiation of UV-visible light for 75 min and visible-light for 180 min, respectively.

  8. Silver-Doping Induced Lattice Distortion in TiO2 Nanoparticles

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    WU Xue-Wei; WU Da-Jian; LIU Xiao-Jun

    2009-01-01

    The Ag-doping effects on TiO2 nanoparticles are investigated by means of x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman scattering spectroscopy. XRD and Raman results indicate that Ag-doping stabilizes the rutile phase in TiO2.We find an Ag-doping induced lattice expansion in both anatase and rutile phases. The Ag-doping has different influences on the lattice distortion for anatase and rutile phases, that is, the c/a-value for the anatase phasedecreases w/th 0.5% Ag-doping and then increases with 1% Ag-doping while that for the rutile phase shows agradual increase with increasing Ag-doping. We have ascribed the different variations of lattice distortion due to Ag-doping to the change of interfacial interaction between the anatase and rutile phases induced by different Ag concentratious.

  9. Photocatalytic performance of Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles under visible-light irradiation

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    Ali, T.; Tripathi, P.; Azam, Ameer; Raza, Waseem; Ahmed, Arham S.; Ahmed, Ateeq; Muneer, M.

    2017-01-01

    The present work focuses on the synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of a nanosized Fe-doped TiO2 photocatalyst. The samples were synthesized by the sol–gel method and characterized by using techniques such as x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), UV–visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR). The powder XRD spectra revealed that the synthesized samples are pure and crystalline in nature and show a tetragonal anatase phase of TiO2. The Raman spectroscopy also confirmed the formation of an anatase phase structure in both pure and Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). The UV–visible and PL spectra illustrated the red shift in Fe-doped TiO2 NPs. The FTIR spectra indicated the vibrational band of the Ti–O lattice. The photocatalytic experimental results demonstrate that Fe-doped TiO2 NPs effectively degrade MB under visible-light illumination. Interestingly, the prepared TiO2 NPs with a dopant concentration of 3.0 mole% showed the maximum photocatalytic activity under investigation.

  10. Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity of Mo-Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles

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    Ji-guo Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The undoped and Mo-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, diffuse reflectance UV-visible absorption spectra (UV-vis DRS, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under irradiation of a 500 W xenon lamp and natural solar light outdoor. Effects of calcination temperatures and Mo doping amounts on crystal phase, crystallite size, lattice distortion, and optical properties were investigated. The results showed that most of Mo6+ took the place of Ti4+ in the crystal lattice of TiO2, which inhibited the growth of crystallite size, suppressed the transformation from anatase to rutile, and led to lattice distortion of TiO2. Mo doping narrowed the band gap (from 3.05 eV of TiO2 to 2.73 eV of TiMo0.02O and efficiently increased the optical absorption in visible region. Mo doping was shown to be an efficient method for degradation of methylene blue under visible light, especially under solar light. When the calcination temperature was 550°C and the Mo doping amount was 2.0%, the Mo-doped TiO2 sample exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity.

  11. TiO2 nanoparticles co-doped with silver and nitrogen for antibacterial application.

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    Yuan, Yali; Ding, Jianqiang; Xu, Jinsheng; Deng, Jian; Guo, Jianbo

    2010-08-01

    We have prepared a series of TiO2 nanoparticles for antibacterial applications. These TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by the hydrolysis precipitation method with Ti(OBu)4, silver nitrate and ammonia. Crystal structure, particle size, interfacial structure and UV-visible light response of the prepared nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction measurements (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis-DRs). The XRD spectra showed that all samples were anatase structure calcined at 450 degrees C for 3 hours. The Ag doping made the peak of diffraction wider. The results of TEM showed that the nanoparticles of TiO2, N-TiO2 and 1% Ag-N-TiO2 were all spherical in shape and well distributed with a mean size of 19.8 nm, 39.2 nm and 20.7 nm, respectively. N doping caused the nanoparticle size to increase, while, when the doped amount of Ag+ increased, the TiO2 particle size decreased. The FTIR revealed that Ag and N doping of TiO2 appeared to have strong absorption by -OH group and showed the characteristic absorption band of NH4+ and Ag. The UV-Vis-DRs indicated that the absorption band of Ag-N co-doped TiO2 had red shift and that the optical absorption response (between 400 nm and 700 nm) had obvious enhancement. The antibacterial properties of nanoparticles were investigated by agar diffusion method toward Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The results indicated that both Ag- and N-doped TiO2 could increase the antibacterial properties of TiO2 nanoparticles under fluorescent light irradiation. A 1% Ag-N-TiO2 had the highest antibacterial activity with a clear antibacterial circle of 33.0 mm toward Escherichia coli and 22.8 mm toward Bacillus subtilis after cultivation for 24 hours.

  12. Degradation of Pollutant and Antibacterial Activity of Waterborne Polyurethane/Doped TiO2 Nanoparticle Hybrid Films

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    QIU Shan; DENG Fengxia; XU Shanwen; LIU Peng; MIN Xinmin; MA Fang

    2015-01-01

    The waterborne polyurethane/doped TiO2 nanoparticle hybrid films were prepared. Nd, I doped TiO2 was prepared with a 50 nm particle sizefi rstly. The hybridfi lm was prepared by mixing doped TiO2 with waterborne polyurethane, followed by heat treatment. The presence and nanometric distribution of doped TiO2 nanoparticles in prepared membranes is evident according to SEM images. The photocatalytic activities of doped TiO2 were signifi cantly enhanced compared with pure TiO2 powders. After the hybridfi lm fabrication, the photocatalytic activities were almost the same as the pure catalysts withkMB of 0.046. In the antibacterial testing, the hybridfi lms can inhibitE. coli growth. A signifi cant decrease in membranefl uidity and increase of permeability ofE. coli were observed.

  13. Investigation of photocatalytic degradation of phenol by Fe(III)-doped TiO2 and TiO2 nanoparticles.

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    Hemmati Borji, Saeedeh; Nasseri, Simin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Javadi, Amir Hossein

    2014-01-01

    In this study Fe (III)-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel method at two atomic ratio of Fe/Ti, 0.006 and 0.034 percent. Then the photoactivity of them was investigated on degradation of phenol under UV (light (>380 nm). Results showed that at appropriate atomic ratio of Fe to Ti (% 0.034) photoactivity of Fe(III)-doped TiO2 nanoparticles increased. In addition, the effects of various operational parameters on photocatalytic degradation, such as pH, initial concentration of phenol and amount of photocatalyst were examined and optimized. At all different initial concentration, highest degradation efficiency occurred at pH = 3 and 0.5 g/L Fe(III)-doped TiO2 dosage. With increase in initial concentration of phenol, photocatalytic degradation efficiency decreased. Photoactivity of Fe (III)-doped TiO2 under UV irradiation and visible light at optimal condition (pH = 3 and catalyst dosage = and 0.5 g/L) was compared with P25 TiO2 nanoparticles. Results showed that photoactivity of Fe(III)-doped TiO2 under visible light was more than P25 TiO2 photoactivity, but it was less than P25 TiO2 photoactivity under UV irradiation. Also efficiency of UV irradiation alone and amount of phenol adsorption on Fe(III)-doped TiO2 at dark condition was investigated.

  14. Effect of Au Nanoparticles Doping on The Properties of TiO2 Thin Films

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    Aytaç GÜLTEKİN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, pure and gold (Au nanoparticles doped TiO2 thin films (Au/Ti = 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 at% were prepared by sol-gel method and the impact of Au nanoparticles doping on the optical, structural and morphological properties of these thin films was examined. All thin films were characterized using ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The optical band gap of the thin films increases from 3.74 eV to 3.89 eV with the increase of Au nanoparticles concentrations due to the Moss-Burstein effect. XRD results show that all thin films have cubic poly-crystal structure and the intensities of peaks of the crystalline phase increased with the increase of Au nanoparticles concentrations. The AFM results indicate that the TiO2 thin films are formed from the nanoparticles and the grain size of the films is changed with Au doping level. Consequently, it is shown that the structural, morphological and optical properties of the TiO2 thin films could be changed by Au nanoparticles-doping. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.1.3709

  15. Synthesis and Modification of Zn-doped TiO2 Nanoparticles for the Photocatalytic Degradation of Tetracycline.

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    Pang, Shuo; Huang, Ji-Guo; Su, Yun; Geng, Bo; Lei, Su-Yuan; Huang, Yu-Ting; Lyu, Cong; Liu, Xing-Juan

    2016-09-01

    The synthesis of Zn-doped TiO2 nanoparticles by solgel method was investigated in this study, as well as its modification by H2 O2 . The catalyst was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, UV-visible reflectance spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that doping Zn into TiO2 nanoparticles could inhibit the transformation from anatase phase to rutile phase. Zn existed as the second valence oxidation state in the Zn-doped TiO2 . Zn-doped TiO2 that was synthesized by 5% Zn doping at 450°C exhibited the best photocatalytic activity. Then, the H2 O2 modification further enhanced the photocatalytic activity. Zn doping and H2 O2 modifying narrowed the band gap and efficiently increased the optical absorption in visible region. The optimal degradation rate of tetracycline by Zn-doped TiO2 and H2 O2 modified Zn-doped TiO2 was 85.27% and 88.14%. Peroxide groups were detected in XPS analysis of H2 O2 modified Zn-doped TiO2 , favoring the adsorption of visible light. Furthermore, Zn-doped TiO2 modified by H2 O2 had relatively good reusability, exhibiting a potential practical application for tetracycline's photocatalytic degradation.

  16. Photocatalytic Activity for Water Decomposition to Hydrogen over Nitrogen-doped TiO2 Nanoparticle

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    LI,Xiao-Bo; JIANG,Xiao-Ying; HUANG,Jian-Hua; WANG,Xue-Jing

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanoparticle photocatalysts were obtained by an annealing method with gaseous ammonia and nitrogen. The influence of dopant N on the crystal structure was characterized by XRD, XPS, BET, TEM and UV-Vis spectra. The results of XRD indicate that, the crystal phase transforms from anatase to rutile structure gradually with increase of annealing temperature from 300 to 700 ℃. XPS studies indicate that the nitrogen atom enters the TiO2 lattice and occupies the position of oxygen atom. Agglomeration of particles is found in TEM im-ages after annealing. BET results show that the specific surface areas of N-doped samples from 44.61 to 38.27 m2/g are smaller than that of Degussa TiO2. UV-Vis spectra indicate that the absorption threshold shifts gradually with increase of annealing temperature, which shows absorption in the visible region. The influence of annealing condi-tion on the photocatalytic property has been researched over water decomposition to hydrogen, indicating that ni-trogen raises the photocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution, and the modified TiO2 annealed for 2 h at 400 ℃ under gas of NH3/N2 (V/V= 1/2) mixture shows better efficiency of hydrogen evolution. Furthermore, the N-doped TiO2 nanoparticle catalysts have obvious visible light activity, evidenced by hydrogen evolution under visible light (λ>400 nm) irradiation. However, the catalytic activity under visible light irradiation is absent for Degussa as ref-erence and the N-doped TiO2 annealed at 700 ℃.

  17. The local structure and optical absorption characteristic investigation on Fe doped TiO2 nanoparticles

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    Zhao, Tianxing; Huang, Junheng; He, Jinfu; Liu, Qinghua; Pan, Zhiyun; Wu, Ziyu

    2014-01-01

    The local structures and optical absorption characteristic of Fe doped TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized by the sol-gel method were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis). XRD patterns show that all Fe-doped TiO2 samples have the characteristic anatase structure. Accurate Fe and Ti K-edge EXAFS analysis further reveal that all Fe atoms replace Ti atoms in the anatase lattice. The analysis of UV-Vis data shows a red shift to the visible range. According to the above results, we claim that substitutional Fe atoms lead to the formation of structural defects and new intermediate energy levels appear, narrowing the band gap and extending the optical absorption edge towards the visible region.

  18. Effect of metal-doping of TiO2 nanoparticles on their photocatalytic activities toward removal of organic dyes

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    M. Khairy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available M-doped TiO2 nanoparticles (M = Cu, Zn were prepared by the sol–gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, FT-IR and UV–vis spectroscopy techniques were used to characterize the samples. Photocatalytic activities of samples for methyl orange (MO degradation and the chemical oxygen demand (COD were investigated. XRD results confirmed the formation of the anatase phase for the TiO2 nanoparticles, with crystallite sizes in the range of 9–21 nm. The small crystallite size and doping ions (Cu and Zn inhibited any phase transformation and promoted the growth of the TiO2 anatase phase. The optical study showed that doping ions lead to an increase in the absorption edge wavelength, and a decrease in the band gap energy of TiO2 nanoparticles. The doped TiO2 nanoparticles in general showed higher photocatalytic activities than the pure ones. The Cu doped TiO2 nanoparticles showed the best photocatalytic activity based on the measured COD values.

  19. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue on Fe3+-doped TiO2 nanoparticles under visible light irradiation

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    SU Bitao; WANG Ke; BAI Jie; MU Hongmei; TONG Yongchun; MIN Shixiong; SHE Shixiong; LEI Ziqiang

    2007-01-01

    Fe3+-doped TiO2 composite nanoparticles with different doping amounts were successfully synthesized using sol-gel method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue was used as a model reaction to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of Fe3+/TiO2 nanoparticles under visible light irradia-tion. The influence of doping amount of Fe3+ (ω: 0.00%-3.00%) on photocatalytic activities of TiO2 was investigated.Results show that the size of Fe3+/TiO2 particles decreases with the increase of the amount of Fe3+ and their absorptionspectra are broaden and absorption intensities are also increased. Doping Fe3+ can control the conversion of TiO2 from anatase to rutile. The doping amount of Fe3+ remarkably affects the activity of the catalyst, and the optimum efficiency occurs at about the doping amount of 0.3%. The appropriate doping of Fe3+ can markedly increase the catalytic activity of TiO2 under visible light irradiation.

  20. Comparative Solid Phase Photocatalytic Degradation of Polythene Films with Doped and Undoped TiO2 Nanoparticles

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    Wasim Asghar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative photocatalytic degradation of polythene films was investigated with undoped and metal (Fe, Ag, and Fe/Ag mix doped TiO2 nanoparticles under three different conditions such as UV radiation, artificial light, and darkness. Prepared photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, SEM, and EDS techniques. Photocatalytic degradation of the polythene films was determined by monitoring their weight reduction, SEM analysis, and FTIR spectroscopy. Weight of PE films steadily decreased and led to maximum of 14.34% reduction under UV irradiation with Fe/Ag mix doped TiO2 nanoparticles and maximum of 14.28% reduction under artificial light with Ag doped TiO2 nanoparticles in 300 hrs. No weight reduction was observed under darkness. Results reveal that polythene-TiO2 compositing with metal doping has the potential to degrade the polythene waste under irradiation without any pollution.

  1. Linear and nonlinear optical studies of bare and copper doped TiO2 nanoparticles via sol gel technique.

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    Rajamannan, B; Mugundan, S; Viruthagiri, G; Praveen, P; Shanmugam, N

    2014-01-24

    In general, the nanoparticles of TiO2 may exist in the phases of anatase, rutile and brookite. In the present work, we used titanium terta iso propoxide and 2-propanol as a common starting material to prepare the precursors of bare and copper doped nanosized TiO2. Then the synthesized products were calcinated at 500°C and after calcination the pure TiO2 nanoparticles in anatase phase were harvested. The crystallite sizes of bare and copper doped TiO2 nanoparticles were calculated from X-ray diffraction analysis. The existence of functional groups of the samples was identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The optical properties of bare and doped samples were carried out using UV-DRS and photoluminescence measurements. The surface morphology and the element constitution of the copper doped TiO2 nanoparticles were studied by scanning electron microscope fitted with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer arrangement. The nonlinear optical properties of the products were confirmed by Kurtz second harmonic generation (SHG) test and the output power generated by the nanoparticle was compared with that of potassium di hydrogen phosphate (KDP). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Antibacterial activities of Nd doped and Ag coated TiO2 nanoparticles under solar light irradiation.

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    Bokare, Anuja; Sanap, Avinash; Pai, Mrinal; Sabharwal, Sushma; Athawale, Anjali A

    2013-02-01

    Nanosized (8-9 nm) Nd doped and Ag coated TiO(2) nanoparticles have been synthesized by sol-gel method. The physicochemical properties of these particles were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance UV-visible (DRUV) spectra and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis. The antibacterial activities of the samples were studied for Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) both, under the light and dark conditions. The results reveal that the extent of activity shows the order as undoped TiO(2)doped TiO(2)nanoparticles, in presence of sunlight has been explained with the help of microscopic analyses. The bacterial damage is observed to proceed through initial perforation of the cell, damage of cell wall and finally the bacterial death.

  3. Characterization and photocatalytic properties of silver and silver chloride doped TiO2 hollow nanoparticles

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    Ping Li Ji; Xiang Zheng Kong; Jin Gang Wang; Xiao Li Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Using polystyrene (PSt) particles as template,PSt/TiO2 composite particles with AgCl incorporation were prepared through hydrolysis of tetrabutyl titanate in the presence of AgNO3 and NaCl.AgCl doped TiO2 hollow particles were successfully prepared with the PSt/TiO2 composite microspheres pretreated at 180 ℃ followed by calcination.The morphology of PSt/TiO2 particles and the crystal structures of the AgCl doped TiO2 hollow particles were characterized.The photocatalytic activity of the doped TiO2 hollow particles in degradation of Rhodamine B was tested under UVand visible lights and compared to that with Ag doped TiO2 particles.The results showed that TiO2 hollow particles,either doped with Ag or AgCl,demonstrated higher photocatalytic activity than the pure TiO2 particles.This enhancement in photocatalytic activity was more significant with AgCl doped TiO2 than that with Ag doped,and more distinct when the degradation was done under visible light than that under UV light.

  4. Nd-Doping Induced Lattice Distortion in TiO2 Nanoparticles

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    WANG Yue; WU Da-Jian; YANG Yue-Tao; LIU Xiao-Jun

    2011-01-01

    @@ Nd-doping effects are investigated in TiO2 nanoparticles with various annealing temperatures T from 70°C to 1100°C by means of x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman scattering spectroscopy.XRD results indicate that the sample shows a rutile phase at 1100°C, which changes to anatase phase at 900°C.With decreasing T down to 300°C, a significant lattice shrink is found, that is, the lattice parameter c is significantly suppressed while the a value shows a gradual decrease.With further decrease of T, the c-value shows an unexpected increase while the a-value keeps a gradual decrease.Thus, a lattice distortion takes place with changing the annealing temperature.In Raman investigation, all the Raman modes for the anatase phase show hardening behaviors with decreasing T in the range 900-300°C, and then the Eg and A1g modes show softening behaviors below 300°C, suggesting the variation of the lattice distortion.The variation of the lattice distortion at different annealing temperatures is ascribed to different depositions of Nd ions on the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles.%Nd-doping effects are investigated in TiO2 nanoparticles with various annealing temperatures T from 70℃ to 1100℃ by means of x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman scattering spectroscopy. XRD results indicate that the sample shows a rutile phase at 1100℃, which changes to anatase phase at 900℃. With decreasing T down to 300℃, a significant lattice shrink is found, that is, the lattice parameter c is significantly suppressed while the a value shows a gradual decrease. With further decrease of T, the c-value shows an unexpected increase while the a-value keeps a gradual decrease. Thus, a lattice distortion takes place with changing the annealing temperature.In Raman investigation, all the Raman modes for the anatase phase show hardening behaviors with decreasing T in the range 900-300℃, and then the Eg and A1g modes show softening behaviors below 300℃, suggesting the variation of the lattice

  5. Synergistic effects of F and Fe in co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles

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    Zhang, Yufei; Shen, Huiyuan; Liu, Yanhua

    2016-03-01

    TiO2 photocatalysts co-doped with F and Fe were synthesized by a sol-gel method. Synergistic effects of F and Fe in the co-doped TiO2 were verified by NH3 decomposition, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy, and was analyzed by the simulation based on the density functional theory (DFT). The results from NH3 decomposition confirmed that the cooperation of F and Fe broadened the optical response of TiO2 to visible light region and also enhanced the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 under ultraviolet light. XRD patterns, SEM and HRTEM images showed that the co-doped samples were nanometric anatase with an average particle size of 25 nm. Co-doping with F and Fe inhibited the grain growth of TiO2 from anatase to rutile and resulted in a larger lattice defect. XPS analysis exhibited that the doped F and Fe atoms were into the TiO2 lattice. UV-Vis absorption spectra showed that its optical absorption edge was moved up to approximately 617 nm and its ultraviolet absorption was also enhanced. The DFT results indicated that the cooperation of Fe 3d and O 2p orbits narrowed the band gap of TiO2 and F 2p orbit widened the upper valence bands. The synergistic electron density around F and Fe in co-doped TiO2 was capable to enhance the photo-chemical stability of TiO2.

  6. TiO2 nanoparticles doped SiO2 films with ordered mesopore channels: a catalytic nanoreactor.

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    Saha, Jony; Mitra, Anuradha; Dandapat, Anirban; De, Goutam

    2014-04-07

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) incorporated ordered 2D hexagonal mesoporous silica (SiO2) films on a glass substrate were fabricated for use as a catalytic nanoreactor. Films were prepared using a tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) derived SiO2 sol and a commercially available dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) in the presence of pluronic P123 as the structure directing agent. The effect of TiO2 doping (4-10 mol% with respect to the equivalent SiO2) into the ordered mesoporous SiO2 matrix was thoroughly investigated. The undoped SiO2 film showed a mesostructural transformation after heat-treatment at 350 °C whereas incorporation of TiO2 restricted such a transformation. Among all the TiO2 incorporated films, TEM showed that the 7 equivalent mol% TiO2 doped SiO2 film (ST-7) had an optimal composition which could retain the more organized 2D hexagonal (space group p6mm)-like mesostructures after heat-treatment. The catalytic activities of the TiO2 doped (4-10 mol%) films were investigated for the reduction of toxic KMnO4 in an aqueous medium. ST-7 film showed the maximum catalytic activity, as well as reusability. A TEM study on the resultant solution after KMnO4 reduction revealed the formation of MnO2 nanowires. It was understood that the embedded TiO2 NPs bonded SiO2 matrix increased the surface hydroxyl groups of the composite films resulting in the generation of acidic sites. The catalytic process can be explained by this enhanced surface acidity. The mesoporous channel of the ST-7 films with TiO2 doping can be used as a nanoreactor to form extremely thin MnO2 nanowires.

  7. Effect of Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticle derived from modified hydrothermal process on the photocatalytic degradation performance on methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijie; Shen, Wenzhong; He, Wensen; Zu, Xiaotao

    2008-07-15

    Anatase Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with 10-15 nm particles sizes were directly prepared with amorphous TiO2 nanoparticles and Fe(NO3)3.9H2O by hydrothermal method. The TiO2 crystallite grain sizes decreased with the increase of Fe contents. When Fe contents increased, the diffuse reflectance spectra of Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles displayed a red shift in the band gap transition. And the absorbing band edge moved to visible range when the Fe contents were more than 2 mol%. XPS analysis showed that Fe3+ was not on the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles, but inserting into the matrix interior. As a result, the photoactivity degradation of MB on Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles decreased.

  8. Important role of surface fluoride in nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with visible light photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Jonathan I; Szulczewski, Greg

    2014-12-11

    Nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanoparticles have been synthesized using sol-gel methods and subsequently fluorinated at room temperature by aging in acidic solutions of NaF. The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis, and IR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. After aging at room temperature in NaF solutions, the Ti-OH groups on the surface of the TiO2 nanoparticles were replaced by Ti-F bonds, which resulted in a decrease of the point of zero charge from pH 5.4 to 2.8. Most importantly, the nitrogen dopants were retained after the fluorination process, and the amorphous nanoparticles were partially converted into the anatase phase. Annealing the photocatalysts resulted in a decrease of both the nitrogen and fluoride atomic concentration. Diffuse reflectance spectra show an increase in absorbance above 400 nm after annealing the F,N-doped TiO2, which suggests the formation of color centers. The photoactivity of the F,N-doped and N-doped TiO2 catalysts were evaluated by monitoring by the decolorization of methylene blue with visible light. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that methylene blue undergoes successive demethylation, and more importantly, the rate of decolorization depends on the fluoride concentration. These results show the importance of a two-step synthesis method to independently control the nitrogen and fluoride concentration.

  9. Modification of TiO2 nanoparticles through lanthanum doping and PEG templating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Milanovic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pure and lanthanum doped titania nanopowders were synthesized through a room temperature sol-gel method using a template of polyethylene glycol (PEG. The progress of the synthesis in terms of phase formation and size of nanoparticles was monitored by X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy and SEM analysis. After calcination at 450 °C in air, the results have shown the presence of small particles crystallized predominantly in the form of anatase phase, with significant agglomeration. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements confirmed that all prepared powders are mesoporous with an average pore diameter in range 3.1–3.8 nm. The addition of lanthanum ions leads to the nanopowders with the highest specific surface (BET area (203 m2/g. The obtained powders were compared to TiO2 prepared without a template.

  10. Enhanced lithium ion storage in TiO2 nanoparticles, induced by sulphur and carbon co-doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Svetlozar; Barylyak, Adriana; Besaha, Khrystyna; Dimitrova, Anna; Krischok, Stefan; Bund, Andreas; Bobitski, Jaroslav

    2016-09-01

    Sulphur and carbon codoped anatase nanoparticles are synthesized by one-step approach based on interaction between thiourea and metatitanic acid. Electron microscopy shows micrometer-sized randomly distributed crystal aggregates, consisting of many 25-40 nm TiO2 nanoparticles. The obtained phase composition and chemical states of the elements in the structure are analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XRD shows that after doping the tetragonal anatase structure is preserved. Further data assessment by Rietveld refinement allows detection of a slight increase of the c lattice parameter and volume related to incorporation of the doping elements. XPS confirms the coexistence of both elemental and oxide carbon forms, which are predominantly located on the TiO2 particle surface. According to XPS analysis sulphur occupies titanium sites and the element is present in S6+ sulfate environment. Analysis based on cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic intermittent titration (GITT) suggests an accelerated Li+ transport in the doped TiO2 structure. The synthesized S and C co-doped anatase has an excellent electrochemical performance in terms of capacity and very fast lithiation kinetics, superior to the non-doped TiO2. The material displays 83% capacity retention for 500 galvanostatic cycles and nearly 100% current efficiency.

  11. Preparation and photocatalytic properties of Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓青; 杨娟玉; 张俊山

    2004-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Fe-doped TiO2 with size of 60-70 nm was prepared by a sol-gel technique, followed by freeze-drying treatment for 2 h. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, laser diffraction particle size analyzer and UV-Vis spectrophotometer technologies were used to characterize the product. The photocatalytic activities of the samples were evaluated by the degradation of wastewater of paper-making. The effects of Fe ion implantation on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 were also discussed. The results show that the iron content plays an essential role in affecting the photocatalytic activity of the Fe-doped TiO2 and the optimum content of Fe-doped is 0.05% (mass fraction). The photocatalytic activity of samples with lower content of Fe-doped is higher than that of pure TiO2 in the treatment of paper-making wastewater. The photo-degradation effect of paper-making effluent is the best by means of Fe-doped TiO2 with 0.05% Fe.

  12. Electrospun Nb-doped TiO2 nanofiber support for Pt nanoparticles with high electrocatalytic activity and durability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, MinJoong; Kwon, ChoRong; Eom, KwangSup; Kim, JiHyun; Cho, EunAe

    2017-03-14

    This study explores a facile method to prepare an efficient and durable support for Pt catalyst of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). As a candidate, Nb-doped TiO2 (Nb-TiO2) nanofibers are simply fabricated using an electrospinning technique, followed by a heat treatment. Doping Nb into the TiO2 nanofibers leads to a drastic increase in electrical conductivity with doping level of up to 25 at. % (Nb0.25Ti0.75O2). Pt nanoparticles are synthesized on the prepared 25 at. % Nb-doped TiO2-nanofibers (Pt/Nb-TiO2) as well as on a commercial powdered carbon black (Pt/C). The Pt/Nb-TiO2 nanofiber catalyst exhibits similar oxygen reaction reduction (ORR) activity to that of the Pt/C catalyst. However, during an accelerated stress test (AST), the Pt/Nb-TiO2 nanofiber catalyst retained more than 60% of the initial ORR activity while the Pt/C catalyst lost 65% of the initial activity. The excellent durability of the Pt/Nb-TiO2 nanofiber catalyst can be attributed to high corrosion resistance of TiO2 and strong interaction between Pt and TiO2.

  13. Electrospun Nb-doped TiO2 nanofiber support for Pt nanoparticles with high electrocatalytic activity and durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjoong; Kwon, Chorong; Eom, Kwangsup; Kim, Jihyun; Cho, Eunae

    2017-03-01

    This study explores a facile method to prepare an efficient and durable support for Pt catalyst of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). As a candidate, Nb-doped TiO2 (Nb-TiO2) nanofibers are simply fabricated using an electrospinning technique, followed by a heat treatment. Doping Nb into the TiO2 nanofibers leads to a drastic increase in electrical conductivity with doping level of up to 25 at. % (Nb0.25Ti0.75O2). Pt nanoparticles are synthesized on the prepared 25 at. % Nb-doped TiO2-nanofibers (Pt/Nb-TiO2) as well as on a commercial powdered carbon black (Pt/C). The Pt/Nb-TiO2 nanofiber catalyst exhibits similar oxygen reaction reduction (ORR) activity to that of the Pt/C catalyst. However, during an accelerated stress test (AST), the Pt/Nb-TiO2 nanofiber catalyst retained more than 60% of the initial ORR activity while the Pt/C catalyst lost 65% of the initial activity. The excellent durability of the Pt/Nb-TiO2 nanofiber catalyst can be attributed to high corrosion resistance of TiO2 and strong interaction between Pt and TiO2.

  14. Electrospun Nb-doped TiO2 nanofiber support for Pt nanoparticles with high electrocatalytic activity and durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, MinJoong; Kwon, ChoRong; Eom, KwangSup; Kim, JiHyun; Cho, EunAe

    2017-01-01

    This study explores a facile method to prepare an efficient and durable support for Pt catalyst of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). As a candidate, Nb-doped TiO2 (Nb-TiO2) nanofibers are simply fabricated using an electrospinning technique, followed by a heat treatment. Doping Nb into the TiO2 nanofibers leads to a drastic increase in electrical conductivity with doping level of up to 25 at. % (Nb0.25Ti0.75O2). Pt nanoparticles are synthesized on the prepared 25 at. % Nb-doped TiO2-nanofibers (Pt/Nb-TiO2) as well as on a commercial powdered carbon black (Pt/C). The Pt/Nb-TiO2 nanofiber catalyst exhibits similar oxygen reaction reduction (ORR) activity to that of the Pt/C catalyst. However, during an accelerated stress test (AST), the Pt/Nb-TiO2 nanofiber catalyst retained more than 60% of the initial ORR activity while the Pt/C catalyst lost 65% of the initial activity. The excellent durability of the Pt/Nb-TiO2 nanofiber catalyst can be attributed to high corrosion resistance of TiO2 and strong interaction between Pt and TiO2. PMID:28290503

  15. Synthesis and characterization of undoped and cobalt-doped TiO2 nanoparticles via sol-gel technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugundan, S.; Rajamannan, B.; Viruthagiri, G.; Shanmugam, N.; Gobi, R.; Praveen, P.

    2015-04-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles doped with different concentrations of cobalt (4, 8, 12 and 16 %) were synthesized by sol-gel method at room temperature with appropriate reactants. In general, TiO2 can exist in anatase, rutile, and brookite phases. In this present study, we used titanium tetra iso propoxide and 2-propanol as a common starting materials and the obtained products were calcined at 500 °C and 800 °C to get anatase and rutile phases, respectively. The crystalline sizes of the doped and undoped TiO2 nanoparticles were observed with X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The functional groups of the samples were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). From UV-VIS diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), the band gap energy and excitation wavelength of doped and undoped TiO2 nanoparticles were identified. The defect oriented emissions were seen from photoluminescence (PL) study. The spherical uniform size distribution of particles and elements present in the samples was determined using two different techniques viz., scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDX) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) with selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency was also found and the obtained result was compared with potassium di hydrogen phosphate (KDP).

  16. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic applications of Zn-doped TiO2 nanoparticles by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aware, Dinkar V.; Jadhav, Shridhar S.

    2016-10-01

    Mesoporous, nanocrystalline, Zinc-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by surfactant-assisted sol-gel method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), and UV-VIS spectrometer techniques were used to characterize the synthesized products. XRD results confirm the formation of the anatase phase for the TiO2 nanoparticles, with crystallite sizes in the range of 12.6-18.1 nm. The small crystallite size and doping with Zinc ion inhibit phase transformation and promote the growth of the TiO2 anatase phase. The SEM and TEM micrographs revealed the spherical-like morphology with average diameter of about 12-18 nm which is in agreement with XRD results. The optical study shows that doping ions lead to an increase in the absorption edge wavelength and a decrease in the band gap energy of titania. Photocatalytic activity of the synthesized nanomaterials was successfully tested for photodegradation of methyl red as model pollutant under UV light. The photocatalytic activity results confirm that the doped nanoparticles show higher activity than undoped titania. The small grain size, high crystallinity, high specific surface area and decrease in the band gap energy of doped titania may be responsible for the high photocatalytic activity.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic applications of Zn-doped TiO2 nanoparticles by sol–gel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinkar V. Aware

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mesoporous, nanocrystalline, Zinc-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by surfactant-assisted sol–gel method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET, and UV–VIS spectrometer techniques were used to characterize the synthesized products. XRD results confirm the formation of the anatase phase for the TiO2 nanoparticles, with crystallite sizes in the range of 12.6–18.1 nm. The small crystallite size and doping with Zinc ion inhibit phase transformation and promote the growth of the TiO2 anatase phase. The SEM and TEM micrographs revealed the spherical-like morphology with average diameter of about 12–18 nm which is in agreement with XRD results. The optical study shows that doping ions lead to an increase in the absorption edge wavelength and a decrease in the band gap energy of titania. Photocatalytic activity of the synthesized nanomaterials was successfully tested for photodegradation of methyl red as model pollutant under UV light. The photocatalytic activity results confirm that the doped nanoparticles show higher activity than undoped titania. The small grain size, high crystallinity, high specific surface area and decrease in the band gap energy of doped titania may be responsible for the high photocatalytic activity.

  18. Preparation and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticles co-doped with Fe and La

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongliang Shi; Xiaoxia Zhang; Shuhua Yao

    2011-01-01

    The catalysts of un-doped, single-doped and co-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were prepared by a sol-gel method with Ti(OC4H9)4 as a Ti source material. The photo-absorbance of the obtained nanoparticles was measured by UV-vis diffusive reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS), and the photocatalytic activity of the prepared samples under UV and visible light was estimated by measuring the degradation rate of phenol (50 mg/L) in an aqueous solution. The effect of Fe and La co-dopants on the material properties was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM)and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm measurement. It was shown that the co-doped TiO2 could be activated by visible light and could thus be used as an effective catalyst in photo-oxidation reactions.The photocatalytic activity of TiO2 co-doped with Fe and La is markedly improved due to the synergistic actions of the two dopants.

  19. Influence of Nd-Doping on Photocatalytic Properties of TiO2 Nanoparticles and Thin Film Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Wojcieszak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural, optical, and photocatalytic properties of TiO2 and TiO2:Nd nanopowders and thin films composed of those materials have been compared. Titania nanoparticles with 1, 3, and 6 at. % of Nd-dopant were synthesized by sol-gel method. Additionally, thin films with the same material composition were prepared with the aid of spin-coating method. The analysis of structural investigations revealed that all as-prepared nanopowders were nanocrystalline and had TiO2-anatase structure. The average size of crystallites was ca. 4-5 nm and the correlation between the amount of neodymium and the size of TiO2 crystallites was observed. It was shown that the dopant content influenced the agglomeration of the nanoparticles. The results of photocatalytic decomposition of MO showed that doping with Nd (especially in the amount of 3 at. % increased self-cleaning activity of the prepared titania nanopowder. Similar effect was received in case of the thin films, but the decomposition rate was lower due to their smaller active surface area. However, the as-prepared TiO2:Nd photocatalyst in the form of thin films or nanopowders seems to be a very attractive material for various applications.

  20. The magnetic characterization of Fe doped TiO2 semiconducting oxide nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeganeh, M.; Shahtahmasebi, N.; Kompany, A.; Karimipour, M.; Razavi, F.; Nasralla, N. H. S.; Šiller, L.

    2017-04-01

    In this work Fe doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized at different Fe/Ti molar ratio from 1% to 5% by sol-gel technique. The post annealing of the samples was carried out at T=400, 600, and 800 °C. HRTEM of the samples revealed that the mean size of the nanoparticles increases from about 8 nm to about 100 nm as the annealing temperature increased. SQUID magnetometry of 1% and 5% Fe doped TiO2 has shown mixed ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases within the crystal while ferromagnetic order with Tc about 350 K was only observed in 5% Fe:TiO2 sample annealed at T=800 °C. The oxygen vacancy mediated ferromagnetic (FM) interaction could be responsible for the observed FM.

  1. Correction: Enhanced photoelectrochemical water oxidation via atomic layer deposition of TiO2 on fluorine-doped tin oxide nanoparticle films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, Isvar A.; Peng, Qing; Ferrall, Isa L.; Rieth, Adam J.; Hoertz, Paul G.; Glass, Jeffrey T.

    2015-07-01

    Correction for `Enhanced photoelectrochemical water oxidation via atomic layer deposition of TiO2 on fluorine-doped tin oxide nanoparticle films' by Isvar A. Cordova, et al., Nanoscale, 2015, 7, 8584-8592.

  2. The photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of neodymium and iodine doped TiO(2) nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xuefeng; Yang, Lu; Liu, Peng; Li, Xi; Shen, Jian

    2010-08-01

    A series of photocatalysts were synthesized by neodymium and iodine doped TiO(2). The characteristics of neodymium and iodine doped TiO(2) were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra, and scanning electronic microscope (SEM). In the synthesis process, Nd:I:TiO(2) with different doping content (molar ratios) calcined at different temperature was designed. After the photocatalysts were synthesized under different condition, they were compared with each other by photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB). The most efficient catalyst to degrade MB was Nd combined with I doped TiO(2) with molar ratio of 5:10:100 calcined at 400 degrees C. It is anatase crystal and the average size of crystallites was about 6.0 nm. It has absorption spectrometry in the visible light range of 400-550 nm. In addition, compared with pure TiO(2), the doped catalyst also has intense absorption at 528, 587, 683, 750, 808, and 881 nm. The catalytic efficiency was tested by monitoring the photocatalytic degradation, and detriment of MB and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The antibacterial activities were studied by Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The results showed that the optimum doping contents was Nd:I:TiO(2)=5:10:100 (molar ratio) calcined at 400 degrees C, and the synthesized catalyst could inhibit E. coli and S. aureus through damaging their outer membrane (even deteriorated completely) by the irradiation of visible light.

  3. Enhancement of Photo-Oxidation Activities Depending on Structural Distortion of Fe-Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeonwoo; Yang, Sena; Jeon, Eun Hee; Baik, Jaeyoon; Kim, Namdong; Kim, Hyun Sung; Lee, Hangil

    2016-12-01

    To design a high-performance photocatalytic system with TiO2, it is necessary to reduce the bandgap and enhance the absorption efficiency. The reduction of the bandgap to the visible range was investigated with reference to the surface distortion of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles induced by varying Fe doping concentrations. Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles (Fe@TiO2) were synthesized by a hydrothermal method and analyzed by various surface analysis techniques such as transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning transmission X-ray microscopy, and high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy. We observed that Fe doping over 5 wt.% gave rise to a distorted structure, i.e., Fe2Ti3O9, indicating numerous Ti(3+) and oxygen-vacancy sites. The Ti(3+) sites act as electron trap sites to deliver the electron to O2 as well as introduce the dopant level inside the bandgap, resulting in a significant increase in the photocatalytic oxidation reaction of thiol (-SH) of 2-aminothiophenol to sulfonic acid (-SO3H) under ultraviolet and visible light illumination.

  4. Chemisorption of CH2O on N-doped TiO2 anatase nanoparticle as modified nanostructure media: A DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Amirali; Sardroodi, Jaber Jahanbin; Ebrahimzadeh, Alireza Rastkar

    2016-12-01

    The structural and electronic properties of N-doped TiO2 anatase nanoparticles and their effects on the adsorption of formaldehyde molecule have been investigated using the density functional theory computations. Given the need to better understand the behavior of the adsorbed CH2O molecule on the anatase nanoparticle, we report results of density functional theory studies of the N-doped nanoparticles, as well as complex systems consisting of the CH2O molecule bound to a TiO2 nanoparticle. N-doped nanoparticle was obtained by substitution of nitrogen atom of TiO2 instead of oxygen atom. Adsorptions of the CH2O molecule on the dangling oxygen atom, twofold coordinated oxygen atom and doped nitrogen atom sites of the pristine and N-doped anatase nanoparticles were investigated. The results presented include structural parameters such as adsorption energies, bond lengths and bond angles and electronic properties such as density of states, spin distribution densities and molecular orbitals. It was found that the adsorption of the CH2O molecule on the dangling oxygen of considered N-doped TiO2 anatase nanoparticles is energetically more favorable than the adsorption on the undoped ones. It means a more stable configuration compared to the undoped nanoparticle adsorption, but not as stable as the CH2O adsorption on the doped nitrogen site of N-doped nanoparticles.

  5. Eco-friendly synthesis of TiO2, Au and Pt doped TiO2 nanoparticles for dye sensitized solar cell applications and evaluation of toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, K.; Kumaraguru, S.; Bhakyaraj, K.; Thirumal, S.; Arumugam, A.

    2016-04-01

    Driven by the demand of pure TiO2, Au and Pt doped TiO2 NPs were successfully synthesized using Terminalia arjuna bark extract. The eco-friendly synthesized NPs were characterized by UV-Vis-DRS, ATR-FT-IR, PL, XRD, Raman, SEM with EDX and TEM analysis. The synthesized NPs were investigation for dye sensitized solar cell applications. UV-Vis-Diffused Reflectance Spectra clearly showed that the expected TiO2 inter band absorption below 306 nm, incorporation of gold shows surface plasma resonant (SPR) near 555 nm and platinum incorporated TiO2 NPs shows absorbance at 460 nm. The energy conversion efficiency for Au doped TiO2 NPs when compared to pure and Pt doped TiO2 NPs. In addition to that, Au noble metal present TiO2 matrix and an improve open-circuit voltage (Voc) of DSSC. Synthesized NPs was evaluated into antibacterial and antifungal activities by disk diffusion method. It is observed that NPs have not shown any activities in all tested bacterial and fungal strains. In this eco-friendly synthesis method to provide non toxic and environmental friendly nanomaterials can be used for solar energy device application.

  6. Effects of Fe Doping on the Structural, Optical, and Magnetic Properties of TiO2 Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thu, Dang Xuan; Trung, Vu Quoc; Nghia, Nguyen Manh; Khang, Nguyen Cao; Lam, Tran Dai

    2016-11-01

    Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles have been prepared by the hydrolysis method. The effects of Fe doping on the structural, optical, and magnetic properties of the Ti1- x Fe x O2 ( x = 0.00, 0.03, 0.06, 0.10, 0.13) materials were thoroughly investigated by a combination of various methods, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) reflectance spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and vibrating-sample magnetometry. Analysis of the TEM and XRD measurements showed that the resulting powders had nanoscale particle size. The Fe-doped samples were found to be paramagnetic at room temperature (by magnetization measurements), with Fe acting as substitutional impurity at Ti sites in the anatase TiO2 phase. Substitution of Fe at Ti sites was also confirmed by Raman spectra. The paramagnetic nature of the Ti1- x Fe x O2 samples was further investigated using density functional theory calculations of their electronic band structure and density of states. Finally, the photocatalytic activity of the Fe-doped TiO2 samples was studied by investigating their photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue.

  7. Synthesis and characterisations of Au-nanoparticle-doped TiO2 and CdO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gültekin, Aytaç; Karanfil, Gamze; Özel, Faruk; Kuş, Mahmut; Say, Ridvan; Sönmezoğlu, Savaş

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, pure and gold nanoparticle (Au NP)-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) and cadmium oxide (CdO) thin film were prepared by the sol-gel method, and the effect of Au NP doping on the optical, structural and morphological properties of these thin films was investigated. The prepared thin films were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-Vis-NIR) spectra. While the optical band increases from 3.62 to 3.73 for TiO2 thin films, it decreases from 2.20 to 1.55 for CdO thin films with increasing Au doping concentration. Analysis of XRD indicates that the intensities of peaks of the crystalline phase have increased with the increasing Au NP concentrations in all thin films. SEM images demonstrate that the surface morphologies of the samples were affected by the incorporation of Au NPs. Consequently, the most significant results of the present study are that the Au NPs can be used to modify the optical, structural and morphological properties of TiO2 and CdO thin films.

  8. Synthesis of Metal Ion-Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles Using Two-Phase Method and Their Photocatalytic Activity Under Visible Light Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duy-Trinh; Hong, Seong-Soo

    2016-02-01

    In this study, TiO2 and metal ion-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by solvothermal reaction of titanium butoxide precursor in the presence of oleic acid, oleylamine and vapor water and they were characterized by XRD, Raman, TEM and DRS. We also investigated the photocatalytic activity of these oxides for the decomposition of Rhodamine B. From XRD and Raman results, doping of the metal ion in the crystal lattice did not change the high crystallinity of the TiO2 structure, and all the metal ions were incorporated into the structures of titania as well as replaced titanium ion or located at interstitial site. The absorption band shifted to a higher wavelength on the metal ion-doped TiO2 samples compared to the pure TiO2 sample. The Ce ion- doped TiO2 catalysts showed the higher photocatalytic activity compared to the pure TiO2 and a commercial P-25 catalysts and 1% Ce-doped TiO2 showed the highest photocatalytic activity.

  9. The origin of ferromagnetism of Co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles: Experiments and theory investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suyin; Zhou, Zhongpo; Xiong, Rui; Shi, Jing; Lu, Zhihong; Wang, Haiying

    2016-11-01

    A series of Ti1-xCoxO2-δ (x = 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07) nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel method. The X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy ruled out the signatures of Ti3+, Co-clusters or any other oxides of Co. The ferromagnetic behavior was clearly observed at room temperature in doped samples with saturation magnetization (Ms) of the order of 0.008-0.035 emu/g depending on doping concentrations. The saturation magnetization is found to be increased with the Co contents increasing from 1% to 7%. From the plot of the M-T curve, we obtain the Tc as ˜515 K for 5% Co-doped TiO2. Oxygen vacancies were detected from the photoluminescence (PL) measurement. Magnetic properties analyses and PL analyses showed that oxygen vacancies probably played a major role in ferromagnetism of the Ti1-xCoxO2 system with Co substituting for Ti. The first-principles calculation was performed to investigate the magnetic properties of Co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles. It can be found that the major magnetic moment is from the 3d electron of Co. The experiment results are consistent with the first-principles calculation. The ferromagnetism derived from the spin-split of O-2p and Co-3d electron states caused by p-d orbit hybridization.

  10. Giant electrorheological effects of aluminum-doped TiO2 nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongzhe Tang; Junhui He; Jacques Persello

    2010-01-01

    Titania nanoparticles doped with cations have been synthesized via a modified hydrolysis method.The X-ray diffraction analyses,scanning electron microscopy and other characteristics measurements,were used to study the structure of the nanoparticles.The results showed interesting electrorheological(ER)effect with titania nanoparticles modified by aluminum ions,and different cations on ER effect were determined by ionic potential and resistance of the particle aggregates in the electric field.The doping ratio of aluminum ions was dominated by the appropriate sites of the particle surface and the ER effect strongly depends on the doping ratio.

  11. Role of dopant concentration, crystal phase and particle size on microbial inactivation of Cu-doped TiO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Manoranjan; Wu, Bing; Zhu, Liying; Jacobson, Craig; Wang, Wei-Ning; Jones, Kristen; Goyal, Yogesh; Tang, Yinjie J; Biswas, Pratim

    2011-10-14

    The properties of Cu-doped TiO(2) nanoparticles (NPs) were independently controlled in a flame aerosol reactor by varying the molar feed ratios of the precursors, and by optimizing temperature and time history in the flame. The effect of the physico-chemical properties (dopant concentration, crystal phase and particle size) of Cu-doped TiO(2) nanoparticles on inactivation of Mycobacterium smegmatis (a model pathogenic bacterium) was investigated under three light conditions (complete dark, fluorescent light and UV light). The survival rate of M. smegmatis (in a minimal salt medium for 2 h) exposed to the NPs varied depending on the light irradiation conditions as well as the dopant concentrations. In dark conditions, pristine TiO(2) showed insignificant microbial inactivation, but inactivation increased with increasing dopant concentration. Under fluorescent light illumination, no significant effect was observed for TiO(2). However, when TiO(2) was doped with copper, inactivation increased with dopant concentration, reaching more than 90% (>3 wt% dopant). Enhanced microbial inactivation by TiO(2) NPs was observed only under UV light. When TiO(2) NPs were doped with copper, their inactivation potential was promoted and the UV-resistant cells were reduced by over 99%. In addition, the microbial inactivation potential of NPs was also crystal-phase-and size-dependent under all three light conditions. A lower ratio of anatase phase and smaller sizes of Cu-doped TiO(2) NPs resulted in decreased bacterial survival. The increased inactivation potential of doped TiO(2) NPs is possibly due to both enhanced photocatalytic reactions and leached copper ions.

  12. Preparation, characterization of Y3+-doped TiO2 nanoparticles and their photocatalytic activities for methyl orange degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Xinshu; LI Sujuan; CHU Huihui; ZHOU Jianguo

    2011-01-01

    A series of pure and Y3+-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with high photocatalytic activities were prepared by a sol-gel method using tetra-n-butyl titanate as precursor. The as-prepared catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The results indicated that yttrium doping could effectively reduce the crystalline size, inhibit the anatase-to-tutile phase transformation and surppress the recombination of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs. The DRS results showed that the optical absorption edge shifted to red direction owing to yttrium ion doping. The photocatalytic activities of samples were evaluated by the photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution under 300 W high pressure mercury lamp irradiation. Photodegradation results revealed that Y3+ doping could greatly improve the photocatalytic activity of TiO2. In this experiment, the optimal dosage was 1 .5 mol.% when samples were calcined at 773 K for 2 h, which caused a MO photodegradation rate of 99.8% under UV irradiation for 70 min.

  13. Role of Zn doping in oxidative stress mediated cytotoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, Maqusood; Khan, M. A. Majeed; Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Alhadlaq, Hisham A.; Alshamsan, Aws

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the effect of Zn-doping on structural and optical properties as well as cellular response of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. A library of Zn-doped (1–10 at wt%) TiO2 NPs was prepared. Characterization data indicated that dopant Zn was incorporated into the lattice of host TiO2. The average particle size of TiO2 NPs was decreases (38 to 28 nm) while the band gap energy was increases (3.35 eV–3.85 eV) with increasing the amount of Zn-doping. Cellular data demonstrated that Zn-doped TiO2 NPs induced cytotoxicity (cell viability reduction, membrane damage and cell cycle arrest) and oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species generation & glutathione depletion) in MCF-7 cells and toxic intensity was increases with increasing the concentration of Zn-doping. Molecular data revealed that Zn-doped TiO2 NPs induced the down-regulation of super oxide dismutase gene while the up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 gene in MCF-7 cells. Cytotoxicity induced by Zn-doped TiO2 NPs was efficiently prevented by N-acetyl-cysteine suggesting that oxidative stress might be the primarily cause of toxicity. In conclusion, our data indicated that Zn-doping decreases the particle size and increases the band gap energy as well the oxidative stress-mediated toxicity of TiO2 NPs in MCF-7 cells.

  14. Facile route to fabricate carbon-doped TiO2 nanoparticles and its mechanism of enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Huang, Gui-Fang; Li, Dongfeng; Zhou, Bing-Xin; Chang, Shengli; Pan, Anlian; Huang, Wei-Qing

    2016-12-01

    High-efficiency photocatalysis requires wide photoresponse range and effective separation of photogenerated charges to fully utilize solar energy. Exploring the simple and cheap methods to synthesize efficient photocatalysts is still a challenging issue. Herein, we report a facile and simple room-temperature hydrolysis method using glucose as carbon source to prepare visible light-active C-doped TiO2 photocatalyst. This approach features low-cost, reliable, and easily upscalable. It is found that C atoms have been incorporated into the interstitial position of anatase TiO2 lattice and distributed homogeneously throughout the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles. The appropriate C doping can greatly improve the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs in C-doped TiO2. The C-doped TiO2 samples exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activity with the degradation efficiency under UV and visible light irradiation, which is much faster than that of pure TiO2. The mechanism of the enhanced photocatalytic activity is discussed in detail, which is confirmed by using different scavengers. The work provides a simple and useful way to prepare C-doped wide-gap semiconductors with enhanced photocatalytic activity.

  15. Double-doped TiO2 nanoparticles as an efficient visible-light-active photocatalyst and antibacterial agent under solar simulated light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkarran, Ali Akbar; Hamidinezhad, Habib; Haddadi, Hedayat; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2014-05-01

    Silver and nitrogen doped TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized via sol-gel method. The physicochemical properties of the achieved NPs were characterized by various methods including X-Ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and ultra violet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis). Both visible-light photocatalytic activity and antimicrobial properties were successfully demonstrated for the degradation of Rhodamine B (Rh. B.), as a model dye, and inactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli), as a representative of microorganisms. The concentration of the employed dopant was optimized and the results revealed that the silver and nitrogen doped TiO2 NPs extended the light absorption spectrum toward the visible region and significantly enhanced the photodegradation of model dye and inactivation of bacteria under visible-light irradiation while double-doped TiO2 NPs exhibited highest photocatalytic and antibacterial activity compared with single doping. The significant enhancement in the photocatalytic activity and antibacterial properties of the double doped TiO2 NPs, under visible-light irradiation, can be attributed to the generation of two different electronic states acting as electron traps in TiO2 and responsible for narrowing the band gap of TiO2 and shifting its optical response from UV to the visible-light region.

  16. Ultrasound assisted synthesis of doped TiO2 nano-particles: characterization and comparison of effectiveness for photocatalytic oxidation of dyestuff effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirsath, S R; Pinjari, D V; Gogate, P R; Sonawane, S H; Pandit, A B

    2013-01-01

    The present work deals with the synthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles doped with Fe and Ce using sonochemical approach and its comparison with the conventional doping method. The prepared samples have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-visible spectra (UV-vis). The effectiveness of the synthesized catalyst for the photocatalytic degradation of crystal violet dye has also been investigated considering crystal violet degradation as the model reaction. It has been observed that the catalysts prepared by sonochemical method exhibit higher photocatalytic activity as compared to the catalysts prepared by the conventional methods. Also the Ce-doped TiO(2) exhibits maximum photocatalytic activity followed by Fe-doped TiO(2) and the least activity was observed for only TiO(2). The presence of Fe and Ce in the TiO(2) structure results in a significant absorption shift towards the visible region. Detailed investigations on the degradation indicated that an optimal dosage with 0.8 mol% doping of Ce and 1.2 mol% doping of Fe in TiO(2) results in higher extents of degradation. Kinetic studies also established that the photocatalytic degradation followed the pseudo first-order reaction kinetics. Overall it has been established that ultrasound assisted synthesis of doped photocatalyst significantly enhances the photocatalytic activity.

  17. Photochemical degradation of an anionic surfactant by TiO2 nanoparticle doped with C, N in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamiri, M.; Giahi, M.

    2016-12-01

    Novel C,N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by a solid phase reaction. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The results showed that crystallite size of synthesized C,N-doped TiO2 particles were in nanoscale. UV light photocatalytic studies were carried out using sodium naphthalenesulfonate formaldehyde condensate (SNF) as a model pollutant. The effects of initial concentration of surfactant, catalyst amount, pH, addition of oxidant on the reaction rate were ascertained and optimum conditions for maximum degradation was determined. The results indicated that for a solution of 20 mg/L of SNF, almost 98.7% of the substance were removed at pH 4.0 and 0.44 g/L photocatalyst load, with addition of 1 mM K2S2O8 and irradiation time of 90 min. The kinetics of the process was studied, and the photodegradation rate of SNF was found to obey pseudo-first-order kinetics equation represented by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model.

  18. Design of multi-porous layer for dye-sensitized solar cells by doping with TiO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Tung-Li; Chu, Ann-Kuo; Huang, Wen-Yao

    2013-01-01

    We propose a multi-layer dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Conventional DSSC components use a singular TiO2 particle size and a mono-layer active layer, but we demonstrate a multi-layer and multi-scale TiO2 particle based DSSC. Doping with large TiO2 particles can produce light scattering inside the DSSC component. Light scattering effects reduce TiO2 absorption at wavelengths of 200-300 nm. The unabsorbed light zig-zags between the Pt back electrode layer and the substrate, and enhances the Ru-dye absorption. To enhance the scattering, we doped the active layer with 20 wt% of large diameter TiO2. The multi-layer DSSC increases efficiency by about 15% compared with standard DSSCs.

  19. Fabrication of Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles and investigation of photocatalytic decolorization of reactive red 198 under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Halimeh; Eshaghi, Akbar; Hosseini, Seyed Rahman; Ghani, Kamal

    2016-09-01

    In this research, Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with various Fe concentrations (0. 0.1, 1, 5 and 10wt%) were prepared by a sol-gel method. Then, nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), BET surface area, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The photocatalytic activity of the nano-particles was evaluated through degradation of reactive red 198 (RR 198) under UV and visible light irradiations. XRD results revealed that all samples contained only anatase phase. DRS showed that the Fe doping in the titania induced a significant red shift of the absorption edge and then the band gap energy decreased from 3 to 2.1eV. Photocatalytic results indicated that TiO2 had a highest photocatalytic decolorization of the RR 198 under UV irradiation whereas photocatalytic decolorization of the RR 198 under visible irradiation increased in the presence of Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles. Among the samples, Fe-1wt% doped TiO2 nanoparticles showed the highest photocatalytic decolorization of RR198 under visible light irradiation.

  20. High visible light photocatalytic property of Co2+-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with mixed phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Cong; Shu, Xin; Zhu, Da-chuan; Wei, Shang-hai; Wang, Yu-xin; Tu, Ming-jing; Gao, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Mixed phases Co2+-doped TiO2 nanoparticles have been prepared by a novel method combined with sol-gel and hydrothermal methods. The section of sol-gel method, sol, provides an unstable colloidal reaction system for the next reaction process. The hydrothermal method is to treat the above reaction system to prepare undoped and doped samples. The as-prepared samples have been characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, HRTEM and UV-vis spectroscopy. The results show that the as-prepared samples contain three titania polymorphs: brookite, rutile and anatase phases. These titania polymorphs probably form polymorph-junctions that can extend the lifetime of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. The photocatalytic activity has been evaluated by the photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B in air under visible-light irradiation. The degradation results indicate that the photocatalytic activity of as-prepared samples is higher than that of Degussa P25, especially the doped sample. This is ascribed to the fact that the phases with smaller band gap can enhance visible-light photocatalytic activity, the polymorph-junctions effectively extend the photoelectron lifetime and the nano size effect and Co-doping induce the shift of the absorption edge into the visible-light region. Furthermore, the XRD, SEM, and TEM data indicate that Co2+-doping results in the decrease of particle size.

  1. Photocatalytic activity of Cr-doped TiO2 nanoparticles deposited on porous multicrystalline silicon films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjaji, Anouar; Trabelsi, Khaled; Atyaoui, Atef; Gaidi, Mounir; Bousselmi, Latifa; Bessais, Brahim; El Khakani, My Ali

    2014-01-01

    This work deals with the deposition of Cr-doped TiO2 thin films on porous silicon (PS) prepared from electrochemical anodization of multicrystalline (mc-Si) Si wafers. The effect of Cr doping on the properties of the TiO2-Cr/PS/Si samples has been investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microcopy (AFM), photoluminescence, lifetime, and laser beam-induced current (LBIC) measurements. The photocatalytic activity is carried out on TiO2-Cr/PS/Si samples. It was found that the TiO2-Cr/PS/mc-Si type structure degrades an organic pollutant (amido black) under ultraviolet (UV) light. A noticeable degradation of the pollutant is obtained for a Cr doping of 2 at. %. This result is discussed in light of LBIC and photoluminescence measurements.

  2. A dopant-mediated recombination mechanism in Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles for the photocatalytic decomposition of nitric oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Qingping; Yang, Chieh-Chao; Krol, van de Roel

    2014-01-01

    The photon-assisted adsorption and catalytic decomposition of nitric oxide (NO) over undoped and Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles have been investigated by in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transformed (DRIFT) spectroscopy, in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and on-line NOx analysi

  3. Ag doped hollow TiO2 nanoparticles as an effective green fungicide against Fusarium solani and Venturia inaequalis phytopathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar Boxi, Siddhartha; Mukherjee, Khushi; Paria, Santanu

    2016-02-01

    Chemical-based pesticides are widely used in agriculture to protect crops from insect infestation and diseases. However, the excessive use of highly toxic pesticides causes several human health (neurological, tumor, cancer) and environmental problems. Therefore nanoparticle-based green pesticides have become of special importance in recent years. The antifungal activities of pure and Ag doped (solid and hollow) TiO2 nanoparticles are studied against two potent phytopathogens, Fusarium solani (which causes Fusarium wilt disease in potato, tomato, etc) and Venturia inaequalis (which causes apple scab disease) and it is found that hollow nanoparticles are more effective than the other two. The antifungal activities of the nanoparticles were further enhanced against these two phytopathogens under visible light exposure. The fungicidal effect of the nanoparticles depends on different parameters, such as particle concentration and the intensity of visible light. The minimum inhibitory dose of the nanoparticles for V. inaequalis and F. solani are 0.75 and 0.43 mg/plate. The presence of Ag as a dopant helps in the formation of stable Ag-S and disulfide bonds (R-S-S-R) in cellular protein, which leads to cell damage. During photocatalysis generated •OH radicals loosen the cell wall structure and this finally leads to cell death. The mechanisms of the fungicidal effect of nanoparticles against these two phytopathogens are supported by biuret and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride analyses and field emission electron microscopy. Apart from the fungicidal effect, at a very low dose (0.015 mg/plate) the nanoparticles are successful in arresting production of toxic napthoquinone pigment for F. solani which is related to the fungal pathogenecity. The nanoparticles are found to be effective in protecting potatoes affected by F. solani or other fungi from spoiling.

  4. Ag doped hollow TiO2 nanoparticles as an effective green fungicide against Fusarium solani and Venturia inaequalis phytopathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxi, Siddhartha Sankar; Mukherjee, Khushi; Paria, Santanu

    2016-02-26

    Chemical-based pesticides are widely used in agriculture to protect crops from insect infestation and diseases. However, the excessive use of highly toxic pesticides causes several human health (neurological, tumor, cancer) and environmental problems. Therefore nanoparticle-based green pesticides have become of special importance in recent years. The antifungal activities of pure and Ag doped (solid and hollow) TiO2 nanoparticles are studied against two potent phytopathogens, Fusarium solani (which causes Fusarium wilt disease in potato, tomato, etc) and Venturia inaequalis (which causes apple scab disease) and it is found that hollow nanoparticles are more effective than the other two. The antifungal activities of the nanoparticles were further enhanced against these two phytopathogens under visible light exposure. The fungicidal effect of the nanoparticles depends on different parameters, such as particle concentration and the intensity of visible light. The minimum inhibitory dose of the nanoparticles for V. inaequalis and F. solani are 0.75 and 0.43 mg/plate. The presence of Ag as a dopant helps in the formation of stable Ag-S and disulfide bonds (R-S-S-R) in cellular protein, which leads to cell damage. During photocatalysis generated (•)OH radicals loosen the cell wall structure and this finally leads to cell death. The mechanisms of the fungicidal effect of nanoparticles against these two phytopathogens are supported by biuret and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride analyses and field emission electron microscopy. Apart from the fungicidal effect, at a very low dose (0.015 mg/plate) the nanoparticles are successful in arresting production of toxic napthoquinone pigment for F. solani which is related to the fungal pathogenecity. The nanoparticles are found to be effective in protecting potatoes affected by F. solani or other fungi from spoiling.

  5. Multiscale anode materials in lithium ion batteries by combining micro- with nanoparticles: design of mesoporous TiO2 microfibers@nitrogen doped carbon composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Rechberger, Felix; Primc, Darinka; Niederberger, Markus

    2015-09-07

    TiO2 has been considered as a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries. However, its poor rate capability originating from the intrinsically low lithium ion diffusivity and its poor electronic conductivity hampers putting such an application into practice. Both issues can be addressed by nanostructure engineering and conductive surface coating. Herein, we report a template-assisted synthesis of micron sized TiO2 fibers consisting of a mesoporous network of anatase nanoparticles of about 7.5 nm and coated by N doped carbon. In a first step, an amorphous layer of TiO2 was deposited on cobalt silicate nanobelts and subsequently transformed into crystalline anatase nanoparticles by hydrothermal treatment. The N doped carbon coating was realized by in situ polymerization of dopamine on the crystalline TiO2 followed by annealing under N2. After removal of the template, we obtained the final mesoporous TiO2 fibers@N doped carbon composite. Electrochemical tests revealed that the composite electrode exhibited excellent electrochemical properties in terms of specific capacity, rate performance and long term stability.

  6. Zirconium and silver co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles as visible light catalyst for reduction of 4-nitrophenol, degradation of methyl orange and methylene blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naraginti, Saraschandra; Stephen, Finian Bernard; Radhakrishnan, Adhithya; Sivakumar, A.

    2015-01-01

    Catalytic activity of Zr and Ag co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles on the reduction of 4-nitrophenol, degradation of methylene blue and methyl orange was studied using sodium borohydride as reducing agent. The nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The rate of the reduction/degradation was found to increase with increasing amount of the photocatalyst which could be attributed to higher dispersity and small size of the nanoparticles. The catalytic activity of Zr and Ag co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles showed no significant difference even after recycling the catalyst four times indicating a promising potential for industrial application of the prepared photocatalyst.

  7. Zirconium and silver co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles as visible light catalyst for reduction of 4-nitrophenol, degradation of methyl orange and methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naraginti, Saraschandra; Stephen, Finian Bernard; Radhakrishnan, Adhithya; Sivakumar, A

    2015-01-25

    Catalytic activity of Zr and Ag co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles on the reduction of 4-nitrophenol, degradation of methylene blue and methyl orange was studied using sodium borohydride as reducing agent. The nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The rate of the reduction/degradation was found to increase with increasing amount of the photocatalyst which could be attributed to higher dispersity and small size of the nanoparticles. The catalytic activity of Zr and Ag co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles showed no significant difference even after recycling the catalyst four times indicating a promising potential for industrial application of the prepared photocatalyst.

  8. Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of nanoparticles of TiO2 doped with Pt produced via the self-combustion route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopera, A. A.; Chavarriaga, E. A.; Estupiñan, H. A.; Valencia, I. C.; Paucar, C.; Garcia, C. P.

