WorldWideScience

Sample records for doped carbon nanoparticles

  1. Effect of boron doping in the carbon support on platinum nanoparticles and carbon corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acharya, Chethan K.; Li, Wei; Kwon, Gihan; Heath Turner, C.; Lane, Alan M.; Klein, Tonya [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Liu, Zhufang; Nikles, David [Department of Chemistry, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Weaver, Mark [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Carbon supported catalysts can lose their activity over a period of time due to the sintering of the nanometer-sized catalyst particles. The sintering of metal clusters on carbon supports can occur due to the weak interaction between the metal and the support and also due to the corrosion of carbon, especially in fuel cell electrocatalysts. The sintering may be reduced by increasing the interaction between the metal and the support and also by increasing the corrosion resistance of carbon supports. In an effort to mitigate the growth of the nanoparticles, carbon-substituted boron defects were introduced in the carbon lattice. The interaction between the Pt nanoparticles on the pure and boron-doped carbon supports was examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate that the interaction between the Pt nanoparticles and the boron-doped carbon support was slightly stronger than the interaction between the Pt nanoparticles and the pure carbon support. Also, by using accelerated aging tests, the boron-doped system was found to be more resistant to carbon corrosion when compared to the pristine carbon-supported Pt catalyst. (author)

  2. Terbium-doped manganese carbonate nanoparticles with intrinsic photoluminescence and magnetic resonance imaging capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kang; Shi, Xin; Wang, Tingjian; Ai, Penghui; Gu, Wei; Ye, Ling

    2017-01-01

    Herein, we present the first example of manganese carbonate (MnCO3) nanoparticles (NPs) featuring intrinsic photoluminescence (PL) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging capacity by Terbium (Tb) doping. The Tb-doped MnCO3 NPs were prepared by one-step thermal decomposition of Mn-oleate precursor in the presence of Tb-oleate. The oleate capped Tb-doped MnCO3 NPs are in rhombohedral shape with an average size of about 13nm. When endowed with high water-dispersible via replacing oleate with carboxylic silane, the Tb-doped MnCO3 NPs exhibit distinct intrinsic PL originated from the doped Tb(3+) ions. Meanwhile, the MR imaging capacity of Tb-doped MnCO3 NPs is well retained, as demonstrated by a high r1 relaxivity of 4.0428mM(-1)s(-1) and a significant MR contrast enhancement effect towards tiny brain glioma in mice.

  3. Corking Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotube Cups with Gold Nanoparticles for Biodegradable Drug Delivery Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkert, Seth C; Star, Alexander

    2015-12-02

    Carbon nanomaterials have been proposed as effective drug delivery devices; however their perceived biopersistence and toxicological profile may hinder their applications in medical therapeutics. Nitrogen doping of carbon nanotubes results in a unique "stacked-cup" structure, with cups held together through van der Waals forces. Disrupting these weak interactions yields individual and short-stacked nanocups that can subsequently be corked with gold nanoparticles, resulting in sealed containers for delivery of cargo. Peroxidase-catalyzed reactions can effectively uncork these containers, followed by complete degradation of the graphitic capsule, resulting in effective release of therapeutic cargo while minimizing harmful side effects. The protocols reported herein describe the synthesis of stacked nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube cups followed by effective separation into individual cups and gold nanoparticle cork formation resulting in loaded and sealed containers.

  4. ARTICLES: Orientation in Nematic Liquid Crystals Doped with Orange Dyes and Effect of Carbon Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicilar, Ahmet; Akkurt, Fatih; Kaya, Nihan

    2010-06-01

    Some properties of nematic liquid crystal E7 doped with two disperse orange dyes used together and effect of addition of carbon nanoparticles (single walled carbon nanotube or fullerene C60) on them were studied. Two dyes (disperse orange 11 and 13) having high solubility and order parameter were used as co-dopants. A notable increase in order parameter was obtained comparing to that of liquid crystal doped with single dye. When carbon nanoparticles were used as dopant, a decrease in order parameter was observed at low temperatures while it increased at high temperatures. When applied voltage changed, the order parameter abruptly increased in its threshold value and saturated in higher voltages as expected. An appreciable change in textures was not observed with addition of dopants. This addition gave rise to an increase in nematic-isotropic phase transition temperatures compared with that of pure liquid crystal.

  5. Efficient photocatalytic activity with carbon-doped SiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongen; Wu, Jinbo; Zhou, Bingpu; Hong, Yaying; Li, Shunbo; Wen, Weijia

    2013-06-01

    Photocatalysis provides a `green' approach to completely eliminate various kinds of contaminants that are fatal for current environmental and energy issues. Semiconductors are one of the most frequently used photocatalysts as they can absorb light over a wide spectral range. However, it is also well known that naked SiO2 is not an efficient photocatalyst due to its relatively large band gap, which could only absorb shortwave ultraviolet light. In this report, nanoscale particles of carbon-doped silicon dioxide (C-doped SiO2) for use in photocatalysis were successfully prepared by a facile one-pot thermal process using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) as the source of both silicon and carbon. These particles were subsequently characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, standard and high resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The C-doped SiO2 displayed outstanding photocatalytic properties, as evidenced by its catalysis of Rhodamine B degradation under near-UV irradiation. We propose that carbon doping of the SiO2 lattice creates new energy states between the bottom of the conduction band and the top of the valence band, which narrows the band gap of the material. As a result, the C-doped SiO2 nanoparticles exhibit excellent photocatalytic activities in a neutral environment. The novel synthesis reported herein for this material is both energy efficient and environmentally friendly and as such shows promise as a technique for low-cost, readily scalable industrial production.

  6. Ultrastable nitrogen-doped carbon encapsulating molybdenum phosphide nanoparticles as highly efficient electrocatalyst for hydrogen generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Zonghua; Amiinu, Ibrahim Saana; Liu, Xiaobo; Wang, Min; Mu, Shichun

    2016-10-06

    There is a crucial demand for cost-effective hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalysts towards future renewable energy systems, and the development of such catalysts operating under all pH conditions still remains a challenging task. In this work, a one-step facile approach to synthesizing nitrogen-doped carbon encapsulating molybdenum phosphide nanoparticles (MoP NPs@NC) is introduced by using ammonium molybdate, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate and melamine as precursor. Benefitting from structural advantages, including ultrasmall nanoparticles, large exposed surface area and fast charge transfer, MoP NPs@NC exhibits excellent HER catalytic activities with small overpotentials at all pH values (j = 10 mA cm(-2) at η = 115, 136 and 80 mV in 0.5 M H2SO4, 1.0 M phosphate buffer solution and 1.0 M KOH, respectively.). Meanwhile, the high catalytic activities of MoP NPs@NC under both neutral and basic conditions have never been achieved before for molybdenum phosphide-based catalysts. Additionally, the encapsulation by N-doped carbon effectively prevents the MoP NPs from corrosion, exhibiting nearly unfading stability after 100 h testing in 0.5 M H2SO4. Thus, our work could pave a new avenue for unprecedented design and fabrication of novel low-cost metal phosphide electrocatalysts encapsulated by N-doped carbon.

  7. Efficient photocatalytic activity with carbon-doped SiO2 nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Dongen

    2013-01-01

    Photocatalysis provides a \\'green\\' approach to completely eliminate various kinds of contaminants that are fatal for current environmental and energy issues. Semiconductors are one of the most frequently used photocatalysts as they can absorb light over a wide spectral range. However, it is also well known that naked SiO2 is not an efficient photocatalyst due to its relatively large band gap, which could only absorb shortwave ultraviolet light. In this report, nanoscale particles of carbon-doped silicon dioxide (C-doped SiO2) for use in photocatalysis were successfully prepared by a facile one-pot thermal process using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) as the source of both silicon and carbon. These particles were subsequently characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, standard and high resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The C-doped SiO2 displayed outstanding photocatalytic properties, as evidenced by its catalysis of Rhodamine B degradation under near-UV irradiation. We propose that carbon doping of the SiO2 lattice creates new energy states between the bottom of the conduction band and the top of the valence band, which narrows the band gap of the material. As a result, the C-doped SiO2 nanoparticles exhibit excellent photocatalytic activities in a neutral environment. The novel synthesis reported herein for this material is both energy efficient and environmentally friendly and as such shows promise as a technique for low-cost, readily scalable industrial production. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  8. High methanol oxidation activity of well-dispersed pt nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes using nitrogen doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei-Chuan

    2009-10-09

    Pt nanoparticles (NPs) with the average size of 3.14 nm well dispersed on N-doped carbon nanotubes (CNTs) without any pretreatment have been demonstrated. Structural properties show the characteristic N bonding within CNTs, which provide the good support for uniform distribution of Pt NPs. In electrochemical characteristics, N-doped CNTs covered with Pt NPs show superior current density due to the fact that the so-called N incorporation could give rise to the formation of preferential sites within CNTs accompanied by the low interfacial energy for immobilizing Pt NPs. Therefore, the substantially enhanced methanol oxidation activity performed by N-incorporation technique is highly promising in energy-generation applications.

  9. High Methanol Oxidation Activity of Well-Dispersed Pt Nanoparticles on Carbon Nanotubes Using Nitrogen Doping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wei-Chuan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pt nanoparticles (NPs with the average size of 3.14 nm well dispersed on N-doped carbon nanotubes (CNTs without any pretreatment have been demonstrated. Structural properties show the characteristic N bonding within CNTs, which provide the good support for uniform distribution of Pt NPs. In electrochemical characteristics, N-doped CNTs covered with Pt NPs show superior current density due to the fact that the so-called N incorporation could give rise to the formation of preferential sites within CNTs accompanied by the low interfacial energy for immobilizing Pt NPs. Therefore, the substantially enhanced methanol oxidation activity performed by N-incorporation technique is highly promising in energy-generation applications.

  10. Nitrogen doped carbon nanoparticles enhanced extracellular electron transfer for high-performance microbial fuel cells anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang-Yang; Guo, Chun Xian; Yong, Yang-Chun; Li, Chang Ming; Song, Hao

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen doped carbon nanoparticles (NDCN) were applied to modify the carbon cloth anodes of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) inoculated with Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, one of the most well-studied exoelectrogens. Experimental results demonstrated that the use of NDCN increased anodic absorption of flavins (i.e., the soluble electron mediator secreted by S. oneidensis MR-1), facilitating shuttle-mediated extracellular electron transfer. In addition, we also found that NDCN enabled enhanced contact-based direct electron transfer via outer-membrane c-type cytochromes. Taken together, the performance of MFCs with the NDCN-modified anode was enormously enhanced, delivering a maximum power density 3.5 times' higher than that of the MFCs without the modification of carbon cloth anodes.

  11. Nitrogen-doped carbon nanoparticles by flame synthesis as anode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjya, Dhrubajyoti; Park, Hyean-Yeol; Kim, Min-Sik; Choi, Hyuck-Soo; Inamdar, Shaukatali N; Yu, Jong-Sung

    2014-01-14

    Nitrogen-doped turbostratic carbon nanoparticles (NPs) are prepared using fast single-step flame synthesis by directly burning acetonitrile in air atmosphere and investigated as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The as-prepared N-doped carbon NPs show excellent Li-ion stoarage properties with initial discharge capacity of 596 mA h g(-1), which is 17% more than that shown by the corresponding undoped carbon NPs synthesized by identical process with acetone as carbon precursor and also much higher than that of commercial graphite anode. Further analysis shows that the charge-discharge process of N-doped carbon is highly stable and reversible not only at high current density but also over 100 cycles, retaining 71% of initial discharge capacity. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy also shows that N-doped carbon has better conductivity for charge and ions than that of undoped carbon. The high specific capacity and very stable cyclic performance are attributed to large number of turbostratic defects and N and associated increased O content in the flame-synthesized N-doped carbon. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report which demonstrates single-step, direct flame synthesis of N-doped turbostratic carbon NPs and their application as a potential anode material with high capacity and superior battery performance. The method is extremely simple, low cost, energy efficient, very effective, and can be easily scaled up for large scale production.

  12. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-supported metal-doped ZnO nanoparticles and their photocatalytic property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C S; Liu, T G; Lin, L W; Xie, X D; Chen, X H; Liu, Q C; Liang, B; Yu, W W; Qiu, C Y

    2013-01-01

    A simple and versatile approach has been developed to synthesize multi-walled carbon nanotubes/metal-doped ZnO nanohybrid materials (MWNT/M-doped ZnO) by means of the co-deposition method. The experimental results illuminate that MWNTs can be modified by metal-doped ZnO nanoparticles at 450 °C, such as Mn, Mg, and Co elements. Furthermore, the MWNT/Mg-doped ZnO hybrids have been proven to have a high photocatalytic ability for methyl orange (MO), in which the degraded rate for MO reaches 100 % in 60 min. The enhancement in photocatalytic activity is attributed to the excellent electriconal property of MWNTs and Mg-doping. The resultant MWNT/Mg-doped ZnO nanohybrids have potential applications in photocatalysis and environmental protection.

  13. Co9S8 nanoparticles encapsulated in nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon networks with improved lithium storage properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mujtaba, Jawayria; Sun, Hongyu; Huang, Guoyong

    2016-01-01

    We report the designed synthesis of unique Co9S8 nanoparticles encapsulated in nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon networks (Co9S8@NMCN nanocomposites). Uniform zeolitic imidazolate framework-67 was first synthesized and then transformed into Co9S8@NMCN nanocomposites by thermal annealing with sulfur...... in nitrogen-doped carbon layers. When evaluated as an anode material for LIBs, the as-prepared composite electrodes delivered superior capacity, excellent cycling stability and rate capability, which are attributed to the advantageous structural features....

  14. Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts Based on Coupled Iron Nitride Nanoparticles with Nitrogen-Doped Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jung Park

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at developing a highly active and stable non-precious metal electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR, a novel FexNy/NC nanocomposite—that is composed of highly dispersed iron nitride nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped carbon (NC—was prepared by pyrolyzing carbon black with an iron-containing precursor in an NH3 atmosphere. The influence of the various synthetic parameters such as the Fe precursor, Fe content, pyrolysis temperature and pyrolysis time on ORR performance of the prepared iron nitride nanoparticles was investigated. The formed phases were determined by experimental and simulated X-ray diffraction (XRD of numerous iron nitride species. We found that Fe3N phase creates superactive non-metallic catalytic sites for ORR that are more active than those of the constituents. The optimized Fe3N/NC nanocomposite exhibited excellent ORR activity and a direct four-electron pathway in alkaline solution. Furthermore, the hybrid material showed outstanding catalytic durability in alkaline electrolyte, even after 4,000 potential cycles.

  15. Nitrite Oxidation with Copper-Cobalt Nanoparticles on Carbon Nanotubes Doped Conducting Polymer PEDOT Composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjie; Xu, Guiyun; Wang, Wei; Xu, Shenghao; Luo, Xiliang

    2015-09-01

    Copper-cobalt bimetal nanoparticles (Cu-Co) have been electrochemically prepared on glassy carbon electrodes (GCEs), which were electrodeposited with conducting polymer nanocomposites of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) doped with carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Owing to their good conductivity, high mechanical strength, and large surface area, the PEDOT/CNTs composites offered excellent substrates for the electrochemical deposition of Cu-Co nanoparticles. As a result of their nanostructure and the synergic effect between Cu and Co, the Cu-Co/PEDOT/CNTs composites exhibited significantly enhanced catalytic activity towards the electrochemical oxidation of nitrite. Under optimized conditions, the nanocomposite-modified electrodes had a fast response time within 2 s and a linear range from 0.5 to 430 μm for the detection of nitrite, with a detection limit of 60 nm. Moreover, the Cu-Co/PEDOT/CNTs composites were highly stable, and the prepared nitrite sensors could retain more than 96 % of their initial response after 30 days.

  16. Transmission electron microscopy of carbon-coated and iron-doped titania nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Anjum, Dalaver H.

    2016-08-02

    We present a study on the properties of iron (Fe)-doped and carbon (C)-coated titania (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) which has been compiled by using x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). These TiO2 NPs were prepared by using the flame synthesis method. This method allows the simultaneous C coating and Fe doping of TiO2 NPs. XRD investigations revealed that the phase of the prepared NPs was anatase TiO2. Conventional TEM analysis showed that the average size of the TiO2 NPs was about 65 nm and that the NPs were uniformly coated with the element C. Furthermore, from the x-ray energy dispersive spectrometry analysis, it was found that about 8 at.% Fe was present in the synthesized samples. High-resolution TEM (HRTEM) revealed the graphitized carbon structure of the layer surrounding the prepared TiO2 NPs. HRTEM analysis further revealed that the NPs possessed the crystalline structure of anatase titania. Energy-filtered TEM (EFTEM) analysis showed the C coating and Fe doping of the NPs. The ratio of L3 and L2 peaks for the Ti-L23 and Fe-L23 edges present in the core loss electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) revealed a +4 oxidation state for the Ti and a +3 oxidation state for the Fe. These EELS results were further confirmed with XPS analysis. The electronic properties of the samples were investigated by applying Kramers-Kronig analysis to the low-loss EELS spectra acquired from the prepared NPs. The presented results showed that the band gap energy of the TiO2 NPs decreased from an original value of 3.2 eV to about 2.2 eV, which is quite close to the ideal band gap energy of 1.65 eV for photocatalysis semiconductors. The observed decrease in band gap energy of the TiO2 NPs was attributed to the presence of Fe atoms at the lattice sites of the anatase TiO2 lattice. In short, C-coated and Fe-doped TiO2 NPs were synthesized with a rather cost-effective and comparatively easily scalable method. The

  17. Transmission electron microscopy of carbon-coated and iron-doped titania nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Dalaver H.; Memon, Nasir K.; Ismail, Mohamed; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Sharif, Usman; Chung, Suk Ho

    2016-09-01

    We present a study on the properties of iron (Fe)-doped and carbon (C)-coated titania (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) which has been compiled by using x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). These TiO2 NPs were prepared by using the flame synthesis method. This method allows the simultaneous C coating and Fe doping of TiO2 NPs. XRD investigations revealed that the phase of the prepared NPs was anatase TiO2. Conventional TEM analysis showed that the average size of the TiO2 NPs was about 65 nm and that the NPs were uniformly coated with the element C. Furthermore, from the x-ray energy dispersive spectrometry analysis, it was found that about 8 at.% Fe was present in the synthesized samples. High-resolution TEM (HRTEM) revealed the graphitized carbon structure of the layer surrounding the prepared TiO2 NPs. HRTEM analysis further revealed that the NPs possessed the crystalline structure of anatase titania. Energy-filtered TEM (EFTEM) analysis showed the C coating and Fe doping of the NPs. The ratio of L3 and L2 peaks for the Ti-L23 and Fe-L23 edges present in the core loss electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) revealed a +4 oxidation state for the Ti and a +3 oxidation state for the Fe. These EELS results were further confirmed with XPS analysis. The electronic properties of the samples were investigated by applying Kramers-Kronig analysis to the low-loss EELS spectra acquired from the prepared NPs. The presented results showed that the band gap energy of the TiO2 NPs decreased from an original value of 3.2 eV to about 2.2 eV, which is quite close to the ideal band gap energy of 1.65 eV for photocatalysis semiconductors. The observed decrease in band gap energy of the TiO2 NPs was attributed to the presence of Fe atoms at the lattice sites of the anatase TiO2 lattice. In short, C-coated and Fe-doped TiO2 NPs were synthesized with a rather cost-effective and comparatively easily scalable method. The

  18. Enhanced lithium ion storage in TiO2 nanoparticles, induced by sulphur and carbon co-doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Svetlozar; Barylyak, Adriana; Besaha, Khrystyna; Dimitrova, Anna; Krischok, Stefan; Bund, Andreas; Bobitski, Jaroslav

    2016-09-01

    Sulphur and carbon codoped anatase nanoparticles are synthesized by one-step approach based on interaction between thiourea and metatitanic acid. Electron microscopy shows micrometer-sized randomly distributed crystal aggregates, consisting of many 25-40 nm TiO2 nanoparticles. The obtained phase composition and chemical states of the elements in the structure are analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XRD shows that after doping the tetragonal anatase structure is preserved. Further data assessment by Rietveld refinement allows detection of a slight increase of the c lattice parameter and volume related to incorporation of the doping elements. XPS confirms the coexistence of both elemental and oxide carbon forms, which are predominantly located on the TiO2 particle surface. According to XPS analysis sulphur occupies titanium sites and the element is present in S6+ sulfate environment. Analysis based on cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic intermittent titration (GITT) suggests an accelerated Li+ transport in the doped TiO2 structure. The synthesized S and C co-doped anatase has an excellent electrochemical performance in terms of capacity and very fast lithiation kinetics, superior to the non-doped TiO2. The material displays 83% capacity retention for 500 galvanostatic cycles and nearly 100% current efficiency.

  19. Carbon nanoparticle doped micro-patternable nano-composites for wearable sensing applications (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Ajit

    2017-04-01

    This talk focuses on preparation, characterization and micropatterning of electrically conducting KETJENBLACK carbon black nanoparticle (80 nm-diameter) doped Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) by employing extrusion mixing. Previously, we had reported fabrication of various micropatternable nanocomposites for wearable sensing applications vis solvent assisted ultrasonic mixing technique[1-16] . Extrusion mixing has an advantage as no organic solvents are used and homogenous dispersion of carbon nanoparticles is observed, which is confirmed by SEM analysis. The developed nanocomposite can be micropatterened using standard microfabrication techniques. It is also observed that percolation threshold occurs at 0.51 wt% of carbon nanoparticles in polymer matrix. Examples of developed nano-composites for wearable sensing applications for precision medicine will also be discussed. References: 1.http://summit.sfu.ca/item/12017 A. Khosla. Micropatternable multifunctional nanocomposite polymers for flexible soft MEMS applications. Diss. Applied Science: School of Engineering Science, 2011. 2. A. Khosla ; B. L. Gray; Fabrication of multiwalled carbon nanotube polydimethylsiloxne nanocomposite polymer flexible microelectrodes for microfluidics and MEMS. Proc. SPIE 7642, Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD) 2010, 76421V (April 09, 2010); doi:10.1117/12.847292. 3. Ang Li ; Ajit Khosla ; Connie Drewbrook ; Bonnie L. Gray; Fabrication and testing of thermally responsive hydrogel-based actuators using polymer heater elements for flexible microvalves. Proc. SPIE 7929, Microfluidics, BioMEMS, and Medical Microsystems IX, 79290G (February 14, 2011); doi:10.1117/12.873197. 4. Khosla, A. and Gray, B. L. (2010), Preparation, Micro-Patterning and Electrical Characterization of Functionalized Carbon-Nanotube Polydimethylsiloxane Nanocomposite Polymer. Macromol. Symp., 297: 210-218. doi:10.1002/masy.200900165 5. A. Khosla ; D. Hilbich ; C. Drewbrook ; D. Chung ; B. L. Gray; Large

  20. Phthalocyanine Doped Metal Oxide Nanoparticles on Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Platform for the detection of Dopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mphuthi, Ntsoaki G.; Adekunle, Abolanle S.; Fayemi, Omolola E.; Olasunkanmi, Lukman O.; Ebenso, Eno E.

    2017-03-01

    The electrocatalytic properties of metal oxides (MO = Fe3O4, ZnO) nanoparticles doped phthalocyanine (Pc) and functionalized MWCNTs, decorated on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was investigated. Successful synthesis of the metal oxide nanoparticles and the MO/Pc/MWCNT composite were confirmed using UV-Vis, EDX, XRD and TEM techniques. Successful modification of GCE with the MO and their composite was also confirmed using cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique. GCE-MWCNT/ZnO/29H,31H-Pc was the best electrode towards DA detection with very low detection limit (0.75 μM) which compared favourably with literature, good sensitivity (1.45 μA/μM), resistance to electrode fouling, and excellent ability to detect DA without interference from AA signal. Electrocatalytic oxidation of DA on GCE-MWCNT/ZnO/29H,31H-Pc electrode was diffusion controlled but characterized with some adsorption of electro-oxidation reaction intermediates products. The fabricated sensors are easy to prepare, cost effective and can be applied for real sample analysis of dopamine in drug composition. The good electrocatalytic properties of 29H,31H-Pc and 2,3-Nc were related to their (quantum chemically derived) frontier molecular orbital energies and global electronegativities. The better performance of 29H,31H-Pc than 2,3-Nc in aiding electrochemical oxidation of DA might be due to its better electron accepting ability, which is inferred from its lower ELUMO and higher χ.

  1. Phthalocyanine Doped Metal Oxide Nanoparticles on Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Platform for the detection of Dopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mphuthi, Ntsoaki G.; Adekunle, Abolanle S.; Fayemi, Omolola E.; Olasunkanmi, Lukman O.; Ebenso, Eno E.

    2017-01-01

    The electrocatalytic properties of metal oxides (MO = Fe3O4, ZnO) nanoparticles doped phthalocyanine (Pc) and functionalized MWCNTs, decorated on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was investigated. Successful synthesis of the metal oxide nanoparticles and the MO/Pc/MWCNT composite were confirmed using UV-Vis, EDX, XRD and TEM techniques. Successful modification of GCE with the MO and their composite was also confirmed using cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique. GCE-MWCNT/ZnO/29H,31H-Pc was the best electrode towards DA detection with very low detection limit (0.75 μM) which compared favourably with literature, good sensitivity (1.45 μA/μM), resistance to electrode fouling, and excellent ability to detect DA without interference from AA signal. Electrocatalytic oxidation of DA on GCE-MWCNT/ZnO/29H,31H-Pc electrode was diffusion controlled but characterized with some adsorption of electro-oxidation reaction intermediates products. The fabricated sensors are easy to prepare, cost effective and can be applied for real sample analysis of dopamine in drug composition. The good electrocatalytic properties of 29H,31H-Pc and 2,3-Nc were related to their (quantum chemically derived) frontier molecular orbital energies and global electronegativities. The better performance of 29H,31H-Pc than 2,3-Nc in aiding electrochemical oxidation of DA might be due to its better electron accepting ability, which is inferred from its lower ELUMO and higher χ. PMID:28256521

  2. Phthalocyanine Doped Metal Oxide Nanoparticles on Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Platform for the detection of Dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mphuthi, Ntsoaki G; Adekunle, Abolanle S; Fayemi, Omolola E; Olasunkanmi, Lukman O; Ebenso, Eno E

    2017-03-03

    The electrocatalytic properties of metal oxides (MO = Fe3O4, ZnO) nanoparticles doped phthalocyanine (Pc) and functionalized MWCNTs, decorated on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was investigated. Successful synthesis of the metal oxide nanoparticles and the MO/Pc/MWCNT composite were confirmed using UV-Vis, EDX, XRD and TEM techniques. Successful modification of GCE with the MO and their composite was also confirmed using cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique. GCE-MWCNT/ZnO/29H,31H-Pc was the best electrode towards DA detection with very low detection limit (0.75 μM) which compared favourably with literature, good sensitivity (1.45 μA/μM), resistance to electrode fouling, and excellent ability to detect DA without interference from AA signal. Electrocatalytic oxidation of DA on GCE-MWCNT/ZnO/29H,31H-Pc electrode was diffusion controlled but characterized with some adsorption of electro-oxidation reaction intermediates products. The fabricated sensors are easy to prepare, cost effective and can be applied for real sample analysis of dopamine in drug composition. The good electrocatalytic properties of 29H,31H-Pc and 2,3-Nc were related to their (quantum chemically derived) frontier molecular orbital energies and global electronegativities. The better performance of 29H,31H-Pc than 2,3-Nc in aiding electrochemical oxidation of DA might be due to its better electron accepting ability, which is inferred from its lower ELUMO and higher χ.

  3. Ultrafast Lithium Storage Using Antimony-Doped Tin Oxide Nanoparticles Sandwiched between Carbon Nanofibers and a Carbon Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Geon-Hyoung; Lee, Do-Young; Lee, Yu-Jin; Ahn, Hyo-Jin

    2016-11-09

    Metal oxides as anode materials for Li-ion batteries (LIBs) are of significant interest to many potential technologies because of their high theoretical capacity value, low price, and environmentally friendly features. In spite of these considerable benefits and ongoing progress in the field, momentous challenges exist, related with structural disintegration due to volume expansion of electrode materials. This leads to rapid capacity decline and must be resolved in order to progress for realistic utilization of LIBs with ultrafast cycling stability. This article proposes a novel architecture of Sb-doped SnO2 nanoparticles sandwiched between carbon nanofiber and carbon skin (CNF/ATO/C) using electrospinning and hydrothermal methods. The CNF/ATO/C exhibits superb electrochemical behavior such as high specific capacity and outstanding cycling stability (705 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles), outstanding high-rate performance (411 mA h g(-1) at 2000 mA g(-1)), and ultrafast cycling stability (347 mA h g(-1) at 2000 mA g(-1) after 100 cycles), which is high compared to any reported value using SnO2-based anode materials. Thus, this unique architecture furnishes profitable effects, including electroactive sites, structural stability, and electrical conductivity, which can potentially be realizes for ultrafast LIBs.

  4. Adsorption isotherms and kinetics for dibenzothiophene on activated carbon and carbon nanotube doped with nickel oxide nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MAZEN K NAZAL; GHASSAN A OWEIMREEN; MAZEN KHALED; MUATAZ A ATIEH; ISAM H ALJUNDI; ABDALLA M ABULKIBASH

    2016-04-01

    Activated carbon (AC) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNT) doped with 1, 5 and 10% Ni in the form of nickel oxide nanoparticles were prepared using the wetness impregnation method. These percentages were denoted by the endings NI1, NI5 and NI10 in the notations ACNI1, ACNI5, ACNI10 and CNTNI1, CNTNI5, CNTNIL10, respectively. The physicochemical properties for these adsorbents were characterized using N$_2$ adsorption–desorption surface area analyzer, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, field-emission transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectrometre. Adsorption isotherms were obtained and desulphurization kinetics were carried out on solutions of dibenzothiophene (DBT) and thiophene in a model fuel. The efficiencies of DBT and thiophene removal were reported. The adsorption isotherms fitted the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The highest adsorption capacity for DBT was $74\\pm 5$ mg g$^{−1}$ on ACNI5; the maximum adsorption capacities of the other adsorbents followed the trend ${\\rm ACNI1 > ACNI10 > AC > CNTNI5 > CNTNI1 > CNTNI10 > CNT}$. The adsorption rates for DBT and thiophene followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The selective removal by these adsorbents of DBT relative to thiophene and naphthalene was evaluated. The adsorbents’ reusability and the effect of the percentage of aromaticcompounds on their adsorption capacity were also reported.

  5. Fabrication of folic acid sensor based on the Cu doped SnO2 nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavanya, N.; Radhakrishnan, S.; Sudhan, N.; Sekar, C.; Leonardi, S. G.; Cannilla, C.; Neri, G.

    2014-07-01

    A novel folic acid biosensor has been fabricated using Cu doped SnO2 nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized by a simple microwave irradiation method. Powder XRD and TEM studies confirmed that both the pure and Cu doped SnO2 (Cu: 0, 10, 20wt%) crystallized in tetragonal rutile-type structure with spherical morphology. The average crystallite size of pure SnO2 was estimated to be around 16 nm. Upon doping, the crystallite sizes decreased to 9 nm and 5 nm for 10 and 20wt% Cu doped SnO2 respectively. XPS studies confirmed the electronic state of Sn and Cu to be 4+ and 2+ respectively. Cu (20wt%) doped SnO2 NPs are proved to be a good sensing element for the determination of folic acid (FA). Cu-SnO2 NPs (20wt%) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) exhibited the lowest detection limit of 0.024 nM over a wide folic acid concentration range of 1.0 × 10-10 to 6.7 × 10-5 M at physiological pH of 7.0. The fabricated sensor is highly selective towards the determination of FA even in the presence of a 100 fold excess of common interferent ascorbic acid. The sensor proved to be useful for the estimation of FA content in pharmaceutical sample with satisfactory recovery.

  6. Development of Gold Nanoparticle-Doped Activated Carbon Sorbent for Elemental Mercury

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The control of mercury (Hg) from coal-fired power plants by adsorption in solid sorbents is an attractive way to reduce Hg emissions. In this study, a commercial activated carbon (Norit RB3) was impregnated with gold nanoparticles for the retention of Hg in the gas phase, with the intention to explore their potential to be regenerated in future investigations. The activated carbon (RB3) was impregnated with different gold contents using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosp...

  7. Highly dispersed Pt-Ni nanoparticles on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes for application in direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shujuan; Ma, Yanwen; Tao, Haisheng; Jian, Guoqiang; Wang, Xizhang; Fan, Yining; Zhu, Jianmin; Hu, Zheng

    2010-06-01

    Binary Pt-Ni alloyed nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) have been facilely constructed without pre-modification by making use of the active sites in NCNTs due to the N-participation. So-obtained binary Pt-Ni alloyed nanoparticles have been highly dispersed on the outer surface of the support with the size of about 3-4 nm. The electrochemical properties of the catalysts for methanol oxidation have been systematically evaluated. Binary Pt-Ni alloyed composites with molar ratio (Pt:Ni) of 3:2 and 3:1 present enhanced electrocatalytic activities and improved tolerance to CO poisoning as well as the similar stability, in comparison with the commercial Pt/C catalyst and the monometallic Pt/NCNTs catalysts. These results imply that so-constructed nanocomposite catalysts have the potential for applications in direct methanol fuel cells.

  8. Well-dispersed NiO nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube for methanol electrocatalytic oxidation in alkaline media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengcheng; Zhou, Yingke; Hu, Min; Chen, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube supporting NiO nanoparticles were synthesized by a chemical precipitation process coupled with subsequent calcination. The morphology and structure of the composites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the electrochemical performance was evaluated using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometric technique. The effects of nitrogen doping, calcination temperature and content of NiO nanoparticles on the electrocatalytic activity toward methanol oxidation were systematically studied. The results show that the uniformly dispersed ultrafine NiO nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube are obtained after calcination at 400 °C. The optimized composite catalysts present high electrocatalytic activity, fast charge-transfer process, excellent accessibility and stability for methanol oxidation reaction, which are promising for application in the alkaline direct methanol fuel cells.

  9. Iron-rich nanoparticle encapsulated, nitrogen doped porous carbon materials as efficient cathode electrocatalyst for microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guolong; Zhu, Youlong; Lu, Lu; Xu, Kongliang; Wang, Heming; Jin, Yinghua; Jason Ren, Zhiyong; Liu, Zhenning; Zhang, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Developing efficient, readily available, and sustainable electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in neutral medium is of great importance to practical applications of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Herein, a porous nitrogen-doped carbon material with encapsulated Fe-based nanoparticles (Fe-Nx/C) has been developed and utilized as an efficient ORR catalyst in MFCs. The material was obtained through pyrolysis of a highly porous organic polymer containing iron(II) porphyrins. The characterizations of morphology, crystalline structure and elemental composition reveal that Fe-Nx/C consists of well-dispersed Fe-based nanoparticles coated by N-doped graphitic carbon layer. ORR catalytic performance of Fe-Nx/C has been evaluated through cyclic voltammetry and rotating ring-disk electrode measurements, and its application as a cathode electrocatalyst in an air-cathode single-chamber MFC has been investigated. Fe-Nx/C exhibits comparable or better performance in MFCs than 20% Pt/C, displaying higher cell voltage (601 mV vs. 591 mV), maximum power density (1227 mW m-2 vs. 1031 mW m-2) and Coulombic efficiency (50% vs. 31%). These findings indicate that Fe-Nx/C is more tolerant and durable than Pt/C in a system with bacteria metabolism and thus holds great potential for practical MFC applications.

  10. Doped barium titanate nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T K Kundu; A Jana; P Barik

    2008-06-01

    We have synthesized nickel (Ni) and iron (Fe) ion doped BaTiO3 nanoparticles through a chemical route using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The concentration of dopant varies from 0 to 2 mole% in the specimens. The results from X-ray diffractograms and transmission electron micrographs show that the particle diameters in the specimen lie in the range 24–40 nm. It is seen that the dielectric permittivity in doped specimens is enhanced by an order of magnitude compared to undoped barium titanate ceramics. The dielectric permittivity shows maxima at 0.3 mole% doping of Fe ion and 0.6 mole% of Ni ion. The unusual dielectric behaviour of the specimens is explained in terms of the change in crystalline structure of the specimens.

  11. The enhanced photocatalytic and bactericidal activities of carbon microsphere-assisted solvothermally synthesized cocoon-shaped Sn(4+)-doped ZnO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Chockalingam; SakthiRaadha, SakthiDasan; Gomathisankar, Paramasivan; Vinayagamoorthy, Pazhamalai

    2013-10-14

    Cocoon-shaped Sn(4+)-doped ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized by a solvothermal method using carbon microspheres as a template. The optimum doping level for photocatalysis is 3% (g. atom). Powder X-ray diffractograms show that the ZnO has a primitive hexagonal crystal structure and that doping ZnO with Sn(4+) increases the unit cell lengths and the Zn-O bond lengths. Larger crystal growth along the c-axis is also observed. The measured size of the cocoon-shaped Sn(4+)-doped ZnO nanoparticles is larger than the mean crystallite size. Solid state impedance spectroscopy studies reveal that Sn(4+)-doping increases the charge transfer resistance. Doping does not significantly modify the optical band gap, but does suppress green emission. A decrease in the number of crystal defects due to oxygen vacancies is likely to be a reason for the enhanced photocatalytic properties of the cocoon-shaped Sn(4+)-doped ZnO nanoparticles. Doping ZnO with Sn(4+) enhances the bactericidal activity as well.

  12. TiN@nitrogen-doped carbon supported Pt nanoparticles as high-performance anode catalyst for methanol electrooxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Ma, Li; Gan, Mengyu; Fu, Shenna; Zhao, Yi

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, TiN@nitrogen-doped carbons (NDC) composed of a core-shell structure are successfully prepared through self-assembly and pyrolysis treatment using γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane as coupling agent, polyaniline as carbon and nitrogen source, respectively. Subsequently, TiN@NDC supporting Pt nanoparticles (Pt/TiN@NDC) are obtained by a microwave-assisted polyol process. The nitrogen-containing functional groups and TiN nanoparticles play a critical role in decreasing the average particle size of Pt and improving the electrocatalytic activity of Pt/TiN@NDC. Transmission electron microscope results reveal that Pt nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed in the TiN@NDC surface with a narrow particle size ranging from 1 to 3 nm in diameter. Moreover, the Pt/TiN@NDC catalyst shows significantly improved catalytic activity and high durability for methanol electrooxidation in comparison with Pt/NDC and commercial Pt/C catalysts, revealed by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. Strikingly, this novel Pt/TiN@NDC catalyst reveals a better CO tolerance related to Pt/NDC and commercial Pt/C catalysts, which due to the bifunctional mechanism and strong metal-support interaction between Pt and TiN@NDC. In addition, the probable reaction steps for the electrooxidation of CO adspecies on Pt NPs on the basis of the bifunctional mechanism are also proposed. These results indicate that the TiN@NDC is a promising catalyst support for methanol electrooxidation.

  13. Macroscale cobalt-MOFs derived metallic Co nanoparticles embedded in N-doped porous carbon layers as efficient oxygen electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-Sheng; Zhang, Haimin; Liu, Rongrong; Zhang, Xian; Zhao, Huijun; Wang, Guozhong

    2017-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) materials have aroused great research interest in different areas owing to their unique properties, such as high surface area, various composition, well-organized framework and controllable porous structure. Controllable fabrication of MOFs materials at macro-scale may be more promising for their large-scale practical applications. Here we report the synthesis of macro-scale Co-MOFs crystals using 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid (H3BTC) linker in the presence of Co2+, triethylamine (TEA) and nonanoic acid by a facile solvothermal reaction. Further, the as-fabricated Co-MOFs as precursor was pyrolytically treated at different temperatures in N2 atmosphere to obtain metallic Co nanoparticles embedded in N-doped porous carbon layers (denoted as Co@NPC). The results demonstrate that the Co-MOFs derived sample obtained at 900 °C (Co@NPC-900) shows a porous structure (including micropore and mesopore) with a surface area of 110.8 m2 g-1 and an N doping level of 1.62 at.% resulted from TEA in the pyrolysis process. As electrocatalyst, the Co@NPC-900 exhibits bifunctional electrocatalytic activities toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline media which are key reactions in some renewable energy technologies such as fuel cells and rechargeable metal-air batteries. The results indicate that the Co@NPC-900 can afford an onset potential of 1.50 V (vs. RHE) and a potential value of 1.61 V (vs. RHE) at a current density of 10 mA cm-2 for ORR and OER with high applicable stability, respectively. The efficient catalytic activity of Co@NPC-900 as bifunctional oxygen electrocatalyst can be ascribed to N doping and embedded metallic Co nanoparticles in carbon structure providing catalytic active sites and porous structure favourable for electrocatalysis-related mass transport.

  14. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanoparticle-Carbon Nanofiber Composite as an Efficient Metal-Free Cathode Catalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panomsuwan, Gasidit; Saito, Nagahiro; Ishizaki, Takahiro

    2016-03-23

    Metal-free nitrogen-doped carbon materials are currently considered at the forefront of potential alternative cathode catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cell technology. Despite numerous efforts in this area over the past decade, rational design and development of a new catalyst system based on nitrogen-doped carbon materials via an innovative approach still present intriguing challenges in ORR catalysis research. Herein, a new kind of nitrogen-doped carbon nanoparticle-carbon nanofiber (NCNP-CNF) composite with highly efficient and stable ORR catalytic activity has been developed via a new approach assisted by a solution plasma process. The integration of NCNPs and CNFs by the solution plasma process can lead to a unique morphological feature and modify physicochemical properties. The NCNP-CNF composite exhibits a significantly enhanced ORR activity through a dominant four-electron pathway in an alkaline solution. The enhancement in ORR activity of NCNP-CNF composite can be attributed to the synergistic effects of good electron transport from highly graphitized CNFs as well as abundance of exposed catalytic sites and meso/macroporosity from NCNPs. More importantly, NCNP-CNF composite reveals excellent long-term durability and high tolerance to methanol crossover compared with those of a commercial 20 wt % supported on Vulcan XC-72. We expect that NCNP-CNF composite prepared by this synthetic approach can be a promising metal-free cathode catalyst candidate for ORR in fuel cells and metal-air batteries.

  15. Nitrogen–doped graphitized carbon shell encapsulated NiFe nanoparticles: A highly durable oxygen evolution catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Lei; Luo, Langli; Feng, Zhenxing; Engelhard, M. H.; Xie, Xiaohong; Han, Binghong; Sun, Junming; Zhang, Jianghao; Yin, Geping; Wang, Chongmin; Wang, Yong; Shao, Yuyan

    2017-09-01

    Oxygen evolution reaction (OER) plays a crucial role in various energy conversion devices such as water electrolyzers and metal–air batteries. Precious metal catalysts such as Ir, Ru and their oxides are usually used for enhanced reaction kinetics but are limited by their scarce resource. The challenges associated with alternative non–precious metal catalysts such as transition metal oxides and (oxy)hydroxides etc. are their low electronic conductivity and poor durability. Here, we report OER catalysts of NiFe nanoparticles encapsulated by nitrogen–doped graphitized carbon shells derived from bimetallic metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) precursors. The optimal OER catalyst shows excellent activity (360 mV overpotential at 10 mA cm–2GEO) and durability (no obvious degradation after 20 000 cycles). The electron-donation from Fe and tuned electronic structure of metal cores by Ni are revealed to be primary contributors to the enhanced OER activity. We further demonstrated that the structure and morphology of encapsulating carbon shells, which are the key factors influencing the durability, are facilely controlled by chemical state of precursors. Severe metal particle growth probably caused by oxidation of carbon shells and encapsulated nanoparticles is believed to the main mechanism for activity degradation in these catalysts.

  16. Fabrication of Nitrogen-Doped Mesoporous-Carbon-Coated Palladium Nanoparticles: An Intriguing Electrocatalyst for Methanol and Formic Acid Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Chaiti; Dutta, Soumen; Sahoo, Ramkrishna; Roy, Anindita; Negishi, Yuichi; Pal, Tarasankar

    2016-05-20

    Inspired by the attractive catalytic properties of palladium and the inert nature of carbon supports in catalysis, a concise and simple methodology for in situ nitrogen-doped mesoporous-carbon-supported palladium nanoparticles (Pd/N-C) has been developed by carbonizing a palladium dimethylglyoximate complex. The as-synthesized Pd/N-C has been exfoliated as a fuel cell catalyst by studying the electro-oxidation of methanol and formic acid. The material synthesized at 400 °C,namely, Pd/N-C-400,exhibitssuperior mass activity and stability among catalysts synthesized under different carbonization temperaturesbetween300 and 500 °C. The unique 1D porous structure in Pd/N-C-400 helps better electron transport at the electrode surface, which eventually leads to about five times better catalytic activity and about two times higher stability than that of commercial Pd/C. Thus, our designed sacrificial metal-organic templatedirected pathway becomes a promising technique for Pd/N-C synthesis with superior catalytic performances. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Metal-Support Interactions of Platinum Nanoparticles Decorated N-Doped Carbon Nanofibers for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melke, Julia; Peter, Benedikt; Habereder, Anja; Ziegler, Juergen; Fasel, Claudia; Nefedov, Alexei; Sezen, Hikmet; Wöll, Christof; Ehrenberg, Helmut; Roth, Christina

    2016-01-13

    N-doped carbon materials are discussed as catalyst supports for the electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells. This work deals with the preparation of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) supported on N-doped carbon nanofibers (N-CNF) from a polyaniline nanofiber (PANI NF) precursor, and investigates the ORR activity of the produced materials. Initially, Pt NPs are deposited on PANI NFs. The PANI NF precursors are characterized by near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements. It is shown, that in the PANI NF precursor materials electrons from the Pt are being transferred toward the π-conjugated systems of the aromatic ring. This strong interaction of Pt atoms with PANI explains the high dispersion of Pt NPs on the PANI NF. Subsequently, the PANI NF precursors are carbonized at different heat-treatment conditions resulting in structurally different N-CNFs which are characterized by NEXAFS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) ,and TEM measurements. It is shown that an interaction between N-groups and Pt NPs exists in all investigated N-CNFs. However, the N-CNFs differ in the composition of the N-species and the dispersion of the Pt NPs. A small mean Pt NP size with a narrow size distribution is attributed to the presence of pyrdinic N-groups in the N-CNFs, whereas, for the N-CNFs with mainly graphitic and pyrrolic N-groups, an increase in the average Pt NP size with a broad size distribution is found. The ORR activity in alkaline media investigated by Koutecky-Levich analysis of rotating disk electrode measurements showed a largely enhanced ORR activity in comparison to a conventional Pt/C catalyst.

  18. Highly doped carbon nanotubes with gold nanoparticles and their influence on electrical conductivity and thermopower of nanocomposites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungwho Choi

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are often used as conductive fillers in composite materials, but electrical conductivity is limited by the maximum filler concentration that is necessary to maintain composite structures. This paper presents further improvement in electrical conductivity by precipitating gold nanoparticles onto CNTs. In our composites, the concentrations of CNTs and poly (vinyl acetate were respectively 60 and 10 vol%. Four different gold concentrations, 0, 10, 15, or 20 vol% were used to compare the influence of the gold precipitation on electrical conductivity and thermopower of the composites. The remaining portion was occupied by poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene poly(styrenesulfonate, which de-bundled and stabilized CNTs in water during synthesis processes. The concentrations of gold nanoparticles are below the percolation threshold of similar composites. However, with 15-vol% gold, the electrical conductivity of our composites was as high as ∼6×10(5 S/m, which is at least ∼500% higher than those of similar composites as well as orders of magnitude higher than those of other polymer composites containing CNTs and gold particles. According to our analysis with a variable range hopping model, the high conductivity can be attributed to gold doping on CNT networks. Additionally, the electrical properties of composites made of different types of CNTs were also compared.