    2016-05-01

    Titanium oxide (TiO2) is the most important semiconductor used in photocatalysis. For that reason, most recent scientific studies have focused on improving the absorbance of this material in the visible region. In this paper, we report on the production of nanopowders of TiO2 doped with platinum via the solution combustion synthesis method, using glycine as a fuel at concentrations of 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2% w/w of Pt with respect to TiO2 (Pt / TiO2), in order to study the influence of the dopant content on the absorbance spectrum in the visible region. The structure of the samples was characterized using x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, which confirmed the production of a pure anatase phase. VIS diffuse reflectance spectroscopy confirmed that in the visible region the samples doped with Pt absorb within the range of 400 nm to 800 nm. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed the formation of TiO2 nanoparticles with an average size of 13 nm and with spherical morphology. Colorimetry (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage L *, a *, b *) confirmed photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B using visible light. It was concluded that the route of synthesis and the Pt content play important roles in the absorbance spectrum and the activation energy of TiO2.

  9. Preparation and tribological properties of lanthanum-doped TiO2 nanoparticles in rapeseed oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Kecheng; CHEN Boshui; CHEN Yong

    2013-01-01

    Oleic acid (denoted as OA) surface-capped lanthanum-doped titanium dioxide composite nanoparticles,abbreviated as OA/La-TiO2,were prepared via sol-gel method in association with surface modification by oleic acid.The microstructure of as-prepared OA/La-TiO2 was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction,scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry,and their thermal stability was evaluated by thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry.Moreover,the tribological properties of OA/La-TiO2 as lubricant additives in rapeseed oil were evaluated with a four-ball friction and wear tester.The morphology as well as elemental composition and chemical characteristics of worn steel surfaces was investigated by scanning electron microscopy,energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.Results showed that as-prepared OA/La-TiO2 particles were of spherical shape and had an average diameter of 20 nm.In the meantime,OA/La-TiO2 particles doped with 1.5% (molar ratio; the same hereafter) and 2.5% of lanthanum could markedly improve the anti-wear and friction-reducing capacities of rapeseed oil.This is attributed to the formation of a complex boundary lubrication film mainly composed of the oxides of iron,titanium and lanthanum as well as the formation of an adsorption film of oleic acid on steel sliding surfaces.

  10. Effects of Li+ co-doping on properties of Eu3+ activated TiO2 anatase nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milićević, Bojana; Đorđević, Vesna; Vuković, Katarina; Dražić, Goran; Dramićanin, Miroslav D.

    2017-10-01

    Sol-gel technique for the synthesis of anatase TiO2 at 420 °C produces nanocrystals of 10-20 nm in size with Ti4+ in crystal volume and Ti3+ at terminal planes of the crystal. The study of Li+ co-doping effects on the structure, morphology, absorption, and luminescence of Eu3+ activated TiO2 anatase nanocrystals is presented. Pure anatase structure is achieved up to 9 at.% Li, with significant improvement in crystallinity of europium doped anatase TiO2. The Li+ co-doping reduces the unit cell volume of the crystal, induces the blue shift of the absorption edge, lengthens the lifetime of Eu3+5D0 excited state, and improves the Eu3+ emission intensity up to 37.5%. Judd-Ofelt analysis of Eu3+ emission showed enhancement of quantum efficiency from 66.4% to 98.7% when TiO2:Eu3+ was co-doped with 9 at.% of Li.

  11. 纳米N掺杂TiO2的制备及可见光催化活性研究%Preparation of Nitrogen-doped TiO2 Nanoparticle Catalyst and Its Catalytic Activity under Visible Light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    於煌; 郑旭煦; 殷钟意; 陶丰; 房蓓蓓; 侯苛山

    2007-01-01

    N-doped TiO2 nanoparticle photocatalysts were prepared through a sol-gel procedure using NH4Cl as the nitrogen source and followed by calcination at certain temperature. Systematic studies for the preparation parameters and their impact on the structure and photocatalytic activity under ultraviolet (UV) and visible light irradiation were carried out. Multiple techniques (XRD,TEM,DRIF,DSC,and XPS) were commanded to characterize the crystal structures and chemical binding of N-doped TiO2. Its photocatalytic activity was examined by the degradation of organic compounds. The catalytic activity of the prepared N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles under visible light (λ>400nm) irradiation is evidenced by the decomposition of 4-chlorophenol,showing that nitrogen atoms in the N-doped TiO2 nanoparticle catalyst are responsible for the visible light catalytic activity. The N-doped TiO2 nanoparticle catalyst prepared with this modified route exhibits higher catalytic activity under UV irradiation in contrast to TiO2 without N-doping. It is suggested that the doped nitrogen here is located at the interstitial site of TiO2 lattice.

  12. Upconversion emission enhancement of TiO2 coated lanthanide-doped Y2O3 nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Qiang; Zhao Lian-Cheng; Guo Feng-Yun; Li Mei-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the upconversion emission,this paper synthesizes Tm3+ and Yb3+ codoped Y2O3 nanoparticles,and then coats them with TiO2 shells for different coating times. The spectral results of TiO2 coated nanoparticles indicate that upconversion emission intensities have respectively been enhanced 3.2,5.4,and 2.2 times for coating times of 30,60 and 90 min at an excitation power density of 3.21×102 W·cm-2,in comparison with the emission intensity of non-coated nanoparticles. Therefore it can be concluded that the intense upconversion emission of Y203:Tm3+,Yb3+ nanoparticles can be achieved by coating the particle surfaces with a shell of specific thickness.

  13. Growth of TiO2 nanoparticles under heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, J.; Sen, D.; Mazumder, S.; Sastry, P. U.; Paul, B.

    2013-02-01

    The effect of heat treatment, on growth of NiO doped TiO2, have been investigated. The nanoparticle size has been estimated by small-angle x-ray scattering. The average particle size increases with increasing temperature. The growth of crystallite size has been probed by X-ray diffraction. A polymorphic phase transition of TiO2 is observed beyond 600°C due to growth of TiO2 nanoparticles beyond 14 nm of size.

  14. Development of the IR laser pyrolysis for the synthesis of iron-doped TiO 2 nanoparticles: Structural properties and photoactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrescu, R.; Morjan, I.; Scarisoreanu, M.; Birjega, R.; Fleaca, C.; Soare, I.; Gavrila, L.; Ciupina, V.; Kylberg, W.; Figgemeier, E.

    2010-03-01

    The preparation of TiO 2-based nanoparticles of closely controlled sizes and purity gives rise to considerable interest in the frame of environmental applications, e.g. in photocatalysis. When nanoparticles instead of their bulk counterpart are used the synthesis method plays a fundamental role in defining specific structural properties. Between the different gas-phase synthesis techniques, the CO 2 laser pyrolysis is a versatile method allowing for the preparation of nanostructures of various chemical compositions. Here we demonstrate that pure and Fe-doped TiO 2 nanoparticles with rather low Fe concentration may be prepared by applying the sensitized IR laser pyrolysis to a gas mixtures containing titanium tetrachloride, air and iron pentacarbonyl (vapors). The structures of TiO 2-based particles were systematically investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Depending on the synthesis parameters, the nanoparticle system contains mixtures of anatase and rutile, with a preponderance of the anatase phase. Higher rutile proportion was found in the iron-doped samples. Mean particle diameters of around 14 nm and 12 nm were estimated for undoped and doped anatase titania, respectively. From UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra, higher absorbance and red shifted absorption were evidenced at higher amount of doped iron. Preliminary evaluation tests of the UV photoactivity of samples were performed by using the scanning electrochemical microscopy for determining the evolution of the oxygen consumption in the presence of IV-chlorophenol. They show that the undoped nano titania samples perform better than the reference P25 Degussa sample. A drop of the nano-titania photoactivity as a consequence of Fe doping was observed. Possible reasons of this effect are tentatively discussed.

  15. Characterisation, phase stability and surface chemical properties of photocatalytic active Zr and Y co-doped anatase TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Andreas; Lejon, Christian; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Štengl, Vaclav; Österlund, Lars

    2013-03-01

    We report on the characterization, phase stability, surface chemical and photocatalytic properties of Zr and Y co-doped anatase TiO2 nanoparticles prepared by homogenous hydrolysis methods using urea as precipitating agent. The materials were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, BET isotherm and BJH pore size distribution measurements. It is shown that Y and Zr ions replace Ti ions in the anatase TiO2 structures up to a critical total dopant concentration of approximately 13 wt%. The co-doped particles show increased phase stability compared to pure anatase TiO2 nanoparticles. The anatase to rutile phase transformation is shown to be preceded by cation segregation and dissolution with concomitant precipitation of Y2Ti2-xZrxO7 and ZrTiO4. Co-doping modifies the optical absorption edge with a resulting attenuation of the Urbach tail. The band gap is slightly blue-shifted at high doping concentrations, and red shifted at lower doping concentrations. Formic acid adsorption was used as a probe molecule to investigate surface chemical properties and adsorbate structures. It was found that the relative abundance of monodentate formate compared to bidentate coordinated formate decreases with increasing doping concentration. This is attributed to an increased surface acidity with increasing dopant concentration. Photodegradation of formic acid occurred on all samples. With mode-resolved in situ FTIR spectroscopy it is shown that the rate of photodegradation of monodentate formate species are higher than for bidentate formate species. Thus our results show that the trend of decreasing photo-degradation rate with increasing dopant concentration can be explained by the adsorbate structure, which is controlled by the acidity of the surface.

  16. Photocatalytic hydrogen generation over lanthanum doped TiO2 under UV light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Xie, L; Li, Y; Qu, J L; Zheng, J; Li, X G

    2009-02-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles doped with different amount of lanthanum were obtained by sol-gel approach and followed annealing at different temperature. The crystal size of TiO2 doped with lanthanum was smaller than that of pure TiO2. Photocatalytic activity of TiO2 doped with lanthanum for water splitting into H2 was investigated. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2 doped with lanthanum for water splitting into H2 is higher than that of pure TiO2. It was found that the optimal photocatalyst was TiO2 doped with 2 wt% lanthanum and calcined at 600 degrees C for 4 h which had hydrogen generation rate 700.6 micromol h(-1).

  17. Tm-doped TiO2 and Tm2Ti2O7 pyrochlore nanoparticles: enhancing the photocatalytic activity of rutile with a pyrochlore phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiré M. De los Santos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tm-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized using a water-controlled hydrolysis reaction. Analysis was performed in order to determine the influence of the dopant concentration and annealing temperature on the phase, crystallinity, and electronic and optical properties of the resulting material. Various characterization techniques were utilized such as X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV–vis spectroscopy. For the samples annealed at 773 and 973 K, anatase phase TiO2 was obtained, predominantly internally doped with Tm3+. ICP–AES showed that a doping concentration of up to 5.8 atom % was obtained without reducing the crystallinity of the samples. The presence of Tm3+ was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV–vis spectroscopy: the incorporation of Tm3+ was confirmed by the generation of new absorption bands that could be assigned to Tm3+ transitions. Furthermore, when the samples were annealed at 1173 K, a pyrochlore phase (Tm2Ti2O7 mixed with TiO2 was obtained with a predominant rutile phase. The photodegradation of methylene blue showed that this pyrochlore phase enhanced the photocatalytic activity of the rutile phase.

  18. Preparation and characterization of nitrogen-doped TiO 2 nanoparticles by the laser pyrolysis of N 2O-containing gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrescu, R.; Scarisoreanu, M.; Morjan, I.; Birjega, R.; Fleaca, C.; Luculescu, C.; Soare, I.; Cretu, O.; Negrila, C. C.; Lazarescu, N.; Ciupina, V.

    2009-03-01

    Nitrogen-doped TiO 2 nanoparticles have been prepared by the IR laser pyrolysis technique. A sensitized mixture of TiCl 4 (vapors) and N 2O was used as titanium and nitrogen precursors, respectively. The structural properties of the resultant N-doped nanoparticles such as the phase formation and the average particle size and distributions were investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The phase composition varied from almost pure anatase to mixtures of rutile and anatase. A decrease of the mean particle diameters from about 18 nm in case of the almost pure anatase sample to about 13 nm in case of the anatase-rutile mixture is observed. XPS analysis suggests and interstitial character of the doping process.

  19. Visible light-induced N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles for the degradation of microcystin-LR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    N-doped nano-crystalline TiO2 powders have been synthesized by the sol-gel method.The shape and crystal structure of the resulting N-doped TiO2 were investigated by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS),X-ray spectroscopy (XRD),Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis reflection spectrum.The results showed that doping TiO2 with nitrogen can lower its band gap and apparently shift its optical response to the visible region.Under the visible light (λ> 420 nm) irradiation,the MC-LR was degraded by the synthesized N-TiO2 nano-material.The variation of MC-LR amount and its intermediates were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and LC-MS,respectively.The mineralization of MC-LR was determined by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis.Simultaneously,transient oxidative species generated during photocatalysis were tracked by electron spin resonance (ESR) and Peroxidase method.All these results indicated that visible-light excited N-TiO2 can activate molecular oxygen and thereby achieve degradation of MC-LR completely within 14 h.The removal of 59% of TOC was achieved after 20 h irradiation.The major oxidative species in the system were hydroxyl radical (·OH) and H2O2.13 Kinds of intermediates were primarily identified in the process.Based on these results,a reasonable conclusion was drawn for the degradation of MC-LR wherein its four positions are easy to be attacked by the photo-generated OH radical followed by the hydrolyzation of peptides.

  20. Enhanced photoelectrochemical water oxidation via atomic layer deposition of TiO2 on fluorine-doped tin oxide nanoparticle films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, Isvar A.; Peng, Qing; Ferrall, Isa L.; Rieth, Adam J.; Hoertz, Paul G.; Glass, Jeffrey T.

    2015-04-01

    TiO2 is an exemplary semiconductor anode material for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water-splitting electrodes due to its functionality, long-term stability in corrosive environments, nontoxicity, and low cost. In this study, TiO2 photoanodes with enhanced photocurrent density were synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of TiO2 onto a porous, transparent, and conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide nanoparticle (nanoFTO) scaffold fabricated by solution processing. The simplicity and disordered nature of the nanoFTO nanostructure combined with the ultrathin conformal ALD TiO2 coatings offers advantages including decoupling charge carrier diffusion length from optical penetration depth, increased photon absorption probability through scattering, complimentary photon absorption, and favorable interfaces for charge separation and transfer across the various junctions. We examine the effects of porosity of the nanoFTO scaffold and thickness of the TiO2 coating on PEC performance and achieve an optimal photocurrent of 0.7 mA cm-2 at 0 V vs. Ag/AgCl under 100 mW cm-2 AM 1.5 G irradiation in a 1 M KOH aqueous electrolyte. Furthermore, the fundamental mechanisms behind the improvements are characterized via cyclic voltammetry, incident photon-to-current efficiency, transient photocurrent spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and are contrasted with those of single crystal rutile TiO2 nanowires. The strategies employed in this work highlight the opportunities inherent to these types of heteronanostructures, where the lessons may be applied to improve the PEC conversion efficiencies of other promising semiconductors, such as hematite (α-Fe2O3) and other materials more sensitive to visible light.TiO2 is an exemplary semiconductor anode material for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water-splitting electrodes due to its functionality, long-term stability in corrosive environments, nontoxicity, and low cost. In this study, TiO2 photoanodes with enhanced photocurrent

  1. Photocatalytic antibacterial performance of TiO2 and Ag-doped TiO2 against S. aureus. P. aeruginosa and E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kiran; Singh, R P; Pandey, Ashutosh; Pandey, Anjana

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the structural and optical properties and comparative photocatalytic activity of TiO2 and Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticles against different bacterial strains under visible-light irradiation. The TiO2 and Ag-doped TiO2 photocatalysts were synthesized by acid catalyzed sol-gel technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL). The XRD pattern revealed that the annealed sample of TiO2 has both anatase and rutile phases while only an anatase phase was found in Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticles. The decreased band-gap energy of Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticles in comparison to TiO2 nanoparticles was investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy. The rate of recombination and transfer behaviour of the photoexcited electron-hole pairs in the semiconductors was recorded by photoluminescence. The antimicrobial activity of TiO2 and Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticles (3% and 7%) was investigated against both gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli) bacteria. As a result, the viability of all three microorganisms was reduced to zero at 60 mg/30 mL culture in the case of both (3% and 7% doping) concentrations of Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticles. Annealed TiO2 showed zero viability at 80 mg/30 mL whereas doped Ag-TiO2 7% showed zero viability at 40 mg/30 mL culture in the case of P. aeruginosa only.

  2. Photocatalytic antibacterial performance of TiO2 and Ag-doped TiO2 against S. aureus. P. aeruginosa and E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Gupta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the structural and optical properties and comparative photocatalytic activity of TiO2 and Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticles against different bacterial strains under visible-light irradiation. The TiO2 and Ag-doped TiO2 photocatalysts were synthesized by acid catalyzed sol–gel technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, UV–vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL. The XRD pattern revealed that the annealed sample of TiO2 has both anatase and rutile phases while only an anatase phase was found in Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticles. The decreased band-gap energy of Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticles in comparison to TiO2 nanoparticles was investigated by UV–vis spectroscopy. The rate of recombination and transfer behaviour of the photoexcited electron–hole pairs in the semiconductors was recorded by photoluminescence. The antimicrobial activity of TiO2 and Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticles (3% and 7% was investigated against both gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus and gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli bacteria. As a result, the viability of all three microorganisms was reduced to zero at 60 mg/30 mL culture in the case of both (3% and 7% doping concentrations of Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticles. Annealed TiO2 showed zero viability at 80 mg/30 mL whereas doped Ag-TiO2 7% showed zero viability at 40 mg/30 mL culture in the case of P. aeruginosa only.

  3. A simple solution combustion route for the preparation of metal-doped TiO2 nanoparticles and their photocatalytic degradation properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yonghong; Zhu, Yan; Ma, Xiang

    2011-04-14

    In this paper, we report the successful synthesis of metal ion-doped TiO(2) nanoparticles via a simple solution combustion method employing a mixture of ethanol and ethyleneglycol (v/v = 30/20) as the solvent, tetra-n-butyl titanate [Ti(OC(4)H(9))(4), TBOT] as the titanium source and oxygen gas in the atmosphere as the oxygen source, in the presence of small amounts of metal ions such as Cu(2+), Mn(2+), Ce(3+) and Sn(4+). The as-obtained products were characterized by means of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of various metal ion-doped products were investigated. Experiments showed that the metal ion-doped TiO(2) nanoparticles presented a stronger photocatalytic ability for the degradation of organic dyes, including Pyronine B, Safranine T and Methylene blue (MB), under visible light/254 nm UV light irradiation than commercial P25 within the same time.

  4. Photocatalytic antibacterial performance of TiO2 and Ag-doped TiO2 against S. aureus. P. aeruginosa and E. coli

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Kiran; Singh, R. P.; Pandey, Ashutosh; Pandey, Anjana

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the structural and optical properties and comparative photocatalytic activity of TiO2 and Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticles against different bacterial strains under visible-light irradiation. The TiO2 and Ag-doped TiO2 photocatalysts were synthesized by acid catalyzed sol–gel technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL). The XRD pattern revealed that the annealed sample of TiO2 has ...

  5. Morphology and Photoelectrochemical Characterization of MEH-PPV/PCBM Composite Film Doped with TiO2 Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farid Habelhames; Zerguine Wided; Leila Lamiri; Belkacem Nessark; Hassina Derbal-Habak

    2013-01-01

    Poly[2-methoxy-5-(20-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV),[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (n-type) were dissolved,mixed and deposited by physical methods (spin-coating) on indium tin-oxide (ITO) substrate.The incorporation of the titanium dioxide nanoparticles changed the morphology and increased the roughness of polymers film (MEH-PPV/PCBM),and the photocurrent density of the composite (MEH-PPV/PCBM +n-TiO2) was higher than that of single MEHPPV/PCBM film.The study showed that the presence of n-TiO2 particles in the polymeric film improves the photoelectrochemical properties of MEH-PPV/PCBM composite.

  6. Probing Photocatalytic Characteristics of Sb-Doped TiO2 under Visible Light Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Lingjing Luo; Tianfeng Li; Xia Ran; Pan Wang; Lijun Guo

    2014-01-01

    Sb-doped TiO2 nanoparticle with varied dopant concentrations was synthesized using titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) and antimony chloride (SbCl3) as the precursors. The properties of Sb-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), fluorescence spectrophotometer, and Uv-vis spectrophotometer. The absorption edge of TiO2 nanoparticles could be extended to visible region after doping with antimony, in contrast to the UV absorption of p...

  7. Enhanced photo-catalytic activity of Sr and Ag co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles for the degradation of Direct Green-6 and Reactive Blue-160 under UV & visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naraginti, Saraschandra; Thejaswini, T V L; Prabhakaran, D; Sivakumar, A; Satyanarayana, V S V; Arun Prasad, A S

    2015-10-05

    This work is focused on sol-gel synthesis of silver and strontium co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles and their utilization as photo-catalysts in degradation of two textile dyes. Effect of pH, intensity of light, amount of photo-catalyst, concentration of dye, sensitizers, etc., were studied to optimize conditions for obtaining enhanced photo-catalytic activity of synthesized nanoparticles. XRD, BET, HR-TEM, EDAX and UV-Vis (diffused reflectance mode) techniques were used to characterize the nanoparticles. Interestingly, band gap of Sr and Ag co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles showed considerable narrowing (2.6 eV) when compared to Ag doped TiO2 (2.7 eV) and undoped TiO2 (3.17 eV) nanoparticles. Incorporation of Ag and Sr in the lattice of TiO2 could bring isolated energy levels near conduction and valence bands thus narrowing band gap. The XRD analysis shows that both Ag and Sr nanoparticles are finely dispersed on the surface of titania framework, without disturbing its crystalline structure. TEM images indicate that representative grain sizes of Ag-doped TiO2 & Sr and Ag co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles are in the range of 8-20 nm and 11-25 nm, respectively. Effective degradation of Direct Green-6 (DG-6) and Reactive Blue-160 (RB-160) under UV and visible light has been achieved using the photo-catalysts. Sr and Ag co-doped TiO2 photo-catalysts showed higher catalytic activity during degradation process in visible region when compared to Ag-doped and undoped TiO2 nanoparticles which could be attributed to the interactive effect caused by band gap narrowing and enhancement in charge separation. For confirming degradation of the dyes, total organic carbon (TOC) content was monitored periodically. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Natural Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (NDSSCs From Opuntia Prickly Pear Dye Using ZnO Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles by Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Prabu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural dye-sensitized solar cells (NDSSCs have gained considerable attention in the field of solar energy due to their simple fabrication, good efficiency, and low production cost. Natural dyes are environmentally and economically superior to ruthenium-based dyes because they are nontoxic and cheap. However, the conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural dyes is low. One way to improve the DSSC performance is to enhance the absorptivity of extracted natural dyes. We investigated the influence of various factors in the extraction process, such as utilization of different extraction approaches, the acidity of extraction solvent, and different compounds of solvents on the optical absorption spectra. It was found that we could considerably enhance the optical absorptivity of dye and consequently the performance of DSSC by choosing a proper mixture of ethanol, methanol and water. In this study, a photo electrode using ZnO doped TiO2 nanoparticles was prepared by sol-gel method. In this paper we investigate the optical absorption, functional group, surface morphology and elementary composition of pure TiO2, ZnO doped TiO2 nanoparticles and opuntia prickly pear dye extract by using UV-Visible, PL-Studies, FT-IR, FE-SEM and EDS analysis. Finally photocurrent-voltaic characterization of nanocrystaline natural dye solar cell using I-V studies. It was found that the levels of short-circuit current (Jsc, open-circuit voltage (Voc, fill factor (FF and overall conversion efficiency (η.

  9. Probing Photocatalytic Characteristics of Sb-Doped TiO2 under Visible Light Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingjing Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sb-doped TiO2 nanoparticle with varied dopant concentrations was synthesized using titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4 and antimony chloride (SbCl3 as the precursors. The properties of Sb-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, fluorescence spectrophotometer, and Uv-vis spectrophotometer. The absorption edge of TiO2 nanoparticles could be extended to visible region after doping with antimony, in contrast to the UV absorption of pure TiO2. The results showed that the photocatalytic activity of Sb-doped TiO2 nanoparticles was much more active than pure TiO2. The 0.1% Sb-doped TiO2 nanoparticles demonstrated the best photocatalytic activity which was better than that of the Degussa P25 under visible light irradiation using terephthalic acid as fluorescent probe. The effects of Sb dopant on the photocatalytic activity and the involved mechanism were extensively investigated in this work as well.

  10. Enhancement of Photocatalytic Activity on TiO2-Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Lingling Wang; Long Shen; Yihuai Li; Luping Zhu; Jiaowen Shen; Lijun Wang

    2013-01-01

    TiO2-nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (TiO2-CNx) nanocomposites are successfully synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method. The prepared photocatalysts were systematically characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry analyses (TGA-DSC). The results show that the TiO2 nanoparticles with a narrow size of 7 nm are uniformly deposited on CNx. The photocatalytic ac...

  11. One-step synthesis of M-doped TiO2 nanoparticles in TUD-1 (M-TiO2-TUD-1, M = Cr or V) and their photocatalytic performance under visible light irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamdy, Mohamed S.

    2014-01-01

    The novel photocatalyst of M-doped TiO2 nanoparticles in TUD-1 siliceous mesoporous material, M-TiO2-TUD-1 (M = Cr or V), was synthesized in one-pot highly-controlled synthesis procedure. Three samples were prepared for this study; the first prepared with Si/Ti ratio of 2.5 without any dopant. In th

  12. Photocatalytic Degradation of Dicofol and Pyrethrum with Boric and Cerous Co-doped TiO2 under Light Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Lifen; ZOU Jing; ZENG Jinbin; CHEN Wenfeng; CHEN Xi; WANG Xiaoru

    2009-01-01

    Boric and cerous co-doped nano titanium dioxide (B/Ce co-doped TiO2) was synthesized using a sol-gel tech-nique, which involved the hydrolyzation of tetrabutyl titanate with the addition of boric acid and cerous nitrate. The B/Ce co-doped TiO2 was employed for the photocatalytic degradation of dicofol, cyfluthrin and fenvalerate under light irradiation. XRD, TEM, Fr-IR and UV-Vis DRS methods were used to characterize the crystalline structure. Experimental results showed that only the anatase signal phase was found for B/Ce co-doped TiO2, but multiplicate phases, including anatase, rutile and less brookite phases, were identified both in the pure TiO2 nanoparticles and Ce-doped TiO2 nanoparticles. The band gap value of B/Ce co-doped nano TiO2 was narrower than that of undoped nano TiO2. Compared to undoped TiO2, a stronger absorption in the range of 420 to 850 nm was found for B/Ce co-doped nano TiO2, which presented a higher photocatalytic activity in the degradation of dicofol, cyfluthrin and fenvalerate than both Ce doped nano TiO2 and pure nano TiO2 under the same light irradiation.

  13. Photocatalytic activity of La, Y Co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized by ultrasonic assisted sol-gel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongtao; Liu, Wenchao; Lu, Bing; Liu, Fangfang

    2012-05-01

    Bare TiO2 (T), La-doped TiO2 (LT), Y-doped TiO2 (YT), La, Y co-doped TiO2 (LYT) were successfully prepared by facile ultrasonic assisted sol-gel synthesis using Ti(OC4H9)4 as the precursor. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The photocatalytic activities of anatase samples, with the average particle diameters ranging from 14 nm to 21 nm, were evaluated for photodegradation of methyl orange (MO). The XPS results indicated that Y atoms were incorporated into titania lattice, while La atoms existed on the crystal surface. Due to doping, the optical absorption edges of LT, YT, and LYT shifted to the visible light region by 21 nm, 29 nm and 35 nm, respectively. The photocatalytic performances of the doped samples, such as LT, YT and LYT, were much higher than that of bare TiO2 under UV-visible light irradiation. And the photoreactivity efficiency of the LYT was the highest. It indicated that a strong La-Y synergistic interaction appeared to play a decisive role in driving the excellent photocatalytic performance of titania.

  14. Electrorheological Effects of Cerium-Doped TiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹剑波; 赵晓鹏

    2001-01-01

    It is found that the doping of cerium ion into anatase TiO2 can improve the electrorheological (ER) effects of TiO2 and broaden the operational temperature range. Especially, the substitution of 7-11 mol% of the cerium dopant for Ti can obtain a relatively high shear stress, t-7.4kPa (at 4kV/mm), which is ten times larger than that of pure TiO2 ER fluid. Also, the typical Ce-doped TiO2 ER fluid shows the highest shear stress at 80℃, but 40℃ for pure TiO2 ER fluid. The dielectric loss and dielectric constant at a low frequency of TiO2 is improved by the doping of cerium, and the temperature dependence of the dielectric properties shows an obvious differnce between pure and doped TiO2 ER fluids. These can well explain the ER behaviour of doped TiO2. Furthermore, the change of rheological and dielectric properties is discussed on the basis of the lattice distortion and defects in TiO2 arising from the doping of cerium.

  15. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of S-doped TiO2-ZrO2 nanoparticles under visible-light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guohui; Pan, Kai; Fu, Honggang; Jing, Liqiang; Zhou, Wei

    2009-07-30

    Porous nanocrystalline S-doped TiO2-ZrO2 visible-light photocatalysts were prepared through a one-step method. The resulting materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N(2) adsorption-desorption measurements, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (ESR). It was found that modification by ZrO2 could effectively inhibit phase transformation, enhance visible-light absorption, and possess more surface hydroxyl groups. The photocatalytic activity of S-doped TiO2-ZrO2 was higher than that of unmodified S-doped TiO2 and Degussa P25. The enhanced photocatalytic activity could be attributed to the higher specific area, smaller crystal size, porous structure and more surface hydroxyl groups in the catalyst.

  16. Ultrasonic-assisted sol-gel synthesis of samarium, cerium co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with enhanced sonocatalytic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandarloo, Hamed; Badiei, Alireza; Behnajady, Mohammad A; Ziarani, Ghodsi Mohammadi

    2015-09-01

    In this work, pure TiO2 and samarium, cerium mono-doped and co-doped TiO2 catalysts were synthesized by an ultrasonic-assisted sol-gel method and their sonocatalytic efficiency studied toward removal of Methyl Orange as a model organic pollutant from the textile industry. The relationship of structure and sonocatalytic performance of catalysts was established by using various techniques, such as XRD, TEM, SEM, EDX, DRS, and PL. A comparison on the removal efficiency of sonolysis alone and sonocatalytic processes was performed. The results showed that the samarium, cerium co-doped TiO2 catalyst with narrower band gap energy and smaller particle size leads to a rapid removal of pollutant. It was believed that Sm(3+) and Ce(4+) ions can serve as superficial trapping for electrons at conduction band of TiO2 and prolonged the lifetime of electron-hole pairs. Finally, the effect of synthesis and operational variables on the sonocatalytic activity of co-doped TiO2 catalyst was studied and optimized using response surface methodology as a statistical technique. The results showed that the maximum removal efficiency (96.33%) was achieved at the optimum conditions: samarium content of 0.6 wt%, cerium content of 0.82 wt%, initial pollutant concentration of 4.31 mg L(-1), catalyst dosage of 0.84 mg L(-1), ultrasonic irradiation power of 700 W, and irradiation time of 50 min.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical study of Mn-doped TiO2 decorated polypyrrole nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidur, M. R.; Aziz, A. R. Abdul; Basirun, W. J.

    2017-06-01

    Nanostructured conductive polymers are the growing interest in the field of electrochemistry due to their superior conductivity and environmental friendliness. The existence of transition metal oxides could improve their nanostructure as well as conductive properties. In this study, polypyrrole nanotubes are synthesized in the presence of TiO2 and manganese (Mn)-doped TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) to investigate their electrochemical properties. Details characterization of the synthesized composites were done by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and TEM. The TEM analysis shows that doping of TiO2 with Mn decrease the grain size of the TiO2 nanoparticles and successively its effects on the synthesis of the PPy nanotubes (PPyNTs). TEM confirmed that PPyNTs synthesized in the presence of Mn-doped TiO2 are thinner in size compare to the PPyNTs synthesized in presence of pure TiO2. The electrochemical effectiveness of the synthesized PPy nanocomposite was investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). CV and EIS both on a modified glassy carbon electrode reveal the better electron transportability for the Mn-doped TiO2 PPyNTs due to the synergistic effect of doping and decreased the size of PPyNTs as well as increased surface area.

  18. Porous TiO2 Assembled from Monodispersed Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Duan, Weijie; Chen, Yan; Jiao, Shihui; Zhao, Yue; Kang, Yutang; Li, Lu; Fang, Zhenxing; Xu, Wei; Pang, Guangsheng

    2016-12-01

    Porous TiO2 were assembled by evaporating or refluxing TiO2 colloid, which was obtained by dispersing the TiO2 nanoparticles with a crystallite size (d XRD) of 3.2 nm into water or ethanol without any additives. Porous transparent bulk TiO2 was obtained by evaporating the TiO2-C2H5OH colloid at room temperature for 2 weeks, while porous TiO2 nanospheres were assembled by refluxing the TiO2-H2O colloid at 80 °C for 36 h. Both of the porous TiO2 architectures were pore-size-adjustable depending on the further treating temperature. Porous TiO2 nanospheres exhibited enhanced photocatalysis activity compared to the nanoparticles.

  19. Enhancement of the photokilling effect of aluminum phthalocyanine in photodynamic therapy by conjugating with nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaobo; Xie, Jin; Li, Zheng; Chen, Maxin; Wang, Mengyan; Wang, Pei-Nan; Chen, Li; Mi, Lan

    2015-06-01

    As a second-generation photodynamic therapy (PDT) photosensitizer, aluminum phthalocyanine chloride tetrasulfonate (Pc) has gained great attention due to its high absorption at the red light region. Yet, its application in PDT is strongly limited by its low cellular uptake efficiency. In this report, nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanoparticles (N-TiO2) conjugated with Pc are synthesized by a two-step surface modification method. The N-TiO2-Pc products are characterized by Zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The cellular uptake, intracellular distribution, cytotoxicity and the photokilling effect of the nanoparticles are studied on different cancer cell lines. Compared with Pc, the absorption spectrum of N-TiO2-Pc expands from red to UV region, resulting in a higher production of reactive oxygen species under visible light irradiation. In addition, the cellular uptake of Pc is largely improved by its carrier N-TiO2. The photokilling efficiency of N-TiO2-Pc is over ten times higher than that of Pc. The results suggest that N-TiO2-Pc is an excellent candidate as a photosensitizer in PDT.

  20. Plasma induced tungsten doping of TiO2 particles for enhancement of photocatalysis under visible light

    OpenAIRE

    Ishida, Yohei; Motokane, Yasutomo; Tokunaga, Tomoharu; Yonezawa, Tetsu

    2015-01-01

    Here we report a novel method for modifying commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles by a microwave-induced plasma technique. After the plasma treatment TiO2 nanoparticles showed enhanced visible absorption due to the doped W atoms, and the photocatalytic methylene blue degradation above 440 nm was successfully improved.

  1. Plasma induced tungsten doping of TiO2 particles for enhancement of photocatalysis under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yohei; Motokane, Yasutomo; Tokunaga, Tomoharu; Yonezawa, Tetsu

    2015-10-14

    Here we report a novel method for modifying commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles by a microwave-induced plasma technique. After the plasma treatment TiO2 nanoparticles showed enhanced visible absorption due to the doped W atoms, and the photocatalytic methylene blue degradation above 440 nm was successfully improved.

  2. Controllable Synthesis and Tunable Photocatalytic Properties of Ti(3+)-doped TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ren; Wen, Zhenhai; Cui, Shumao; Hou, Yang; Guo, Xiaoru; Chen, Junhong

    2015-06-05

    Photocatalysts show great potential in environmental remediation and water splitting using either artificial or natural light. Titanium dioxide (TiO2)-based photocatalysts are studied most frequently because they are stable, non-toxic, readily available, and highly efficient. However, the relatively wide band gap of TiO2 significantly limits its use under visible light or solar light. We herein report a facile route for controllable synthesis of Ti(3+)-doped TiO2 with tunable photocatalytic properties using a hydrothermal method with varying amounts of reductant, i.e., sodium borohydride (NaBH4). The resulting TiO2 showed color changes from light yellow, light grey, to dark grey with the increasing amount of NaBH4. The present method can controllably and effectively reduce Ti(4+) on the surface of TiO2 and induce partial transformation of anatase TiO2 to rutile TiO2, with the evolution of nanoparticles into hierarchical structures attributable to a high pressure and strong alkali environment in the synthesis atmosphere; in this way, the photocatalytic activity of Ti(3+)-doped TiO2 under visible-light can be tuned. The as-developed strategy may open up a new avenue for designing and functionalizing TiO2 materials for enhancing visible light absorption, narrowing band gap, and improving photocatalytic activity.

  3. An in vivo study on the photo-enhanced toxicities of S-doped TiO2 nanoparticles to zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio) in terms of malformation, mortality, rheotaxis dysfunction, and DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaojia; Aker, Winfred G; Hwang, Huey-Min

    2014-08-01

    The role of light on the acute toxicities of S-doped and Sigma TiO2 nanoparticles in zebrafish was studied. Metrics included mortality for both, and rheotaxis dysfunction and DNA damage for S-doped only. It was found that the acute toxicity of S-TiO2 nanoparticles was enhanced by simulated sunlight (SSL) irradiation (96-h LC50 of 116.56 ppm) and exceeded that of Sigma TiO2, which was essentially non-toxic. Behavioral disorder, in terms of rheotaxis, was significantly increased by treatment with S-TiO2 nanoparticles under SSL irradiation. In order to further understand its toxicity mechanism, we investigated hair cells in neuromasts of the posterior lateral line (PLL) using DASPEI staining. Significant hair cell damage was observed in the treated larvae. The Comet assay was employed to investigate the DNA damage, which might be responsible for the loss of hair cells. Production of the superoxide anion ([Formula: see text]), a major ROS generated by TiO2 nanoparticles, was assayed and used to postulate causative factors to account for these damages. Oxidative effects were most severe in the liver, heart, intestine, pancreatic duct, and pancreatic islet - results consistent with our earlier findings in the investigation of embryonic malformation. TEM micrographs, used to further investigate the fate of S-TiO2 nanoparticles at the cellular level, suggested receptor-mediated autophagy and vacuolization. Our findings validate the benefit of using the transparent zebrafish embryo as an in vivo model for evaluating photo-induced nanotoxicity. These results highlight the importance of conducting a systematic risk assessment in connection with the use of doped TiO2 nanoparticles in aquatic ecosystems.

  4. Sm-Doped Tio2 Nanoparticles with High Photocatalytic Activity for ARS Dye Under Visible Light Synthesized by Ultrasonic Assisted Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Aware Dinkar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article series of nano crystalline Sm-doped TiO2 nano particles with various molar concentration of samarium were synthesized by modified ultrasonic assisted sol-gel method and calcined at 500°C for 2 h. The synthesized nanomaterials were characterized in details using XRD, TEM, XPS UV–vis DRS and BET analysis. The detailed photocatalytic activity results revealed that doped samples shows excellent photodegradation efficiency towards model pollutant Alizarin red-S (ARS and almost 93% dye degrades within 120 minutes. The highest photodegradation efficiency was noticed for 1mole % samarium doped sample at 50 mgL-1 of catalyst dose. The photocatalytic activity of synthesized nano particles were also compared with commercially available ZnO and TiO2 (Degussa, P-25 photocatalyst. It was found that synthesized nano materials showed enhanced photocatalytic efficiency than commercially available semiconducting photocatalyst.

  5. TiO2 nanowire and TiO2 nanowire doped Ag-PVP nanocomposite for antimicrobial and self-cleaning cotton textile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebeish, A A; Abdelhady, M M; Youssef, A M

    2013-01-16

    The TiO(2) nanowire (TiO(2) Nw) was successfully prepared via hydrothermal method through TiO(2) nanoparticle (TiO(2) Np). TiO(2) Np doped silver and TiO(2) Nw doped silver were prepared via photo-reducing Ag(+) ions to Ag metal on the TiO(2) Np or TiO(2) Nw surfaces. The prepared nanomaterials were evaluated using X-ray (XRD) diffraction pattern, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Bleached untreated cotton fabric and PVP treated cotton fabrics were coated with the synthesized nanomaterials using pad-dry-cure method. Photocatalytic activity of untreated and coated cotton fabrics with TiO(2) nanomaterials was investigated through the fabric self cleaning of MB dye stains. Also, the PVP finished cotton fabric modified by nanomaterials demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria and fungi. The mechanical properties of coated cotton fabric (tear strength, surface roughness, tensile strength and elongation at break) were examined.

  6. Electronic, optical and photocatalytic behavior of Mn, N doped and co-doped TiO2: Experiment and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya Fei; Li, Can; Lu, Song; Liu, Ru Xi; Hu, Ji Yuan; Gong, Yin Yan; Niu, Leng Yuan

    2016-03-01

    The crystal phase structure, surface morphology, chemical states and optical properties of Mn, N mono-doped and co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were investigated by X-ray powder diffractometry, Raman spectra, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Meanwhile, geometry structures, formation energies, electronic and optical properties of all systems have been also analyzed by density functional theory. The results showed that the band gap values and the carrier mobility in the valence band, conduction band and impurity levels have a synergetic influence on the visible-light absorption and photocatalytic activity of the doped TiO2. The number and the carrier mobility of impurity level jointly influence the photocatalytic activity of catalyst under visible-light. Especially, the photocatalytic activity of Mn-2N co-doped TiO2 beyond three-fold than that of pure TiO2 under visible-light.

  7. Preparation and photoelectrocatalytic performance of N-doped TiO2/NaY zeolite membrane composite electrode material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhi-Lin; Han, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    A novel composite electrode material based on a N-doped TiO2-loaded NaY zeolite membrane (N-doped TiO2/NaY zeolite membrane) for photoelectrocatalysis was presented. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-visible (UV-vis) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization techniques were used to analyze the structure of the N-doped TiO2/NaY zeolite membrane. The XRD and SEM results verified that the N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with the size of ca. 20 nm have been successfully loaded on the porous stainless steel-supported NaY zeolite membrane. The UV-vis result showed that the N-doped TiO2/NaY zeolite membrane exhibited a more obvious red-shift than that of N-TiO2 nanoparticles. The XPS characterization revealed that the doping of N element into TiO2 was successfully achieved. The photoelectrocatalysis performance of the N-doped TiO2/NaY zeolite membrane composite electrode material was evaluated by phenol removal and also the effects of reaction conditions on the catalytic performance were investigated. Owing to exhibiting an excellent catalytic activity and good recycling stability, the N-doped TiO2/NaY zeolite membrane composite electrode material was of promising application for photoelectrocatalysis in wastewater treatment.

  8. Photoelectrocatalytic degradation of benzoic acid using Au doped TiO2 thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohite, V S; Mahadik, M A; Kumbhar, S S; Hunge, Y M; Kim, J H; Moholkar, A V; Rajpure, K Y; Bhosale, C H

    2015-01-01

    Highly transparent pure and Au doped TiO2 thin films are successfully deposited by using simple chemical spray pyrolysis technique. The effect of Au doping onto the structural and physicochemical properties has been investigated. The PEC study shows that, both short circuit current (Isc) and open circuit voltage (Voc) are (Isc=1.81mA and Voc=890mV) relatively higher at 3at.% Au doping percentage. XRD study shows that the films are nanocrystalline in nature with tetragonal crystal structure. FESEM images show that the film surface covered with a smooth, uniform, compact and rice shaped nanoparticles. The Au doped thin films exhibit indirect band gap, decreases from 3.23 to 3.09eV with increase in Au doping. The chemical composition and valence states of pure and Au doped TiO2 films are studied by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photocatalytic degradation effect is 49% higher in case 3at.% Au doped TiO2 than the pure TiO2 thin film photoelectrodes in the degradation of benzoic acid. It is revealed that Au doped TiO2 can be reused for five cycles of experiments without a requirement of post-treatment while the degradation efficiency was retained.

  9. 掺杂镧纳米TiO2的制备和结构表征%Synthesis and Characterization of La3 +-doped TiO2 Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞芬; 王福明; 张胤; 安胜利; 赵兴国

    2013-01-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles and four kinds of La3+ - doped TiO2 nanoparticles have been made through method of sol -gel with Ti(OC4H9)4, absolute alcohol,acetic acid,lanthanum nitrate and distilled water by adjusting configuration of raw materials, reaction temperature and the torrefaction temperature. The optimum condition was the volume ratio H2O:TBOT: CH3CH2OH:Hac = 17:17:80:15,Gel drying temperature 80℃ and powder roasting temperature 500℃. The nanoparticles were characterized by means of FT - IR and XRD. The FT - IR results show that the location of absorption peaks of La3+ -doped TiO2 nanoparticles unchanged, but some absorption peaks were obviously broadened. This indicated that doping La could cause the change of forces between groups, consequently cause changes of the existence environment and bond strength. The XRD results show that the structure of TiO2 nanoparticles and different La-doped TiO2 nanoparticles are anatase TiO2, with the increase of La3+ content, the grain size of La3+ -doped TiO2 become smaller and smaller, the grain size of pure TiO2 is 26nm while 1 % La - doped is 8nm. This illustrate that doping has the effect of refining grain crystal.%本文以钛酸四丁酯、无水乙醇、冰醋酸、硝酸镧和水为原料,通过控制原料配比、反应温度、陈化湿度、焙烧温度和焙烧时间,采用溶胶-凝胶法制备了纯的纳米TiO2和四种不同镧掺杂量的TiO2纳米粉体.确定的工艺参数为:原料按照体积比为V水∶ V钛酸丁酯∶V无水乙醇∶V冰醋酸=17∶ 17∶ 80∶15,凝胶干燥温度选择80℃,粉体焙烧温度为500℃.对所得产物分别采用FT-IR和粉末XRD法进行了表征,FT-IR分析结果表明,掺杂La3+后TiO2的红外吸收峰的位置基本没有发生变化,但部分吸收峰明显宽化,表明掺杂镧引起基团间作用力的改变,使基团的存在环境和键的强弱发生变化,从而导致了红外吸收峰宽化.XRD测试得出所制备的纯TiO2和四

  10. Porous TiO2 Assembled from Monodispersed Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xu; Duan, Weijie; Chen, Yan; Jiao, Shihui; Zhao, Yue; Kang, Yutang; Li, Lu; Fang, Zhenxing; Xu, Wei; Pang, Guangsheng

    2016-01-01

    Porous TiO2 were assembled by evaporating or refluxing TiO2 colloid, which was obtained by dispersing the TiO2 nanoparticles with a crystallite size (d XRD) of 3.2 nm into water or ethanol without any additives. Porous transparent bulk TiO2 was obtained by evaporating the TiO2-C2H5OH colloid at room temperature for 2 weeks, while porous TiO2 nanospheres were assembled by refluxing the TiO2-H2O colloid at 80 °C for 36 h. Both of the porous TiO2 architectures were pore-size-adjustable depending...

  11. The Effects of Doping Copper and Mesoporous Structure on Photocatalytic Properties of TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a system for the synthesis of Cu-doped mesoporous TiO2 nanoparticles by a hydrothermal method at relatively low temperatures. The technique used is to dope the as-prepared mesoporous TiO2 system with copper. In this method, the copper species with the form of Cu1+, which was attributed to the reduction effect of dehydroxylation and evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and X-ray diffraction (XRD, was well dispersed in the optimal concentration 1 wt.% Cu-doped mesoporous TiO2. In this as-prepared mesoporous TiO2 system, original particles with a size of approximately 20 nm are aggregated together to shapes of approximately 1100 nm, which resulted in the porous aggregate structure. More importantly, the enhancement of the photocatalytic activity was discussed as effects due to the formation of stable Cu(I and the mesoporous structure in the Cu-doped mesoporous TiO2. Among them, Cu-doped mesoporous TiO2 shows the highest degradation rate of methyl orange (MO. In addition, the effects of initial solution pH on degradation of MO had also been investigated. As a result, the optimum values of initial solution pH were found to be 3.

  12. A new preparation of doped photocatalytic TiO2 anatase nanoparticles: a preliminary study for the removal of pollutants in confined museum areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Enrico; Ciliberto, Enrico; Cirino, Antonio M. E.; Capitani, Donatella; Di Tullio, Valeria

    2016-05-01

    The use of nanotechnology in conservation is a relatively new concept. Usually, classical cleanup methods take into account the use of other chemicals: On the one hand they help the environment destroying pollutants, but on the other hand they often become new pollutants. Among the new oxidation methods called advanced oxidation processes, heterogeneous photocatalysis has appeared an emerging technology with several economic and environmental advantages. A new sol-gel method of synthesis of TiO2 anatase is reported in this work using lithium and cobalt (II) salts. The activation energy of the doped photocatalyst was analyzed by solid-state UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The mobility of Li ions on TiO2 NPs surface was studied by 7Li MAS NMR spectroscopy. Use of doped nanotitania is suggested from authors for the removal of pollutants in confined areas containing goods that must be preserved from decomposition and aging phenomena.

  13. Plasma Treated TiO2 Nanoparticles for Dispersion Enhancement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ying; LI Chun; ZHANG Jing

    2009-01-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles were treated in a fluidized reactor by introducing Hexamethyldisiloxane(HMDSO)plasma monomer.The organic HMDSO-polymer vapor was condensed on the nanoparticles and lowered their surface energy.This plasma treatment was harmless to the crystal lattice of the TiO2 nanoparticles.The treated nanoparticles were mixed in glycol solutions and polymerized into TiO2-polyester composites for studying the effect of plasma deposition on dispersion.It Was found that the dispersion of the TiO2 nanoparticles in both glycol and the polyester matrix Was significantly improved due to lower surface energy and HMDSO plasma treatment, as from ultraviolet absorbency measurements and scanning electron microscopy observation.The theory of colloid stability successfully explained the dispersion enhancement of TiO2 nanoparticles in glycol.

  14. Fe doped TiO2-graphene nanostructures: synthesis, DFT modeling and photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhangi, Nasrin; Ayissi, Serge; Charpentier, Paul A.

    2014-08-01

    In this work, Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles ranging from a 0.2 to 1 weight % were grown from the surface of graphene sheet templates containing -COOH functionalities using sol-gel chemistry in a green solvent, a mixture of water/ethanol. The assemblies were characterized by a variety of analytical techniques, with the coordination mechanism examined theoretically using the density functional theory (DFT). Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed excellent decoration of the Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles on the surface of the graphene sheets >5 nm in diameter. The surface area and optical properties of the Fe-doped photocatalysts were measured by BET, UV and PL spectrometry and compared to non-graphene and pure TiO2 analogs, showing a plateau at 0.6% Fe. Interactions between graphene and Fe-doped anatase TiO2 were also studied theoretically using the Vienna ab initio Simulation Package based on DFT. Our first-principles theoretical investigations validated the experimental findings, showing the strength in the physical and chemical adsorption between the graphene and Fe-doped TiO2. The resulting assemblies were tested for photodegradation under visible light using 17β-estradiol (E2) as a model compound, with all investigated catalysts showing significant enhancements in photocatalytic activity in the degradation of E2.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of polypyrrole/Sn-doped TiO 2 nanocomposites (NCs) as a protective pigment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, M. R.; Basirun, W. J.; Alias, Y.; Ebadi, M.

    2011-08-01

    We have chemically polymerized pyrrole in the presence of Sn-doped TiO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) and TiO 2 (NPs) which act as a protective pigment. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results show a core-shell structure of pigments in which TiO 2 and Sn-doped TiO 2 NPs have a nucleus effect and caused a homogenous PPy core-shell type morphology leading to coverage of the TiO 2 and Sn-doped TiO 2 NPs by PPy deposit. The XRD results indicate that the crystalline size of polypyrrole/TiO 2 NCs and polypyrrole/Sn-doped TiO 2 NCs were approximately 93.46 ± 0.06 and 23.36 ± 0.06 nm respectively. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results show that the performance of polypyrrole/Sn-doped TiO 2 NCs is better than polypyrrole/TiO 2 NCs. The results indicate that increasing the area of synthesized polypyrrole in the presence of Sn-doped TiO 2 NPs can increase its ability to interact with the ions liberated during the corrosion reaction of steel in the presence of NaCl. The UV-vis results show that the band gap of TiO 2 NPs increases with doped of Sn in lattice of TiO 2. The increase of the band gap of TiO 2 with doping of Sn can decrease the charge transfer through the coating.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and amoebicidal potential of locally synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles against pathogenic Acanthamoeba trophozoites in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Muazzam, Ambreen Gul; Habib, Amir; Matin, Abdul

    2016-06-01

    Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic protozoan pathogen that plays a pivotal role in the ecosystem. It may cause blinding keratitis and fatal encephalitis involving the central nervous system. Here we synthesized pure and Zn doped TiO2 nanoparticles (~10-30nm) via sol-gel and sol-hydrothermal methods and demonstrated its impact on the biological characteristics of pathogenic Acanthamoeba castellanii. Our results revealed that pure and Zn doped TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized by sol-hydrothermal methods (ranging 5, 10, 25 and 50μg/ml) exhibited amoebicidal effects i.e., >60% of trophozoites executed under normal light at maximum dose (50μg/ml) within 1h incubation. In contrast pure/doped TiO2 obtained via sol gel method showed ~40% amoeba damage. Furthermore, amoebae growth assay demonstrated that Zn doped TiO2 also inhibited Acanthamoeba numbers up to 7days in dose dependent manner. It was interesting to note that all the tested TiO2 nanoparticles have shown maximum amoebicidal effects at pH7 which is quite relevant to amoebic growth favorable conditions. Our results confirmed that TiO2 has inhibitory effects on Acanthamoeba growth and viability. Overall, we reported the amoebicidal and amoebic growth inhibition potential of pure and Zn doped TiO2 nanoparticles against Acanthamoeba due to attached OH(-) groups, reduced size and decreased band gap of sol hydrothermally synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles.

  17. Synthesis of gold-doped TiO2 nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Baolin; SUI Zhenming; CHEN Xiao; WANG Shurong; ZHANG Shoumin; WU Shihua; HUANG Weiping

    2005-01-01

    Nanostructured materials have been the focus of scientific research due to their unusual physical and chemical properties[1-4]. Therein, nanoscale TiO2 is one of the most investigated materials owing to its significance for applications in heterogeneous catalysis, nonlinear optical devices, gas sensors and photoelectrochemical solar cells[2,3].Many studies have been devoted to the improvement of TiO2 activity by doping noble metals[5-7].

  18. Preparation and characterization of sulfur-doped TiO(2)/Ti photoelectrodes and their photoelectrocatalytic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haijian; Liu, Huiling; Ma, Jun; Wang, Xiangyu; Wang, Bin; Han, Lei

    2008-08-15

    Sulfur-doped TiO(2)/Ti photoelectrodes were prepared by anodization and characterized by SEM, AFM, XRD, XPS, UV-vis and SPS. The results of investigation indicated that S(4+) and S(6+) were dispersed on the surface of TiO(2) nanoparticles. The doping with an appropriate amount of sulfur expanded the response range of TiO(2)/Ti photoelectrodes to visible light, and enhanced the separation of photoinduced electrons from cavities. The photoelectrocatalytic performance test run with sulfur-doped TiO(2)/Ti photoelectrodes under Xenon light indicated that Na(2)SO(3) concentration of 750 mg/L and voltage of 160 V were the optimal conditions for preparation of sulfur-doped TiO(2)/Ti photoelectrodes.

  19. High Mobility of Graphene-Based Flexible Transparent Field Effect Transistors Doped with TiO2 and Nitrogen-Doped TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Hsien; Tseng, Po-Yuan; Hsieh, Ping-Yen; Chou, Hung-Tao; Tai, Nyan-Hwa

    2015-05-13

    Graphene with carbon atoms bonded in a honeycomb lattice can be tailored by doping various species to alter the electrical properties of the graphene for fabricating p-type or n-type field-effect transistors (FETs). In this study, large-area and single-layer graphene was grown on electropolished Cu foil using the thermal chemical vapor deposition method; the graphene was then transferred onto a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate to produce flexible, transparent FETs. TiO2 and nitrogen-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2) nanoparticles were doped on the graphene to alter its electrical properties, thereby enhancing the carrier mobility and enabling the transistors to sense UV and visible light optically. The results indicated that the electron mobility of the graphene was 1900 cm(2)/(V·s). Dopings of TiO2 and N-doped TiO2 (1.4 at. % N) lead to n-type doping effects demonstrating extremely high carrier mobilities of 53000 and 31000 cm(2)/(V·s), respectively. Through UV and visible light irradiation, TiO2 and N-TiO2 generated electrons and holes; the generated electrons transferred to graphene channels, causing the FETs to exhibit n-type electric behavior. In addition, the Dirac points of the graphene recovered to their original state within 5 min, confirming that the graphene-based FETs were photosensitive to UV and visible light. In a bending state with a radius of curvature greater than 2.0 cm, the carrier mobilities of the FETs did not substantially change, demonstrating the application possibility of the fabricated graphene-based FETs in photosensors.

  20. Characterization and improved solar light activity of vanadium doped TiO2/diatomite hybrid catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Zhang, Guangxin; Leng, Xue; Sun, Zhiming; Zheng, Shuilin

    2015-03-21

    V-doped TiO2/diatomite composite photocatalysts with different vanadium concentrations were synthesized by a modified sol-gel method. The diatomite was responsible for the well dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles on the matrix and consequently inhibited the agglomeration. V-TiO2/diatomite hybrids showed red shift in TiO2 absorption edge with enhanced absorption intensity. Most importantly, the dopant energy levels were formed in the TiO2 bandgap due to V(4+) ions substituted to Ti(4+) sites. The 0.5% V-TiO2/diatomite photocatalyst displayed narrower bandgap (2.95 eV) compared to undoped sample (3.13 eV) and other doped samples (3.05 eV) with higher doping concentration. The photocatalytic activities of V doped TiO2/diatomite samples for the degradation of Rhodamine B under stimulated solar light illumination were significantly improved compared with the undoped sample. In our case, V(4+) ions incorporated in TiO2 lattice were responsible for increased visible-light absorption and electron transfer to oxygen molecules adsorbed on the surface of TiO2 to produce superoxide radicals ˙O2(-), while V(5+) species presented on the surface of TiO2 particles in the form of V2O5 contributed to e(-)-h(+) separation. In addition, due to the combination of diatomite as support, this hybrid photocatalyst could be separated from solution quickly by natural settlement and exhibited good reusability.

  1. P-doped TiO2 nanoparticles film coated on ground glass substrate and the repeated photodegradation of dye under solar light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yingying; Yu, Leshu; Zhang, Xiaolan; Yao, Jinyan; Zou, Ruyi; Dai, Zheng

    2011-04-01

    The convenient reuse of photocatalysts is essential to the practical application in the degradation of organic pollutant. In this study, compact P-doped TiO2 film coated on ground glass substrate was easily achieved by layer-by-layer assembly technique. Thus such an elaborate complex system exhibited very convenient in recycling photocatalyst in the degradation of dye with high catalytic activity. The excellent performance of P-TiO2 film coated on ground glass substrates endows the assembled route potential in purifying waste water.

  2. Photocatalytic oxidation of propylene on La and N codoped TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinfeng; Li, Haiyan; Zong, Lanlan; Li, Qiuye; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Min; Yang, Jianjun

    2015-02-01

    Lanthanum- and nitrogen-codoped TiO2 photocatalysts was synthesized using orthorhombic nanotubes titanic acid as the precursor by a simple impregnation and subsequent calcination method. The morphology, phase structure, and properties of La- and N-codoped TiO2 were well characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra. The La-/N-codoped TiO2 showed excellent photoactivity of propylene oxidation compared with the single-doped TiO2 and La-/N-codoped P25 TiO2 nanoparticles under visible light irradiation. The origin of the enhancement of the visible light-responsive photocatalytic activity was discussed in detail.

  3. Characteristics of Boron Decorated TiO2 Nanoparticles for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Photoanode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yuan Ho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different boron weight percents on mixed-phase (anatase and rutile TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized to investigate structure morphology, defect states, luminescence properties, and energy conversion. The measured results indicate that boron doping of TiO2 both increases the crystallite size and rutile-phase percent in an anatase matrix. Decreasing the band gap by boron doping can extend the absorption to the visible region, while undoped TiO2 exhibits high UV absorption. Oxygen vacancy defects generated by boron ions reduce Ti+4 and affect electron transport in dye-sensitized solar cells. Excess electrons originating from the oxygen vacancies of doped TiO2 downward shift in the conduction band edge and prompt the transfer of photoelectrons from the conduction band of the rutile phase to the lower energy anatase trapping sites; they then separate charges to enhance the photocurrent and Jsc. Although the resistance of the electron recombination (Rk between doped TiO2 photoanode and the electrolyte for the doped TiO2 sample is lower, a longer electron lifetime (τ of 19.7 ms with a higher electron density (ns of 2.1 × 1018 cm−3 contributes to high solar conversion efficiency.

  4. Photocatalytic degradation of phenol in Aqueous Solutions by Fe(III-doped TiO2/UV Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Nabizadeh Nodehi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives: Phenol and phenolic compounds are widely used in industry and daily liFe, and are of high interest due to stability in the environment, dissolution ability in water and health problems. In this regard, phenol removal from water is of high importance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficiency of photodegradation process for removal of phenol from aqueous system by use of Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles prepared by sol-gel method."nMaterials and Methods: Phenol concentrations of 5, 10, 50 and 100 mg/L were prepared and exposed to UV and Fe-doped TiO2, separately and simultaneously. Also the effect of initial phenol concentration, Fe-doped TiO2 loading and pH were studied. Various doses of photocatalist investigated for Fe- doped TiO2 were 0.25, 0.5 and 1 g/L. pH was studied at three ranges, acidic (pH=3, neutral (pH=7 and alkaline (pH=11."nResults: Maximum degradation was obtained at acidic pH, 0.5 g/L of Fe-doped TiO2 for all of phenol concentrations. With increasing initial concentration of phenol, photocatalytic degradation decreased. In comparison with Fe-doped TiO2/UV process, efficiency of UV radiation alone was low in phenol degradation (% 64.5 at 100 mg/l of phenol concentration. Also the amount of phenol adsorbed on the Fe-doped TiO2 was negligible at dark conditions."nConclusion: Results of this study showed that Fe(III- doped TiO2 nanoparticles had an important effect on photocatalytic degradation of high initial phenol concentration when Fe(III-doped TiO2/ UV process applied.

  5. Synthesis and photocatalytic activities of Nd-doped TiO2 mesoporous microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xijian; Sun, Yangang; Wang, Yeying; Zhang, Lijuan; Lu, Jie

    2016-11-01

    Nd-doped TiO2 mesoporous microspheres with possessing regular micro/nanostructure were synthesized by a simple and facile method. The structure and optical properties of the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms and UV-Visible absorbance spectroscopy. It was revealed that Nd-doped TiO2 mesoporous microspheres are composed of primary nanoparticles with a particle size of ˜25nm. The photocatalytic activities of all the samples were evaluated by degradation methyl orange (MO) in aqueous solution as a model reaction under xenon lamp light irradiation. The results showed that the doped samples demonstrated a higher photocatalytic activity than TiO2 mesoporous microspheres, and the MO of 10mg/mL almost could be completely degraded by the Nd-doped TiO2 mesoporous sample (the dosage of Nd salt to TiO2 is 6%) under xenon lamp light irradiation within 1h.

  6. Effect of Ho-doping on photocatalytic activity of nanosized TiO2 catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Heshan; LIU Guoguang; Lü Wenying; LI Xiaoxia; YU Lin; LI Daguang

    2008-01-01

    Ho-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with higher photocatalytic activity were prepared by an acid-catalyzed sol-gel method. The photocatalytic decomposition of methyl orange in aqueous solution was used as a probe reaction to evaluate their photocatalytic activities. The effects of Ho doping on the crystallite sizes, crystal pattern, surface composition, and optical property of the catalysts were investigated by means of techniques such as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Diffuse Reflectance UV-Vis Spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), and Photo-Luminiscence (PL) spectra. Moreover, the modification mechanism of Ho doping was also discussed. The results showed that Ho doping could inhibit phase transformation from anatase to ruffle, suppress the growth of TiO2 grains, cause blue shift of the absorption spectrum edge, accelerate surface hydroxylation, and enhance the separation efficiency of photoinduced electron-hole pairs, which resulted in a significant improvement in the photoreactivity of Ho-doped TiO2. Among them, the Ho-doped TiO2 calcined at 500 ℃ achieved the highest photocatalytic activity.

  7. Adsorption and solar light decomposition of acetone on anatase TiO2 and niobium doped TiO2 thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Andreas; Leideborg, Michael; Larsson, Karin; Westin, Gunnar; Osterlund, Lars

    2006-01-26

    Adsorption and solar light decomposition of acetone was studied on nanostructured anatase TiO2 and Nb-doped TiO2 films made by sol-gel methods (10 and 20 mol % NbO2.5). A detailed characterization of the film materials show that films contain only nanoparticles with the anatase modification with pentavalent Nb oxide dissolved into the anatase structure, which is interpreted as formation of substituted Nb=O clusters in the anatase lattice. The Nb-doped films displayed a slight yellow color and an enhanced the visible light absorption with a red-shift of the optical absorption edge from 394 nm for the pure TiO2 film to 411 nm for 20 mol % NbO2.5. In-situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) transmission spectroscopy shows that acetone adsorbs associatively with eta1-coordination to the surface cations on all films. On Nb-doped TiO2 films, the carbonyl bonding to the surface is stabilized, which is evidenced by a lowering of the nu(C=O) frequency by about 20 cm(-1) to 1672 cm(-1). Upon solar light illumination acetone is readily decomposed on TiO2, and stable surface coordinated intermediates are formed. The decomposition rate is an order of magnitude smaller on the Nb-doped films despite an enhanced visible light absorption in these materials. The quantum yield is determined to be 0.053, 0.004 and 0.002 for the pure, 10% Nb:TiO2, and 20%Nb:TiO2, respectively. Using an interplay between FTIR and DFT calculations we show that the key surface intermediates are bidentate bridged formate and carbonate, and H-bonded bicarbonate, respectively, whose concentration on the surface can be correlated with their heats of formation and bond strength to coordinatively unsaturated surface Ti and Nb atoms at the surface. The oxidation rate of these intermediates is substantially slower than the initial acetone decomposition rate, and limits the total oxidation rate at t>7 min on TiO2, while no decrease of the rate is observed on the Nb-doped films. The rate of degradation of key surface

  8. Toxicological aspects of photocatalytic degradation of selected xenobiotics with nano-sized Mn-doped TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Murat; Güngördü, Abbas; Erdemoglu, Sema; Ozmen, Nesrin; Asilturk, Meltem

    2015-08-01

    The toxic effects of two selected xenobiotics, bisphenol A (BPA) and atrazine (ATZ), were evaluated after photocatalytic degradation using nano-sized, Mn-doped TiO2. Undoped and Mn-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-vis-diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), and BET surface area. The photocatalytic efficiency of the undoped and Mn-doped TiO2 was evaluated for BPA and ATZ. The toxicity of the synthesized photocatalysts and photocatalytic by-products of BPA and ATZ was determined using frog embryos and tadpoles, zebrafish embryos, and bioluminescent bacteria. Possible toxic effects were also evaluated using selected enzyme biomarkers. The results showed that Mn-doped TiO2 nanoparticles did not cause significant lethality in Xenopus laevis embryos and tadpoles, but nonfiltered samples caused lethality in zebrafish. Furthermore, Mn-doping of TiO2 increased the photocatalytic degradation capability of nanoparticles, and it successfully degraded BPA and AZT, but degradation of AZT caused an increase of the lethal effects on both tadpoles and fish embryos. Degradation of BPA caused a significant reduction of lethal effects, especially after 2-4h of degradation. However, biochemical assays showed that both Mn-doped TiO2 and the degradation by-products caused a significant change of selected biomarkers on X. laevis tadpoles; thus, the ecological risks of Mn-doped TiO2 should be considered due to nanomaterial applications and for spilled nanoparticles in an aquatic ecosystem. Also, the risk of nanoparticles should be considered using indicator reference biochemical markers to verify the environmental health impacts.