  19. Pd Nanoparticles Decorated N-Doped Graphene Quantum Dots@N-Doped Carbon Hollow Nanospheres with High Electrochemical Sensing Performance in Cancer Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jiangbo; Xie, Chuyi; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Lu; Xiao, Jian; Duan, Xianming; Ren, Jinghua; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Shuai

    2016-08-31

    The development of carbon based hollow-structured nanospheres (HNSs) materials has stimulated growing interest due to their controllable structure, high specific surface area, large void space, enhanced mass transport, and good biocompatibility. The incorporation of functional nanomaterials into their core and/or shell opens new horizons in designing functionalized HNSs for a wider spectrum of promising applications. In this work, we report a new type of functionalized HNSs based on Pd nanoparticles (NPs) decorated double shell structured N-doped graphene quantum dots (NGQDs)@N-doped carbon (NC) HNSs, with ultrafine Pd NPs and "nanozyme" NGQDs as dual signal-amplifying nanoprobes, and explore their promising application as a highly efficient electrocatalyst in electrochemical sensing of a newly emerging biomarker, i.e., hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), for cancer detection. Due to the synergistic effect of the robust and conductive HNS supports and catalytically active Pd NPs and NGQD in facilitating electron transfer, the NGQD@NC@Pd HNS hybrid material exhibits high electrocatalytic activity toward the direct reduction of H2O2 and can promote the electrochemical reduction reaction of H2O2 at a favorable potential of 0 V, which effectively restrains the redox of most electroactive species in physiological samples and eliminates interference signals. The resultant electrochemical H2O2 biosensor based hybrid HNSs materials demonstrates attractive performance, including low detection limit down to nanomole level, short response time within 2 s, as well as high sensitivity, reproducibility, selectivity, and stability, and have been used in real-time tracking of trace amounts of H2O2 secreted from different living cancer cells in a normal state and treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

  20. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanoparticles for Oxygen Reduction Prepared via a Crushing Method Involving a High Shear Mixer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Shi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of agricultural wastes such as fresh banana peels (BPs is an environmental issue. In this work, fresh BPs were successfully transformed into nitrogen-doped carbon nanoparticles (N-CNPs by using a high shear mixer facilitated crushing method (HSM-FCM followed by carbonization under Ar atmosphere. Ammonia-activated N-CNPs (N-CNPs-NH3 were prepared via subsequent ammonia activation treatments at a high temperature. The as-prepared N-CNPs and N-CNPs-NH3 materials both exhibited high surface areas (above 700 m2/g and mean particle size of 50 nm. N-CNPs-NH3 showed a relatively higher content of pyridinic and graphitic N compared to N-CNPs. In alkaline media, N-CNPs-NH3 showed superior performances as an oxygen reduction reaction (ORR catalyst (E0 = −0.033 V, J = 2.4 mA/cm2 compared to N-CNPs (E0 = 0.07 V, J = 1.8 mA/cm2. In addition, N-CNPs-NH3 showed greater oxygen reduction stability and superior methanol crossover avoidance than a conventional Pt/C catalyst. This study provides a novel, simple, and scalable approach to valorize biomass wastes by synthesizing highly efficient electrochemical ORR catalysts.

  1. Nitrogen-doped graphitized carbon shell encapsulated NiFe nanoparticles: A highly durable oxygen evolution catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Lei; Luo, Langli; Feng, Zhenxing; Engelhard, Mark H.; Xie, Xiaohong; Han, Binghong; Sun, Junming; Zhang, Jianghao; Yin, Geping; Wang, Chongmin; Wang, Yong; Shao, Yuyan

    2017-09-01

    Oxygen evolution reaction (OER) plays a crucial role in various energy conversion devices such as water electrolyzers and metal–air batteries. Precious metal catalysts such as Ir, Ru and their oxides are usually used for enhancing reaction kinetics but are limited by their scarce resource. The challenges associated with alternative non–precious metal catalysts such as transition metal oxides and (oxy)hydroxides etc. are their low electronic conductivity and durability. Herein, we report a highly active (360 mV overpotential at 10 mA cm–2GEO) and durable (no degradation after 20000 cycles) OER catalyst derived from bimetallic metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) precursors. This catalyst consists of NiFe nanoparticles encapsulated by nitrogen–doped graphitized carbon shells. The electron−donation/deviation from Fe and tuned electronic structure of metal cores by Ni are revealed to be primary contributors to the enhanced OER activity, whereas N concentration contributes negligibly. We further demonstrated that the structure and morphology of encapsulating carbon shells, which are the key factors influencing the durability, are facilely controlled by the chemical state of precursors.

  2. Nitrogen-doped carbon nanoparticle modulated turn-on fluorescent probes for histidine detection and its imaging in living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaohua; Zhao, Tingbi; Nie, Zhou; Miao, Zhuang; Liu, Yang; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2016-01-01

    In this work, nitrogen-doped carbon nanoparticle (N-CNP) modulated turn-on fluorescent probes were developed for rapid and selective detection of histidine. The as synthesized N-CNPs exhibited high fluorescence quantum yield and excellent biocompatibility. The fluorescence of N-CNPs can be quenched selectively by Cu(ii) ions with high efficiency, and restored by the addition of histidine owing to the competitive binding of Cu(ii) ions and histidine that removes Cu(ii) ions from the surface of the N-CNPs. Under the optimal conditions, a linear relationship between the increased fluorescence intensity of N-CNP/Cu(ii) ion conjugates and the concentration of histidine was established in the range from 0.5 to 60 μM. The detection limit was as low as 150 nM (signal-to-noise ratio of 3). In addition, the as-prepared N-CNP/Cu(ii) ion nanoprobes showed excellent biocompatibility and were applied for a histidine imaging assay in living cells, which presented great potential in the bio-labeling assay and clinical diagnostic applications.In this work, nitrogen-doped carbon nanoparticle (N-CNP) modulated turn-on fluorescent probes were developed for rapid and selective detection of histidine. The as synthesized N-CNPs exhibited high fluorescence quantum yield and excellent biocompatibility. The fluorescence of N-CNPs can be quenched selectively by Cu(ii) ions with high efficiency, and restored by the addition of histidine owing to the competitive binding of Cu(ii) ions and histidine that removes Cu(ii) ions from the surface of the N-CNPs. Under the optimal conditions, a linear relationship between the increased fluorescence intensity of N-CNP/Cu(ii) ion conjugates and the concentration of histidine was established in the range from 0.5 to 60 μM. The detection limit was as low as 150 nM (signal-to-noise ratio of 3). In addition, the as-prepared N-CNP/Cu(ii) ion nanoprobes showed excellent biocompatibility and were applied for a histidine imaging assay in living cells, which

  3. Aptamer induced assembly of fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots on gold nanoparticles for sensitive detection of AFB1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Chen, Yanfen; Wu, Yuanya; Weng, Bo; Liu, Yingshuai; Lu, Zhisong; Li, Chang Ming; Yu, Cong

    2016-04-15

    Novel fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N,C-dots) were synthesized and assembled on aptamer modified gold nanoparticles (Aptamer/AuNPs) for the super sensitive detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Positively charged N,C-dots were synthesized by the hydrothermal treatment of pancreatin. The prepared N,C-dots were assembled on aptamer/AuNPs by electrostatic interactions. The fluorescence of the N,C-dots was efficiently quenched. When AFB1 was added to the assay solution, specific interactions between AFB1 and the aptamer caused release of the N,C-dots. The fluorescence of the N,C-dots recovered and the intensity increase could be used to calculate the amount of AFB1 added. The assay exhibits super-high sensitivity with a detection limit of 5 pg/mL (16 pM) and a wide range of linear response of 5 pg/mL to 2.00 ng/mL. A novel aptasensor is thus successfully constructed, it provides an efficient way for sensitive AFB1 sensing as well as a new technique for aptamer based novel sensor construction.

  4. Nanosensor composed of nitrogen-doped carbon dots and gold nanoparticles for highly selective detection of cysteine with multiple signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jianhui; Lu, Qiujun; Hou, Yuxin; Liu, Meiling; Li, Haitao; Zhang, Youyu; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2015-02-17

    Biological thiols play a critical role in biological processes and are involved in a variety of diseases. The discrimination detection of biological thiols is of increasing importance in clinical diagnosis. In this paper, a novel nanosensor was developed to discriminate cysteine (Cys) from homocysteine (Hcy) and glutathione (GSH) with multiple signals: colorimetric, photoluminescence (PL), and up-conversional photoluminescence (UCP). The nanosensor (NC-dots/AuNPs) was constructed by nitrogen-doped carbon dots (NC-dots) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) through assembling NC-dots "shell" on AuNPs and showed the obvious different response to Cys, Hcy, and GSH with colorimetric, PL, and UCP signals. The discrimination effect for Cys is originated from conformations and interaction difference of the thiols groups in Cys and Hcy and/or GSH with AuNPs. Among them, only Cys can quickly penetrate into the NC-dots "shell" of the composite and induce the dispersing of the aggregated NC-dots/AuNPs, which lead to the color change from purple to red and the recovery of PL and UCP of NC-dots. This assay was successfully applied for the detection of Cys in human serum with the detection limit of 4 nM.

  5. Multiscale anode materials in lithium ion batteries by combining micro- with nanoparticles: design of mesoporous TiO2 microfibers@nitrogen doped carbon composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Rechberger, Felix; Primc, Darinka; Niederberger, Markus

    2015-09-07

    TiO2 has been considered as a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries. However, its poor rate capability originating from the intrinsically low lithium ion diffusivity and its poor electronic conductivity hampers putting such an application into practice. Both issues can be addressed by nanostructure engineering and conductive surface coating. Herein, we report a template-assisted synthesis of micron sized TiO2 fibers consisting of a mesoporous network of anatase nanoparticles of about 7.5 nm and coated by N doped carbon. In a first step, an amorphous layer of TiO2 was deposited on cobalt silicate nanobelts and subsequently transformed into crystalline anatase nanoparticles by hydrothermal treatment. The N doped carbon coating was realized by in situ polymerization of dopamine on the crystalline TiO2 followed by annealing under N2. After removal of the template, we obtained the final mesoporous TiO2 fibers@N doped carbon composite. Electrochemical tests revealed that the composite electrode exhibited excellent electrochemical properties in terms of specific capacity, rate performance and long term stability.

  6. Enhancement in visible light-responsive photocatalytic activity by embedding Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles on multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, M.; Ahmed, E.; Hong, Z. L.; Jiao, X. L.; Abbas, T.; Khalid, N. R.

    2013-11-01

    Copper doped ZnO nanoparticles embedded on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were successfully synthesized using a facile, nontoxic sol method. The resulting visible light-responsive Cu-doped ZnO/CNTs composites were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) surface area analyzer. Optical properties of Cu-doped ZnO/CNTs nanocomposites, studied using UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), which exhibited extended light absorption in visible light region and possessed better charge separation capability, respectively as compared to Cu-doped ZnO, pure ZnO and ZnO/CNTs composite. The photocatalytic activity was tested by degradation of methyl orange (MO) dye under visible light irradiation. The results demonstrated that Cu-doped ZnO/CNTs nanocomposites effectively bleached out MO, showing an impressive photocatalytic enhancement over ZnO, commercial ZnO, Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles and ZnO/CNTs nanocomposites. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) of textile wastewater was also measured before and after the photocatalysis experiment under sunlight to evaluate the mineralization of wastewater. The significant decrease in COD of the treated effluent revealed a complete destruction of the organic molecules along with color removal. This dramatically enhanced photoactivity of nanocomposite photocatalysts was attributed to greater adsorptivity of dyes, extended light absorption and increased charge separation efficiency due to excellent electrical properties of carbon nanotubes and the large surface area.

  7. Carbon doping of GaAs NWs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehzadeh Einabad, Omid

    Nanowires (NWs) have been proposed and demonstrated as the building blocks for nanoscale electronic and photonic devices such as NW field effect transistors and NW solar cells which rely on doping and trap-free carrier transport. Controlled doping of NWs and a high degree of structure and morphology control are required for device applications. However, doping of III-V nanowires such as GaAs nanowires has not been reported extensively in the literature. Carbon is a well known p-type dopant in planar GaAs due to its low diffusivity and high solubility in bulk GaAs; however its use as an intentional dopant in NW growth has not yet been investigated. In this work we studied the carbon doping of GaAs nanowires using CBr4 as the dopant source. Gold nanoparticles (NP) at the tip ofthe NWs have been used to drive the NW growth. We show that carbon doping suppresses the migration ofthe gold NPs from the tip of the NWs. In addition, we show that the carbon doping of GaAs NWs is accompanied by an increase of the axial growth rate and decrease of the lateral growth rate ofthe NWs. Carbon-doped GaAs NWs, unlike the undoped ones which are highly tapered, are rod-like. The origin of the observed morphological changes is attributed to the carbon adsorbates on the sidewalls ofthe nanowires which suppress the lateral growth of the nanowires and increase the diffusion length of the gallium adatoms on the sidewalls. Stacking fault formation consisting of alternating regIOns of zincblende and wurtzite structures has been commonly observed in NWs grown along the (111) direction. In this work, based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, we show that carbon doping ofGaAs NWs eliminates the stacking fault formation. Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the effects of carbon doping on the vibrational properties of the carbon-doped GaAs nanowires. Carbon doping shows a strong impact on the intrinsic longitudinal and transverse optical (La and TO) modes of the Ga

  8. Highly uniform distribution of Pt nanoparticles on N-doped hollow carbon spheres with enhanced durability for oxygen reduction reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Qiurong; Zhu, Chengzhou; Engelhard, Mark H.; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2017-01-01

    Carbon-supported Pt nanostructures currently exhibited great potential in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Nitrogen-doped hollow carbon spheres (NHCSs) with extra low density and high specific surface area are promising carbon support for loading Pt NPs. The doped heteroatom of nitrogen could not only contribute to the active activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), but also shows a strong interaction with Pt NPs for entrapping them from dissolution/migration. This synergetic effect/interaction resulted in the uniform dispersion and strong combination of the Pt NPs on the carbon support and thus play a significant role in hindering the degradation of the catalytic activities of Pt NPs. As expected, the as-obtained Pt/NHCSs displayed improved catalytic activity and superior durability toward ORR.

  9. Facile Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles on Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes as High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haipeng; Liu, Zhengjun; Yang, Shuang; Zhao, Yan; Feng, Yuting; Bakenov, Zhumabay; Zhang, Chengwei; Yin, Fuxing

    2017-09-21

    ZnO/nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube (ZnO/NCNT) composite, prepared though a simple one-step sol-gel synthetic technique, has been explored for the first time as an anode material. The as-prepared ZnO/NCNT nanocomposite preserves a good dispersity and homogeneity of the ZnO nanoparticles (~6 nm) which deposited on the surface of NCNT. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals the formation of ZnO nanoparticles with an average size of 6 nm homogeneously deposited on the surface of NCNT. ZnO/NCNT composite, when evaluated as an anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), exhibits remarkably enhanced cycling ability and rate capability compared with the ZnO/CNT counterpart. A relatively large reversible capacity of 1013 mAh·g(-1) is manifested at the second cycle and a capacity of 664 mAh·g(-1) is retained after 100 cycles. Furthermore, the ZnO/NCNT system displays a reversible capacity of 308 mAh·g(-1) even at a high current density of 1600 mA·g(-1). These electrochemical performance enhancements are ascribed to the reinforced accumulative effects of the well-dispersed ZnO nanoparticles and doping nitrogen atoms, which can not only suppress the volumetric expansion of ZnO nanoparticles during the cycling performance but also provide a highly conductive NCNT network for ZnO anode.

  10. Facile Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles on Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes as High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haipeng Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ZnO/nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube (ZnO/NCNT composite, prepared though a simple one-step sol-gel synthetic technique, has been explored for the first time as an anode material. The as-prepared ZnO/NCNT nanocomposite preserves a good dispersity and homogeneity of the ZnO nanoparticles (~6 nm which deposited on the surface of NCNT. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM reveals the formation of ZnO nanoparticles with an average size of 6 nm homogeneously deposited on the surface of NCNT. ZnO/NCNT composite, when evaluated as an anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs, exhibits remarkably enhanced cycling ability and rate capability compared with the ZnO/CNT counterpart. A relatively large reversible capacity of 1013 mAh·g−1 is manifested at the second cycle and a capacity of 664 mAh·g−1 is retained after 100 cycles. Furthermore, the ZnO/NCNT system displays a reversible capacity of 308 mAh·g−1 even at a high current density of 1600 mA·g−1. These electrochemical performance enhancements are ascribed to the reinforced accumulative effects of the well-dispersed ZnO nanoparticles and doping nitrogen atoms, which can not only suppress the volumetric expansion of ZnO nanoparticles during the cycling performance but also provide a highly conductive NCNT network for ZnO anode.

  11. Facile route to fabricate carbon-doped TiO2 nanoparticles and its mechanism of enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Huang, Gui-Fang; Li, Dongfeng; Zhou, Bing-Xin; Chang, Shengli; Pan, Anlian; Huang, Wei-Qing

    2016-12-01

    High-efficiency photocatalysis requires wide photoresponse range and effective separation of photogenerated charges to fully utilize solar energy. Exploring the simple and cheap methods to synthesize efficient photocatalysts is still a challenging issue. Herein, we report a facile and simple room-temperature hydrolysis method using glucose as carbon source to prepare visible light-active C-doped TiO2 photocatalyst. This approach features low-cost, reliable, and easily upscalable. It is found that C atoms have been incorporated into the interstitial position of anatase TiO2 lattice and distributed homogeneously throughout the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles. The appropriate C doping can greatly improve the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs in C-doped TiO2. The C-doped TiO2 samples exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activity with the degradation efficiency under UV and visible light irradiation, which is much faster than that of pure TiO2. The mechanism of the enhanced photocatalytic activity is discussed in detail, which is confirmed by using different scavengers. The work provides a simple and useful way to prepare C-doped wide-gap semiconductors with enhanced photocatalytic activity.

  12. Cobalt Nanoparticle-Embedded Porous Carbon Nanofibers with Inherent N- and F-Doping as Binder-Free Bifunctional Catalysts for Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Richa; Kalra, Vibha

    2017-01-18

    Efficient, low-cost, non-precious metal-based, and stable bifunctional electrocatalysts are key to various energy storage and conversion devices such as regenerative fuel cells and metal-air batteries. In this work, we report cobalt nanoparticle-embedded porous carbon nanofibers with inherent N- and F-doping as binder-free bifunctional electrocatalysts with excellent activity for both the oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reaction (ORR/OER) in an alkaline medium. Single-step electrospinning of a solution of the polymer mixture (carbon precursor) and the cobalt precursor followed by controlled pyrolysis with an intermediate reduction step in H2 (to reduce cobalt oxides to cobalt) was utilized to synthesize an integrated freestanding catalyst. The fabricated catalyst with effective structural and electronic interaction between the cobalt metal nanoparticles and the N- and F-doped carbon defect sites showed enhanced catalytic properties compared to the benchmark catalysts for ORR and OER (Pt, Ir, and Ru). The ORR potential at the current density of -3 mA cm(-2) was 0.81 VRHE and the OER potential at a current density of 10 mA cm(-2) was 1.595 VRHE , resulting in a ΔE of only 0.785 V.

  13. Dynamic optical properties of amorphous diamond-like carbon nanocomposite films doped with Cu and Ag nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamulevičius, Tomas; Peckus, Domantas; Tamulevičiene, Asta; Vasiliauskas, Andrius; Čiegis, Arvydas; Meškinis, Šarūnas; Tamulevičius, Sigitas

    2014-09-01

    The investigation of relaxation processes in noble metal nanoparticles upon ultrafast excitations by femtosecond laser pulses is useful to understand the origin and the enhancement mechanism of the nonlinear optical properties for metaldielectric nanocomposites. In the current work we analyze diamond like carbon (DLC) film based copper and silver nanocomposites with different metal content synthesized employing unbalanced magnetron sputtering of metal targets with argon ions in acetylene gas atmosphere. Surface morphology and nanoparticle sizes were analyzed employing scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. Optical properties of the nanocomposite films were analyzed employing UV-VIS-NIR spectrometry. Transient absorption measurements were obtained employing Yb:KGW femtosecond laser spectroscopic system (HARPIA, Light Conversion Ltd.). Energy relaxation dynamics in Cu nanoparticles showed some significant differences from Ag nanoparticles. The increase of excitation intensity hasn't show additional nonlinear effects for the excited state relaxation dynamics for both kinds of samples.

  14. Fabrication of PdCo Bimetallic Nanoparticles Anchored on Three-Dimensional Ordered N-Doped Porous Carbon as an Efficient Catalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hairong; Tang, Jing; Gong, Hao; Guo, Hu; Fan, Xiaoli; Wang, Tao; He, Jianping; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2016-08-17

    PdCo bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) anchored on three-dimensional (3D) ordered N-doped porous carbon (PdCo/NPC) were fabricated by an in situ synthesis. Within this composite, N-doped porous carbon (NPC) with an ordered mesoporous structure possesses a high surface area (659.6 m(2) g(-1)), which can facilitate electrolyte infiltration. NPC also acts as a perfect 3D conductive network, guaranteeing fast electron transport. In addition, homogeneously distributed PdCo alloy NPs (∼15 nm) combined with the doping of the N element can significantly improve the electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Due to the structural and material superiority, although the weight percentage of PdCo NPs (∼8 wt%) is much smaller than that of commercial Pt/C (20 wt%), the PdCo/NPC catalyst exhibits similar excellent electrocatalytic activity; however, its superior durability and methanol-tolerance ability of the ORR are as great as those of commercial Pt/C in alkaline media.

  15. Nitrogen doping in carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewels, C P; Glerup, M

    2005-09-01

    Nitrogen doping of single and multi-walled carbon nanotubes is of great interest both fundamentally, to explore the effect of dopants on quasi-1D electrical conductors, and for applications such as field emission tips, lithium storage, composites and nanoelectronic devices. We present an extensive review of the current state of the art in nitrogen doping of carbon nanotubes, including synthesis techniques, and comparison with nitrogen doped carbon thin films and azofullerenes. Nitrogen doping significantly alters nanotube morphology, leading to compartmentalised 'bamboo' nanotube structures. We review spectroscopic studies of nitrogen dopants using techniques such as X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy and Raman studies, and associated theoretical models. We discuss the role of nanotube curvature and chirality (notably whether the nanotubes are metallic or semiconducting), and the effect of doping on nanotube surface chemistry. Finally we review the effect of nitrogen on the transport properties of carbon nanotubes, notably its ability to induce negative differential resistance in semiconducting tubes.

  16. A novel disposable electrochemical sensor for determination of carbamazepine based on Fe doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles modified screen-printed carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavanya, N. [Department of Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630003, TN (India); Department of Electronic Engineering, Chemistry and Materials Engineering, University of Messina, Messina 98166 (Italy); Sekar, C., E-mail: Sekar2025@gmail.com [Department of Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630003, TN (India); Ficarra, S.; Tellone, E. [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Messina, Messina 98166 (Italy); Bonavita, A.; Leonardi, S.G.; Neri, G. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Chemistry and Materials Engineering, University of Messina, Messina 98166 (Italy)

    2016-05-01

    An effective strategy to fabricate a novel disposable screen printing carbon electrode modified by iron doped tin dioxide nanoparticles for carbamazepine (CBZ) detection has been developed. Fe–SnO{sub 2} (Fe = 0 to 5 wt.%) NPs were synthesized by a simple microwave irradiation method and assessed for their structural and morphological changes due to Fe doping into SnO{sub 2} matrix by X-ray diffraction and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The electrochemical behaviour of carbamazepine at the Fe–SnO{sub 2} modified screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry. Electron transfer coefficient α (0.63) and electron transfer rate constant k{sub s} (0.69 s{sup −1}) values of the 5 wt.% Fe–SnO{sub 2} modified SPCE indicate that the diffusion controlled process takes place on the electrode surface. The fabricated sensor displayed a good electrooxidation response towards the detection of CBZ at a lower oxidation potential of 0.8 V in phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.0. Under the optimal conditions, the sensor showed fast and sensitive current response to CBZ over a wide linear range of 0.5–100 μM with a low detection limit of 92 nM. Furthermore, the practical application of the modified electrode has been investigated by the determination of CBZ in pharmaceutical products using standard addition method. - Highlights: • A novel mediator-free disposable screen printed carbon electrode has been fabricated based on Fe- SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles for determination of carbamazepine • The Fe-SnO{sub 2}/SPCE showed wide linear range (0.5–100 μM), low detection limit (92 nM), high sensitivity, good stability and reproducibility. • The carbamazepine sensor was successfully applied to the analysis of pharmaceutical products with satisfactory recoveries.

  17. A novel disposable electrochemical sensor for determination of carbamazepine based on Fe doped SnO2 nanoparticles modified screen-printed carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavanya, N; Sekar, C; Ficarra, S; Tellone, E; Bonavita, A; Leonardi, S G; Neri, G

    2016-05-01

    An effective strategy to fabricate a novel disposable screen printing carbon electrode modified by iron doped tin dioxide nanoparticles for carbamazepine (CBZ) detection has been developed. Fe-SnO2 (Fe=0 to 5 wt.%) NPs were synthesized by a simple microwave irradiation method and assessed for their structural and morphological changes due to Fe doping into SnO2 matrix by X-ray diffraction and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The electrochemical behaviour of carbamazepine at the Fe-SnO2 modified screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry. Electron transfer coefficient α (0.63) and electron transfer rate constant ks (0.69 s(-1)) values of the 5 wt.% Fe-SnO2 modified SPCE indicate that the diffusion controlled process takes place on the electrode surface. The fabricated sensor displayed a good electrooxidation response towards the detection of CBZ at a lower oxidation potential of 0.8 V in phosphate buffer solution at pH7.0. Under the optimal conditions, the sensor showed fast and sensitive current response to CBZ over a wide linear range of 0.5-100 μM with a low detection limit of 92 nM. Furthermore, the practical application of the modified electrode has been investigated by the determination of CBZ in pharmaceutical products using standard addition method.