  9. Visible light photocatalytic antibacterial activity of Ni-doped and N-doped TiO2 on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananpattarachai, Jirapat; Boonto, Yuphada; Kajitvichyanukul, Puangrat

    2016-03-01

    The Ni-doped and N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were investigated for their antibacterial activities on Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria. Their morphological features and characteristics such as particle size, surface area, and visible light absorbing capacity were compared and discussed. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and UV-visible spectrophotometry were used to characterize both materials. The inactivation of E. coli (as an example of Gram-negative bacteria) and S. aureus (as an example of Gram-positive bacteria) with Ni-doped and N-doped TiO2 was investigated in the absence and presence of visible light. Antibacterial activity tests were conducted using undoped, Ni-doped, and N-doped TiO2. The N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles show higher antibacterial activity than Ni-doped TiO2. The band gap narrowing of N-doped TiO2 can induce more visible light absorption and leads to the superb antibacterial properties of this material. The complete inactivation time for E. coli at an initial cell concentration of 2.7 × 10(4) CFU/mL was 420 min which is longer than the 360 min required for S. aureus inactivation. The rate of inactivation of S. aureus using the doped TiO2 nanoparticles in the presence of visible light is greater than that of E. coli. The median lethal dose (LD50) values of S. aureus and E. coli by antibacterial activity under an 18-W visible light intensity were 80 and 350 mg/ml for N-doped TiO2, respectively.

  10. Bi掺杂纳米TiO2光催化甘油水溶液制氢性能研究%Photocatalytic H2 Evolution from Glycerol Solution over Bi3+-doped TiO2 Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑换新; 田野; 王希涛; 陶磊

    2012-01-01

    采用溶胶-凝胶法制备了TiO2和Bi掺杂的TiO2纳米颗粒,用N2吸附-脱附、SEM、XRD、FT-Raman、UV-Vis DRS对光催化材料的孔结构、表面构造、能带结构、吸光特性进行了表征,并考查了其光催化甘油水溶液制氢反应的活性.结果表明:Bi掺杂后的TiO2为介孔结构的锐钛矿晶型纳米颗粒,其分散度明显增加,晶粒变小,比表面积增大;Bi掺杂使得TiO2禁带内形成杂质能级,降低了禁带能量,增加了光生电子和空穴的分离效率,有利于将TiO2的吸光带边界扩展至可见光区;Bi掺杂的TiO2样品表现出了远高于纯TiO2的光催化甘油水溶液制氢性能,2mol%Bi掺杂的样品在紫外光和模拟太阳光辐射下表现出了最高产氢活性,其速率分别为3534.8 μmol/(h.gcat)和455.7 μmol/(h.gcat).%TiO2 and Bi3+-doped TiO2 semiconductors were prepared by using Sol-Gel method. Their pore size distribution, crystal structure, surface composition, photo absorption properties and photocatalytic performance for H2 evolution from glycerol solution were investigated by techniques of N2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, FT-Raman, SEM, UV-Vis DRS and photocatalytic reaction. The results show that Bi3+-doped TiO2 appears anatase phase nanoparticles with mesoporous structure and has a much smaller crystallite size and much higher BET surface area than bare TiO2. These samples exhibit a visible-light absorption capability much higher than bare TiO2, which mainly originates from the doping process with the formation of new energy level of Bi3+ between conduction band and valence band of TiO2 to reduce the energy gap and the electron-hole recombination rate. The Bi3+-doped TiO2 samples display improved photocatalytic H2 production from glycerol solution, and 2%Bi-doped TiO2 shows a maximum H2 production rate of 3534.8 μmol/(hgcat) under UV irradiation and 455.7 μmol/(hgcat) under simulated-solar irradiation, respectively.

  11. Boron-Doped Anatase TiO2 as a High-Performance Anode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baofeng; Zhao, Fei; Du, Guodong; Porter, Spencer; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Peng; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Liu, Hua Kun; Huang, Zhenguo

    2016-06-29

    Pristine and boron-doped anatase TiO2 were prepared via a facile sol-gel method and the hydrothermal method for application as anode materials in sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). The sol-gel method leads to agglomerated TiO2, whereas the hydrothermal method is conducive to the formation of highly crystalline and discrete nanoparticles. The structure, morphology, and electrochemical properties were studied. The crystal size of TiO2 with boron doping is smaller than that of the nondoped crystals, which indicates that the addition of boron can inhibit the crystal growth. The electrochemical measurements demonstrated that the reversible capacity of the B-doped TiO2 is higher than that for the pristine sample. B-doping also effectively enhances the rate performance. The capacity of the B-doped TiO2 could reach 150 mAh/g at the high current rate of 2C and the capacity decay is only about 8 mAh/g over 400 cycles. The remarkable performance could be attributed to the lattice expansion resulting from B doping and the shortened Li(+) diffusion distance due to the nanosize. These results indicate that B-doped TiO2 can be a good candidate for SIBs.

  12. In situ surface hydrogenation synthesis of Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 with enhanced visible light photoactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Junchao; Hu, Yanjie; Jiang, Hao; Li, Chunzhong

    2014-07-01

    A novel one-step, vapor-fed aerosol flame synthetic process (VAFS) has been developed to prepare Ti3+ self-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2). The freshly formed TiO2 was in situ surface hydrogenated during the condensation stage by introducing H2 above the flame, and Ti3+ ions were created near the surface of TiO2. The relative content of Ti3+ ions near the surface of TiO2 is estimated to be 8%. Because of the high absorption of visible light and suppression of charge recombination, the photocurrent density and decomposition of MB under visible light irradiation were remarkably enhanced. This study demonstrates a simple, potential method to produce Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 with effective photoactivity in visible light.A novel one-step, vapor-fed aerosol flame synthetic process (VAFS) has been developed to prepare Ti3+ self-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2). The freshly formed TiO2 was in situ surface hydrogenated during the condensation stage by introducing H2 above the flame, and Ti3+ ions were created near the surface of TiO2. The relative content of Ti3+ ions near the surface of TiO2 is estimated to be 8%. Because of the high absorption of visible light and suppression of charge recombination, the photocurrent density and decomposition of MB under visible light irradiation were remarkably enhanced. This study demonstrates a simple, potential method to produce Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 with effective photoactivity in visible light. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Schematic setup for Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 nanoparticles is shown in Fig. S1. The BET specific surface and pore-size distribution of Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 is shown in Fig. S2. XRD patterns of pristine TiO2 and Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 are shown in Fig. S3. HRTEM image of Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 with mixture phase is shown in Fig. S4. The photographs of different colors of Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 with different flow rates of hydrogen are shown in Fig. S5. TEM images of Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 samples with different

  13. Hydrogen generation by photoelectrochemical effect of the Cu-doped TiO2 photoanode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Ngoc Tai; Hoa Dao, Thi; Hoang To, Le Hong; Vu, Dinh Lam; Le, Van Hong

    2014-09-01

    TiO2 film photoanodes with a size of 1 × 1 cm2 were fabricated by a spin coating method. Cu-doped TiO2 powder with various Cu concentrations (0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 at%) and surfactant were used as starting materials in coating Cu-doped TiO2 thin films onto FTO/glass substrate. Crystalline structure of TiO2 material, microstructure of the photoanode films and their thickness were identified by x-ray diffraction and Raman scattering. Hydrogen generation from water by photoelectrochemical effect in the visible light was observed by recording I/V characteristics of the photoanode in dark and light regimes. The obtained results have shown that the hydrogen generation efficiency of photoanode nonlinearly depends on Cu concentration. The nonlinear dependence of the hydrogen generation efficiency may be due to a change of resistivity of the film photoanode that is related with the random distribution of the hetero-junction between interfaces of TiO2 and CuO nanoparticles.

  14. Preparation and Solar Light Photocatalytic Activity of N-Doped TiO2-Loaded Halloysite Nanotubes Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhi-Lin; Sun, Wei

    2015-10-01

    A novel method to prepare N-doped TiO2-loaded halloysite nanotubes (N-TiO2/HNTs) nanocomposites was achieved by using the chemical vapor deposition in autoclave. The N-TiO2/HNTs nanocomposites obtained by the different form of the doping N source were studied through a series of characterizations. The XRD, SEM, and TEM characterizations verified the anatase structure of TiO2 nanoparticles with the size of ca.20nm loaded on the outer surface of HNTs. The UV-vis characterization of the N-TiO2/HNTs presented a further red-shift compared to the pure N-TiO2 nanoparticles.. The XPS characterizations confirmed the N element doped into the crystal structure of TiO2 nanoparticles. The photocatalytic activities of N-TiO2/HNTs nanocomposites prepared were evaluated by degradation of phenol at room temperature under simulated solar light irradiation.

  15. A Pt-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays sensor for detecting SF6 decomposition products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxing; Tie, Jing; Zhang, Jinbin

    2013-10-30

    The detection of partial discharge and analysis of SF6 gas components in gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) is important for the diagnosis and operating state assessment of power equipment. The use of a Pt-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays sensor for detecting sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) decomposition products is proposed in this paper. The electrochemical pulse deposition method is employed to prepare the sensor array. The sensor's response to the main characteristic gaseous decomposition products of SF6 is evaluated. The gas sensing characteristic curves of the Pt-doped TiO2 nanotube sensor and intrinsic TiO2 nanotube arrays sensor are compared. The mechanism of the sensitive response is discussed. Test results showed that the Pt-doped nanoparticles not only change the gas sensing selectivity of the TiO2 nanotube arrays sensor with respect to the main characteristic SF6 decomposition products, but also reduce the operating temperature of the sensor.

  16. Synthesis of Br-doped TiO2 hollow spheres with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianqian; Zhu, Shengli; Liang, Yanqin; Cui, Zhenduo; Yang, Xianjin; Liang, Chunyong; Inoue, Akihisa

    2017-02-01

    The Br-doped hollow TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared by a simple hydrothermal process on the carbon sphere template following with calcination at 400 °C. The structure and properties of photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectrum, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, N2 desorption-adsorption, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The TiO2 hollow spheres are in diameter of 500 nm with shell thickness of 50 nm. The shell is composed of small anatase nanoparticles with size of about 10 nm. The TiO2 hollow spheres exhibit high crystalline and high surface area of 89.208 m2/g. With increasing content of Br doping, the band gap of TiO2 hollow spheres decreased from 2.85 to 1.75 eV. The formation of impurity band in the band gap would narrow the band gap and result in the red shift of absorption edge from 395 to 517 nm, which further enhances the photocatalytic activity. The appropriate Br doping improves the photocatlytic activity significantly. The TiO2 hollow spheres with 1.55% Br doping (0.5Br-TiO2) exhibit the highest photocatalytic activity under full light. More than 98% of RhB, MO, and MB can be photodegraded using 0.5Br-TiO2 with concentration of 10 mg/L in 40, 30, and 30 min, respectively. The degradation rate of Br-doped photocatalysts was 40% faster than undoped ones.

  17. Photocatalytic TiO2 nanoparticles enhanced polymer antimicrobial coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaojin; Yang, Zhendi; Tay, See Leng; Gao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Copper (Cu) containing coatings can provide sustainable protection against microbial contamination. However, metallic Cu coatings have not been widely used due to the relatively high cost, poor corrosion resistance, and low compatibility with non-metal substrates. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) possesses antibacterial functions by its photocatalytic properties which can destroy bacteria or suppress their reproduction. TiO2 also has the function of improving the mechanical properties through particle dispersion strengthening. We have recently developed an innovative polymer based coating system containing fine particles of Cu and TiO2 nanoparticles. These polymer based coatings simultaneously display excellent antimicrobial and good mechanical properties. The results showed that the addition of TiO2 has improved the antimicrobial property under sunlight, which provides extended applications in outdoor environment. The elimination of 106 bacterial by contacting the coatings without TiO2 needs 5 h, while contacting with the Cu/TiO2- 1 wt.% TiO2 took only 2 h to kill the same amount of bacteria. The coatings also presented enhanced hardness and wear resistance after adding TiO2. The width of wear track decreased from 270 μm of the Cu-polymer coating to 206 μm of Cu/TiO2-polymer coatings with 10 wt.% TiO2. Synchrotron Infrared Microscopy was used to in-situ and in-vivo study the bacteria killing process at the molecular level. The real-time chemical images of bacterial activities showed that the bacterial cell membranes were damaged by the Cu and TiO2 containing coatings

  18. Comparison of photovoltaic properties of TiO2 electrodes prepared with nanoparticles and nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sang-Hun; Ju, Dong-Woo; Boo, Jin-Hyo

    2014-12-01

    In this report, single crystalline rutile TiO2 nanoparticles and nanorods were synthesized via the hydrothermal method using titanium tetra-isopropoxide as a precursor then, these were coated on top of a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate by using a doctor blade and direct deposition, respectively. Consequently, TiO2 nanorods-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) exhibit a J(sc) of 3.37 mA/cm2, a V(oc) of 0.82 V and fill factor of 60.1% with an overall conversion efficiency of 1.66%. This result shows an increase of around 38% for current density and 35% for conversion efficiency. Also, with respect to the impedance data, TiO2 nanorods-based DSSCs had smaller semicircles than did the nanoparticles-based DSSCs. These results demonstrate that the nanorod structure can have fast electron transport and reduced charge recombination.

  19. Preparation and photocatalytic activity of La3+ and Eu3+ co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles: photo-assisted degradation of methylene blue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Huixian; ZHANG Tianyong; WANG Hongliang

    2011-01-01

    Rare earth ions La3+ and Eu3+ co-doped TiO2 photocatalyst (La-Eu/TiO2) was prepared by sol-gel method,and characterized by various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD),specific surface area and porosity (BET and BJH),scanning electron microscopy (SEM),high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM),UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).The photocatalytic activity of the La-Eu/TiO2 was evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV light irradiation.The catalyst had a relatively uniform particle diameter distribution in the range of 40-60 nm.When calcining at 600℃,the XRD patterns of La-Eu/TiO2 indicated the anatase phase,while the XPS patterns showed the Ti4+,La3+ and Eu3+ ions existence.The DRS spectra showed red shift in the band-gap transition.The experimental results of MB degradation demonstrated that the photocatalytic activity of La-Eu/TiO2 was significantly enhanced due to better separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs.

  20. Fe-doped TiO 2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardare, Diana; Nica, Valentin; Teodorescu, Cristian-Mihail; Macovei, Dan

    2007-09-01

    The reactive sputtering technique was used to obtain undoped and Fe-doped TiO 2 thin films deposited on glass substrates. At 250 °C substrate temperature, undoped TiO 2 films crystallize in a mixed rutile/anatase phase, while Fe-doped films exhibit the rutile phase only. Presence of Fe 3+ ions into the TiO 2 lattice is suggested by the intensity variation of forbidden 1s → 3d transitions between the Ti and Fe K-edges. Ti K-edge EXAFS data are assessed to a mixture of the two kinds of surroundings, a rutile-like crystalline phase, identified also by X-ray diffraction, and a nanosized or amorphous anatase-like surrounding. The local atomic order about Fe atoms is quite different and could be related also to an amorphous phase. The Swanepoel method is used to obtain the dispersion of the refractive index below the interband absorption edge. The dispersion energy, the single-oscillator energy and the coordination number of the Ti atoms are evaluated using the single-oscillator model (Wemple-DiDomenico).

  1. Synthesis of Cu Loaded TiO2 Nanoparticles for the Improved Photocatalytic Degradation of Rhodamine B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, V.; Ramesh, P. S.; Geetha, D.

    2016-10-01

    Copper doped Titanium dioxide TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel method using titanium tetraisopropoxide and copper sulfate as precursors. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Photoluminesce spectroscopy (PL) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). XRD analysis confirms the formation of anatase titanium dioxide and average particle size was 35nm. Cu- TiO2 exhibits a shift in the absorption edge toward visible spectrum. The rate of recombination and transfer behavior of the photoexcited electron-hole pairs in the semiconductors was recorded by photoluminescence. From SEM spherical shaped nanoparticles was observed. Comparing with pure TiO2 nanoparticles, Cu doped TiO2 photocatalyst exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity under natural sunlight irradiation in the decomposition of rhodamine B aqueous solution. The maximum 97% of degradation efficiency of Rhodamine B was observed at 0.6% Cu-TiO2 within 180min. The photocatalytic efficiency of Rhodamine B of Cu doped TiO2 nanoparticle was higher than the pure TiO2, which could be attributed to the small crystallinity intense light absorption in Sunlight and narrow bandgap energy of Copper.

  2. KARAKTERISTIK FILM TIPIS TiO2 DOPING NIOBIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilalodin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Niobium (Nb doped Titanium dioxide (TiO2 thin films have been successfully grown using spin coating method. Characterizations of thin films was carried out using EDAX (Energy Dispersion Analysis for X-Ray, XRD (X-Ray Diffaction and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope to determine the microstructure of thin films. Determination microstructure, particularly of crystal structure was examined using ICDD data, whereas porosity calculation was done using the toolbox application on Matlab 6.1 software. EDAX, XRD and SEM characterization show that the thin films grown well at the Si substrates with the (002 field orientation is dominant and the thin film has the rutile structure. The TiO2 : Nb thin films product have granules round, uniform grain size and porosity value of about 41%.

  3. Synthesis and Electrical Prop erties of TiO2 Nanoparticles Emb edded in Polyamide-6 Nanofib ers Via Electrospinning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R Nirmala; Jin Won Jeong; R Navamathavan; Hak Yong Kim

    2011-01-01

    We report on the synthesis and characterizations of TiO2 nanoparticles embedded in polyamide-6 composite nanofibers by using electrospinning technique. The influence of substrate on the electrical charac-teristics of polyamide-6/TiO2 composite nanofibers was investigated. The resultant nanofibers exhibit good incorporation of TiO2 nanoparticles. The doping of TiO2 nanoparticles into the polyamide-6 nanofibers were confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Pho-toluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy were also used to characterize the samples. The PL and CL spectra reveal that the as-spun polyamide-6/TiO2 composite nanofibers consisted of overlapping of two broad emission bands due to the contribution of polyamide-6 (centered at about 475 nm), which might originate from organic functional groups of polyamide-6 and TiO2 nanoparticles (centered around 550 nm). The electrical conductivity of the polyamide-6/TiO2 composite nanofibers on different substrates was carried out. It was found that the electrical conductivity of the polyamide-6/TiO2 composite nanofibers on silicon substrate was in the range of 1∼3 µA, and about 1 to 20 pA for the paper and glass substrates.

  4. Catalysis by Using TiO2 Nanoparticles and Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chien Shu-Hua; Kuo Ming-Chih; Liou Yuh-Cherng

    2004-01-01

    TiO2 has attracted considerable attention due to its stability, non-toxicity, low cost, and great potential for use as a photocatalyst in environmental applications. Since strong metal-support interaction (SMSI) of titania-supported noble metals was first reported in 1978, titania supported catalyst has been intensively studied in heterogeneous catalysis. However, the effective catalytic activity was restricted due to the low surface area of TiO2. Recently, TiO2-based nanotubes were extensively investigated because of their potentials in many areas such as highly efficient photocatalysis and hydrogen sensor.In the present study, formation of titanium oxide (TiO2) nanotubes was carried out by hydrothermal method, with TiO2 nanoparticle-powders immersed in concentrated NaOH solution in an autoclave at 110 ℃. Preparation of nano-size Pt on TiO2-nanoparticles or TiO2-nanotubes was performed by photochemical deposition method with UV irradiation on an aqueous solution containing TiO2 and hexachloroplatinic acid or tetrachloroauric acid. The TEM micrographs show that TiO2-nanotubes exhibit ~300 nm in length with an inner diameter of ~ 6 nm and the wall thickness of ~ 2 nm, and homogeneous nanosize Pt particles (~ 2 nm) were well-dispersed on both nanoparticle- and nanotube- titania supports. It also shows the nanotube morphology was retained up2o n Pt-immobilization. Nitrogen adsorption isotherm at 77K resulted a high surface area (~ 200m/g) of TiO2-nanotubes, which is about 40 times greater than that of "mother" TiO2 nanoparticles (~5 m/g). All the spectroscopic results exhibited that the nanotube structure was not significantly affected by the immobilized Pt particles. Ti K-edge XANES spectra of TiO2 nanotube and Pt/TiO2-nanotube represent that most titanium are in a tetrahedral coordination with few retained in the octahedral structure.In the in-situ FT-IR experiments, an IR cell was evacuated to a pressure of 10-5 torr at room temperature as soon as the

  5. Electronic structure and room temperature ferromagnetism of C doped TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablat, Abduleziz; Wu, Rong; Mamat, Mamatrishat; Ghupur, Yasin; Aimidula, Aimierding; Bake, Muhammad Ali; Gholam, Turghunjan; Wang, Jiaou; Qian, Haijie; Wu, Rui; Ibrahim, Kurash

    2016-10-01

    C-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using a simple hydrothermal synthesis method. After this preparation, a portion of the samples were annealed separately in air on the one hand, and in argon on the other, and another portion remained untreated. The results of X-ray diffraction show that the untreated samples primarily display anatase and rutile structures. However, after annealing, the samples displayed the rutile structure only. The Ti K-edge and L-edge Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure analyses clearly show that C atoms were successfully incorporated into the TiO2 host lattice. All doped samples exhibit ferromagnetism at room temperature. The saturation magnetization (Ms) and coercive fields (Hc) tend to decrease after the samples are annealed in argon and in air. The maximum Ms of the untreated samples was approximately 0.038 emu/g.

  6. N-doped TiO2/C nanocomposites and N-doped TiO2 synthesised at different thermal treatment temperatures with the same hydrothermal precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Fan, Chenyao; Ren, Zhimin; Fu, Xinxin; Qian, Guodong; Wang, Zhiyu

    2014-09-28

    A hydrothermal precursor was first obtained by isopropyl titanate reacting with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAOH), which acts as a source of nitrogen and carbon. A facile post-thermal treatment was employed to enhance the crystallinity and visible light photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared precursor. The resulting products of post-thermal treatment between 200 °C and 700 °C display different colours from brown to white. Black N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles modified with carbon (denoted as N-TiO2/C) were obtained at 300 °C, while yellow N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles (denoted as N-TiO2) were obtained at 500 °C. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were applied to characterize N-TiO2/C, N-TiO2 and the evolution process during thermal treatment. The results show that for both N-TiO2/C and N-TiO2, nitrogen was doped into the lattice, thus narrowing the band gap and increasing the absorption in the visible light region. Moreover, for N-TiO2/C, the carbon species modified on the surface and between the nanocrystals enhanced the visible light harvesting and increased the adsorption of the dye in the photodegradation measurement. The photocatalytic performance under visible light irradiation is N-TiO2/C > N-TiO2 > undoped TiO2.

  7. Synthesis, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Properties of Sulfur- and Carbon-Codoped TiO2 Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, S.; Barylyak, A.; Besaha, K.; Bund, A.; Bobitski, Y.; Wojnarowska-Nowak, R.; Yaremchuk, I.; Kus-Liśkiewicz, M.

    2016-03-01

    One-step TiO2 nanoparticle synthesis based on the interaction between thiourea and metatitanic acid is applied for sulfur and carbon anatase codoping. The synthesis of the doped TiO2 has been monitored by means of differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis (DTA-TG), which allows determining the optimal thermal conditions for the process. Electron microscopy showed micrometer-sized (5-15 μm) randomly distributed crystal aggregates, consisting of many 15-40-nm TiO2 nanoparticles. The obtained phase composition and chemical states of the doping elements are analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). XRD displays in both samples (doped and pristine) the existence of only one crystalline phase—the tetragonal modification of TiO2—anatase. Further data assessment by means of Rietveld refinement allowed detection of a slight c lattice parameter and volume increase related to incorporation of the doping elements. XPS demonstrated the presence of carbon and sulfur as doping elements in the material. It was confirmed that carbon is in elemental form and also present in oxygen-containing compounds, which are adsorbed on the particle surface. The binding energy for sulfur electron core shell corresponds to the established data for sulfate compounds, where sulfur is in 6+ oxidation state. The synthesized S- and C-codoped TiO2 showed excellent photocatalytic performance during the degradation of organic dyes (rhodamine B, methylene blue), gas-phase oxidation of ethanol under visible light, and photocatalytic hydrogen generation from ethanol under ultraviolet light.

  8. Cu掺杂TiO2作为SERS基底的研究%Study of enhanced Raman scattering for molecules adsorbed on Cu-doped TiO2 nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛向欣; 纪伟; 毛竹; 阮伟东; 赵冰; MA Stephen; LOMBARDI John R

    2011-01-01

    本文采用溶胶-水热法制备了TiO2及Cu掺杂的TiO2纳米粒子作为表面增强拉曼光谱(SERS)活性基底,观察到当4-巯基苯甲酸吸附在3%Cu掺杂的TiO2表面上时,其SERS信号得到了最大程度的增强.Cu离子掺杂进TiO2晶格时会使TiO2表面的缺陷浓度(表面态)得到增加,一定量的缺陷浓度对TiO2-to-Molecule的电荷转移机理起到促进作用,进一步证明了化学增强机理在SERS现象的贡献.%A series of Cu-doped TiO2 (Cu-TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized for the application as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates.Significant SERS signals were observed when the probing molecules of 4-mercaptobenzoic acid were adsorbed on the surface of these substrates.Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis spectrophotometer, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have been employed to investigate the TiO2 and Cu-TiO2 nanaoparticles.The crystalline defects of the Cu-TiO2 NPs caused by Cu dopants affected the SERS activity.In these defect areas, the electrons transfer from the valance band of TiO2 NPs and then transfers to the surface state energy levels.The inner-particle charge-transfers also contributed to the particle-to-molecule charge-transfers, which played a very important role in the enhancements of SERS signals.

  9. Anatase TiO2 sheet-assisted synthesis of Ti(3+) self-doped mixed phase TiO2 sheet with superior visible-light photocatalytic performance: Roles of anatase TiO2 sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojie; Zuo, Guoqing; Lu, Xin; Tang, Changqing; Cao, Shuo; Yu, Miao

    2017-03-15

    On the basis of measurements, such as field emission scanning electron microscope, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra, X-ray diffraction, electron paramagnetic resonance, photoluminescence spectra, and photocurrent measurements, the roles of anatase TiO2 sheet on synthesizing Ti(3+) self-doped mixed phase TiO2 nanosheets (doped TiO2 (A/R, TiO2 (A))) and on improving the performance for photocatalytic CO2 reduction were explored systematically. High surface area anatase TiO2 nanosheets (TiO2 (A)) as a substrate, structure directing agent, and inhibitor, mediated the synthesis of Ti(3+) self-doped mixed phase TiO2 nanosheets. Addition of TiO2 (A) significantly improved not only visible light absorption of doped TiO2 (A/R, TiO2 (A)), but also the efficiency of photo-excited charges separations due to the existence of interfacial regions of anatase-rutile TiO2 junctions. Finally, a possible mechanism for interfacial charge transfer at the anatase-rutile TiO2 interface and for photocatalytic CO2 reduction over Pt loaded doped TiO2 (A/R, TiO2 (A)) were proposed.

  10. Copper and nitrogen doping on TiO2 photoelectrodes and their functions in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun-Yong; Kim, Chan-Soo; Okuyama, Kikuo; Lee, Hye-Moon; Jang, Hee-Dong; Lee, Sung-Eun; Kim, Tae-Oh

    2016-02-01

    The influence of Cu doping on the function of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) dependent on Cu/N-doped TiO2 photoelectrodes was examined. Cu/N-doped TiO2 photoelectrodes with diverse Cu concentration were synthesized using the sol-gel process. Upon adequate addition of Cu, the nanoparticles exhibited small particle sizes, high surface area, and a significant red alteration of their absorption to the visible region in relation to Degussa P25 nanomaterials. Furthermore, the traces of Cu/N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles enhanced the charge transfer and reduced the charge recombination. The addition of sufficient Cu and N increased the surface area, elevating the dye adsorption degree, and decreasing the level of electron recombination. A DSSC fabricated with a 1 mM Cu/N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles accomplished 11.35% of the highest power conversion efficiency, with a short-circuit current of 22.5 mA/cm2. The energy conversion efficiency of this photoelectrode was approximately 37% greater than that of the control, Degussa P25. The increased energy efficiency can be resulted from the extension in surface area, which enabled larger dye charging amount, and the deduction in charge recombination, which accelerated the charge transfer.

  11. Photocatalytic degradation properties of V-doped TiO2 to automobile exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Shen, Dongya; Xu, Tao; Jiang, Ruiling

    2017-05-15

    To improve the photocatalytic degradation properties of titanium dioxide (TiO2) used as raw materials for purifying automobile exhaust (AE), the vanadium (V)-doped TiO2 samples were prepared. The photocatalytic degradation efficiencies of V-doped TiO2 to each component in AE were evaluated under ultraviolet (UV) and visible light irradiation, respectively. Results indicated that the photocatalytic activity of V-doped TiO2 to AE was higher than that of pure TiO2, and the optimal V dopant content of TiO2 was 1.0% under UV light irradiation. The degradation efficiencies of V-doped TiO2 to NOx and HC were higher than those to CO2 and CO in AE because of the reversible reaction between CO2 and CO. In addition, it was found that the photocatalytic degradation efficiencies of V-doped TiO2 to each component in AE were also increased under visible light irradiation. The V-doped TiO2 also showed higher degradation efficiencies to NOx and HC than those to CO2 and CO under visible light irradiation. The V doped TiO2 presented higher photocatalytic activity to CO2 than that to CO, but the reversible reaction between CO and CO2 was not found under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic reactions of pure and V-doped TiO2 samples to each component in AE followed the first order kinetic pathway under the two light irradiations. It is concluded that the V doping is a feasible method to improve the photocatalytic degradation properties of TiO2 to AE for air purification, developing a sustainable environmental purification technology based on TiO2 materials.

  12. The TiO(2) nanoparticle effect on the performance of a conducting polymer Schottky diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, K H; Kang, K S; Chen, Y; Han, K J; Kim, Jaehwan

    2008-12-17

    Among the conjugate polymers, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly (styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) has been paid a great deal of attention for various application fields. The absorption intensity of the whole UV-visible range increases linearly, as the concentration of PEDOT:PSS increases. When a small amount of TiO(2) nanoparticles are dispersed in the PEDOT:PSS solution, the absorption in the visible range normally increases, but the UV range absorption (TiO(2) absorption area) is greatly depressed as the concentration of PEDOT:PSS increases. Various weight ratios of TiO(2) nanoparticles in PEDOT:PSS were prepared. The TiO(2)/PEDOT:PSS solution was spin-coated onto the Al electrode and thermally treated to remove water molecules and densify the film. These thermal processes generated nanocracks and nanoholes on the surface of the TiO(2)/PEDOT:PSS film. As the heating temperature increased, wider and longer nanocracks were generated. These nanocracks and nanoholes can be removed by subsequent coating and heating processes. Schottky diodes were fabricated using four different concentrations of TiO(2)-PEDOT:PSS solution. The forward current increased nearly two orders of magnitude by doping approximately 1% of TiO(2) nanoparticles in PEDOT:PSS. Increasing the TiO(2) nanoparticles in the PEDOT:PSS matrix, the forward current was continuously enhanced. The enhancement of forward current is nearly four orders of magnitude with respect to the pristine PEDOT:PSS Schottky diode. The possible conduction mechanisms were examined by using various plotting and curve-fitting methods including a space-charge-limited conduction mechanism [Ln(J) versus Ln(V)], Schottky emission mechanism [Ln(J) versus E(1/2)], and Poole-Frenkel emission mechanism [Ln(J/V) versus E(1/2)]. The plot of Ln(J) versus Ln(V) shows a linear relationship, implying that the major conduction mechanism is SCLC. As the concentration of TiO(2) increased, the conduction mechanism slightly detracted from the

  13. Blue to Yellow Photoluminescence Emission and Photocatalytic Activity of Nitrogen Doping in TiO2 Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Byzynski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The defects caused by doping are important for understanding the increased photocatalytic activities of TiO2:N in organic reactions and in the evaluation of OH radical production after doping. TiO2:N was therefore synthesized using a modified polymeric method and N doping was performed by calcination with urea. The resulting powders were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, and photoluminescence emission spectroscopy (PL. N doping did not alter the morphology of the nanoparticles, and the anatase phase predominated, with the retention of the rutile phase. The band gap values, superficial areas, and crystallite sizes of the powders decreased after doping. The PL results showed an additional energy level in the TiO2:N band gap structure as a result of TiO2 lattice defects caused by doping. At low N contents, the powders showed continuous emissions from the blue region to the yellow region and a high N content shifted the PL emissions to the red region. These results suggest that the use of these powders could increase the efficiencies of solar cells and water-splitting processes. The photocatalytic activity of the powders under UVC illumination was confirmed for different organic dye molecules. The OH radical production did not change extensively after doping, as shown by experiments with terephthalic acid, and higher photocatalytic efficiencies in Rhodamine-B degradation under UVC illumination were achieved using the doped samples.

  14. C-doped mesoporous anatase TiO2 comprising 10nm crystallites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chong; Yang, Shenghui; Li, Beibei; Wang, Hongkong; Shi, Jian-Wen; Li, Guodong; Niu, Chunming

    2016-08-15

    We report a C-doped mesoporous anatase TiO2 with high surface area synthesized using multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) mat as a "rigid" template and carbon doping source. The characterization by SEM, HRTEM, X-ray diffraction and nitrogen adsorption revealed that TiO2 samples have a porous structure which are figuratively a inverse copy of MWCNT network and pore walls are formed by interconnected TiO2 nanoparticles with average diameter of ∼10nm. We found that annealing temperatures from 400 to 1000°C before MWCNT template removal had very limited effect on particle size (∼10nm), surface area (112-129m(2)/g) and total pore volume (0.74-0.85m(2)/g) of the samples through a significantly delayed phase transition from anatase to rutile started at 800°C, resulting in only ∼9.1% conversion at 1000°C. The pore size distribution is in mesopore range from 6 to 60nm peaked at ∼24nm. XPS analysis showed a relatively strong C1s peak at 288.4eV, indicating C doping at Ti sites, which is responsible for red shift of adsorption edge of UV-vis spectra and photocatalytic activity in visible-light region.

  15. Synthesis of iron-doped TiO2 for degradation of reactive Orange16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Mojtaba; Talebi, Rasoul; Rostami, Mohammad Hossein; Nikazar, Manouchehr; Dadvar, Mitra

    2014-01-09

    In this study the optimum conditions for preparing the iron-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were investigated. Samples were synthesized by sol-gel impregnation method. Three effective parameters were optimized using Taguchi method, consisted of: (i) atomic ratios of Fe to Ti; (ii) sintering temperature; (iii) sintering time. The characterization of samples was determined using X-ray diffraction, BET- specific surface area, UV- Vis reflectance spectra (DRS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The XRD patterns of the samples indicated the existence of anatase crystal phase in structure. UV- Vis reflectance spectra showed an enhancement in light absorbance in the visible region (wavelength > 400 nm) for iron-doped samples. The photocatalytic activity of samples was investigated by the degradation of RO 16 (RO 16) dye under UV irradiation. The results illustrated that the photocatalytic activity of iron-doped TiO2 was more than pure TiO2, because of the smaller crystal size, grater BET surface area and higher light absorption ability.

  16. Doped-TiO2 Photocatalysts and Synthesis Methods to Prepare TiO2 Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying CUI; Hao DU; Lishi WEN

    2008-01-01

    TiO2 is a promising photocatalyst. However, the low photocatalytic efficiency calls for the modification of TiO2. Metal- and nonmetal-doping of TiO2 have been proved to be effective ways to enhance photocatalytic properties. This review provides a deep insight into the understanding of the metal- and nonmetal-doped TiO2 photocatalysts. This article begins with the introduction of the crystal structures of TiO2 and applications of TiO2 materials. We then reviewed the doped-TiO2 system in two categories: (1) metal-doped TiO2photocatalysts system, and (2) nonmetal-doped TiO2 photocatalysts system. Both experimental results and theoretical analyses are elaborated in this section. In the following part, for the advantages of TiO2 thin films over particles, various preparation methods to obtain TiO2 thin films are briefly discussed. Finally, this review ends with a concise conclusion and outlook of new trends in the development of TiO2-based photocatalysts.

  17. Visible photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticles co-doped with Gd and B%Gd,B共掺杂改性TiO2纳米颗粒的可见光光催化活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜雪岩; 屠桂朋; 杨洪奎; 刘广菊

    2012-01-01

    采用溶胶-凝胶法制备了Gd和B共掺杂的TiO2纳米颗粒,研究了TiO2纳米颗粒在可见光下的光催化活性.应用XRD、TEM和UV-Vis等手段对TiO2纳米颗粒的物相、粒径、形貌及光学性能进行了表征.结果表明,掺杂可以抑制TiO2晶粒增长,阻碍TiO2由锐钛矿相向金红石相的转变.紫外-可见吸收光谱显示,共掺杂纳米颗粒在可见光区吸收有较强提高,共掺杂离子以协同作用拓展TiO2光谱响应,使吸收带产生红移,提高光生载流子的分离效率.光催化降解实验表明,共掺杂TiO2纳米颗粒有很高的可见光光催化活性,以500℃热处理的共掺杂摩尔比为0.005 Gd和0.04B的TiO2纳米颗粒光催化效果最好,在可见光下对甲基橙的降解率为98.9%.%TiO2 nanoparticles co-doped with Gd and B were prepared by sol-gel method, and its photocata-lytic activity was studied with photocatalytic oxidation in visible light. The TiO2 nanoparticles were characterized by XRD,TEM and UV-Vis. The effects of Gd/B doping on the crystal phase,crystallite sizes,surface topography and optical property of the catalysts were investigated. The results exhibited that the Gd/ B doping could not only efficiently inhibit the grain growth but also suppress the phase transition of ana-tase to rutile. UV-Vis spectrum has shown that the TiO2 nanoparticles possesses strong absorption in visi-ble region, for the co-operation effect of elements doped, cause red-shift of the onset of the absorption spectrum, increase the separation of photoinduced charge carriers. And it has also shown the high catalytic activity. The TiO2 nano particles co-doped with mole fraction of 0. 005 Gd/0. 04B calcined at 500 thas shown the highest catalytic activity, and the degradation percent of methyl orange was 98. 9%.

  18. Photoelectrochemical performance of La3+-doped TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fengyu; Gao, Jiacheng; Wang, Ning

    2017-07-01

    La-doped TiO2 thin films on titanium substrates were prepared by the sol-gel method with titanium tetrachloride as a precursor and La2O3 as a source of lanthanum. The heat-treatment temperature dependence of the photoelectrochemical performance of the La-doped TiO2 film in 0.2 mol/L Na2SO4 was investigated by the Mott-Schottky equation, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and the open-circuit potential test. The results from the Mott-Schottky curves show that the obtained films all were n-type semiconductors, and the film at 300 °C had the highest conduction band position and the widest space charge layer. The electrochemical impendence spectroscopy (EIS) tests of the 300 °C film decreased most during the change from illuminated to dark. The potential of the La-TiO2 thin film electrode was the lowest after the 300 °C heat treatment. The open-circuit potential indicated that the photoelectrical performance of the La-TiO2 films was enhanced with the addition of the La element and the largest decline (837.8 mV) in the electrode potential was achieved with the 300 °C heat treatment. Project supported by the Education Department of Sichuan Province (No. 14ZB0025).

  19. Design of a TiO2 nanosheet/nanoparticle gradient film photoanode and its improved performance for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenguang; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Rong; Feng, Ming; Chen, Yiming

    2014-02-21

    A TiO2 film photoanode with gradient structure in nanosheet/nanoparticle concentration on the fluorine-doped tin oxide glass from substrate to surface was prepared by a screen printing method. The as-prepared dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on the gradient film electrode exhibited an enhanced photoelectric conversion efficiency of 6.48%, exceeding that of a pure nanoparticle-based DSSC with the same film thickness by a factor of 2.6. The enhanced photovoltaic performance of the gradient film-based DSSC was attributed to the superior light scattering ability of TiO2 nanosheets within the gradient structure, which was beneficial to light harvesting. Furthermore, the TiO2 nanosheets with exposed {001} facets facilitated the electron transport from dye molecules to the conduction band of TiO2 and further to the conductive glass. Meanwhile, the high specific surface area of TiO2 nanosheets helped the adsorption of dye molecules, and the TiO2 nanoparticle underlayer ensured good electronic contact between the TiO2 film and the fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements further confirmed the electron transport differences between DSSCs based on nanosheet/nanoparticle gradient film electrodes and DSSCs based on nanosheet/nanoparticle homogeneous mixtures, pure TiO2 nanoparticles and pure TiO2 nanosheets with the same film thickness.

  20. The Photocatalytic and Antibacterial Activity of Cu-Doped TiO2 Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerachai SANGCHAY

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of TiO2 and TiO2 doped with Cu were prepared by sol-gel method. The prepared films were calcined at the temperature of 400 °C for 2 h with the heating rate of 10 °C/min. Physical properties as well as crystal compositions of the fabricated films were characterized by XRD, EDX SEM and AFM techniques. The results show that all samples have thickness range from 0.25 to 1.0 um. The film surfaces are typically uniform and dense with TiO2 nanoparticles. The photocatalytic activities of the thin films were also tested via the degradation of methylene blue (MB solution under UV irradiation. Finally, antibacterial activity efficiency was evaluated by the inactivation of E.coli. It was observed that higher Cu concentration gives better photocatalytic activity. With the highest dopant concentration investigated in this experiment (TiO2-1.0Cu condition the films show photocatalytic of 70 % and antibacterial activity of 100 %.

  1. Preparation of Crystalline Sn-Doped TiO2 and Its Application in Visible-Light Photocatalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xiufeng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sn-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by the vapor transport method of water molecules and characterized by XRD and XPS analyses. The TEM images indicated that as-prepared samples were highly dispersed nanoparticles with a small and uniform size below 20 nm, as it would effectively control the rate of hydrolysis of Ti4+ by adjusting the flow speed of water vapor. Meanwhile, the photocatalytic properties of Sn-doped TiO2 were tested, and the results showed that doping an appropriate amount of Tin would improve the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 by enhancing the separation rate of photogenerated electrons and holes on the surface of TiO2. In addition, the calcination temperature and Tin content had an important influence on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2. When the mix ratio of Sn:Ti reached 1%, and the nano-Sn-TiO2 sample was calcined at 400oC, it showed the best photocatalytic activity.

  2. High power TiO2 and high capacity Sn-doped TiO2 nanomaterial anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübke, Mechthild; Johnson, Ian; Makwana, Neel M.; Brett, Dan; Shearing, Paul; Liu, Zhaolin; Darr, Jawwad A.

    2015-10-01

    A range of phase-pure anatase TiO2 (∼5 nm) and Sn-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with the formula Ti1-xSnxO2 (where x = 0, 0.06, 0.11 and 0.15) were synthesized using a continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis (CHFS) reactor. Charge/discharge cycling tests were carried out in two different potential ranges of 3 to 1 V and also a wider range of 3 to 0.05 V vs Li/Li+. In the narrower potential range, the undoped TiO2 nanoparticles display superior electrochemical performance to all the Sn-doped titania crystallites. In the wider potential range, the Sn-doped samples perform better than undoped TiO2. The sample with composition Ti0.85Sn0.15O2, shows a capacity of ca. 350 mAh g-1 at an applied constant current of 100 mA g-1 and a capacity of 192.3 mAh g-1 at a current rate of 1500 mA g-1. After 500 charge/discharge cycles (at a high constant current rate of 382 mA g-1), the same nanomaterial anode retains a relatively high specific capacity of 240 mAh g-1. The performance of these nanomaterials is notable, particularly as they are processed into electrodes, directly from the CHFS process (after drying) without any post-synthesis heat-treatment, and they are made without any conductive surface coating.

  3. Flexible N-doped TiO2/C ultrafine fiber mat and its photocatalytic activity under simulated sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nan; Wang, Yingde; Lei, Yongpeng; Wang, Bing; Han, Cheng

    2014-11-01

    Flexible N-doped TiO2/C ultrafine fiber (NTCf) mat has been produced via electrospinning and subsequent heat treatment, analyzed by a combination of characterizations. The nitrogen content can be modulated by the addition of urea. The composite fiber with mean diameter of around 500 nm exhibits outstanding mechanical flexibility. The TiO2 in the fiber obtained at 700 °C is anatase with a mass ratio of 23 wt%. In the photodegradation experiment under simulated sunlight, the as-prepared flexible mat demonstrates remarkable efficiency in the degradation of methylene blue (MB) due to the well-proportioned distribution of TiO2 nanoparticles and the improvement of charge transfer process. The nitrogen species in TiO2 lattice and the nitrogen functional groups on the surface of the fiber play crucial impacts on the photocatalytic activity.

  4. Fabrication of Al-Doped TiO2 Visible-Light Photocatalyst for Low-Concentration Mercury Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yen Tsai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High-quality Al-doped TiO2 visible-light photocatalyst was prepared via a single-step direct combination of vaporized Ti, Al, and O2 using a 6 kW thermal plasma system. Results showed that the formed Al-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were a mixture of anatase and rutile phase and had a size between 10 and 105 nm. The absorption spectra of the nanoparticles shifted towards the visible light regions, depending on the Al2O3 addition. Ti4+ and Ti3+ coexisted in the synthesized Al-doped TiO2; the Ti3+ concentration, however, increased with increasing Al2O3 addition due to Al/Ti substitution that caused the occurrence of oxygen vacancy. Hg0 breakthrough tests revealed that the nanoparticles had an appreciable Hg0 removal under visible-light irradiation. Nevertheless, moisture reduced Hg removal by the nanoparticles, especially when visible-light irradiation was applied, suggesting that the competitive adsorption between H2O and Hg species on the active sites of TiO2 surface occurred.

  5. Impact and mechanism of TiO2 nanoparticles on DNA synthesis in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The impact of TiO2 nanoparticles on DNA synthesis in vitro in the dark and the molecular mechanism of such impact were studied. The impact of TiO2 nanoparticles on DNA synthesis was investigated by adding TiO2 nanoparticles in different sizes and at various concentrations into the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system. TiO2 nanoparticles were premixed with the DNA polymerase, the primer or the template, respectively and then the supernatant and the precipitation of each mixture were added into the PCR system separately to observe the impact on DNA synthesis. Sequentially the interaction be- tween TiO2 nanoparticles and the DNA polymerase, the primer or the template was further analyzed by using UV-visible spectroscopy and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The results suggest that TiO2 nanoparticles inhibit DNA synthesis in the PCR system in the dark more severely than mi- croscale TiO2 particles at the equivalent concentration and the inhibition effect of TiO2 nanoparticles is concentration dependent. The molecular mechanism of such inhibition is that in the dark, TiO2 nanoparticles interact with the DNA polymerase through physical adsorption while TiO2 nanoparticles do with the primer or the template in a chemical adsorption manner. The disfunction levels of the bio-molecules under the impact of TiO2 nanoparticles are in the following order: the primer > the tem- plate > the DNA polymerase.

  6. Photocatalytic antibacterial performance of Sn(4+)-doped TiO(2) thin films on glass substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayilkan, Funda; Asiltürk, Meltem; Kiraz, Nadir; Burunkaya, Esin; Arpaç, Ertuğrul; Sayilkan, Hikmet

    2009-03-15

    Pure anatase, nanosized and Sn(4+) ion doped titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) particulates (TiO(2)-Sn(4+)) were synthesized by hydrothermal process. TiO(2)-Sn(4+) was used to coat glass surfaces to investigate the photocatalytic antibacterial effect of Sn(4+) doping to TiO(2) against gram negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and gram positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Relationship between solid ratio of TiO(2)-Sn(4+) in coatings and antibacterial activity was reported. The particulates and the films were characterized using particle size analyzer, zeta potential analyzer, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), SEM, AAS and UV/VIS/NIR techniques. The results showed that TiO(2)-Sn(4+) is fully anatase crystalline form and easily dispersed in water. Increasing the solid ratio of TiO(2)-Sn(4+) from 10 to 50% in the coating solution increased antibacterial effect.

  7. Fabrication N, F, and N/F-Doped TiO2 Photoelectrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su Kyung; Yun, Tae Kwan; Bae, Jae Young

    2015-08-01

    In this study, pure TiO2, N-doped TiO2, F-doped TiO2, and N/F-doped TiO2 particles were successfully synthesized through the hydrolysis of TiCl4 in the presence of ammonia water and NH4F, respectively. The introduction of doping materials did not affect the crystalline structure. No absorption peak for pure TiO2 was observed above the wavelength of 400 nm. However, the N-doped TiO2 and N/F-doped TiO2 powders exhibited a new absorption peak in the visible light region between 400 and 530 nm. The Jsc value of DSSCs based on the N/F-doped TiO2 electrode was increased by 10% compared to DSSCs using a pure TiO2 electrode, and the energy conversion efficiency was increased by 12%.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of Ag doped TiO2 heterojunction films and their photocatalytic performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Selim; Dikici, Tuncay; Yurddaskal, Metin; Gultekin, Serdar; Toparli, Mustafa; Celik, Erdal

    2016-12-01

    In this study, undoped and silver (Ag) doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) films were successfully synthesized by sol-gel spin coating technique on the Si substrates. Photocatalytic activities of the TiO2 films with different Ag content were investigated for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV light irradiation. The crystal phase structure, surface morphology, chemical and optical properties of Ag-doped TiO2 films were characterized using an X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis spectrophotometer, and FTIR spectrophotometer. The results showed that the Ag-doped TiO2 films calcined at 500 °C had the crystalline anatase phases and the surface morphologies with some cracks. Ag substitution into TiO2 matrix enhanced the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 films under UV light irradiation as compared to the undoped TiO2 film. Furthermore, the results indicated that the 0.7% Ag doped TiO2 film exhibited a superior photocatalytic activity than that of undoped and other Ag-doped TiO2 films. This study demonstrated the potential of an application of Ag doped films to efficiently treat dissolved organic contaminants in water.

  9. Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of Pure Anatase Tio2 and Pt-Tio2 Nanoparticles Synthesized by Green Microwave Assisted Route

    OpenAIRE

    Filippo, Emanuela; Carlucci, Claudia; Capodilupo,Agostina Lina; Perulli,Patrizia; Conciauro,Francesca; Corrente, Giuseppina Anna; Gigli, Giuseppe; Ciccarella, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    High-yield, rapid and facile synthesis of elongated pure anatase titania nanoparticles has been achieved through a nonaqueous microwave-based approach. The residual organics onto nanoparticles surfaces were completely removed through a new treatment under ozone flow, at room temperature in air. Such an ozone cleaning method revealed an effective inexpensive dry process of removing organic contaminants from nanoparticles surfaces. The TiO2 elongated nanoparticles having a length of 13.8 ±...

  10. High-rate performance of Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 prepared by imidazole reduction for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Dong-il; Wu, Mihye; Shim, Kwang Bo; Kang, Yongku; Jung, Ha-Kyun

    2016-10-01

    Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared via a simple imidazole reduction process and developed as an anode material for Li-ion batteries. Introducing the Ti3+-state on TiO2 nanoparticles resulted in superior rate performances that the capacity retention of 88% at 50 C. The enhanced electrochemical performances were attributed to the resulting lower internal resistance and improved electronic conductivity, based on galvanostatic intermittent titration technique and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analyses.

  11. Photocatalysis with chromium-doped TiO2: Bulk and surface doping

    KAUST Repository

    Ould-Chikh, Samy

    2014-04-15

    The photocatalytic properties of TiO2 modified by chromium are usually found to depend strongly on the preparation method. To clarify this problem, two series of chromium-doped titania with a chromium content of up to 1.56 wt % have been prepared under hydrothermal conditions: the first series (Cr:TiO2) is intended to dope the bulk of TiO2, whereas the second series (Cr/TiO2) is intended to load the surface of TiO2 with Cr. The catalytic properties have been compared in the photocatalytic oxidation of formic acid. Characterization data provides evidence that in the Cr/TiO2 catalysts chromium is located on the surface of TiO2 as amorphous CrOOH clusters. In contrast, in the Cr:TiO 2 series, chromium is mostly dissolved in the titania lattice, although a minor part is still present on the surface. Photocatalytic tests show that both series of chromium-doped titania demonstrate visible-light-driven photo-oxidation activity. Surface-doped Cr/TiO2 solids appear to be more efficient photocatalysts than the bulk-doped Cr:TiO2 counterparts. It\\'s classified! The photocatalytic properties of TiO2 modified by chromium depend strongly on the preparation method. To clarify this problem, two types of modified titania are discussed: one with CrIII doped in the bulk and one with CrOOH clusters on the TiO2 surface (see picture). Both series show visible-light-driven photo-oxidation activity. However, surface modification appears to be a more efficient strategy. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Mechanism and behaviors of Cr3+-doped TiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-hua; WANG Xiao-lin; GONG Zhu-qing

    2005-01-01

    TiO2 powder and TiO2 thin film on the surface of glazed ceramic tile were prepared by sol-gel method.The influences of different doping Cr3+ concentration on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 were discussed, UV-visible and X-ray diffraction analysis were used to test the performance of TiO2 powder and film. The results indicate that photocatalytic activity of doping Cr3+-TiO2 thin film is higher than that of powder, and the interaction between Cr3+-doped and substrate can greatly enhance the photocatalytic activity. The results of X-ray diffraction and photoabsorption show that the Cr3+ -doped energy level in TiO2 is 0. 62 eV high from the top of valence band, which belongs to the type of deep energy level doping. On the basis of the semiconductor energy level theory and Cr3+ dopant energy level, the semiconductor energy level model of Cr3+ in TiO2 powder and thin film were established, and the doping mechanisms of Cr3+-doped in TiO2 powder and thin film were analyzed.

  13. Magnetic recoverable Fe3O4-TiO2:Eu composite nanoparticles with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, M.; Leostean, C.; Pana, O.; Toloman, D.; Popa, A.; Perhaita, I.; Senilă, M.; Marincas, O.; Barbu-Tudoran, L.

    2016-12-01

    This work refers to the influence of Eu doping on the morphologic, structural and compositional properties of magnetic separable Fe3O4-TiO2 composite nanoparticles with photocatalytic activity. In this respect, Fe3O4-TiO2:Eu nanocomposites were prepared by seed mediated growth of TiO2:Eu through a sol-gel method onto preformed magnetite resulted from co-precipitation method. Different Eu concentration precursors were used for doping. The thermal behavior and the conversion of precursors into corresponding Fe3O4-TiO2:Eu composite nanoparticles were evidenced by FT-IR spectra and thermal analysis. The XRD, XPS and HRTEM investigations results indicate that nanocomposites contain besides Fe3O4-TiO2:Eu some amounts of iron titanate. Formation of FeTiO3 is suppressed by the increase of Eu doping level. Magnetic studies also indicated that nanocomposite exhibit superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature. The large surface area and mesoporous structure of magnetic nanocomposite were confirmed by the surface area (BET) and porosity measurements. It was demonstrated that the composite nanoparticles exhibit good photocatalytic activity toward the degradation of RhB solution and they can be used as efficient and conveniently recoverable photocatalyst.

  14. 微乳液法合成掺硫纳米TiO2及其光催化性能研究%Microemulsion synthesis of sulfur-doped TiO2 nanoparticles and its photocatalytic property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙建新; 陈拥军

    2011-01-01

    以钛酸四丁酯为钛源,硫脲为掺硫前驱物,采用聚乙二醇辛基苯基醚(Triton X-100)/正己醇/环己烷/氨水的微乳液体系合成了掺硫的纳米TiO2粉体;对其结构进行了表征,以甲基橙为目标降解物考察了其光催化性能.烧结温度通过影响TiO2的晶型转变和颗粒尺寸来影响其光催化性能,随着烧结温度的升高,TiO2的光催化性能先是提高,然后迅速降低;在600℃烧结2 h时催化剂的降解性能达到最佳.掺杂硫可提高TiO2的光催化活性,随着掺杂量的增加,催化剂对甲基橙的降解率先快速增加然后缓慢降低,当掺杂量为S/Ti(摩尔比)=0.01∶1时TiO,的光催化降解效果最好.催化剂在用量较小时迅速提高TiO2的光催化降解性能,而后随着用量的增大反而降低,当催化剂用量为1.5/L时,对甲基橙的降解效果最好.%Sulfur-doped TiO2 (S-TiO2) nanoparticles were synthesized by microemulsion method, using tetrabutyl titanate (Ti (OBu)4 ) and sulfourea as precursors and water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsions system of Triton X-lO0, n-hexanol, cyclohexane and ammonia water. The structure of the synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles was characterized. In addition, the photocatalytic property of the nanoparticles under UV-light irradiation was investigated by degradation of methyl orange solution. The results show that the calcination temperature affects greatly the photocatalytic degradation through its influence on the crystallite transformation and particle size of TiO2. The degradation rate increases rapidly with the increase of the calcination temperature, but decrease dramatically when the calcination temperature is too high. When the calcination temperature is 600 ℃ and the calcination time is 2 h, the degradation rate reaches the maximum value. In addition, the doping amount of S can improve the degradation obviously when the S amount is relatively low. The degradation rate decreases slowly when the S amount is too high, and

  15. Facile synthesis of the Ti3+ self-doped TiO2-graphene nanosheet composites with enhanced photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Bocheng; Zhou, Yi; Ma, Yunfei; Yang, Xiaolong; Sheng, Weiqin; Xing, Mingyang; Zhang, Jinlong

    2015-02-26

    This study developed a facile approach for preparing Ti(3+) self-doped TiO2-graphene photocatalyst by a one-step vacuum activation technology involved a relative lower temperature, which could be activated by the visible light owing to the synergistic effect among Ti(3+) doping, some new intersurface bonds generation and graphene oxide reduction. Compared with the traditional methods, the vacuum activation involves a low temperature and low-costing, which can achieve the reduction of GO, the self doping of Ti(3+) in TiO2 and the loading of TiO2 nanoparticles on GR surface at the same time. These resulting TiO2-graphene composites show the high photodegradation rate of MO, high hydrogen evolution activity and excellent IPCE in the visible light irradiation. The facile vacuum activation method can provide an effective and practical approach to improve the performance of TiO2-graphene and other metal oxides-graphene towards their practical photocatalytic applications.

  16. The enhancement of ferromagnetism in Ta-doped anatase TiO2 system by iron co-doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammady, S.; Kurniawan, R.; Nurfani, E.; Sutjahja, I. M.; Winata, T.; Darma, Y.

    2016-11-01

    The ferromagnetic properties of Ta-doped and (Ta,Fe)-doped anatase TiO2 as diluted ferromagnetic materials has been studied within spin-polarized generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and GGA + U method. We observed a ferromagnetic properties in Ta- doped anatase TiO2, with a total magnetic moment of 1.00 μ B /supercell, which mainly arised due to Ti 3d and O 2p states upon Ef. Furthermore, the enhancement of ferromagnetism, mainly arising due to Fe 3d states, in (Ta,Fe)-doped anatase TiO2 was observed up to 5.00 μB /supercell, 5 times larger than that in Ta-doped TiO2. Our results confirmed the important role of Fe doping for the ferromagnetism enhancement in Ta-doped anatase TiO2.

  17. Photocatalysis with chromium-doped TiO2: bulk and surface doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ould-Chikh, Samy; Proux, Olivier; Afanasiev, Pavel; Khrouz, Lhoussain; Hedhili, Mohamed N; Anjum, Dalaver H; Harb, Moussab; Geantet, Christophe; Basset, Jean-Marie; Puzenat, Eric

    2014-05-01

    The photocatalytic properties of TiO2 modified by chromium are usually found to depend strongly on the preparation method. To clarify this problem, two series of chromium-doped titania with a chromium content of up to 1.56 wt % have been prepared under hydrothermal conditions: the first series (Cr:TiO2) is intended to dope the bulk of TiO2, whereas the second series (Cr/TiO2) is intended to load the surface of TiO2 with Cr. The catalytic properties have been compared in the photocatalytic oxidation of formic acid. Characterization data provides evidence that in the Cr/TiO2 catalysts chromium is located on the surface of TiO2 as amorphous CrOOH clusters. In contrast, in the Cr:TiO2 series, chromium is mostly dissolved in the titania lattice, although a minor part is still present on the surface. Photocatalytic tests show that both series of chromium-doped titania demonstrate visible-light-driven photo-oxidation activity. Surface-doped Cr/TiO2 solids appear to be more efficient photocatalysts than the bulk-doped Cr:TiO2 counterparts.

  18. Synergetic effects in novel hydrogenated F-doped TiO2 photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, Emy Marlina; Abd Hamid, Sharifah Bee; Juan, Joon Ching; Basirun, Wan Jefrey; Centi, Gabriele

    2016-05-01

    The synergistic effect between fluorine and hydrogen in hydrogenated F-doped TiO2 photocatalysts is evaluated for the photocatalytic degradation of atrazine. The interaction between fluorine and hydrogen species in hydrogenated F-doped TiO2 overcomes the limitations of individual F-doped TiO2 and hydrogenated TiO2 photocatalyst properties. Hydrogenated F-doped TiO2 is photo-active under UV, visible and infrared light illumination with efficient electrons and holes separations. The optimized concentration of surface vacancies and Ti3+ centers coupled with enhanced surface hydrophilicity facilitates the production of surface-bound and free hydroxyl radicals. The surface of the catalyst contains dbnd Tisbnd F, dbnd Tisbnd OH, dbnd Tisbnd Ovacancy and dbnd Tisbnd H bonds as evidenced by XPS, Raman, FTIR and HR-TEM analysis. This combination also triggers the formation of new Ti3+ occupied states under the conduction band of hydrogenated F-doped TiO2. Moreover, the change in the pore structure from cylindrical to slits and larger surface area facilitates surface charge interactions. The thermal stability is also enhanced and a single anatase phase is obtained. The size of the particles of hydrogenated F-doped TiO2 is also uniform with defined and homogeneous crystal structure. This synergetic effect between fluorine and hydrogen opens up new alternatives in improving the properties of TiO2 and its photocatalytic activity.

  19. First principle study of the electronic structure of hafnium-doped anatase TiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Lezhong; Yang Weiqing; DingYingchun; Zhu Xinghua

    2012-01-01

    Crystal structures and electronic structures of hafnium doping anatase TiO2 were calculated by first principles with the plane-wave ultrasoft pseudopotential method based on the density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation.The calculated results show that the lattice parameters a and c of Hf-doped anatase TiO2 are larger than those of intrinsic TiO2 under the same calculated condition.The calculated band structure and density of states show that the conduction band width of Hf-doped TiO2 is broadened which results in the band gap of Hf-doped being smaller than the band gap of TiO2.

  20. Hydrogen Sensing with Ni-Doped TiO2 Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congqin Ning

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Doping with other elements is one of the efficient ways to modify the physical and chemical properties of TiO2 nanomaterials. In the present work, Ni-doped TiO2 nanotubes were fabricated through anodic oxidation of NiTi alloy and further annealing treatment. The hydrogen sensing properties of the nanotube sensor were investigated. It was found that the Ni-doped TiO2 nanotubes were sensitive to an atmosphere of 1,000 ppm hydrogen, showing a good response at both room temperature and elevated temperatures. A First-Principle simulation revealed that, in comparison with pure anatase TiO2 oxide, Ni doping in the TiO2 oxide could result in a decreased bandgap. When the oxide sensor adsorbed a certain amount of hydrogen the bandgap increased and the acceptor impurity levels was generated, which resulted in a change of the sensor resistance.

  1. Study of Photocatalytic Activity and Properties of Transition Metal Ions Doped Nanocrystalline TiO2 Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Siddhapara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transition metal (Mn, Fe, Co, doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by the sol-gel method. All the prepared samples were calcined at different temperatures like 200°C to 800°C and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis. The studies revealed that transition metal (TM doped nanoparticles have smaller crystalline size and higher surface area than pure TiO2. Dopant ions in the TiO2 structure caused significant absorption shift into the visible region. The results of photodegradation of formaldehyde in aqueous medium under UV light showed that photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticles was significantly enhanced by the presence of some transition metal ions. Chemical oxygen demand (COD of formaldehyde solutions done at regular intervals gave a good idea about mineralization of formaldehyde.

  2. Improved electrochemical performance of nitrogen doped TiO2-B nanowires as anode materials for Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongquan; Fu, Qiang; Xu, Qiaoling; Yan, Xiao; Zhang, Rongyu; Guo, Zhendong; Du, Fei; Wei, Yingjin; Zhang, Dong; Chen, Gang

    2015-07-28

    N-doped TiO2-B nanowires are prepared by the solvothermal method using TiN nanoparticles as the starting material. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that the N dopants preferentially occupy the interstitial sites of TiO2-B up to a content of ∼0.55 at%. Above this critical value, the N dopants will substitute the oxygen atoms which improve the electronic conductivity of TiO2-B. The maximum proportion of substituted-N in the TiO2-B nanowires is ∼1.3 at%. Raman scattering shows that the substituted-N strengthens the Ti(1)-O1-Ti(2) and O1-Ti(1)-O3 bonds of TiO2-B. This improves the stability of the corresponding local structures, thus reducing the distortion of the Li(+) diffusion channel along the b-axis of TiO2-B. As a result, the substituted-N has more of an impact on the electrochemical properties of TiO2-B than the interstitial-N does. The TiO2-B nanowires containing substituted-N dopants exhibit a remarkably enhanced electrochemical performance compared to pure TiO2-B. They show a discharge capacity of 153 mA h g(-1) at the 20 C rate with a capacity retention of 76% after 1000 cycles. In addition, they can deliver a discharge capacity of 100 mA h g(-1) at an ultra-high rate of 100 C, indicating their great potential in high power lithium ion batteries.

  3. Photovoltaic study of dye sensitized solar cells based on TiO2, ZnO:Al3+ nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Godoy, H. E.; Rodríguez-Rojas, R. A.; Castañeda-Contreras, J.; Marañón-Ruiz, V. F.; Pérez-Ladrón de Guevara, H.; López-Luke, T.; De la Rosa-Cruz

    2015-10-01

    A technique to fabricate dye (rhodamine B) sensitized solar cells based on Titanium Oxide (TiO2) and Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles are reported. The TiO2 was synthesized using the sol-gel method and the ZnO was synthesized by hydrolysis method to obtain nanoparticles of ~ 5 nm and 150 nm respectively. ZnO was doped with Al3+ in order to enhance the photovoltaic efficiency to promote the electrons mobility. The photovoltaic conversion characterization of films of TiO2, ZnO and ZnO:Al3+ nanoparticles is also reported. The generated photocurrent was measured by two methods; one of those uses a three electrode electrochemical cell and the other use an electronic array where the cells were exposed to UV lamp and the sun light. The role of the TiO2, ZnO and Al3+ doped ZnO nanoparticles is discussed to obtain a better efficiency in the generation of photocurrent (PC). The results exhibited by the electrochemical cell method, efficiencies of 0.55 (PC=187 μA/cm2) and 0.22 (PC=149 μA/cm2) for TiO2 and undoped ZnO respectively. However, when ZnO is doped with Al3+ at the higher concentration the efficiency was 0.44. While using the electronic array the results exhibited efficiencies of 0.31 (PC=45 μA/cm2) and 0.09 (PC=16 μA/cm2) for TiO2 and undoped ZnO respectively. However, when ZnO is doped with Al3+ at the higher concentration the efficiency was 0.44 and 0.48 for electrochemical cell and electronic array respectively. This shows that Al3+ enhances the photogenerated charge carriers increasing the mobility of electrons.