  18. Nitrogen-doped hydrothermal carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titirici, Maria-Magdalena; White, Robin J. [Max-Planck-Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Potsdam (Germany). Dept. of Colloid Chemistry; Zhao, Li [Max-Planck-Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Potsdam (Germany). Dept. of Colloid Chemistry; National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing (China)

    2012-07-01

    Nitrogen doped carbon materials are now playing an important role in cutting edge innovations for energy conversion and storage technologies such as supercapacitors and proton exchange membrane fuel cells as well as in catalytic applications, adsorption and CO{sub 2} capture. The production of such materials using benign aqueous based processes, mild temperatures and renewable precursors is of great promise in addressing growing environmental concerns for cleaner power sources at a time of increasing global demand for energy. In this perspective, we show that nitrogen doped carbons prepared using sustainable processes such as ''Hydrothermal Carbonisation'' has advantages in many applications over the conventional carbons. We also summarize an array of synthetic strategies used to create such nitrogen doped carbons, and discuss the application of these novel materials. (orig.)

  19. Doping silver nanoparticles in AOT lyotropic lamellarphases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The organic lyotropic liquid crystal with long-range structural order is used as templateto assemble inorganic/organic hybrid by doping pre-fabricated Ag nanoparticles. The lamellar hy-brid with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic particles doped simultaneously is realized for the firsttime. The change of template structure after doping and the stability origin of dual-doped systemare characterized by small angle X-ray scattering and polarized optical microscopy. Results showthat the interaction and space matching between surfactant bilayers and doped particles are

  20. Novel electrochemical sensor based on N-doped carbon nanotubes and Fe3O4 nanoparticles: simultaneous voltammetric determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Diana M; Costa, Marta; Pereira, Clara; Bachiller-Baeza, Belén; Rodríguez-Ramos, Inmaculada; Guerrero-Ruiz, Antonio; Freire, Cristina

    2014-10-15

    A new modified electrode based on N-doped carbon nanotubes functionalized with Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4@CNT-N) has been prepared and applied on the simultaneous electrochemical determination of small biomolecules such as dopamine (DA), uric acid (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA) using voltammetric methods. The unique properties of CNT-N and Fe3O4 nanoparticles individually and the synergetic effect between them led to an improved electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of AA, DA and UA. The overlapping anodic peaks of these three biomolecules could be resolved from each other due to their lower oxidation potentials and enhanced oxidation currents when using the Fe3O4@CNT-N modified electrode. The linear response ranges for the square wave voltammetric determination of AA, DA and UA were 5-235, 2.5-65 and 2.5-85μmoldm(-3) with detection limit (S/N=3) of 0.24, 0.050 and 0.047μmoldm(-3), respectively. These results show that Fe3O4@CNT-N nanocomposite is a promising candidate of cutting-edge electrode materials for electrocatalytic applications.

  1. Formation of tin-tin oxide core-shell nanoparticles in the composite SnO2-x/nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes by pulsed ion beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korusenko, P. M.; Nesov, S. N.; Bolotov, V. V.; Povoroznyuk, S. N.; Pushkarev, A. I.; Ivlev, K. E.; Smirnov, D. A.

    2017-03-01

    The complex methods of transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to investigate the changes in the morphology, phase composition, and electronic structure of the composite SnO2-x/nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (SnO2-x/N-MWCNTs) irradiated with the pulsed ion beam of nanosecond duration. The irradiation of the composite SnO2-x/N-MWCNTs leads to the formation of nanoparticles with the core-shell structure on the surface of CNTs with a sharp interfacial boundary. It has been established that the "core" is a metal tin (Sn0) with a typical size of 5-35 nm, and the "shell" is a thin amorphous layer (2-6 nm) consisting of nonstoichiometric tin oxide with a low oxygen content. The "core-shell" structure Snsbnd SnOx is formed due to the process of heating and evaporation of SnO2-x under the effect of the ion beam, followed by vapor deposition on the surface of carbon nanotubes.

  2. Novel Terbium Chelate Doped Fluorescent Silica Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Qiaoyu; Meng Jianxin; Wang Haiming; Liu Yingliang; Man Shiqing

    2006-01-01

    Novel terbium chelate doped silica fluorescent nanoparticles were prepared and characterized.The preparation was carried out in water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsion containing monomer precursor (pAB-DTPAA-APTEOS), Triton X-100, n-hexanol, and cyclohexane by controlling copolymerization of tetraethyl orthosilicate and 3-aminopropyl-triethyloxysilane.The nanoparticles are spherical and uniform in size, about 30 nm in diameter, strongly fluorescent, and highly stable.The amino groups directly introduced to the surface of the nanoparticles using APTEOS during preparation made the surface modification and bioconjugation of the nanoparticles easier.The nanoparticles are expected as an efficient time-resolved luminescence biological label.

  3. Sensitive amperometric determination of hydrazine using a carbon paste electrode modified with silver-doped zeolite L nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NEDA SALEK GILANI; SEYED NASER AZIZI; SHAHRAM GHASEMI

    2017-02-01

    Silver-loaded nanozeolite-L-modified carbon paste electrode (Ag/L–CPE) was used as a novel sensing platform for enhanced electrocatalytic oxidation and determination of hydrazine. Zeolite L nanoparticles were synthesized via hydrothermal approach and then characterized using various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET). Silver-exchanged nanozeolite L (Ag/L) was prepared and mixed with carbon paste to prepare the modified electrode. Cyclic voltammetry studies revealed the high performance of Ag/L–CPE for electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrazine. Two linear ranges were detected in the amperometric detection of hydrazine. The first range was from10 $\\mu$M to 0.4 mM with sensitivity of 103.13 $\\mu$A mM$^{−1}$ and the second one was from 0.4 to 4mM with sensitivity of 58.131 $\\mu$A mM$^{−1}$. The response time and detection limit ($S/N = 3$) of this sensor were determined to be 2 s and 1.5 $\\mu$M, respectively. The unique porous structure of nanozeolite L offers a promising catalyst support candidate for efficient electrochemical sensing of hydrazine. The sensor exhibited appreciable repeatability, reproducibility and stability, and was able to detect hydrazine in the presence of even 500-fold excess concentrations of interfering species. Also, the sensor was used to determine hydrazine concentration in water samples with satisfactory results.

  4. Effect of aluminum and yttrium doping on zinc sulphide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Swati, E-mail: sharma.swati1507@gmail.com; Kashyap, Jyoti; Kapoor, A. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi-110021 (India); Gupta, Shubhra [Sri Venkateswara College, University of Delhi, New Delhi-110021 (India); Natasha [Maharaja Agrasen College, University of Delhi-110053 (India)

    2016-05-06

    In this work, pristine and doped Zinc Sulphide (ZnS) nanoparticles have been synthesized via chemical co-precipitation method. ZnS nanoparticles have been doped with Aluminium (Al) and Yttrium (Y) with doping concentration of 5wt% each. The structural and optical properties of the as prepared nanoparticles have been studied using X-Ray diffraction (XRD) technique and Photoluminescence spectroscopy. Average grain size of 2-3nm is observed through the XRD analysis. Effect of doping on stress, strain and lattice constant of the nanoparticles has also been analyzed. Photoluminescence spectra of the as prepared nanoparticles is enhanced due to Al doping and quenched due to Y doping. EDAX studies confirm the relative doping percentage to be 3.47 % and 3.94% by wt. for Al and Y doped nanoparticles respectively. Morphology of the nanoparticles studied using TEM and SEM indicates uniform distribution of spherical nanoparticles.

  5. Preparation and Electrochemical Properties of Silver Doped Hollow Carbon Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Fu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Silver doped PAN-based hollow carbon nanofibers were prepared combining co-electrospinning with in situ reduction technique subsequently heat treatment to improve the electrochemical performances of carbon based supercapacitor electrodes. The morphology, structure and electrochemical performances of the resulted nanofiber were studied. The results show that the silver nanoparticles can be doped on the surface of hollow carbon nanofibers and the addition of silver favors the improvement of the electrochemical performances, exhibiting the enhanced reversibility of electrode reaction and the capacitance and the reduced charge transfer impedance.

  6. Simultaneous ultrasound-assisted ternary adsorption of dyes onto copper-doped zinc sulfide nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon: Optimization by response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaram, Arash; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Hajati, Shaaker; Goudarzi, Alireza; Bazrafshan, Ali Akbar

    2015-06-01

    The simultaneous and competitive ultrasound-assisted removal of Auramine-O (AO), Erythrosine (Er) and Methylene Blue (MB) from aqueous solutions were rapidly performed onto copper-doped zinc sulfide nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon (ZnS:Cu-NP-AC). ZnS:Cu nanoparticles were studied by FESEM, XRD and TEM. First, the effect of pH was optimized in a one-at-a-time procedure. Then the dependency of dyes removal percentage in their ternary solution on the level and magnitude of variables such as sonication time, initial dyes concentrations and adsorbent dosage was fully investigated and optimized by central composite design (CCD) under response surface methodology (RSM) as well as by regarding desirability function (DF) as a good and general criterion. The good agreement found between experimental and predicted values supports and confirms the suitability of the present model to predict adsorption state. The applied ultrasound strongly enhanced mass transfer process and subsequently performance. Hence, a small amount of the adsorbent (0.04 g) was capable to remove high percentage of dyes, i.e. 100%, 99.6% and 100% for MB, AO and Er, respectively, in very short time (2.5 min). The experimental equilibrium data fitting to Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich models showed that the Langmuir model applies well for the evaluation and description of the actual behavior of adsorption. The small amount of proposed adsorbent (0.015 g) was applicable for successful removal of dyes (RE > 99.0%) in short time (2.5 min) with high adsorption capacity in single component system (123.5 mg g-1 for MB, 123 mg g-1 for AO and 84.5 mg g-1 for Er). Kinetics evaluation of experiments at various time intervals reveals that adsorption processes can be well predicated and fitted by pseudo-second-order and Elovich models.

  7. Nickel supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes as hydrogen oxidation reaction catalyst in alkaline electrolyte

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhuang, Zhongbin; Giles, Stephen A; Zheng, Jie; Jenness, Glen R; Caratzoulas, Stavros; Vlachos, Dionisios G; Yan, Yushan

    2016-01-01

    .... Here we report that a composite catalyst, nickel nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes, has hydrogen oxidation activity similar to platinum-group metals in alkaline electrolyte...

  8. Core-shell Co@Co3O4 nanoparticle-embedded bamboo-like nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (BNCNTs) as a highly active electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Junwu; Chen, Chen; Xi, Jiangbo; Xu, Yangyang; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Shihe

    2015-04-01

    The current bottleneck for fuel cells and metal-air batteries lies in the sluggish oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on the cathode side. Despite tremendous efforts, to develop a highly efficient ORR catalyst at low cost remains a great challenge. Herein, we have synthesized core-shell Co@Co3O4 nanoparticles embedded in the bamboo-like N-doped carbon tubes (BNCNTs) by a simple approach comprising thermal treatment of cobalt carbonate hydroxide and urea and oxidization. The ORR catalytic activities of the Co@Co3O4/BNCNT composites are closely dependent on the oxidization degree of the Co nanoparticles and the N content in the BNCNTs. When oxidized at 300 °C, the as-formed Co@Co3O4/BNCNTs-300 composite catalyst with an N/C molar ratio of ~1.6% achieves the maximum ORR catalytic activity. The composite catalyst also exhibits a higher ORR catalytic activity than the Co3O4/carbon nanotube (CNT) catalyst. The tolerance for methanol molecules and the cycle stability performance of the composite catalyst are even superior to those of the highly efficient Pt/C catalyst. Such an excellent ORR catalytic activity can be ascribed to (1) the core-shell Co@Co3O4 nanoparticles embedded in BNCNTs, (2) the N-doping in BNCNTs, and (3) the synergetic effect of (1) and (2) on Co3O4 firmly attached to both Co nanoparticles and BNCNTs, resulting in accelerated electron transport and enhanced charge delocalization.The current bottleneck for fuel cells and metal-air batteries lies in the sluggish oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on the cathode side. Despite tremendous efforts, to develop a highly efficient ORR catalyst at low cost remains a great challenge. Herein, we have synthesized core-shell Co@Co3O4 nanoparticles embedded in the bamboo-like N-doped carbon tubes (BNCNTs) by a simple approach comprising thermal treatment of cobalt carbonate hydroxide and urea and oxidization. The ORR catalytic activities of the Co@Co3O4/BNCNT composites are closely dependent on the oxidization degree of

  9. Synthesis of an efficient heteroatom-doped carbon electro-catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction by pyrolysis of protein-rich pulse flour cooked with SiO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Rohan; Unni, Sreekuttan M; Puthusseri, Dhanya; Kurungot, Sreekumar; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2014-03-01

    Development of a highly durable, fuel-tolerant, metal-free electro-catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is essential for robust and cost-effective Anion Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (AEMFCs). Herein, we report the development of a nitrogen-doped (N-doped) hierarchically porous carbon-based efficient ORR electrocatalyst from protein-rich pulses. The process involves 3D silica nanoparticle templating of the pulse flour(s) followed by their double pyrolysis. The detailed experiments are performed on gram flour (derived from chickpeas) without any in situ/ex situ addition of dopants. The N-doped porous carbon thus generated shows remarkable electrocatalytic activity towards ORR in the alkaline medium. The oxygen reduction on this material follows the desired 4-electron transfer mechanism involving the direct reduction pathway. Additionally, the synthesized carbon catalyst also exhibits good electrochemical stability and fuel tolerance. The results are also obtained and compared with the case of soybean flour having higher nitrogen content to highlight the significance of different parameters in the ORR catalyst performance.

  10. Structural and Biological Assessment of Zinc Doped Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Liana Popa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current research work was to study the physicochemical and biological properties of synthesized zinc doped hydroxyapatite (ZnHAp nanoparticles with Zn concentrations xZn=0 (HAp, xZn=0.07 (7ZnHAp, and xZn=0.1 (10ZnHAp for potential use in biological applications. The morphology, size, compositions, and incorporation of zinc into hydroxyapatite were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, Raman scattering, and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS. In addition, the cytotoxicity of ZnHAp nanoparticles was tested on both E. coli bacteria and human hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2. The results showed that ZnHAp nanoparticles (HAp, 7ZnHAp, and 10ZnHAp have slightly elongated morphologies with average diameters between 25 nm and 18 nm. On the other hand, a uniform and homogeneous distribution of the constituent elements (calcium, phosphorus, zinc, and oxygen in the ZnHAp powder was noticed. Besides, FTIR and Raman analyses confirmed the proper hydroxyapatite structure of the synthesized ZnHAp nanoparticles with the signature of phosphate, carbonate, and hydroxyl groups. Moreover, it can be concluded that Zn doping at the tested concentrations is not inducing a specific prokaryote or eukaryote toxicity in HAp compounds.

  11. Nanoindentation of Chitosan Doped with Silver Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Matthew; Teklu, Alem; Kuthirummal, Narayanan; Levi-Polyachenko, Nicole; Department of Physics; Astronomy, College of Charleston Collaboration; Department of Plastic; Reconstructive Surgery, Wake Forest University Health Sciences Collaboration

    Imaging and spectroscopic analysis via nanoindentation was performed with the Nanosurf EasyScan2 AFM on the pure and silver doped chitosan samples allowing for a more localized determination of their stiffness, hardness, and reduced Young's modulus. The pure chitosan sample was tested to have a stiffness of 0.367 N/m, a hardness of 1.12 GPa, and a reduced Young's modulus of 30.5 MPa. The film with 5mg Ag nanoparticle per gram of chitosan was tested on the boundaries between the chitosan and Ag nanoparticles to show an increase in stiffness of about 4.6% at 0.384 N/m, an increase in hardness of about 5.4% at 1.18 GPa, and an increase in the reduced Young's modulus of about 5.0% at 3.2 MPa in comparison to the pure chitosan sample. On the other hand, upon increasing the doping to 10mg Ag nanoparticle per gram of chitosan showed a decrease in stiffness of about 6.3% at 0.344 N/m, a decrease in hardness of about 27.0% at 0.820 GPa, and a decrease in the reduced Young's modulus of about 6.0% at 28.7 MPa in comparison to the pure chitosan sample. Obviously, films doped with 5mg Ag nanoparicle per gram of chitosan provided the composites with improved mechanical strength compared to chitosan alone.

  12. Epoxy based photoresist/carbon nanoparticle composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillemose, Michael; Gammelgaard, Lauge; Richter, Jacob;

    2008-01-01

    We have fabricated composites of SU-8 polymer and three different types of carbon nanoparticles (NPs) using ultrasonic mixing. Structures of composite thin films have been patterned on a characterization chip with standard UV photolithography. Using a four-point bending probe, a well defined stress...... is applied to the composite thin film and we have demonstrated that the composites are piezoresistive. Stable gauge factors of 5-9 have been measured, but we have also observed piezoresistive responses with gauge factors as high as 50. As SU-8 is much softer than silicon and the gauge factor of the composite...... material is relatively high, carbon nanoparticle doped SU-8 is a valid candidate for the piezoresistive readout in polymer based cantilever sensors, with potentially higher sensitivity than silicon based cantilevers....

  13. Controlled cobalt doping in biogenic magnetite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, J. M.; Coker, V. S.; Moise, S.; Wincott, P. L.; Vaughan, D. J.; Tuna, F.; Arenholz, E.; van der Laan, G.; Pattrick, R. A. D.; Lloyd, J. R.; Telling, N. D.

    2013-01-01

    Cobalt-doped magnetite (CoxFe3 −xO4) nanoparticles have been produced through the microbial reduction of cobalt–iron oxyhydroxide by the bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens. The materials produced, as measured by superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, X-ray magnetic circular dichroism, Mössbauer spectroscopy, etc., show dramatic increases in coercivity with increasing cobalt content without a major decrease in overall saturation magnetization. Structural and magnetization analyses reveal a reduction in particle size to less than 4 nm at the highest Co content, combined with an increase in the effective anisotropy of the magnetic nanoparticles. The potential use of these biogenic nanoparticles in aqueous suspensions for magnetic hyperthermia applications is demonstrated. Further analysis of the distribution of cations within the ferrite spinel indicates that the cobalt is predominantly incorporated in octahedral coordination, achieved by the substitution of Fe2+ site with Co2+, with up to 17 per cent Co substituted into tetrahedral sites. PMID:23594814

  14. Iron-Doped Carbon Aerogels: Novel Porous Substrates for Direct Growth of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, S. A.; Baumann, T. F.; Kong, J.; Satcher, J. H.; Dresselhaus, M. S.

    2007-02-20

    We present the synthesis and characterization of Fe-doped carbon aerogels (CAs) and demonstrate the ability to grow carbon nanotubes directly on monoliths of these materials to afford novel carbon aerogel-carbon nanotube composites. Preparation of the Fe-doped CAs begins with the sol-gel polymerization of the potassium salt of 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid with formaldehyde, affording K{sup +}-doped gels that can then be converted to Fe{sup 2+}- or Fe{sup 3+}-doped gels through an ion exchange process, dried with supercritical CO{sub 2} and subsequently carbonized under an inert atmosphere. Analysis of the Fe-doped CAs by TEM, XRD and XPS revealed that the doped iron species are reduced during carbonization to form metallic iron and iron carbide nanoparticles. The sizes and chemical composition of the reduced Fe species were related to pyrolysis temperature as well as the type of iron salt used in the ion exchange process. Raman spectroscopy and XRD analysis further reveal that, despite the presence of the Fe species, the CA framework is not significantly graphitized during pyrolysis. The Fe-doped CAs were subsequently placed in a thermal CVD reactor and exposed to a mixture of CH{sub 4} (1000 sccm), H{sub 2} (500 sccm), and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} (20 sccm) at temperatures ranging from 600 to 800 C for 10 minutes, resulting in direct growth of carbon nanotubes on the aerogel monoliths. Carbon nanotubes grown by this method appear to be multiwalled ({approx}25 nm in diameter and up to 4 mm long) and grow through a tip-growth mechanism that pushes catalytic iron particles out of the aerogel framework. The highest yield of CNTs were grown on Fe-doped CAs pyrolyzed at 800 C treated at CVD temperatures of 700 C.

  15. Iron-Doped Carbon Aerogels: Novel Porous Substrates for Direct Growth of Carbon Nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, S A; Baumann, T F; Kong, J; Satcher, J H; Dresselhaus, M S

    2007-02-15

    We present the synthesis and characterization of Fe-doped carbon aerogels (CAs) and demonstrate the ability to grow carbon nanotubes directly on monoliths of these materials to afford novel carbon aerogel-carbon nanotube composites. Preparation of the Fe-doped CAs begins with the sol-gel polymerization of the potassium salt of 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid with formaldehyde, affording K{sup +}-doped gels that can then be converted to Fe{sup 2+}- or Fe{sup 3+}-doped gels through an ion exchange process, dried with supercritical CO{sub 2} and subsequently carbonized under an inert atmosphere. Analysis of the Fe-doped CAs by TEM, XRD and XPS revealed that the doped iron species are reduced during carbonization to form metallic iron and iron carbide nanoparticles. The sizes and chemical composition of the reduced Fe species were related to pyrolysis temperature as well as the type of iron salt used in the ion exchange process. Raman spectroscopy and XRD analysis further reveal that, despite the presence of the Fe species, the CA framework is not significantly graphitized during pyrolysis. The Fe-doped CAs were subsequently placed in a thermal CVD reactor and exposed to a mixture of CH{sub 4} (1000 sccm), H{sub 2} (500 sccm), and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} (20 sccm) at temperatures ranging from 600 to 800 C for 10 minutes, resulting in direct growth of carbon nanotubes on the aerogel monoliths. Carbon nanotubes grown by this method appear to be multiwalled ({approx}25 nm in diameter and up to 4 mm long) and grow through a tip-growth mechanism that pushes catalytic iron particles out of the aerogel framework. The highest yield of CNTs were grown on Fe-doped CAs pyrolyzed at 800 C treated at CVD temperatures of 700 C.

  16. Synthesis of Cerium-Doped Titania Nanoparticles and Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wei; Suzuki, Takuya; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M

    2015-03-01

    Cerium-doped titania nanoparticles and nanotubes were synthesized via hydrothermal processes. X-Ray Diffraction revealed that cerium-doped titania nanoparticles have an anatase crystal structure, while cerium-doped titania nanotubes have an H2Ti3O7-type structure. Scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy showed that both types of titania are well crystallized with relatively uniform size distribution. The photocatalytic degradation of methylthioninium chloride known as methylene blue dye was tested and both cerium-doped titania nanoparticles and nanotubes. The preliminary photocatalytic degradation of Methylene Blue data showed significantly improved visible light photocatalytic activities as compared to commercial titania powders.

  17. Electrochemical in-situ dissolution study of structurally ordered, disordered and gold doped PtCu3 nanoparticles on carbon composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovič, Primož; Šelih, Vid Simon; Šala, Martin; Hočevar, Samo B.; Pavlišič, Andraž; Gatalo, Matija; Bele, Marjan; Ruiz-Zepeda, Francisco; Čekada, Miha; Hodnik, Nejc; Gaberšček, Miran

    2016-09-01

    Commercial deployment of low-temperature-fuel cells is still hugely restricted by platinum alloy catalysts corrosion. Extensive research of the last years is focused on increasing stability of the catalyst composite, however a comprehensive understanding is still lacking. In pursuing this fundamentally and practically very important objective we present a comparative corrosion study of a PtCu3 nano-alloy system by investigating the effects of structural ordering and gold doping. For that purpose a recently developed electrochemical flow cell (EFC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) is employed. This approach provides potential- and time-resolved insight into dissolution process at extremely low concentrations (ppb level). Our results show a structure-dependent copper corrosion, where ordering and gold-doping significantly improve copper retention in the native alloy. Two assumptions can be drawn from the measured Pt dissolution profiles: (i) a better Pt re-deposition efficiency in catalysts with higher porosity and (ii) the beneficial effect of Au surface doping that lowers the amount of dissolved Pt amount and shifts the Pt cathodic dissolution to lower potentials. A 2.6 nm Pt/C standard catalyst with the same carbon loading shows a much lower stability which is due to the well-known particle size effect.

  18. Metal-doped semiconductor nanoparticles and methods of synthesis thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng (Inventor); Chen, Gang (Inventor); Poudel, Bed (Inventor); Kumar, Shankar (Inventor); Wang, Wenzhong (Inventor); Dresselhaus, Mildred (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to binary or higher order semiconductor nanoparticles doped with a metallic element, and thermoelectric compositions incorporating such nanoparticles. In one aspect, the present invention provides a thermoelectric composition comprising a plurality of nanoparticles each of which includes an alloy matrix formed of a Group IV element and Group VI element and a metallic dopant distributed within the matrix.

  19. Palladium on Nitrogen-Doped Mesoporous Carbon: A Bifunctional Catalyst for Formate-Based, Carbon-Neutral Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fanan; Xu, Jinming; Shao, Xianzhao; Su, Xiong; Huang, Yanqiang; Zhang, Tao

    2016-02-08

    The lack of safe, efficient, and economical hydrogen storage technologies is a hindrance to the realization of the hydrogen economy. Reported herein is a reversible formate-based carbon-neutral hydrogen storage system that is established over a novel catalyst comprising palladium nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon. The support was fabricated by a hard template method and nitridated under a flow of ammonia. Detailed analyses demonstrate that this bicarbonate/formate redox equilibrium is promoted by the cooperative role of the doped nitrogen functionalities and the well-dispersed, electron-enriched palladium nanoparticles.

  20. Hierarchically structured, nitrogen-doped carbon membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hong

    2017-08-03

    The present invention is a structure, method of making and method of use for a novel macroscopic hierarchically structured, nitrogen-doped, nano-porous carbon membrane (HNDCMs) with asymmetric and hierarchical pore architecture that can be produced on a large-scale approach. The unique HNDCM holds great promise as components in separation and advanced carbon devices because they could offer unconventional fluidic transport phenomena on the nanoscale. Overall, the invention set forth herein covers a hierarchically structured, nitrogen-doped carbon membranes and methods of making and using such a membranes.

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Rare Earth Doped Fluoride Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy A. DeVol; Basak Yazgan-Kukouz; Baris Kokuoz; DiMaio, Jeffrey R.; Kevin B. Sprinkle; Tiffany L. James; Courtney J. Kucera; JACOBSOHN, Luiz G.; John Ballato

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the synthesis, structure and applications of metal fluoride nanoparticles, with particular focus on rare earth (RE) doped fluoride nanoparticles obtained by our research group. Nanoparticles were produced by precipitation methods using the ligand ammonium di-n-octadecyldithiophosphate (ADDP) that allows the growth of shells around a core particle while simultaneously avoiding particle aggregation. Nanoparticles were characterized on their structure, morphology, and luminesc...

  2. Rare Earth Doped Optical Fibre From Oxide Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minati Chatterjee; Aharon Gedanken; Renata Reisfeld; Ranjan Sen; Mrinmay Pal; Milan Naskar; Mukul Paul; Shyamal Bhadra; Kamal Dasgupta; Dibyendu Ganguli; Tarun Bandyopadhyay

    2003-01-01

    Rare earth (RE) doped optical fibres were fabricated by using RE oxides coated silica nanoparticles. The fibre properties are comparable to those prepared by conventional techniques. The process offers better control over RE incorporation and homogeneity in the preform.

  3. Synthesis of Nickel-Encapsulated Carbon Nanocapsules and Cup-Stacked-Type Carbon Nanotubes via Nickel-Doped Fullerene Nanowhiskers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokushi Kizuka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel- (Ni doped C60 nanowhiskers (NWs were synthesized by a liquid-liquid interfacial precipitation method using a C60-saturated toluene solution and isopropanol with Ni nitrate hexahydrate Ni(NO32·6H2O. By varying the heating temperature of Ni-doped C60 NWs, two types of one-dimensional carbon nanostructures were produced. By heating the NWs at 973 and 1173 K, carbon nanocapsules (CNCs that encapsulated Ni nanoparticles were produced. The Ni-encapsulated CNCs joined one dimensionally to form chain structures. Upon heating the NWs to 1373 K, cup-stacked-type carbon nanotubes were synthesized.

  4. Preparation and Characterization of Rare Earth Doped Fluoride Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy A. DeVol

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the synthesis, structure and applications of metal fluoride nanoparticles, with particular focus on rare earth (RE doped fluoride nanoparticles obtained by our research group. Nanoparticles were produced by precipitation methods using the ligand ammonium di-n-octadecyldithiophosphate (ADDP that allows the growth of shells around a core particle while simultaneously avoiding particle aggregation. Nanoparticles were characterized on their structure, morphology, and luminescent properties. We discuss the synthesis, properties, and application of heavy metal fluorides; specifically LaF3:RE and PbF2, and group IIA fluorides. Particular attention is given to the synthesis of core/shell nanoparticles, including selectively RE-doped LaF3/LaF3, and CaF2/CaF2 core/(multi-shell nanoparticles, and the CaF2-LaF3 system.

  5. The fabrication and application of magnetite coated N-doped carbon microtubes hybrid nanomaterials with sandwich structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Chen, Liangfei; Zheng, Jing; Li, Weizhen; Hayat, Tasawar; Alharbi, Njud S; Gan, Wenjun; Xu, Jingli

    2017-07-18

    In this work, N-doped carbon microtubes have been synthesized using MoO3 microrods as the sacrificial template. Then, the Fe3O4 nanoparticles were integrated into N-doped carbon microtubes to obtain triple-walled Fe3O4@N-doped carbon@Fe3O4 microtubes via a high temperature decomposition process. Due to the coordination ability of nitrogen and the unique structures of the N-doped carbon microtubes, the Fe3O4 nanoparticles were closely attached to both the external and internal surfaces of the N-doped carbon microtubes and thus, assured a relatively good response to an external magnetic field. All these features make the nanocomposites well fitted for adsorption, catalysis, energy storage etc. Moreover, the N-doped carbon microtubes can be used as versatile templates to synthesize other triple-walled composites M@N-doped carbon@M microtubes (such as M = Cu(Cu2O), MnO2, MoS2), which greatly widens the applications of N-doped carbon microtubes.

  6. Tuning ferromagnetism in zinc oxide nanoparticles by chromium doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Palvinder; Pandey, S. K.; Kumar, Sanjeev; Negi, N. S.; Chen, C. L.; Rao, S. M.; Wu, M. K.

    2015-11-01

    Zn1- x Cr x O nanoparticles with x = 0.0, 0.01, 0.03 and 0.05 were synthesized by the sol-gel technique. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies reveal that chromium (Cr) incorporates into the ZnO crystal lattice without disturbing the parent hexagonal (wurtzite) structure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements show that the average size of these nanoparticles is in the range 15-25 nm. Optical absorption studies show that the band gap of ZnO nanoparticles varies with Cr doping. Photoluminescence (PL) studies depict the presence of defects in Cr-doped nanoparticles. Undoped ZnO exhibits diamagnetic behavior while Cr-doped ZnO samples exhibit weak ferromagnetism to anti-ferromagnetism depending on the Cr content.

  7. Formation of tin-tin oxide core–shell nanoparticles in the composite SnO{sub 2−x}/nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes by pulsed ion beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korusenko, P.M., E-mail: korusenko@obisp.oscsbras.ru [Omsk Scientific Center, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Karl Marx avenue 15, 644040 Omsk (Russian Federation); Nesov, S.N.; Bolotov, V.V.; Povoroznyuk, S.N. [Omsk Scientific Center, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Karl Marx avenue 15, 644040 Omsk (Russian Federation); Pushkarev, A.I. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Ave. 2a, 634028 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Ivlev, K.E. [Omsk Scientific Center, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Karl Marx avenue 15, 644040 Omsk (Russian Federation); Smirnov, D.A. [St. Petersburg State University, Lieutenant Shmidt Emb. 11, 198504 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Solid State Physics, Dresden University of Technology, D-01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2017-03-01

    Highlights: • Original method the formation of core–shell structures by pulsed ion beam is proposed. • The composite SnO{sub 2−x}/N-MWCNTs was irradiated by pulsed ion beam. • Morphology and electronic structure of the irradiated composite were characterized. • The formation of Sn−SnO{sub x} core–shell nanoparticles after irradiation was observed. - Abstract: The complex methods of transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to investigate the changes in the morphology, phase composition, and electronic structure of the composite SnO{sub 2−x}/nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (SnO{sub 2−x}/N-MWCNTs) irradiated with the pulsed ion beam of nanosecond duration. The irradiation of the composite SnO{sub 2−x}/N-MWCNTs leads to the formation of nanoparticles with the core–shell structure on the surface of CNTs with a sharp interfacial boundary. It has been established that the “core” is a metal tin (Sn{sup 0}) with a typical size of 5–35 nm, and the “shell” is a thin amorphous layer (2–6 nm) consisting of nonstoichiometric tin oxide with a low oxygen content. The “core–shell” structure Sn−SnO{sub x} is formed due to the process of heating and evaporation of SnO{sub 2−x} under the effect of the ion beam, followed by vapor deposition on the surface of carbon nanotubes.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of Gd-doped magnetite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honghu; Malik, Vikash; Mallapragada, Surya; Akinc, Mufit

    2017-02-01

    Synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles has attracted increasing interest due to their importance in biomedical and technological applications. Tunable magnetic properties of magnetite nanoparticles to meet specific requirements will greatly expand the spectrum of applications. Tremendous efforts have been devoted to studying and controlling the size, shape and magnetic properties of magnetite nanoparticles. Here we investigate gadolinium (Gd) doping to influence the growth process as well as magnetic properties of magnetite nanocrystals via a simple co-precipitation method under mild conditions in aqueous media. Gd doping was found to affect the growth process leading to synthesis of controllable particle sizes under the conditions tested (0-10 at% Gd3+). Typically, undoped and 5 at% Gd-doped magnetite nanoparticles were found to have crystal sizes of about 18 and 44 nm, respectively, supported by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Our results showed that Gd-doped nanoparticles retained the magnetite crystal structure, with Gd3+ randomly incorporated in the crystal lattice, probably in the octahedral sites. The composition of 5 at% Gd-doped magnetite was Fe(3-x)GdxO4 (x=0.085±0.002), as determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. 5 at% Gd-doped nanoparticles exhibited ferrimagnetic properties with small coercivity ( 65 Oe) and slightly decreased magnetization at 260 K in contrast to the undoped, superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles. Templation by the bacterial biomineralization protein Mms6 did not appear to affect the growth of the Gd-doped magnetite particles synthesized by this method.

  9. Modified refractive index of zinc sulfide nanoparticles doped glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moussaoui

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available ZnS nanoparticles (NPs embedded in an oxide glass have been achieved in the present work by melting process. The UV-visible absorption and fluorescence properties of these doped and undoped glasses have been evaluated and compared. Studies on absorption spectra showed that the size of the ZnS NPs was near to 2 nm. Doped glass fluorescence characterized by laser confocale microscopy is centered at about 620 nm. We measured also the refractive index of ZnS doped glasses. The maximum refractive index difference between the undoped and ZnS doped glasses was found about 0.1 (l = 632.8 nm.

  10. Rhodamine B doped silica nanoparticle labels for protein microarray detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A core-shell Rhodamine B-doped SiO2 nanoparticle was synthesized and its fluorescent intensity was found to be 1000 times higher than that of individual Rhodamine B molecule. The doped nanoparticles were further conjugated with streptavidin and the resulting nanoparticles were used in the detection of reverse-phase protein microarrays, in which human IgG of various concentrations was first immobilized on aldehyde-modified glass slides and then biotinlyated goat anti human IgG as well as the labeled nanoparticles were sequentially conjugated. The calibration curve is linear over the range from 800 fg to 500 pg and the limit of detection is 100 fg, which is 8 times lower than that of streptavidin-labeled Cy3 fluorescent dyes. The dyedoped SiO2 nanoparticles show potentials for the protein array detection.

  11. Electrospun doping of carbon nanotubes and platinum nanoparticles into the β-phase polyvinylidene difluoride nanofibrous membrane for biosensor and catalysis applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Panpan; Zhao, Xinne; Zhang, Xuan; Lai, Yue; Wang, Xinting; Li, Jingfeng; Wei, Gang; Su, Zhiqiang

    2014-05-28

    A novel β-phase polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) nanofibrous membrane decorated with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) was fabricated by an improved electrospinning technique. The morphology of the fabricated PVDF-MWCNT-PtNP nanofibrous membrane was observed by scanning electron microscopy, and the formation of high β-phase in the hybrid nanofibrous membrane was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The uniform dispersion of MWCNTs and PtNPs in the PVDF hybrid nanofibrous membrane and their interaction were explored by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. For the first time, we utilized this created PVDF-MWCNT-PtNP nanofibrous membrane for biosensor and catalysis applications. The nonenzymatic amperometric biosensor with highly stable and sensitive, and selective detection of both H2O2 and glucose was successfully fabricated based on the electrospun PVDF-MWCNT-PtNP nanofibrous membrane. In addition, the catalysis of the hybrid nanofibrous membrane for oxygen reduction reaction was tested, and a good catalysis performance was found. We anticipate that the strategies utilized in this work will not only guide the further design of functional nanofiber-based biomaterials and biodevices but also extend the potential applications in energy storage, cytology, and tissue engineering.

  12. Doping silver nanoparticles in AOT lyotropic lamellarphases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Xiao

    2001-01-01

    [1]Xue, Q. J., Xu, K., Nanochemistry, Progress in Chemistry, 2000, 12(4): 431-444.[2]Rao, C. N. R., Kulkami, G. U., Thomas, P. J. et al., Metal nanoparticles and their assemblies, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2000, 29:27-35.[3]Qi, L. M., Ma, J. M., Synthesis of inorganic materials with complex forms from supramolecular templates, Chemistry Bulletin, 1997, 5: 1-7.[4]Fabre, P., Casagrande, C., Veyssie, M. et al., Ferrosmectics: A new magnetic and mesomorphic phase, Phys. Rev. Lett.,1990, 64(5): 539-542.[5]Ponsinet, V., Fabre, P., Flexibility of the membranes in a doped swollen lamellar phase, J. Phys. Chem., 1996, 100: 5035-5038.[6]Ramos, L., Fabre, P., Ober, R., Existence, stability and structure of a hexagonal phase doped with nanoparticles, Eur. Phys.J. B, 1998, 1: 319-326.[7]Berejnov, V., Raikert, Y., Cabuil, V. et al., Synthesis of stable lyotropic ferronematics with high magnetic content, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 1998,199: 215-217.[8]Menager, C., Belloni, L., Cabuil, V. et al., Osmotic equilibrium between an ionic magnetic fluid and electrostatic lamellar phase, Langmuir, 1996, 12: 3516-3522.[9]Arrault, J., Grand, C., Poon, W. C. K. et al., Stuffed onions: particles in multilamellar vesicles, Europhys. Lett., 1997, 38:625-630.[10]Poulin, P., Raghunathan, A., Richetti, P. et al., On the dispersion of latex particles in a nematic solution, I. Experimental evidence and a simple model, J. Phys. Ⅱ France, 1994, 4: 1557-1569.[11]Raghunathan, A., Richetti, P., Roux, D., Dispersion of latex particles in a nematic solution, 2. Phase diagram and elastic properties, Langmuir, 1996, 12: 3789-3792.[12]Grillo, I., Levitz, P., Zemb, T., Insertion of small anionic particles in negatively charged lamellar phases, Langmuir, 2000,16: 4830-4839.[13]Wang, W., Efrima, S., Regev, O., Directing oleate stabilized nanosized silver colloids into organic phases, Langmuir, 1998,14: 602-610.[14]Kunieda, H., Shinoda, K., Solution behavior of

  13. Intracellular Adenosine Triphosphate Deprivation through Lanthanide-Doped Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing; Zeng, Xiao; Xie, Xiaoji; Han, Sanyang; Liew, Oi-Wah; Chen, Yei-Tsung; Wang, Lianhui; Liu, Xiaogang

    2015-05-27

    Growing interest in lanthanide-doped nanoparticles for biological and medical uses has brought particular attention to their safety concerns. However, the intrinsic toxicity of this new class of optical nanomaterials in biological systems has not been fully evaluated. In this work, we systematically evaluate the long-term cytotoxicity of lanthanide-doped nanoparticles (NaGdF4 and NaYF4) to HeLa cells by monitoring cell viability (mitochondrial activity), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level, and cell membrane integrity (lactate dehydrogenase release), respectively. Importantly, we find that ligand-free lanthanide-doped nanoparticles induce intracellular ATP deprivation of HeLa cells, resulting in a significant decrease in cell viability after exposure for 7 days. We attribute the particle-induced cell death to two distinct cell death pathways, autophagy and apoptosis, which are primarily mediated via the interaction between the nanoparticle and the phosphate group of cellular ATP. The understanding gained from the investigation of cytotoxicity associated with lanthanide-doped nanoparticles provides keen insights into the safe use of these nanoparticles in biological systems.

  14. Multicolor Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Dots for Live Cell Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fengyi; Li, Jianan; Hua, Ye; Zhang, Miaomiao; Zhou, Zhou; Yuan, Jing; Wang, Jun; Peng, Wanxin; Zhang, Li; Xia, Sheng; Wang, Dongqing; Yang, Shiming; Xu, Wenrong; Gong, Aihua; Shao, Qixiang

    2015-05-01

    Doping carbon dots with nitrogen atoms considerably enhances their fluorescence properties. However, the mechanism by which the carbon dots are doped is not fully understood. We developed a facile bottom-up hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process that uses glucose and glycine as precursors for the synthesis of photoluminescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots. The as-prepared nitrogen-doped carbon dots were mono-dispersed spherical particles with a diameter of -2.8 nm. The doped nitrogen atoms assumed pyridinic type and pyrrolic type configurations to participate in the nanocrystal structure of the carbon dots. It appeared that the nitrogen doping introduces a new internal structure. The aqueous solution of nitrogen-doped carbon dots showed excitation wavelength-dependent multicolor photoluminescence. Further, these nitrogen-doped carbon dots readily entered the cytoplasm of A549 cancer cells and showed no significant cytotoxicity. The internalized nitrogen-doped carbon dots were localized to the cell membrane and cytoplasm, particularly around the nucleus. Further, the as-prepared, biocompatible, nitrogen-doped carbon dots demonstrated the potential to be used as fluorescent probes for multicolor live cell labeling, tracking, and imaging.

  15. Carbon nanotube-doped tellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazali, I. O.; Chillcce, E. F.; Ferreira, O. P.; Rodriguez, E.; Jacob, G. J.; Cesar, C. L.; Barbosa, L. C.

    2008-02-01

    In the past it was observed that buck ball doped glasses showed enhanced optical nonlinearities. However, carbon nanotubes are much more stable than buck ball and should be a better choice for that purpose. Therefore we decided to investigate the possibility to produce carbon nanotubes doped tellurite glasses and measured their optical nonlinearities. Tellurite glasses already have a larger nonlinearity compared to silica, and other, glasses. We produced TeO II-ZnO tellurite family glasses doped with multi wall Carbon Nanotube (CNT). The CNTs acquired from Carbolex were vigorously mechanically mixed with the tellurite glass precursors and melted in platinum crucible around 650°C in a controlled atmosphere inside an electrical induction furnace. We used the lowest temperature possible and controlled atmosphere to avoid the CNT oxidation. The glass melt was cast in a stainless steel and thermally treated at 300°C for 5 hours to relieve internal stresses. The samples were than cutted and polished to perform the optical characterization. We measured refractive index and thermo physical properties, such as vitreous transition T g, crystallization onset T x and melting T f temperatures. Raman spectroscopy showed the possible presence of CNTs.

  16. Electrochemical properties of boron-doped ordered mesoporous carbon as electrocatalyst and Pt catalyst support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsabimana, Anaclet; Bo, Xiangjie; Zhang, Yufan; Li, Mian; Han, Ce; Guo, Liping

    2014-08-15

    The electrochemical properties of boron-doped ordered mesoporous carbon (BOMC) as an electrode material and Pt catalyst support were investigated. The BOMC was synthesized and its structure was examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). More defective sites were introduced into OMC by the doping of boron. Six electroactive compounds were employed to investigate their electrochemical responses on BOMC and OMC modified glassy carbon electrodes. The BOMC, with more defective sites, exhibited high activity toward the electroactive compounds. The property of BOMC of supporting platinum nanoparticle catalyst was examined. Pt nanoparticles were loaded onto BOMC and OMC, and this was confirmed by TEM, XPS and thermogravimetric analysis. Pt nanoparticles with an average diameter of 2.62 nm were deposited on BOMC. The doping of boron into OMC facilitates the dispersion of Pt nanoparticles. Pt nanoparticles supported on BOMC (Pt-BOMC) and Pt nanoparticles supported on OMC (Pt-OMC) were electrochemically characterized. The electrocatalytic activity of Pt-BOMC toward methanol oxidation reaction was compared with that of Pt-OMC and commercial Pt-C catalyst. The results show that the electrocatalytic activity of BOMC is significantly higher than that of other used catalysts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ce-doped titania nanoparticles: The effects of doped amount and calcination temperature on photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianwen; Zou, Yajun; Ma, Dandan

    2017-01-01

    A series of Ce-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with different doped amount and calcination temperature were prepared by sol-gel method. These obtained samples were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), and their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange. Results showed that Ce doping inhibits the growth of crystal size and the phase transformation from anatase to rutile, leads to lattice distortion and expansion of TiO2. Furthermore, Ce doping brings the red-shift of absorption profile and the increase of photons absorption in the range of 400-600 nm. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange shows that Ce doping improves the photocatalytic activity of TiO2. The optimal doped amount is 0.05 mol% and the optimal calcined temperature is 600 °C for the maximum photocatalytic degradation efficiency in our experiment.

  18. Imaging carbon nanoparticles and related cytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, C; Porter, A E; Welland, M [Nanoscience Centre, University of Cambridge, 11 JJ Thompson Ave, Cambridge CB3 OFF (United Kingdom); Muller, K; Skepper, J N [Multi-imaging Centre, Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, Anatomy Building, University of Cambridge, Downing St, Cambridge, CB2 3DY (United Kingdom); Koziol, K; Midgley, P, E-mail: mew10@cam.ac.u [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke St, Cambridge, CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-01

    Carbon-based nanoparticles have attracted significant attention due to their unique physical, chemical, and electrical properties. Numerous studies have been published on carbon nanoparticle toxicity; however, the results remain contradictory. An ideal approach is to combine a cell viability assay with nanometer scale imaging to elucidate the detailed physiological and structural effects of cellular exposure to nanoparticles. We have developed and applied a combination of advanced microscopy techniques to image carbon nanoparticles within cells. Specifically, we have used EFTEM, HAADF-STEM, and tomography and confocal microscopy to generate 3-D images enabling determination of nanoparticle spatial distribution in a cell. With these techniques, we can differentiate between the carbon nanoparticles and the cell in both stained and unstained sections. We found carbon nanoparticles (C{sub 60}, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT), and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT)) within the cytoplasm, lysosomes, and nucleus of human monocyte-derived macrophage cells (HMM). C{sub 60} aggregated along the plasma and nuclear membrane while MWNTs and SWNTs were seen penetrating the plasma and nuclear membranes. Both the Neutral Red (NR) assay and ultra-structural analysis showed an increase in cell death after exposure to MWNTs and SWNTs. SWNTs were more toxic than MWNTs. For both MWNTs and SWNTs, we correlated uptake of the nanoparticles with a significant increase in necrosis. In conclusion, high resolution imaging studies provide us with significant insight into the localised interactions between carbon nanoparticles and cells. Viability assays alone only provide a broad toxicological picture of nanoparticle effects on cells whereas the high resolution images associate the spatial distributions of the nanoparticles within the cell with increased incidence of necrosis. This combined approach will enable us to probe the mechanisms of particle uptake and subsequent chemical

  19. Retracted-Enhanced X-Ray Absorption Property of Gold-Doped Single Wall Carbon Nanotube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimin Alimin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced X-ray absorption property of single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT through gold (Au doping (Au@SWCNT has been studied. Mass attenuation coefficient of SWCNT increased 5.2-fold after Au doping treatment. The use of ethanol in the liquid phase adsorption could produce Au nanoparticles as confirmed by the X-ray Diffraction (XRD patterns. The possibility of gold nanoparticles encapsulated in the internal tube space of SWCNT was observed by transmission electron microscope technique. A significant decrease of nitrogen uptakes and upshifts of Radial Breathing Mode (RBM of Au@SWCNT specimen suggest that the nanoparticles might be encapsulated in the internal tube spaces of the nanotube. In addition, a decrease intensity of XRD pattern of Au@SWCNT at around 2θ ≈ 2.6° supports the suggestion that Au nanoparticles are really encapsulated into SWCNT.