  4. Photodegradation of phenanthrene by N-doped TiO2 photocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirisaksoontorn, Weekit; Thachepan, Surachai; Songsasen, Apisit

    2009-07-15

    The photodegradation of phenanthrene has been catalyzed by nanostructures of TiO2 doped with nitrogen, N-doped TiO2. The N-doped TiO2 was prepared from the sol-gel reaction of Titanium(IV) bis(ethyl acetoacetato)diisopropoxide with 25% ammonia solution. The N-doped TiO2 was calcined at various temperatures from 300 to 700 degrees C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that N-doped TiO2 remained amorphous at 300 degrees C but anatase-to-rutile transformation started at 400 degrees C and was complete at 700 degrees C. The average particle size calculated from Scherrer's equation was in the range of 9-51 nm with surface area (S(BET)) of 253.7-4.8 m2/g. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results confirmed the incorporation of nitrogen atoms (Ti-N bond) in the N-doped catalyst. Moreover, the percentage of nitrogen determined by Elemental analysis was 0.236% of N-doped calcined at 400 degrees C. UV-Vis reflection spectra indicated that N-doped TiO2 calcined at 400 degrees C shifted to the higher absorption edge in the range of visible light. N-doped TiO2 calcined at 400 degrees C successfully catalyzed the photodegradation of phenanthrene (80% conversion) whereas N-doped TiO2 calcined at 500 degrees C and P25 TiO2 failed as catalysts.

  5. Fabrication of N-doped TiO2 coatings on nanoporous Si nanopillar arrays through biomimetic layer by layer mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yong; Wang, Dong; Schaaf, Peter

    2014-06-14

    Si/N-doped TiO2 core/shell nanopillar arrays with a nanoporous structure are fabricated through a simple protein-mediated TiO2 deposition process. The Si nanopillar arrays are used as templates and alternatively immersed in aqueous solutions of catalytic molecules (protamine, PA) and the titania precursor (titanium(iv) bis(ammonium lactato)dihydroxide, Ti-BALDH) for the layer by layer mineralization of a PA/TiO2 coating. After a subsequent calcination, a N-doped TiO2 layer is formed, and its thickness could be controlled by varying the cycles of deposition. Moreover, the nanoporous structure of the Si nanopillars strongly affects the formation of the TiO2 layer. The obtained Si/TiO2 nanocomposites show significantly improved solar absorption compared with commercially purchased TiO2 nanoparticles.

  6. Influence of temperature on the photodegradation process using Ag-doped TiO2 nanostructures: Negative impact with the nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barakata, Nasser A.M.; Kanjwal, Muzafar Ahmed; Chronakis, Ioannis S.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the influence of the temperature on the photodegradation process using Ag-doped TiO2 nanostructures was investigated. Two morphologies were used; nanoparticles and nanofibers. The nanofibers were synthesized by electrospinning of a sol–gel consisting of titanium isopropoxide, silver......-doped TiO2 nanofibers for all formulations. The nanoparticles were prepared from the same sol–gels, however, instead of spinning the gels were dried, grinded and sintered at 700 °C. Photodegradation under UV irradiation for the rhodamine B at 5, 15, 25, 45 and 55 °C were performed. For the nanoparticles...

  7. Influence of temperature on the photodegradation process using Ag-doped TiO2 nanostructures: Negative impact with the nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barakata, Nasser A.M.; Kanjwal, Muzafar Ahmed; Chronakis, Ioannis S.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the influence of the temperature on the photodegradation process using Ag-doped TiO2 nanostructures was investigated. Two morphologies were used; nanoparticles and nanofibers. The nanofibers were synthesized by electrospinning of a sol–gel consisting of titanium isopropoxide, silver......-doped TiO2 nanofibers for all formulations. The nanoparticles were prepared from the same sol–gels, however, instead of spinning the gels were dried, grinded and sintered at 700 °C. Photodegradation under UV irradiation for the rhodamine B at 5, 15, 25, 45 and 55 °C were performed. For the nanoparticles...

  8. Microwave-hydrothermal synthesis of TiO2 and zirconium doped TiO2 adsorbents for removal of As(III) and As(V)

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Andjelkovic; Dalibor Stankovic; Milica Jovic; Marijana Markovic; Jugoslav Krstic; Dragan Manojlovic; Goran Roglic

    2015-01-01

    Microwave-hydrothermal method was used for the synthesis of TiO2 and TiO2 doped with zirconium. The method was fast and simple and adsorbents were used for removal of As(III) and As(V) from aqueous solutions. The adsorbents were characterized by BET surface area measurements and powder XRD. Experiments showed that TiO2 doped with 10% of Zr using the microwave-hydrothermal method have greater specific surface area and total pore volume in comparison with TiO2 synthesized using the same method....

  9. Influence of Co-Doping of Ni (II on Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 for Pathogenic Bacteria Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baharuddin Shaleh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticle titanium dioxide (TiO2 has most attention in the past decade, since it can be applied as alternative material on sterilization photocatalyst process. This research focused on increasing performance of titania such as structure, particles size and surface area through Ni ion doped on TiO2 surface by sol-gel technique. Product were used to design of a photobioreactor for sterilization process from pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. Product were characterized using TG-DTA, XRD, TEM, SEM-EDS and BET. Titanium dioxide with anatase structure have 12.1 nm in particles size and surface area 49.6 m2/ g that have higher inhibition rate to bacteria cell. Photobiocatalytic reaction was carried out in various TiO2-Ni concentration and UV irradiation times. The anti bacteria from TiO2-Ni to all bacteria cell suspension after UV irradiated at λm : 365 nm has good synergistic effect. Effect of mechanical treatment by sonicator showed the increasing inhibition rate around 4% for 120 minute irradiation. Inhibition rate optimization for each bacteria gave different efficiency inhibition to TiO2-Ni concentration 1.5-2.0 g/L. TiO2-Ni inhibited growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus around ≥ 95% for 120 minute irradiation, while Bacillus subtilis resistance with inhibition percentage rate only 88.1%.

  10. Fabrication and characterization of perovskite photovoltaic devices with TiO2 nanoparticle layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Takeo; Ueoka, Naoki; Suzuki, Kohei; Suzuki, Atsushi; Yamada, Masahiro; Sakamoto, Hiroki; Minami, Satoshi; Fukunishi, Sakiko; Kohno, Kazufumi; Miyauchi, Shinsuke

    2017-01-01

    TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3-based photovoltaic devices were fabricated by a spin-coating method using mixture solutions with TiO2 nanoparticles. Compact TiO2 layers were prepared from titanium diisopropoxide bis(acetyl acetonate) and TiO2 nanoparticles with different particle sizes. The performance of the photovoltaic devices was improved by sequential deposition of the TiO2 layers, which resulted in microstructural change of the perovskite layers.

  11. Fabrication and characterization of photovoltaic devices based on perovskite compounds with TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Masato; Oku, Takeo; Suzuki, Atsushi; Yamada, Masahiro; Fukunishi, Sakiko; Kohno, Kazufumi; Sakamoto, Hiroki

    2015-02-01

    Perovskite-type photovoltaic devices were fabricated by a spin-coating method using a mixture solution. The compact and meso-porous TiO2 of the solar cells were fabricated from TiO2 nanoparticles and sol, and the photovoltaic properties and microstructures were characterized. The conversion efficiencies were improved by the combination of TiO2 nanoparticles and sol. Current density was also improved by increasing numbers of spin-coatings of meso-porous TiO2. Thick meso-porous TiO2 layers would assist the construction of perovskite layers and block of the leak current.

  12. The effect of Fe segregation on the photocatalytic growth of Ag nanoparticles on rutile TiO2(001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busiakiewicz, Adam; Kisielewska, Aneta; Piwoński, Ireneusz; Batory, Damian

    2017-04-01

    The photocatalytic growth of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on rutile TiO2(001) and Fe-modified rutile TiO2(001) monocrystals was investigated. Various amount of Fe was segregated in a controlled way from the doped TiO2 substrates in ultra-high vacuum conditions resulting in low- medium- and high- content of Fe on TiO2 substrates. AgNPs were grown on pristine TiO2 and substrates containing Fe by photoreduction of Ag+ ions under UV illumination. It was found that the size of AgNPs was larger on Fe/TiO2 than on TiO2 while the surface density exhibited the opposite behavior - a large number of AgNPs were present on the TiO2 surface but only a few AgNPs were visible on the Fe/TiO2 substrates. The reason for the differences in size and number of AgNPs on TiO2 and Fe/TiO2 is the limited access of Ag+ to the TiO2 surface caused by the large number of Fe grains segregated onto the TiO2 surface. Another possible reason for the various AgNPs morphologies is alteration in the mechanism of Ag+ photoreduction caused by iron present as Fe3+ ions and by newly formed AgNPs playing the role of electron traps. The surface elemental analysis of the investigated materials was performed with the use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and confirmed the composition of AgNPs/Fe/TiO2 systems. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed sizes, morphology and distribution of the nanostructures.

  13. Photocatalytic degradation of phenol by visible light-responsive iron-doped TiO2 and spontaneous sedimentation of the TiO2 particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Mst Shamsun; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kagaya, Shigehiro

    2006-12-01

    Fe-doped TiO2 was prepared by the calcination of Fe(x)TiS(2) (x=0, 0.002, 0.005, 0.008, 0.01) and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra. All the Fe-doped TiO2 were composed of an anatase crystal form and showed red shifts to a longer wavelength. The activity of the Fe-doped TiO2 for the degradation of phenol was investigated by varying the iron content during UV (365nm) and visible light (405nm and 436nm) irradiation. The degradation rate depended on the Fe content and the Fe-doped TiO2 was responsive to the visible light as well as the elevated activity toward UV light. The molar ratio of 0.005 was the optimum for both the UV and visible light irradiations. The result was discussed on the basis of the balance of the excited electron-hole trap by the doped Fe(3+) and their charge recombination on the doped Fe(3+) level. The Fe-doped TiO2 (x=0.005) was more active than P25 TiO2 under solar light irradiation. The suspended Fe-doped TiO2 spontaneously precipitated once the stirring of the reaction mixture was terminated.

  14. Study of concentration-dependent cobalt ion doping of TiO2 and TiO(2-x)Nx at the nanoscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gole, James L; Prokes, Sharka M; Glembocki, O J; Wang, Junwei; Qiu, Xiaofeng; Burda, Clemens

    2010-07-01

    Experiments with a porous sol-gel generated TiO(2) nanocolloid and its corresponding oxynitride TiO(2-x)N(x) are carried out to evaluate those transformations which accompany additional doping with transition metals. In this study, doping with cobalt (Co(ii)) ions is evaluated using a combination of core level and VB-photoelectron and optical spectroscopy, complementing data obtained from Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy suggests that cobalt doping of porous sol-gel generated anatase TiO(2) and nitridated TiO(2-x)N(x) introduces a spinel-like structure into the TiO(2) and TiO(2-x)N(x) lattices. TEM and XPS data complemented by valence band-photoelectron spectra demonstrate that metallic cobalt clusters are not formed even at high doping levels. As evidenced by Raman spectroscopy, the creation of a spinel-like structure is commensurate with the room temperature conversion of the oxide and its oxynitride from the anatase to the rutile form. The onset of this kinetically driven process correlates with the formation of spinel sites within the TiO(2) and TiO(2-x)N(x) particles. Despite their visible light absorption, the photocatalytic activity of these cobalt seeded systems is diminished relative to the oxynitride TiO(2-x)N(x).

  15. Use of co-spray pyrolysis for synthesizing nitrogen-doped TiO2 films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nho Pham Van; Pham Hoang Ngan

    2013-10-01

    Nitrogen-doped nanocrystalline TiO2 is well known as the most promising photocatalyst. Despite many years after discovery, seeking of efficient method to prepare TiO2 doped with nitrogen still attracts a lot of attention. In this paper, we present the result of using co-spray pyrolysis to synthesize nitrogen-doped TiO2 films from TiCl4 and NH4NO3. The grown films were subjected to XRD, SEM, photocatalysis, absorption spectra and visible-light photovoltaic investigations. All the deposited films were of nanosized polycrystal, high crystallinity, pure anatase and porosity. Specific characteristics involved nitrogen doping such as enhanced photocatalytic activity, bandgap narrowing, visible light responsibility and typical correlation of the photoactivity with nitrogen concentration were all exhibited. Obtained results proved that high photoactive nitrogen-doped TiO2 films can be synthesized by co-spray pyrolysis.

  16. Preparation and photocatalytic activity of Gd-doped TiO2 nanofibre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yi; ZHANG Shi-ying; ZHU Zhi-ping; LI Yong-kun

    2005-01-01

    In order to realize the photocatalysis of TiO2 in the sunlight and directly apply it to waste water treatment, the Gd-doped TiO2 nanofibre was synthesized using two-step synthesis method as follows: Firstly, potassium carbonate, titanium dioxide and proper gadolinium oxide (dopant) were calcined in the muffle at high temperature and the doped gadolinium K2Ti4O9 fibres were obtained; secondly, the fibre was heated using glycerol as solvent until Gd-doped TiO2 nanofibres were obtained. The synthesized samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results show that Gd-doped TiO2 nanofibre heat-treated by glycerol solvent can inhibit the agglomeration, so the grain diameter of the fibre is smaller than that without heat-treated with glycerol. Meanwhile, the diameter of the fibre decreases with the increase of the heating temperature and time. 97%- 98% of Gd-doped TiO2 nanofibre is anatase. The photocatalysis results showed that the photocatalysis activity of Gd-doped TiO2 nanofibre is just a little lower than that of TiO2 powder.

  17. Hazards of TiO2 and amorphous SiO2 nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Kahn, H.A.; Arif, I.A.

    2012-01-01

    TiO2 and amorphous SiO2 nanoparticles have been described as ‘safe’, ‘non-toxic’ and ‘environment friendly’ in scientific literature. However, though toxicity data are far from complete, there is evidence that these nanoparticles are hazardous. TiO2 nanoparticles have been found hazardous to humans

  18. Hazards of TiO2 and amorphous SiO2 nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Kahn, H.A.; Arif, I.A.

    2012-01-01

    TiO2 and amorphous SiO2 nanoparticles have been described as ‘safe’, ‘non-toxic’ and ‘environment friendly’ in scientific literature. However, though toxicity data are far from complete, there is evidence that these nanoparticles are hazardous. TiO2 nanoparticles have been found hazardous to humans

  19. Characteristics of ionic polymer-metal composite with chemically doped TiO2 particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Youngsoo; Kim, Seong Jun; Kim, Kwang J.; Lee, Deuk Yong

    2011-12-01

    Many studies have investigated techniques to improve the bending performance of ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) actuators, including 'doping' of metal particles in the polymer membrane usually by means of physical processes. This study is mainly focused on the characterization of the physical, electrochemical and electromechanical properties of TiO2-doped ionic polymer membranes and IPMCs prepared by the sol-gel method, which results in a uniform distribution of the particles inside the polymer membrane. X-ray and UV-visible spectra indicate the presence of anatase-TiO2 in the modified membranes. TiO2-doped membranes (0.16 wt%) exhibit the highest level of water uptake. The glass transition temperature of these membranes, measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), increases with the increase of the amount of TiO2 in the membrane. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) demonstrated that the storage modulus of dried TiO2-doped ionic polymer membranes increases as the amount of TiO2 in the membrane increases, whereas the storage modulus of hydrated samples is closely related to the level of water uptake. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) shows that the conductivity of TiO2-doped membranes decreases with increasing TiO2 content in spite of an internal resistance drop in the samples. Above all, bending deflection of TiO2-doped IPMC decreased with higher TiO2 content in the membrane while the blocking force of each sample increased with the higher TiO2 content. Additionally, it was determined that the lifetime of IPMC is strongly dependent on the level of water uptake.

  20. Improved performance of Ag-doped TiO2 synthesized by modified sol-gel method as photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arun Kumar; Srivastava, Pankaj; Bahadur, Lal

    2016-08-01

    Ag-doped TiO2 with Ag content ranging from 1 to 7 mol% was synthesized by a modified sol-gel route, and its performance as the photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was compared with undoped TiO2 photoanode. Titanium(IV)isopropoxide was used as precursor and hexamethylenetetramine as the capping agent. XRD results show the formation of TiO2 nanoparticles with an average crystallite size of 5 nm (1 % Ag-doped TiO2) and 9 nm (undoped TiO2), respectively. The TiO2 nanopowder was used to prepare its thin film photoelectrode using doctor's blade method. Significant improvement in light-to-energy conversion efficiency was achieved when thin films of 1 % Ag-doped TiO2 were applied as photoanode in DSSC taking N719 as the sensitizer dye. As evidenced by EIS measurements, the electron lifetime of DSSC with Ag-doped TiO2 increased from 1.33 (for undoped TiO2) to 2.05 ms. The short-circuit current density ( J sc), open-circuit voltage ( V oc), fill factor (FF) and the overall energy conversion efficiency ( η) were 1.07 mA cm-2, 0.72 V, 0.73 and 0.40 %, respectively, with the use of 1 % Ag-doped TiO2 photoanode, whereas with undoped TiO2 under similar conditions, J sc = 0.63 mA cm-2, V oc = 0.70 V, fill factor 0.45 and conversion efficiency 0.14 % could be obtained. Therefore, compared with the reference DSSC containing an undoped TiO2 photoanode, the power conversion efficiency of the cell based on Ag-doped TiO2 has been remarkably enhanced by ~70 %. The substantial improvement in the device performance is attributed to the reduced band-gap energy, retarded charge recombination and greater surface coverage of the sensitizing dye over Ag-doped TiO2, which ultimately resulted in improved IPCE, J SC and η values.

  1. Microstructure and antibacterial properties of Cu-doped TiO2 coating on titanium by micro-arc oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiaohong; Zhang, Xiangyu; Wu, Haibo; Tian, Linhai; Ma, Yong; Tang, Bin

    2014-02-01

    Infection associated with titanium implants remains the most common serious complication after surgery. In this work, Cu-doped antibacterial TiO2 coating was synthesized by micro-arc oxidation of titanium in an electrolyte bearing Cu nanoparticles. Surface morphology and structure of the coating were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that Cu nanoparticles were not only distributed on the surface and inside the pores but also embedded in the coating. Cu mainly exists in the Cu2+ state in the TiO2 coating. The Cu-doped coating exhibited excellent antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus).

  2. Acoustic vibrations of amorphous and crystalline ZrO2-TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanda, M.; Car, D.; Mikac, L.; Ristić, D.; Đerek, V.; Đerđ, I.; Štefanić, G.; Musić, S.

    2014-09-01

    Acoustic vibrational modes of ZrO2-TiO2 nanoparticles (ZT) have been observed and analyzed by means of low-frequency Raman spectroscopy (LFRS). The low-frequency Raman peak has been observed in the spectra of amorphous as well as of crystalline ZT nanoparticles. The results obtained by the LFRS have been compared to the results obtained by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). After the method has been tested, the LFRS has been used to investigate the influence of the amount of dopant (Ti4+) and the annealing temperature on size distributions of the ZT nanoparticles. The observed reduction of the particles' growth-rate with Ti doping was ascribed with increase of defects in nanoparticles. Also, a discontinuity in the particles' growth-rate at the temperatures between 500 °C and 600 °C was observed. It is at these temperatures that the phase transition from amorphous to nanocrystalline phase occurs.

  3. Inverted organic solar cells based on Cd-doped TiO2 as an electron extraction layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjitha, A.; Muthukumarasamy, N.; Thambidurai, M.; Velauthapillai, Dhayalan; Madhan Kumar, A.; Gasem, Zuhair M.

    2014-10-01

    Nanocrystalline Cd-doped TiO2 thin films have been prepared by sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that TiO2 and Cd-doped TiO2 nanocrystalline thin films are of anatase phase. The average grain size of TiO2 and Cd-doped TiO2 nanocrystalline thin films was found to lie in the range of 15-18 nm. Solar cells have been fabricated with a device structure of ITO/Cd-doped TiO2/P3HT:PC71BM/MoO3/Al configuration. The power conversion efficiency of the inverted organic solar cell with Cd-doped TiO2 is 3.06% and is higher than that of TiO2 based organic solar cell (2.64%).

  4. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of fluorine doped TiO2 nanoflakes synthesized using solid state reaction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umadevi, M; Parimaladevi, R; Sangari, M

    2014-01-01

    Fluorine doped TiO2 were synthesized by solid state reaction method. Optical and structural properties of fluorine doped TiO2 were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-vis diffusion reflectance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopic techniques. The prepared fluorine doped TiO2 was smaller in size with respect to pure TiO2 and it is tetragonal in crystalline structure. Nanoflakes like structure of pure and fluorine doped TiO2 was confirmed from SEM image. Fluorine doped TiO2 shows smaller band gap, high strain and dislocation density when compared to pure TiO2. It also has higher photocatalytic activity with respect to pure TiO2.

  5. Band gap calculation and photo catalytic activity of rare earths doped rutile TiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIAN Liang; SONG Mianxin; ZHOU Tianliang; ZHAO Xiaoyong; DAI Qingqing

    2009-01-01

    The density of states (DOS) of 17 kinds of rare earths (RE) doped futile TiO2 was by using fast-principles density functional the-ory (DFF) calculation. The band gap widths of RE doped rutile TiO2 were important factors for altering their absorbing wavelengths. The results show that RE ions could obviously reduce the band gap widths and form of energy of rutile TiO2 except Lu, Y, Yb and Sc, and the order of absorbing wavelengths of RE doped rutile TiO2 were the same as that of the results of calculation. The ratio of RE dopant was an-other important factor for the photo catalytic activity of RE doped rutile TiO2, and there was an optimal ratio of dopant. There was a constant for predigesting the calculation difficulty, respectively, which were 0.5mol.% and 100 mol-1 under supposition. The band gap widths of RE doped rutile TiO2 by DFT calculation were much larger than that by experiment. Finally, by transferring the calculation values to experiment values, it could be found and predicted that RE enlarged obviously the absorbing wavelengh of futile TiO2. In addition, the degree of RE ions edging out the Ti atom using the parameters of RE elements was computed.

  6. Principal component analysis of Raman spectra for TiO2 nanoparticle characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, Alina Georgiana; Scarisoareanu, Monica; Morjan, Ion; Dutu, Elena; Badiceanu, Maria; Mihailescu, Ion

    2017-09-01

    The Raman spectra of anatase/rutile mixed phases of Sn doped TiO2 nanoparticles and undoped TiO2 nanoparticles, synthesised by laser pyrolysis, with nanocrystallite dimensions varying from 8 to 28 nm, was simultaneously processed with a self-written software that applies Principal Component Analysis (PCA) on the measured spectrum to verify the possibility of objective auto-characterization of nanoparticles from their vibrational modes. The photo-excited process of Raman scattering is very sensible to the material characteristics, especially in the case of nanomaterials, where more properties become relevant for the vibrational behaviour. We used PCA, a statistical procedure that performs eigenvalue decomposition of descriptive data covariance, to automatically analyse the sample's measured Raman spectrum, and to interfere the correlation between nanoparticle dimensions, tin and carbon concentration, and their Principal Component values (PCs). This type of application can allow an approximation of the crystallite size, or tin concentration, only by measuring the Raman spectrum of the sample. The study of loadings of the principal components provides information of the way the vibrational modes are affected by the nanoparticle features and the spectral area relevant for the classification.

  7. Effect of band gap engineering in anionic-doped TiO2 photocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, Emy Marlina; Abd Hamid, Sharifah Bee

    2017-01-01

    A simple yet promising strategy to modify TiO2 band gap was achieved via dopants incorporation which influences the photo-responsiveness of the photocatalyst. The mesoporous TiO2 was successfully mono-doped and co-doped with nitrogen and fluorine dopants. The results indicate that band gap engineering does not necessarily requires oxygen substitution with nitrogen or/and fluorine, but from the formation of additional mid band and Ti3+ impurities states. The formation of oxygen vacancies as a result of modified color centres and Ti3+ ions facilitates solar light absorption and influences the transfer, migration and trapping of the photo-excited charge carriers. The synergy of dopants in co-doped TiO2 shows better optical properties relative to single N and F doped TiO2 with c.a 0.95 eV band gap reduction. Evidenced from XPS, the synergy between N and F in the co-doped TiO2 uplifts the valence band towards the conduction band. However, the photoluminescence data reveals poorer electrons and holes separation as compared to F-doped TiO2. This observation suggests that efficient solar light harvesting was achievable via N and F co-doping, but excessive defects could act as charge carriers trapping sites.

  8. Combined Embedding of N/F-Doping and CaCO3 Surface Modification in the TiO2 Photoanode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su Kyung; Yun, Tae Kwan; Bae, Jae Young

    2016-03-01

    N/F-doping and CaCO3 surface modification was carried out in TiO2 photoelectrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The combined effect of the N/F doped TiO2 and the CaCO3 coating showed a great increase of the short-circuit current (J(sc)), and photoelectric conversion efficiency (η) of the prepared cells; the efficiency (η) was improved from 7.00% of a commercial TiO2 photoelectrode to 7.90% of an uncoated N/F-doped electrode, and to 9.09% of a N/F-doped and CaCO3 surface modified electrode. An enhanced photoresponse in N/F-doped TiO2 nanoparticles generate more photo-excited electrons, as supported by measured UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra. A successive CaCO3 surface modification then forms a barrier on the surface of the N/F-doped TiO2 particles; the higher basicity of the CaCO3 modified TiO2 facilitates the dye adsorption, as supported by the direct measurement of the amount of adsorbed dye.

  9. Deposition of Co-doped TiO2 Thin Films by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutlala, A.; Bourfaa, F.; Mahtili, M.; Bouaballou, A.

    2016-03-01

    Cobalt doped TiO2 thin films have been prepared by sol-gel method onto glass substrate at room temperature. in this present work, we are interesting to study the effect of Cobalt doped TiO2 thin films.the concentration of Co was varied from 0 to 6%at .The obtained films have been annealed at 500°C for 2 hours. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that Co: TiO2 films are polycrystalline with a tetragonal anatase and orthorhombic brookite types structures. The surface morphologies of the TiO2 doped with cobalt thin films were evaluated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The optical properties were studied by mean of UV-visible and near infrared spectroscopy.The calculated optical band gap decreases from 3.30 to 2.96 eV with increasing Co doping.

  10. Surface ζ potential and photocatalytic activity of rare earths doped TiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Mianxin; BIAN Liang; ZHOU Tianliang; ZHAO Xiaoyong

    2008-01-01

    The iso-electric point of different rare earths (La, Ce, Y) doped anatase TiO2 was set out, and three organisms with different sur-face electrical properties (methylene blue trihydrate-positive electricity, methyl orange-negative electricity, methyl red-neutral electricity) were selected as photodegradable models. The result showed that the photocatalytic activity of 0.5wt.%Y ions doped anatase TiO2 was better than those of the others. The relationship between Zeta (ζ) potential and the photocatalytic activity of different RE doped anatase TiO2 were also investigated. The Y-doped anatase TiO2 was found with the special two iso-electric points and three ζ potential values.

  11. (THE ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF VANADIUM- AND CHROMIUM DOPED TiO2-ANATASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Sutrisno

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Samples of vanadium- and -chromium doped TiO2-anatas have been conducted antibacterial activity against the bacteria Escherichia coli (E. Coli. The minimum kill concentration (MBC against the bacteria of E. Coli is determined by liquid dilution method. The antibacterial activity test of 0; 2.3; 3.3; 4.9% wt. vanadium doped TiO2-anatas and 0; 1.1; 3.9; 4.4% wt. chromium doped TiO2-anatas have been performed against bacteria of E. Coli in the absence of light (dark. The test results indicate that the presence of 3.3 and 4.9 in %wt. vanadium-TiO2-anatas are able to inhibit the growth of bacteria E. Coli, contrary all chromium doped TiO2-anatas are not able to inhibit the growth of bacteria of E. Coli.

  12. Preparation, Characterization and Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity of Nitrogen-doped TiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhengpeng; GONG Wenqi; HONG Xiaoting; CAI Weimin; JIANG Juhui; ZHOU Baoxue

    2006-01-01

    The N- doped TiO2 polycrystalline powder was synthesized through calcining the hydrolysis product of tetra-butyl titanate with ammonia. The photocatalytic activity of N-doped TiO2 powder with anatase phase calcined at 400 ℃ was 2.7 times higher than that of Degussa P25 for phenol decomposition under visible light. All samples had mesoporous structures. X- ray photoelectron spectroscopy corfirmed that a trace amount of N atoms remained in the anatase polycrystalline TiO2 powder when calcined at 400 ℃ as substitutional atoms at the oxygen sites. UV-Vis and EPR analyses indicated that oxygen vacancy states were created during the course of N-doped TiO2 powder formation. It is considered that substitutional N atoms, oxygen vacancy states, large BET surface areas and mesoporous structure are important factors for the N-doped photocatalyst to present a high vis-activity.

  13. A Pt-Doped TiO2 Nanotube Arrays Sensor for Detecting SF6 Decomposition Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxing Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The detection of partial discharge and analysis of SF6 gas components in gas-insulated switchgear (GIS is important for the diagnosis and operating state assessment of power equipment. The use of a Pt-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays sensor for detecting sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 decomposition products is proposed in this paper. The electrochemical pulse deposition method is employed to prepare the sensor array. The sensor’s response to the main characteristic gaseous decomposition products of SF6 is evaluated. The gas sensing characteristic curves of the Pt-doped TiO2 nanotube sensor and intrinsic TiO2 nanotube arrays sensor are compared. The mechanism of the sensitive response is discussed. Test results showed that the Pt-doped nanoparticles not only change the gas sensing selectivity of the TiO2 nanotube arrays sensor with respect to the main characteristic SF6 decomposition products, but also reduce the operating temperature of the sensor.

  14. Visible Light-Driven Photocatalytic Activity of Oleic Acid-Coated TiO2 Nanoparticles Synthesized from Absolute Ethanol Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huihui; Liu, Bin; Yin, Shu; Sato, Tsugio; Wang, Yuhua

    2015-12-01

    The one-step synthesis of oleic acid-coated TiO2 nanoparticles with visible light-driven photocatalytic activity was reported by this manuscript, using oleic acid-ethanol as crucial starting materials. The photocatalytic degradation of nitrogen monoxide (deNOx) in the gas phase was investigated in a continuous reactor using a series of TiO2 semiconductors, prepared from oleic acid- or acetic acid-ethanol solution. The surface modification on TiO2 by organic fatty acid, oleic acid, could reinvest TiO2 photocatalyst with the excellent visible light response. The deNOx ability is almost as high as 30 % destruction in the visible light region (λ > 510 nm) which is similar to the nitrogen-doped TiO2. Meanwhile, acetic acid, a monobasic acid, has a weaker ability on visible light modification of TiO2.

  15. Interactions between TiO2 nanoparticles and cadmium: consequences for uptake and ecotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, B.; Baun, Anders

    2011-01-01

    subcapitata, crustacean Daphnia magna and sediment organism Lumbriculus variegatus, was investigated both in the absence and presence of TiO2 nanoparticles. Also uptake of cadmium in D. magna and L. variegatus was investigated in tests where organisms were exposed to cadmium in sublethal concentrations...... in the absence and presence of 2mg/L TiO2 nanoparticles (P25 Evonic, d: 30 nm). Mass balances for cadmium in the test systems were determined. A high degree of sorption of cadmium onto TiO2 particles was found, which makes TiO2 nanoparticles potential carriers for cadmium. The observed toxicity was higher than...

  16. A facile hydrothermal approach for construction of carbon coating on TiO2 nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Olurode, Kehinde; Neelgund, Gururaj M.; Oki, Aderemi; Luo, Zhiphing

    2011-01-01

    Herein a facile hydrothermal approach is used to construct carbon coated TiO2 nanoparticles employing dextrose as the source of carbon. The procedure is operated at a low temperature of 200 °C. Fourier infrared spectroscopy demonstrated the successful coating of carbon on TiO2 nanoparticles. The phase composition of TiO2 and carbon coated TiO2 nanoparticles were studied using X-ray diffraction and the surface morphology was analyzed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The existe...

  17. Interactions between TiO2 nanoparticles and cadmium: consequences for uptake and ecotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, B.; Baun, Anders

    2011-01-01

    subcapitata, crustacean Daphnia magna and sediment organism Lumbriculus variegatus, was investigated both in the absence and presence of TiO2 nanoparticles. Also uptake of cadmium in D. magna and L. variegatus was investigated in tests where organisms were exposed to cadmium in sublethal concentrations...... in the absence and presence of 2mg/L TiO2 nanoparticles (P25 Evonic, d: 30 nm). Mass balances for cadmium in the test systems were determined. A high degree of sorption of cadmium onto TiO2 particles was found, which makes TiO2 nanoparticles potential carriers for cadmium. The observed toxicity was higher than...

  18. Theoretical Study of Cr Doped into TiO2(110) Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Kai-Ning; ZHANG Yong-Fan; LI Yi; LI Jun-Qian

    2005-01-01

    The Cr doped into TiO2(110) surface has been studied systematically by using periodic DFT/B3LYP method with slab model. It is found that doping Cr into perfect TiO2 (110) surface can reduce the value of band-gap from 3.13 to 1.16 eV, and then photocatalysis reaction may be achieved in visual light area. The results are in good agreement with the experiments.

  19. Controllable growth of vertically aligned Bi-doped TiO2 nanorod arrays for all-oxide solid-state DSSCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asemi, Morteza; Ghanaatshoar, Majid

    2016-09-01

    In this study, vertically aligned Bi-doped TiO2 nanorod arrays as photoanodes were successfully grown on the fluorine-doped tin oxide by hydrothermal method. Structural analysis showed that bismuth was successfully incorporated into the TiO2 lattice at low concentration, but at higher concentration, phase segregation of Bi2O3 in the TiO2 matrix was occurred. TiO2 nanorods with 3 % bismuth concentration had minimum electrical resistivity. As the solid-state electrolyte, Mg-doped CuCrO2 nanoparticles with p-type conductivity were synthesized by sol-gel method. The fabricated all-oxide solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells with Bi-doped TiO2 nanorods displayed better photovoltaic performance due to the presence of Bi. The improved cell performance was correlated with the higher dye loading, slower charge recombination rate and the higher electrical conductivity of the photoanodes. After mechanical pressing, the all-oxide solid-state DSSC exhibited enhanced photovoltaic performance due to the formation of the large neck between adjacent nanoparticles by mechanical sintering. The open-circuit photovoltage decay measurement of the devices and electrical conductivity of the nanoparticles before and after pressing revealed that the mechanical pressing technique reduces charge recombination rate and facilitates electron transport through the interconnected nanoparticles.

  20. Doping of TiO2 Polymorphs for Altered Optical and Photocatalytic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiliang Nie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews recent investigations of the influence of dopants on the optical properties of TiO2 polymorphs. The common undoped polymorphs of TiO2 are discussed and compared. The results of recent doping efforts are tabulated, and discussed in the context of doping by elements of the same chemical group. Dopant effects on the band gap and photocatalytic activity are interpreted with reference to a simple qualitative picture of the TiO2 electronic structure, which is supported with first-principles calculations.

  1. Characterization of manufactured TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motzkus, C.; Macé, T.; Vaslin-Reimann, S.; Ausset, P.; Maillé, M.

    2013-04-01

    Technological advances in nanomaterials have allowed the development of new applications in industry, increasing the probability of finding airborne manufactured and engineered nano-objects in the workplace, as well as in ambient air. Scientific studies on health and environmental risks have indicated that airborne nano-objects in ambient air have potential adverse effects on the health of exposed workers and the general population. For regulatory purposes, ambient measurements of particulate matter are based on the determination of mass concentrations for PM10 and PM2.5, as regulated in the European Directive 2008/50/EC. However, this legislation is not suitable for airborne manufactured and engineered nano-objects. Parameters characterising ultrafine particles, such as particle number concentration and size distribution, are under consideration for future health-based legislation, to monitor workplaces and to control industrial processes. Currently, there are no existing regulations covering manufactured airborne nano-objects. There is therefore a clear, unaddressed need to focus on the toxicology and exposure assessment of nano-objects such as titanium dioxide (TiO2), which are manufactured and engineered in large quantities in industry. To perform reliable toxicology studies it is necessary to determine the relevant characteristics of nano-objects, such as morphology, surface area, agglomeration, chemical composition, particle size and concentration, by applying traceable methods. Manufacturing of nanomaterials, and their use in industrial applications, also require traceable characterisation of the nanomaterials, particularly for quality control of the process. The present study arises from the OECD WPMN sponsorship programme, supported by the French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health Safety (ANSES), in order to develop analytical methods for the characterization of TiO2 nanoparticles in size and count size distribution, based on different

  2. Preparation and photocatalytic activity of Cu2+-doped TiO2/SiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru-fen Chen; Cui-xuan Zhang; Juan Deng; Guo-qiang Song

    2009-01-01

    Cu2+-doped nanostructured TiO2-coated SiO2. (TiO2./SiO2) particles were prepared by the layer-by-layer assembly technique and their photocatalytic property was studied. TiO2 colloids were synthesized by the sol-gel method using TiOSO4 as a precursor. The experimental results showed that TiO2 nanopowders on the surface of SiO2 particles were well distributed and compact. The amount of TiO2 increased with the increase in coating layers. The shell structure appeared to be composed of anatase titania nanocrystals at 550℃. The 2-layer coated TiO2 particles on the surface showed a higher degradation rate compared with all the dif-ferent-layer samples. The photocatalytic activity of Cu2+-doped TiO2/SiO2 was higher than that of undoped TiO2/SiO2. The optimum dopant content was about 0.10wt%.

  3. High-surface-area mesoporous TiO2 microspheres via one-step nanoparticle self-assembly for enhanced lithium-ion storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Jiazang; Hy, Sunny; Yu, Linghui; Xu, Zhichuan; Liu, Bin

    2014-12-21

    Mesoporous TiO2 microspheres assembled from TiO2 nanoparticles with specific surface areas as high as 150 m(2) g(-1) were synthesized via a facile one-step solvothermal reaction of titanium isopropoxide and anhydrous acetone. Aldol condensation of acetone gradually releases structural H2O, which hydrolyzes and condenses titanium isopropoxide, forming TiO2 nanocrystals. Simultaneous growth and aggregation of TiO2 nanocrystals leads to the formation of high-surface-area TiO2 microspheres under solvothermal conditions. After a low-temperature post-synthesis calcination, carbonate could be incorporated into TiO2 as a dopant with the carbon source coming from the organic byproducts during the synthesis. Carbonate doping modifies the electronic structure of TiO2 (e.g., Fermi level, Ef), and thus influences its electrochemical properties. Solid electrolyte interface (SEI) formation, which is not common for titania, could be initiated in carbonate-doped TiO2 due to elevated Ef. After removing carbonate dopants by high-temperature calcination, the mesoporous TiO2 microspheres showed much improved performance in lithium insertion and stability at various current rates, attributed to a synergistic effect of high surface area, large pore size and good anatase crystallinity.

  4. Influence of Sn Doping on Phase Transformation and Crystallite Growth of TiO2 Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozhu Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sn doped TiO2 nanocrystals were synthesized via a single-step hydrothermal method and the influences of Sn doping on TiO2 have been investigated. It is found that Sn doping not only facilitates the crystal transfer from anatase to rutile but also facilitates the morphology change from sphere to rod. The states of Sn were studied by XPS and the creation of oxygen vacancies by Sn doping is confirmed. Moreover, the HRTEM results suggest that Sn facilitates preferential growth of resulting nanocrystals along (110 axis, which results in the formation of rod-like rutile nanocrystals.

  5. TiO2@C Core-Shell Nanoparticles Formed by Polymeric Nano-Encapsulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra eVasei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 semiconducting nanoparticles are known to be photocatalysts of moderate activity due to their high band-gap and high rate of electron-hole recombination. The formation of a shell of carbon around the core of TiO2, i.e. the formation of TiO2@C nanoparticles, is believed to partly alleviate these problems. It is usually achieved by a hydrothermal treatment in a presence of a sugar derivative. We present here a novel method for the formation of highly uniform C shell around TiO2 nanoparticles. For this purpose, TiO2 nanoparticles were dispersed in water using an oligomeric dispersant prepared by Reversible Addition-Fragmentation chain Transfer (RAFT polymerization. Then the nanoparticles were engaged into an emulsion polymerization of acrylonitrile, resulting in the formation of a shell of polyacrylonitrile (PAN around each TiO2 nanoparticles. Upon pyrolisis, the PAN was transformed into carbon, resulting in the formation of TiO2@C nanoparticles. The structure of the resulting particles was elucidated by X-Ray diffraction, FTIR, UV-VIS and Raman spectroscopy as well as TEM microscopy. Preliminary results about the use of the TiO2@C particles as photocatalysts for the splitting of water are presented. They indicate that the presence of the C shell is responsible for a significant enhancement of the photocurrent.

  6. TiO2@C core-shell nanoparticles formed by polymeric nano-encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasei, Mitra; Das, Paramita; Cherfouth, Hayet; Marsan, Benoît; Claverie, Jerome P

    2014-01-01

    TiO2 semiconducting nanoparticles are known to be photocatalysts of moderate activity due to their high band-gap and high rate of electron-hole recombination. The formation of a shell of carbon around the core of TiO2, i.e., the formation of TiO2@C nanoparticles, is believed to partly alleviate these problems. It is usually achieved by a hydrothermal treatment in a presence of a sugar derivative. We present here a novel method for the formation of highly uniform C shell around TiO2 nanoparticles. For this purpose, TiO2 nanoparticles were dispersed in water using an oligomeric dispersant prepared by Reversible Addition-Fragmentation chain Transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Then the nanoparticles were engaged into an emulsion polymerization of acrylonitrile, resulting in the formation of a shell of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) around each TiO2 nanoparticles. Upon pyrolysis, the PAN was transformed into carbon, resulting in the formation of TiO2@C nanoparticles. The structure of the resulting particles was elucidated by X-Ray diffraction, FTIR, UV-VIS and Raman spectroscopy as well as TEM microscopy. Preliminary results about the use of the TiO2@C particles as photocatalysts for the splitting of water are presented. They indicate that the presence of the C shell is responsible for a significant enhancement of the photocurrent.

  7. Suspended Pt nanoparticles over TiO2 nanotubes for enhanced photocatalytic H2 evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Nhat Truong; Altomare, Marco; Schmuki, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    In the present work we introduce a technique to form a photocatalyst, based on Pt nanoparticles suspended over the mouth of TiO2 nanotubes. These structures are obtained by the decoration of the top end of highly ordered TiO2 nanotubes with a web of TiO2 nanofibrils, followed by sputter deposition of a minimum amount of Pt. A subsequent thermal dewetting step forms 3-6 nm-sized Pt nanoparticles along the nanofibrils. These structures, when compared to conventional Pt decoration techniques of TiO2 nanotubes, show a strongly enhanced photocatalytic H2 evolution efficiency.

  8. Interstitial Boron-Doped TiO2 Thin Films: The Significant Effect of Boron on TiO2 Coatings Grown by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-González, Miguel; Boscher, Nicolas D; Carmalt, Claire J; Parkin, Ivan P

    2016-09-28

    The work presented here describes the preparation of transparent interstitial boron-doped TiO2 thin-films by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD). The interstitial boron-doping, on TiO2, proved by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), is shown to enhance the crystallinity and significantly improve the photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 films. The synthesis, highly suitable for a reel-to-reel process, has been carried out in one step.

  9. TiO2 and N-Doped TiO2 Induced Photocatalytic Inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus under 405 nm LED Blue Light Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfei Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Irradiation source has been a serious impediment to induce photocatalytic bacterial inactivation which was taken as an advanced indoor air purification technique. Here we reported the synergistic effects of 405 nm LED light and TiO2 photocatalyst in inactivation process of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus. In this work, TiO2 and N-doped TiO2 particles were, respectively, suspended into the nutrient broth suspension with S. aureus. Then, the mixed system was exposed to a 405 nm LED light source with energy density of about 0.2 W/cm2 for 3 hours. Irradiated suspension was then scanned by UV-vis spectrophotometer for bacteria survive/death rate statistics. Subsequently, the inactivation efficiency was calculated based on the difference of the absorption optical density between experimental and controlled suspensions. Results showed that both TiO2 and N-doped TiO2 particles exhibit potential bacterial inactivation effects under similar experimental conditions. Specifically, N-doped TiO2 with the concentration of 5 g/L displayed enhanced inactivation efficiency against S. aureus under 405 nm LED light irradiation. Thus, it is a promising indoor air purification technique by using N-doped TiO2 particles under the LED light irradiation.

  10. Combined sonochemical/CVD method for preparation of nanostructured carbon-doped TiO2 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoulnezhad, Hossein; Kavei, Ghassem; Ahmadi, Kamran; Rahimipour, Mohammad Reza

    2017-06-01

    The present work reports the successful synthesis of the nanostructured carbon-doped TiO2 thin films on glass substrate by combination of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and ultrasonic methods, for the first time. In this method the ultrasound waves act as nebulizer for converting of sonochemically prepared TiO2 sol to the mist particles. These mist particles were thermally decomposed in subsequent CVD chamber at 320 °C to produce the carbon-doped TiO2 thin films. The obtained thin films were characterized by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The results show that the prepared thin films have anatase crystal structure and nanorod morphology, which calcination of them at 800 °C results in the conversion of nanorods to nanoparticles. In addition, the prepared samples have high transparency, monodispersity and homogeneity. The presence of the carbon element in the structure of the thin films causes the narrowing of the band-gap energy of TiO2 to about 2.8 eV, which results in the improvement of visible light absorption capabilities of the thin film.

  11. Nb-doped TiO2 cathode catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction of polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Arashi, Takuya

    2014-09-01

    Nb-doped TiO2 particles were studied as electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) under acidic conditions. The Nb-doped TiN nanoparticles were first synthesized by meso-porous C3N4 and then fully oxidized to Nb-doped TiO2 by immersing in 0.1 M H 2SO4 at 353 K for 24 h. Although the ORR activity of the as-obtained sample was low, a H2 treatment at relatively high temperature (1173 K) dramatically improved the ORR performance. An onset potential as high as 0.82 VRHE was measured. No degradation of the catalysts was observed during the oxidation-reduction cycles under the ORR condition for over 127 h. H2 treatment at temperatures above 1173 K caused the formation of a Ti4O7 phase, resulting in a decrease in ORR current. Elemental analysis indicated that the Nb-doped TiO 2 contained 25 wt% residual carbon. Calcination in air at 673 or 973 K eliminated the residual carbon in the catalyst, which was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in ORR activity. This post-calcination process may reduce the conductivity of the sample by filling the oxygen vacancies, and the carbon residue in the particle aggregates may enhance the electrocatalytic activity for ORR. The feasibility of using conductive oxide materials as electrocatalysts is discussed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Formaldehyde degradation by photocatalytic Ag-doped TiO2 film of glass fiber roving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubolchonlakate, Kornkanok; Sikong, Lek; Tontai, Tienchai

    2010-11-01

    The photocatalytic Ag doped TiO2 porous films were prepared by sol-gel method and dip coated on glass fiber roving. The sol composed of titanium (IV) isopropoxide, triethanolamine, ethanol and nitric acid followed by calcination of the film at 500 degrees C for 1 hour with a heating rate of 3 degrees C/min. The surface morphology and properties of synthesized TiO2 films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic forced microscope and scanning electron microscope. A laboratory photocatalytic reactor was set up to carry out photoactivity of the prepared catalysts. The results show that TiO2-Ag and TiO2-Ag-TEA porous films give highest rate of formaldehyde gas degradation. It can be noted that triethanolamine exhibits two effects on TiO2 composite films; one is its effect on porous film structure and second is a reverse effect of hindrance of anatase growth.

  13. ARTICLES: Synthesis and Characterization of TiO2 Doped ZnO Microtubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan

    2010-06-01

    The TiO2-doped ZnO microtubes have been successfully fabricated via a wet chemical method, using zinc chloride and titanium sulphate as the starting materials. The assynthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and room temperature photoluminescence measurement. The photocatalytic activity in degrading methyl orange was measured with a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The pure ZnO microtubes exhibit an exact hexangular hollow structure with a diameter of about 700 nm, a length of 3 μm and a wall thickness of about 40 nm. The TiO2-doped ZnO microtubes with TiO2/ZnO ratio less than 5% have the same dimension with the pure ZnO microtubes, a smooth column shape, not a hexangular structure. The growth of ZnO may be inhibited by the more Ti4+ doped into ZnO structure to achieve a small dimension or a multiphase. The crystallinity of ZnO microtubes decreases with increasing TiO2 content, and then a multiphase containing ZnO, Ti3O5 and TiO occur when the TiO2/ZnO ratio is more than 5%. The UV emission intensity of the TiO2-doped ZnO obviously increases and then tends to decrease with TiO2/ZnO ratio increasing. The photocatalytic properties of the TiO2-doped ZnO microtubes are very efficient in degrading organic dyes of methyl orange and are well identical with its PL properties and the crystallinity.

  14. Equilibration Kinetics and Chemical Diffusion of Indium-Doped TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowotny, Janusz; Alim, Mohammad A

    2015-04-30

    The present work reports the gas/solid equilibration kinetics for In-doped TiO2 (0.4 atom % In) at elevated temperatures (1023-1273 K) in the gas phase of controlled oxygen activity [10(-13) Pa TiO2, the chemical diffusion coefficient for In-doped TiO2 exhibits a maximum at the n-p transition point. The activation energy of the chemical diffusion exhibits a decrease with temperature from 200 kJ/mol at 1023 K to an insignificant value at 1273 K. This effect is reflective of a segregation-induced electrical potential barrier blocking the transport of defects. The absolute value of the chemical diffusion coefficient for In-doped TiO2 is larger from that of pure TiO2 by a factor of approximately 10. The effect of indium on the diffusion rate is considered in terms of the associated concentration of oxygen vacancies, which are formed in order to satisfy the charge neutrality for In-doped TiO2.

  15. PHOTOCATALYTIC ACTIVITY OF LANTHANUM DOPING TiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The photocatalytic activity of the mixtures of TiO2 with the rare earth oxide La was investigated. The study on the effect of the rare earth oxide content, calcinating temperature and calcinating time on the performance of the mixture revealed that sample treated under higher temperature and longer time had higher photoactivity than pure TiO2. The experimental results of polycrystalline X-ray diffraction showed that the extent of the lattice expansion varied with the variation of calcinating temperature or time. It is suggested that this might be due to the variation of La content diffused into the TiO2 lattice. The La in the lattice may inhibit the recombinatin of photogenerated electron-hole pairs and thus enhance the photoactivity.

  16. Enhanced photoelectrochemical properties of TiO2 nanorod arrays decorated with CdS nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zheng; Liu, Xiangxuan; Wang, Weipeng; Liu, Can; Li, Zhengcao; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2014-10-01

    TiO2 nanorod arrays (TiO2 NRAs) sensitized with CdS nanoparticles were fabricated via successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR), and TiO2 NRAs were obtained by oxidizing Ti NRAs obtained through oblique angle deposition. The TiO2 NRAs decorated with CdS nanoparticles exhibited excellent photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic properties under visible light, and the one decorated with 20 SILAR cycles CdS nanoparticles shows the best performance. This can be attributed to the enhanced separation of electrons and holes by forming heterojunctions of CdS nanoparticles and TiO2 NRAs. This provides a promising way to fabricate the material for solar energy conversion and wastewater degradation.

  17. First-principle Calculations of V/Fe Doped Anatase TiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Hong-hong; CHEN Qiang; WANG Tian-min

    2006-01-01

    The electronic structures of the titanium dioxide(TiO2) doped with V and Fe were analyzed by using first-principle calculations based on the density functional theory(DFT) with the full potential linearized augmented plane wave method (FP-LAPW). The fully optimized structure and the relaxation introduced by impurity were obtained by minimizing the total energy and atomic forces. The unit cell of the V-doped anatase TiO2 is smaller than that of the non-doped one, but for the Fe-doped one, the case is just the opposite. It is found that the apical Ti-O and impurity-O bond lengths of the V/Fe-doped anatase TiO2 are greater than those of the non-doped structure, but smaller for the equatorial bond length. Through the band structures and the density of states, the V-doped TiO2 is shown to be a kind of half-metal, while the Fe-doped TiO2 a kind of metal. The magnetic moments of the V/Fe-doped system are mainly generated by the dopants. The results may be helpful for us to understand the experimental outcome of this system.

  18. Comparison of photocatalytic activity of TiO2 film doped nonuniformly by Mn and Zn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wei; LI Xin-jun; ZHENG Shao-jian; WANG Jun-gang; XU Zhong-kui

    2005-01-01

    The thin films of TiO2, doped by Mn or Zn with nonuniform distribution, were prepared by sol-gel method under process control. The actinic absorption of the catalyst thin films was evaluated by UV-vis spectrophotometry. And the activity of the photocatalyst was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation kinetics of aqueous methyl orange under UV radiation. The results show that the photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 thin film can be evidently enhanced by Mn non-uniformly doping in the bottom layer and can be decreased by Mn doping in the surface layer.The activity of TiO2 thin film can be evidently enhanced by Zn non-uniform doping in either the bottom or the surface layer. But the activity of TiO2 is less affected by uniformly Zn doping. The different mechanisms for enhanced photocatalytic activity of Mn or Zn non-uniformly doped titanium dioxide film were discussed in terms of the separation of photon-generated carrier in the TiO2 films.

  19. Photocatalytic Inactivation Effect of Gold-Doped TiO2 (Au/TiO2 Nanocomposites on Human Colon Carcinoma LoVo Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Xu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic inactivation effecting of gold-doped TiO2 (Au/TiO2 nanocomposites on human colon carcinoma LoVo cells was investigated for the first time. The Au/TiO2 samples containing different amounts of Au (1–4 wt% were prepared by deposition-precipitation (DP method. These synthesized Au/TiO2 nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. It was found that the photocatalytic inactivation effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on LoVo cancer cells could be greatly improved by the surface modification of Au nanoparticles. Furthermore, the loading amount of Au on the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles affects the photocatalytic inactivation efficiency strongly, and it was found that the most efficient nanocomposites were TiO2 nanoparticles doped with 2 wt% Au. When 50 μg/mL 2 wt% Au/TiO2 nanocomposites were used, all of the LoVo cancer cells were killed under the irradiation of UV light (λmax = 365 nm, Intensity = 1.8 mW/cm2 within 100 minutes. But for 50 μg/mL TiO2 nanoparticles, only 40% cancer cells were killed under the same condition.

  20. Photoinduced superhydrophilicity of TiO2 thin film with hierarchical Cu doping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Liu, Yun Wang, Xinli Peng, Yabin Li, Zhichao Liu, Chengcheng Liu, Jing Ya and Yizhong Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrophilic Cu–TiO2 thin films with a gradient in the Cu concentration were prepared on glass by layer-by-layer dip-coating from TiO2 precursors. The effects of the Cu doping on the structure and properties of TiO2 self-cleaning thin films are discussed. The Cu gradient markedly affects the hydrophilicity of the films, with the water contact angle significantly reduced compared with those of the pure or uniformly doped TiO2 thin films. This enhanced hydrophilicity is explained by the more efficient absorption of the solar light and by the reduced recombination of photoexcited electrons and holes in the TiO2 films containing a gradient of Cu dopants.

  1. Anti-UV Capability of Rare Earth Doping TiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The sol-gel process is used in the preparation of nanostructure materials with Ti(OC4H9)4 as precursor in the start materials. TiO2 gelatin is obtained through hydrolysis and condensation process. Rare earth such as La2O3, CeO2, Eu2O3 and Gd2O3 are introduced into the nanostructure TiO2 to improve the anti-UV capacity. The phase structure of pure TiO2 and doped TiO2 and their antiUV capacity are studied by means of XRD and UPF. The optimum doping and heat treatment temperature are chosen.

  2. Mussel-Directed Synthesis of Nitrogen-Doped Anatase TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jingjing; Xie, Hao; Su, Bao-Lian; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Du, Xiaodong; Zeng, Hui; Wang, Menghu; Wang, Weimin; Wang, Hao; Fu, Zhengyi

    2016-02-24

    Structure-forming processes leading to biominerals are well worth learning in pursuit of new synthetic techniques. Strategies that attempt to mimic nature in vitro cannot replace an entire complex natural organism, requiring ingenuity beyond chemists' hands. A "bioprocess-inspired synthesis" is demonstrated for fabrication of N-doped TiO2 materials at ambient temperature by direct implantation of precursor into living mussels. The amorphous precursor transforms into N-doped anatase TiO2 with a hierarchical nanostructure. Synthetic TiO2 exhibits high phase stability and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity as a result of modifications to its band gap during in vivo mineralization. Intracellular proteins were found to be involved in TiO2 mineralization. Our findings may inspire material production by new synthetic techniques, especially under environmentally benign conditions.

  3. Photocatalytic Activity of Nanosized TiO2 Enhanced by co-doping with Fe3+ and Nd3+ Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Pingfeng; Zhao Zhuo; Wang Jingxin

    2007-01-01

    In this study, nanosized TiO2 co-doped with Fe3+ and Nd3+ ions was synthesized via a sol-gel method. The metallic ion doped TiO2 was thoroughly characterized with XRD and UV-vis, and the photocatalytic activity was evaluated by degrading methylene blue (MB) solution. The results indicated that TiO2 crystalline size was reduced and phase transformation of anatase to rutile was suppressed as the content of doped Nd3+ ion increased in the co-doped TiO2. The UV-vis spectra of co-doped TiO2 seemed to simply overlay two spectra of single metal doped TiO2, and had significantly increased absorbance in the ranges of 400~500 nm, 565~600 nm and 730~765 nm as compared to pure TiO2. The photocatalytic activity of co-doped TiO2 was obviously enhanced, and raised about 30% compared to that of pure TiO2 as doped Nd3+ content was 0.15% and Fe3+ content was 0.05%, respectively. The enhanced catalytic activity was attributed to a synergistic effect of two doped ions, where doped Fe3+ ion inhibited the recombination of photogenerated electron and hole, and Nd3+ ion brought more surface carboxyl to promote the degradation reaction.

  4. Cr-doping effects on unoccupied d-band electronic structure of TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtaszek, K.; Tyrala, K.; Czapla-Masztafiak, J.; Sa, J.; Szlachetko, J.

    2016-11-01

    Resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy (RXES) was applied to probe the electronic states above Fermi level for Cr-doped anatase TiO2. The results reveal doping-induced electronic band on low energy side of unoccupied electronic states. The experimental RXES data in combination with theoretical simulations allowed distinguishing electronic state changes on both, d-localized and d-delocalized orbitals of Cr-doped anatase TiO2. The detailed information on unoccupied electronic states is crucial in order to correlate enhanced light absorption properties with catalytic activity of the material.

  5. Photocatalytical removal of fluorouracil using TiO2-P25 and N/S doped TiO2 catalysts: A kinetic and mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltsakidou, Α; Antonopoulou, M; Εvgenidou, Ε; Konstantinou, I; Giannakas, A E; Papadaki, M; Bikiaris, D; Lambropoulou, D A

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, the photocatalytic activity of TiO2-based photocatalysts toward degradation and mineralization of the anti-cancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in aqueous phase was investigated under simulated solar and visible irradiation. Commercial TiO2 (P25) and N/S-doped TiO2 catalysts synthesized by a simple sol-gel method were used as photocatalysts. TiO2 P-25 was found to be the most photoactive catalyst for the removal of 5-FU, under simulated solar irradiation. Among N/S-doped TiO2 catalysts, the one with molar Ti:N/S ratio equal to 0.5 was the most efficient under simulated solar irradiation. In contrast, under visible irradiation the catalyst with equimolar Ti:N/S ratio showed the highest performance for the removal of 5-FU. Scavenging experiments revealed that HO radicals and h(+) were the major reactive species mediating photocatalytic degradation of 5-FU using TiO2 P-25 and N/S-doped TiO2 catalysts, under simulated solar irradiation. On the other hand, the essential contribution of (1)O2 and O2(-) in the degradation of 5-FU under visible light was proved. The transformation products (TPs) of 5-FU, were identified by LC-MS-TOF suggesting that defluorination followed by hydroxylation and oxidation are the main transformation pathways, under all the studied photocatalytic systems.

  6. Photodecomposition of volatile organic compounds using TiO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jwo, Ching-Song; Chang, Ho; Kao, Mu-Jnug; Lin, Chi-Hsiang

    2007-06-01

    This study examined the photodecomposition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using TiO2 catalyst fabricated by the Submerged Arc Nanoparticle Synthesis System (SANSS). TiO2 catalyst was employed to decompose volatile organic compounds and compare with Degussa-P25 TiO2 in terms of decomposition efficiency. In the electric discharge manufacturing process, a Ti bar, applied as the electrode, was melted and vaporized under high temperature. The vaporized Ti powders were then rapidly quenched under low-temperature and low-pressure conditions in deionized water, thus nucleating and forming nanocrystalline powders uniformly dispersed in the base solvent. The average diameter of the TiO2 nanoparticles was 20 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the nanoparticles in the deionized water were Anatase type TiO2. It was found that gaseous toluene exposed to UV irradiation produced intermediates that were even harder to decompose. After 60-min photocomposition, Degussa-P25 TiO2 reduced the concentration of gaseous toluene to 8.18% while the concentration after decomposition by SANSS TiO2 catalyst dropped to 0.35%. Under UV irradiation at 253.7 +/- 184.9 nm, TiO2 prepared by SANSS can produce strong chemical debonding energy, thus showing great efficiency, superior to that of Degussa-P25 TiO2, in decomposing gaseous toluene and its intermediates.

  7. Pulsed electric field assisted sol-gel preparation of TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Rajaboopathi; Han, Bing; Louhi-Kultanen, Marjatta

    2016-10-01

    This work studies the effect of a pulsed electric field (PEF) on the precipitation and properties of TiO2 nanoparticles. TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared using pulsed DC electric field assisted sol-gel method. The duration of the PEF treatment was varied to investigate its effect on the particle size of TiO2 nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, UV diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-DRS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that TiO2 particles prepared with pulsed electric field assisted sol-gel method had enhanced average crystallite size due to the effect of the pulsed electric field on primary nucleation. The effect of electric field on nanoparticle preparation is interesting which can be used to control the grain and crystallite size of nanoparticle.

  8. Folic acid-conjugated TiO2-doped mesoporous carbonaceous nanocomposites loaded with Mitoxantrone HCl for chemo-photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Ou-Yang, Ya; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yi-Qiu; Zhu, Xia-Li; Zhang, Zhen-Zhong

    2015-06-01

    Recently, porous carbons have showed great potential in many areas. In this study, TiO2-doped mesoporous carbonaceous (TiO2@C) nanoparticles were obtained by a simple one-pot hydrothermal treatment, folic acid (FA) was conjugated to TiO2@C through an amide bond, then Mitoxantrone HCl (MTX) was adsorbed onto TiO2@C-FA and a drug delivery system, TiO2@C-FA/MTX was obtained. TiO2@C-FA/MTX showed a much faster MTX release at pH 4.5 than at pH 6.0 and pH 7.4. Furthermore, compared with free MTX, this drug delivery system showed a dose-dependent cytotoxicity by varying the irradiance, and afforded higher antitumor efficacy in cultured PC3 cells in vitro. The ability of TiO2@C-FA/MTX to combine chemotherapy with photodynamic activity enhanced the cancer cell killing effect in vitro, demonstrating that TiO2@C-FA/MTX has a great potential for cancer therapy in the future.

  9. Effects of Nitrogen Doping on Microstructure and Photocatalytic Activity of Nanocrystalline TiO2 Powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanocrystalline powders were prepared by hydrolysis of tetrachloride titanium (TiCl4) in a mixed solution of ethanol and ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) at ambient temperature and atmosphere followed by calcination at 400 C for 2 h in air. FTIR spectra demonstrate that amine group in original gel is eliminated by calcination, and the TiO2 powder is liable to absorb water onto its surface and into its capillary pore. XRD and SEM results show that the average size of nanocrystalline TiO2 particles is no more than 60 nm and with increasing the calcination temperature, the size of particles increases. XPS studies indicate the nitrogen atom enters into the TiO2 lattice and occupies the position of oxygen atom. The nitrogen doping not only depresses the grain growth of TiO2 particles, but also reduces the phase transformation temperature of anatase to rutile. The photocatalytic activity of the nitrogen-doped TiO2 powders has been evaluated by experiments ofphotocatalytic degradation aqueous methylene blue.

  10. UV irradiation induced transformation of TiO2 nanoparticles in water: aggregation and photoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Guo, Liang-Hong; Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Lixia

    2014-10-21

    Transformation of nanomaterials in aqueous environment has significant impact on their behavior in engineered application and natural system. In this paper, UV irradiation induced transformation of TiO2 nanoparticles in aqueous solutions was demonstrated, and its effect on the aggregation and photocatalytic reactivity of TiO2 was investigated. UV irradiation of a TiO2 nanoparticle suspension accelerated nanoparticle aggregation that was dependent on the irradiation duration. The aggregation rate increased from UV irradiation which might be responsible for the change of surface charge and aggregation rate. UV irradiation also changed the photocatalytic degradation rate of Rhodamine B by TiO2, which initially increased with irradiation time, then decreased. Based on the photoluminescence decay and photocurrent collection data, the change was attributed to the variation in interparticle charge transfer kinetics. These results highlight the importance of light irradiation on the transformation and reactivity of TiO2 nanomaterials.

  11. Role of Fe doping in tuning the band gap of TiO2 for the photo-oxidation-induced cytotoxicity paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Saji; Pokhrel, Suman; Ji, Zhaoxia; Henderson, Bryana L; Xia, Tian; Li, LinJiang; Zink, Jeffrey I; Nel, André E; Mädler, Lutz

    2011-07-27

    UV-light-induced electron-hole (e(-)/h(+)) pair generation with free radical production in TiO(2)-based nanoparticles is a major conceptual paradigm for biological injury. However, to date, this hypothesis has been difficult to experimentally verify due to the high energy of UV light that is intrinsically highly toxic to biological systems. Here, a versatile flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) synthetic process has been exploited to synthesize a library of iron-doped (0-10 wt%) TiO(2) nanoparticles. These particles have been tested for photoactivation-mediated cytotoxicity using near-visible light exposure. The reduction in TiO(2) band gap energy with incremental levels of Fe loading maintained the nanoparticle crystalline structure in spite of homogeneous Fe distribution (demonstrated by XRD, HRTEM, SAED, EFTEM, and EELS). Photochemical studies showed that band gap energy was reciprocally tuned proportional to the Fe content. The photo-oxidation capability of Fe-doped TiO(2) was found to increase during near-visible light exposure. Use of a macrophage cell line to evaluate cytotoxic and ROS production showed increased oxidant injury and cell death in parallel with a decrease in band gap energy. These findings demonstrate the importance of band gap energy in the phototoxic response of the cell to TiO(2) nanoparticles and reflect the potential of this material to generate adverse effects in humans and the environment during high-intensity light exposure.

  12. Light Scattering of TiO2 Nanoparticles Embedded in Polyurethane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Canulescu, Stela; Johansen, Villads Egede

    A new approach of enhancing light scattering in polyurethane polymer through the effect of TiO2 nanoparticles (NP) is explored. The TiO2 NP with sizes of 360 nm, 410 nm and 500 nm were dispersed in polyurethane polymer in concentrations ranging from 0.25 wt% up to 2 wt%. Reflectivity and UV...