  20. Electrochemical sensing behaviour of Ni doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, R.; Giribabu, K.; Manigandan, R.; Vijayalakshmi, L.; Stephen, A.; Narayanan, V.

    2014-01-01

    Ni doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by simple hydrothermal method. The prepared nanomaterials were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, DRS-UV-Visible spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The XRD confirms the phase purity of the synthesized Ni doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The optical property of Ni doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles were studied by DRS UV-Visible analysis. The electrochemical sensing property of pure and Ni doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles were examined using uric acid as an analyte. The obtained results indicated that the Ni doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles exhibited higher electrocatalytic activity towards uric acid.

  1. Microwave absorption properties of gold nanoparticle doped polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Chenhui; Ouattara, Lassana; Ingrosso, Chiara

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a method for characterizing microwave absorption properties of gold nanoparticle doped polymers. The method is based on on-wafer measurements at the frequencies from 0.5GHz to 20GHz. The on-wafer measurement method makes it possible to characterize electromagnetic (EM) property...... of small volume samples. The epoxy based SU8 polymer and SU8 doped with gold nanoparticles are chosen as the samples under test. Two types of microwave test devices are designed for exciting the samples through electrical coupling and magnetic coupling, respectively. Measurement results demonstrate...... that the nanocomposites absorb a certain amount of microwave energy due to gold nanoparticles. Higher nanoparticle concentration results in more significant absorption effect....

  2. Theory of nanoparticles doped in ferroelectric liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, T.; Pal Majumder, T.; Ghosh, N. K.

    2013-02-01

    We developed a theory for the statistical mechanics of nanoparticles doped in ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLC). The presence of nanoparticles in FLC medium creates strong local fields that produce large alignment effects over the distribution of the nanosuspensions. Considering these local field effects, we presented a modified Landau free energy to calculate the electro-optic properties of the system. Then, we investigated the response of the nanoparticles doped FLC to an applied electric field. The variations in the polarization and the tilt angle show marked differences with the pure FLC medium. The rotational viscosity of the system is also calculated with its possible variation in temperature and applied field. Then, we conjectured on the possibility of shift in transition temperature, which is supposed to be induced by an electrostatic interaction between the nanoparticles and the liquid crystal molecules. Finally, strong experimental evidence is presented in favor of our results emerged from this theoretical model.

  3. Rapid synthesis of Co, Ni co-doped ZnO nanoparticles: Optical and electrochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeiro, Fernanda C.; Marinho, Juliane Z.; Lemos, Samantha C.S. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, 38400-902 Uberlândia, MG (Brazil); Moura, Ana P. de [LIEC, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 14800-900 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Freire, Poliana G. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, 38400-902 Uberlândia, MG (Brazil); Silva, Luis F. da; Longo, Elson [LIEC, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 14800-900 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Munoz, Rodrigo A.A. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, 38400-902 Uberlândia, MG (Brazil); Lima, Renata C., E-mail: rclima@iqufu.ufu.br [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, 38400-902 Uberlândia, MG (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    We report for the first time a rapid preparation of Zn{sub 1−2x}Co{sub x}Ni{sub x}O nanoparticles via a versatile and environmentally friendly route, microwave-assisted hydrothermal (MAH) method. The Co, Ni co-doped ZnO nanoparticles present an effect on photoluminescence and electrochemical properties, exhibiting excellent electrocatalytic performance compared to undoped ZnO sample. Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements indicated the reduction of the green–orange–red visible emission region after adding Co and Ni ions, revealing the formation of alternative pathways for the generated recombination. The presence of these metallic ions into ZnO creates different defects, contributing to a local structural disorder, as revealed by Raman spectra. Electrochemical experiments revealed that the electrocatalytic oxidation of dopamine on ZnO attached to multi-walled carbon nanotubes improved significantly in the Co, Ni co-doped ZnO samples when compared to pure ZnO. - Graphical abstract: Rapid synthesis of Co, Ni co-doped ZnO nanoparticles: optical and electrochemical properties. Co, Ni co-doped ZnO hexagonal nanoparticles with optical and electrocatalytic properties were successfully prepared for the first time using a microwave hydrothermal method at mild conditions. - Highlights: • Co{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} into ZnO lattice obtained a mild and environmentally friendly process. • The heating method strongly influences in the growth and shape of the particles. • Short-range defects generated by the ions insertion affects the photoluminescence. • Doped ZnO nanoparticles improve the electrocatalytic properties of pure oxide.

  4. Solvothermal synthesis of superhydrophobic hollow carbon nanoparticles from a fluorinated alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyth, S. M.; Ma, W.; Liu, J.; Daio, T.; Sasaki, K.; Takahara, A.; Ameduri, B.

    2015-09-01

    A new and simple method of synthesizing fluorinated carbon at the gram scale is presented by reacting a fluorinated alcohol with sodium at elevated temperatures in a sealed Teflon reactor. The resulting carbon nanoparticles are around 100 nm in diameter, and display a hollow shell morphology, with a significant amount of fluorine doped into the carbon. The nanoparticles disperse easily in ethanol, and are thermally stable up to 400 °C and 450 °C under air and nitrogen, respectively. The nanoparticle dispersion was printed onto various substrates (paper, cloth, silicon), inducing superhydrophobicity.

  5. Tuning Optical Nonlinearity of Laser-Ablation-Synthesized Silicon Nanoparticles via Doping Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianwei Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon nanoparticles at different doping concentrations are investigated for tuning their optical nonlinear performance. The silicon nanoparticles are synthesized from doped silicon wafers by pulsed laser ablation. Their dispersions in water are studied for both nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction properties. It is found that the optical nonlinear performance can be modified by the doping concentration. Nanoparticles at a higher doping concentration exhibit better saturable absorption performance for femtosecond laser pulse, which is ascribed to the free carrier absorption mechanism.

  6. Growth of metal-catalyst-free nitrogen-doped metallic single-wall carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Cheng; Hou, Peng-Xiang; Zhang, Lili; Liu, Chang; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2014-09-01

    Nitrogen-doped (N-doped) single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition using SiOx nanoparticles as a catalyst and ethylenediamine as the source of both carbon and nitrogen. The N-doped SWCNTs have a mean diameter of 1.1 nm and a narrow diameter range, with 92% of them having diameters from 0.7 to 1.4 nm. Multi-wavelength laser Raman spectra and temperature-dependent electrical resistance indicate that the SWCNT sample is enriched with metallic nanotubes. These N-doped SWCNTs showed excellent electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction and highly selective and sensitive sensing ability for dopamine detection.Nitrogen-doped (N-doped) single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition using SiOx nanoparticles as a catalyst and ethylenediamine as the source of both carbon and nitrogen. The N-doped SWCNTs have a mean diameter of 1.1 nm and a narrow diameter range, with 92% of them having diameters from 0.7 to 1.4 nm. Multi-wavelength laser Raman spectra and temperature-dependent electrical resistance indicate that the SWCNT sample is enriched with metallic nanotubes. These N-doped SWCNTs showed excellent electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction and highly selective and sensitive sensing ability for dopamine detection. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional information including Raman spectra, ORR polarization curves, CV curves, etc. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03172e

  7. Synthesis and characterization of lanthanum doped zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Sonia, Suman, Kumar, Sacheen; Kumar, Dinesh

    2016-05-01

    La doped ZnO (Zn1-xLaxO, x = 0, 3, 6 and 9) were prepared via chemical co-precipitation method using Zinc Acetate, Lanthanum Acetate and Sodium Hydroxide at 50°C. Hydrate nanoparticles were annealed in air at 300°C for 3 hours. The synthesized samples have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and UV-Visiblespectrophotometer. The XRD measurement revealsthat the prepared nanoparticles have different microstructure without changing a hexagonal wurtzite structure. The result shows the change in nanoparticles size with the increment of lanthanum concentration for lower concentration for x = 0 to 6 and decreases at x = 9.

  8. Electrochemical sensing property of Mn doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, R.; Giribabu, K.; Manigandan, R.; Vijayalakshmi, L.; Stephen, A.; Narayanan, V.

    2013-02-01

    The Mn doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal method. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The electrochemical sensing property of pure and Mn doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles were examined using uric acid (UA) as an analyte. The obtained results indicated that the Mn doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles exhibited higher electrocatalytic activity towards UA.

  9. OPTICALLY HOMOGENEOUS PHOSPHATE GLASSES DOPED WITH METAL NANOPARTICLES

    OpenAIRE

    Shakhgil'dyan, Georgiy; Savinkov, Vitaliy; Konev, Denis; Paleari, A.; Sigaev, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    The technique of batch preparation, melting, glass working and nanoscale modification of the structure of phosphate glass doped with gold nanoparticles was developed. Glass samples containing different amounts of phosphorus oxide were synthesized. Heat treatments of the samples were held in a gradient furnace. Physical, spectral-luminescent and nonlinear optical properties of the samples were studied.

  10. Rapid synthesis of Co, Ni co-doped ZnO nanoparticles: Optical and electrochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeiro, Fernanda C.; Marinho, Juliane Z.; Lemos, Samantha C. S.; de Moura, Ana P.; Freire, Poliana G.; da Silva, Luis F.; Longo, Elson; Munoz, Rodrigo A. A.; Lima, Renata C.

    2015-10-01

    We report for the first time a rapid preparation of Zn1-2xCoxNixO nanoparticles via a versatile and environmentally friendly route, microwave-assisted hydrothermal (MAH) method. The Co, Ni co-doped ZnO nanoparticles present an effect on photoluminescence and electrochemical properties, exhibiting excellent electrocatalytic performance compared to undoped ZnO sample. Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements indicated the reduction of the green-orange-red visible emission region after adding Co and Ni ions, revealing the formation of alternative pathways for the generated recombination. The presence of these metallic ions into ZnO creates different defects, contributing to a local structural disorder, as revealed by Raman spectra. Electrochemical experiments revealed that the electrocatalytic oxidation of dopamine on ZnO attached to multi-walled carbon nanotubes improved significantly in the Co, Ni co-doped ZnO samples when compared to pure ZnO.

  11. Temperature-dependent structure of Tb-doped magnetite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, Katherine P.; Russek, Stephen E., E-mail: stephen.russek@nist.gov; Shaw, Justin M.; Usselman, Robert J.; Evarts, Eric R.; Silva, Thomas J.; Nembach, Hans T. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Geiss, Roy H. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States); Arenholz, Elke [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Advanced Light Source, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Idzerda, Yves U. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717 (United States)

    2015-02-09

    High quality 5 nm cubic Tb-doped magnetite nanoparticles have been synthesized by a wet-chemical method to investigate tailoring of magnetic properties for imaging and biomedical applications. We show that the Tb is incorporated into the octahedral 3+ sites. High-angle annular dark-field microscopy shows that the dopant is well-distributed throughout the particle, and x-ray diffraction measurements show a small lattice parameter shift with the inclusion of a rare-earth dopant. Magnetization and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism data indicate that the Tb spins are unpolarized and weakly coupled to the iron spin lattice at room temperature, and begin to polarize and couple to the iron oxide lattice at temperatures below 50 K. Broadband ferromagnetic resonance measurements show no increase in magnetic damping at room temperature for Tb-doped nanoparticles relative to undoped nanoparticles, further confirming weak coupling between Fe and Tb spins at room temperature. The Gilbert damping constant, α, is remarkably low for the Tb-doped nanoparticles, with α = 0.024 ± 0.003. These nanoparticles, which have a large fixed moment, a large fluctuating moment and optically active rare-earth elements, are potential high-relaxivity T1 and T2 MRI agents with integrated optical signatures.

  12. Temperature-dependent structure of Tb-doped magnetite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Katherine P.; Russek, Stephen E.; Geiss, Roy H.; Shaw, Justin M.; Usselman, Robert J.; Evarts, Eric R.; Silva, Thomas J.; Nembach, Hans T.; Arenholz, Elke; Idzerda, Yves U.

    2015-02-01

    High quality 5 nm cubic Tb-doped magnetite nanoparticles have been synthesized by a wet-chemical method to investigate tailoring of magnetic properties for imaging and biomedical applications. We show that the Tb is incorporated into the octahedral 3+ sites. High-angle annular dark-field microscopy shows that the dopant is well-distributed throughout the particle, and x-ray diffraction measurements show a small lattice parameter shift with the inclusion of a rare-earth dopant. Magnetization and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism data indicate that the Tb spins are unpolarized and weakly coupled to the iron spin lattice at room temperature, and begin to polarize and couple to the iron oxide lattice at temperatures below 50 K. Broadband ferromagnetic resonance measurements show no increase in magnetic damping at room temperature for Tb-doped nanoparticles relative to undoped nanoparticles, further confirming weak coupling between Fe and Tb spins at room temperature. The Gilbert damping constant, α, is remarkably low for the Tb-doped nanoparticles, with α = 0.024 ± 0.003. These nanoparticles, which have a large fixed moment, a large fluctuating moment and optically active rare-earth elements, are potential high-relaxivity T1 and T2 MRI agents with integrated optical signatures.

  13. Ru-decorated Pt nanoparticles on N-doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes by atomic layer deposition for direct methanol fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Anne-Charlotte Elisabeth Birgitta; Yang, R.B.; Haugshøj, K.B.

    2013-01-01

    (methylcyclopentadienyl)platinum MeCpPtMe3, bis(ethylcyclopentadienyl)ruthenium Ru(EtCp)2 and O2 as the precursors. Catalysts with 5, 10 and 20 ALD Ru cycles grown onto the CNT-supported ALD Pt nanoparticles (150 cycles) were prepared and tested towards the electro-oxidation of CO and methanol, using cyclic voltammetry...

  14. Characterization of boron doped diamond-like carbon film by HRTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X.J., E-mail: lixj@alum.imr.ac.cn [College of Material Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Advanced Structural Materials, Ministry of Education, Changchun University of Technology, Changchun 130012 (China); He, L.L., E-mail: llhe@imr.ac.cn [Shenyang National Lab of Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Li, Y.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A9 (Canada); Plasma Physics Laboratory, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E2 (Canada); Yang, Q. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A9 (Canada); Hirose, A. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E2 (Canada)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The microstructure of B-DLC film is studied by HRTEM in cross-sectional observation. • Many crystalline nanoparticles dispersed in the amorphous matrix film are observed. • Through composition and structure analysis, the nanoparticles are identified as B{sub 2}O. • The work implies the doped B element exists as oxide state in the B-DLC film. - Abstract: Boron doped diamond-like carbon (B-DLC) film was synthesized on silicon (1 0 0) wafer by biased target ion beam deposition. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) is employed to investigate the microstructure of the B-DLC thin film in cross-sectional observation. Many crystalline nanoparticles randomly dispersed and embedded in the amorphous matrix film are observed. Through chemical compositional analysis of the B-DLC film, some amount of O element is confirmed to be contained. And also, some nanoparticles with near zone axes are indexed, which are accordance with B{sub 2}O phase. Therefore, the contained O element causing the B element oxidized is proposed, resulting in the formation of the nanoparticles. Our work indicates that in the B-DLC film a significant amount of the doped B element exists as boron suboxide nanoparticles.

  15. Photodegradation of Eosin Y Using Silver-Doped Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Alzahrani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purification of industrial wastewater from dyes is becoming increasingly important since they are toxic or carcinogenic to human beings. Nanomaterials have been receiving significant attention due to their unique physical and chemical properties compared with their larger-size counterparts. The aim of the present investigation was to fabricate magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs using a coprecipitation method, followed by coating with silver (Ag in order to enhance the photocatalytic activity of the MNPs by loading metal onto them. The fabricated magnetic nanoparticles coated with Ag were characterised using different instruments such as a scanning electron microscope (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, energy-dispersive X-ray (EDAX spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. The average size of the magnetic nanoparticles had a mean diameter of about 48 nm, and the average particle size changed to 55 nm after doping. The fabricated Ag-doped magnetic nanoparticles were used for the degradation of eosin Y under UV-lamp irradiation. The experimental results revealed that the use of fabricated magnetic nanoparticles coated with Ag can be considered as reliable methods for the removal of eosin Y since the slope of evaluation of pseudo-first-order rate constant from the slope of the plot between ln⁡(Co/C and the irradiation time was found to be linear. Ag-Fe3O4 nanoparticles would be considered an efficient photocatalyst to degrade textile dyes avoiding the tedious filtration step.

  16. Ozone adsorption on carbon nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassard, Guillaume; Gosselin, Sylvie; Visez, Nicolas; Petitprez, Denis

    2014-05-01

    Carbonaceous particles produced by incomplete combustion or thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons are ubiquitous in the atmosphere. On these particles are adsorbed hundreds of chemical species. Those of great concern to health are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). During atmospheric transport, particulate PAHs react with gaseous oxidants. The induced chemical transformations may change toxicity and hygroscopicity of these potentially inhalable particles. The interaction between ozone and carbon particles has been extensively investigated in literature. However ozone adsorption and surface reaction mechanisms are still ambiguous. Some studies described a fast catalytic decomposition of ozone initiated by an atomic oxygen chemisorption followed by a molecular oxygen release [1-3]. Others suggested a reversible ozone adsorption according to Langmuir-type behaviour [4,5]. The aim of this present study is a better understanding of ozone interaction with carbon surfaces. An aerosol of carbon nanoparticles was generated by flowing synthetic air in a glass tube containing pure carbon (primary particles p. 967-973. [2] Smith, D. and A. Chughtai, Reaction kinetics of ozone at low concentrations with n-hexane soot. Journal of geophysical research, 1996. 101(D14): p. 19607-19,620. [3] Kamm, S., et al., The heterogeneous reaction of ozone with soot aerosol. Atmospheric Environment, 1999. 33(28): p. 4651-4661. [4] Stephens, S., M.J. Rossi, and D.M. Golden, The heterogeneous reaction of ozone on carbonaceous surfaces. International journal of chemical kinetics, 1986. 18(10): p. 1133-1149. [5] Pöschl, U., et al., Interaction of ozone and water vapor with spark discharge soot aerosol particles coated with benzo [a] pyrene: O3 and H2O adsorption, benzo [a] pyrene degradation, and atmospheric implications. The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 2001. 105(16): p. 4029-4041.

  17. Preparation, structural and morphological studies of Ni doped titania nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamannan, B; Mugundan, S; Viruthagiri, G; Shanmugam, N; Gobi, R; Praveen, P

    2014-07-15

    TiO2 nanoparticles doped with different weight percentages (4%, 8%, 12% and 16%) of nickel contents were prepared by a modified sol-gel method using Titanium tetra iso propoxide and nickel nitrate as precursors and 2-propanol as a solvent. X-ray diffraction studies show that the as prepared and annealed products show anatase structure with average particle sizes running between of 8 and 16 nm. FTIR results demonstrate the presence of strong chemical bonding at the interface of TiO2 nanoparticles. The optical properties of bare and doped samples were carried out using UV-DRS and photoluminescence measurements. The surface morphology and the element constitution of the nickel doped TiO2 nanoparticles were studied by scanning electron microscope attached with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer arrangement. The non linear optical properties of the products were confirmed by Kurtz second harmonic generation (SHG) test and the output power generated by the nanoparticle was compared with that of potassium di hydrogen phosphate (KDP).

  18. Effect of Cr doping on structural and magnetic properties of ZnS nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virpal,; Singh, Jasvir; Sharma, Sandeep; Singh, Ravi Chand, E-mail: ravichand.singh@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India)

    2016-05-23

    The structural, optical and magnetic properties of pure and Cr doped ZnS nanoparticles were studied at room temperature. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the absence of any mixed phase and the cubic structure of ZnS in pure and Cr doped ZnS nanoparticles. Fourier transfer infrared spectra confirmed the Zn-S stretching bond at 664 cm{sup −1} of ZnS in all prepared nanoparticles. The UV-Visible absorption spectra showed blue shift which became even more pronounced in Cr doped ZnS nanoparticles. However, at relatively higher Cr concentrations a slower red shift was shown by the doped nanoparticles. This phenomenon is attributed to sp-d exchange interaction that becomes prevalent at higher doping concentrations. Further, magnetic hysteresis measurements showed that Cr doped ZnS nanoparticles exhibited ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature.

  19. Enhancement of Photocatalytic Activity on TiO2-Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Lingling Wang; Long Shen; Yihuai Li; Luping Zhu; Jiaowen Shen; Lijun Wang

    2013-01-01

    TiO2-nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (TiO2-CNx) nanocomposites are successfully synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method. The prepared photocatalysts were systematically characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry analyses (TGA-DSC). The results show that the TiO2 nanoparticles with a narrow size of 7 nm are uniformly deposited on CNx. The photocatalytic ac...

  20. Strong adsorption of Al-doped carbon nanotubes toward cisplatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Li, Guo-Qing; Lu, Xiao-Min; Ma, Juan-Juan; Zeng, Peng-Yu; He, Qin-Yu; Wang, Yin-Zhen

    2016-08-01

    The adsorption of cisplatin molecule on Al-doped CNTs is investigated using density functional theory. The obtained results indicate that Al-doped carbon nanotubes can strongly absorb cisplatin. After absorbing cisplatin, the symmetry of CNTs has some changes. We innovatively defined a parameter of symmetry variation which relates to the adsorption. By analyzing the electronic structure, it can be concluded that under the circumstance that cisplatin was absorbed by Al-doped CNTs through aluminum atom of Al-doped CNTs. In conclusion, Al-doped CNTs is a kind of potential delivery carrier with high quality for anticancer drug cisplatin.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of boron-doped carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceragioli, H J; Peterlevitz, A C; Quispe, J C R; Pasquetto, M P; Sampaio, M A; Baranauskas, V [Faculdade de Engenharia Eletrica e Computacao, Departamento de Semicondutores, Instrumentos e Fotonica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, Av. Albert Einstein N.400, 13083-852 Campinas SP Brasil (Brazil); Larena, A [Department of Chemical Industrial Engineering and Environment, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales, C/ Jose Gutierrez Abascal, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: vitor.baranauskas@gmail.com

    2008-03-15

    Boron-doped carbon nanotubes have been prepared by chemical vapour deposition of ethyl alcohol doped with B{sub 2}O{sub 3} using a hot-filament system. Multi-wall carbon nanotubes of diameters in the range of 30-100 nm have been observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Raman measurements indicated that the degree of C-C sp{sup 2} order decreased with boron doping. Lowest threshold fields achieved were 1.0 V/{mu}m and 2.1 V/{mu}m for undoped and boron-doped samples, respectively.

  2. Fabrication and Properties of Ag-nanoparticles Embedded Amorphous Carbon Nanowire/CNT Heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ke-fan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbon nanotubes were subjected to doping with an energetic Ag ion beam, and the carbon nanotubes on the top of the array were transformed into amorphous carbon nanowires with embedded Ag-nanoparticles. The field emission characteristics of these nanowires were investigated. The minimum turn-on and threshold fields were 0.68 and 1.09 V/μm, respectively, which were lower than those of the as-grown carbon nanotubes. This was probably because Ag-nanoparticles embedded in the carbon nanowires reduced the effective work function from 4.59 to 4.23 eV. Large doping amounts produced serious structural damage at the top of the nanowires and impaired the field emission characteristics.

  3. Microwave synthesis of pure and doped cerium (IV) oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles for methylene blue degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rouby, W M A; Farghali, A A; Hamdedein, A

    2016-11-01

    Cerium (IV) oxide (CeO2), samarium (Sm) and gadolinium (Gd) doped CeO2 nanoparticles were prepared using microwave technique. The effect of microwave irradiation time, microwave power and pH of the starting solution on the structure and crystallite size were investigated. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray diffraction, FT-Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscope. The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared CeO2, Sm and Gd doped CeO2 toward degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye was investigated under UV light irradiation. The effect of pH, the amount of catalyst and the dye concentration on the degradation extent were studied. The photocatalytic activity of CeO2 was kinetically enhanced by trivalent cation (Gd and Sm) doping. The results revealed that Gd doped CeO2 nanoparticles exhibit the best catalytic degradation activity on MB under UV irradiation. For clarifying the environmental safety of the by products produced from the degradation process, the pathways of MB degradation were followed using liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy (LC/MS). The total organic carbon content measurements confirmed the results obtained by LC/MS. Compared to the same nanoparticles prepared by another method, it was found that Gd doped CeO2 prepared by hydrothermal process was able to mineralize MB dye completely under UV light irradiation.