  13. Photocatalytic degradation of acid orange 7 in aqueous solution with La3+-doped TiO2 photocatalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Changbin; ZHOU Yi; LI Xun; ZENG Jing; XU Ruiyin

    2005-01-01

    Nanocrystalline La3+-doped TiO2 of 20-30 nm in size was prepared by a sol-gel technique. The photocatalytic activities of the samples were evaluated by the degradation of harmful acid orange 7(AO7) azo-dye in aqueous solution. The effects of La3+ ion implantation on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 were also discussed. The results show that the La3+content plays an essential role in affecting the photocatalytic activity of the La3+-doped TiO2 and the optimum content of La3+-doped is 1.0 wt.%. The photocatalytic activity of the samples with La3+-doped TiO2 is higher than that of pure TiO2 in the treatment of AO7 wastewater. The photodegradation effect of AO7 effluent is the best by means of La3+-doped TiO2 with 1.0% La3+.

  14. Enhanced efficiency of dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells (DSSC) by doping of metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kyung Hyun; Lee, Young Cheol; Jung, Young Jin

    2005-03-15

    Doped TiO(2) semiconductor powders were synthesized using Al and W as photovoltaic property-enhancing impurities. Al-doped TiO(2) electrodes increased open-circuit voltage (V(oc)), but reduced short-circuit current (I(sc)). In contrast, W-doped TiO(2) had an opposite effect. However, dye-sensitized solar cell efficiency fabricated with doped TiO(2) was remarkably better than that of undoped TiO(2). It seems that these phenomena were related to electrical surface-state modifications induced by metal-ion dopants. These modifications led to significant changes in powder aggregation, charge transfer kinetics, and dye adsorption characteristics. The highest efficiency was found by using (Al+W)-doped TiO(2) nanopowders.

  15. Preparation of TiO2/activated carbon with Fe ions doping photocatalyst and its application to photocatalytic degradation of reactive brilliant red K2G

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Titanium dioxide coated on activated carbon(AC) with Fe ions doping(Fe-TiO2/AC) composite was prepared by an improved sol-gel method.The photocatalytic activities were tested by photocatalytic degradation of reactive brilliant red K2G in solution.The results show that in comparison with the agglomeration of pure TiO2,the TiO2 nanoparticles are well dispersed in the AC matrix,of which sizes are decreased with Fe ions doping.Additionally,the iron species on TiO2 of composite are Fe2O3 and FeO,which do not affect the crystalline structures of TiO2 nanoparticles.The AC matrix and iron doping content influence the fluorescence intensity of composite due to their effects on recombination probability of hole-electron pairs.Compared with TiO2,0.3% Fe-TiO2,TiO2/AC,0.5% Fe-TiO2/AC and 0.1% Fe-TiO2/AC,the 0.3% Fe-TiO2/AC shows the highest photoactivity with the complete mineralization of K2G for finite time due to the optimum Fe ions content and AC matrix.Furthermore,the kinetic constant(k=0.0229 min-1) of 0.3% Fe-TiO2/AC composite is more than the sum of both TiO2/AC(0.0154 min-1) and 0.3% Fe-TiO2(0.0057 min-1) because coexistence of the AC and Fe ions has an enlarging effect on improving the photoactivity of TiO2.

  16. Preparation and Photocatalytic Activity of Ag-Zn Co-doped TiO2 Nanoparticles%银锌共掺杂纳米TiO2的制备及光催化性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡智学

    2012-01-01

    Metal ions doped nano-TiO2 can enhance its photocatalytic activity. Ag/Zn ions co-doped TiO2 nanopartieles were prepared by sol-gel process. The effect of dopant ions, dopant amount and catalyst amount on the photocatalytic reactivity of the prepared catalyst was evaluated by degradation of methyl orange.%金属离子掺杂纳米TiO2能加强二氧化钛的光催化降解能力。用溶胶凝胶法制备了银锌共掺杂纳米TiO2,并以甲基橙光催化降解为例考察掺杂离子、掺杂量、催化剂加入量等对光催化性能的影响。

  17. Quenching of TiO2 photo catalysis by silver nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vece, Marcel; Laursen, Anders Bo; Bech, Lone

    2012-01-01

    important consequences for photocatalysis. Here the effect of silver nanoparticles of a size up to 30nm and at maximum 0.50 monolayers on the photocatalytic oxidation of ethylene on TiO2 is studied. Since the plasmon resonance energy of silver nanoparticles is comparable with the TiO2 band gap, dipole......–dipole interaction converts excitons into heat at the silver nanoparticle. This indicates that plasmonic interaction with TiO2 semiconductor catalysts can reduce the photo catalytic activity considerably....

  18. Anchoring Nitrogen-Doped TiO2 Nanocrystals on Nitrogen-Doped 3D Graphene Frameworks for Enhanced Lithium Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Wu; Yang, Zhen-Zhong; Pan, Fu-Sen; Gu, Lin; Yu, Yan

    2017-02-03

    An advanced architecture design of nitrogen-doped TiO2 anchored on nitrogen-doped 3D graphene framework composites (denoted as N-TiO2 /N-3D GFs) have been fabricated by a facile template process and further NH3 treatment. The 3D graphene framework allows the electrolyte to penetrate into the inverse opal structure, and possesses high electronic conductivity. The close contact between the N-TiO2 and the graphene suppresses the growth and aggregation of TiO2 nanoparticles during heating process, leading to decreased Li(+) diffusion length. The N-doping in both TiO2 and the graphene matrix could improve the electronic conductivity on the TiO2 particle surface and between adjacent particles. As expected, when used as an anode for Li-ion batteries (LIBs), the N-TiO2 /N-3D GFs composite delivers an excellent reversible capacity of 165 mA h g(-1) after 200 cycles at 100 mA g(-1) and an outstanding rate capability of 114 mA h g(-1) after 1000 cycles at 1 Ag(-1) . With rational design, this strategy could be extended to other electrode materials that may hold great promise for the development of high energy storage systems.

  19. Modification of Charge Trapping at Particle/Particle Interfaces by Electrochemical Hydrogen Doping of Nanocrystalline TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Juan M; Bourret, Gilles R; Berger, Thomas; McKenna, Keith P

    2016-12-14

    Particle/particle interfaces play a crucial role in the functionality and performance of nanocrystalline materials such as mesoporous metal oxide electrodes. Defects at these interfaces are known to impede charge separation via slow-down of transport and increase of charge recombination, but can be passivated via electrochemical doping (i.e., incorporation of electron/proton pairs), leading to transient but large enhancement of photoelectrode performance. Although this process is technologically very relevant, it is still poorly understood. Here we report on the electrochemical characterization and the theoretical modeling of electron traps in nanocrystalline rutile TiO2 films. Significant changes in the electrochemical response of porous films consisting of a random network of TiO2 particles are observed upon the electrochemical accumulation of electron/proton pairs. The reversible shift of a capacitive peak in the voltammetric profile of the electrode is assigned to an energetic modification of trap states at particle/particle interfaces. This hypothesis is supported by first-principles theoretical calculations on a TiO2 grain boundary, providing a simple model for particle/particle interfaces. In particular, it is shown how protons readily segregate to the grain boundary (being up to 0.6 eV more stable than in the TiO2 bulk), modifying its structure and electron-trapping properties. The presence of hydrogen at the grain boundary increases the average depth of traps while at the same time reducing their number compared to the undoped situation. This provides an explanation for the transient enhancement of the photoelectrocatalytic activity toward methanol photooxidation which is observed following electrochemical hydrogen doping of rutile TiO2 nanoparticle electrodes.

  20. Effect of TiO2 Nanoparticles on Photochromism of WO3 Colloids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    WO3 and TiO2 colloids were synthesized by the hydrolysis technique and part of the TiO2 colloid was treated by means of the hydrothermal method. The photochromic performances of the resulting materials obtained via combining the WO3 colloid with the treated TiO2 colloid and the non-treated TiO2 colloid, respectively, are very different. The TiO2 colloid without hydrothermal treatment can effectively improve the photochromic performance of the WO3 colloid. The TiO2 nanoparticles were investigated in detail by XRD, TEM, surface photovoltage spectra(SPS) and field-induced surface photovoltage spectrometry(FISPS). The photochromism mechanism of WO3 colloid is discussed.

  1. Formation Mechanistism Study of TiO2 Film Comprising Nanotubes and Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Di; Wang, Yi-quan; Ren, Guo-bin; Feng, Shuai; Chen, Yuan-yuan; Wang, Wen-zhong

    2012-02-01

    A novel titanium dioxide (TiO2) film comprising both nanotubes and nanopaticles was fabricated by an anodization process of the modified titanium. The local electric field at the anodized surface was simulated and its influence on the morphology of the TiO2 film was discussed. The results show that the electric field strength is enhanced by the covering. The growth rate of TiO2 increases with the assist of the local electric field. However, TiO2 dissolution is hindered since the local electric field prevents [TiF6]6- from diffusing. It means that the balance condition for the formation of nanotubes is broken, and TiO2 nanoparticles are formed. Moreover, the crystal structure of the TiO2 film was confirmed using X-ray diffraction and Raman analysis. The anatase is a main phase for the proposed film.

  2. Effect of sulfur doped TiO2 on photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyunwoong; Nam, Sang-Hun; Itagaki, Naho; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu; Boo, Jin-Hyo

    2016-07-01

    In a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC), a nano-porous semiconductor layer plays an important role in the performance. It determines open-circuit voltage and it affects the dye adsorption capacity and charge transfer, which are closely associated with photocurrent and overall performance. TiO2 is the most proper material for nano-porous layer since the first development of DSCs. This work focuses on the enhancement of TiO2 by doping. Sulfur (S) doping enhances charge transfer and the photoconversion of TiO2. Therefore, the increase in photocurrent and efficiency is expected by S doping. S is doped into TiO2 by hydrolysis method. The amount of S is varied and their photo-responses are verified. The most effective S doped TiO2 is applied to DSCs. Overall performance of DSC is enhanced by the addition of S doped TiO2. Especially, the photocurrent is much increased by the improvement on charge transfer, electron lifetime, and photo-conversion. The photovoltaic properties of DSCs are investigated with various ratios of undoped and S doped TiO2. Finally, a DSC based on undoped and S doped TiO2 ratio of 1:1 has the highest efficiency, better than that of a standard DSC based on undoped TiO2. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Synthesis of TiO2-doped SiO2 composite films and its applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiaojun Zhang; Huagui Zheng

    2008-10-01

    The TiO2-doped SiO2 composite films were prepared by two-step sol–gel method and then it was applied in the degradation of methylene red (MR) as photocatalysts. In XRD, FT–IR, and TEM investigations of these TiO2-doped SiO2 composite films, the titanium oxide species are highly dispersed in the SiO2 matrixes and exist in a tetrahedral form. And special attention has been focused on the relationship between the local structure of the titanium oxide species in the TiO2-doped SiO2 composite films and the photocatalytic reactivity in order to provide vital information for the design and application of such highly efficient photocatalytic systems in the degradation of toxic compounds diluted in a liquid phase.

  4. Electrical Conductivity, Thermoelectric Power, and Equilibration Kinetics of Nb-Doped TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowotny, Janusz; Bak, Tadeusz; Dickey, Elisabeth C; Sigmund, Wolfgang; Alim, Mohammad A

    2016-09-01

    This work considers the equilibration kinetics of Nb-doped TiO2 single crystal (0.066 atom % Nb) during oxidation and reduction within a wide range of temperature (1073-1298 K) and oxygen activity (10(-14)-10(5) Pa). The associated semiconducting properties were determined using simultaneous measurements of both electrical conductivity and thermoelectric power. It is shown that the chemical diffusion coefficient in the strongly reducing regime, p(O2) Nb-doped TiO2 single crystal (this work) and polycrystalline Nb-doped TiO2 (reported before) indicates that the gas/solid kinetics for the polycrystalline specimen at higher oxygen activities is rate controlled by the transport of oxygen within individual grains.

  5. Raman spectral analysis of TiO2 thin films doped with rare-earth samarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chang-Hu; Ma, Zhong-Quan

    2012-08-01

    TiO(2) thin films doped with rare-earth samarium were prepared on a quartz plate by the sol-gel/spin-coating technique. The samples were annealed at 700 °C to 1100 °C, and the Raman spectra of the samples were obtained. Analyses of Raman spectra show that samarium doping can inhibit the anatase-rutile phase transition. Samarium doping can refine grains of TiO(2) thin films and increase the internal stress, thereby preventing lattice vibration. Nanocrystalline TiO(2) thin films obviously show the phonon confinement effect, i.e., the blueshift of characteristic Raman peak and full width at half-height increase, and the peak shapes asymmetrically broaden with a decrease in the grain sizes of the samples.

  6. Photocatalytic activity enhancing for TiO2 photocatalyst by doping with La

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Chen; DENG Hua; TIAN Jun-ying; ZHANG Ji-mei

    2006-01-01

    La doped nanocrystalline TiO2 photocatalyst was developed by sol-gel method. The prepared La-TiO2 photocatalysts with anatase phases were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD),UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy,and photoluminescence spectra (PL). The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by the photocatalytic degradation of phenol in solution under sunlight irradiation. The results show that the crystallinity of anatase is improved by La doping. Moreover,La not only suppresses phase transition from anatase to rutile but also exhibits an absorption in the λ≥ 400 nm range. The photocatalytic activity of La-doped TiO2 photocatalysts exceeds that of pure TiO2 photocatalyst prepared by the same method when the molar ratio of La to Ti is kept at 0.3%.

  7. Visible light active photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol-A using nitrogen doped TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, N; Vinu, A; Anandan, S; Arabindoo, Banumathi; Murugesan, V

    2006-08-01

    Nitrogen doped titania was prepared by low temperature sol-gel method using titanium precursor and nitrogen containing bases like triethylamine and tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide compounds. The materials were characterized by XRD, BET, SEM, XPS, DRS-UV, and FT-IR techniques. DRS-UV study substantially indicates shift of the absorption edge of TiO2 to lower energy region. The phase composition, crystallinity, specific surface area, and visible light activity of nitrogen doped titania depend upon the preparation conditions. Photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol-A in aqueous medium was investigated by TiO2 and nitrogen doped TiO2 under visible light irradiation in a batch photocatalytic reactor. The results indicate higher visible light activity for nitrogen doped TiO2 than commercial TiO2 (Degussa P25) for bisphenol-A degradation. The influence of various parameters such as initial concentration of bisphenol-A, catalyst loading and pH was examined for maximum degradation efficiency.

  8. Photoinduced hydroxyl radical and photocatalytic activity of samarium-doped TiO(2) nanocrystalline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qi; Si, Zhichun; Zhang, Jiang; Xiao, Chong; Tan, Xiaoke

    2008-01-15

    Sm(3+)-doped TiO(2) nanocrystalline has been prepared by sol-gel auto-combustion technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, and also UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). These Sm(3+)-doped TiO(2) samples were tested for methylene blue (MB) decomposition and *OH radical formation. The analysis of *OH radical formation on the sample surface under UV irradiation was performed by fluorescence technique with using terephthalic acid, which readily reacted with *OH radical to produce highly fluorescent product, 2-hydroxyterephthalic acid. It was observed that the presence of Sm(3+) ion as a dopant significantly enhanced the photocatalytic activity for MB degradation under UV light irradiation because both the larger specific surface area and the greater the formation rate of *OH radical were simultaneously obtained for Sm(3+)-doped TiO(2) nanocrystalline. The adsorption experimental demonstrated that Sm(3+)-TiO(2) had a higher MB adsorption capacity than undoped TiO(2) and the adsorption capacity of MB increased with the increase of samarium ion content. The results also indicated that the greater the formation rate of *OH radical was, the higher photocatalytic activity was achieved. In this study, the optimum amount of Sm(3+) doping was 0.5 mol%, at which the recombination of photo-induced electrons and holes could be effectively inhibited, the highest formation rate of *OH radicals was, and thereby the highest photocatalytic activity was achieved.

  9. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of N-doped TiO2 nanocrystals with exposed {001} facets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Di; Chen, Fen; Jiang, Deli; Shi, Weidong; Zheng, Wenjun

    2016-12-01

    N-doped TiO2 nanocrystals with exposed {001} facets have been synthesized by a two-step method. Firstly, we synthesized anatase TiO2 nanocrystals with exposed {001} facets by an original hydrothermal method using HBF4 and n-BA to coordinated the regulation of size and morphology. Then, ethylenediamine has been used as N dopant source to dope with the as-prepared TiO2 nanocrystals. The effects of both HBF4 and n-BA in synthesis of anatase TiO2 nanocrystals with exposed {001} facets have been investigated. The enlarged localized profiles of the XRD pattern and XPS spectra demonstrate the existence of N element. The photocatalytic property studies showed that the N-doped TiO2 nanocrystals with exposed {001} facets exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity than that of the N-doped P25, which might be ascribed to the high percentage of exposed {001} facets. In addition, the stability study suggests that the as-synthesized photocatalyst is a promising material for the application of wastewater purification.

  10. Enhanced photoelectric property and visible activity of nitrogen doped TiO2 synthesized from different nitrogen dopants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiuwen; Yu, Xiujuan; Xing, Zipeng

    2013-03-01

    N doped TiO2 nano-particles were synthesized through simple sol-gel reactions from different nitrogen dopants. The resulting materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS) and surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS). Furthermore, the photoelectric property and activity enhanced mechanism were investigated in detail. It was found that the introduction of N dopants could effectively inhibit the crystal growth of TiO2 nano-particles, enhance the light absorption in visible region, possess more surface hydroxyl groups and separate the photoinduced charge carriers. The effects of dopants on the photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) were investigated in detail. It is clearly demonstrated that the photocatalytic activity of N)-TiO nano-particle was higher than that of NCl)-TiO and undoped TiO2. The enhanced photocatalytic activity could be attributed to the smaller crystal size, more hydroxyl groups on surface of the catalyst, stronger light absorption in visible region and higher separation efficiency of photoinduced charge carriers.

  11. TiO2 and N-Doped TiO2 Induced Photocatalytic Inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus under 405 nm LED Blue Light Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Hongfei Chen; Zhong Xie; Xiujuan Jin; Chao Luo; Chao You; Ying Tang; Di Chen; Zhengjia Li; Xiaohong Fan

    2012-01-01

    Irradiation source has been a serious impediment to induce photocatalytic bacterial inactivation which was taken as an advanced indoor air purification technique. Here we reported the synergistic effects of 405 nm LED light and TiO2 photocatalyst in inactivation process of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). In this work, TiO2 and N-doped TiO2 particles were, respectively, suspended into the nutrient broth suspension with S. aureus. Then, the mixed system was exposed to a 405 nm LED light sour...

  12. Highly Visible Light Activity of Nitrogen Doped TiO2 Prepared by Sol-Gel Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Le Dien; Luong, Ngo Sy; Ngo, Vu Dinh; Tien, Nguyen Manh; Dung, Ta Ngoc; Nghia, Nguyen Manh; Loc, Nguyen Thai; Thu, Vu Thi; Lam, Tran Dai

    2017-01-01

    A simple approach was explored to prepare N-doped anatase TiO2 nanoparticles (N-TiO2 NPs) from titanium chloride (TiCl4) and ammonia (NH3) via sol-gel method. The effects of important process parameters such as calcination temperatures, NH3/TiCl4 molar ratio ( R N) on crystallite size, structure, phase transformation, and photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) were thoroughly investigated. The as-prepared samples were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was evaluated upon the degradation of methylene blue aqueous solution under visible-light irradiation. The results demonstrated that both calcination temperatures and NH3/TiCl4 molar ratios had significant impacts on the formation of crystallite nanostructures, physicochemical, as well as catalytic properties of the obtained TiO2. Under the studied conditions, calcination temperature of 600°C and NH3/TiCl4 molar ratio of 4.2 produced N-TiO2 with the best crystallinity and photocatalytic activity. The high visible light activity of the N-TiO2 nanomaterials was ascribed to the interstitial nitrogen atoms within TiO2 lattice units. These findings could provide a practical pathway capable of large-scale production of a visible light-active N-TiO2 photocatalyst.

  13. Highly Visible Light Activity of Nitrogen Doped TiO2 Prepared by Sol-Gel Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Le Dien; Luong, Ngo Sy; Ngo, Vu Dinh; Tien, Nguyen Manh; Dung, Ta Ngoc; Nghia, Nguyen Manh; Loc, Nguyen Thai; Thu, Vu Thi; Lam, Tran Dai

    2016-09-01

    A simple approach was explored to prepare N-doped anatase TiO2 nanoparticles (N-TiO2 NPs) from titanium chloride (TiCl4) and ammonia (NH3) via sol-gel method. The effects of important process parameters such as calcination temperatures, NH3/TiCl4 molar ratio (R N) on crystallite size, structure, phase transformation, and photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) were thoroughly investigated. The as-prepared samples were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was evaluated upon the degradation of methylene blue aqueous solution under visible-light irradiation. The results demonstrated that both calcination temperatures and NH3/TiCl4 molar ratios had significant impacts on the formation of crystallite nanostructures, physicochemical, as well as catalytic properties of the obtained TiO2. Under the studied conditions, calcination temperature of 600°C and NH3/TiCl4 molar ratio of 4.2 produced N-TiO2 with the best crystallinity and photocatalytic activity. The high visible light activity of the N-TiO2 nanomaterials was ascribed to the interstitial nitrogen atoms within TiO2 lattice units. These findings could provide a practical pathway capable of large-scale production of a visible light-active N-TiO2 photocatalyst.

  14. First-principles study of atomic structure and electronic properties of Si and F doped anatase TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hongping

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical doping represents one of the most effective ways in engineering electronic structures of anatase TiO2 for practical applications. Here, we investigate formation energies, geometrical structures, and electronic properties of Si-, F-doped and Si/F co-doped anatase TiO2 by using spin-polarized density functional theory calculation. We find that the co-doped TiO2 is thermodynamically more favorable than the Si- and F-doped TiO2- Structural analysis shows that atomic impurity varies crystal constants slightly. Moreover, all the three doped systems show a pronounced narrowing of band gap by 0.33 eV for the F-doped TiO2, 0.17 eV for the Si-doped TiO2, and 0.28 eV for the Si/F-co-doped TiO2, which could account for the experimentally observed redshift of optical absorption edge. Our calculations suggest that the Si/F-co-doping represents an effective way in tailoring electronic structure and optical properties of anatase TiO2.

  15. Effective photocatalysis of functional nanocomposites based on carbon and TiO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chan; Song, Yang; Cao, Lixin; Chen, Shaowei

    2013-06-07

    A unique nanocomposite C-TiO2 was prepared by the growth of TiO2 on carbon nanoparticles using a simple hydrothermal procedure. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) measurements showed that the nanocomposites exhibited an average core diameter of approximately 5 nm with a rather well-defined lattice space (0.4 nm) that was somewhat larger than that (0.38 nm) of the (100) crystalline planes of anatase TiO2. This lattice expansion was accounted for by the formation of surface defect dipoles of the nanosized TiO2 particles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) measurements suggested that partial charge transfer occurred from carbon nanoparticles to TiO2 by the interfacial Ti-O-C linkages, which led to effective diminishment of the C-TiO2 photoluminescence as compared to that of pure TiO2 or carbon nanoparticles, suggesting intimate electronic interactions between the carbon and TiO2 components in the nanocomposites. Such unique characteristics were then exploited for the effective photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants, as exemplified by methylene blue, by C-TiO2 under UV photoirradiation. Experimental measurements showed that the photocatalytic activity of C-TiO2 nanocomposites was about twice that of TiO2 alone, whereas little activity was observed with carbon nanoparticles. This was attributed to the electron-accepting sites on the carbon nanoparticles that facilitated interfacial charge separation.

  16. Fe-Doped TiO2 Thin Films for CO Gas Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Kumar, Dinesh; Gupta, Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Fe-doped TiO2 thin films were prepared by the sol-gel technique on silicon substrate. The thin films were evaluated for detection of carbon monoxide (CO) gas at room temperature. The TiO2 films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and ultraviolet-visible (UV) spectroscopy. The characterization revealed that, as the doping concentration was increased, the grain size decreased. XRD patterns revealed the phase transition from rutile to anatase with addition of different percentages (weight/volume) of Fe. The bandgap determined from UV spectroscopy was found to decrease with increasing Fe doping concentration. Fe doping was observed to have a significant effect on the resistivity of the doped TiO2 thin films. The gas sensing behavior of the films was studied by exposure to different concentrations of CO gas with measurement of the electrical resistance. It was observed that Fe-doped (7% weight/volume) TiO2 exhibited high sensitivity and good response/recovery on exposure to CO gas in the concentration range from 100 ppm to 900 ppm in Ar.

  17. Lattice strain alteration and activation energy of phase transformation of TiO2 nanorods doped with silver and iron oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riazian, M.

    2013-10-01

    TiO2 nanorods are synthesized by a thermal corrosion. In present work, synthesis of TiO2 nanorods in anatase, rutile and Ti8O15 phases, TiO2 nanorods embedded with silver and iron oxides as dopant by using the sol-gel method and alkaline corrosion are reported. The morphologies and crystal structures of TiO2 nanorods are characterized by use of field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffractometer techniques. The obtained results illustrate an aggregative structure at high calcined temperatures with production of spherical particles. The effects of chemical compositions and calcined temperatures on surface topography and crystallization of phases are studied. Moreover, activation energy of nanoparticles formation in pure and doped state are calculated during thermal treatment.

  18. Formation of hydroxyl radicals and kinetic study of 2-chlorophenol photocatalytic oxidation using C-doped TiO2, N-doped TiO2, and C,N Co-doped TiO2 under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananpattarachai, Jirapat; Seraphin, Supapan; Kajitvichyanukul, Puangrat

    2016-02-01

    This work reports on synthesis, characterization, adsorption ability, formation rate of hydroxyl radicals (OH(•)), photocatalytic oxidation kinetics, and mineralization ability of C-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2), N-doped TiO2, and C,N co-doped TiO2 prepared by the sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-visible spectroscopy were used to analyze the titania. The rate of formation of OH(•) for each type of titania was determined, and the OH-index was calculated. The kinetics of as-synthesized TiO2 catalysts in photocatalytic oxidation of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) under visible light irradiation were evaluated. Results revealed that nitrogen was incorporated into the lattice of titania with the structure of O-Ti-N linkages in N-doped TiO2 and C,N co-doped TiO2. Carbon was joined to the Ti-O-C bond in the C-doped TiO2 and C,N co-doped TiO2. The 2-CP adsorption ability of C,N co-doped TiO2 and C-doped TiO2 originated from a layer composed of a complex carbonaceous mixture at the surface of TiO2. C,N co-doped TiO2 had highest formation rate of OH(•) and photocatalytic activity due to a synergistic effect of carbon and nitrogen co-doping. The order of photocatalytic activity per unit surface area was the same as that of the formation rate of OH(•) unit surface area in the following order: C,N co-doped TiO2 > C-doped TiO2 > N-doped TiO2 > undoped TiO2.

  19. Insignificant acute toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles to willow trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeger, Eva Mareike; Baun, Anders; Kästner, M.

    2009-01-01

    , no results of toxicity tests with trees have been reported. Woody species, dominant in many ecosystems, may be vulnerable in particular due to the large porous wood compartment. This study tests the toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles on trees with the short-term willow tree transpiration test. TiO2 particles....... The loss of nanoparticles from solution was faster for particles with larger diameter and in the presence of trees. Willow trees were not sensitive to short-term exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles. Similar results were obtained for other plant species. Effects of nanoparticles were observed for zinc and zinc...... oxide particles, but these effects were probably due to heavy metal toxicity and not nanosize specific. In summary, we came to the conclusion that woody species are not in particular vulnerable to nanosized TiO2 particles in the conditions, concentrations, and time periods used in this study...

  20. Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of W-Doped and W-La-Codoped TiO2 Nanomaterials under Simulated Sunlight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenghe Hua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available W-doped TiO2 and W-La-codoped TiO2 nanomaterials were successfully synthesized via the sol-gel method. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The presence of W and La results in significant red shift of absorption edge for TiO2-based nanomaterials. The weight ratios of La and W in the composites play important roles in the absorption edge for TiO2-based nanomaterials. The photocatalytic activities of both W-doped TiO2 and W-La-codoped TiO2 photocatalysts for decolorization of methyl orange solution were evaluated under simulated sunlight irradiation. The results showed that both W-doped and W-La-codoped can effectively improve the photocatalytic behaviors of TiO2 nanomaterials ascribed to the improved photoinduced charge carriers separation, enhanced light absorption, and large surface area. Furthermore, W-La-codoped TiO2 exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than W-doped TiO2. Considering their high photocatalytic activity, the doped TiO2 nanomaterials could be applied in wastewater treatment and environmental purification.

  1. Zirconium doped TiO2 thin films deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juma, A.; Oja Acik, I.; Oluwabi, A. T.; Mere, A.; Mikli, V.; Danilson, M.; Krunks, M.

    2016-11-01

    Chemical spray pyrolysis (CSP) is a flexible deposition technique that allows for mixing of the precursor solutions in different proportions suitable for doping thin films. The CSP method was used to dope TiO2 thin films with Zr by adding zirconium(IV) acetylacetonate into a solution of titanium(IV) isopropoxide in ethanol stabilized by acetylacetone at [Zr]/[Ti] of 0, 5, 10 and 20 at%. The Zr-doped TiO2 thin films were uniform and homogeneous showing much smaller grains than the undoped TiO2 films. Zr stabilized the anatase phase to temperatures above 800 °C depending on Zr concentration in the spray solution. The concentration of Zr determined by XPS was 6.4 at% for the thin film deposited from the 20 at% solution. According to AFM studies, Zr doping decreased the root mean square roughness of TiO2 film from 5.9 to 1.1 nm. An XRD study of samples with the highest Zr amount showed the ZrTiO4 phase started forming after annealing at 800 °C. The optical band gap for TiO2 decreased from 3.3 eV to 3.0 eV after annealing at 800 °C but for the TiO2:Zr(20) film it remained at 3.4 eV. The dielectric constant increased by more than four times with Zr-doping and this was associated with the change in the bond formations caused by substitution of Ti by Zr in the lattice.

  2. Application of nitrogen-doped TiO2 nano-tubes in dye-sensitized solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Vy Anh; Thinh Troung, Trieu; Pham Phan, Thu Anh

    2017-01-01

    Our research aimed to improve the overall energy conversion efficiency of DSCs by applying nitrogen-doped TiO2 nano-tubes (N-TNT) for the preparation of DSCs photo-anodes. The none-doped TiO2 nano-tubes (TNTs) were synthesized by alkaline hydrothermal treatment of Degussa P25 TiO2 particles in 10 M...

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Gd3+-doped Monodisperse TiO2 Hollow Microsphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI; Feng; SHANG; Pengbo; ZHENG; Yuying

    2015-01-01

    Gd3+-doped monodisperse TiO2 hollow microspheres with various molar ratios of Gd3+/TBOT were synthesized via a novel process, which involved the preparation of SiO2 templates, deposition of Gd3+-doped TiO2 by sol-gel, SiO2 coating, heat treatment to induce crystallization of TiO2, and finally etching away the inner SiO2 templates and outer SiO2 layers. The synthesized samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy(TEM), scanning electron microscopy(SEM), X-ray diffraction(XRD), diffuse reflection spectroscopy(DRS), specific surface area measurement(BET) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS), respectively. The photocatalytic activity of Gd3+-doped samples was evaluated via photocatalytic degradation of Methyl orange under UV irradiation. The results show that the SiO2 layers prevent aggregation of TiO2 hollow microspheresand improve the thermal stability of the synthesized samples. Also, the photocatalytic activity of monodisperse TiO2 hollow microspheres can be enhanced at the optimal molar ration of Gd3+/TBOT of 0.7%.

  4. Antibacterial and UV protective properties of polyamide fabric impregnated with TiO2/Ag nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Milica; Krkobabić Ana; Radoičić Marija; Šaponjić Zoran; Lazić Vesna; Stoiljković Milovan; Radetić Maja

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of in situ photoreduction of Ag+ ions using colloidal TiO2 nanoparticles deposited on the surface of polyamide fabric in the presence of amino acid alanine and methyl alcohol is discussed. The presence of TiO2/Ag nanoparticles on the polyamide fabric was confirmed by FESEM and ICP analyses. Antibacterial activity of the fabric was tested against Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Fabri...

  5. Improved electron transfer and plasmonic effect in dye-sensitized solar cells with bi-functional Nb-doped TiO2/Ag ternary nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung Tae; Chi, Won Seok; Jeon, Harim; Kim, Jong Hak

    2014-03-07

    TiO2 nanoparticles are surface-modified via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) with a hydrophilic poly(oxyethylene)methacrylate (POEM), which can coordinate to the Ag precursor, i.e. silver trifluoromethanesulfonate (AgCF3SO3). Following the reduction of Ag ions, a Nb2O5 doping process and calcination at 450 °C, bi-functional Nb-doped TiO2/Ag ternary nanostructures are generated. The resulting nanostructures are characterized by energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy (EF-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-visible spectroscopy. The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on the Nb-doped TiO2/Ag nanostructure photoanode with a polymerized ionic liquid (PIL) as the solid polymer electrolyte shows an overall energy conversion efficiency (η) of 6.9%, which is much higher than those of neat TiO2 (4.7%) and Nb-doped TiO2 (5.4%). The enhancement of η is mostly due to the increase of current density, attributed to the improved electron transfer properties including electron injection, collection, and plasmonic effects without the negative effects of charge recombination or problems with corrosion. These properties are supported by intensity modulated photocurrent/voltage spectroscopy (IMPS/IMVS) and incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) measurements.

  6. Ag nanoparticle-deposited TiO2 nanotube arrays for electrodes of Dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Go; Ohmi, Hayato; Tan, Wai Kian; Lockman, Zainovia; Muto, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Atsunori

    2015-05-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells composed of a photoanode of Ag nanoparticle (NP)-deposited TiO2 nanotube (TNT) arrays were fabricated. The TNT arrays were prepared by anodizing Ti films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrates. Efficient charge transportation through the ordered nanostructure of TNT arrays should be carried out compared to conventional particulate TiO2 electrodes. However, it has been a big challenge to grow TNT arrays on FTO glass substrates with the lengths needed for sufficient light-harvesting (tens of micrometers). In this work, we deposited Ag nanoparticles (NPs) on the wall of TNT arrays to enhance light-harvesting property. Dye-sensitized solar cells with these Ag NP-deposited TNT arrays yielded a higher power conversion efficiency (2.03 %) than those without Ag NPs (1.39 %).

  7. Noble metal nanoparticle-decorated TiO2 nanobelts for enhanced photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Haiyan; Yang, Ping; Jia, Changchao; Miao, Yanping; Zhao, Jie; Du, Yingying

    2014-07-01

    TiO2 nanobelts have been fabricated through a hydrothermal method and subsequently sulfuric-acid-corrosion-treated for a rough surface. Noble metal nanoparticles such as Ag and Au were deposited on the coarse surface of TiO2 nanobelts via a coprecipitation procedure. Ag-TiO2 nanobelts were prepared in ethanolic solution contained silver nitrate (AgNO3) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Au-TiO2 nanobelts were obtained in chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) using sodium borohydride (NaBH4) as the reductant. It is confirmed by the results of XRD patterns together with the SEM images that the composite of noble metal and TiO2 nanobelts were obtained successfully and the Ag or Au nanoparticles were well-dispersed on the TiO2 nanobelts. Moreover, the as-prepared Ag and Au nanoparticle-decorated TiO2 nanobelts represent an enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with pure TiO2 nanobelts, which is due to the fact that the Ag and Au nanoparticles on the surface of TiO2 nanobelts act as sinks for the photogenerated electrons and promote the separation of the electrons and holes.

  8. Controlling surface defects and photophysics in TiO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llansola-Portoles, Manuel J; Bergkamp, Jesse J; Finkelstein-Shapiro, Daniel; Sherman, Benjamin D; Kodis, Gerdenis; Dimitrijevic, Nada M; Gust, Devens; Moore, Thomas A; Moore, Ana L

    2014-11-13

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is widely used for photocatalysis and solar cell applications, and the electronic structure of bulk TiO2 is well understood. However, the surface structure of nanoparticulate TiO2, which has a key role in properties such as solubility and catalytic activity, still remains controversial. Detailed understanding of surface defect structures may help explain reactivity and overall materials performance in a wide range of applications. In this work we address the solubility problem and surface defects control on TiO2 nanoparticles. We report the synthesis and characterization of ∼4 nm TiO2 anatase spherical nanoparticles that are soluble and stable in a wide range of organic solvents and water. By controlling the temperature during the synthesis, we are able to tailor the density of defect states on the surface of the TiO2 nanoparticles without affecting parameters such as size, shape, core crystallinity, and solubility. The morphology of both kinds of nanoparticles was determined by TEM. EPR experiments were used to characterize the surface defects, and transient absorption measurements demonstrate the influence of the TiO2 defect states on photoinduced electron transfer dynamics.

  9. Electronic and optical properties study on Fesbnd B co-doped anatase TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuechao; Shi, Jianhao; Chen, Hao; Wan, Rundong; Leng, Chongyan; Lei, Ying

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the density of states and optical properties for Fe, 2B and (Fe, 2B) doped TiO2 with DFT calculations. The calculated results reveal mono-doping introduces midgap states which are half-occupied and easy to become the recombination centers of charge carriers, thus inhibiting the enhancement of photocatalystic activity. The coupling of 2p-3d states in the (Fe, 2B) compensated co-doped TiO2 makes gap states couple with the valence bands edge, thus greatly causing the band gap narrowing and higher visible light absorption. Moreover, the gap states cannot become recombination centers of the photoexcited carriers, thus promoting the separation of electron-hole pairs, prolonging the lifetime of carriers. The analysis of electron density indicates more electrons from Fe transfer to adjacent B, realizing the charge compensation and forming a stronger Fesbnd B bond. Therefore, the (Fe, 2B) compensated co-doped TiO2 exhibits the higher visible-light photocatalystic activity than those of pure and solely doped TiO2.

  10. A hydrothermal synthesis of Pr3+ doped mesoporous TiO2 for UV light photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Chen, Guihua; Shen, Qianhong; Yang, Hui; Li, Liquan; Song, Yanjiang

    2014-07-01

    Pr3+ doped mesoporous TiO2 photocatalysts with a different molar ratio of Pr to Ti were prepared by a hydrothermal method using triblock copolymer as the template. The as-prepared samples were systematically characterized by X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption, X-ray photoelectron spectra, transmission electron microscopy and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The characterizations indicated all the samples had mesoporous structure and narrow pore size distribution. Pr3+ doping enlarged the surface area and decreased the crystallite size. The surface area of the samples varied from 136 to 170 m2/g, and the average crystallite size ranged between 5.04 and 7.60 nm. The effect of Pr3+ doping amount on the photocatalytic activity of mesoporous TiO2 was evaluated by the degradation of methyl orange under UV light irradiation. The results showed that the suitable amount of Pr3+ doped samples exhibited the higher photocatalytic activity than mesoporous TiO2. Among the samples, 1 at.% Pr3+ doped mesoporous TiO2 showed the highest photocatalytic activity.

  11. The Photocatalytic Property of Nitrogen-Doped TiO2 Nanoball Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiying Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanoball films of nitrogen doping and no doping were prepared by anodic oxidation method. The nitrogen-doped samples exhibited significant enhanced absorption in visible light range, narrowing band gap from 3.2 eV to 2.8 eV and the smaller nanoball diameter size. The concentrations of methyl blue reduce to nearly 44% after 4-hour photodecomposition test by nitrogen-doped sample. It is indicated that there may be two main reasons for the enhanced photocatalytic activity: the increase of O vacancy and photocatalytic reactivity surface area in nitrogen-doped samples.

  12. Optimized method for preparation of TiO2 nanoparticles dispersion for biological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Yin, Lihong; Tang, Meng; Pu, Yuepu

    2010-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a practical method to prepare a stable dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles for biological studies. To address this matter a variety of different approaches for suspension of nanoparticles were conducted. TiO2 (rutile/anatase) dispersions were prepared in distilled water following by treated with different ultrasound energies and various dispersion stabilizers (1.0% carboxymethyl cellulose, 0.5% hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose K4M, 100% fetal bovine serum, and 2.5% bovine serum albumin). The average size of dispersed TiO2 (rutile/anatase) nanoparticles was measured by dynamic light scattering device. Agglomerate sizes of TiO2 in distilled water and 100% FBS were estimated using TEM analysis. Sedimentation rate of TiO2 (rutile/anatase) nanoparticles in dispersion was monitored by optical absorbance detection. In vitro cytotoxicity of various stabilizers in 16-HBE cells was measured using MTT assay. The optimized process for preparation of TiO2 (rutile/anatase) nanoparticles dispersion was first to vibrate the nanoparticles by vortex and disperse particles by ultrasonic vibration in distilled water, then to add dispersion stabilizers to the dispersion, and finally to sonicate the nanoparticles in dispersion. TiO2 (rutile/anatase) nanoparticles were disaggregated sufficiently with an ultrasound energy of 33 W for 10 min. The formation of TiO2 (rutile/anatase) agglomerates in distilled water was decreased obviously by addition of 1.0% CMC, 0.5% HPMC K4M, 100% FBS and 2.5% BSA. For the benefit of cell growth, FBS is the most suitable stabilizer for preparation of TiO2 (rutile/anatase) particle dispersions and subsequent investigation of the in vivo and in vitro behavior of TiO2 (rutile/anatase) nanoparticles. This method is practicable to prepare a stable dispersion of TiO2 (rutile/anatase) nanoparticles for at least 120 h.

  13. Preparation of TiO2/activated carbon with Fe ions doping photocatalyst and its application to photocatalytic degradation of reactive brilliant red K2G

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YouJi; LI Jing; MA MingYuan; OUYANG YuZhu; YAN WenBin

    2009-01-01

    Titanium dioxide coated on activated carbon(AC)with Fe ions doping(Fe-TiO2/AC)composite was prepared by an improved sol-gel method.The photocatalytic activities were tested by photocatalytic degradation of reactive brilliant red K2G in solution.The results show that in comparison with the agglomeration of pure TiO2,the TiO2 nanoparticles are well dispersed in the AC matrix,of which sizes are decreased with Fe ions doping.Additionally,the iron species on TiO2 of composite are Fe2O3 and FeO,which do not affect the crystalline structures of TiO2 nanopanicles.The AC matrix and iron doping content influence the fluorescence intensity of composite due to their effects on recombination prob ability of hole-electron paire.Compared with TiO2,0.3%Fe-TiO2,TiO2/AC,0.5% Fe-TiO2/AC and 0.1% Fe-TiO2/AC,the 0.3%Fe-TiO2/AC shows the highest photoactivity with the complete mineralization of K2G for finite time due to the optimum Fe ions content and AC matrix.Furthermore,the kinetic constant(K=0.0229 min-1)of 0.3% Fe-TiO2/AC composite is more than the sum of both TiO2/AC(0.0154 min-1)and 0.3% Fe-TiO2(0.0057 min-1)because coexistence of the AC end Fe ions has an enlarging effect on improving the photoactivity of TiO2.

  14. Preparation of K-doped TiO2 nanostructures by wet corrosion and their sunlight-driven photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Eunhye; Jin, Saera; Kim, Jiyoon; Chang, Sung-Jin; Jun, Byung-Hyuk; Park, Kwang-Won; Hong, Jongin

    2016-08-01

    K-doped TiO2 nanowire networks were prepared by the corrosion reaction of Ti nanoparticles in an alkaline (potassium hydroxide: KOH) solution. The prepared nanostructures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. Their sunlight-driven photocatalytic activity was also investigated with differently charged dye molecules, such as methylene blue, rhodamine B and methyl orange. The adsorption of the dye molecules on the photocatalyst surface would play a critical role in their selective photodegradation under sunlight illumination.

  15. Plasma surface modified TiO2 nanoparticles: improved photocatalytic oxidation of gaseous m-xylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumitsawan, Sulak; Cho, Jai; Sattler, Melanie L; Timmons, Richard B

    2011-08-15

    Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) is a preferred catalyst for photocatalytic oxidation of many air pollutants. In an effort to enhance its photocatalytic activity, TiO(2) was modified by pulsed plasma treatment. In this work, TiO(2) nanoparticles, coated on a glass plate, were treated with a plasma discharge of hexafluoropropylene oxide (HFPO) gas. By appropriate adjustment of discharge conditions, it was discovered that the TiO(2) particles can be either directly fluorinated (Ti-F) or coated with thin perfluorocarbon films (C-F). Specifically, under relatively high power input, the plasma deposition process favored direct surface fluorination. The extent of Ti-F formation increased with increasing power input. In contrast, at lower average power inputs, perfluorocarbon films are deposited on the surface of the TiO(2) particles. The plasma surface modified TiO(2) nanoparticles were subsequently employed as catalysts in the photocatalytic oxidation of m-xylene in air, as carried out inside a batch reactor with closed loop constant gas circulation. Both types of modified TiO(2) were significantly more catalytically active than that of the unmodified particles. For example, the rate constant of m-xylene degradation was increased from 0.012 min(-1) with untreated TiO(2) to 0.074 min(-1) with fluorinated TiO(2). Although it is not possible to provide unequivocal reasons for this increased photocatalytic activity, it is noted that the plasma surface treatment converted the TiO(2) from hydrophilic to highly hydrophobic, which would provide more facile catalyst adsorption of the xylene from the flowing air. Also, based on literature reports, the use of fluorinated TiO(2) reduces electron-hole recombination rates, thus increasing the photocatalytic activity.

  16. Effect of Au clustering on ferromagnetism in Au doped TiO2 films: theory and experiments investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhaorui; Zhou, Zhongpo; Wang, Haiying; Yang, Zongxian

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the physical properties especially the magnetic properties of the TiO2 films and Au cluster doped TiO2 films fabricated by sol-gel and sputtering methods combined experiments and first-principles calculations. All the samples annealed under air and N2 atmosphere respectively exhibit room temperature ferromagnetism with the crystal phase of anatase. The values of the saturation magnetizations are in the order of Au δ-doped TiO2 (annealed in N2)>undoped TiO2 (annealed in air)>Au δ-doped TiO2 (annealed in air). The first principles calculation results show that the formation energy of Au cluster doped TiO2 films is lower than that of the oxygen vacancy and Au cluster codoped TiO2 films. The effects of the Au cluster dopant are the retard of the formation of surface oxygen vacancy and the electrons transfer from 3d states of Ti atoms to Au 5d states in Au cluster doped TiO2 films. The codoping of surface oxygen vacancies, bulk oxygen vacancies and Au clusters led to the spin-split of Ti 3d and O 2p in Au cluster doped TiO2 films (annealed in N2) which yield the highest saturation magnetization.

  17. Photocatalytic Hydrogen or Oxygen Evolution from Water over S- or N-Doped TiO2 under Visible Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumoto Nishijima

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available S- or N-doping of TiO2 powder having an anatase or rutile phase extended the photocatalytic activity for water oxidation and reduction under UV light and visible light irradiation. For the reduction of water, anatase-doped TiO2 showed higher level of activity than that of doped TiO2 having a rutile phase using ethanol as an electron donor. Furthermore, the activity level of S-doped TiO2 for hydrogen evolution was higher than that of N-doped TiO2 photocatalysts under visible light. Photocatalytic oxidation of water on doped TiO2 having a rutile phase proceeded with fairly high efficiency when Fe3+ ions were used as electron acceptors compared to that on doped TiO2 having an anatase phase. In addition, water splitting under visible light irradiation was achieved by construction of a Z-scheme photocatalysis system employing the doped TiO2 having anatase and rutile phases for H2 and O2 evolution and the I−/IO3− redox couple as an electron relay.

  18. A versatile new method for synthesis and deposition of doped, visible light-activated TiO2 thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In, Su-il; Kean, A.H.; Orlov, A.

    2009-01-01

    A flexible and widely applicable method allows the deposition of carbon-doped visible light-activated photocatalytic TiO2 thin films on a variety of substrates.......A flexible and widely applicable method allows the deposition of carbon-doped visible light-activated photocatalytic TiO2 thin films on a variety of substrates....

  19. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic behavior of Ag doped TiO2 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensouici, F.; Souier, T.; Dakhel, A. A.; Iratni, A.; Tala-Ighil, R.; Bououdina, M.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, structure, microstructure, optical properties and photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) have been investigated in an aqueous heterogeneous media containing pure and Ag doped TiO2 nanostructures thin films which were prepared by a simple sol-gel route. Thermal analysis demonstrated that Ag content decreased the temperature of anatase-to-rutile phase transformation. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the prepared nanostructures crystallize within anatase-type structure and that the dopant Ag ions were not fully incorporated within TiO2 host lattice, meanwhile both the refractive index and optical band gap were affected by Ag concentration. The photodegradation of Rhodamine B under UV-C radiation by using pure and Ag-doped TiO2 nanostructures showed that Ag played an important role in a significant improvement of the photodegradation efficiency and that the optimum content of Ag ions was found to be 0.5% molar ratio.

  20. Facile Postsynthesis of N-Doped TiO2-SBA-15 and Its Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu Phuong Tran Thi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available N-doped TiO2-SBA-15 (denoted as N-TiO2-SBA-15 material has been successfully synthesized by a two-step procedure. Firstly, TiO2-SBA-15 was prepared by impregnating tetraisopropyl orthotitanate on SBA-15 and followed by calcination at 550°C. In the second step, TiO2-SBA-15 was modified by doping nitrogen with the assistance of urea. The resulting material, N-TiO2-SBA-15, was characterized by XRD, TEM, SEM, N2 adsorption/desorption at 77 K, DR UV-Vis, and XPS. The results showed that N-TiO2-SBA-15 material maintains its ordered hexagonal mesostructure and exhibits the absorption of visible region. The photocatalytic activity of N-TiO2-SBA-15 sample was evaluated by the photodegradation of methylene blue under visible light.

  1. Electronic Band Structures of TiO2 with Heavy Nitrogen Doping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Jinbo; LI Qi; LIANG Wei; SHANG Jianku

    2008-01-01

    The first-principles density-functional calculation was conducted to investigate the electronic band structures of titanium dioxide with heavy nitrogen doping (TiO2-xNx).The calculation results indicate that when x≤0.25,isolated N 2p states appear above the valence-band maximum of TiO2 without a band-gap narrowing between O 2p and Ti 3d states.When x≥0.50,an obvious band gap narrowing between O 2p and Ti 3d states was observed along with the existence of isolated N 2p states above the valence-band of TiO2,indicating that the mechanism proposed by Asahi et al operates under heavy nitrogen doping condition.

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Fe3+-doped Nanometer TiO2 Photocatalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Junwu; ZHENG Zhixiang; ZUO Kaihui; WU Yucheng

    2006-01-01

    Fe3+-doped nanometer TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared by sol-gel technique. TiO2 powders with different Fe3+/Ti4+ molar ratios ranging from 0.05% to 25% were synthesized by calcinating the gels in the temperature range of 200-600 ℃. The effects of the content of iron ions and calcination temperature on the physical properties of the powders and their photocatalytic activities were examined by the photodecompositon of methyl orange in sunlight. The results show that Fe dopant can decrease the temperature of nanatase-rutile transformation. The ideal photocatalytic property was achieved when the sample with an Fe3+/Ti4+ ratio of 20 at% was calcined at about 300 ℃ for an hour, which is superior to that of commercial Degussa P-25. The optimum microstructure of the Fe-doped TiO2 for a high photocatalytic activity in sunlight is consisted of nanatase and rutile.

  3. Facile Postsynthesis of N-Doped TiO2-SBA-15 and Its Photocatalytic Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Thu Phuong Tran Thi; Duc Trieu Nguyen; Tuan Quang Duong; Huy Hoang Luc; Vien Vo

    2013-01-01

    N-doped TiO2-SBA-15 (denoted as N-TiO2-SBA-15) material has been successfully synthesized by a two-step procedure. Firstly, TiO2-SBA-15 was prepared by impregnating tetraisopropyl orthotitanate on SBA-15 and followed by calcination at 550°C. In the second step, TiO2-SBA-15 was modified by doping nitrogen with the assistance of urea. The resulting material, N-TiO2-SBA-15, was characterized by XRD, TEM, SEM, N2 adsorption/desorption at 77 K, DR UV-Vis, and XPS. The results showed that N-TiO2-SB...

  4. W-doped TiO2 mesoporous electron transport layer for efficient hole transport material free perovskite solar cells employing carbon counter electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yuqing; Cheng, Nian; Kondamareddy, Kiran Kumar; Wang, Changlei; Liu, Pei; Guo, Shishang; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

    2017-02-01

    Doping of TiO2 by metal elements for the scaffold layer of the perovskite solar cells has been proved to be one of the effective methods to improve the power conversion efficiency. In the present work, we report the impact of doping of TiO2 nanoparticles with different amounts of tungsten (W) on the photovoltaic properties of hole transport material free perovskite solar cells (PSCs) that employ carbon counter electrode. Light doping with W (less than 1000 ppm) improves the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of solar cells by promoting the electron conductivity in the TiO2 layer which facilitates electron transfer and collection. With the incorporation of W, average efficiency of PSCs is increased from 9.1% for the un-doped samples to 10.53% for the 1000 ppm W-doped samples, mainly originates from the increase of short circuit current density and fill factor. Our champion cell exhibits an impressive PCE of 12.06% when using the 1000 ppm W-doped TiO2 films.

  5. Photocatalytic Degradation of Mecoprop and Clopyralid in Aqueous Suspensions of Nanostructured N-doped TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Giannakopoulou

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The work describes a study of the oxidation power of N-doped and undoped anatase TiO2, as well as TiO2 Degussa P25 suspensions for photocatalytic degradation of the herbicides RS-2-(4-chloro-o-tolyloxypropionic acid (mecoprop and 3,6-dichloro-pyridine-2-carboxylic acid (clopyralid using visible and UV light. Undoped nanostructured TiO2 powder in the form of anatase was prepared by a sol-gel route. The synthesized TiO2, as well as TiO2 Degussa P25 powder, were modified with urea to introduce nitrogen into the structure. N-doped TiO2 appeared to be somewhat more efficient than the starting TiO2 (anatase powder when visible light was used for mecoprop degradation. N-doped TiO2 Degussa P25 was also slightly more efficient than TiO2 Degussa P25. However, under the same experimental conditions, no degradation of clopyralid was observed in the presence of any of the mentioned catalysts. When the kinetics of mecoprop degradation was studied using UV light, more efficient were the undoped powders, while in the case of clopyralid, N-doped TiO2 Degussa P25 powder was most efficient, which is probably a consequence of the difference in the molecular structure of the two herbicides.

  6. Fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells with multilayer photoanodes of hydrothermally grown TiO$_2$ nanocrystals and P25 TiO$_2$ nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MAZIAR MARANDI; MAHBOUBEH NAEIMI SANI SABET; FARZANEH AHMADLOO

    2016-10-01

    TiO$_2$ nanocrystals (NCs) with sizes around 20 nm were synthesized by hydrothermal method in acidic autoclaving pH. The hydrothermally grown TiO$_2$ NCs and P25 TiO$_2$ nanoparticles (NPs) were used in the preparationof two different pastes using different procedures. These pastes with different characteristics were separately deposited on FTO glass plates to form multilayer photoanodes of the dye-sensitized solar cells. The aim of this study was to search how a thin sub-layer of the hydrothermally grown TiO2 NCs in the photoanodes could improve the efficiency of TiO$_2$ P25-based solar cells. The highest efficiency of 6.5% was achieved for a cell with a photoanodecomposed of one transparent sub-layer of hydrothermally grown TiO$_2$ NCs and two over-layers of P25 NPs. Higher energy conversion efficiencies were also attainable using two transparent sub-layers of hydrothermally grown TiO$_2$ NCs. In this case, an efficiency of 7.2% was achieved for a cell with a photoelectrode made of one over-layer of P25 TiO$_2$ NPs. This could show an increase of about 30% in the efficiency compared to the similar cell with a photoanode made of two layers of hydrothermally grown TiO2 NCs.

  7. Reactive wetting properties of TiO2 nanoparticles predicted by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Erik G; Agosta, Lorenzo; Lyubartsev, Alexander P

    2016-07-21

    Small-sized wet TiO2 nanoparticles have been investigated by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Chemical and physical adsorption of water on the TiO2-water interface was studied as a function of water content, ranging from dry nanoparticles to wet nanoparticles with monolayer coverage of water. The surface reactivity was shown to be a concave function of water content and driven by surface defects. The local coordination number at the defect was identified as the key factor to decide whether water adsorption proceeds through dissociation or physisorption on the surface. A consistent picture of TiO2 nanoparticle wetting at the microscopic level emerges, which corroborates existing experimental data and gives further insight into the molecular mechanisms behind nanoparticle wetting. These calculations will facilitate the engineering of metal oxide nanoparticles with a controlled catalytic water activity.

  8. EFFECT OF ZnFe2O4 DOPING ON THE OPTICALPROPERTIES OF TiO2 THIN FILMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李广海; 吴玉程; 张立德

    2001-01-01

    Amorphous TiO2 thin films and ZnFe2O4-doped TiO2 composite films were deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The effect of ZnFe2O4 doping on the optical properties of TiO2 thin films was reported. Our results show that the absorption edge of TiO2 thin films and composite films exhibits a blueshift with decreasing annealing temperature. The absorption edge of composite films has moved to a visible spectrum range, and a very large redshift occurs in comparison with TiO2 thin films. An enhanced photoluminescence was observed in ZnFe2O4-doped anatase TiO2 thin films at room temperature.

  9. Nuclear microscopy as a tool in TiO2 nanoparticles bioaccumulation studies in aquatic species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Teresa; Moita, Liliana; Silva, Luís; Mendonça, Elsa; Picado, Ana

    2013-07-01

    Engineered Titanium nanoparticles are used for a wide range of applications from coatings, sunscreen cosmetic additives to solar cells or water treatment agents. Inevitably environmental exposure can be expected and data on the ecotoxicological evaluation of nanoparticles are still scarce. The potential effects of nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (TiO2) on two model organisms, the water flea, Daphnia magna and the duckweed Lemna minor, were examined in semichronic toxicity tests. Daphnia and Lemna were exposed to TiO2 nanoparticles (average particle size value of 28 ± 11 nm (n = 42); concentration range, 1.4-25 mg/L) by dietary route and growth in medium containing the nanoparticles of TiO2, respectively. Both morphology and microdistribution of Ti in the individuals were examined by nuclear microscopy techniques. A significant amount of TiO2 was found accumulated in Daphnia exposed to nanoparticles. Nuclear microscopy imaging revealed that Ti was localized only in the digestive tract of the Daphnia, which displayed difficulty in eliminating the nanoparticles from their body. Daphnia showed higher mortality when exposed to higher concentrations of TiO2 (>10 mg/L). The exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles above 25 mg/L caused morphological alterations in Lemna. The roots became stiff and fronds colorless. The Ti mapping of cross-sections of roots and fronds showed that Ti was mainly deposited in the epidermis of the fronds and roots, with minor internalization. In summary, exposure of aquatic organisms to TiO2 nanoparticles may alter the physiology of these organisms at individual and population levels, posing risks to aquatic ecosystems.

  10. Visible light induced photobleaching of methylene blue over melamine-doped TiO2 nanocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    TiO2 doping with N-rich melamine produced a stable, active and visible light sentisized nanocatalyst that showed a remarkable efficiency towards the photobleaching of a model compound – methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution. The photobleaching followed a mixed reaction order ki...

  11. p-Type hydrogen sensing with Al- and V-doped TiO2 nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaohui; Ding, Dongyan; Ning, Congqin

    2013-01-01

    Doping with other elements is one of the efficient ways to modify the physical and chemical properties of TiO2 nanomaterials. In the present work, anatase TiO2 nanofilms doped with Al and V elements were fabricated through anodic oxidation of Ti6Al4V alloy and further annealing treatment. Hydrogen sensing behavior of the crystallized Ti-Al-V-O nanofilms at various working temperatures was investigated through exposure to 1,000 ppm H2. Different from n-type hydrogen sensing characteristics of undoped TiO2 nanotubes, the Al- and V-doped nanofilms presented a p-type hydrogen sensing behavior by showing increased resistance upon exposure to the hydrogen-containing atmosphere. The Ti-Al-V-O nanofilm annealed at 450°C was mainly composed of anatase phase, which was sensitive to hydrogen-containing atmosphere only at elevated temperatures. Annealing of the Ti-Al-V-O nanofilm at 550°C could increase the content of anatase phase in the oxide nanofilm and thus resulted in a good sensitivity and resistance recovery at both room temperature and elevated temperatures. The TiO2 nanofilms doped with Al and V elements shows great potential for use as a robust semiconducting hydrogen sensor.

  12. Visible light induced photobleaching of methylene blue over melamine-doped TiO2 nanocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    TiO2 doping with N-rich melamine produced a stable, active and visible light sentisized nanocatalyst that showed a remarkable efficiency towards the photobleaching of a model compound – methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution. The photobleaching followed a mixed reaction order ki...

  13. Preparation and characterization of TiO 2-cationic hybrid nanoparticles as electrophoretic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjing; Deng, Liandong; Xing, Jinfeng; Dong, Anjie; Li, Xianggao

    2012-01-01

    The hybrid nanoparticles (TiO2-HNPs) with TiO2 nanoparticles as core and with poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate) by using triallylamine as cross-linking agent as shell were firstly prepared via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) in methanol. Then the hybrid nanoparticles with positive charge were produced by the quaternization with methyl iodide as quaternization reagent so as to endow them with greater electrophoretic mobility. The cationic hybrid nanoparticles (TiO2-CHNPs) were studied by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. The results indicate that the cationic polymer is successfully grafted on the surface of the TiO2 nanoparticles. The particle size of TiO2-CHNPs is about 150 nm and the polydispersity index (PDI) is 0.307. The zeta potential, the contrast ratio of white state to dark state and response time of TiO2-CHNPs are +16.8 mV, 30 and 3 s, respectively, which show the potential application prospect in the development of electrophoretic ink.

  14. Preparation and photocatalytic performance of Cs+/Sr2+-doped nano-sized TiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗洁; 李德良; 金明子

    2009-01-01

    The un-doped TiO2 and Cs+/Sr2+-doped TiO2 nanometer particles were prepared by sol-gel method using tetrabutyl titanate (Ti(OC4H9)4) as TiO2 precursor,and characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Vis absorption spectra (UV-Vis). The photocatalytic activities of these samples were investigated by the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange in aqueous suspension under 300 W medium pressure mercury lamp irradiation. The results show that the growth of crystallite size can be controlled effectively for the Cs+/Sr2+-doped TiO2,and crystal phase transformation of nano-sized TiO2 is retarded from anatase structure to rutile structure while using the proper doping concentration of Cs+/Sr2+. It is pure anatase of high photocatalytic activity for Cs+/Sr2+-doped nano-sized TiO2 prepared at 600 ℃ for 2 h. The average crystal sizes of un-doped TiO2,0.1% Cs+-doped TiO2 and 0.3% Sr2+-doped TiO2 are 21.3,13.1 and 10.8 nm,respectively. Moreover,the doping TiO2 can extend the light response to the visible region at 400-600 nm. By measuring their photocatalytic degradation rate of methyl orange solution,the results indicate that Cs+/Sr2+ -doped TiO2 samples are found to improve photocatalytic degradation activity of TiO2 markedly,and the optimal doping concentration is determined to be 0.1% and 0.3% for Cs+ and Sr2+,respectively. Photocatalytic degradation rate of Cs+/Sr2+-doped nano-sized TiO2 can be 15%-25% higher than that of un-doped TiO2 under the same condition.

  15. Thermo-selective TmxTi1-xO2-x/2 nanoparticles: from Tm-doped anatase TiO2 to a rutile/pyrochlore Tm2Ti2O7 mixture. An experimental and theoretical study with a photocatalytic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Javier; Sánchez-Coronilla, Antonio; Aguilar, Teresa; de Los Santos, Desireé M.; Hernández, Norge C.; Alcántara, Rodrigo; Fernández-Lorenzo, Concha; Martín-Calleja, Joaquín

    2014-10-01

    This is an experimental and theoretical study of thulium doped TiO2 nanoparticles. From an experimental perspective, a method was used to synthesize thulium-doped TiO2 nanoparticles in which Tm3+ replaces Ti4+ in the lattice, which to our knowledge has neither been reported nor studied theoretically so far. Different proportions of anatase and rutile phases were obtained at different annealing temperatures, and XRD and Raman spectroscopy also revealed the presence of a pyrochlore phase (Tm2Ti2O7) at 1173 K. Thus, the structure of the Tm-doped nanoparticles was thermally-controlled. Furthermore, XPS showed the presence of Tm3+ in the samples synthesized, which produces oxygen vacancies to maintain the local neutrality in the lattice. The presence of Tm3+ in the samples led to changes in the UV-Vis absorption spectra, so they showed photoluminescence properties and new states in the band gap, which produce a new lower energy electronic transition than the main TiO2 one. Periodic DFT calculations were performed to understand the experimentally produced structures. The production of oxygen vacancies was analysed and the changes generated in the structure were fully detailed. The DOS and PDOS analyses confirmed the experimental results obtained using UV-Vis spectroscopy, and showed that the new electronic states in the band gap are due to interactions of the f state of Tm and the p state of O. Likewise, the charge study and the ELF analysis indicate that when Tm is introduced into the TiO2 structure, the Ti-O bond around the oxygen vacancy is strengthened. Finally, an example of a photocatalytic application was developed to show the high efficiency of the samples due to the heterojunction in the interfaces of the phases in the samples, which improved the charge separation and the good charge carrier mobility due to the presence of the pyrochlore phase, as was also shown theoretically.This is an experimental and theoretical study of thulium doped TiO2 nanoparticles. From

  16. Microstructural, optical and photocatalytic properties of CdS doped TiO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, S. H.; Shaaban, E. R.

    2011-11-01

    CdS doped TiO2 thin films (with CdS content=0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 at%) were grown on glass substrates. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the films are polycrystalline of monoclinic TiO2 structure. The microstructure parameters of the films such as crystallite size (Dν) and microstrain (e) are calculated. Both the crystallites size and the microstrain are decreased with increasing CdS content. The optical constants have been determined in terms of Murmann's exact equations. The refractive index and extinction coefficient are increased with increasing CdS content. The optical band gap is calculated in the strong absorption region. The possible optical transition in these films is found to be an allowed direct transition. The values of Egopt are found to decrease as the CdS content increased. The films with 3 at% CdS content have better decomposition efficiency than undoped TiO2. The films with 6 at% and 9 at% CdS content have decomposition efficiency comparable to that of undoped TiO2, although they have lower band gap. The CdS doped TiO2 could have a better impact on the decomposing of organic wastes.

  17. Formation Mechanistism Study of TiO2 Film Comprising Nanotubes and Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Di Yang; Yi-quan Wang; Guo-bin Ren; Shuai Feng; Yuan-yuan Chen; Wen-zhong Wang

    2012-01-01

    A novel titanium dioxide (TiO2) film comprising both nanotubes and nanopaticles was fabricated by an anodization process of the modified titanium.The local electric field at the anodized surface was simulated and its influence on the morphology of the TiO2 film was discussed.The results show that the electric field strength is enhanced by the covering.The growth rate of TiO2 increases with the assist of the local electric field.However,TiO2 dissolution is hindered since the local electric field prevents [TiF6]6- from diffusing.It means that the balance condition for the formation of nanotubes is broken,and TiO2 nanoparticles are formed.Moreover,the crystal structure of the TiO2 film was confirmed using X-ray diffraction and Raman analysis.The anatase is a main phase for the proposed film.

  18. A Novel Toxicological Evaluation of TiO2 Nanoparticles on DNA Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU, Rong-Rong; WANG, Shi-Long; ZHANG, Rui; SUN, Xiao-Yu; YAO, Si-De

    2007-01-01

    TiO2 has been tested to be toxic to DNA under the photo-irradiation of ultraviolet A (UVA). However, in the dark conditions, after several days of treatment with TiO2 in aqueous solution, the interaction between TiO2 and two types of DNA was detected and the mechanisms were studied by the methods of gel-electrophoresis, IR spectroscopy and TEM. The results showed that the DNA would be bound to TiO2; the ratio of binding was related to the concentration and the treating time; the mechanism of binding is related to phosphate groups of DNA. Besides,DNA with different structure showed different degree of binding. These findings showed a new possible way through which the TiO2 nanoparticles interact with DNA.

  19. Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity of Anatase TiO2 Nanoparticles-coated Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Yi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A simple and straightforward approach to prepare TiO2-coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs is presented. Anatase TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs with the average size ~8 nm were coated on CNTs from peroxo titanic acid (PTA precursor even at low temperature of 100 °C. We demonstrate the effects of CNTs/TiO2 molar ratio on the adsorption capability and photocatalytic efficiency under UV–visible irradiation. The samples showed not only good optical absorption in visible range, but also great adsorption capacity for methyl orange (MO dye molecules. These properties facilitated the great enhancement of photocatalytic activity of TiO2 NPs-coated CNTs photocatalysts. The TiO2 NPs-coated CNTs exhibited 2.45 times higher photocatalytic activity for MO degradation than that of pure TiO2.

  20. Surface morphology of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles on aluminum interdigitated device electrodes (IDEs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizah, N.; Hashim, U.; Arshad, M. K. Md.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Nadzirah, Sh.; Farehanim, M. A.; Fatin, M. F.; Ruslinda, A. R.; Ayub, R. M.

    2016-07-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles based Interdigitated Device Electrodes (IDEs) Nanobiosensor device was developed for intracellular biochemical detection. Fabrication and characterization of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) using IDE nanocoated with TiO2 was studied in this paper. SEM analysis was carried out at 10 kV acceleration volatege and a 9.8 mA emission current to compare IDE with and without TiO2 on the surface area. The simple fabrication process, high sensitivity, and fast response of the TiO2 based IDEs facilitate their applications in a wide range of areas. The small size of semiconductor TiO2 based IDE for sensitive, label-free, real time detection of a wide range of biological species could be explored in vivo diagnostics and array-based screening.

  1. Preparation and photocatalytic activity of B, Y co-doped nanosized TiO_2 catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石中亮; 刘富梅; 姚淑华

    2010-01-01

    The catalysts of un-doped, single-doped and co-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) powders were prepared by sol-gel method with Ti(OC4H9)4 as a raw material. The photocatalytic decomposition of phenol in aqueous solution under UV light was used as a probe reaction to evaluate their photocatalytic activities. The effects of B, Y co-doping on the crystallite sizes, crystal pattern, surface composition, and optical property of the catalyst were investigated by thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis, X-ray d...

  2. Synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles containing Fe, Si, and V using multiple diffusion flames and catalytic oxidation capability of carbon-coated nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Ismail, Mohamed

    2016-01-19

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles containing iron, silicon, and vanadium are synthesized using multiple diffusion flames. The growth of carbon-coated (C–TiO2), carbon-coated with iron oxide (Fe/C–TiO2), silica-coated (Si–TiO2), and vanadium-doped (V–TiO2) TiO2 nanoparticles is demonstrated using a single-step process. Hydrogen, oxygen, and argon are utilized to establish the flame, with titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) as the precursor for TiO2. For the growth of Fe/C–TiO2 nanoparticles, TTIP is mixed with xylene and ferrocene. While for the growth of Si–TiO2 and V–TiO2, TTIP is mixed with hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and vanadium (V) oxytriisopropoxide, respectively. The synthesized nanoparticles are characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) with energy-filtered TEM for elemental mapping (of Si, C, O, and Ti), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nitrogen adsorption BET surface area analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. Anatase is the dominant phase for the C–TiO2, Fe/C–TiO2, and Si–TiO2 nanoparticles, whereas rutile is the dominant phase for the V–TiO2 nanoparticles. For C–TiO2 and Fe/C–TiO2, the nanoparticles are coated with about 3-5-nm thickness of carbon. The iron-based TiO2 nanoparticles significantly improve the catalytic oxidation of carbon, where complete oxidation of carbon occurs at a temperature of 470 °C (with iron) compared to 610 °C (without iron). Enhanced catalytic oxidation properties are also observed for model soot particles, Printex-U, when mixed with Fe/C-TiO2. With regards to Si–TiO2 nanoparticles, a uniform coating of 3 to 8 nm of silicon dioxide is observed around the TiO2 particles. This coating mainly occurs due to variance in the chemical reaction rates of the precursors. Finally, with regards to V–TiO2, vanadium is doped within the TiO2 nanoparticles as visualized by HRTEM and XPS further confirms the formation of

  3. SERS investigation of ciprofloxacin drug molecules on TiO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Libin; Qin, Xiaoyu; Jiang, Xin; Gong, Mengdi; Yin, Di; Zhang, Yingjiu; Zhao, Bing

    2015-07-21

    In this paper, TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with different crystallinity served as SERS-active substrates for SERS detection of ciprofloxacin (CIP) drug molecules for the first time. CIP is close to the surface of the TiO2 substrate through the carboxyl group. The mutual SERS enhancement behaviors between CIP molecules and TiO2 NPs were discovered, which are attributed to the contribution of the TiO2-to-molecule charge-transfer mechanism. The crystallinity of TiO2 NPs, the pH value of adsorption solution and the adsorption time have significant influences on the interaction and the SERS behavior between CIP and TiO2. When the calcination temperature of TiO2 NPs is 450 °C, the pH value of adsorption solution is 6 and the adsorption time is 9 h, the CIP molecules on TiO2 NPs exhibit the largest SERS enhancement.

  4. Synergistic Effects of Sm and C Co-Doped Mixed Phase Crystalline TiO2 for Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuchang Peng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mixed phase TiO2 nanoparticles with element doping by Sm and C were prepared via a facile sol-gel procedure. The UV-Vis light-diffuse reflectance spectroscopy analysis showed that the absorption region of co-doped TiO2 was shifted to the visible-light region, which was attributed to incorporation of samarium and carbon into the TiO2 lattice during high-temperature reaction. Samarium effectively decreased the anatase-rutile phase transformation. The grain size can be controlled by Sm doping to achieve a large specific surface area useful for the enhancement of photocatalytic activity. The photocatalytic activities under visible light irradiation were evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB. The degradation rate of MB over the Sm-C co-doped TiO2 sample was the best. Additionally, first-order apparent rate constants increased by about 4.3 times compared to that of commercial Degusssa P25 under the same experimental conditions. Using different types of scavengers, the results indicated that the electrons, holes, and •OH radicals are the main active species for the MB degradation. The high visible-light photocatalytic activity was attributed to low recombination of the photo-generated electrons and holes which originated from the synergistic effect of the co-doped ions and the heterostructure.

  5. Modification of N-doped TiO2 photocatalysts using noble metals (Pt, Pd) - a combined XPS and DFT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalović, K; Bundaleski, N; Radaković, J; Abazović, N; Mitrić, M; Silva, R A; Savić, M; Belošević-Čavor, J; Rakočević, Z; Rangel, C M

    2017-03-08

    Nitrogen-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2) is considered as one of the most promising materials for various photocatalytic applications, while noble metals Pd and Pt are known as good catalysts for hydrogen evolution. This work focuses on the determination of structural and electronic modifications of N-TiO2, achieved by noble metal deposition at the surface, as a starting indicator for potential applications. We focus on the properties of easily synthesized nanocrystalline nitrogen-doped anatase TiO2, modified by depositing small amounts of Pd (0.05 wt%) and Pt (0.10 wt%), aiming to demonstrate efficient enhancement of optical properties. The chemical states of dopants are studied in detail, using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, to address the potential of N-TiO2 to act as a support for metallic nanoparticles. DFT calculations are used to resolve substitutional from interstitial nitrogen doping of anatase TiO2, as well as to study the combined effect of nitrogen doping and oxygen vacancy formation. Based on the binding energies calculated using Slater's transition state theory, dominant contribution to the N 1s binding energy at 399.8 eV is ascribed to interstitially doped nitrogen in anatase TiO2. Given that both structure and photocatalytic properties depend greatly on the synthesis procedure, this work contributes further to establishing correlation between the structure and optical properties of the noble metal modified N-TiO2 system.

  6. Exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles increases Staphylococcusaureusinfection of HeLa cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wei, Ming-Tzo; Walker, Stephen. G.; Wang, Hong Zhan; Gondon, Chris; Brink, Peter; Guterman, Shoshana; Zawacki, Emma; Applebaum, Eliana; Rafailovich, Miriam; Ou-Yang, H. Daniel; Mironava, Tatsiana

    TiO2 is one of the most common nanoparticles in industry from food additives to energy generation. Even though TiO2 is also used as an anti-bacterial agent in combination with UV, we found that, in the absence of UV, exposure of HeLa cells to TiO2 nanoparticles largely increased their risk of bacterial invasion. HeLa cells cultured with low dosage rutile and anatase TiO2 nanoparticles (0.1 mg/ml) for 24 hrs prior to exposure to bacteria had 350% and 250% respectively more bacteria infected per cell. The increase was attributed to increased LDH leakage, and changes in the mechanical response of the cell membrane. On the other hand, macrophages exposed to TiO2 particles ingested 40% fewer bacteria, further increasing the risk of infection. In combination, these two factors raise serious concerns regarding the impact of exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles on the ability of organisms to resist bacterial infection.

  7. Effective photocatalysis of functional nanocomposites based on carbon and TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chan; Song, Yang; Cao, Lixin; Chen, Shaowei

    2013-05-01

    A unique nanocomposite C-TiO2 was prepared by the growth of TiO2 on carbon nanoparticles using a simple hydrothermal procedure. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) measurements showed that the nanocomposites exhibited an average core diameter of approximately 5 nm with a rather well-defined lattice space (0.4 nm) that was somewhat larger than that (0.38 nm) of the (100) crystalline planes of anatase TiO2. This lattice expansion was accounted for by the formation of surface defect dipoles of the nanosized TiO2 particles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) measurements suggested that partial charge transfer occurred from carbon nanoparticles to TiO2 by the interfacial Ti-O-C linkages, which led to effective diminishment of the C-TiO2 photoluminescence as compared to that of pure TiO2 or carbon nanoparticles, suggesting intimate electronic interactions between the carbon and TiO2 components in the nanocomposites. Such unique characteristics were then exploited for the effective photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants, as exemplified by methylene blue, by C-TiO2 under UV photoirradiation. Experimental measurements showed that the photocatalytic activity of C-TiO2 nanocomposites was about twice that of TiO2 alone, whereas little activity was observed with carbon nanoparticles. This was attributed to the electron-accepting sites on the carbon nanoparticles that facilitated interfacial charge separation.A unique nanocomposite C-TiO2 was prepared by the growth of TiO2 on carbon nanoparticles using a simple hydrothermal procedure. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) measurements showed that the nanocomposites exhibited an average core diameter of approximately 5 nm with a rather well-defined lattice space (0.4 nm) that was somewhat larger than that (0.38 nm) of the (100) crystalline planes of anatase TiO2. This lattice expansion was accounted for by the formation of surface defect dipoles of the nanosized TiO2 particles. X-ray photoelectron

  8. Hall effect in cobalt-doped TiO$_{2-\\delta}$

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    We report Hall effect measurements on thin films of cobalt-doped TiO$_{2-\\delta}$. Films with low carrier concentrations (10$^{18}$ - 10$^{19}$) yield a linear behavior in the Hall data while those having higher carrier concentrations (10$^{21}$ - 10$^{22}$) display anomalous behavior near zero field. In the entire range of carrier concentration, n-type conduction is observed. The appearance of the anomalous behavior is accompanied by a possible structural change from rutile TiO$_{2}$ to Ti$_...

  9. Visible light photocatalytic decoloration of methylene blue on novel N-doped TiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan; ZHANG JiWei; JIN ZhenSheng; WU ZhiShen; ZHANG ShunLi

    2007-01-01

    Novel N-doped TiO2 (denoted as N-NTA600) was prepared by treating nanotube titanic acid (NTA) in NH3 flow. Its visible light photocatalytic activity, evaluated by decoloration reaction of methylene blue, is higher than that of N-P25(600) prepared by treatment of P25-TiO2 in the same condition. It is suggested that the origin of visible-light photocatalytic activity is single-electron-trapped oxygen vacancy (Vo·) modified by chemisorbed NO.

  10. Research Update: Doping ZnO and TiO2 for solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Z. Hoye

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ZnO and TiO2 are two of the most commonly used n-type metal oxide semiconductors in new generation solar cells due to their abundance, low-cost, and stability. ZnO and TiO2 can be used as active layers, photoanodes, buffer layers, transparent conducting oxides, hole-blocking layers, and intermediate layers. Doping is essential to tailor the materials properties for each application. The dopants used and their impact in solar cells are reviewed. In addition, the advantages, disadvantages, and commercial potential of the various fabrication methods of these oxides are presented.

  11. Catalytic property of TiO2/PS complex nanoparticles prepared via a novel TSM

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bitao Su; Xiaohong Zhang; Zhanying Ma; Peng Fei; Jiaxing Sun; Ziqiang Lei

    2010-12-01

    With an average size of 7 nm and good catalytic property under the natural light, TiO2/PS complex nanoparticles were successfully prepared through a novel two-step method (TSM) from TiCl4, used as both the catalyst for polymerization of styrene and Ti source, and styrene monomer and characterized by TG-DTA, XRD, IR, TEM and UV-Vis techniques. Its catalytic property was evaluated by the decolourization and degradation of dye MB solution under the natural light. From its TEM, the particles with an average size of 7 nm were observed without the separation of TiO2 and PS phases, i.e., TiO2/PS was hybrid material in nanosize scale. IR spectrum of TiO2/PS showed increase of unsaturated degree and growth of the group C=O on the chain of PS and Ti–O–C coordination bond between TiO2 and PS. The nanosize of the TiO2/PS complex particles and the conjugated structure and polar groups of PS were advantageous to good adsorptive property and strong interaction of PS and TiO2. And they brought multi-functions of inorganic and organic materials in the single material. Catalytic experiments indicated that the complex nanoparticles could catalytically degrade dye MB solution in 10 min under the natural light while P25 basically showed adsorptive property for MB molecules under the same conditions.

  12. Preparation of Fluorine-Doped TiO2 Photocatalysts with Controlled Crystalline Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Todorova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline F-doped TiO2 powders were prepared by sol-gel route. The thermal behavior of the powders was recorded by DTA/TG technique. The crystalline phase of the fluorinated TiO2 powders was determined by X-ray diffraction technique. It was demonstrated that F-doping using CF3COOH favors the formation of rutile along with anatase phase even at low temperature. Moreover, the rutile's phase content increases with the increase of the quantity of the fluorine precursor in the starting solution. The surface area of the powders and the pore size distribution were studied by N2 adsorption-desorption using BET and BJH methods. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS revealed that the fluorine is presented in the TiO2 powders mainly as metal fluoride in quantities ∼16 at %. The F-doped TiO2 showed a red-shift absorption in UV-vis region which was attributed to the increased content of rutile phase in the powders. The powders exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity in decomposition of acetone.

  13. Photocatalytic Activity of W-Doped TiO2 Nanofibers for Methylene Blue Dye Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yo-Seung; Cho, Nam-Ihn; Lee, Myung-Hyun; Kim, Bae-Yeon; Lee, Deuk Yong

    2016-02-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) in water was examined using W-doped TiO2 nanofibers prepared by a sol-gel derived electrospinning and subsequent calcination for 4 h at 550 degrees C. Different concentrations of W dopant in the range of 0 to 8 mol% were synthesized to evaluate the effect of W concentration on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2. XRD results indicated that the undoped TiO2 is composed of anatase and rutile phases. The rutile phase was transformed to anatase phase completely with the W doping. Among W-TiO2 catalysts, the 2 mol% W-TiO2 catalyst showed the highest MB degradation rate. The degradation kinetic constant increased from 1.04 x 10(-3) min(-1) to 3.54 x 10(-3) min(-1) with the increase of W doping from 0 to 2 mol%, but decreased down to 1.77 x 10(-3) min(-1) when the W content was 8 mol%. It can be concluded that the degradation of MB under UV radiation was more efficient with W-TiO2 catalysts than with pure TiO2-

  14. Tunability of morphological properties of Nd-doped TiO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem Bhatti, Arshad; Rehan, Imran; Sultana, Sabiha; Khan, Nauman; Qamar, Zahid; Rehan, Kamran

    2016-11-01

    In this work, an endeavor is made toward structural assessment and morphological variation of titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films when doped with neodymium (Nd). The electron beam deposition technique was employed to fabricate Nd-based TiO2 thin films on n-Type Si substrates. Nd concentration was varied from 0.0 to 2.0 atomic percent (at.%) under identical growth environments. The films were deposited in an oxygen-deficient environment to cause the growth of rutile phases. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy confirmed the presence and variation of Nd dopant in TiO2. X-ray diffraction analysis showed the transformation of amorphous structures of the as-grown samples to anatase polycrystalline after annealing at 500 °C, while atomic force microscopy exposed linearity in grain density in as-grown samples with doping until 1 at.%. Raman spectrums of as-grown and annealed samples revealed the growth of the anatase phase in the annealed samples. Based on these results it can be proposed that Nd doping has pronounced effects on the structural characteristics of TiO2 thin films.

  15. Formation of rod-like nanostructure by aggregation of TiO2 nanoparticles with improved performances

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Weijuan Zhang; Wenkai Chang; Baozhen Cheng; Zenghe Li; Junhui Ji; Yang Zhao; Jun Nie

    2015-10-01

    To improve the performance of titanium dioxide (TiO2)-based devices, many efforts have been made to prepare nanostructures with composite of TiO2 nanoparticles and nanorods. In this work, a novel rod-like TiO2 nanostructure was obtained via a controllable hydrolysis process. Morphology and structure analysis showed that the rod-like nanostructure was a well-aligned aggregate of nearly spherical TiO2 nanoparticles. Rod-like TiO2 nanoparticle aggregates were fabricated on a primary TiO2 nanoparticle-based layer without the use of template, and formed a hierarchical TiO2 composite film together. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 film with rod-like nanoparticle aggregates was evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue. The antibacterial activity of fabricated hierarchical TiO2 film was assessed against Staphylococcus aureus. The photoelectrochemical property of this film as the photoanode in assemble dye-sensitized solar cell was also tested. Compared with randomly distributed nanoparticle-based TiO2 film, the hierarchical TiO2 film exhibited improved performance of photocatalysis, antibacterial activity and photoelectric conversion.

  16. Microbicidal activity of TiO2 nanoparticles synthesised by sol-gel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyanka, Karathan Parakkandi; Sukirtha, Thiruvangium Henry; Balakrishna, Kagalagodu Manjunthiah; Varghese, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the authors investigated antimicrobial activity of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) synthesised by sol-gel method. As synthesised TiO2 NPs were characterised by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy. The antimicrobial activity of calcined TiO2 nanoparticle samples was examined in day light on Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia and Bacillus subtilis), Gram negative bacteria (Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) and fungal test pathogen Candida albicans. The synthesised TiO2 NPs were found to be effective in visible light against Streptococcus pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans.

  17. A novel Fe(OH)3/TiO2 nanoparticles and its high photocatalytic activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A very simple and controllable approach was proposed to synthesize novel Fe(OH)3/TiO2 nanoparticles. Compared with neat TiO2, the Fe(OH)3/TiO2 increased the rate of the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange at pH 6.0 by more than five times,showing photocatalytic activity as excellent as P25. This enhancing effect is mainly attributed to the ferric hydroxide deposits as the electron scavenger and the enriched surface hydroxyl groups.

  18. Development and Application of TiO2 Nanoparticles Coupled with Silver Halide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojia Wan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 is proposed to be effective photocatalyst for wastewater treatment, air purification, and self-cleaning ability, because of its strong oxidation and superhydrophilicity. In order to conquer the limits of TiO2, a variety of methods have been used. This paper presents a critical review of novel research and achievements in the modification of TiO2 nanoparticles with silver halide (AgX, X=Cl, Br, I, which aims at enhancing the visible light absorption and photosensitivity. Herein we study the synthesis, physical and chemical properties, and the mechanism of this composite photocatalyst.

  19. Enhanced Photocatalytic Properties Of Core@shell Sio2@tio2 Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Ullah; Sajjad; Ferreira-Neto; Elias P.; Pasa; Andre A.; Alcantara; Carlos C. J.; Acuna; Jose J. S.; Bilmes; Sara A.; Ricci; Maria L. Martinez; Landers; Richard; Fermino; Taina Zampieri; Rodrigues-Filho; Ubirajara P.

    2016-01-01

    SiO2@TiO2 core@shell nanoparticles (CSNs) have recently attracted great attention due to their unique and tunable optical and photocatalytic properties and higher dispersion of the supported TiO2. Thus, development of facile, reproducible and effective methods for the synthesis of SiO2@TiO2 CSNs and a fundamental understanding of their improved properties, derived from combination of different core and shell materials, is of great importance. Here we report a very facile and reproducible meth...

  20. Synergetic Effect of Ti(3+) and Oxygen Doping on Enhancing Photoelectrochemical and Photocatalytic Properties of TiO2/g-C3N4 Heterojunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Huang, Zhenyu; Zeng, Xiaoqiao; Huang, Baibiao; Gao, Shanmin; Lu, Jun

    2017-04-05

    To improve the utilization of visible light and reduce photogenerated electron/hole recombination, Ti(3+) self-doped TiO2/oxygen-doped graphitic carbon nitride (Ti(3+)-TiO2/O-g-C3N4) heterojunctions were prepared via hydrothermal treatment of a mixture of g-C3N4 and titanium oxohydride sol obtained from the reaction of TiH2 with H2O2. In this way, exfoliated O-g-C3N4 and Ti(3+)-TiO2 nanoparticles were obtained. Simultaneously, strong bonding was formed between Ti(3+)-TiO2 nanoparticles and exfoliated O-g-C3N4 during the hydrothermal process. Charge transfer and recombination processes were characterized by transient photocurrent responses, electrochemical impedance test, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The photocatalytic performances were investigated through rhodamine B degradation test under an irradiation source based on 30 W cold visible-light-emitting diode. The highest visible-light photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activities were observed from the heterojunction with 1:2 mass ratio of Ti(3+)-TiO2 to O-g-C3N4. The photodegradation reaction rate constant based on this heterojuction is 0.0356 min(-1), which is 3.87 and 4.56 times higher than those of pristine Ti(3+)-TiO2 and pure g-C3N4, respectively. The remarkably high photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic performances of the heterojunctions are mainly attributed to the synergetic effect of efficient photogenerated electron-hole separation, decreased electron transfer resistance from interfacial chemical hydroxy residue bonds, and oxidizing groups originating from Ti(3+)-TiO2 and O-g-C3N4.

  1. Analysis of the electron transport properties in dye-sensitized solar cells using highly ordered TiO2 nanotubes and TiO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Mu-Jung; Chang, Ho; Cho, Kun-Ching; Kuo, Chin-Guo; Chien, Shu-Hua; Liang, Shi-Sheng

    2012-04-01

    This study uses TiO2 nanoparticles and highly ordered anatase TiO2 nanotubes (AOTnt) as thin film photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). DSSCs are assembled by single-layer and double-layer films of photoanodes and their electron transfer performance is compared. TiO2 nanoparticles were fabricated by the sol-gel method, and AOTnts were grown on titanium foil. This study uses TiO2 nanoparticles or AOTnts to prepare single-layer photoanodes and TiO2 nanoparticles coated on an AOTnt film to fabricate double-layer photoanodes. These three different photoanodes are soaked in dye and assembled into DSSCs, and their open-loop voltage recession, electrochemical impedance, lifetime, life cycle, and effective diffusion coefficient are measured. Electron transfer efficiency of the photoanodes and light harvesting efficiency are further analyzed. The results show that the electron transfer efficiency, open-loop voltage recession, lifetime, life cycle, and effective diffusion coefficient of the DSSCs assembled using double-layer photoanodes (AOTnt-TiO2) are superior to those of single-layer photoanodes (TiO2 or AOTnt).

  2. In3+-doped TiO2 and TiO2/In2S3 nanocomposite for photocatalytic and stoichiometric degradations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengl, Václav; Opluštil, František; Němec, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    A novel In(3+)-doped TiO(2) and TiO(2)/In(2)S(3) nanocomposites for photocatalytic degradation of environmental pollutants and stoichiometric degradation of warfare agents were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis with urea and thioacetamide, respectively. The prepared samples series TiInTAA were annealed at 600°C. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, IR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, specific surface area (BET) and porosity determination. The method of UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy was employed to estimate band-gap energies. The photocatalytic activity (PCA) was tested by degradation of Orange dye, whereas stoichiometric activity was studied by degradation of sulfur mustard. Incorporation of In(3+) into titania lattice increases PCA of TiO(2) in the visible light and increases stoichiometric decomposition of sulfur mustard against nondoped TiO(2) as well. PCA of TiO(2)/In(2)S(3) composite depends on the optimal ratio of TiO(2):In(2)S(3) in composite, while the activity for stoichiometric decomposition of sulfur mustards depends on the content of In(2)S(3) in nanocomposite.

  3. Fabrication of TiO2 nanoparticles/nanorod composite arrays via a two-step method for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyang Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanoparticles/nanorod composite arrays were prepared on the F-doped tin oxide (FTO substrate through a two-step method of hydrothermal and d.c. magnetron sputtering. The microstructure and optical properties of the samples were characterized respectively by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and UV–vis spectrometer. The results showed that the TiO2 composite nanorod arrays possess the nature of high surface area for more dye molecule absorption and the strong light scattering effects. The dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs based on TiO2 composite nanorod arrays exhibited a 80% improvement in the overall energy conversion efficiency compared with the pure TiO2 nanorod arrays photoanode.

  4. Fabrication of TiO2 nanoparticles/nanorod composite arrays via a two-step method for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingyang Wang; Shaohua Qu; Zhicheng Zhong; Song Wang; Ke Liu; Anzheng Hu

    2014-01-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles/nanorod composite arrays were prepared on the F-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate through a two-step method of hydrothermal and d.c. magnetron sputtering. The microstructure and optical properties of the samples were characterized respectively by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and UV–vis spectrometer. The results showed that the TiO2 composite nanorod arrays possess the nature of high surface area for more dye molecule absorption and the strong light scattering effects. The dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on TiO2 composite nanorod arrays exhibited a 80%improvement in the overall energy conversion efficiency compared with the pure TiO2 nanorod arrays photoanode.

  5. Phosphorus-doped TiO2 catalysts with stable anatase-brookite biphase structure: synthesis and photocatalytic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Huajun; Zhang, Min-Hong; Yu, Liya E

    2013-07-01

    Phosphorus-doped (P-doped) TiO2 catalysts with a stable anatase-brookite biphase structure were successfully synthesized by integrating ultrasonication with phosphorus doping and Pluronic P123 surfactant. The synthesized catalysts were characterized using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform infrared, and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra. Ultrasonication facilitates the appearance of brookite phase. Phosphorus doping was demonstrated an effective strategy to stabilize the anatase-brookite biphase structure and inhibits undesirable grain growth. Triblock copolymer Pluronic P123 used in the reaction facilitates the formation of catalyst particles with mesoporous structure and large surface area and prevents particles from agglomeration. The low band-gap of brookite phase enables the synthesized P-doped TiO2 catalysts outperform commercial P25 TiO2 and N-doped TiO2 in the degradation of methylene blue under both solar light and visible light irradiation.

  6. PHOTODEGRADATION METHYLENE BLUE HYDROGELS USING ALCOHOL WITH POL IVINÍLICO TiO2 NANOPARTICLES

    OpenAIRE

    Carhuapoma, Wilson; Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería, Lima, Perú; Ramos, Ángel; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; López, Álcides; Instituto Peruano de Energía Nuclear, Lima, Perú; Santiago, Julio; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    A composite containing TiO2 nanoparticles immobilized in a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix, which was partially crosslinked by gamma radiation, was prepared. The colloidal suspension of TiO2 introduced in the polymeric matrix was characterized by UV-VIS, transmission electronic microscopy and X ray diffraction (XDR), whereas the composite PVA-TiO2 was characterized by UV-VIS and XRD. The efficiency of this material in photocatalysis has been evaluated against methylene blue. A fast fotodegrada...

  7. Eu(3+) doped down shifting TiO2 layer for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Swami, Sanjay Kumar; Kumar, Anuj; Ntwaeaborwa, O M; Dutta, Viresh; Swart, H C

    2016-12-15

    Europium doped TiO2 (TiO2:Eu(3+)) down-shifting (DS) nanophosphors (NPrs) were synthesized by the solution-combustion method with different concentrations of Eu(3+). The X-ray diffraction results confirmed the formation of a polycrystalline tetragonal structure of the TiO2. The emission of colour of the TiO2:Eu(3+) DS NPr was tuned by varying the doping concentration of Eu(3+). The photoluminescence results confirmed that the TiO2:Eu(3+) DS NPrs converted the UV light into visible light by energy down-conversion process, i.e. down-shifting of high energy UV photons to low energy visible photons. These TiO2:Eu(3+) DS NPrs were used to enhance the efficiency of the Dye sensitized solar cell from 8.32% to 8.80%.

  8. Synthesis of iron(Ⅲ)-doped nanostructure TiO2/SiO2 and their photocatalytic activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Iron(Ⅲ)-doped nanostructure TiO2-coated SiO2 (TiO2/SiO2) particles were prepared using the layer-by-layer assembly technique and their photocatalytic property was studied. TiO2 colloids were synthesized employing the sol-gel method with TiCl4 as a precursor. The samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), SEM, EDS, XPS, and XRD. The experimental results show that TiO2 nanopowders on the surface of SiO2 particles are well distributed, the amount of TiO2 is increased with the adding of coating layers, the pure anatase-TiO2 coating layers are synthesized at 500℃, and the photocatalytic activity of Fe3+-doped TiO/SiO2 is higher than tnat of undoped TiO2/SiO2.

  9. Zirconium doped TiO2 thin films: A promising dielectric layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Mondal, Sandip; Rao, K. S. R. Koteswara

    2016-05-01

    In the present work, we have fabricated the zirconium doped TiO2 thin (ZTO) films from a facile spin - coating method. The addition of Zirconium in TiO2 offers conduction band offset to Si and consequently decreased the leakage current density by approximately two orders as compared to pure TiO2 thin (TO) films. The ZTO thin film shows a high dielectric constant 27 with a very low leakage current density ˜10-8 A/cm2. The oxide capacitate, flat band voltage and change in flat band voltage are 172 pF, -1.19 V and 54 mV. The AFM analysis confirmed the compact and pore free flat surface. The RMS surface roughness is found to be 1.5 Å. The ellipsometry analysis also verified the fact with a high refractive index 2.21.

  10. Niobium doping induced morphological changes and enhanced photocatalytic performance of anatase TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Chung; Lin, Ting-Han; Chih, Jyun-Sian; Hsiao, Kai-Chi; Wu, Po-Yeh

    2017-04-01

    In order to develop high-performance photocatalysts that are easy to produce even in industrial quantities, we developed a facile method of preparing niobium-doped titanium dioxide (Nb:TiO2) by hydrothermal synthesis and followed by thermal annealing treatment. Niobium-ion doping has been considered as an effective way to improve Nb:TiO2 performance for applications in photocatalysis. Niobium-ion doping of anatase TiO2 induced the morphological changes of Nb:TiO2. Morphological analysis shows sub-microscale fibers at doping concentration lower than 1.00 mol % and nanoscale rods at the doping concentration higher than 1.00 mol %. For the catalyzed photodegradation of methyl orange under visible light irradiation, 0.50 mol % Nb:TiO2 shows the highest activity among the synthesized Nb:TiO2 specimens. Also, for photocatalytic hydrogen generation, its photocatalytic activity is even higher than that of commercial TiO2-P25. In this study, we demonstrated the fabrication of a series of superior Nb:TiO2 specimens. It is a reasonable alternative to commercial TiO2 materials for various applications in the decomposition of organic dyes under visible light irradiation.

  11. Preparation and Photocatalytic Activity of Nitrogen-doped Nano TiO2/Tourmaline Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Xin-wei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Using Ti(OC4H94 as precursor, CO(NH22 as nitrogen source, tourmaline as support, the nitrogen-doped nano TiO2/tourmaline composites were synthesized by sol-gel method with ultrasound assisted.The structure and performance of composites were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, UV-Vis DRS, SEM, EDS.The effects of calcining temperature, nitrogen-doped content, tourmaline amount, catalyst system on the photocatalytic activity of nitrogen-doped nano TiO2/tourmaline composites were studied.The results show that the photocatalytic activity of nitrogen-doped nano TiO2/tourmaline composites calcined under 500℃, the nitrogen doped amount of 5% (mole fraction, tourmaline added in an amount of 10% (mass fraction, catalyst dosage of 3g/L, under 500W UV light irradiation conditions, the photocatalytic degradation effect of TNT(10mg/L is the best, and has a good recycling performance.

  12. The Photocatalytic Inactivation Effect of Fe-Doped TiO2 Nanocomposites on Leukemic HL60 Cells-Based Photodynamic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangqiang Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fe-doped TiO2 nanocomposites synthesized by a deposition-precipitation method were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscope (TEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and UV-vis adsorption spectra and then were taken as a new “photosensitizer” for photodynamic therapy (PDT. The photocatalytic inactivation of Fe-doped TiO2 on Leukemic HL60 cells was investigated using PDT reaction chamber based on LED light source, and the viability of HL60 cells was examined by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8 assay. The experimental results showed that the growth of leukemic HL60 cells was significantly inhibited by adding TiO2 nanoparticles, and the inactivation efficiency could be effectively enhanced by the surface modification of TiO2 nanoparticles with Fe doping. Furthermore, the optimized conditions were achieved at 5 wt% Fe/TiO2 at a final concentration of 200 μg/mL, in which up to 82.5% PDT efficiency for the HL60 cells can be obtained under the irradiation of 403 nm light (the power density is 5 mW/cm2 within 60 minutes.

  13. Surface chemistry influences cancer killing effect of TiO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevenot, Paul; Cho, Jai; Wavhal, Dattatray; Timmons, Richard B; Tang, Liping

    2008-09-01

    Photocatalyzed titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles have been shown to eradicate cancer cells. However, the required in situ introduction of ultraviolet light limits the use of such a therapy in humans. In the present study the nonphotocatalytic anticancer effect of surface-functionalized TiO2 was examined. Nanoparticles bearing -OH, -NH(2), or -COOH surface groups were tested for their effect on in vitro survival of several cancer and control cell lines. The cells tested included B16F10 melanoma, Lewis lung carcinoma, JHU prostate cancer cells, and 3T3 fibroblasts. Cell viability was observed to depend on particle concentrations, cell types, and surface chemistry. Specifically, -NH(2) and -OH groups showed significantly higher toxicity than -COOH. Microscopic and spectrophotometric studies revealed nanoparticle-mediated cell membrane disruption leading to cell death. The results suggest that functionalized TiO2, and presumably other nanoparticles, can be surface-engineered for targeted cancer therapy.

  14. PHOTOCATALYTIC ACTIVITY OF TiO2 NANOPARTICLE FLUID PREPARED BY COMBINED ASNSS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ho Chang; Tsing-Tshin Tsung; Hong-Ming Lin; Chung-Kwei Lin

    2004-01-01

    In this article, low-pressure control methods for a combined arc submerged nanoparticle synthesis system (ASNSS) was proposed and developed for TiO2 nanoparticle fabrication. The photocatalytic reaction is carried out in a photochemical reactor. The UV light is obtained from UV-lamps with wavelength of (253.7±0.8) nm. The UV-Vis spectrometry is used to monitor the absorbance spectra of methylene blue as a function of illumination time. Experimental results show that the rate constant of photocatalytic reaction of TiO2 nanoparticles for methylene blue is 0.0365 min-1.The surface adsorption plays an important role in the decomposition of methylene blue. Experimental results indicate that the TiO2 nanoparticle fluid possesses excellent photocatalytic activity in photodegradation of methylene blue.

  15. Visible light induced photodegradation of organic pollutants on nitrogen and fluorine co-doped TiO2 photocatalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng-peng; XU Jun; CAI Wei-min; ZHOU Bao-xue; HE Zheng-guang; CAI Chun-guang; HONG Xiao-ting

    2005-01-01

    The nitrogen and fluorine co-doped TiO2 polycrystalline powder was synthesized by calcinations of the hydrolysis product of tetrabutyl titanate with ammonium fluoride. Nitrogen and fluorine co-doping causes the absorption edge of TiO2 to shift to a lower energy region.The photocatalytic activity of co-doped TiO2 with anatase phases was found to be 2.4 times higher than that of the commercial TiO2photocatalyst Degussa P25 for phenol decomposition under visible light irradiation. The co-doped TiO2 powders only contain anatase phases even at 1000℃. Apparently, ammonium fluoride added retarded phase transformation of the TiO2 powders from anatase to rutile.The substitutional fluorine and interstitial nitrogen atoms in co-doped TiO2 polycrystalline powder were responsible for the vis light response and caused the absorption edge of TiO2 to shift to a lower energy region.

  16. Influences of Stacking Architectures of TiO2 Nanoparticle Layers on Characteristics of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Chih-Hung Tsai; Yu-Tang Tsai; Tsung-Wei Huang; Sui-Ying Hsu; Yan-Fang Chen; Yuan-Hsuan Jhang; Lun Hsieh; Chung-Chih Wu; Yen-Shan Chen

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the influences of stacking architectures of the TiO2 nanoparticle layers on characteristics and performances of DSSCs. TiO2 nanoparticles of different sizes and compositions were characterized for their morphological and optical/scattering properties in thin films. They were used to construct different stacking architectures of the TiO2 nanoparticle layers for use as working electrodes of DSSCs. Characteristics and performances of DSSCs were examined to establish correlation o...

  17. TiO2 Nanoparticles Produced by Electric-Discharge-Nanofluid-Process as Photoelectrode of DSSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sih-li; Su, Hung-ting; Chang, Ho; Jwo, Ching-song; Feng, Hsiao Ju

    2010-04-01

    Self-made TiO2 nanoparticles were used as photoelectrode material of dye sensitized solar cell. The TiO2 thin film coats through spreading nanoparticles evenly onto the ITO glass via self-made spin-heat platform, and then TiO2 thin film is soaked in the dye N-719 more than 12 h to prepare the photoelectrode device. The TiO2 nanoparticles produced by electric-discharge-nanofluid-process have premium anatase crystal property, and its diameter can be controlled within a range of 20-50 nm. The surface energy zeta potential of nanofluid is from -22 mV to -28.8 mV, it is a stable particle suspension in the deionized water. A trace of surfactant Triton X-100 put upon the surface of ITO glass can produce a uniform and dense TiO2 thin film and heating up the spin platform to 200 °C is able to eliminate mixed surfactant. Self-made TiO2 film presents excellent dye absorption performance and even doesn't need heat treatment procedure to enhance essential property. Results of energy analysis show the thicker film structure will increase the short-circuit current density that causes higher conversion efficiency. But, as the film structure is large and thick, both the open-circuit voltage and fill factor will decline gradually to lead bad efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell.

  18. ZnFe2O4-TiO2 nanoparticles within mesoporous MCM-41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Aidong; Deng, Yuehua; Jin, Jiao; Yang, Huaming

    2012-01-01

    A novel nanocomposite ZnFe(2)O(4)-TiO(2)/MCM-41 (ZTM) was synthesized by a sol-gel method and characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), N(2) adsorption-desorption, Raman spectroscopy, and ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometry. The results confirmed the incorporation of ZnFe(2)O(4)-TiO(2) nanoparticles inside the pores of the mesoporous MCM-41 host without destroying its integrity. ZnFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles can inhibit the transformation of anatase into rutile phase of TiO(2). Incorporation of ZnFe(2)O(4)-TiO(2) within MCM-41 avoided the agglomeration of nanoparticles and reduced the band gap energy of TiO(2) to enhance its visible light photocatalytic activity. UV-vis absorption edges of ZTM nanocomposites redshifted with the increase of Zn/Ti molar ratio. The nanocomposite approach could be a potential choice for enhancing the photoactivity of TiO(2), indicating an interesting application in the photodegradation and photoelectric fields.

  19. TiO2 (NanoParticles Extracted from Sugar-Coated Confectionery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Lorenzetti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the debate about TiO2 food additive safety is still open, the present study focuses on the extraction and characterisation of TiO2 (nanoparticles added as a whitening agent to confectionary products, that is, chewing gum pellets. The aim was to (1 determine the colloidal properties of suspensions mutually containing TiO2 and all other chewing gum ingredients in biologically relevant media (preingestion conditions; (2 characterise the TiO2 (nanoparticles extracted from the chewing gum coating (after ingestion; and (3 verify their potential photocatalysis. The particle size distribution, in agreement with the zeta potential results, indicated that a small but significant portion of the particle population retained mean dimensions close to the nanosize range, even in conditions of moderate stability, and in presence of all other ingredients. The dispersibility was enhanced by proteins (i.e., albumin, which acted as surfactants and reduced particle size. The particle extraction methods involved conventional techniques and no harmful chemicals. The presence of TiO2 particles embedded in the sugar-based coating was confirmed, including 17–30% fraction in the nanorange (<100 nm. The decomposition of organics under UV irradiation proved the photocatalytic activity of the extracted (nanoparticles. Surprisingly, photocatalysis occurred even in presence of an amorphous SiO2 layer surrounding the TiO2 particles.

  20. LiF-doped mesoporous TiO2 as the photoanode of highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, Chin Yong; Ouyang, Jianyong

    2013-11-01

    This paper reports the doping of nanocrystalline TiO2 with LiF by mechanical grinding and subsequent sintering and the application of LiF-doped TiO2 as the photoanode of highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The fluoride ions can dope into the TiO2 matrix as revealed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The LiF-doped TiO2 samples are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), tunneling electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. Doping of TiO2 with a small amount of LiF can improve the photovoltaic performance of DSCs. At the optimal LiF loading of 0.53 wt% in TiO2, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of DSCs is enhanced from 7.74% to 8.24% under simulated AM1.5 illumination. The effect of the LiF doping on the photovoltaic performance of DSCs is investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and incident photon conversion efficiency (IPCE) measurements. The improvement in the photovoltaic efficiency is attributed to the facilitation of the electron transport through the TiO2 electrode as a result of the increase in the anatase crystallinity induced by the LiF doping. The enhanced anatase crystallinity also causes a decrease in the charge recombination.

  1. Synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles by propane/air turbulent flame CVD process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongyong Xie; Guilan Gao; Zhen Tian; Naici Bing; Lijun Wang

    2009-01-01

    Synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles by the oxidation of titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) in high-strength propane/air turbulent flame is investigated tentatively for mass production ofTiO2 nanoparticles. Effects of reactor heat flux varying from 247 to 627 kJ/m2 s, initial TiO2 number density from 2×1020> to 1 × 1021 m-3, and apparent residence time of TiO2 nanoparticles in reactor from 0.06 to 0.9 s, on particle morphology, phase composition, UV absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra are studied. The TiO2 nanoparti-cles synthesized, with mean size of 30-80 nm and rutile mass fraction from 0.155 up to 0.575, exhibited a strong PL signal at the wavelength of 370-450 nm, with a wide peak signal at 400-420 nm, reflecting significant oxygen vacancies on the surface of the TiO2 nanoparticles.

  2. MnTe semiconductor-sensitized boron-doped TiO2 and ZnO photoelectrodes for solar cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubtimtae, Auttasit; Arthayakul, Khanittha; Teekwang, Bussayanee; Hongsith, Kritsada; Choopun, Supab

    2013-09-01

    We report a new tailoring MnTe semiconductor-sensitized solar cells (MnTe SSCs) using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique. X-ray diffraction and SAED patterns reveal the orthorhombic MnTe and cubic MnTe2 phases were grown on boron-doped TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles. The diameter of MnTe NPs ranged from 15 to 30nm on both B-doped metal oxide structures. The energy gaps of metal oxide become narrower after boron doping, which have an advantage for enhancing the light absorption from UV to visible region. Also, the energy gap of MnTe NPs on B-doped metal oxide was determined ~1.27-1.30eV. The best power conversion efficiency (η) of 0.033% and 0.030% yielded from B-doped TiO2/MnTe(7) and B-doped ZnO/MnTe(9), respectively. The reduction in power conversion efficiency by 103% and 91% was due to the absence of boron doping into TiO2 and ZnO nanostructures, respectively.

  3. Investigation of in vitro PDT Activities of Zinc Phthalocyanine Immobilised TiO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurt, Fatma; Ince, Mine; Colak, Suleyman Gokhan; Ocakoglu, Kasim; Er, Ozge; Soylu, Hale Melis; Gunduz, Cumhur; Avci, Cıgır Biray; Kurt, Cansu Caliskan

    2017-03-29

    Phthalocyanines (Pcs) are commonly used as Photosensors (PSs) in Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) applications due to their intense absorption in the far red-near IR spectral region with a high extinction coefficient and high ability for generating singlet oxygen. Pcs targetspecifically tumors, and do not show any considerable toxic effects under the absence of light. In particular, their chemical versatility has allowed the introducion a number of substituent at the periferal or axial positions which provide modulating photophysical properties, increases the solubility of these compounds in organic solvents. Nanoparticles increase the bioavailability, stability, and transport of PSs to target tissue. TiO2 nanoparticles are prefered in these applications because of their non toxic, low cost and high chemical stability properties. In our study, a Zinc Phthalocyanine (ZnPc) was used as a photosensor. The design of ZnPc integrated TiO2 nanoparticles is intended to make PSs a more effective PDT agent. With the aim to examine the nuclear imaging/treatment potentials of ZnPc and TiO2-ZnPc in hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29) tumor and human healthy lung (WI38) cell lines in vitro study ZnPc and TiO2-ZnPc were also labeled with (131)I. It is determined that (131)I-TiO2-ZnPc nanoparticle show a potential as an agent for the imaging/treatment of hepatocellular cancer by in vitro. The toxicity studies revealed that TiO2 nanoparticle decreases the toxicity of ZnPc. In vitro PDT results show that TiO2-ZnO has a potential as a PDT agent in colon tumor treatment. Consequently, synthesized ZnO and TiO2-ZnPc could be promising candidates as theranostic agents.

  4. Preparation of N doped TiO2 via microwave-assisted method and its photocatalytic activity for degradation of Malathion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, A N; Dhabbe, R S; Kokate, M R; Gaikwad, Y B; Garadkar, K M

    2014-12-10

    We report herein, nitrogen doped TiO2 nanostructure synthesized by simple microwave assisted method, where ammonia was used as hydrolyzing agent. The synthesized nanomaterials were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) which demonstrated that N-doped TiO2 is in anatase phase with average crystallite size of 10nm. Doping of N into the lattice of TiO2 was supported by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), CHNS analysis, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) showed shifting of absorption edge toward the visible region. Thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA) points out N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles are thermally stable. In order to achieve maximum degradation efficiency, the effect of catalyst loading, pH and light sources (UV and sunlight) were studied. A maximum 97% degradation efficiency was achieved under optimized conditions. A 80% reduction in the chemical oxygen demand (COD) was observed after 150min that indicated mineralization of Malathion. The cytotoxicological studies indicate that photocatalytically degraded products were less toxic as compared to Malathion.

  5. Carbon/nitrogen-doped TiO2: New synthesis route, characterization and application for phenol degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboubakr M. Abdullah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Porous nanocrystalline carbon and nitrogen (CN-doped TiO2 photocatalyst was prepared using carbon tetrachloride and polyaniline as precursors. The obtained powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, and gravimetric analysis. The purpose of this work was to explore the state and location of nitrogen and carbon atoms introduced inside the TiO2 lattice and to study the exploitation of the photocatalytic activity of the CN-doped TiO2 for application in phenol degradation under UV illumination. After 30 min from the illumination onset, 64% and 57% of the phenol were degraded when the CN-doped TiO2 and TiO2 catalysts were used respectively.

  6. Science Letters:Development of supported boron-doping TiO2 catalysts by chemical vapor deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this study, supported nonmetal (boron) doping TiO2 coating photocatalysts were prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) to enhance the activity under visible light irradiation and avoid the recovering of TiO2. Boron atoms were successfully doped into the lattice of TiO2 through CVD, as evidenced from XPS analysis. B-doped TiO2 coating catalysts showed drastic and strong absorption in the visible light range with a red shift in the band gap transition. This novel B-TiO2 coating photocatalyst showed higher photocatalytic activity in methyl orange degradation under visible light irradiation than that of the pure TiO2 photocatalyst.

  7. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of sulfate modified Nd-doped TiO2 under visible light irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙东峰; 王凯; 徐志坚; 李锐星

    2015-01-01

    Nd-doped TiO2 (NT) photocatalysts with different contents of Nd were synthesized by sol-gel method. Then sulfated Nd-doped TiO2 (SNT) solid superacid photocatalysts were prepared by an incipient wetness impregnation technique. The photocata-lytic activity of catalysts was evaluated by the photodegradation of methylene blue under visible light irradiation. Analytical results demonstrated that Nd doping inhibited the growth of TiO2 crystallite and enhanced the thermal stability of anatase TiO2. Meanwhile, sulfate ions modification increased the specific surface area of samples. In addition, the optical absorption edges of SNT photocata-lysts shifted to longer wavelength compared with the undoped TiO2. Such SNT with Nd dosage of 0.25 at.%exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity in the degradation of methylene blue upon irradiation with visible light.

  8. Effect of doping level of colored TiO2 nanotube arrays fabricated by electrochemical self-doping on electrochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Choonsoo; Kim, Seonghwan; Hong, Sung Pil; Lee, Jaehan; Yoon, Jeyong

    2016-06-07

    Recently, two types of TiO2 nanotube arrays (NTAs) (blue- and black-colored TiO2 NTAs), which are easily fabricated by electrochemical self-doping, have gained much attention due particularly to their enhanced capacitive and oxidant-generating properties. These enhanced electrochemical properties mean that they have potential as basic materials for energy and environmental applications, such as in supercapacitors and anodes for water treatment. However, the understanding of the effect of the doping level of these TiO2 NTAs on their electrochemical properties is limited because there is no direct comparison or relevant discussion of their respective electrochemical properties under the same conditions, despite the similar surface characteristics of the TiO2 NTAs obtained by comparable electrochemical doping. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the doping level of blue and black TiO2 NTAs on their electrochemical properties, including the capacitive and oxidant-generating properties. Although no significant difference in their surface properties was found using SEM, XRD and XPS, the black TiO2 NTA revealed a slightly higher doping level than the blue TiO2 NTA, which is caused by the order of the electrochemical self-doping and annealing conditions. With the different doping levels of the two TiO2 NTAs, the black TiO2 NTA showed a higher areal capacitance, indicating good capacitive properties, and better service life in oxidant-generation than that of the blue TiO2 NTA. The blue TiO2 NTA exhibited a larger oxygen evolution overpotential and higher chlorine evolution efficiency than that of the black TiO2 NTA. We report that the new knowledge on blue and black TiO2 NTAs from this study can contribute to the further development of supercapacitors and oxidant-generating anodes for water treatment.

  9. Photovoltaic performances of Cu2-xTe sensitizer based on undoped and indium(3+)-doped TiO2 photoelectrodes and assembled counter electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srathongluan, Pornpimol; Kuhamaneechot, Rattanakorn; Sukthao, Prapatsawan; Vailikhit, Veeramol; Choopun, Supab; Tubtimtae, Auttasit

    2016-02-01

    Novel binary Cu2-xTe nanoparticles based on undoped and indium-doped TiO2 photoelectrodes were synthesized using a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique as a sensitizer for liquid-junction solar cells. A larger diameter of TiO2 promoted a narrower energy band gap after indium doping, attributing to yield a broader absorption range of nanoparticle sensitizer due to the increasing amount of Cu2-xTe NPs on TiO2 surface. The atomic percentages showed the stoichiometric formation of Cu2Te incorporated in a Cu2-xTe structure. The best photovoltaic performance with the lower SILAR cycle, i.e., n=13 was performed after indium doping in both of carbon and Cu2S CEs and revealed that the efficiency of 0.73% under the radiant 100mW/cm(2) (AM 1.5G). The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to investigate the electrical properties via effect of material doping and counter electrodes with a lower charge-transfer resistance (Rct) and it was also found that the electron lifetime was improved after the sample doped with indium and assembled with carbon CE.

  10. Synthesis of rare earth doped TiO2 nanorods as photocatalysts for lignin degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Liang; Zhao, Xueyuan; Cao, Lixin; Moon, Ji-Won; Gu, Baohua; Wang, Wei

    2015-10-28

    A two-step process is developed to synthesize rare earth doped titania nanorods (RE-TiO2 NRs) as photocatalysts for efficient degradation of lignin under simulated sunlight irradiation. In this approach, protonated titanate nanotubes with layered structures were first prepared by a hydrothermal approach, and rare earth metal ions were subsequently bound to the negatively charged surface of the synthesized titanate via electrostatic incorporation. The as-synthesized RE-TiO2 NRs after calcination generally showed much higher photocatalytic efficiencies than those of undoped TiO2 NRs or the commercial P25 TiO2 photocatalyst. Using methyl orange (MO) as a probing molecule, we demonstrate that Eu-TiO2 NRs are among the best for degrading MO, with an observed rate constant of 4.2 × 10(-3) s(-1). The La(3+), Sm(3+), Eu(3+) and Er(3+) doped TiO2 NRs also showed higher photocatalytic efficiencies in degrading MO than the commercial P25 TiO2. We further demonstrate that lignin can be photodegraded effectively and rapidly at room temperature under simulated sunlight through two reaction routes, which could be important in controlling ways of lignin depolymerization or the formation of reaction products.

  11. Preparation of Zn-doped TiO2 nanotubes electrode and its application in pentachlorophenol photoelectrocatalytic degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO HuiMin; CHEN Yue; QUAN Xie; RUAN XiuLi

    2007-01-01

    Zn-doped titanium oxide (TiO2) nanotubes electrode was prepared on a titanium plate by direct anodic oxidation and immersing method in sequence. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) showed that the Zn-doped TiO2 nanotubes were well aligned and organized into high density uniform arrays with diameter ranging from 50 to 90 nm. The length and the thickness were about 200 and 15 nm respectively. TiO2 anatase phase was identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD). X-ray photoelectronspectroscopy (XPS) indicated that Zn ions were mainly located on the surface of TiO2 nanotubes in form of ZnO clusters. Compared with TiO2 nanotubes electrode, about 20 nm red shift in the spectrum of UV-vis absorption was observed. The degradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in aqueous solution under the same condition (initial concentration of PCP: 20 mg/L; concentration of Na2SO4:0.01 mol/L and pH:7.03) was carried out using Zn-doped TiO2 nanotubes electrode and TiO2 nanotubes electrode. The degradation rates of PCP using Zn-doped TiO2 nanotubes electrode were found to be twice and 5.8times as high as that using TiO2 nanotubes electrode by UV radiation (400 μw/cm2) and visible light radiation (4500 μw/cm2), respectively. 73.5% of PCP was removed using Zn-doped TiO2 nanotubes electrode against 48.5% removed using TiO2 nanotubes electrode in 120 min under UV radiation. While under visible light radiation, the degradation efficiency of PCP was 18.4% using Zn-doped TiO2 nanotubes electrode against 3.2% using TiO2 nanotubes electrode in 120 min. The optimum concentration of Zn doping was found to be 0.909%. The PCP degradation efficiencies of the 10 repeated experiments by Zn-doped TiO2 nanotubes electrode were rather stable with the deviation within 3.0%.

  12. Ag-Doped TiO2 Nanotube Arrays Composite Film as a Photoanode for Enhancing the Photoelectric Conversion Efficiency in DSSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghua Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A Ag-doped double-layer composite film with TiO2 nanoparticles (P25 as the underlayer and TiO2 nanotube (TNT arrays with the Ag-doped nanoparticles as the overlayer was fabricated as the photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Five different concentrations of Ag-doped TNT arrays photoelectrode were compared with the pure TNT arrays composite photoelectrode. It is found that the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the TNT arrays composite photoanode is gradually improved from 3.00% of the pure TNT arrays composite photoanode to 6.12% of the Ag-doped TNT arrays photoanode with the increasing of the doping concentration, reaching up to the maximum in the 0.04 mol/L AgNO3 solution, and then slightly decreased to 5.43% after continuing to increase the doping concentration. The reason is mainly that the cluster structure of the Ag nanoparticles with large surface area contributes to dye adsorption and the Surface Plasmon Resonance Effect of the Ag nanoparticles improved the photocatalytic ability of the TNT arrays film.

  13. Low doses of TiO2-polyethylene glycol nanoparticles stimulate proliferation of hepatocyte cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qingqing; Kanehira, Koki; Taniguchi, Akiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of low concentrations of 100 nm polyethylene glycol-modified TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2-PEG NPs) on HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Proliferation of HepG2 cells increased significantly when the cells were exposed to low doses (TiO2-PEG NPs. These results were further confirmed by cell counting experiments and cell cycle assays. Cellular uptake assays were performed to determine why HepG2 cells proliferate with low-dose exposure to TiO2-PEG NPs. The results showed that exposure to lower doses of NPs led to less cellular uptake, which in turn decreased cytotoxicity. We therefore hypothesized that TiO2-PEG NPs could affect the activity of hepatocyte growth factor receptors (HGFRs), which bind to hepatocyte growth factor and stimulate cell proliferation. The localization of HGFRs on the surface of the cell membrane was detected via immunofluorescence staining and confocal microscopy. The results showed that HGFRs aggregate after exposure to TiO2-PEG NPs. In conclusion, our results indicate that TiO2-PEG NPs have the potential to promote proliferation of HepG2 cells through HGFR aggregation and suggest that NPs not only exhibit cytotoxicity but also affect cellular responses.

  14. Mechanism of TiO2 nanoparticle-induced neurotoxicity in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Lei; Wang, Ling; Su, Mingyu; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Hu, Renping; Yu, Xiaohong; Hong, Jie; Liu, Dong; Xu, Bingqing; Zhu, Yunting; Wang, Han; Hong, Fashui

    2016-02-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been used historically for evaluating the toxicity of environmental and aqueous toxicants, and there is an emerging literature reporting toxic effects of manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) in zebrafish embryos. Few researches, however, are focused on the neurotoxicity on adult zebrafish after subchronic exposure to TiO2 NPs. This study was designed to evaluate the morphological changes, alterations of neurochemical contents, and expressions of memory behavior-related genes in zebrafish brains caused by exposures to 5, 10, 20, and 40 μg/L TiO2 NPs for 45 consecutive days. Our data indicated that spatial recognition memory and levels of norepinephrine, dopamine, and 5-hydroxytryptamine were significantly decreased and NO levels were markedly elevated, and over proliferation of glial cells, neuron apoptosis, and TiO2 NP aggregation were observed after low dose exposures of TiO2 NPs. Furthermore, the low dose exposures of TiO2 NPs significantly activated expressions of C-fos, C-jun, and BDNF genes, and suppressed expressions of p38, NGF, CREB, NR1, NR2ab, and GluR2 genes. These findings imply that low dose exposures of TiO2 NPs may result in the brain damages in zebrafish, provide a developmental basis for evaluating the neurotoxicity of subchronic exposure, and raise the caution of aquatic application of TiO2 NPs.

  15. TiO2 nanoparticle biosynthesis and its physiological effect on mung bean (Vigna radiata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Raliya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanoparticle (NPs biosynthesis is a low cost, ecofriendly approach developed using the fungi Aspergillus flavus TFR 7. To determine whether TiO2 NPs is suitable for nutrient, we conducted a two part study; biosynthesis of TiO2 NP and evaluates their influence on mung bean. The characterized TiO2 NPs were foliar sprayed at 10 mgL−1 concentration on the leaves of 14 days old mung bean plants. A significant improvement was observed in shoot length (17.02%, root length (49.6%, root area (43%, root nodule (67.5%, chlorophyll content (46.4% and total soluble leaf protein (94% as a result of TiO2 NPs application. In the rhizosphere microbial population increased by 21.4–48.1% and activity of acid phosphatase (67.3%, alkaline phosphatase (72%, phytase (64% and dehydrogenase (108.7% enzyme was observed over control in six weeks old plants owing to application of TiO2 NPs. A possible mechanism has also been hypothesized for TiO2 NPs biosynthesis.

  16. Reactive wetting properties of TiO2 nanoparticles predicted by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Erik G.; Agosta, Lorenzo; Lyubartsev, Alexander P.

    2016-07-01

    Small-sized wet TiO2 nanoparticles have been investigated by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Chemical and physical adsorption of water on the TiO2-water interface was studied as a function of water content, ranging from dry nanoparticles to wet nanoparticles with monolayer coverage of water. The surface reactivity was shown to be a concave function of water content and driven by surface defects. The local coordination number at the defect was identified as the key factor to decide whether water adsorption proceeds through dissociation or physisorption on the surface. A consistent picture of TiO2 nanoparticle wetting at the microscopic level emerges, which corroborates existing experimental data and gives further insight into the molecular mechanisms behind nanoparticle wetting. These calculations will facilitate the engineering of metal oxide nanoparticles with a controlled catalytic water activity.Small-sized wet TiO2 nanoparticles have been investigated by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Chemical and physical adsorption of water on the TiO2-water interface was studied as a function of water content, ranging from dry nanoparticles to wet nanoparticles with monolayer coverage of water. The surface reactivity was shown to be a concave function of water content and driven by surface defects. The local coordination number at the defect was identified as the key factor to decide whether water adsorption proceeds through dissociation or physisorption on the surface. A consistent picture of TiO2 nanoparticle wetting at the microscopic level emerges, which corroborates existing experimental data and gives further insight into the molecular mechanisms behind nanoparticle wetting. These calculations will facilitate the engineering of metal oxide nanoparticles with a controlled catalytic water activity. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Simulation data on equilibration of energies and structures (root-mean-square-deviations and

  17. Assessment of Environmental Performance of TiO2 Nanoparticles Coated Self-Cleaning Float Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Pini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, superhydrophilic and photocatalytic self-cleaning nanocoatings have been widely used in the easy-to-clean surfaces field. In the building sector, self-cleaning glass was one of the first nanocoating applications. These products are based on the photocatalytic property of a thin layer of titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles deposited on the surface of any kind of common glass. When exposed to UV radiation, TiO2 nanoparticles react with the oxygen and water molecules adsorbed on their surface to produce radicals leading to oxidative species. These species are able to reduce or even eliminate airborne pollutants and organic substances deposited on the material’s surface. To date, TiO2 nanoparticles’ benefits have been substantiated; however, their ecological and human health risks are still under analysis. The present work studies the ecodesign of the industrial scale-up of TiO2 nanoparticles self-cleaning coated float glass production performed by the life cycle assessment (LCA methodology and applies new human toxicity indicators to the impact assessment stage. Production, particularly the TiO2 nanoparticle application, is the life cycle phase most contributing to the total damage. According to the ecodesign approach, the production choices carried out have exacerbated environmental burdens.

  18. Nitrogen-Doped TiO2 Nanotube Arrays with Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipu Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available N-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays were prepared by electrochemical anodization in glycerol electrolyte, followed by electrochemical deposition in NH4Cl solution. An orthogonal experiment was used to optimize the doping conditions. Electrolyte concentration, reaction voltage, and reaction time were the main factors to influence the N-doping effect which was the determinant of the visible range photoresponse. The optimal N-doping conditions were determined as follows: reaction voltage is 3 V, reaction time is 2 h, and electrolyte concentration is 0.5 M. The maximal photocurrent enhanced ratio was 30% under white-light irradiation. About 58% improvement of photocatalytic efficiency was achieved in the Rhodamine B degradation experiment by N doping. The kinetic constant of the N-doped TNT arrays sample was almost twice higher than that of the undoped sample. Further analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy supported that electrochemical deposition is a simple and efficient method for N doping into TiO2 nanotube arrays.

  19. Controlled synthesis of hierarchical TiO2 nanoparticles on glass fibres and their photocatalytic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Yang, Sudong; Mäder, Edith; Ma, Peng-Cheng

    2014-09-07

    This paper reports the synthesis of novel photocatalysts consisting of TiO2 nanoparticles and glass fibres (GF) using a two-step process. The method involves the hydrolysis of titanium tetrachloride in the presence of GF and a following hydrothermal process under alkaline conditions. Various techniques are employed to characterize the morphology, structure and crystallinity of TiO2 on the fibre surface. The results show that depending on the experiment setups, TiO2 nanoparticles exhibit spherical or flake-like morphology, forming characteristic hierarchical structures along with flexible GF. Flake-like TiO2/GF exhibits much enhanced photocatalytic activity thanks to the large surface area and the hetero-junction of anatase and TiO2-B phases observed in its structure. An interesting observation is that the alkali treatment of GF leads to the formation of porous structures on the fibre surface, facilitating the adsorption-concentration-promoted photocatalytic process. The removal ratio of the organic dye by employing TiO2/GF remains more than 80% after six cyclic runs, showing the reusability of photocatalysts in real application. The novelty of this work lies in the synergy arising from materials with unique morphologies, structures and availabilities as well as capabilities in separating photogenerated electron-hole pairs, which have not been specifically considered previously in photocatalytic semiconductors.

  20. Effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on the hydrogen sorption characteristics of magnesium hydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sunita K; Bhatnagar, Ashish; Shahi, Rohit R; Hudson, M Sterlin Leo; Singh, Milind K; Srivastava, O N

    2013-08-01

    The present paper explores the enhancement in hydrogen sorption behavior of MgH2 with TiO2 nanoparticles. The catalytic effect of TiO2 nanoparticles with different sizes (7, 25, 50, 100 and 250 nm) were used for improving the sorption characteristics of MgH2. The MgH2 catalyzed with 50 nm of TiO2 exhibited the optimum catalytic effect for hydrogen sorption behavior. The desorption temperature of MgH2 catalyzed through 50 nm TiO2 was found to be 310 degrees C. This is 80 degrees C lower as compared to MgH2 having a desorption temperature of 390 degrees C. It was noticed that the dehydrogenated MgH2 catalyzed with 50 nm TiO2 reabsorbed 5.1 wt% of H2 within 6 minutes at temperature and pressure of 250 degrees C and 50 atm, respectively. The 50 nm TiO2 catalyst lowered the absorption activation energy of MgH2 from - 92 to - 52.7 kJ mol(-1).

  1. Enhancement of Perovskite Solar Cells Efficiency using N-Doped TiO2 Nanorod Arrays as Electron Transfer Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-Long; Li, Jun-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Li; Qin, Jian-Qiang; Shi, Wen-Jia; Liu, Yue-Feng; Gao, Hui-Ping; Mao, Yan-Li

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, N-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2) nanorod arrays were synthesized with hydrothermal method, and perovskite solar cells were fabricated using them as electron transfer layer. The solar cell performance was optimized by changing the N doping contents. The power conversion efficiency of solar cells based on N-TiO2 with the N doping content of 1% (N/Ti, atomic ratio) has been achieved 11.1%, which was 14.7% higher than that of solar cells based on un-doped TiO2. To get an insight into the improvement, some investigations were performed. The structure was examined with X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and Tauc plot spectra indicated the incorporation of N in TiO2 nanorods. Absorption spectra showed higher absorption of visible light for N-TiO2 than un-doped TiO2. The N doping reduced the energy band gap from 3.03 to 2.74 eV. The photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) spectra displayed the faster electron transfer from perovskite layer to N-TiO2 than to un-doped TiO2. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed the smaller resistance of device based on N-TiO2 than that on un-doped TiO2.