  4. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Silver-Doped Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Steluta Ciobanu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of nanosized particles of Ag-doped hydroxyapatite with antibacterial properties is of great interest for the development of new biomedical applications. The aim of this study was the evaluation of Ca10−xAgx(PO46(OH2 nanoparticles (Ag:HAp-NPs for their antibacterial and antifungal activity. Resistance to antimicrobial agents by pathogenic bacteria has emerged in the recent years and became a major health problem. Here, we report a method for synthesizing Ag doped nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite. A silver-doped nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite was synthesized at 100°C in deionised water. Also, in this paper Ag:HAp-NPs are evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungal strains. The specific antimicrobial activity revealed by the qualitative assay is demonstrating that our compounds are interacting differently with the microbial targets, probably due to the differences in the microbial wall structures.

  5. Erbium-doped nanoparticles in silica-based optical fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Blanc, Wilfried; Dussardier, Bernard; 10.1504/IJNT.2012.045350

    2012-01-01

    Developing of new rare-earth (RE)-doped optical fibres for power amplifiers and lasers requires continuous improvements in the fibre spectroscopic properties (like shape and width of the gain curve, optical quantum efficiency, resistance to spectral hole burning and photodarkening...). Silica glass as a host material for fibres has proved to be very attractive. However, some potential applications of RE-doped fibres suffer from limitations in terms of spectroscopic properties resulting from clustering or inappropriate local environment when doped into silica. To this aim, we present a new route to modify some spectroscopic properties of RE ions in silica-based fibres based on the incorporation of erbium ions in amorphous dielectric nanoparticles, grown in-situ in fibre preforms. By adding alkaline earth elements, in low concentration into silica, one can obtain a glass with an immiscibility gap. Then, phase separation occurs under an appropriate heat treatment. We investigated the role of three alkaline-earth...

  6. Controllable-nitrogen doped carbon layer surrounding carbon nanotubes as novel carbon support for oxygen reduction reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, P.L.; Hsu, C.H.; Wu, H.M.; Hsu, W.S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China); Kuo, D. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Novel nitrogen-doped carbon layer surrounding carbon nanotubes composite (NC-CNT) (N/C ratio 3.3-14.3 wt.%) as catalyst support has been prepared using aniline as a dispersant to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and as a source for both carbon and nitrogen coated on the surface of the CNTs, where the amount of doped nitrogen is controllable. The NC-CNT so obtained were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms. A uniform dispersion of Pt nanoparticles (ca. 1.5-2.0 nm) was then anchored on the surface of NC-CNT by using aromatic amine as a stabilizer. For these Pt/NC-CNTs, cyclic voltammogram measurements show a high electrochemical activity surface area (up to 103.7 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}) compared to the commercial E-TEK catalyst (55.3 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}). In single cell test, Pt/NC-CNT catalyst has greatly enhanced catalytic activity toward the oxygen reduction reaction, resulting in an enhancement of ca. 37% in mass activity compared with that of E-TEK. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Investigation of the properties of carbon-base nanostructures doped YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−δ} high temperature superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadras, Sedigheh, E-mail: dadras@alzahra.ac.ir; Ghavamipour, Mahshid

    2016-03-01

    In this research, we have investigated the effects of three samples of carbon-base nanostructures (carbon nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes and silicon carbide nanoparticles) doping on the properties of Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−δ} (YBCO) high temperature superconductor. The pure and doped YBCO samples were synthesized by sol–gel method and characterized by resistivity versus temperature (ρ–T), current versus voltage (I–V), through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. The results confirmed that for all the samples, the orthorhombic phase of YBCO compound is formed. We found that the pinning energy and critical current density of samples increase by adding carbon nanostructures to YBCO compound. Also critical temperature is improved by adding carbon nanotubes to YBCO compound, while it does not change much for carbon and silicon carbide nanoparticles doped compounds. Furthermore, the samples were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy in 300 K and the band gap of the samples was determined. We found that the carbon nanotubes doping decreases YBCO band gap in normal state from 1.90 eV to 1.68 eV, while carbon and SiC nanoparticles doping increases it to 2.20 and 3.37 eV respectively.

  8. Electrochemical Behavior of TiO2 Nanoparticle Doped WO3 Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvarna R. Bathe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticle TiO2 doped WO3 thin films by pulsed spray pyrolysis technique have been studied on fluorine tin doped (FTO and glass substrate. XRD shows amorphous nature for undoped and anatase phase of TiO2 having (101 plane for nanoparticle TiO2 doped WO3 thin film. SEM shows microfibrous reticulated porous network for WO3 with 600 nm fiber diameter and nanocrystalline having size 40 nm for TiO2 nanoparticle doped WO3 thin film. TiO2 nanoparticle doped WO3 thin film shows ~95% reversibility due to may be attributed to nanocrystalline nature of the film, which helpful for charge insertion and deinsertion process. The diffusion coefficient for TiO2 nanoparticle doped WO3 film is less than undoped WO3.

  9. Synthesis, characterization and photoluminescence property of La-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jihui; Fang, Yue; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Jiaying; Li, Tianshun; Li, Xiuyan; Han, Qiang; Wang, Dandan; Wei, Maobin; Yang, Jinghai

    2016-10-01

    La-doped ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized via a facile and surfactant-free chemical precipitation route, and the effects of lanthanum doping concentration on the structures, morphologies and photoluminescence properties were investigated by XRD, TEM, EDX, PL and UV-Vis absorption spectra. The results showed that the La3+ ions were successfully incorporated into the ZnO host, and the products were well-crystalline. The average size and band gap of La-doped ZnO nanoparticles were varied with the lanthanum doping concentration. The average size of doped nanoparticles was much smaller as compared to that of undoped ZnO. The increasing of lanthanum doping concentration increased the defects in ZnO and resulted in a red shift of UV emission, indicating the narrow band gap in doped nanoparticles. This was probably attributed to the impurity energy levels in band gap introduced by substitutional La3+ ions.

  10. Photocurrent enhancement in polythiophene doped with silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeremeta, Janusz; Nyk, Marcin; Samoc, Marek

    2014-11-01

    We studied the spectral dependence of the influence of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on the photoconductivity of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) thin films. 7 ± 2 nm silver nanoparticles were synthesized by thermal decomposition of an organometallic silver salt in organic solvent. Optical properties of the mixture of P3HT and Ag NPs and thin films with various Ag content were investigated. Spectral dependences of the photocurrent were measured for the films cast on the top of interdigitated microelectrodes. Antibatic behavior of the photocurrent with respect to the absorption spectrum was observed. Results shows 40-150 times enhancement of the photocurrents, depending on the wavelength, in films doped with Ag NPs compared with the pristine films. The existing theories on the influence of metallic nanoparticles in the photoactive layer of organic solar cells are reviewed and discussed.

  11. Hydrothermal synthesis, characterization and luminescent properties of lanthanide-doped NaLaF$_4$ nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    JIGMET LADOL; HEENA KHAJURIA; SONIKA KHAJURIA; HAQ NAWAZ SHEIKH

    2016-08-01

    Nanoparticles of sodium lanthanum (III) fluoride-doped and co-doped with Eu$^{3+}/Tb$^{3+}$ were prepared by the hydrothermal method using citric acid as structure-directing agent. Structural aspects and optical properties of synthesized nanoparticles were studied by powder X-ray diffraction (XRPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), energy-dispersive X-ray spectra (EDS), particle size by dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum and photoluminescence (PL) techniques. Nanoparticles consist of well-crystallized hexagonal phase and the average crystallite size for undoped and doped-NaLaF$_4$ nanoparticles are in the range of 20–22 nm. TEM images show that nanoparticles have cylindrical shape and crystalline nature of nanoparticles was confirmed by SAED patterns. Downconversion(DC) luminescent properties of doped NaLaF4 were also investigated and impact of co-doping has been explored.

  12. A hybrid-assembly approach towards nitrogen-doped graphene aerogel supported cobalt nanoparticles as high performance oxygen reduction electrocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruili; Jin, Yeqing; Xu, Peimin; Xing, Xia; Yang, Yuxing; Wu, Dongqing

    2016-02-15

    As a novel electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), nitrogen-doped graphene aerogel supported cobalt nanoparticles (Co-NGA) is archived by a hybrid-assembly of graphene oxide (GO), o-phthalonitrile and cobalt acetate and the following thermal treatment. The hybrid-assembly process successfully combines the ionic assembly of GO sheets and Co ions with the coordination between o-phthalonitrile and Co ions, which can be converted to nitrogen doped carbon and Co nanoparticles in the pyrolysis process under nitrogen flow. Remarkable features of Co-NGA including the macroporous graphene scaffolds, high surface area, and N/Co-doping effect can lead to a high catalytic efficiency for ORR. As the results, the composites pyrolyzed at 600°C (Co-NGA600) shows excellent electrocatalytic activities and kinetics for ORR in basic media, which are comparable with those of Pt/C catalyst, together with superior durability.

  13. The Synthesis of Nitrogen-Doped Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Carbon nanotubes, CVD synthesis, nitrogen doping, acetonitrile, Fe-Co/CaCO3 catalyst. 1. Introduction ... electronic conductance was shown to be significantly enhanced .... able for field emission studies.51 All the unpurified nanotubes.

  14. Development of an empirical kinetic model for sonocatalytic process using neodymium doped zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khataee, Alireza; Vahid, Behrouz; Saadi, Shabnam; Joo, Sang Woo

    2016-03-01

    The degradation of Acid Blue 92 (AB92) solution was investigated using a sonocatalytic process with pure and neodymium (Nd)-doped ZnO nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The 1% Nd-doped ZnO nanoparticles demonstrated the highest sonocatalytic activity for the treatment of AB92 (10 mg/L) with a degradation efficiency (DE%) of 86.20% compared to pure ZnO (62.92%) and sonication (45.73%) after 150 min. The results reveal that the sonocatalytic degradation followed pseudo-first order kinetics. An empirical kinetic model was developed using nonlinear regression analysis to estimate the pseudo-first-order rate constant (kapp) as a function of the operational parameters, including the initial dye concentration (5-25 mg/L), doped-catalyst dosage (0.25-1 g/L), ultrasonic power (150-400 W), and dopant content (1-6% mol). The results from the kinetic model were consistent with the experimental results (R(2)=0.990). Moreover, DE% increases with addition of potassium periodate, peroxydisulfate, and hydrogen peroxide as radical enhancers by generating more free radicals. However, the addition of chloride, carbonate, sulfate, and t-butanol as radical scavengers declines DE%. Suitable reusability of the doped sonocatalyst was proven for several consecutive runs. Some of the produced intermediates were also detected by GC-MS analysis. The phytotoxicity test using Lemna minor (L. minor) plant confirmed the considerable toxicity removal of the AB92 solution after treatment process.

  15. Bamboo-Like Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes with Co Nanoparticles Encapsulated at the Tips: Uniform and Large-Scale Synthesis and High-Performance Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Tai; Wang, Dingsheng; Zhang, Jiatao; Cao, Chuanbao; Li, Yadong

    2015-09-28

    In recent years, various non-precious metal electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) have been extensively investigated. The development of an efficient and simple method to synthesize non-precious metal catalysts with ORR activity superior to that of Pt is extremely significant for large-scale applications of fuel cells. Here, we develop a facile, low-cost, and large-scale synthesis method for uniform nitrogen-doped (N-doped) bamboo-like CNTs (NBCNT) with Co nanoparticles encapsulated at the tips by annealing a mixture of cobalt acetate and melamine. The uniform NBCNT shows better ORR catalytic activity and higher stability in alkaline solutions as compared with commercial Pt/C and comparable catalytic activity to Pt/C in acidic media. NBCNTs exhibit outstanding ORR catalytic activity due to high defect density, uniform bamboo-like structure, and the synergistic effect between the Co nanoparticles and protective graphitic layers. This facile method to synthesize catalysts, which is amenable to the large-scale commercialization of fuel cells, will open a new avenue for the development of low-cost and high-performance ORR catalysts to replace Pt-based catalysts for applications in energy conversion.

  16. Structural, morphological, optical, and magnetic properties of Gd-doped and (Gd, Mn) co-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poornaprakash, B.; Chalapathi, U.; Babu, S.; Park, Si-Hyun

    2017-09-01

    Undoped, Gd doped, and (Gd, Mn) co-doped ZnO nanoparticles were fabricated via a hydrothermal method and their structural, morphological, optical, and magnetic properties were examined. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy studies confirmed that the Gd and Mn ions successfully entered the ZnO hexagonal lattice as substitute ions without changing the internal structure of the lattice. Morphology studies revealed that the synthesized nanoparticles were monodisperse and closely hexagonal shaped. The reflectance spectra showed a red shift of the absorption edge in both doped and co-doped samples. The diamagnetic ZnO sample was altered into a ferromagnetic material when doped with Gd ions, but this behavior was suppressed when Mn ions were co-doped into the matrix.

  17. Antimicrobial Activity of Carbon-Based Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Maleki Dizaj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the vast and inappropriate use of the antibiotics, microorganisms have begun to develop resistance to the commonly used antimicrobial agents. So therefore, development of the new and effective antimicrobial agents seems to be necessary. According to some recent reports, carbon-based nanomaterials such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes (CNTs (especially single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and graphene oxide (GO nanoparticles show potent antimicrobial properties. In present review, we have briefly summarized the antimicrobial activity of carbon-based nanoparticles together with their mechanism of action. Reviewed literature show that the size of carbon nanoparticles plays an important role in the inactivation of the microorganisms. As major mechanism, direct contact of microorganisms with carbon nanostructures seriously affects their cellular membrane integrity, metabolic processes and morphology. The antimicrobial activity of carbon-based nanostructures may interestingly be investigated in the near future owing to their high surface/volume ratio, large inner volume and other unique chemical and physical properties. In addition, application of functionalized carbon nanomaterials as carriers for the ordinary antibiotics possibly will decrease the associated resistance, enhance their bioavailability and provide their targeted delivery.

  18. STM and STS investigations of Ce-doped TiO2 nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Tinghong; MAO Jian; ZHU Xiaodong; TU Mingjing

    2006-01-01

    Ce-doped titanium oxide nanoparticles were investigated in the paper. The surface structures of undoped and Ce-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were observed by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The experimental results of scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) show that the surface electronic structures of TiO2 nanoparticles are modified by introducing new electronic states in the surface band gap through cerium ion doping. The results are discussed in terms of the influence of doping concentration on the surface band gap of TiO2.

  19. Anomalous antibacterial activity and dye degradation by selenium doped ZnO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Raj Kumar; Nenavathu, Bhavani Prasad; Talukdar, Soumita

    2014-02-01

    Selenium doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by mechanochemical method were spherically shaped of size distribution of 10.2±3.4 nm measured by transmission electron microscopy. Diffused reflectance spectroscopy revealed increase in the band gap, ranging between 3.47 eV and 3.63 eV due to Se doping in ZnO nanoparticles. The antibacterial activity of pristine and Se doped ZnO nanoparticles was attributed to ROS (reactive oxygen species) generation in culture media confirmed by TBARS assay. Compared to complete inhibition of growth by 0.45 mg/mL of pristine ZnO nanoparticles, the batches of 0.45 mg/mL of selenium doped ZnO nanoparticles exhibited only 51% inhibition of growth of Escherichia coli. The reduced antibacterial activity of selenium doped ZnO nanoparticles was attributed to two opposing factors, e.g., ROS generation for inhibition of growth, countered by sustaining growth of E. coli due to availability of Se micronutrients in culture media, confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer measurement. Higher ROS generation by selenium doped ZnO nanoparticles was attributed to creation of oxygen vacancies, confirmed from green emission peak observed at 565 nm. The impact of higher ROS generation by selenium doped ZnO nanoparticles was evident from enhanced photocatalytic degradation of trypan blue dye, than pristine ZnO nanoparticles.

  20. Ultrasound-assisted microwave preparation of Ag-doped CdS nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Tai, Guo'an; Guo, Wanlin

    2010-03-01

    Ag-doped CdS nanoparticles were synthesized by an ultrasound-assisted microwave synthesis method. The X-ray diffraction patterns reveal a structural evolution from cubic to hexagonal with increasing molar ratios of Ag(+)/Cd(2+) from 0% to 5%. It shows that the Ag-doped hexagonal CdS nanoparticles are polycrystal. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the CdS nanoparticles doping with 5% Ag(+) shows that the doped Ag in CdS is metallic. Simultaneously, the characteristic Raman peaks of the CdS nanoparticles enhance with increasing Ag(+) concentrations. The photocatalytic activity of different Ag-doped samples show a reasonable change due to different ratios of Ag which doped into CdS. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Structural, optical, photoluminescence and antibacterial properties of copper-doped silver sulfide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Ali; Pourmand, Melika; Khakpour, Reza; Behrouz, Sajjad

    2015-08-01

    The Ag2S and Cu doped Ag2S nanoparticles were prepared by simple chemical co-precipitation method and characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX, TEM, PL and UV-vis spectra. The photocatalytic activity of Ag2S and Cu doped Ag2S nanoparticles were investigated with Ofloxacin antibiotic, which is part of the fluoroquinolone family. The morphological study indicated that the products were spherical shape in with diameter size of 30nm. The photocatalytic results demonstrated that the Cu doping increased the photocatalytic efficiency of Ag2S nanoparticles. The outcome of antibacterial experiment under visible light irradiation indicate that the Cu doped Ag2S nanoparticles represent increased antibacterial performance compared with un-doped Ag2S nanoparticles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Electrochemical sensing behaviour of Ni doped Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suresh, R.; Giribabu, K.; Manigandan, R.; Narayanan, V., E-mail: vnnara@yahoo.co.in [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025 (India); Vijayalakshmi, L. [Annai Veilankanni' s College for Women (Arts and Science), Saidapet, Chennai 600015 (India); Stephen, A. [Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2014-01-28

    Ni doped Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were synthesized by simple hydrothermal method. The prepared nanomaterials were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, DRS-UV-Visible spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The XRD confirms the phase purity of the synthesized Ni doped Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. The optical property of Ni doped Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were studied by DRS UV-Visible analysis. The electrochemical sensing property of pure and Ni doped Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were examined using uric acid as an analyte. The obtained results indicated that the Ni doped Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles exhibited higher electrocatalytic activity towards uric acid.

  3. Er doped oxide nanoparticles in silica based optical fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Blanc, Wilfried; Paul, M C

    2009-01-01

    Erbium doped materials are of great interest in optical telecommunications due to the Er3+ intra-4f emission at 1.54 ?m. Erbium doped fibre amplifiers (EDFA) were developed in silica glass because of the low losses at this wavelength and the reliability of this glass. Developments of new rare earth doped fibre amplifiers aim to control their spectroscopic properties including shape and width of the gain curve and optical quantum efficiency. Standard silica glass modifiers, such as aluminium, result in very good properties in current EDFA. However, for more drastic spectroscopic changes, more important modifications of the rare earth ions local environment are required. To address this aim, we present a fibre fabrication route creating rare earth doped calcia?silica or calcia?phosphosilica nanoparticles embedded in silica glass. By adding alkaline earth elements such as calcium, in low concentration, one can obtain a glass with an immisci- bility gap so that phase separation occurs with an appropriate heat tre...

  4. Phosphomolybdate-doped-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) coated gold nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization and electrocatalytic reduction of bromate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Syeda Sara [School of Chemistry, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Liu, Yuping [School of Chemistry, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Sirajuddin,; Solangi, Amber Rehana [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Bond, Alan M., E-mail: alan.bond@monash.edu [School of Chemistry, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Zhang, Jie, E-mail: jie.zhang@monash.edu [School of Chemistry, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2013-11-25

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Stable and water soluble phosphomolybdate-doped-PEDOT coated gold nanoparticles were synthesized. •Electrodes modified with these nanoparticles show well defined voltammetric response and excellent stability in acidic media. •These nanocomposite catalysts exhibit an excellent catalytic activity towards electroreduction of bromate. -- Abstract: Phosphomolybdate, H{sub 3}PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}, (PMo{sub 12})-doped-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) coated gold nanoparticles have been synthesized in aqueous solution by reduction of AuCl{sub 4}{sup −} using hydroxymethyl EDOT as a reducing agent in the presence of polystyrene sulfonate and PMo{sub 12}. The resulting PMo{sub 12}-doped-PEDOT stabilized Au nanoparticles are water soluble and have been characterized by UV–visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electrochemistry. Glassy carbon electrodes modified with these Au nanoparticles show excellent stability and catalytic activity towards the reduction of bromate in an aqueous electrolyte solution containing 10 mM H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 0.1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}.

  5. Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes as a metal catalyst support

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabena, LF

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available in the catalysis industry due to cost issues and properties that are not found in their bulk state. An efficient way to produce and stabilise noble metal nanoparticles is by dispersion on a suitable support. Carbon-based supports, such as carbon nanotubes, carbon...

  6. Correlation of spin and structure in doped bismuth ferrite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J. W.; Tite, Teddy; Tang, Y. H.; Lue, C. S.; Chang, Y. M.; Lin, J. G.

    2012-04-01

    The mutiferroic Bi1-xEuxFeO3 nanoparticles with x = 0 to 0.4 are studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra and electron spin resonance (ESR) with X-band (9.53 GHz), in order to investigate the doping effect on crystalline and spin structures. Both XRD and Raman spectrum reveal a structural transformation at x = 0.15, which is associated with the shortening of Bi—O bond length. These structural data are further related to the variation of ESR peak position and peak area, providing evidence for the enhancement of ferromagnetic coupling as x < 0.3.

  7. Physico-chemical characterizations of Cr doped persistent luminescence nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecuyer, T.; Teston, E.; Maldiney, T.; Scherman, D.; Richard, C.

    2016-03-01

    Persistent luminescence nanoparticles have recently been proposed as innovative optical probes for small animal in vivo imaging. The main advantage of such probes is their ability to emit light for a long time after the end of their excitation, allowing in vivo imaging with low background. This work reports new information on the physico-chemical characterizations of Cr doped ZnGa2O4 nanoprobes in terms of synthetic procedure, luminescence properties as well as colloidal stabilities in different aqueous media and over the time.

  8. Characterization of Doped and Undoped CuO Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazioǧlu, Dilek Taşkin; Dumludaǧ, Fatih; Altindal, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    Undoped and doped with Ti, Cd and Zn CuO nanoparticles were obtained by precipitation method. The crystal structures of the CuO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Impedance spectroscopy (IS) and d.c conductivity (σd.c) measurements were performed on samples as a function of temperature and frequency (40-105 Hz.) to determine the electrical behavior of the nano powder. It was found that the Arrhenius graph of the samples consist of two linear regions and corresponding activation energies. The dependency of frequency exponent s on temperature and frequency suggests a conduction mechanism which is indication of hopping. The measured impedance spectra showed a furher semicircle at low frequencies for all temperatures. The low frequency semicirles in impedance spectra are attributted to the garin boundry effects.

  9. Rare Earth Doped Silica Nanoparticles via Thermolysis of a Single Source Metallasilsesquioxane Precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gemma-Louise; O'Brien, John; Gun'Ko, Yurii K.

    2017-04-01

    Rare earth metal doped silica nanoparticles have significant advantages over traditional organic dyes and quantum dots. Silsesquioxanes are promising precursors in the production of silica nanoparticles by thermolysis, due to their structural similarities with silica materials. This manuscript describes the production of a new Eu3+-based metallasilsesquioxane species and its use as a single source precursor in the thermolytic production of luminescent rare earth metal doped silica nanoparticles with characteristic emission in the visible region of the spectrum.