  2. Enhancement of Perovskite Solar Cells Efficiency using N-Doped TiO2 Nanorod Arrays as Electron Transfer Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-Long; Li, Jun-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Li; Qin, Jian-Qiang; Shi, Wen-Jia; Liu, Yue-Feng; Gao, Hui-Ping; Mao, Yan-Li

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, N-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2) nanorod arrays were synthesized with hydrothermal method, and perovskite solar cells were fabricated using them as electron transfer layer. The solar cell performance was optimized by changing the N doping contents. The power conversion efficiency of solar cells based on N-TiO2 with the N doping content of 1% (N/Ti, atomic ratio) has been achieved 11.1%, which was 14.7% higher than that of solar cells based on un-doped TiO2. To get an insight into the improvement, some investigations were performed. The structure was examined with X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and Tauc plot spectra indicated the incorporation of N in TiO2 nanorods. Absorption spectra showed higher absorption of visible light for N-TiO2 than un-doped TiO2. The N doping reduced the energy band gap from 3.03 to 2.74 eV. The photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) spectra displayed the faster electron transfer from perovskite layer to N-TiO2 than to un-doped TiO2. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed the smaller resistance of device based on N-TiO2 than that on un-doped TiO2.

  3. Stability of TiO2 Nanoparticles in Deionized Water with ZrP Nanoplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuowei; Chen, Ying; Mo, Songping; Cheng, Zhengdong; Li, Huawel

    2015-04-01

    The stability of nanofluid is an important property that needs to be researched. In our study, a novel method using Zirconium phosphate (ZrP) discotic colloid to disperse nanoparticles was proposed for improving stability. TiO2 nanofluid was prepared by dispersing TiO2 nanoparticles into exfoliated a-ZrP suspensions at different concentrations. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the shape, average size, and components of primary ZrP nanoplatelets. The absorbance of the suspensions was measured by a UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The results show that the stability first increased, and then decreased with increasing ZrP concentration at 1 wt.% TiO2. The effect was optimal at 2 wt.% ZrP. Thus, the hindrance of nanoplatelets in the aggregation and sedimentation of nanoparticles is the main reason for improving the stability of nanofluids.

  4. Comparison of photovoltaic performance of TiO2 nanoparticles based thin films via different routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yajun

    2015-11-01

    Well crystallized TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal and sol-gel routes, respectively. The morphologies, structures, crystallinity and optical properties of resulted TiO2 nanoparticles-based thin films via the two methods were examined by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and reflectance spectra. In addition, comparison of photovoltaic performance of TiO2 nanoparticles-based thin films by the two methods was performed. It is found that the maximum energy conversion efficiency of 4.06% was achieved based on the obtained electrode via hydrothermal, which is much better than that of the sol-gels route. The uniform film structure with improved dye absorption capability, increased diffused reflectance property and relatively low charge recombination rates for injected electrons are believed to be responsible to the superior photoelectrochemical properties of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) via hydrothermal route.

  5. Enhanced retention of bacteria by TiO2 nanoparticles in saturated porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Guillermina J.; Fidalgo de Cortalezzi, María M.

    2016-08-01

    The simultaneous transport of TiO2 nanoparticles and bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa in saturated porous media was investigated. Nanoparticle and bacterium size and surface charge were measured as a function of electrolyte concentration. Sand column breakthrough curves were obtained for single and combined suspensions, at four different ionic strengths. DLVO and classical filtration theories were employed to model the interactions between particles and between particles and sand grains. Attachment of TiO2 to the sand was explained by electrostatic forces and these nanoparticles acted as bonds between the bacteria and the sand, leading to retention. Presence of TiO2 significantly increased the retention of bacteria in the sand bed, but microorganisms were released when nanomaterial influx ceased. The inclusion of nanomaterials in saturated porous media may have implications for the design and operation of sand filters in water treatment.

  6. High photocatalytic activity of mixed anatase-rutile phases on commercial TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruu Siah, Wai; Lintang, Hendrik O.; Shamsuddin, Mustaffa; Yuliati, Leny

    2016-02-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is well-known as an active photocatalyst for degradation of various organic pollutants. Over the years, a wide range of TiO2 nanoparticles with different phase compositions, crystallinities, and surface areas have been developed. Due to the different methods and conditions used to synthesize these commercial TiO2 nanoparticles, the properties and photocatalytic performance would also be different from each other. In this study, the photocatalytic removal of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5- trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) was investigated on commercial Evonik P25, Evonik P90, Hombikat UV100 and Hombikat N100 TiO2 nanoparticles. Upon photocatalytic tests, it was found that overall, the photocatalytic activities of the P25 and the P90 were higher than the N100 and the UV100 for the removal of both 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T. The high activities of the P25 and the P90 could be attributed to their phase compositions, which are made up of a mixture of anatase and rutile phases of TiO2. Whereas, the UV100 and the N100 are made up of 100% anatase phase of TiO2. The synergistic effect of the anatase/rutile mixture was reported to slow down the recombination rate of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Consequently, the photocatalytic activity was increased on these TiO2 nanoparticles.

  7. TiO2 and ZnO Nanoparticles in Photocatalytic and Hygienic Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Jašková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial paints were based on the aqueous acrylic dispersion and various nanoparticles of zinc oxide and titanium dioxide. Antimicrobial ability and photoactivity were assumed in these paints. It was possible to observe the photoactivity thanks to change of organic dyes due to oxidative-reductive reaction. The best photocatalytic effect showed the coating containing the mixture of the first type of TiO2 and nano-ZnO despite the fact that the first type of TiO2 was not better in the photocatalytic test than the other types of TiO2. The agar dilution method was used to test antimicrobial ability. The Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus were chosen as test bacteria and Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus niger as test molds. The antimicrobial effect of coatings with the mixture of the first type of TiO2 and nano-ZnO was the best of all the tested samples.

  8. Photocatalysts of Cr Doped TiO2 Film Prepared by Micro Arc Oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wan; Jian-feng Li; Jia-you Feng; Wei Sun; Zong-qiang Mao

    2008-01-01

    A series of Cr doped TiO2 films were prepared by micro arc oxidation (MAO) using an electrolyte of Na3PO4+K2Cr2O7. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the films mainly consisted of anatase phase with a porous surface morphology. The films have an excellent photocatalytic effect for degradation of methylene blue and decomposition of water under visible light illumination. This arises from the formation of Cr3+/Cr4+ and oxygen vacancy energy levels owing to Cr doping. The former reduces the electron-hole recombination chance, while the latter generates a new gap between the conduction band (CB) and valence band (VB) of TiO2, which lowers the photo energy of the excited electron in the VB to the oxygen vacancy states. The mechanisms for film synthesis during the MAO process are also presented.

  9. Antibacterial activity of single crystalline silver-doped anatase TiO2 nanowire arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangyu; Li, Meng; He, Xiaojing; Hang, Ruiqiang; Huang, Xiaobo; Wang, Yueyue; Yao, Xiaohong; Tang, Bin

    2016-05-01

    Well-ordered, one-dimensional silver-doped anatase TiO2 nanowire (AgNW) arrays have been prepared through a hydrothermal growth process on the sputtering-deposited AgTi layers. Electron microscope analyses reveal that the as-synthesized AgNW arrays exhibit a single crystalline phase with highly uniform morphologies, diameters ranging from 85 to 95 nm, and lengths of about 11 μm. Silver is found to be doped into TiO2 nanowire evenly and mainly exists in the zerovalent state. The AgNW arrays show excellent efficient antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli), and all of the bacteria can be killed within 1 h. Additionally, the AgNW arrays can still kill E. coli after immersion for 60 days, suggesting the long-term antibacterial property. The technique reported here is environmental friendly for formation of silver-containing nanostructure without using any toxic organic solvents.

  10. Theoretical prediction of p-type transparent conductivity in Zn-doped TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaoping; Shao, Guosheng

    2013-06-28

    It is very difficult and yet extremely important to fill the wide technological gap in developing transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) that exhibit excellent p-type conducting characteristics. Here, on the basis of extensive first-principles calculations, we discover for the first time potentially promising p-type transparent conductivity in Zn-doped TiO2 under oxygen rich conditions. Efforts have been made to elaborate the effects of possible defects and their interaction with Zn doping on the p-type transparent conductivity. This work offers a fundamental road map for cost-effective development of p-type TCOs based on TiO2, which is a cheap and stable material system of large natural resources.

  11. Chromium doped TiO2 sputtered thin films synthesis, physical investigations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hajjaji, Anouar; Gaidi, Mounir; Bessais, Brahim; El Khakani, My Ali

    2014-01-01

    This book presents co-sputtered processes ways to produce chrome doped TiO2 thin films onto various substrates such as quartz, silicon and porous silicon. Emphasis is given on the link between the experimental preparation and physical characterization in terms of Cr content. Moreover, the structural, optical and optoelectronic investigations are emphasized throughout. The book explores the potencial applications of devices based on Cr doped TiO2 thin films as gas sensors and in photocatalysis and in the photovoltaic industry. Also, this book provides extensive leads into research literature, and each chapter contains details which aim to develop awareness of the subject and the methods used. The content presented here will be useful for graduate students as well as researchers in materials science, physics, chemistry and engineering.

  12. Ti(3+) Self-Doped Blue TiO2(B) Single-Crystalline Nanorods for Efficient Solar-Driven Photocatalytic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Xing, Zipeng; Liu, Xuefeng; Li, Zhenzi; Wu, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Jiaojiao; Li, Meng; Zhu, Qi; Zhou, Wei

    2016-10-12

    Ti(3+) self-doped blue TiO2(B) single-crystalline nanorods (b-TR) are fabricated via a simple sol-gelation method, cooperated with hydro-thermal treatment and subsequent in situ treatment method, and afterward annealed at 350 °C in Ar. The structures are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The prepared b-TR with narrow band gap possesses single-crystalline TiO2(B) phase, Ti(3+) self-doping, and one-dimensional (1D) rodlike nanostructure. In addition, the improved photocatalytic performance is studied by decomposition of Rhodamine B (RhB) and hydrogen evolution. The degradation rate of RhB by Ti(3+) self-doped blue TiO2(B) single-crystalline nanorods is ∼6.9- and 2.1-times higher compared with the rates of titanium dioxide nanoparticles and pristine TiO2(B) nanorods under visible light illumination, respectively. The hydrogen evolution rate of b-TR is 26.6 times higher compared with that of titanium dioxide nanoparticles under AM 1.5 irradiation. The enhanced photocatalytic performances arise from the synergetic action of the special TiO2(B) phase, Ti(3+) self-doping, and the 1D rod-shaped single-crystalline nanostructure, favoring the visible light utilization and the separation and transportation of photogenerated charge carriers.

  13. Evolution of microstructural defects of TiO2 nanocrystals by Zr4+ or/and Ge4+ doping lead to high disinfection efficiency for CWAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhong; Zhong, Jin-Yi; Chai, Na-Na; He, Xin; Zang, Jian-Zheng; Xu, Hui; Han, Xiao-Yuan; Zhang, Peng

    2017-06-01

    Zr4+, Ge4+ doped and co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by a 'one-pot' homogeneous precipitation method. The photocatalytic reaction kinetics of DMMP and the disinfection efficiency of HD, GD and VX on the samples were investigated. By means of a variety of characterization methods, especially the positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy, the changes in structure and property of TiO2 across doping were studied. The results show that the reasonable engineering design of novel photocatalysts in the field of CWAs decontamination can be realized by adjusting the bulk-to-surface defects ratio, except for crystal structure, specific surface area, pore size distribution and light utilization.

  14. Improved performance of dye-sensitized solar cells using TiO2 nanotubes infiltrated by TiO2 nanoparticles using a dipping-rinsing-hydrolysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lu-Yin; Chen, Chia-Yuan; Yeh, Min-Hsin; Tsai, Keng-Wei; Lee, Chuan-Pei; Vittal, R.; Wu, Chun-Guey; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2013-12-01

    An efficient back-illuminated dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is made with a flexible Ti-foil based photoanode composed of a composite TiO2 film with TiO2 nanotubes (TNT) and TiO2 nanoparticles (TNP). The composite TiO2 film is fabricated through a novel dipping-rinsing-hydrolysis (DRH) process by inserting TiO2 into TNT and sintering the product to form TNP inside TNT. By directly placing TiO2 nanoparticles into TNT, the former grow internally from the base of TNT to occupy it completely. This solves previous problems of incomplete filling of TNP into TNT, which used partial penetration of TiCl4 reactant from the top of the TNT. In the present case, the TNP are grown from the base of TNT. A DSSC containing TNT and TNP prepared in this way shows a photoelectric efficiency of 6.45%, which is much higher than that (4.21%) of a DSSC with untreated TNT. The films are characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The improvement in the photoelectric efficiency is explained by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) analysis, and UV-absorption spectra analysis.

  15. Dual Band Electrochromic Devices Based on Nb-Doped TiO2 Nanocrystalline Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barawi, Mariam; De Trizio, Luca; Giannuzzi, Roberto; Veramonti, Giulia; Manna, Liberato; Manca, Michele

    2017-04-25

    The reliable exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance in transparent conductive oxides is being pursued to push the developement of an emerging class of advanced dynamic windows, which offer the opportunity to selectively and dynamically control the intensity of the incoming thermal radiation without affecting visible transparency. In this view, Nb-doped TiO2 colloidal nanocrystals are particularly promising, as they have a wide band gap and their plasmonic features can be finely tailored across the near-infrared region by varying the concentration of dopants. Four batches of Nb-doped TiO2 nanocrystals with different doping levels (from 0% to 15% of niobium content) have been used here to prepare highly transparent mesoporous electrodes for near-infrared selective electrochromic devices, capable of dynamically modulating the intensity of the transmitted radiation upon the application of a relatively small bias voltage. An engineered dual band electrochromic device (made of 10%-Nb-doped TiO2 nanocrystals) has been eventually fabricated. It was shown to provide two complementary spectroelectrochemical responses, which can be independently controlled through the intensity of the applied potential: a large variation of the optical transmittance in the near-infrared region (by the intensification of the localized surface plasmon scattering) was achievable in the 0-3 V voltage window, reaching values greater than 64% in the spectral range from 800 to 2000 nm, whereas the visible absorption could also be intensively varied at higher potentials (from 3 to 4 V), driven by Li intercalation into the TiO2 anatase lattice.

  16. AC conductivity and dielectric properties of Co-doped TiO 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okutan, Mustafa; Basaran, Engin; Bakan, Halil I.; Yakuphanoglu, Fahrettin

    2005-07-01

    The alternating current (AC) conductivity and dielectric properties of the Co-doped TiO 2 were investigated. The temperature dependence of AC conductivity and the parameter s, is reasonably well interpreted by the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model. The activation energy ( E), and the density of states at Fermi level, N( EF) were determined. The dielectric constant decreases with frequency at low frequencies and increases at high frequencies.

  17. BIOSYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATION OF TIO2 NANOPARTICLES IN BIOCATALYSIS AND PROTEIN FOLDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razi Ahmad,

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The nano-TiO2 was synthesized using Lactobacillus sp. and characterized by XRD and TEM. The X-ray diffraction showed that TiO2 nanoparticles were crystalline in nature. TEM images revealed that these particles are irregular in shape with an average particle size of 50–100 nm. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were used for the immobilization and refolding of thermally inactivated alpha amylase enzyme. The enzyme after adsorption on TiO2 nanoparticles retained 71% of enzyme activity. The immobilized enzyme was found to be thermally more stable as compared to the free enzyme. When the enzyme was heated to 60°C for 60 min the free enzyme loses all of its activity whereas the adsorbed enzyme retained 82% of its activity.The adsorbed/immobilized protein could be reused five times without any loss in enzyme activity. The operational stability data also shows that after immobilization the stability of alpha amylase increases. To study the nanoparticles-protein interaction, alpha amylase enzyme was inactivated by heating at 60°C for 1 hour. The thermally inactivated alpha amylase when incubated with the biosynthesized TiO2 nanoparticles regains nearly 65% activity after 2.0 hour. Thus TiO2 nanoparticles assist in refolding of the enzyme.

  18. Microwave-assisted self-doping of TiO2 photonic crystals for efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhonghai

    2014-01-08

    In this article, we report that the combination of microwave heating and ethylene glycol, a mild reducing agent, can induce Ti3+ self-doping in TiO2. A hierarchical TiO2 nanotube array with the top layer serving as TiO2 photonic crystals (TiO2 NTPCs) was selected as the base photoelectrode. The self-doped TiO2 NTPCs demonstrated a 10-fold increase in visible-light photocurrent density compared to the nondoped one, and the optimized saturation photocurrent density under simulated AM 1.5G illumination was identified to be 2.5 mA cm-2 at 1.23 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode, which is comparable to the highest values ever reported for TiO2-based photoelectrodes. The significant enhancement of photoelectrochemical performance can be ascribed to the rational coupling of morphological and electronic features of the self-doped TiO 2 NTPCs: (1) the periodically morphological structure of the photonic crystal layer traps broadband visible light, (2) the electronic interband state induced from self-doping of Ti3+ can be excited in the visible-light region, and (3) the captured light by the photonic crystal layer is absorbed by the self-doped interbands. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  19. Effects of boron doping in TiO2 nanotubes and the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Alagesan; Wang, Hong-Wen

    2012-06-01

    Titanium nanotubes doped with boron used as the photoelectrode for dye-sensitized solar cells were investigated. The materials were characterized by SEM, XRD, and UV-vis spectroscopy and their photoconversion efficiencies were evaluated. The chemical compositions of TiO2 nanotubes (TNA) and boron doped TNA (B-TNA) were identified by the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). XRD evidenced the presence of anatase as the main phase and presented the existence of boron elements at interstitial sites between the TiO2 lattices. The UV-vis spectra indicated the narrowing of band gap upon doping boron into titanium nanotubes. The photovoltaic properties were measured by a current-voltage meter under AM1.5 simulated light radiation. The boron-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays showed an enhanced performance with a photocurrent density of 7.85 ± 0.20 mA/cm2 and an overall conversion efficiency (η) of 3.44 ± 0.10%. The enhanced performance was attributed to the enhanced electron injection rate and retardation of the charge recombination, which could be due to perfect matching between the LUMO of dye molecules and the conduction band of TiO2. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurement indicated the longer electron lifetime and reduced TiO2/dye/electrolyte interface resistance for boron doped TiO2 nanotubes than that of undoped TiO2 nanotubes.

  20. Compressibility of porous TiO2 nanoparticle coating on paperboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepien, Milena; Saarinen, Jarkko J.; Teisala, Hannu; Tuominen, Mikko; Haapanen, Janne; Mäkelä, Jyrki M.; Kuusipalo, Jurkka; Toivakka, Martti

    2013-10-01

    Compressibility of liquid flame spray-deposited porous TiO2 nanoparticle coating was studied on paperboard samples using a traditional calendering technique in which the paperboard is compressed between a metal and polymer roll. Surface superhydrophobicity is lost due to a smoothening effect when the number of successive calendering cycles is increased. Field emission scanning electron microscope surface and cross‒sectional images support the atomic force microscope roughness analysis that shows a significant compressibility of the deposited TiO2 nanoparticle coating with decrease in the surface roughness and nanoscale porosity under external pressure.

  1. Effect of Nanoparticle Surface Modification and Filling Concentration on Space Charge Characteristics in TiO2/XLPE Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Youyuan Wang; Kun Xiao; Can Wang; Lijun Yang; Feipeng Wang

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the space charge characteristics in TiO2/cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) nanocomposites; the unmodified and modified by dimethyloctylsilane (MDOS) TiO2 nanoparticles were added to XLPE matrix with different mass concentrations (1 wt%, 3 wt%, and 5 wt%). The scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that the MDOS coupling agent could improve the compatibility between TiO2 nanoparticles and XLPE matrix to some extent and reduce the agglomeration of TiO2 nanoparticles comp...

  2. Photocatalytic and superhydrophilicity properties of N-doped TiO 2 nanothin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekini, M.; Mohammadizadeh, M. R.; Vaez Allaei, S. M.

    2011-06-01

    Pure TiO 2 and nitrogen doped titanium dioxide (N-TiO 2) thin films were prepared by sol-gel method through spin coating on soda lime glass substrates. TiCl 4 and urea were used as Ti and N sources in the sol. XRD results showed nitrogen doping has retarded anatase to rutile phase transformation. The doping also leads to a decrease in roughness of the samples from 4 nm (TiO 2) to 1 nm (N-TiO 2). However, surface analysis by statistical methods reveals that both surfaces have self-affine structure. Optical band gap of thin films was shifted from 3.65 eV (TiO 2) to 3.47 eV (N-TiO 2). Hydrophilic conversion and photocatalytic degradation properties of thin films were investigated and exhibited that N-TiO 2 thin film has more preferable hydrophilicity and photocatalytic properties under UV illumination.

  3. Disinfection of water using Pt- and Ag-doped TiO2 photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Rominder P S; Thornton, Hilary M; Muruganandham, M

    2012-01-01

    In this article we have reported heterogeneous photocatalytic disinfection using pristine and Ag- and Pt-doped nano TiO2 under near-UV light and solar light irradiation. Disinfection experiments were conducted in slurry reactors with Escherichia coli, artificial light and sunlight. The influence of various amounts of Pt and Ag loading (0.5% to 5%) on the E. coli inactivation was examined and results indicated that 5% Pt-TiO2 and 0.5% Ag-TiO2 showed the highest photocatalytic E. coli inactivation. The Pt- and Ag-doped photocatalysts were characterized using XPS and TEM analysis. The influence of experimental parameters such as various photocatalysts, photocatalyst concentration, reactor geometry effect, pH and temperature on the photocatalytic disinfection was studied. The experimental results show that sunlight or near-UV light with TiO2 photocatalyst strongly inactivates E. coli. The Ag-TiO2 photocatalyst was the most efficient photocatalyst tested for bactericidal activity. A plausible mechanism ofphotocatalysed E. coli inactivation is discussed. In conclusion, the doped nano TiO2 photocatalysts is a potential candidate for E. coli inactivation.

  4. The Effects of Cu-doped TiO2 Thin Films on Hyperplasia, Inflammation and Bacteria Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhua Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, different concentrations of Cu ion (1, 2, 5 and 10 wt % were doped in the TiO2 film by a sol-gel method and dip coating process. The morphology of the Cu-doped TiO2 films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and the results showed that the doped Cu made no change to the TiO2 films. The nitric oxide (NO release experiment showed that these Cu-doped surfaces showed the ability of catalytic decomposition of exogenous donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP to generate (NO. Based on fluorescence analysis and CCK-8 quantitative results, such films had the ability to inhibit smooth muscle cells adhesion, proliferation and migration with SNAP in vitro. The macrophage adhesion assay and anti-bacterial test proved that such Cu-doped TiO2 films also possessed anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial abilities. All the abilities above showed positive correlation with the amounts of the doped Cu. This study suggested that the Cu-doped TiO2 films were capable of generating physiological levels of NO in the presence of endogenous donor S-nitrosothiols (RSNO, endowing the TiO2 films with anti-hyperplasia, anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial abilities.

  5. Synthesis and photocatalytic property of N-doped TiO 2 nanorods and nanotubes with high nitrogen content

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Z.; He, H. Y.

    2011-11-01

    Nano N-doped TiO2 nanotubes were fabricated by hydrothermally treating N-doped TiO2 nanorods in a 8 M NaOH solution at 110 °C for 20 h. The N-doped TiO2 nanorods were synthesized by a solvothermal process with precursor solution containing titanium sulfate, urea, and dichloroethane. The N-doped TiO2 nanorods and nanotubes were characterized with X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and UV-vis spectrophotometry. The nitrogen contents of the N-doped TiO2 nanorods and nanotubes were reached to high values of 36.9 at.% and 25.7 at.%, respectively. The nitrogen doping narrowed the band gap of the N-doped TiO2 nanorods and nanotubes and introduced indirect band gap to the powders, which respectively extended the absorption edge to visible light and infrared region. The nanotubes showed larger specific surface area and greater degradation efficiency to methyl orange than the nanorods.

  6. Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity of N-Doped TiO2 Nanotube Arrays on Acephate Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinlei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly ordered nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (N-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays were prepared by anodic oxidation method and then annealed in a N2 atmosphere to obtain N-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays. The samples were characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS, and UV-visible spectrophotometry (UV-vis spectrum. Degradation of the insecticide acephate under the visible light was used as a model to examine the visible-light photocatalytic activity of N-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays. The results show that N type doping has no notable effects on the morphology and structure of TiO2 nanotube arrays. After N type doping, the N replaces a small amount of O in TiO2, forming an N–Ti–O structure. This shifts the optical absorption edge and enhances absorption of the visible light. N-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays subjected to annealing at 500°C in N2 atmosphere show the strongest photocatalytic activity and reach a degradation rate of 84% within 2 h.

  7. Improved performance of dye sensitized solar cells using Cu-doped TiO2 as photoanode materials: Band edge movement study by spectroelectrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Wei, Liguo; Yang, Yulin; Xia, Xue; Wang, Ping; Yu, Jia; Luan, Tianzhu

    2016-08-01

    Cu-doped TiO2 nanoparticles are prepared and used as semiconductor materials of photoanode to improve the performance of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). UV-Vis spectroscopy and variable temperature spectroelectrochemistry study are used to characterize the influence of copper dopant with different concentrations on the band gap energies of TiO2 nanoparticles. The prepared Cu-doped TiO2 semiconductor has avoided the formation of CuO during hydrothermal process and lowered the conduction band position of TiO2, which contribute to increase the short circuit current density of DSSCs. At the optimum Cu concentration of 1.0 at.%, the short circuit current density increased from 12.54 to 14.98 mA cm-2, full sun solar power conversion efficiencies increased from 5.58% up to 6.71% as compared to the blank DSSC. This showed that the presence of copper in DSSCs leads to improvements of up to 20% in the conversion efficiency of DSSCs.

  8. Mesoporous nitrogen-doped TiO2 sphere applied for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Peng; Li, Xiong; Wang, Heng; Liu, Guanghui; Shu, Ting; Zhou, Ziming; Ku, Zhiliang; Rong, Yaoguang; Xu, Mi; Liu, Linfeng; Hu, Min; Yang, Ying; Chen, Wei; Liu, Tongfa; Zhang, Meili; Han, Hongwei

    2011-11-24

    A mesoscopic nitrogen-doped TiO2 sphere has been developed for a quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell [DSSC]. Compared with the undoped TiO2 sphere, the quasi-solid-state DSSC based on the nitrogen-doped TiO2 sphere shows more excellent photovoltaic performance. The photoelectrochemistry of electrodes based on nitrogen-doped and undoped TiO2 spheres was characterized with Mott-Schottky analysis, intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, which indicated that both the quasi-Fermi level and the charge transport of the photoelectrode were improved after being doped with nitrogen. As a result, a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 6.01% was obtained for the quasi-solid-state DSSC.

  9. Enhanced electron lifetime on nitrogen-doped TiO2 films for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Tae Kwan; Cheon, Jong Hun; Bae, Jae Young; Ahn, Kwang-Soon; Kim, Jae Hong

    2012-04-01

    Nitrogen-doped TiO2 crystallites were prepared via the hydrolysis of TiCl4 using an ammonia medium in an aqueous solution for DSSC photoelectrodes. The optimized photoelectrode for the DSSC was prepared with 9.4 nm sized N-doped TiO2 crystal (BET; 200 m2/g), which provides a relatively high short circuit current and energy conversion efficiency in the DSSC. The photovoltaic performance of the N-doped TiO2 electrode was confirmed using incident photon-to-current efficient spectra, impedance analyses, and Bode-phase plots which proved that the N-doped TiO2 electrode has a significantly enhanced electron lifetime compared with that of the P25 electrode.

  10. Effect of embedded plasmonic Au nanoparticles on photocatalysis of electrospun TiO2 nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Asha Anish; Kumar, Gopika Gopa; Kalluri, Sujith; Joseph, John; Nagarajan, Sivakumar; Nair, Shantikumar; Subramanian, Kavasseri R V; Balakrishnan, Avinash

    2012-10-01

    The present study demonstrates an original approach by which Au nanoparticles (approximately 10 nm) are embedded into TiO2 fibers via electrospinning. The photocatalytic performance of the resultant fibrous material was studied and related to the architecture and the nature of the internal interfaces in the composite. It was found that embedment of nano Au particles into the TiO2 fiber significantly improved the photocatalytic performance as compared to non-embedded ones. Electrospun fibers with the Au nanoparticles (approximately 10 nm) showed an average fiber diameter of approximately 380 nm. The photocatalytic studies of Au embedded TiO2 fibers using ultra-violet (UV) visible spectroscopy showed approximately 35% increase in photocatalytic activity when compared to the TiO2 fibers without the Au nanoparticles after 7 hrs of UV irradiation. This increase in photocatalysis was attributed to the ability of Au to increase charge separation in TiO2 and also to the ability of Au to transfer plasmonic energy to the dye.

  11. TiO2光催化剂掺杂改性研究进展%Research Evolution of Doping Modification on TiO2 Photocatalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁飞; 孟凡明

    2011-01-01

    TiO2因其特有的物理化学性质,在环境污染治理方面有着广泛的应用前景.本文简要概述了TiO2的光催化反应机理,重点讨论了TiO2光催化掺杂改性技术,主要包括金属离子掺杂、贵金属沉积、半导体复合等方法.针对这三种方法分析了改性机理,列举了国内外研究现状,提出了TiO2掺杂改性的重要性.同时,对TiO2光催化技术目前存在的问题和未来研究方向做了简要的总结和预测.%TiO2 has a great potential application prospect in environmental pollution management, due to its unique physical and chemical properties. In this paper, the photocatalytic mechanism of TiO2 is reviewed. The doped modification technology of TiO2 photocatalysis are dicussed, including metal irons doping, deposition of noble metals, semiconductor coupling and so on. In addition, the modificative mechanism of three mothods are analyzed, the domestic and foreign research evolution are cited, which indicate that the doped modification of TiO2 photocatalyst is very important. At the same time, the existing problems and prospects of TiO2 photocatalysis technology are addressed.

  12. Improved conversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cell using Zn doped TiO2-ZrO2 nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Laxmi J.; Bhatt, Piyush J.; Desai, Rahul K.; Chakrabarty, B. S.; Panchal, C. J.

    2016-05-01

    TiO2-ZrO2 and Zn doped TiO2-ZrO2 nanocomposites were prepared by hydrothermal method for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) application. The structural and optical properties were investigated by X -ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Visible spectroscopy respectively. XRD results revealed the formation of material in nano size. The average crystallite size is 22.32 nm, 17.41 nm and 6.31 nm for TiO2, TiO2-ZrO2 and Zn doped TiO2-ZrO2 nanocomposites respectively. The optical bandgap varies from 2.04 eV to 3.75 eV. Dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated using the prepared material. Pomegranate juice was used as a sensitizer and graphite coated conducting glass plate was used as counter electrode. The I - V characteristics were recorded to measure photo response of DSSC. Photovoltaic parameter like open circuit voltage, power conversion efficiency, and fill factor were evaluated for fabricated solar cell. The power conversion efficiency of DSSC fabricated with TiO2, TiO2-ZrO2 and Zn doped TiO2-ZrO2 nanocomposites were found 0.71%, 1.97% and 4.58% respectively.

  13. Synthesis, Characterization, and Investigation of Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity of C Doped TiO2/CdS Core-Shell Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul B. Lavand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon (C doped TiO2/CdS core-shell nanocomposite (C/TiO2/CdS was synthesized using microemulsion method. Synthesized powder was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and UV-visible spectrophotometery. TEM images reveal that C/TiO2/CdS core-shell heterostructure is successfully prepared with CdS as a core and C doped TiO2 as a shell. UV-visible absorption spectra show that CdS nanoparticles act as a sensitizer and effectively enhance the photoabsorption capacity of C/TiO2/CdS nanocomposite in visible region. Visible light photocatalytic activity of synthesized nanocomposite was evaluated for the degradation of methylene blue. C/TiO2/CdS core-shell nanocomposite exhibits better photocatalytic activity as compared to bare TiO2, CdS, CdS/TiO2, and C doped TiO2.

  14. Solid-state NMR and EPR analysis of carbon-doped titanium dioxide photocatalysts (TiO(2-)(x)C(x)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Garcia, Enrique A; Sun, Yanping; Reyes-Gil, Karla R; Raftery, Daniel

    2009-04-01

    Carbon-doped TiO(2) have received attention recently because of their potential for environmental photocatalysis and solar hydrogen conversion applications. Three different carbon-doped TiO(2) nanoparticle materials were synthesized via sol-gel and hydrothermal procedures, and analyzed by (13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) and other methods to characterize the environment of the doping species. UV/vis spectra and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that the synthesized materials absorbed visible light and their crystal structures corresponded to anatase. (13)C SSNMR analyses of TiO(2-)(x)C(x) displayed signals corresponding to carbonate-type or sp(2)-type carbon species. Variable contact CP-MAS and dipolar dephasing analyses gave evidence for the presence and proximity of H atoms near these carbonate species. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy showed that the thermally oxidized TiO(2-)(x)C(x) displayed a complex mixture of point defects, electron and hole trapping centers, all attributable to the incorporation of carbon, while the XPS data ruled out the presence of carbide species.

  15. Antimicrobial Activities of TiO2 Nanoparticle Against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Barzegary

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Organic antibacterial materials have been used as insecticides and bactericides for many years. Unfortunately, high temperatures in manufacturing process reduce their antibacterial properties. However, inorganic materials of antibacterial agents have excellent bacterial resistance and thermal stability. Over the past few decades, inorganic nanoparticles whose structures exhibit significantly novel and improved physical, chemical and biological properties and functionality due to their nano-scale size have elicited much interest. methods:The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial properties of one kind of nano-specimen (TiO2 nanoparticle against Escherichia coli and Streptococcus aureus. Our study was research perusal. In the first study, the optical density of E. coli and S. aureus cultures were observed in the presence of 0.01%, 0.75% and 1.5% of TiO2. In the second study, 6.3 log CFU/ml of E. coli and S. areus were separately exposed to 1.5% TiO2 at 37 ºC in water. In third study, we studied thew growth of E.coli in solid medium with and without nanoparticles. Results: The presence of 0.01% TiO2 nanoparticles didn’t have a statistically significant effect, but in the presence of 0.75% and 1.5% nanoparticles, the bacterial colonies decreased significantly. In the control group, bacterial cells survival was nearly 13 days, while complete cell death of E. coli was seen when 1.5% TiO2 was applied for 24 hours. The same experiment for S. aureu, showed that complete cell death occured when the bacterial culture was exposed to 1.5% TiO2 for 16 hours.. It was shown that presence of 1.5% TiO2 in the solid medium suppressed the growth of E. coli 5.6 times more (p < 0.001. Discussion: Our findings showed antibacterial effects of TiO2 nanoparticles against both bacteria, but S. areus bacteria were more sensitive to nanoparticles as compared to E. coli bacteria

  16. Heterogeneous photocatalytic decomposition of benzene on lanthanum-doped TiO2 film at ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shicheng; Zheng, Zhijian; Wang, Jinhe; Chen, Jianmin

    2006-12-01

    Lanthanum-doped anatase TiO2 thin films on glass prepared via a sol-gel process have been shown to have much higher photocatalytic activity for the degradation of gaseous benzene than pure anatase TiO2 thin film. The photodecomposition of benzene on both types of TiO2 films follows the first-order kinetics while the CO(2) and CO formation followed the zero-order kinetics. GC/MS identification of the intermediates produced during the photodegradation of benzene revealed that doping lanthanum into TiO2 thin film favors a cleavage of benzene ring. An optimal lanthanum amount with respect to photocatalytic activity was about 2.5 wt% (La2O3/TiO2).

  17. Phosphorus Cation Doping: A New Strategy for Boosting Photoelectrochemical Performance on TiO2 Nanotube Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenzhen; Xin, Yanmei; Wu, Wenlong; Fu, Baihe; Zhang, Zhonghai

    2016-11-16

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is a promising technique for sustainable hydrogen generation. However, PEC performance on current semiconductors needs further improvement. Herein, a phosphorus cation doping strategy is proposed to fundamentally boost PEC performance on TiO2 nanotube photonic crystal (TiO2 NTPC) photoelectrodes in both the visible-light region and full solar-light illumination. The self-supported P-TiO2 NTPC photoelectrodes are fabricated by a facile two-step electrochemical anodization method and subsequent phosphidation treatment. The Ti(4+) is partially replaced by P cations (P(5+)) from the crystal lattice, which narrows the band gap of TiO2 and induces charge imbalance by the formation of Ti-O-P bonds. We believe the combination of unique photonic nanostructures of TiO2 NTPCs and P cation doping strategy will open up a new opportunity for enhancing PEC performance of TiO2-based photoelectrodes.

  18. Electrospun nanofibers of Bi-doped TiO2 with high photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Wang, Wenzhong; Shang, Meng; Gao, Erping; Zhang, Zhijie; Ren, Jia

    2011-11-30

    Bi-doped TiO(2) nanofibers with different Bi content were firstly prepared by an electrospinning method. The as-prepared nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), photoluminescence spectra (PL), and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The results indicated that Bi(3+) ions were successfully incorporated into TiO(2) and extended the absorption of TiO(2) into visible light region. The photocatalytic experiments showed that Bi-doped TiO(2) nanofibers exhibited higher activities than sole TiO(2) in the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) and phenol under visible light irradiation (λ>420 nm), and 3% Bi:TiO(2) samples showed the highest photocatalytic activities.

  19. Synthesis, Characterization and Properties of CeO2-doped TiO2 Composite Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oman ZUAS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pure TiO2 and CeO2-doped TiO2 (3 % CeO2-97 %TiO2 composite nanocrystals were synthesized via co-precipitation method and characterized using TGA, XRD, FTIR, DR-UV-vis and TEM. The XRD data revealed that the phase structure of the synthesized samples was mainly in pure anatase having crystallite size in the range of 7 nm – 11 nm. Spherical shapes with moderate aggregation of the crystal particles were observed under the TEM observation. The presence of the CeO2 at TiO2 site has not only affected morphologically but also induced the electronic property of the TiO2 by lowering the band gap energy from 3.29 eV (Eg-Ti to 3.15 eV (Eg-CeTi. Performance evaluation of the synthesized samples showed that both samples have a strong adsorption capacity toward Congo red (CR dye in aqueous solution at room temperature experiment, where  the capacity of the CeTi was higher than the Ti sample. Based on DR-UV data, the synthesized samples obtained in this study may also become promising catalysts for photo-assisted removal of synthetic dye in aqueous solution. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.4.2732

  20. Nanostructured TiO2 Doped with Nb as a Novel Support for PEMFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Valenzuela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, one of the major issues of the PEMFC concerns the durability. Historically, carbon has been used as a catalyst support in PEMFC; nevertheless, under the environmental conditions of the cell, the carbon is oxidized, leaving the catalyst unsupported. In order to increase the stability and durability of the catalyst in the PEMFC, a novel nanostructured metallic oxide support is proposed. In this work, TiO2 was doped with Nb to obtain a material that combines chemical stability, high surface area, and an adequate electronic conductivity in order to be a successful catalyst support candidate for long-term PEMFC applications. The TiO2-Nb nanostructured catalyst support was physically and electrochemically characterized. According to the results, the TiO2-Nb offers high surface area and good particle dispersion; also, the electrochemical activity and stability of the support were evaluated under high potential conditions, where the TiO2-Nb proved to be much more stable than carbon.

  1. Origin of leakage paths driven by electric fields in Al-doped TiO2 films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gyeong-Su; Park, Seong Yong; Heo, Sung; Kwon, Ohseong; Cho, Kyuho; Han, Kwan-Young; Kang, Sung Jin; Yoon, Aram; Kim, Miyoung

    2014-12-23

    The growth of leakage current paths in Al-doped TiO2 (ATO) films is observed by in situ TEM under negative bias stress. Through systematic HAADF-STEM, STEM-EDS, and STEM-EELS studies, it is confirmed that the electric field-induced growth of the Ru-doped TiO2 phase is the main reason for the ATO film's negative leakage.

  2. INFLUENCE OF THE ALIGNMENT OF TiO2 NANOPARTICLES ON OPTICAL AND STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF POLY(PHENYLENEVINYLENE) FILMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.Ju; J.Zhang; B.Y.Wang; B.J.Wang

    2002-01-01

    A series of poly(phenylenevinylene) (PPV)/titanium oxide (TiO2) nanocompositeswith different contents of TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared from mixtures of PPVprecursor and titanium butoxide ethanol solution in a sol-gel process. TEM imagesshowed the formation of the connected network of TiO2 nanoparticles with a highercontent of TiO2, which resulted in the titanium butoxide hydrolyzed to form Ti organiccompound. Meanwhile, the conjugation of PPV polymer chains can be interrupted bythe TiO2 network structure. The PL spectra revealed that the emitted light of thePPV/TiO2 nanocomposites blue shifted without fine structure and the PL intensityenhanced when the TiO2 network formed. In the lifetime spectroscopy of positronannihilation, the structural properties of the PPV dominated the character of thenanocomposites, in which the formation of the o-Ps was presented in free volume pfpolymer, when the content of TiO2 was below 10%. Further increasing the contentof TiO2 nanoparticle introduced much more vacancies, vacancy clusters and grainboundaries at their interfaces, which led to the corresponding lifetime and intensityclose to that of the nano-TiO2 bulk materials. With the TiO2 content of 50%, theholes formed by aggregating vacancy clusters and increased the component of longlifetime. These phenomena suggested that the optical and structural properties of thePPV/TiO2 nanocomposites are dependent on the interfacial structure between PPVand TiO2 nanoparticles.

  3. Identification of TiO2 clusters present during synthesis of sol-gel derived TiO2 nano-particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Morten Enggrob; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    can be varied in order to obtain TiO2 particles with specific properties (Tailored materials). The TiO2 particles are formed by hydrolysis and condensation of titanium alkoxides. The properties of the final TiO2 particles are strongly affected by the kinetics of these reactions.1 Experimental...... nano-particles is lacking but is highly important for full control of the synthesis and production of nano-particles. In this study titanium dioxide clusters present during nucleation and growth of sol-gel derived TiO2 nanoparticles was investigated by help of electro spray mass spectrometry (ESI......-MS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Depending on the involved precursor TiO2 clusters of different sizes were identified (TTIP ~ 11-12 Ti atoms, TTB ~ 10-11 Ti atoms, and TTE ~ 5-7 Ti atoms).4 The Ti-O-Ti backbone/core of the titanium clusters were found to be quite stable after formation and do not easily...

  4. Photoassisted and photocatalytic degradation of sulfur mustard using TiO2 nanoparticles and polyoxometalates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Mohammad Taghi; Sarabadani, Mansour; Ashrafi, Davood; Saeidian, Hamdollah; Babri, Mehran

    2013-02-01

    The decomposition of highly toxic chemical warfare agent, sulfur mustard (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide or HD), has been studied by homogeneous photolysis and heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation on titania nanoparticles. Direct photolysis degradation of HD with irradiation system was investigated. The photocatalytic degradation of HD was investigated in the presence of TiO(2) nanoparticles and polyoxometalates embedded in titania nanoparticles in liquid phase at room temperature (33 ± 2 °C). Degradation products during the treatment were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Whereas apparent first-order kinetics of ultraviolet (UV) photolysis were slow (0.0091 min(-1)), the highest degradation rate is obtained in the presence of TiO(2) nanoparticles as nanophotocatalyst. Simultaneous photolysis and photocatalysis under the full UV radiation leads to HD complete destruction in 3 h. No degradation products observed in the presence of nanophotocatalyst without irradiation in 3 h. It was found that up to 90 % of agent was decomposed under of UV irradiation without TiO(2), in 6 h. The decontamination mechanisms are often quite complex and multiple mechanisms can be operable such as hydrolysis, oxidation, and elimination. By simultaneously carrying out photolysis and photocatalysis in hexane, we have succeeded in achieving faster HD decontamination after 90 min with low catalyst loading. TiO(2) nanoparticles proved to be a superior photocatalyst under UV irradiation for HD decontamination.

  5. Investigation of thermal stability of TiO2 nanoparticles using 1-thioglycerol as capping agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Yogita; Jangir, Lokesh Kumar; Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Manoj; Awasthi, Kamlendra

    2017-09-01

    Thermal stability for TiO2 nanoparticles with and without caping agent has been systematically investigated in present study. TiO2 nanoparticles have been synthesized by sol-gel route without and with capping agent 1-thioglycerol. X-ray diffraction pattern revealed the formation of TiO2 nanoparticles and confirmed transformation from anatase to rutile by thermal annealing with temperature range from 500 °C to 800 °C for both the cases. It was observed that nanoparticles synthesized with 1-thioglycerol were more stable and phase transformation begins at higher temperature than that of without 1-thioglycerol. The particle size was found to be reduced by using the capping agent as it prevents the agglomeration and increased with increasing the annealing temperature. However, the morphology of the nanoparticles remains unaffected as observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Raman spectroscopy also supports the phase transformation with thermal annealing for both the cases. The binding of 1-thioglycerol with TiO2 was evidenced by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  6. Photocatalytic properties of silver nanoparticles decorated nanobranched TiO2 nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chuan; Nirmala, R; Barakat, Nasser A M; Navamathavan, R; Kim, Hak-Yong

    2011-08-01

    In this study, nanobranched TiO2 nanofibers and silver loaded nanobranched TiO2 nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning technique followed by TiCl4 aqueous solution treatment and silver photodeposition method. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to investigate the morphology of the products. X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were conducted on the samples to study their chemical composition as well as crystallographic structure. The photocatalytic activities of these produced nanofibers were examined with two organic dyes, methylene blue and methyl orange, under ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation. The effect of nanobranches and silver modification on TiO2 nanofibers was revealed in the photocatalysis process. The photocatalytic degradation rates of silver loaded on nanobranched TiO2 nanofibers were 1.6 and 1.7 times as that of pure TiO2 nanofibers in the presence of methylene blue and methyl orange, respectively, which indicated silver nanoparticles combined nanobranches modified on the surface of TiO2 nanofibers could enhance the photocatalytic ability.

  7. PHOTOCATALYTIC PROPERTIES OF Cr DOPED TiO2–SiO2 NANOSTRUCTURE THIN FILM

    OpenAIRE

    Akbar Eshaghi; Ameneh Eshaghi

    2012-01-01

    Cr doped TiO2–SiO2 nanostructure thin film on glass substrates was prepared by a sol-gel dip coating method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-vis spectrophotometer were used to characterize the structural, chemical and optical properties of the thin film. The XRD showed that thin films contain only anatase phase. FE-SEM images illustrated that anatase average crystallite size in the pure TiO2 and Cr doped TiO2–SiO2 thin films are 15 nm and 10 nm, respecti...

  8. Effect on Electron Structure and Magneto-Optic Property of Heavy W-Doped Anatase TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qingyu; Zhao, Chunwang; Guo, Shaoqiang; Mao, Fei; Zhang, Yue

    2015-01-01

    The spin or nonspin state of electrons in W-doped anatase TiO2 is very difficult to judge experimentally because of characterization method limitations. Hence, the effect on the microscopic mechanism underlying the visible-light effect of W-doped anatase TiO2 through the consideration of electronic spin or no-spin states is still unknown. To solve this problem, we establish supercell models of W-doped anatase TiO2 at different concentrations, followed by geometry optimization and energy calculation based on the first-principle planewave norm conserving pseudo-potential method of the density functional theory. Calculation results showed that under the condition of nonspin the doping concentration of W becomes heavier, the formation energy becomes greater, and doping becomes more difficult. Meanwhile, the total energy increases, the covalent weakens and ionic bonds strengthens, the stability of the W-doped anatase TiO2 decreases, the band gap increases, and the blue-shift becomes more significant with the increase of W doping concentration. However, under the condition of spin, after the band gap correction by the GGA+U method, it is found that the semimetal diluted magnetic semiconductors can be formed by heavy W-doped anatase TiO2. Especially, a conduction electron polarizability of as high as near 100% has been found for the first time in high concentration W-doped anatase TiO2. It will be able to be a promising new type of dilute magnetic semiconductor. And the heavy W-doped anatase TiO2 make the band gap becomes narrower and absorption spectrum red-shift.

  9. Effect on Electron Structure and Magneto-Optic Property of Heavy W-Doped Anatase TiO2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyu Hou

    Full Text Available The spin or nonspin state of electrons in W-doped anatase TiO2 is very difficult to judge experimentally because of characterization method limitations. Hence, the effect on the microscopic mechanism underlying the visible-light effect of W-doped anatase TiO2 through the consideration of electronic spin or no-spin states is still unknown. To solve this problem, we establish supercell models of W-doped anatase TiO2 at different concentrations, followed by geometry optimization and energy calculation based on the first-principle planewave norm conserving pseudo-potential method of the density functional theory. Calculation results showed that under the condition of nonspin the doping concentration of W becomes heavier, the formation energy becomes greater, and doping becomes more difficult. Meanwhile, the total energy increases, the covalent weakens and ionic bonds strengthens, the stability of the W-doped anatase TiO2 decreases, the band gap increases, and the blue-shift becomes more significant with the increase of W doping concentration. However, under the condition of spin, after the band gap correction by the GGA+U method, it is found that the semimetal diluted magnetic semiconductors can be formed by heavy W-doped anatase TiO2. Especially, a conduction electron polarizability of as high as near 100% has been found for the first time in high concentration W-doped anatase TiO2. It will be able to be a promising new type of dilute magnetic semiconductor. And the heavy W-doped anatase TiO2 make the band gap becomes narrower and absorption spectrum red-shift.

  10. Synthesis and characterisation of biologically compatible TiO2 nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Tim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We describe for the first time the synthesis of biocompatible TiO2 nanoparticles containing a functional NH2 group which are easily dispersible in water. The synthesis of water dispersible TiO2 nanoparticles coated with mercaptosuccinic acid is also reported. We show that it is possible to exchange the stearic acid from pre-synthesised fatty acid-coated anatase 5-nm nanoparticles with a range of organic ligands with no change in the size or morphology. With further organic functionalisation, these nanoparticles could be used for medical imaging or to carry cytotoxic radionuclides for radioimmunotherapy where ultrasmall nanoparticles will be essential for rapid renal clearance.

  11. [Preparation, characterization of Si doped TiO2 nanotubes and its application in photocatalytic oxidation of VOCs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xue-Jun; Li, Xin-Yong; Qu, Zhen-Ping; Wang, Jiang-Jiang

    2011-12-01

    The Si-doped TiO2 nanotubes photocatalysts was synthesized by anodic oxidation method, which used Na2SiF6/HF as an electrolyte, and was characterized by means of SEM, XRD, DRS and EDX. TiO2 nanotubes composed of anatase phase and rutile phase, and Si was highly dispersed on the wall of TiO2 nanotubes. The photocatalytic activity of the Si-doped TiO2 nanotubes was investigated for photocatalytic degradation of gaseous toluene. It was found that the photocatalytic activity of Si-doped TiO2 nanotubes, which prepared by 0.03 mol x L x (-1) Na2SiF6/HF and calcined at 400 degrees C for 1 h, was the highest. The conversion of toluene was 60% over the prepared Si doped TiO2 nanotubes under UV light, which was one times higher than that of pure TiO2 nanotubes.

  12. Low-temperature preparation of rutile-type TiO2 thin films for optical coatings by aluminum doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Kosei; Oikawa, Itaru; Kamegawa, Atsunori; Imura, Masaaki; Kanai, Toshimasa; Takamura, Hitoshi

    2017-08-01

    A rutile-type TiO2 thin film with a high refractive index (n), a low extinction coefficient (k) and small surface roughness (Ra) is required for use in a variety of optical coatings to improve the controllability of the reflection spectrum. In this study, Al-doped TiO2 thin films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition, and the effects of Al doping on their phases, optical properties, surface roughness and nanoscale microstructure, including Al distribution, were investigated. By doping 5 and 10 mol%Al, rutile-type TiO2 was successfully prepared under a PO2 of 0.5 Pa at 350-600 °C. The nanoscale phase separation in the Al-doped TiO2 thin films plays an important role in the formation of the rutile phase. The 10 mol%Al-doped rutile-type TiO2 thin film deposited at 350 °C showed excellent optical properties of n ≈ 3.05, k ≈ 0.01 (at λ = 400 nm) and negligible surface roughness, at Ra ≈ 0.8 nm. The advantages of the superior optical properties and small surface roughness of the 10 mol%Al-doped TiO2 thin film were confirmed by fabricating a ten-layered dielectric mirror.

  13. Photocatalytic Activity of Lanthanum and Sulfur Co-doped TiO2 Photocatalyst under Visible Light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Huili; ZHUANG HUISHENG; XIAO Dongchang; ZHANG Tao

    2008-01-01

    A novel lanthanum and sulfur co-doped TiO2,photocatalyst was synthesized by precipitation-dipping method,and characterized by X-ray diffraction(XRD),transmission electron microscopy(TEM)and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.Compared with the S-doped TiO2,La-doped TiO2 and the standard Degussa P25 photocatalysts,the lanthanum and sulfur co-doped TiO2 photocatalyst(the molar percentage of La is 3.O%) calcined at 450℃for 2 h showed the strongest absorption for visible light and highest activities for degradation of reactive blue 19 dye in aqueous solution under visible light(?>400 nm)irradiation.It was also discovered that the co-doping of lanthanum and sulfur hindered the aggregation and growth of TiO2 particles,and the doping of lanthanum reduced slightly the phase transition temperature of TiO2 from anatase to rutile.

  14. SiO2 and TiO2 nanoparticles synergistically trigger macrophage inflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsugita, Misato; Morimoto, Nobuyuki; Nakayama, Masafumi

    2017-04-11

    Silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) NPs are the most widely used inorganic nanomaterials. Although the individual toxicities of SiO2 and TiO2 NPs have been extensively studied, the combined toxicity of these NPs is much less understood. In this study, we observed unexpected and drastic activation of the caspase-1 inflammasome and production of IL-1β in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages stimulated simultaneously with SiO2 and TiO2 NPs at concentrations at which these NPs individually do not cause macrophage activation. Consistent with this, marked lung inflammation was observed in mice treated intratracheally with both SiO2 and TiO2 NPs. In macrophages, SiO2 NPs localized in lysosomes and TiO2 NPs did not; while only TiO2 NPs produced ROS, suggesting that these NPs induce distinct cellular damage leading to caspase-1 inflammasome activation. Intriguingly, dynamic light scattering measurements revealed that, although individual SiO2 and TiO2 NPs immediately aggregated to be micrometer size, the mixture of these NPs formed a stable and relatively monodisperse complex with a size of ~250 nm in the presence of divalent cations. Taken together, these results suggest that SiO2 and TiO2 NPs synergistically induce macrophage inflammatory responses and subsequent lung inflammation. Thus, we propose that it is important to assess the synergistic toxicity of various combinations of nanomaterials.

  15. Microglial cells (BV-2) internalize titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles: toxicity and cellular responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihane, Naima; Nury, Thomas; M'rad, Imen; El Mir, Lassaad; Sakly, Mohsen; Amara, Salem; Lizard, Gérard

    2016-05-01

    Because of their whitening and photocatalytic effects, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) are widely used in daily life. These NPs can be found in paints, plastics, papers, sunscreens, foods, medicines (pills), toothpastes, and cosmetics. However, the biological effect of TiO2-NPs on the human body, especially on the central nervous system, is still unclear. Many studies have demonstrated that the brain is one of the target organs in acute or chronic TiO2-NPs toxicity. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of TiO2-NPs at different concentrations (0.1 to 200 μg/mL) on murine microglial cells (BV-2) to assess their activity on cell growth and viability, as well as their neurotoxicity. Different parameters were measured: cell viability, cell proliferation and DNA content (SubG1 peak), mitochondrial depolarization, overproduction of reactive oxygen species (especially superoxide anions), and ultrastructural changes. Results showed that TiO2-NPs induced some cytotoxic effects with a slight inhibition of cell growth. Thus, at high concentrations, TiO2-NPs were not only able to inhibit cell adhesion but also enhanced cytoplasmic membrane permeability to propidium iodide associated with a loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and an overproduction of superoxide anions. No induction of apoptosis based on the presence of a SubG1 peak was detected. The microscopic observations also indicated that small groups of nanosized particles and micron-sized aggregates were engulfed by the BV-2 cells and sequestered as intracytoplasmic aggregates after 24-h exposure to TiO2-NPs. Altogether, our data show that the accumulation TiO2-NPs in microglial BV-2 cells favors mitochondrial dysfunctions and oxidative stress.

  16. Synthesis of Cu-Doped Mixed-Phase TiO2 with the Assistance of Ionic Liquid by Atmospheric-Pressure Cold Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Zhibin; DI Lanbo; ZHANG Xiuling; LI Yanchun

    2016-01-01

    An atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) gas-liquid cold plasma was employed to synthesize Cu-doped TiO2 nanoparticles in an aqueous solution with the assistance of [C2MIM]BF4 ionic liquid (IL) and using air as the working gas.The influences of the discharge voltage,IL and the amount of copper nitrite were investigated.X-ray diffraction,N2 adsorption-desorption measurements and UV-Vis spectroscopy were adopted to characterize the samples.The results showed that the specific surface area of TiO2 was promoted with Cu-doping (from 57.6 m2·g-1 to 106.2 m2·g-1 with 3% Cu-doping),and the content of anatase was increased.Besides,the band gap energy of TiO2 with Cu-doping decreased according to the UV-Vis spectroscopy test.The 3%Cu-IL-TiO2 samples showed the highest efficiency in degrading methylene blue (MB) dye solutions under simulated sunlight with an apparent rate constant of 0.0223 min-1,which was 1.2 times higher than that of non-doped samples.According to the characterization results,the reasons for the high photocatalytic activity were discussed.

  17. Hydrothermal growth of highly monodispersed TiO2 nanoparticles: Functional properties and dye-sensitized solar cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaneethan, M.; Nithiananth, S.; Abinaya, R.; Harish, S.; Archana, J.; Sudha, L.; Ponnusamy, S.; Muthamizhchelvan, C.; Ikeda, H.; Hayakawa, Y.

    2017-10-01

    Monodispersed anatase TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal method using citric acid as a capping agent. The effect of citric acid and the growth time on the formation of TiO2, functional properties and dye-sensitized solar cell performances were investigated. X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy results revealed that the TiO2 nanoparticles possess the anatase phase. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurement revealed the formation of spherical nanoparticles with monodispersity in size and morphology. An average size of 14 nm was obtained for the growth period of 15 h. The maximum efficiency (η) of dye-sensitized solar cell was achieved for TiO2 nanoparticles grown for 15 h as 7.66% which was higher than that of commercial P25 TiO2 (5.23%) and uncapped nanoparticles (3.68%).

  18. TiO2 nanoparticles versus TiO2-SiO2 nanocomposites: A comparative study of photo catalysis on acid red 88

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, K.; Venckatesh, Rajendran; Sivaraj, Rajeshwari; Rajiv, P.

    2014-07-01

    A novel, simple, less time-consuming and cost-effective wet chemical technique was used to synthesis TiO2 nanoparticles and TiO2-SiO2 nanocomposites using Titanium tetra isopropoxide (TTIP) as a precursor relatively at low temperature in acidic pH. Titania sol was prepared by hydrolysis of TTIP and was mixed with silicic acid and tetrahydrofuran mixture. The reaction was carried out under vigorous stirring for 6 h and dried at room temperature. The resulting powders were characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The grain size of the particles was calculated by X-ray diffraction, surface morphology and chemical composition was determined from scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy, metal oxide stretching was confirmed from FT-IR spectroscopy, band gap was calculated using UV-Visible spectroscopy. Surface area of the composite as calculated by BET analyzer and it was found to be 65 and 75 m2/g for TiO2 and TiO2-SiO2 respectively. The photocatalytic experiments were performed with aqueous solution of acid red 88 with TiO2 and TiO2-SiO2 batch studies for 4 h irradiation, direct photolysis of TiO2 and TiO2-SiO2 contributed 94.2% and 96.5% decomposition in solar radiation for the optimized concentration of acid red 88.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Rutile TiO2Nanopowders Doped with Iron Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirenghi Luciana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Titanium dioxide nanopowders doped with different amounts of Fe ions were prepared by coprecipitation method. Obtained materials were characterized by structural (XRD, morphological (TEM and SEM, optical (UV/vis reflection and photoluminescence, and Raman, and analytical techniques (XPS and ICP-OES. XRD analysis revealed rutile crystalline phase for doped and undoped titanium dioxide obtained in the same manner. Diameter of the particles was 5–7 nm. The presence of iron ions was confirmed by XPS and ICP-OES. Doping process moved absorption threshold of TiO2into visible spectrum range. Photocatalytic activity was also checked. Doped nanopowders showed normal and up-converted photoluminescence.

  20. Structure and stability of small TiO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, S; Catlow, C R A; Woodley, S M; Lago, S; Mejías, J A

    2005-08-25

    The effect of the nanostructure on the photochemistry of TiO2 is an active field of research owing to its applications in photocatalysis and photovoltaics. Despite this interest, little is known of the structure of small particles of this oxide with sizes at the nanometer length scale. Here we present a computational study that locates the global minima in the potential energy surface of Ti(n)O2n clusters with n = 1-15. The search procedure does not refer to any of the known TiO2 polymorphs, and is based on a novel combination of simulated annealing and Monte Carlo basin hopping simulations, together with genetic algorithm techniques, with the energy calculated by means of an interatomic potential. The application of several different methods increases our confidence of having located the global minimum. The stable structures are then refined by means of density functional theory calculations. The results from the two techniques are similar, although the methods based on interatomic potentials are unable to describe some subtle effects. The agreement is especially good for the larger particles, with n = 9-15. For these sizes the structures are compact, with a preference for a central octahedron and a surrounding layer of 4- and 5-fold coordinated Ti atoms, although there seems to be some energy penalty for particles containing the 5-fold coordinated metal atoms with square base pyramid geometry and dangling Ti=O bonds. The novel structures reported provide the basis for further computational studies of the effect of nanostructure on adsorption, photochemistry, and nucleation of this material.

  1. Influences of Stacking Architectures of TiO2 Nanoparticle Layers on Characteristics of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hung Tsai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the influences of stacking architectures of the TiO2 nanoparticle layers on characteristics and performances of DSSCs. TiO2 nanoparticles of different sizes and compositions were characterized for their morphological and optical/scattering properties in thin films. They were used to construct different stacking architectures of the TiO2 nanoparticle layers for use as working electrodes of DSSCs. Characteristics and performances of DSSCs were examined to establish correlation of the stacking architectures of TiO2 nanoparticle layers with characteristics of DSSCs. The results suggest that the three-layer DSSC architecture, with sandwiching a 20 nm TiO2 nanoparticle layer between a 37 nm TiO2 nanoparticle layer and a hundred nm sized TiO2 back scattering/reflection layer, is effective in enhancing DSSC efficiencies. The high-total-transmittance 37 nm TiO2 nanoparticle layer with a larger haze can serve as an effective front scattering layer to scatter a portion of the incident light into larger oblique angles and therefore increase optical paths and absorption.

  2. Antibacterial and UV protective properties of polyamide fabric impregnated with TiO2/Ag nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Milica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of in situ photoreduction of Ag+ ions using colloidal TiO2 nanoparticles deposited on the surface of polyamide fabric in the presence of amino acid alanine and methyl alcohol is discussed. The presence of TiO2/Ag nanoparticles on the polyamide fabric was confirmed by FESEM and ICP analyses. Antibacterial activity of the fabric was tested against Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Fabricated TiO2/Ag nanoparticles on the surface of polyamide fabric provided maximum bacterial reduction and thus, excellent antibacterial activity. In spite of silver leaching from the fabric during washing, impregnated polyamide fabric preserved maximum reduction of Escherichia coli colonies. Antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus slightly decreased after ten washing cycles, but still antibacterial activity can be considered as satisfactory. In addition, the presence of TiO2/Ag nanoparticles ensured better UV protection efficiency which belongs to very good UV protection category. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 45020 i br. 172056

  3. Influence of material properties on TiO2 nanoparticle agglomeration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxu Zhou

    Full Text Available Emerging nanomaterials are being manufactured with varying particle sizes, morphologies, and crystal structures in the pursuit of achieving outstanding functional properties. These variations in these key material properties of nanoparticles may affect their environmental fate and transport. To date, few studies have investigated this important aspect of nanoparticles' environmental behavior. In this study, the aggregation kinetics of ten different TiO2 nanoparticles (5 anatase and 5 rutile each with varying size was systematically evaluated. Our results show that, as particle size increases, the surface charge of both anatase and rutile TiO2 nanoparticles shifts toward a more negative value, and, accordingly, the point of zero charge shifts toward a lower value. The colloidal stability of anatase sphere samples agreed well with DLVO theoretical predictions, where an increase in particle size led to a higher energy barrier and therefore greater critical coagulation concentration. In contrast, the critical coagulation concentration of rutile rod samples correlated positively with the specific surface area, i.e., samples with higher specific surface area exhibited higher stability. Finally, due to the large innate negative surface charge of all the TiO2 samples at the pH value (pH = 8 tested, the addition of natural organic matter was observed to have minimal effect on TiO2 aggregation kinetics, except for the smallest rutile rods that showed decreased stability in the presence of natural organic matter.

  4. Dispersion and Stabilization of Photocatalytic TiO2 Nanoparticles in Aqueous Suspension for Coatings Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hajar Othman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To produce titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticle coatings, it is desirable that the nanoparticles are dispersed into a liquid solution and remain stable for a certain period of time. Controlling the dispersion and aggregation of the nanoparticles is crucial to exploit the advantages of the nanometer-sized TiO2 particles. In this work, TiO2 nanoparticles were dispersed and stabilized in aqueous suspensions using two common dispersants which were polyacrylic acid (PAA and ammonium polymethacrylate (Darvan C. The effect of parameters such as ultrasonication amplitude and type and amount of dispersants on the dispersibility and stability of the TiO2 aqueous suspensions were examined. Rupture followed by erosion was determined to be the main break up mechanisms when ultrasonication was employed. The addition of dispersant was found to produce more dispersed and more stabilized aqueous suspension. 3 wt.% of PAA with average molecular weight (Mw of 2000 g/mol (PAA 2000 was determined to produce the best and most stable dispersion. The suspensions were then coated on quartz glass, whereby the photocatalytic activity of the coatings was studied via the degradation of formaldehyde gas under UV light. The coatings were demonstrated to be photocatalytically active.

  5. Effective nitrogen doping into TiO2 (N-TiO2) for visible light response photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tomoko; Niimi, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Muneaki; Nomoto, Toyokazu; Yagi, Shinya

    2015-06-01

    The thickness-controlled TiO2 thin films are fabricated by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. These samples function as photocatalysts under UV light irradiation and the reaction rate depends on the TiO2 thickness, i.e., with an increase of thickness, it increases to the maximum, followed by decreasing to be constant. Such variation of the reaction rate is fundamentally explained by the competitive production and annihilation processes of photogenerated electrons and holes in TiO2 films, and the optimum TiO2 thickness is estimated to be ca. 10nm. We also tried to dope nitrogen into the effective depth region (ca. 10nm) of TiO2 by an ion implantation technique. The nitrogen doped TiO2 enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation. XANES and XPS analyses indicated two types of chemical state of nitrogen, one photo-catalytically active N substituting the O sites and the other inactive NOx (1⩽x⩽2) species. In the valence band XPS spectrum of the high active sample, the additional electronic states were observed just above the valence band edge of a TiO2. The electronic state would be originated from the substituting nitrogen and be responsible for the band gap narrowing, i.e., visible light response of TiO2 photocatalysts.

  6. Ultrasonic Degradation of Methyl Orange in Presence of Y2O3 Doping Anatase TiO2 Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jun; Guo Baodong; Pan Zhijun; Liu Zhenrong; Wen Fuyu; Zhang Zhaohong

    2004-01-01

    Various affecting factors and degradation mechanism were studied on ultrasonic degradation of methyl orange adopting Y2O3 doping anatase TiO2 catalyst prepared in laboratory.In the experiment, the UV-VIS spectrophotometer was used to follow and inspect the degradation process of methyl orange.The results indicate that the ultrasonic degradation ratios of methyl orange in the presence of anatase TiO2 catalyst are much better than those without catalyst.Moreover, the catalytic performance of Y2O3 doping anatase TiO2 catalyst is obviously higher than that of anatase TiO2 catalyst without doping.The optimal conditions were adopted in this work and the degradation and COD elimination ratio of methyl orange got to98% and 99.0% in 90 min, respectively.

  7. Mechanochemical preparation of sulfur-doped nanosized TiO2 and its photocatalytic activity under visible light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhiqiang; ZHANG Xianyou; WU Ze; DONG Limin

    2005-01-01

    In order to make nanosized TiO2 photocatalyst responsive to visible light and effectively utilize solar energy, we have, for the first time, prepared S-doped nanosized TiO2 by a mechanochemical method with hydrolysis of TiCl4. The as-prepared S-doped nanosized TiO2 possesses strong absorption for visible light of 400―650 nm and shows high photocatalytic activity for decomposition of methylene blue under irradiation of visible light. The oxidation states of the S atoms incorporated into TiO2 were determined to be S6+ and S4+. The comparative study of fluorescence emission spectra shows that S-doping has also improved the separation of electron-hole pairs.

  8. Nb-doped rutile TiO2 mesocrystals with enhanced lithium storage properties for lithium ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mingdeng; Lin, Tongbin; Zhang, Weifeng; Wu, Nae-Lih

    2017-02-22

    A homogeneous Nb-doped rutile TiO2 mesocrystal material was synthesized successfully via a facile hydrothermal route. The incorporation of Nb5+ not only promotes the crystallization for the building subunits of the rutile TiO2 mesocrystal but also improves the electrochemical performance at higher current rates. For instance, a capacity of 96.3 mA h g-1 at a current density as high as 40 C and an excellent long-term cycling stability with a capacity loss of ca. 0.006% per cycle at 5 C can be achieved when an appropriate amount of Nb5+ was doped into rutile TiO2 mesocrystal. The reason resulting in the improvement of rate capability might be attributed to the enhancement of electronic conductivity, Li-ion diffusion kinetic and surface storage property for the Nb-doped rutile TiO2 mesocrystal.

  9. Synthesis of monodisperse TiO2-paraffin core-shell nanoparticles for improved dielectric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Balamurugan; Kraemer, Kristin L; Reding, Nicholas A; Skomski, Ralph; Ducharme, Stephen; Sellmyer, David J

    2010-04-27

    Core-shell structures of oxide nanoparticles having a high dielectric constant, and organic shells with large breakdown field are attractive candidates for large electrical energy storage applications. A high growth temperature, however, is required to obtain the dielectric oxide nanoparticles, which affects the process of core-shell formation and also leads to poor control of size, shape, and size-distribution. In this communication, we report a new synthetic process to grow core-shell nanoparticles by means of an experimental method that can be easily adapted to synthesize core-shell structures from a variety of inorganic-organic or inorganic-inorganic materials. Monodisperse and spherical TiO2 nanoparticles were produced at room temperature as a collimated cluster beam in the gas phase using a cluster-deposition source and subsequently coated with uniform paraffin nanoshells using in situ thermal evaporation, prior to deposition on substrates for further characterization and device processing. The paraffin nanoshells prevent the TiO2 nanoparticles from contacting each other and also act as a matrix in which the volume fraction of TiO2 nanoparticles was varied by controlling the thickness of the nanoshells. Parallel-plate capacitors were fabricated using dielectric core-shell nanoparticles having different shell thicknesses. With respect to the bulk paraffin, the effective dielectric constant of TiO2-paraffin core-shell nanoparticles is greatly enhanced with a decrease in the shell thickness. The capacitors show a minimum dielectric dispersion and low dielectric losses in the frequency range of 100 Hz-1 MHz, which are highly desirable for exploiting these core-shell nanoparticles for potential applications.

  10. Weathering performance of the polyurethane nanocomposite coatings containing silane treated TiO 2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabedini, S. M.; Sabzi, M.; Zohuriaan-Mehr, J.; Atai, M.; Behzadnasab, M.

    2011-02-01

    Nano-filled polyurethane coatings were prepared by incorporation of various amounts of untreated and amino propyltrimethoxy silane (APS) treated TiO2 nanoparticles. TEM and AFM techniques were employed to evaluate dispersion of nanoparticles and surface morphology of the coating, respectively. TEM observations revealed that the APS treated nanoparticles have a better dispersion and smaller agglomeration, compared with their untreated counterparts. AFM images revealed that, surface roughness of the coatings increased with increasing of nanoparticles content, however, at equal level of loadings; coatings containing untreated nanoparticles showed a higher surface roughness. Colour changes (colour coordinates data measurements), mechanical properties and surface morphology of the PU nanocomposite coatings, before and after being exposed to a QUV chamber for 1000 h were studied using various techniques. The results revealed that addition of 0.5 to 1.0 wt.% APS treated TiO2 nanoparticles reduces photocatalytic activity, and improves the weathering performance PU nanocomposite coatings. Tensile strength measurements showed significant improvement of mechanical properties of PU coatings containing modified TiO2 nanoparticles. Results also revealed that the colour measurement is a useful technique and non destructive method for evaluation of coating's performance against weathering conditions. The experimental results showed a good correlation between different techniques findings.

  11. Tuning the Fermi-level of TiO2 mesoporous layer by lanthanum doping towards efficient perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao-Xin; Ge, Qian-Qing; Xue, Ding-Jiang; Ding, Jie; Ma, Jing-Yuan; Chen, Yao-Xuan; Zhang, Bao; Feng, Yaqing; Wan, Li-Jun; Hu, Jin-Song

    2016-09-29

    Tuning the band alignment is proved to be an effective way to facilitate carrier transportation and thus enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of solar cells. Doping the compact layer with metal ions or modifying the interfaces among functional layers in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) can appreciably improve the PCE of PSCs. Inspired by the rare earth elemental doping of TiO2, which has witnessed the success in photocatalysis and dye-sensitized solar cells, we firstly demonstrated here that La(3+) doping in the mesoporous TiO2 layer of a mesostructured PSC can tune its Fermi level and thus significantly enhance the device PCE. Systematic analysis reveals that doping La(3+) into TiO2 raises the Fermi level of TiO2 through scavenging oxygen and inducing vacancies, which subsequently increases the open circuit voltage and the fill factor while reducing the series resistance of the PSC using La(3+)-doped TiO2 as a mesoporous layer. As a result, a PCE of 15.42% is achieved, which is appreciably higher than the PCE of a device with undoped TiO2 (12.11%).

  12. N,S-co-doped TiO2 nanophotocatalyst: synthesis, electronic structure and photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathish, M; Viswanath, R P; Gopinath, Chinnakonda S

    2009-01-01

    N,S-co-doped anatase-phase TiO2 (N,S-TiO2) nanophotocatalysts were prepared from either benzothiazoline or aminothiol with titanium isopropoxide followed by a systematic thermal decomposition. The chemical nature of S and N in N,S-TiO2 have been identified by XPS to be sulfate and NO-like, respectively. A significant band broadening and red-shift in the UV-visible absorption spectrum of N,S-TiO2 suggests a band gap reduction compared to TiO2. A maximum band-gap narrowing of 0.22 +/- 0.02 eV was observed on N,S-TiO2. Higher energy width observed on N,S-TiO, is in contrast to 0.13 eV from N-doped TiO2 indicating the sulfate-like species might play a major role in narrowing the band-gap to a higher level. It is confirmed that the oxidation of N and S to NO and SO4(2-) occurs in the final stage of preparation of N,S-TiO2, during calcination in air. It is predicted that the oxygen associated with sulfate and NO structural features could be crucial in bringing down the energy gap and red shift in optical absorption and the role of sulfur is to facilitate the above. Photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue has been carried out on N,S-TiO2 shows higher activity than the commercial TiO2 in the visible region. However, sulfate species seems to enhance the activity of N,S-TiO2 marginally compared to N-TiO2, and possible suggestions are given to improve the same.

  13. Self-doped TiO2-x nanowires with enhanced photocatalytic activity: Facile synthesis and effects of the Ti3+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junpeng; Yang, Ping; Huang, Baibiao

    2015-11-01

    Synthesis of Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 with high stability is very necessary to understand the role of Ti3+ defects in photocatalytic process. In this study, we report a simple strategy for preparing stable Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 nanowires with Ti2O3 as precursors. Raman and XPS spectrum confirmed the existence of Ti3+ and oxygen vacancies. Compared with the pure TiO2, the photocatalytic activity of the Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 enhanced under UV light irradiation, however, neither pure TiO2 nor the self-dope TiO2 samples exhibit photocatalytic activity while irradiated under visible light, though the self-doped TiO2 have an enhanced absorption in visible region. On the basis of the experimental results, the possible mechanism of Ti3+ in photocatalytic process is proposed.

  14. Nanoparticle size and combined toxicity of TiO2 and DSLS (surfactant) contribute to lysosomal responses in digestive cells of mussels exposed to TiO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimeno-Romero, A; Oron, M; Cajaraville, M P; Soto, M; Marigómez, I

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this investigation was to understand the bioaccumulation, cell and tissue distribution and biological effects of disodium laureth sulfosuccinate (DSLS)-stabilised TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) in marine mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis. Mussels were exposed in vivo to 0.1, 1 and 10 mg Ti/L either as TiO2 NPs (60 and 180 nm) or bulk TiO2, as well as to DSLS alone. A significant Ti accumulation was observed in mussels exposed to TiO2 NPs, which were localised in endosomes, lysosomes and residual bodies of digestive cells, and in the lumen of digestive tubules, as demonstrated by ultrastructural observations and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. TiO2 NPs of 60 nm were internalised within digestive cell lysosomes to a higher extent than TiO2 NPs of 180 nm, as confirmed by the quantification of black silver deposits after autometallography. The latter were localised mainly forming large aggregates in the lumen of the gut. Consequently, lysosomal membrane stability (LMS) was significantly reduced upon exposure to both TiO2 NPs although more markedly after exposure to TiO2-60 NPs. Exposure to bulk TiO2 and to DSLS also affected the stability of the lysosomal membrane. Thus, effects on the lysosomal membrane depended on the nanoparticle size and on the combined biological effects of TiO2 and DSLS.

  15. Enhanced dopant solubility and visible-light absorption in Cr-N co-doped TiO2 nanoclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiodi, Dr Mirco [University of Brescia (UNIBS); Cheney, Christine [ORNL; Vilmercati, Paolo [ORNL; Cavaliere, Emanuele [University of Brescia (UNIBS); Mannella, Norman [ORNL; Gavioli, Luca [University of Brescia (UNIBS); Weitering, Harm H [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    A major obstacle toward employing TiO2 as an efficient photoactive material is related to its large optical band gap, strongly limiting visible light absorption. Substitutional doping with both donors and acceptors (co-doping) potentially leads to a significant band gap reduction, but the effectiveness of the co-doping approach remains limited by the low solubility of dopants inside TiO2. Here we show that nanostructured Cr and N co-doped TiO2 thin films can be obtained by Supersonic Cluster Beam Deposition (SCBD) with a high concentration of dopants and a strongly reduced band gap. Complementary spectroscopic investigations show that doping effectively occurs into substitutional lattice sites, inducing dopant levels in the gap that are remarkably delocalized. The high surface-to-volume ratio, typical of SCBD nanostructured films, likely facilitates the dopant incorporation. The present results indicate that SCBD films are highly promising photoactive nanophase materials.

  16. TiO2(B) nanoparticle-functionalized WO3 nanorods with enhanced gas sensing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongxin; Wang, Shurong; Wang, Yanshuang; Yang, Jiedi; Gao, Xueling; Wang, Liwei

    2014-06-14

    In this work, TiO2(B) nanoparticle (NP)-functionalized WO3 nanorods (NRs) were synthesized by a two-step solution strategy, with a hydrothermal process for WO3 NRs and hydrolyzation of Ti(OBu)4 for the functionalization of TiO2(B) NPs. Various techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), were employed to investigate the morphology, microstructure, crystalline nature and chemical composition of the prepared TiO2(B) NP-functionalized WO3 NRs. SEM and TEM results revealed that the TiO2(B)-WO3 composite showed a rod-like nanostructure with a diameter in the range from 93 to 154 nm and a rough surface, which could increase the accessible surface area and the amount of surface active sites, thus improving the properties or performance of the as-prepared composite NRs. XRD and XPS analysis clearly verified that monoclinic TiO2(B) NPs, a metastable polymorph of TiO2, were successfully supported on the WO3 NRs. Gas sensing measurement results for several common reductive organic gases such as acetone, ethanol, ether, methanol and formaldehyde demonstrated that the sensor based on the as-obtained TiO2(B) NP-functionalized WO3 NRs exhibited obviously enhanced responses compared with a pure WO3 NR based sensor, as well as fast response-recovery speeds, good reproducibility and good stability, indicating their promising application in gas sensors. The excellent gas sensing performance could be attributed to the unique 1D rod-like nanostructure with a rough surface, the existence of TiO2-WO3 heterojunctions and the catalytic effect of the TiO2(B) NPs. The as-prepared TiO2(B) NP-functionalized WO3 NRs will also have very good prospects in electrochromic devices and catalysis applications.

  17. Fulvic acid degradation using nanoparticle TiO2 in a submerged membrane photocatalysis reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jian-feng; JI Min; AN Ding-nian

    2005-01-01

    The degradation of fulvic acid(FA) by nanoparticle TiO2 in a submerged membrane photocatalysis(SMPC) reactor was studied.In this reactor, photocatalytic oxidation and membrane separation co-occured. The continuous air supplier provided O2 for the photocatalytical reaction and mixed the solution through an airflow controller. The particle TiO2 could automatically settle due to gravity without particle agglomeration so it could be easily separated by microfiltration(MF) membrane. It was efficient to maintain high flux of membranes. The effects of operational parameters on the photocatalytic oxidation rate of FA were investigated. Results indicated that photocatalyst at 0.5 g/L and airflow at 0.06 m3/h were the optimum condition for the removal of fulvic acid, the removal efficiency was higher in acid media than that in alkaline media. The effects of different filtration duration on permeate flux rate of MF with P25 powder and with nanoparticle TiO2 were compared. Experimental results indicated that the permeate flux rate of MF was improved and the membrane fouling phenomenon was reduced with the addition of nanoparticle TiO2 catalyst compared with conventional P25 powder. Therefore, this submerged membrane photocatalysis reactor can faciliate potential application of photocatalytic oxidation process in drinking water treatment.

  18. Facile decoration of TiO2 nanoparticles on graphene for solar degradation of organic dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Shiva; Salem, Amin; Rezaei, Mostafa

    2016-11-01

    The reduced graphene oxide is interesting material for the synthesis of TiO2-based photocatalyst. In the present investigation, blackberry fruit, which contains high levels of anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds, was employed as a reducing agent mainly due to its high antioxidant capacity. The nano-crystalline TiO2 was decorated on different amounts of graphene oxide with sol-gel method and then the photocatalytic activity for degradation of cationic dye was evaluated by UV spectroscopy to achieve the optimum content of graphene oxide. The decoration of anatase nanoparticles on prepared reduced graphene oxide was investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The new composite gives significantly higher activity when is compared to the compositions fabricated by graphene oxide. The compact layer provides a large TiO2-graphene contact area and reduces the electron recombination. The decoration of TiO2 nanoparticles, 5-10 nm, on the graphene oxide reduced by blackberry juice further improves the dye removal. The results imply that the nanoparticle decoration is the key strategy to increase the degradation capacity.

  19. Gold nanoparticles-immobilized, hierarchically ordered, porous TiO2 nanotubes for biosensing of glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mers, Sv Sheen; Kumar, Elumalai Thambuswamy Deva; Ganesh, V

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is vital for several functions of our human body such as neutralization of free radicals and reactive oxygen compounds, maintaining the active forms of vitamin C and E, regulation of nitric oxide cycle, iron metabolism, etc. It is also an endogenous antioxidant in most of the biological reactions. Given the importance of GSH, a simple strategy is proposed in this work to develop a biosensor for quantitative detection of GSH. This particular biosensor comprises of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs)-immobilized, hierarchically ordered titanium dioxide (TiO2) porous nanotubes. Hexagonally arranged, honeycomb-like nanoporous tubular TiO2 electrodes are prepared by using a simple electrochemical anodization process by applying a constant potential of 30 V for 24 hours using ethylene glycol consisting of ammonium fluoride as an electrolytic medium. Structural morphology and crystalline nature of such TiO2 nanotubes are analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Interestingly, nanocomposites of TiO2 with Au NPs is prepared in an effort to alter the intrinsic properties of TiO2, especially tuning of its band gap. Au NPs are prepared by a well-known Brust and Schiffrin method and are immobilized onto TiO2 electrodes which act as a perfect electrochemical sensing platform for GSH detection. Structural characterization and analysis of these modified electrodes are performed using FESEM, XRD, and UV-visible spectroscopic studies. GSH binding events on Au NPs-immobilized porous TiO2 electrodes are monitored by electrochemical techniques, namely, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA). Several parameters such as sensitivity, selectivity, stability, limit of detection, etc are investigated. In addition, Au NPs dispersed in aqueous medium are also explored for naked-eye detection of GSH using UV-visible spectroscopy in order to compare the performance of the proposed sensor. Our studies clearly indicate

  20. Enhanced photodegradation of methyl orange with TiO2 nanoparticles using a triboelectric nanogenerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yuanjie; Yang, Ya; Zhang, Hulin; Xie, Yannan; Wu, Zhiming; Jiang, Yadong; Fukata, Naoki; Bando, Yoshio; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2013-07-01

    Methyl orange (MO) can be degraded by a photocatalytic process using TiO2 under UV irradiation. The photo-generated holes and electrons can migrate to the surface of TiO2 particles and serve as redox sources that react with adsorbed reactants, leading to the formation of superoxide radical anions, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals involved in the oxidation of dye pollution. Here, we fabricated a polytetrafluoroethylene-Al based triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) whose electric power output can be used for enhancing the photodegradation of MO with the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles, because the TENG generated electric field can effectively boost the separation and restrain the recombination of photo-generated electrons and holes. Due to the photoelectrical coupling, the degradation percentages of MO for 120 min with and without TENG assistance are 76% and 27%, respectively. The fabricated TENGs have potential applications in wastewater treatment, water splitting, and pollution degradation.

  1. Enhancing Efficiency and Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells through Nb-Doping of TiO2 at Low Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guannan; Ma, Jiaxin; Jiang, Hong; Li, Juan; Yang, Dong; Gao, Fei; Zeng, Jinghui; Liu, Zhike; Liu, Shengzhong Frank

    2017-03-20

    The conduction band energy, conductivity, mobility, and electronic trap states of electron transport layer (ETL) are very important to the efficiency and stability of a planar perovskite solar cell (PSC). However, as the most widely used ETL, TiO2 often needs to be prepared under high temperature and has unfavorable electrical properties such as low conductivity and high electronic trap states. Modifications such as elemental doping are effective methods for improving the electrical properties of TiO2 and the performance of PSCs. In this study, Nb-doped TiO2 films are prepared by a facile one-port chemical bath process at low temperature (70 °C) and applied as a high quality ETL for planar PSCs. Compared with pure TiO2, the Nb-doped TiO2 is more efficient for photogenerated electron injection and extraction, showing higher conductivity, higher mobility, and lower trap-state density. A PSC with 1% Nb-doped TiO2 yielded a power conversion efficiency of more than 19%, with about 90% of its initial efficiency remaining after storing for 1200 h in air or annealing at 80 °C for 20 h in a glovebox.

  2. PHOTOCATALYTIC PROPERTIES OF Cr DOPED TiO2–SiO2 NANOSTRUCTURE THIN FILM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Eshaghi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Cr doped TiO2–SiO2 nanostructure thin film on glass substrates was prepared by a sol-gel dip coating method. X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and UV-vis spectrophotometer were used to characterize the structural, chemical and optical properties of the thin film. The XRD showed that thin films contain only anatase phase. FE-SEM images illustrated that anatase average crystallite size in the pure TiO2 and Cr doped TiO2–SiO2 thin films are 15 nm and 10 nm, respectively. XPS spectra confirmed the presence of Cr3+ in the thin film. UV-vis absorption spectra indicated that absorption edge in Cr doped TiO2–SiO2 thin film shifted to the visible light region. The photocatalytic results pointed that Cr doping in TiO2–SiO2 improved decoloring rate of methyl orange in comparison to pure TiO2 thin film.

  3. Carbon coating stabilized Ti(3+)-doped TiO2 for photocatalytic hydrogen generation under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Gao; Zhou, Peng; Zhao, Meiming; Zhu, Weidong; Yan, Shicheng; Yu, Tao; Zou, Zhigang

    2015-07-28

    Self-doping by Ti(3+) is a useful method to expand the light response of TiO2 into the visible light region. However, to obtain a stable Ti(3+)-doped TiO2 seems to be a challenge due to the easy oxidation of Ti(3+) during the heterogeneous reaction. Here, we propose a simple carbon coating route to stabilize the Ti(3+)-doped TiO2, in which both the Ti(3+) and precursor of the carbon coating layer were in situ formed from the hydrothermal hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide. The carbon coated Ti(3+)-doped TiO2 exhibited excellent stability for photocatalytic hydrogen production. Based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis, the proposed stabilizing mechanism is that the conductive carbon coating layer as a barrier layer prevents the H2O and O2 from diffusing into the surface of the photocatalyst, which can oxidize the surface O vacancies and Ti(3+) in TiO2. Our findings offer a simple route to prepare a highly stable TiO2-based photocatalyst with visible light response.

  4. Effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on UASB biomass activity and dewatered sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Tushar; Mungray, Alka A; Mungray, Arvind K

    2017-02-01

    The accumulation of the nanowastes in the wastewater treatment plants has raised several concerns; therefore, it is an utmost priority to study the nanoparticle (NP) toxicity in such systems. In this work, the effect of TiO2 NPs on up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) microflora and their photocatalytic effect on dewatered sludge were studied. We observed 99.98% removal of TiO2 NPs by sludge biomass within 24 h, though negligible toxicity was found up to 100 mg/L TiO2 concentration on extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), volatile fatty acid and biogas generation. The low toxicity corresponds to the agglomeration of TiO2 NPs in UASB sludge. Alterations in dewatered sludge biochemical composition and increase in cell damage were observed upon exposure to sunlight as evidenced by FTIR and fluorescent microscopy, respectively. Results suggest the negligible toxicity of TiO2 NPs on UASB biomass activity; however, once exposed to open environment and sunlight, they may exert detrimental effects.

  5. A silver nanoparticle loaded TiO2 nanoporous layer for visible light induced antimicrobial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraj, K; George, R P; Anandkumar, B; Parvathavarthini, N; Kamachi Mudali, U

    2015-12-01

    A nanoporous TiO2 layer was formed on commercially pure titanium by a simple anodization method in aqueous hydrofluoric acid (HF) medium. Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were loaded into the nanoporous TiO2 layer by UV light irradiation. The morphology, chemical composition and photocatalytic activity of the modified titanium surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy techniques. The redox behavior of the AgNP loaded TiO2 layer was analyzed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies. The impedance behavior of the nanoporous TiO2 layer with and without AgNP was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The antibacterial effect of the AgNP loaded TiO2 layer was evaluated using Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. cultures. The efficacy of this modified layer to act as an antibacterial agent to minimize biofouling of titanium is demonstrated in this investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Immobilized TiO2 nanoparticles produced by flame spray for photocatalytic water remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, Luca Giacomo; Diamanti, Maria Vittoria; Sansotera, Maurizio; Pedeferri, Maria Pia; Navarrini, Walter; Milani, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    Anatase/rutile mixed-phase titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalysts in the form of nanostructured powders with different primary particle size, specific surface area, and rutile content were produced from the gas-phase by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) starting from an organic solution containing titanium (IV) isopropoxide as Ti precursor. Flame spray-produced TiO2 powders were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and BET measurements. As-prepared powders were mainly composed of anatase crystallites with size ranging from 7 to 15 nm according to the synthesis conditions. TiO2 powders were embedded in a multilayered fluoropolymeric matrix to immobilize the nanoparticles into freestanding photocatalytic membranes. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO2-embedded membranes toward the abatement of hydrosoluble organic pollutants was evaluated employing the photodegradation of rhodamine B in aqueous solution as test reaction. The photoabatement rate of best performing membranes significantly overcomes that of membranes produced by the same method and incorporating commercial P25-TiO2.

  7. Plasmonic photocatalysis properties of Au nanoparticles precipitated anatase/rutile mixed TiO2 nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yan; Liu, Bitao; Zeng, Wei; Wang, Yuhua

    2013-10-21

    Anatase/rutile mixed titania nanotubes (TiO2 NTs) precipitated with gold nanoparticles (Au NPs), i.e. Au/TiO2, have been synthesized and investigated on visible photocatalysis properties. A deposition-precipitation (DP) method was adopted to reduce the gold precursor to Au NPs within the preformed TiO2 NTs by the emulsion electrospinning technique. The optimal visible photocatalytic activity was found in the sample Au3(DP350)/TiO2 with a loading of 3 wt% Au NPs and calcining at 350 °C. Through transmission electron microscopy, Au NPs of 4.16 nm diameter were observed at the interface between the anatase and rutile phases in the optimal Au3(DP350)/TiO2 sample, and these joint active sites at the interface were beneficial for charge separation. The obtained optimal photocatalytic efficiency of Au3(DP350)/TiO2 was ascribed to the synergistic effect of the enhanced visible absorption and the anatase/rutile mixed-phase composition, and the possible mechanism for this was discussed in detail.

  8. Defect Complex Effect in Nb Doped TiO2 Ceramics with Colossal Permittivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fuchao; Shang, Baoqiang; Liang, Pengfei; Wei, Lingling; Yang, Zupei

    2016-10-01

    Donor-doped Nb x Ti1- x O2 ( x = 1%, 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8%) ceramics with giant permittivity (>104) and a very low dielectric loss (˜0.05) were sintered under flowing N2 at 1400°C for 10 h. By increasing Nb doping concentration, two different dielectric responses were evidenced in the frequency dependence of dielectric properties of Nb doped TiO2 ceramics, which corresponded to the space charge polarization and the electron-pinned defect-dipoles effect, respectively. Especially, combined with the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results, the electron-pinned defect-dipoles induced by the 2({Nb}^{5 + } )_{{Ti}}^{ bullet } to 4({Ti}^{3 + } )^'_{{Ti}} leftarrow {V}_{{o}}^{ bullet bullet } defect complex were further confirmed to give rise to both their high ɛr and low tan δ in the high frequency range for the Nb x Ti1- x O2 ceramics with x > 4%.

  9. Antibacterial and Photodegradative Properties of Metal Doped TiO2 thin Films Under Visible Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogorevc, Jerneja Šauta; Tratar-Pirc, Elizabeta; Matoh, Lev; Peter, Bukovec

    2012-06-01

    Doped (Au, Ag) and undoped TiO2 thin films were prepared on soda-lime glass via the sol-gel method by dip-coating from TiCl4 precursor, followed by 30 minutes calcination at 500 °C to obtain transparent thin films with good adhesion to the substrate. XRD analysis showed that the particle size of samples heat treated at 500 °C was ~10 nm for all of the samples prepared, both doped and undoped ones. SEM images revealed that the thin film surface was homogeneous and nano-porous. The hydrophilicity of the thin films was estimated by contact angle measurements. The photodegradation rate of an aqueous solution of the azo dye Plasmocorinth B on the thin films was tested by in-situ UV-Vis spectroscopic measurements of the dye solution. The best photocatalytic activity under visible and UVA light was exhibited by undoped TiO2 thin films, whereas Au doped thin films were slightly less active. On the other hand, the best antimicrobial activity toward the E. coli strain DH5a under visible light was displayed by the Au/TiO2 thin films.

  10. TiO2 doped UO2 fuels sintered by spark plasma sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Tiankai; Scott, Spencer M.; Xin, Guoqing; Lian, Jie

    2016-02-01

    UO2 fuels doped with oxide additives Cr2O3 and TiO2 display larger grain size, improving fission product retention capability and thus accident tolerance. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) was applied to consolidate TiO2-doped UO2 fuel pellets with 0.5 wt % dopant concentration, above its solubility, in order to induce eutectic phase formation and promote sintering kinetics. The grain size can reach 80 μm by sintering at 1700 °C for 20 min, and liquid U-Ti-O eutectic phase occurs at the triple junction of grain boundaries and significantly improves grain growth during sintering. The oxide additive also impedes the reduction of the initial hyperstoichiometric fuel powders to more stoichiometric fuel pellets upon SPS process. Thermal-mechanical properties of the sintered doped fuel pellets including thermal conductivity and hardness are measured and compared with undoped fuel pellets. The enlarged grain size (80 μm) and densification within short sintering duration highlight the immense possibility of SPS in fabricating large grained UO2 fuel pellets to improve fuel performance.

  11. FTIR spectra and thermal properties of TiO2-doped iron phosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mingwei; Wang, Fu; Liao, Qilong; Chen, Kuiru; Qin, Jianfa; Pan, Sheqi

    2015-02-01

    Structure and thermal properties of xTiO2·(90 - x) (60P2O5-40Fe2O3)ṡ10CaF2 (x = 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 mol%) glasses are investigated in detail by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrum (FTIR) and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), respectively. It is found that incorporation of TiO2 increase the density and glass transition temperature of iron phosphate system glass. The increment of doped-TiO2 can also strengthen phosphate network chains due to increasing O/P ratios and more orthophosphate (Q0) units formed in the glass structure at expense of pyrophosphate (Q1) units and metaphosphate (Q2) groups. Moreover, the structure of iron phosphate glass with TiO2 content contain distorted octahedral [TiO6] linked to phosphate unit through Psbnd Osbnd Ti bonds, thus enhanced structure cohesion and increased density obtained. The knowledge provides an improved understanding of the role of TiO2 in the structure of iron phosphate glasses.

  12. Effect of Polyethylene Glycol Modification of TiO2 Nanoparticles on Cytotoxicity and Gene Expressions in Human Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Sonezaki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles (NPs are tiny materials used in a wide range of industrial and medical applications. Titanium dioxide (TiO2 is a type of nanoparticle that is widely used in paints, pigments, and cosmetics; however, little is known about the impact of TiO2 on human health and the environment. Therefore, considerable research has focused on characterizing the potential toxicity of nanoparticles such as TiO2 and on understanding the mechanism of TiO2 NP-induced nanotoxicity through the evaluation of biomarkers. Uncoated TiO2 NPs tend to aggregate in aqueous media, and these aggregates decrease cell viability and induce expression of stress-related genes, such as those encoding interleukin-6 (IL-6 and heat shock protein 70B’ (HSP70B’, indicating that TiO2 NPs induce inflammatory and heat shock responses. In order to reduce their toxicity, we conjugated TiO2 NPs with polyethylene glycol (PEG to eliminate aggregation. Our findings indicate that modifying TiO2 NPs with PEG reduces their cytotoxicity and reduces the induction of stress-related genes. Our results also suggest that TiO2 NP-induced effects on cytotoxicity and gene expression vary depending upon the cell type and surface modification.

  13. Enhancement removal of tartrazine dye using HCl-doped polyaniline and TiO2-decorated PANI particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, M. A.; Gobara, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    HCl-doped polyaniline (HCl-PANI) and titanium dioxide decorated with polyaniline (TiO2-decorated PANI) with different TiO2:PANI ratios were chemically prepared and utilized for the removal of tartrazine (TZ) dye from a synthetic aqueous solution. The mechanism of preparation of the sample suggested that aniline was adsorbed on the TiO2 surface before the polymerization process took place. Samples were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. The results showed that HCl-PANI and TiO2-decorated PANI have an amorphous structure. The thermal stability of the prepared samples was characterized using thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis. HCl-PANI is stable up to 200 °C and the relative weight per cent of PANI in the TiO2-decorated PANI was 20, 25, 40 and 45%. The removal activity of TiO2-decorated PANI via TZ azo dye was investigated under UV light irradiations and compared with HCl-PANI and TiO2 particles. The results indicated the superiority of the TiO2-decorated PANI over pure HCl-PANI and TiO2. However, the excessive PANI percentage tends to form a relatively thick layer, and even aggregates on the surface of TiO2. This hinders the migration of excited electrons from the outer PANI layer to the inner TiO2 particles, which consequently leads to a decrease in the removal efficiency. A possible mechanism for the removal oxidative degradation is also mentioned.

  14. Preparation of TiO2 nanoparticles co-doped with Fe3+ and Eu3 + and photocatalytic degradation of carbendazim%Fe3+、Eu3+共掺纳米TiO2光催化降解N-(2-苯并咪唑基)-氨基甲酸甲酯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭春雷; 樊君; 姚飞; 孙洋; 胡晓云; 魏嵩; 闫森; 梁旭华

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticles of TiO2 co-doped with Fe3 +and Eu3+ were prepared in anhydrous ethanol media by sol-gel microwave method. Fe/Eu-TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared by modification of TiO2 fine particles of anatase structure through heating in N2 at 500 ℃. The as-prepared photocatalysts were characterized by UV-Vis, FS, XRD, SEM and BET. The photodegradation of carbendazim was used as probe reaction to examine their photoactivity and analyze the apparent kinetic constants. The results show that Fe3+ and Eu3+ co-doped TiO2 whose crystalline size is in the range of 20-50 nm extends the absorption spectra into the visible region over the range 370-770 nm, thus presenting the best photocatalytic activity under UV and visible light. Meanwhile, the photocatalytic degradation rate constant kapp (0.046 66 min-1) of Fe/Eu-TiO2 is higher than that of Fe3+ or Eu3+ single-doped TiO2. The kinetics and mechanism of the reaction indicates that the Eu3+ and Fe3+ co-doping promotes the photocatalysis by capturing the photogenerated electrons and may induce the formation of HO ? .%采用溶胶-凝胶-微波法制备Fe3+、Eu3+共掺杂纳米TiO2( Fe/Eu-TiO2),并通过紫外-可见吸收光谱(UV-Vis)、荧光光谱(FS)、X射线衍射(XRD)、扫描电镜(SEM)、比表面积测定(BET)等手段对其进行表征.结果表明:在500℃氮气保护下退火制得的Fe/Eu-TiO2为锐钛矿相纳米颗粒,平均粒径为20-50nm;对可见光的响应范围为370-770 nm.光催化降解N-(2-苯并咪唑基)-氨基甲酸甲酯(多菌灵)的实验表明,Fe3+、Eu3+共掺杂对TiO2光催化表现出协同增效作用,在可见光下能产生更多的羟基自由基,对多菌灵降解速率常数kapp为0.046 66 min-1,大于分别单掺Fe3和Eu3的TiO2纳米粒子.

  15. Assessment of phototoxicity, skin irritation, and sensitization potential of polystyrene and TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoon-Hee; Jeong, Sang Hoon; Yi, Sang Min; Hyeok Choi, Byeong; Kim, Yu-Ri; Kim, In-Kyoung; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Son, Sang Wook

    2011-07-01

    The human skin equivalent model (HSEM) is well known as an attractive alternative model for evaluation of dermal toxicity. However, only limited data are available on the usefulness of an HSEM for nanotoxicity testing. This study was designed to investigate cutaneous toxicity of polystyrene and TiO2 nanoparticles using cultured keratinocytes, an HSEM, and an animal model. In addition, we also evaluated the skin sensitization potential of nanoparticles using a local lymph node assay with incorporation of BrdU. Findings from the present study indicate that polystyrene and TiO2 nanoparticles do not induce phototoxicity, acute cutaneous irritation, or skin sensitization. Results from evaluation of the HSEMs correspond well with those from animal models. Our findings suggest that the HSEM might be a useful alternative model for evaluation of dermal nanotoxicity.

  16. Band structures of TiO2 doped with N, C and B*

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This study on the band structures and charge densities of nitrogen (N)-, carbon (C)- and boron (B)-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) by first-principles simulation with the CASTEP code (Segall et al., 2002) showed that the three 2p bands of impurity atom are located above the valence-band maximum and below the Ti 3d bands, and that along with the decreasing of impurity atomic number, the fluctuations become more intensive. We cannot observe obvious band-gap narrowing in our result. Therefore, the...

  17. Application of TiO2 nanoparticles coated multi-wall carbon nanotube to dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho; Kao, Mu-Jung; Huang, Kuohsiu-David; Hsieh, Tung-Jung; Chien, Shu-Hua

    2010-11-01

    This study uses the sol-gel method to prepare TiO2 nanoparticle, and further applies TiO2 nanoparticle coating on the surface of the multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT). As a result, TiO2-CNT composite nanoparticles are prepared to serve as photoelectrode material in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). First, after acid treatment of MWCNT is used to remove impurities. Then, the sol-gel method is employed to prepare TiO2-CNT composite nanopowder. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern shows that after the TiO2 in TiO2-CNT composite nanopowder has been thermally treated at 450 degrees C, it can be completely changed to anatase phase. Furthermore, as shown from the SEM image, TiO2 has been successfully coated on CNT. The photoelectrode of DSSC is prepared using the electrophoretic deposition method (EPD) to mix the Degassa P25 TiO2 nanoparticles with TiO2-CNT powder for deposition on the indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive glass. After secondary EPD, a thin film of TiO2/CNTs with thickness 17 microm can be acquired. For the prepared TiO2-CNT composite nanoparticles, since MWCNT can increase the short-circuit current density of DSSC, the light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of DSSC can be effectively increased. Experimental results show that the photoelectric conversion efficiency of DSSC using CNT/TiO2 photoelectrode and N719 dye is increased by 41% from the original 3.45% to 4.87%.

  18. Fe3+掺杂纳米TiO2的表征及其光催化性能的研究%Characterization of Nanoparticle TiO2 Doped with Fe3 + and Research on Its Photocatalytic Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桢; 鲍治宇; 董延茂; 卢斌

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective]The study aim to enhance the response to visible light and photocatalytic activity of TiO2. [ Method] The nanometer TiO2 powder doped with Fe3+ was prepared by so-gal process and its photocatalytic activity was studied. [ Result]The TiO2 doped with Fe3+ showed obvious characteristic diffraction peaks of TiO2 after it was calcinated at 450 ℃ ,the peak form was sharp,crystallization was well and there was no new phase of Fe3+. As the doping amount of Fe3+ was increased,the particle diameter of TiO2 was decreased gradually. When the doping amount of Fe3+ was 0.4% ,the particle diameter of TiO2 was smallest and it was decreased to 45% of the paricle diameter of pure TiO2. The doping of Fe3+ inihibted the transform from anatase to rutile. As the calcination temperature was increased ,the particle diameter of TiO2 was increased gradually. All the TiO2 prepared by sol-gal process was nanometer and most of them were spheroidal particles. The distribution of pure TiO2 particles was not very uniform and their agglomeration was obvious. The distribution of TiO2 particles doped with Fe3+ was uniform and there was no agglomeration. The doping of Fe3 + enhanced the degradation efficiency of TiO2 under UV lamp and sunlight to different degrees. [ Conclusion ] The nanometer TiO2 doped with Fe3+ ,which was prepared by sol-gal process,refined grain of crystal and inhibited the transform from anatase to rutfle.%[目的]提高TiO2的可见光响应和光催化活性.[方法]采用溶胶凝胶法制备掺铁纳米TiO2粉体,进而研究掺铁TiO2的光催化活性.[结果]450 ℃煅烧后掺铁TiO2出现了很明显的TiO2特征衍射峰,且峰形尖锐,结晶良好,均没有出现铁的掺杂新相.随着掺铁量的提高,TiO2的粒径逐渐减小,当掺杂量为0.4%时,TiO2的粒径最小,减少至纯TiO2的45%.掺铁抑制了锐钛矿向金红石矿的转变.随着焙烧温度的升高,TiO2的粒径逐渐增大.用溶胶-凝胶法制备的TiO2均为纳米级,

  19. P-doped TiO2 with superior visible-light activity prepared by rapid microwave hydrothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jinfen; Lu, Pan; Kang, Mei; Deng, Kunfa; Yao, Binghua; Yu, Xiaojiao; Zhang, Qian

    2014-11-01

    Phosphorous-doped anatase TiO2 powders (P-TiO2) were prepared by rapid microwave hydrothermal method. The resulting materials were characterized by XRD, SEM, XPS, DRS and N2 adsorption. P-doping decreased the band gap and enlarged the surface area of P-doped samples than that of undoped TiO2 samples. Therefore, the photocatalytic degradation of methyl blue (MB) and tetracycline hydrochloride (Tc) experiments showed that the P-TiO2 catalysts, especially the two-steps-controlling products P-TiO2-2, exhibited higher degradation efficiency than the undoped TiO2 and commercial P25 under visible-light irradiation. Hydroxyl radicals (rad OH) have been confirmed to be the active species during the photocatalytic oxidation reaction. The microwave hydrothermal method confirms to be very suitable for the synthesis of superior visible-light activity P-doped samples.

  20. Influences of Silver-Doping on the Crystal Structure, Morphology and Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barakat, Nasser A. M.; Kanjwal, Muzafar Ahmed; Al-Deyab, Salem S.

    2011-01-01

    activity of titanium oxide nanofibers has been studied. Sil-ver-doped TiO2 nanofibers having different silver contents were prepared by calcination of electrospun nanofiber mats consisting of silver nitrate, titanium isopropoxide and poly(vinyl acetate) at 600°C. The results affirmed formation of silver......-doped TiO2 nanofibers composed of anatase and rutile when the silver nitrate content in the original electrospun solution was more than 3 wt%. The rutile phase content was directly proportional with the AgNO3 concentration in the electrospun solution. Negative impact of the silver-doping on the nanofibrous...

  1. Study on anti-fungal activity of nitrogen-doped TiO_2 nanophotocatalyst under visible light irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped TiO_2 nanophotocatalysts were prepared,and characterized by XRD patterns and UV-vis spectroscopy.The results indicated that nitrogen was doped effectively and the shift of the absorption edge to a lower energy and a stronger absorption in the visible light region were observed.The calcinations temperature is a key factor to narrow the band gap of titania,and consequently affects the response to visible light of nitrogen-doped TiO_2 nanocrystals.This photocatalyst can effectively inhibit th...

  2. Toxicological assessment of TiO2 nanoparticles by recombinant Escherichia coli bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guoxiang; Shen, Zhenyao; Niu, Junfeng; Bao, Yueping; Chen, Jing; He, Tiande

    2011-01-01

    Rapid and efficient methods to assess nanoparticle toxicity are desired in current research. Here we showed that Escherichia coli labeled by green fluorescent protein can be a good model bacterium for assessing acute toxicity of TiO(2) (about 50% inhibition ratios after 135 min exposure). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) revealed that TiO(2) nanoparticles (NPs) can influence certain protein expression in the recombinant bacterium, and the obvious effects in repressed expression and elevated expression were observed in 30/40, 10/20 μg mL(-1) treated cells, respectively. However, the GFP expression (27 kD) was not influenced by introduced TiO(2) NPs. The change of the fluorescence intensity may be caused by the damage in folding and chromophore formation of the GFP post-translational modification due to generated reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, TiO(2) NPs at higher concentrations decreased their toxicity because of aggregation. 20 μg mL(-1) humic acid (HA) introduced to the medium can decrease the fluorescent inhibition owing to the barrier of steric hindrance it provides between NPs and cells.

  3. Photocatalytic Improvement under Visible Light in TiO2 Nanoparticles by Carbon Nanotube Incorporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathana Wongaree

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticles was successfully enhanced by addition of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT to make CNT/TiO2 nanocomposites by sol-gel method at ambient temperature. CNT treated by HNO3 : H2SO4 treatment (1 : 3 v/v was mixed with TiO2 nanoparticles at various molar ratios and calcination temperatures. The optimal molar ratio of CNT : TiO2 was found at 0.05 : 1 by weight. The optimal calcination condition was 400°C for 3 h. From the results, the photocatalytic activities of CNT/TiO2 nanocomposites were determined by the decolorization of 1 × 10−5 M methylene blue (MB under visible light. CNT/TiO2 nanocomposites could enhance the photocatalytic activity and showed faster for the degradation of MB with only 90 min. The degradation efficiency of the MB solution with CNT/TiO2 nanocomposite achieved 70% which was higher than that with pristine TiO2 (22%. This could be explained that CNT prevents TiO2 from its agglomeration which could further enhance electron transfer in the composites. In addition, CNT/TiO2 nanocomposites had high specific surface area (202 m2/g which is very promising for utilization as a photocatalyst for environmental applications.

  4. Gold nanoparticles-immobilized, hierarchically ordered, porous TiO2 nanotubes for biosensing of glutathione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheen Mers SV

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available SV Sheen Mers,1,2 Elumalai Thambuswamy Deva Kumar,1 V Ganesh1,2 1Electrodics and Electrocatalysis (EEC Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research–Central Electrochemical Research Institute (CSIR–CECRI, Karaikudi, Tamil Nadu, India; 2Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR, New Delhi, India Abstract: Glutathione (GSH is vital for several functions of our human body such as neutralization of free radicals and reactive oxygen compounds, maintaining the active forms of vitamin C and E, regulation of nitric oxide cycle, iron metabolism, etc. It is also an endogenous antioxidant in most of the biological reactions. Given the importance of GSH, a simple strategy is proposed in this work to develop a biosensor for quantitative detection of GSH. This particular biosensor comprises of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs-immobilized, hierarchically ordered titanium dioxide (TiO2 porous nanotubes. Hexagonally arranged, honeycomb-like nanoporous tubular TiO2 electrodes are prepared by using a simple electrochemical anodization process by applying a constant potential of 30 V for 24 hours using ethylene glycol consisting of ammonium fluoride as an electrolytic medium. Structural morphology and crystalline nature of such TiO2 nanotubes are analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Interestingly, nanocomposites of TiO2 with Au NPs is prepared in an effort to alter the intrinsic properties of TiO2, especially tuning of its band gap. Au NPs are prepared by a well-known Brust and Schiffrin method and are immobilized onto TiO2 electrodes which act as a perfect electrochemical sensing platform for GSH detection. Structural characterization and analysis of these modified electrodes are performed using FESEM, XRD, and UV-visible spectroscopic studies. GSH binding events on Au NPs-immobilized porous TiO2 electrodes are monitored by electrochemical techniques, namely, cyclic voltammetry (CV and

  5. Celllular Uptake and Clearance of TIO2 Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differential rates of cellular uptake and clearance of engineered nanomaterials may influence the propensity for tissue accumulation under chronic exposure conditions. A retinal pigment epithelial cell line (ARPE-19) was used to investigate 1) if Ti02 (Degussa, P25) nanoparticles...

  6. Degradation of Typical Indoor Air Pollutants Using Fe-Doped TiO2 Thin Film under Daylight Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaijie Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A type of iron-doped titania thin film was prepared by means of sol-gel method to degrade indoor formaldehyde (HCHO, ammonia (NH3, and benzene (C6H6 under sunlight. The photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spetra (EDS. The results showed that the iron was doped in the TiO2 photocatalyst successfully. The absorption edge of doped TiO2 had red shifts and the doped TiO2 had a stronger absorption than the pure TiO2 in the visible region. Fe-doped TiO2 thin film prepared with the optimal preparation condition could remove indoor HCHO, NH3 and C6H6 effectively under solar light irradiation. The removal percentage of HCHO, NH3 or C6H6 after 9 h photocatalytic reaction under solar light reached 55%, 53.1%, and 37.5%, respectively, when they existed in the air individually. When the three pollutants were mixed in the air, the removal percentage decreased to 33.3%, 28.3%, and 28%. The degradation reaction of the three pollutants followed the pseudo first-order kinetics, which reflects that the photocatalytic reaction was controlled by the surface chemical reaction and the reaction rate was controlled by concentration of reactants.

  7. Low Temperature Hydrothermal Synthesis of Visible-Light-Activated I-Doped TiO2 for Improved Dye Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongting; Li, Jianwen; Zhou, Guangsheng; Wang, Wenxu; Zhang, Xianxi; Pan, Xu

    2016-06-01

    Iodine doped TiO2 with different iodine/Ti molar ratios has been firstly synthesized with a low temperature hydrothermal route and has been studied systematically in photocatalysis under visible light condition. The resulting iodine doped TiO2 were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photocatalytic performance investigations were conducted by means of the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under the visible light irradiation in aqueous solution. Under an optimized I/Ti doping ratio of 10 mol%, the photocatalytic performance is greatly better, with degradation efficiency of 95%, which is almost double that of pure TiO2. The superior photocatalytic activity of iodine-doped TiO2 could be mainly attributed to extended visible light absorption originated from the formation of continuous states existed in the band gap of the doped TiO2 introduced by iodine. Active oxygen species, that is, *OH and O2-, were evidenced to be involved in the degradation process and a possible mechanism was also proposed.

  8. Methylene blue photocatalytic mineralization under visible irradiation on TiO2 thin films doped with chromium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Uribe, Carlos; Vallejo, William; Ramos, Wilkendry

    2014-11-01

    We studied changes in structural, optical and photocatalytic properties of TiO2 thin films due to doping process with chromium. Powders of undoped TiO2 and chromium-doped TiO2 (Cr:TiO2) were synthesized by sol-gel method and, thin films were deposited by doctor blade method. The properties of the thin films were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and diffuse reflectance. The XRD patterns indicated that doping process changed the crystalline phases radio of TiO2 thin films, furthermore, the optical analysis showed that band gap value of Cr:TiO2 thin films was 31% fewer than undoped TiO2 thin films. Along, Langmuir-Hinshelwood model was used to obtain kinetic information of the photo-mineralization process; results indicated that photocatalytic activity of Cr:TiO2 thin films were four times better than undoped TiO2 thin films; finally the synergic effect was tested by addition of the H2O2, photocatalytic yield was improved from 26% to 61% when methylene blue photo-mineralization was assisted with slightly amount of H2O2.

  9. Interaction of New-Developed TiO2-Based Photocatalytic Nanoparticles with Pathogenic Microorganisms and Human Dermal and Pulmonary Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nica, Ionela Cristina; Stan, Miruna Silvia; Popa, Marcela; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Lazar, Veronica; Pircalabioru, Gratiela G.; Dumitrescu, Iuliana; Ignat, Madalina; Feder, Marcel; Tanase, Liviu Cristian; Mercioniu, Ionel; Diamandescu, Lucian; Dinischiotu, Anca

    2017-01-01

    TiO2-based photocatalysts were obtained during previous years in order to limit pollution and to ease human daily living conditions due to their special properties. However, obtaining biocompatible photocatalysts is still a key problem, and the mechanism of their toxicity recently received increased attention. Two types of TiO2 nanoparticles co-doped with 1% of iron and nitrogen (TiO2-1% Fe–N) atoms were synthesized in hydrothermal conditions at pH of 8.5 (HT1) and 5.5 (HT2), and their antimicrobial activity and cytotoxic effects exerted on human pulmonary and dermal fibroblasts were assessed. These particles exhibited significant microbicidal and anti-biofilm activity, suggesting their potential application for microbial decontamination of different environments. In addition, our results demonstrated the biocompatibility of TiO2-1% Fe–N nanoparticles at low doses on lung and dermal cells, which may initiate oxidative stress through dose accumulation. Although no significant changes were observed between the two tested photocatalysts, the biological response was cell type specific and time- and dose-dependent; the lung cells proved to be more sensitive to nanoparticle exposure. Taken together, these experimental data provide useful information for future photocatalytic applications in the industrial, food, pharmaceutical, and medical fields. PMID:28125053

  10. Synthesis, Characterization, and Tribological Evaluation of TiO2-Reinforced Boron and Nitrogen co-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide Based Hybrid Nanomaterials as Efficient Antiwear Lubricant Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Vinay; Kalyani; Umrao, Sima; Rastogi, Rashmi B; Kumar, Rajesh; Srivastava, Anchal

    2016-05-11

    The microwave-synthesized reduced graphene oxide (MRG), boron-doped reduced graphene oxide (B-MRG), nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-MRG), boron-nitrogen-co-doped reduced graphene oxide (B-N-MRG), and TiO2-reinforced B-N-MRG (TiO2-B-N-MRG) nanomaterials have been synthesized and characterized by various state-of-the-art techniques, like Raman spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Furthermore, the tribological properties of prepared nanomaterials as antiwear additives in neutral paraffin oil have been evaluated using a four-ball machine at an optimized additive concentration (0.15% w/v). The tribological parameters, like mean wear scar diameter, coefficient of friction, and wear rates, revealed that these nanomaterials have potential to be developed as environmentally friendly sulfated-ash-, phosphorus-, and sulfur-free antiwear lubricant additives. The friction- and wear-reducing behavior of MRG increased upon successive doping of nitrogen, boron, and both nitrogen and boron. Among these additives, B-N-co-doped MRG shows superior tribological behavior in paraffin base oil. Besides this, the load-carrying properties of B-N-co-doped MRG have significantly improved after its reinforcement with TiO2 nanoparticles. A comparative study of the surface morphology of a lubricated track in the presence of various additives has been assessed by SEM and contact-mode atomic force microscopy. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies have proved that the excellent lubrication properties of TiO2-B-N-MRG are due to the in situ formation of a tribofilm composed of boron nitride, adsorbed graphene layers, and tribosintered TiO2 nanoparticles during the tribocontact. Being sulfur-, halogen-, and phosphorus-free, these graphene-based nanomaterials act as green antiwear additives, protecting interacting

  11. Tuning the surface structure of nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanofibres--an effective method to enhance photocatalytic activities of visible-light-driven green synthesis and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhanfeng; Zhao, Jian; Yuan, Yong; Liu, Hongwei; Yang, Dongjiang; Sarina, Sarina; Zhang, Hongjie; Waclawika, Eric R; Zhu, Huaiyong

    2013-04-26

    Nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanofibres of anatase and TiO2(B) phases were synthesised by a reaction between titanate nanofibres of a layered structure and gaseous NH3 at 400-700 °C, following a different mechanism than that for the direct nitrogen doping from TiO2. The surface of the N-doped TiO2 nanofibres can be tuned by facial calcination in air to remove the surface-bonded N species, whereas the core remains N doped. N-Doped TiO2 nanofibres, only after calcination in air, became effective photocatalysts for the decomposition of sulforhodamine B under visible-light irradiation. The surface-oxidised surface layer was proven to be very effective for organic molecule adsorption, and the activation of oxygen molecules, whereas the remaining N-doped interior of the fibres strongly absorbed visible light, resulting in the generation of electrons and holes. The N-doped nanofibres were also used as supports of gold nanoparticle (Au NP) photocatalysts for visible-light-driven hydroamination of phenylacetylene with aniline. Phenylacetylene was activated on the N-doped surface of the nanofibres and aniline on the Au NPs. The Au NPs adsorbed on N-doped TiO2(B) nanofibres exhibited much better conversion (80 % of phenylacetylene) than when adsorbed on undoped fibres (46 %) at 40 °C and 95 % of the product is the desired imine. The surface N species can prevent the adsorption of O2 that is unfavourable for the hydroamination reaction, and thus, improve the photocatalytic activity. Removal of the surface N species resulted in a sharp decrease of the photocatalytic activity. These photocatalysts are feasible for practical applications, because they can be easily dispersed into solution and separated from a liquid by filtration, sedimentation or centrifugation due to their fibril morphology.

  12. Biocompatibility of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate with TiO2 Nanoparticles on Human Gingival Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiei, Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Marzieh; Divband, Baharak; Akbarzadeh, Farzaneh

    2017-01-01

    Background The New compositions of white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA) or use of various additives like nanoparticles might affect MTA’s ideal characteristics This study was performed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of WMTA and WMTA with Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (1% weight ratio) at different storage times after mixing on human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). Material and Methods HGFs were obtained from the attached gingiva of human premolars. HGFs were cultured in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle medium, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum, penicillin and streptomycin. The cells were exposed to WMTA (groups 1 and 2) and WMTA+TiO2 (groups 3 and 4). The fifth and sixth groups served as controls. Each group contained 15 wells. After 24h (groups 1, 3 and 5) and 48 h (groups 2, 4 and 6) of exposure, HGF viability was determined by Mosmann’s tetrazolium toxicity (MTT) assay. Statistical analysis of the data was performed by using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc test, with significance of p 0.05). Conclusions Under the limitations of the present study, incorporation of TiO2 nanoparticles into MTA at 1 wt% had no negative effect on its biocompatibility. Key words:Cytotoxicity, fibroblast, MTA, MTT assay, nanoparticle, TiO2. PMID:28210432

  13. Effects of TiO2 nanoparticles on nutrition metabolism in silkworm fat body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Tian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Silkworm (Bombyx mori is an important economic insect with a fat body that plays a crucial role in the storage and transfer of nutrients. It is also known that TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs can improve feed efficiency and promote silk protein synthesis in the silkworm. In this study, we profiled gene expression in the silkworm fat body after TiO2 NP treatment, validated the major RNA-seq findings, and determined the contents of trehalose and triglyceride, the activity of lipase, and the amount of total proteins. RNA-seq analysis revealed that TiO2 NP treatment caused significant expression changes in 341 genes (P≤0.01, 138 of which were upregulated while the other 203 were downregulated. The expression levels of two target genes in the insulin signaling pathway and two protein metabolism-related target genes, three lipid metabolism-associated target genes, two carbohydrate metabolism related target genes and expression levels of seven heat shock protein genes were increased, and that of threonine dehydratase gene and fatty acid transport protein gene were decreased. The RNA-seq results of 16 genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. The lipase activity, content of trehalose, and amount of total proteins were elevated by 3.86-fold, 1.34-fold, and 1.21-fold, respectively, and the content of triglyceride was decreased by 0.94-fold after TiO2 NP treatment. These results indicated that TiO2 NPs activated the insulin signaling pathway, promoted the metabolism of protein, fat, and carbohydrate, and improved nutrition metabolism. Our study provides new support for the understanding of the beneficial effect of TiO2 NPs on silkworm nutrient metabolism.

  14. Effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on the reproduction of silkworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Min; Li, Fanchi; Wang, Binbin; Xu, Kaizun; Zhang, Hua; Hu, Jingsheng; Tian, Jianghai; Shen, Weide; Li, Bing

    2015-03-01

    Silkworm (Bombyx mori) is an important economic insect and the model insect of Lepidoptera. Because of its high fecundity and short reproduction cycle, it has been widely used in reproduction and development research. The high concentrations of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) show reproductive toxicity, while low concentrations of TiO2 NPs have been used as feed additive and demonstrated significant biological activities. However, whether the low concentrations of TiO2 NPs affect the reproduction of B. mori has not been reported. In this study, the growth and development of gonad of B. mori fed with a low concentration of TiO2 NPs (5 mg/L) were investigated by assessing egg production and expression of reproduction-related genes. The results showed that the low concentration of TiO2 NPs resulted in faster development of the ovaries and testes and more gamete differentiation and formation, with an average increase of 51 eggs per insect and 0.34 × 10(-4) g per egg after the feeding. The expressions of several reproduction-related genes were upregulated, such as the yolk-development-related genes Ovo-781 and vitellogenin (Vg) were increased by 5.33- and 6.77-folds, respectively. This study shows that TiO2 NPs feeding at low concentration can enhance the reproduction of B. mori, and these results are useful in developing new methods to improve fecundity in B. mori and providing new clues for its broad biological applications.

  15. LED and low level laser therapy association in tooth bleaching using a novel low concentration H2O2/N-doped TiO2 bleaching agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra Dias, Hércules; Teixeira Carrera, Emanuelle; Freitas Bortolatto, Janaína; Ferrarezi de Andrade, Marcelo; Nara de Souza Rastelli, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Since low concentration bleaching agents containing N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles have been introduced as an alternative to conventional agents, it is important to verify their efficacy and the hypersensitivity effect in clinical practice. Six volunteer patients were evaluated for color change and hypersensitivity after bleaching using 35% H2O2 (one session of two 12 min applications) and 6% H2O2/N-doped TiO2 (one session of three 12 min applications) and after low level laser therapy application (LLLT) (780 nm, 40 mW, 10 J.cm-2, 10 s). Based on this case study, the nanobleaching agent provided better or similar aesthetic results than the conventional agent under high concentration, and its association with LLLT satisfactorily decreased the hypersensitivity. The 6% H2O2/N-doped TiO2 agent could be used instead of conventional in-office bleaching agents under high concentrations to fulfill the rising patient demand for aesthetics.

  16. Voltammetric Sensor Based on Fe-doped ZnO and TiO2 Nanostructures-modified Carbon-paste Electrode for Determination of Levodopa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaraki Firooz, Azam; Hosseini Nia, Bahram; Beheshtian, Javad; Ghalkhani, Masoumeh

    2017-10-01

    In this study, undoped and 1 wt.% Fe-doped with ZnO, and TiO2 nanostructures were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method without using templates. The influence of the Fe dopant on structural, optical and electrochemical response was studied by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectra, photoluminescence spectra and electrochemical characterization system. The electrochemical response of the carbon paste electrode modified with synthesized nanostructures (undoped ZnO and TiO2 as well as doped with Fe ions) toward levodopa (L-Dopa) was studied. Cyclic voltammetry using provided modified electrodes showed electro-catalytic properties for electro-oxidation of L-Dopa and a significant reduction was observed in the anodic overvoltage compared to the bare electrode. The results indicated the presence of the sufficient dopants. The best response was obtained in terms of the current enhancement, overvoltage reduction, and reversibility improvement of the L-Dopa oxidation reaction under experimental conditions by the modified electrode with TiO2 nanoparticles doped with Fe ions.

  17. Solution-processed, antimony-doped tin oxide colloid films enable high-performance TiO2 photoanodes for water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qing; Kalanyan, Berç; Hoertz, Paul G; Miller, Andrew; Kim, Do Han; Hanson, Kenneth; Alibabaei, Leila; Liu, Jie; Meyer, Thomas J; Parsons, Gregory N; Glass, Jeffrey T

    2013-04-10

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting and solar fuels hold great promise for harvesting solar energy. TiO2-based photoelectrodes for water splitting have been intensively investigated since 1972. However, solar-to-fuel conversion efficiencies of TiO2 photoelectrodes are still far lower than theoretical values. This is partially due to the dilemma of a short minority carrier diffusion length, and long optical penetration depth, as well as inefficient electron collection. We report here the synthesis of TiO2 PEC electrodes by coating solution-processed antimony-doped tin oxide nanoparticle films (nanoATO) on FTO glass with TiO2 through atomic layer deposition. The conductive, porous nanoATO film-supported TiO2 electrodes, yielded a highest photocurrent density of 0.58 mA/cm(2) under AM 1.5G simulated sunlight of 100 mW/cm(2). This is approximately 3× the maximum photocurrent density of planar TiO2 PEC electrodes on FTO glass. The enhancement is ascribed to the conductive interconnected porous nanoATO film, which decouples the dimensions for light absorption and charge carrier diffusion while maintaining efficient electron collection. Transient photocurrent measurements showed that nanoATO films reduce charge recombination by accelerating transport of photoelectrons through the less defined conductive porous nanoATO network. Owing to the large band gap, scalable solution processed porous nanoATO films are promising as a framework to replace other conductive scaffolds for PEC electrodes.

  18. Effects of Ni doping on photocatalytic activity of TiO2 thin films prepared by liquid phase deposition technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Noor Shahina Begum; H M Farveez Ahmed; K R Gunashekar

    2008-10-01

    The TiO2 thin films doped by Ni uniformly and non-uniformly were prepared on glass substrate from an aqueous solution of ammonium hexa-fluoro titanate and NiF2 by liquid phase deposition technique. The addition of boric acid as an – scavenger will shift the equilibrium to one side and thereby deposition of the film is progressed. The rate of the reaction and the nature of deposition depend on growing time and temperature. The resultant films were characterized by XRD, EDAX, UV and SEM. The result shows that the deposited films have amorphous background, which becomes crystalline at 500°C. The EDAX data confirms the existence of Ni atoms in TiO2 matrix. XRD analysis reveals the peaks corresponding to Ni but no peak of crystalline NiO was found. The transmittance spectra of Ni uniformly and non-uniformly doped TiO2 thin films show `blue shift and red shift’, respectively. Ni-doped TiO2 thin films can be used as photocatalyst for the photodegradation of methyl orange dye. It was found that, organic dye undergoes degradation efficiently in presence of non-uniformly Ni-doped TiO2 thin films when compared to uniformly doped films and pure TiO2 films under visible light. The photocatalytic activity increases with increase in the concentration of Ni in case of nonuniformly doped thin films but decreases with the concentration when uniformly doped thin films were used.

  19. 4-Nitroaniline Degradation by TiO2 Catalyst Doping with Manganese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stainless steel anode covered with layer film of TiO2 doped with manganese was utilized to decompose 4-nitroaniline in rectangular borosilicate glass reactor, while stainless steel mesh was chosen as cathode; the anode and cathode were connected to the direct-current power; meantime two 60 W (λmax = 365 nm UV lamps were used as light source. The microstructures on TiO2 before and after being doped with manganese were analyzed by energy disperse X-ray (EDX and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The performance of degradation of 4-nitroaniline was evaluated by analyzing cracking ratio of 4-nitroaniline ring, the chemical oxygen demand (COD, and total organic carbon (TOC in remaining solution. Monitored parameters during all the photocatalytic reaction including dissolved oxygen, direct voltage, and radiation dosage of ultraviolet rays were investigated. When dissolved oxygen concentration, direct voltage, and radiation dosage of ultraviolet rays were, respectively, equivalent to 9 mg/L, 24 V, and 1200 μW/cm2, the degradation ratio of 4-nitroaniline reached maximum. The experimental results indicated that cracking ratio of 4-nitroaniline ring and the removal ratio of COD and TOC were, respectively, more than 99%, 85%, and 80% when reaction was run for 10 hours. The values of COD and TOC were, respectively, less than 16 mg/L and 8 mg/L while the experiment was finished.

  20. DFT-based Theoretical Calculation of Nb- and W-doped Anatase TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suenaga, Takahiro; Kamisaka, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Hisao; Yamashita, Koichi

    2010-03-01

    The structure and electronic states in the Nb-doped TiO2 (TNO) and W-doped TiO2 (TWO) in anatase phase were investigated from the first-principle using DFT-based band structure method. In addition to the cases where the dopant substituting a Ti atom, cells containing a dopant (MTi; M = Nb, W) and an oxygen vacancy (VO) were calculated in order to clarify the role of the oxygen vacancy in the system. Furthermore, cells containing two dopants and an oxygen vacancy (2MTi--VO), and cells with a dopant and two oxygen vacancies (MTi--2VO) were calculated. Energetically stable structures were found among the sampled 2WTi--VO and WTi--2VO cells, while the corresponding structures in TNO did not show any significant energy stabilization. Impurity states were found in the stable 2WTi--VO and WTi--2VO structures, and an approach of the two WTi atoms was observed in the former. The present results rationalize the lower electronic conductivity of TWO than that of TNO, and suggest possible formation of complex structures consisting of the WTi dopants and the oxygen vacancies.