  10. Structural, optical, magnetic and photocatalytic properties of Co doped CuS diluted magnetic semiconductor nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreelekha, N.; Subramanyam, K. [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India); Department of Physics, Raghu Engineering College, Visakhapatnam, Andrapradesh 531162 (India); Amaranatha Reddy, D. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Institute for Functional Materials, Pusan National University, Busan 609735 (Korea, Republic of); Murali, G. [Department of BIN Fusion Technology & Department of Polymer-Nano Science and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Ramu, S. [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India); Rahul Varma, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley (United States); Vijayalakshmi, R.P., E-mail: vijayaraguru@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Cu{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}S nanoparticles were synthesized via chemical co-precipitation method. • Structural, band gap, magnetization and photocatalysis studies were carried out. • All the doped samples exhibited intrinsic room temperature ferromagnetism. • Effect of magnetic properties on photocatalytic activity was analyzed. • CuS:Co nanoparticles may find applications in photocatalytic and spintronic devices. - Abstract: Pristine and Co doped covellite CuS nanoparticles were synthesized in aqueous solution by facile chemical co-precipitation method with Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid (EDTA) as a stabilizing agent. EDAX measurements confirmed the presence of Co in the CuS host lattice. Hexagonal crystal structure of pure and Co doped CuS nanoparticles were authenticated by XRD patterns. TEM images indicated that sphere-shape of nanoparticles through a size ranging from 5 to 8 nm. The optical absorption edge moved to higher energies with increase in Co concentration as indicated by UV–vis spectroscopy. Magnetic measurements revealed that bare CuS sample show sign of diamagnetic character where as in Co doped nanoparticles augmentation of room temperature ferromagnetism was observed with increasing doping precursor concentrations. Photocatalytic performance of the pure and Co doped CuS nanoparticles were assessed by evaluating the degradation rate of rhodamine B solution under sun light irradiation. The 5% Co doped CuS nanoparticles provide evidence for high-quality photocatalytic activity.

  11. Attachment of Gold Nanoparticles to Carbon Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Cheng MA; Ning LUN; Shu Lin WEN

    2005-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes were initially chemically modified with an H2SO4-HNO3 treatment,and subsequently activated with Pd-Sn catalytic nuclei via a one-step activation approach. These activated nanotubes were used as precursors for obtaining gold nanoparticles-attached nanotubes via simple electroless plating. This approach provides an efficient method for attachment of metal nanostructures to carbon nanotubes. Such novel hybrid nanostructures are attractive for many applications.

  12. Influence of oxygen on nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber growth directly on nichrome foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Riteshkumar; Shinde, Sachin M.; Saufi Rosmi, Mohamad; Takahashi, Chisato; Papon, Remi; Mahyavanshi, Rakesh D.; Ishii, Yosuke; Kawasaki, Shinji; Kalita, Golap; Tanemura, Masaki

    2016-09-01

    The synthesis of various nitrogen-doped (N-doped) carbon nanostructures has been significantly explored as an alternative material for energy storage and metal-free catalytic applications. Here, we reveal a direct growth technique of N-doped carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on flexible nichrome (NiCr) foil using melamine as a solid precursor. Highly reactive Cr plays a critical role in the nanofiber growth process on the metal alloy foil in an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) process. Oxidation of Cr occurs in the presence of oxygen impurities, where Ni nanoparticles are formed on the surface and assist the growth of nanofibers. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) clearly show the transformation process of the NiCr foil surface with annealing in the presence of oxygen impurities. The structural change of NiCr foil assists one-dimensional (1D) CNF growth, rather than the lateral two-dimensional (2D) growth. The incorporation of distinctive graphitic and pyridinic nitrogen in the graphene lattice are observed in the synthesized nanofiber, owing to better nitrogen solubility. Our finding shows an effective approach for the synthesis of highly N-doped carbon nanostructures directly on Cr-based metal alloys for various applications.

  13. Doping of carbon foams for use in energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.; Morrison, Robert L.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1994-01-01

    A polymeric foam precursor, wetted with phosphoric acid, is pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere to produce an open-cell doped carbon foam, which is utilized as a lithium intercalation anode in a secondary, organic electrolyte battery. Tests were conducted in a cell containing an organic electrolyte and using lithium metal counter and reference electrodes, with the anode located therebetween. Results after charge and discharge cycling, for a total of 6 cycles, indicated a substantial increase in the energy storage capability of the phosphorus doped carbon foam relative to the undoped carbon foam, when used as a rechargeable lithium ion battery.

  14. Piezoresistive Effect of Doped carbon Nanotube/Cellulose Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王万录; 廖克俊; 李勇; 王永田

    2003-01-01

    The strain-induced resistance changes in iodine-doped and undoped carbon nanotube films were investigated by a three-point bending test. Carbon nanotubes were fabricated by hot filament chemical vapour deposition. The experimental results showed that there has a striking piezoresistive effect in carbon nanotube films. The gauge factor for I-doped and undoped carbon nanotube films under 500 microstrain was about 125 and 65 respectively at room temperature, exceeding that of polycrystalline silicon (30) at 35℃. The origin of the piezoresistivity in the films may be ascribed to a strain-induced change in the band gap for the doped tubes and to the intertube contact resistance for the undoped tubes.

  15. Understanding the doping effects on the structural and electrical properties of ultrathin carbon nanotube networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ying, E-mail: y-shuu@aist.go.jp; Shimada, Satoru; Azumi, Reiko [Electronics and Photonics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, 305-8565 Tsukuba (Japan); Saito, Takeshi [Nanomaterials Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, 305-8565 Tsukuba (Japan)

    2015-12-07

    Similar to other semiconductor technology, doping of carbon nanotube (CNT) thin film is of great significance for performance improvement or modification. However, it still remains a challenge to seek a stable and effective dopant. In this paper, we unitize several spectroscopic techniques and electrical characterizations under various conditions to investigate the effects of typical dopants and related methods. Nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) solution, I{sub 2} vapor, and CuI nanoparticles are used to modify a series of ultrathin CNT networks. Although efficient charge transfer is achieved initially after doping, HNO{sub 3} is not applicable because it suffers from severe reliability problems in structural and electrical properties, and it also causes a number of undesired structural defects. I{sub 2} vapor doping at 150 °C can form some stable C-I bonding structures, resulting in relatively more stable but less efficient electrical performances. CuI nanoparticles seem to be an ideal dopant. Photonic curing enables the manipulation of CuI, which not only results in the construction of novel CNT-CuI hybrid structures but also encourages the deepest level of charge transfer doping. The excellent reliability as well as processing feasibility identify the bright perspective of CNT-CuI hybrid film for practical applications.

  16. Engineering iodine-doped carbon dots as dual-modal probes for fluorescence and X-ray CT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Miaomiao; Ju, Huixiang; Zhang, Li; Sun, Mingzhong; Zhou, Zhongwei; Dai, Zhenyu; Zhang, Lirong; Gong, Aihua; Wu, Chaoyao; Du, Fengyi

    2015-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) is the most commonly used imaging technique for noninvasive diagnosis of disease. In order to improve tissue specificity and prevent adverse effects, we report the design and synthesis of iodine-doped carbon dots (I-doped CDs) as efficient CT contrast agents and fluorescence probe by a facile bottom-up hydrothermal carbonization process. The as-prepared I-doped CDs are monodispersed spherical nanoparticles (a diameter of ~2.7 nm) with favorable dispersibility and colloidal stability in water. The aqueous solution of I-doped CDs showed wavelength-dependent excitation and stable photoluminescence similar to traditional carbon quantum dots. Importantly, I-doped CDs displayed superior X-ray attenuation properties in vitro and excellent biocompatibility. After intravenous injection, I-doped CDs were distributed throughout the body and excreted by renal clearance. These findings validated that I-doped CDs with high X-ray attenuation potency and favorable photoluminescence show great promise for biomedical research and disease diagnosis.

  17. 纳米金掺杂石墨烯修饰玻碳电极选择性测定多巴胺%Selective determination of dopamine based on gold nanoparticles doping graphene sheets modified glassy carbon electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨欣; 王峰; 刘璐; 李龙飞; 袁吉

    2012-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor was fabricated by gold nanoparticles (Au)doping graphene sheets (GS)/ Nation modified glassy carbon electrode(GCE) (GCE/GS/Nafion/Au).The electrochemical behavior of dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA)on the modified electrode were studied.The proposed modified electrode was also used to selective determination of DA.The GCE was modified by a dispersed solution of GS-Nation, followed by electroless plating of Au on it' s surface to fabricate GCE/GS/Nafion/Au electrode.Scanning electron micrography (SEM) was employed to characterize the GS,Au preparation and the construction processes of the sensor.Cyclic voltammetry(CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV)were used to study the electrochemical properties of DA.Under the optimized experimental conditions,the oxidation peak current( Ipa)was linear to DA concentration in the range from 1.0× 10^ -7 mol/L to .5.0 ×10^-4 mol/L ( R^2 = 0.9976 ) with a detection limit of 4.2 × 10^-8 mol/L.The proposed electrochemical sensor was sensitivity, strong anti-interference and easy preparation, which was suitable for screen-determination of DA.%构建纳米金(Au)掺杂石墨烯(GS-Nafion)修饰玻碳电极(GCE)的电化学传感器(GCE/GS/Nafion/Au),研究多巴胺(DA)和抗坏血酸(AA)在上述电极的电化学行为,并用于DA的选择性测定。将GS-Nafion溶液涂覆于GCE表面制得GCE/GS/Nafion电极,采用化学镀方法于GCE/GS/Nafion电极表面生成Au制得GCE/GS/Nafion/Au电极,采用扫描电镜(SEM)表征GS、化学镀Au和电极的制备过程,循环伏安(CV)法和示差脉冲伏安(DPV)法研究DA的电化学性质。在优化的实验条件下,DA浓度与DPV法氧化峰电流大小在1.0×10^-7~1.0×10^-4mol/L之间呈线性关系,线性相关系数为0.9988,检出限为4.2×10^-8mol/L。该电极制备过程简单、灵敏度高、抗干扰性强,可以用于DA的测定,结果令人满意。

  18. Carbon-coated nanoparticle superlattices for energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Yiliguma, Affa; Wang, Yifei; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2016-07-01

    Nanoparticle (NP) superlattices represent a unique material architecture for energy conversion and storage. Recent reports on carbon-coated NP superlattices have shown exciting electrochemical properties attributed to their rationally designed compositions and structures, fast electron transport, short diffusion length, and abundant reactive sites via enhanced coupling between close-packed NPs, which are distinctive from their isolated or disordered NP or bulk counterparts. In this minireview, we summarize the recent developments of highly-ordered and interconnected carbon-coated NP superlattices featuring high surface area, tailorable and uniform doping, high conductivity, and structure stability. We then introduce the precisely-engineered NP superlattices by tuning/studying specific aspects, including intermetallic structures, long-range ordering control, and carbon coating methods. In addition, these carbon-coated NP superlattices exhibit promising characteristics in energy-oriented applications, in particular, in the fields of lithium-ion batteries, fuel cells, and electrocatalysis. Finally, the challenges and perspectives are discussed to further explore the carbon-coated NP superlattices for optimized electrochemical performances.

  19. Investigation of Pt-Ti doped carbon aerogel as bi-metallic catalyst for H/D exchange process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhartiya, Sushmita; Kohli, D. K.; Singh, Ashish; Singh, Rashmi; Singh, M. K.

    2017-05-01

    Platinum (Pt) carbon based catalyst for hydrogen-deuterium (H/D) exchange between hydrogen and water is one of the benign processes being explored for heavy water production. Platinum being precious, presents a significant contribution on overall cost of catalyst. Titanium (Ti), a potential catalyst was explored for the H/D exchange to reduce the cost of catalyst. Titanium oxide co-doped with platinum in carbon aerogel (CA) was investigated for the exchange process. The present studies involve synthesis and characterization of TiO2 nanoparticles doped in carbon aerogel. Pt and TiO2 doping (5% by weight for both) in CA was used to prepare the bimetallic PtTi-CA catalyst. The H/D exchange efficiency obtained for the PtTi-CA catalyst (with 50% Pt economy) was 57% which compares well with Pt-CA catalyst having exchange efficiency of 67%.

  20. Transition-metal-doped ZnO nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity under UV light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Rosari; Djaja, Nadia Febiana

    2014-09-15

    ZnO nanoparticles doped with transition metals (Mn and Co) were prepared by a co-precipitation method. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-rays, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, electron spin resonance spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activities of the transition-metal-doped ZnO nanoparticles were evaluated in the degradation of methyl orange under UV irradiation. ZnO nanoparticles doped with 12 at.% of Mn and Co ions exhibited the maximum photodegradation efficiency. The experiment also demonstrated that the photodegradation efficiency of Mn-doped ZnO nanoparticles was higher than that of Co-doped ZnO nanoparticles. These results indicate that charge trapping states due to the doping were the decisive factor rather than the average particle size and energy gap. Moreover the effect of pH values on the degradation efficiency was discussed in the photocatalytic experiments using 12 at.% Mn- and Co-doped ZnO nanoparticles.

  1. Doped carbon nanostructure field emitter arrays for infrared imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsah, Kofi [Knoxville, TN; Baylor, Larry R [Farragut, TN; Caughman, John B [Oak Ridge, TN; Kisner, Roger A [Knoxville, TN; Rack, Philip D [Knoxville, TN; Ivanov, Ilia N [Knoxville, TN

    2009-10-27

    An infrared imaging device and method for making infrared detector(s) having at least one anode, at least one cathode with a substrate electrically connected to a plurality of doped carbon nanostructures; and bias circuitry for applying an electric field between the anode and the cathode such that when infrared photons are adsorbed by the nanostructures the emitted field current is modulated. The detectors can be doped with cesium to lower the work function.

  2. Microwave Combustion Synthesis of Silver Doped Lanthanum Ferrite Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Desai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Lanthanum ferrite (LaFeO3 and silver doped LaFeO3 powders were synthesized by a single step microwave combustion route using nitrates as precursors and glycine as a fuel. XRD analysis indicated the formation of cubic phase with the dopant peaks at 2θ values of 38.3°, 44.1° and 64.4° apart from the peaks corresponding to LaFeO3. As observed from the transmission electron micrographs, LaFeO3 exhibits particles with a larger size (mean size ~57 nm, significant decrease in particle size is observed for silver doped samples. The magnetic measurements reveal weak ferromagnetic nature of LaFeO3, while silver doped samples are ferromagnetic in nature. Lanthanum silver ferrite (x=0.25, A site shows maximum coercivity (Hci=480.96G with hysteresis loop at room temperature which is a clear sign of ferromagnetic ordering. The S shape of the curve implies the presence of domain wall movements in nanoparticles. Thermogravimetric analysis of the samples show stable behavior of the products.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(3, pp.285-291, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.2387

  3. Microwave Combustion Synthesis of Silver Doped Lanthanum Ferrite Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Desai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Lanthanum ferrite (LaFeO3 and silver doped LaFeO3 powders were synthesized by a single step microwave combustion route using nitrates as precursors and glycine as a fuel. XRD analysis indicated the formation of cubic phase with the dopant peaks at 2θ values of 38.3°, 44.1°, and 64.4° apart from the peaks corresponding to LaFeO3. As observed from the transmission electron micrographs, LaFeO3 exhibits particles with a larger size (mean size ~57 nm, significant decrease in particle size is observed for silver doped samples. The magnetic measurements reveal weak ferromagnetic nature of LaFeO3, while silver doped samples are ferromagnetic in nature. Lanthanum silver ferrite (x = 0.25, A site shows maximum coercivity (Hci = 480.96 G with hysteresis loop at room temperature which is a clear sign of ferromagnetic ordering. The S shape of the curve implies the presence of domain wall movements in nanoparticles. Thermogravimetric analysis of the samples show stable behavior of the products.

  4. Photocatalytic treatment of municipal wastewater using modified neodymium doped TiO(2) hybrid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmoradi, Behzad; Ibrahim, Ibrahim A; Sakamoto, Naonori; Ananda, Sannaiah; Somashekar, Rudrappa; Row, Tagur N Guru; Byrappa, Kullaiah

    2010-08-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of municipal wastewater was investigated using reagent grade TiO(2) and modified neodymium doped TiO(2) hybrid nanoparticles. For the first time, surface modification of Nd(3 +) doped TiO(2) hybrid nanoparticles were carried out with n-butylamine as surface modifier under mild hydrothermal conditions. The modified nanoparticles obtained were characterized by Powder XRD, FTIR, DLS, TEM, BET surface area, zeta potential and UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The characterization results indicated better morphology, particle size distribution and low agglomeration of the nanoparticles synthesized. It was found that photodegradation of wastewater using surface modified neodymium doped TiO(2) nanoparticles was more compared to pure TiO(2), which can be attributed to the doping and modification with n-butylamine.

  5. Carbon Nanoparticles in Nematic Liquid Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.Eren San; Mustafa Okutan; O(g)uz K(o)ysal; Yusuf Yer-li

    2008-01-01

    Fullerene G60,C70,single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene sheets are doped to nematic liquid crystal(LC)host in the same percentage.Planar samples of these mixtures are prepared and our measurements constitute an optimization basis for possible applications.Fullerene balls are found to be the best compatible material for optical aims and reorientation of LC molecules,while the carbon nanotubes experience some reorientation possibility in LC media and graphene layers are good barriers to preserve reorientation.

  6. Giant electrorheological effects of aluminum-doped TiO2 nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongzhe Tang; Junhui He; Jacques Persello

    2010-01-01

    Titania nanoparticles doped with cations have been synthesized via a modified hydrolysis method.The X-ray diffraction analyses,scanning electron microscopy and other characteristics measurements,were used to study the structure of the nanoparticles.The results showed interesting electrorheological(ER)effect with titania nanoparticles modified by aluminum ions,and different cations on ER effect were determined by ionic potential and resistance of the particle aggregates in the electric field.The doping ratio of aluminum ions was dominated by the appropriate sites of the particle surface and the ER effect strongly depends on the doping ratio.

  7. Sonochemically synthesized iron-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles: Influence of precursor composition on characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Anirban [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Calcutta, 92, Acharya P. C. Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Maitra, Saikat [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, 73, A.C. Banerjee Lane, Kolkata 700 010 (India); Ghosh, Sobhan [Managing Innovations, House No. 188, Sector 14, Faridabad 121 007 (India); Chakrabarti, Sampa, E-mail: scchemengg@caluniv.ac.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Calcutta, 92, Acharya P. C. Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Centre for Research in Nanoscience & Nanotechnology, University of Calcutta JD- 2, Sector-III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700 098 (India)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Sonochemical synthesis of iron-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles. • Green synthesis without alkali at room temperature. • Characterization by UV–vis spectroscopy, FESEM, XRD and EDX. • Influence of precursor composition on characteristics. • Composition and characteristics are correlated. - Abstract: Iron-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized sonochemically from aqueous acetyl acetonate precursors of different proportions. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized with UV–vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and microscopy. Influences of precursor mixture on the characteristics have been examined and modeled. Linear correlations have been proposed between dopant dosing, extent of doping and band gap energy. Experimental data corroborated with the proposed models.

  8. Temperature driven transport of gold nanoparticles physisorbed inside carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoen, P.A.E.; Poulikakos, D.; Walther, Jens Honore

    2006-01-01

    We use molecular dynamics simulations to demonstrate the temperature driven mass transport of solid gold nanoparticles, physisorbed inside carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Our results indicate that the nanoparticle experiences a guided motion, in the direction opposite to the direction of the temperature...... affects the nanoparticle motion along the carbon lattice....

  9. Catalytically Active Bimetallic Nanoparticles Supported on Porous Carbon Capsules Derived From Metal-Organic Framework Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Bradley, Siobhan J; Chan, Andrew; Waterhouse, Geoffrey I N; Nann, Thomas; Kruger, Paul E; Telfer, Shane G

    2016-09-14

    We report a new methodology for producing monometallic or bimetallic nanoparticles confined within hollow nitrogen-doped porous carbon capsules. The capsules are derived from metal-organic framework (MOF) crystals that are coated with a shell of a secondary material comprising either a metal-tannic acid coordination polymer or a resorcinol-formaldehyde polymer. Platinum nanoparticles are optionally sandwiched between the MOF core and the shell. Pyrolysis of the MOF-shell composites produces hollow capsules of porous nitrogen-doped carbon that bear either monometallic (Pt, Co, and Ni) or alloyed (PtCo and PtNi) metal nanoparticles. The Co and Ni components of the bimetallic nanoparticles are derived from the shell surrounding the MOF crystals. The hollow capsules prevent sintering and detachment of the nanoparticles, and their porous walls allow for efficient mass transport. Alloyed PtCo nanoparticles embedded in the capsule walls are highly active, selective, and recyclable catalysts for the hydrogenation of nitroarenes to anilines.

  10. Platinum nanoparticles on gallium nitride surfaces: effect of semiconductor doping on nanoparticle reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Susanne; Wyrzgol, Sonja A; Caterino, Roberta; Jentys, Andreas; Schoell, Sebastian J; Hävecker, Michael; Knop-Gericke, Axel; Lercher, Johannes A; Sharp, Ian D; Stutzmann, Martin

    2012-08-01

    Platinum nanoparticles supported on n- and p-type gallium nitride (GaN) are investigated as novel hybrid systems for the electronic control of catalytic activity via electronic interactions with the semiconductor support. In situ oxidation and reduction were studied with high pressure photoemission spectroscopy. The experiments revealed that the underlying wide-band-gap semiconductor has a large influence on the chemical composition and oxygen affinity of supported nanoparticles under X-ray irradiation. For as-deposited Pt cuboctahedra supported on n-type GaN, a higher fraction of oxidized surface atoms was observed compared to cuboctahedral particles supported on p-type GaN. Under an oxygen atmosphere, immediate oxidation was recorded for nanoparticles on n-type GaN, whereas little oxidation was observed for nanoparticles on p-type GaN. Together, these results indicate that changes in the Pt chemical state under X-ray irradiation depend on the type of GaN doping. The strong interaction between the nanoparticles and the support is consistent with charge transfer of X-ray photogenerated free carriers at the semiconductor-nanoparticle interface and suggests that GaN is a promising wide-band-gap support material for photocatalysis and electronic control of catalysis.

  11. Room temperature ferromagnetism in Mg-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jaspal, E-mail: jaspal0314@gmail.com; Vashihth, A. [Department of Applied Sciences, Chandigarh University, Gharuan, Mohali-140413 (India); Gill, Pritampal Singh; Verma, N. K. [Nano Research Lab, School of Physics and Materials Science, Thapar University, Patiala-147 004 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O (x = 0, 0,10) nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms that the synthesized nanoparticles possess wurtzite phase having hexagonal structure. Morphological analysis was carried out using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) which depicts the spherical morphology of ZnO nanoparticles. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) showed the presence of Mg in ZnO nanoparticles. Electron spin resonance (ESR) signal was found to be decreasing with increasing of Mg-doping concentration. The room temperature ferromagnetism was observed in undoped and Mg-doped ZnO nanoparticles. The increase of Mg-doping concentration resulted in decrease of saturation magnetization value which could be attributed to decrease of oxygen vacancies present in host nanoparticles.

  12. Nickel Decorated on Phosphorous-Doped Carbon Nitride as an Efficient Photocatalyst for Reduction of Nitrobenzenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anurag; Kumar, Pawan; Joshi, Chetan; Manchanda, Manvi; Boukherroub, Rabah; Jain, Suman L.

    2016-01-01

    Nickel nanoparticle-decorated phosphorous-doped graphitic carbon nitride (Ni@g-PC3N4) was synthesized and used as an efficient photoactive catalyst for the reduction of various nitrobenzenes under visible light irradiation. Hydrazine monohydrate was used as the source of protons and electrons for the intended reaction. The developed photocatalyst was found to be highly active and afforded excellent product yields under mild experimental conditions. In addition, the photocatalyst could easily be recovered and reused for several runs without any detectable leaching during the reaction.

  13. Structural, morphological and gas sensing study of zinc doped tin oxide nanoparticles synthesized via hydrothermal technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Davender; Kundu, Virender Singh; Maan, A. S.

    2016-07-01

    The pure and Zn-doped SnO2 nanoparticles were prepared successfully by hydrothermal route on large scale having different doping concentration of zinc from 0 to 0.20%. The calcined nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) for structural and morphological studies. XRD analyses reveal that the nanoparticles of these doping concentrations are polycrystalline in nature and existed as tetragonal rutile structure, SEM study of images confirms the existence of very small, homogeneously distributed, and spherical nanoparticles. The particles size of the nanoparticles was calculated by Scherrer formula and was found in the range of 9-21 nm. The presence of dopant (i.e. zinc) and formation of Sn-O phase and hydrous nature of Zn-doped SnO2 nanoparticles are confirmed by EDX and FTIR study. The gas sensing properties of pure and Zn-doped SnO2 nanoparticles were investigated for various concentrations of methanol, ethanol and acetone at different operating temperatures and it has been found that with doping concentration of zinc (x = 0.20%) shows the maximum response 78% to methanol, 65% to ethanol and 62% to acetone respectively at different operating temperature within the measurement limit for a concentration of 100 ppm of each gases.

  14. Tunable luminescence and enhanced photocatalytic activity for Eu(III) doped Bi2WO6 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Haidong; Yu, Lei; Wang, Juan; Ni, Min; Liu, Tingting; Chen, Feng

    2017-04-15

    A series of Eu(III) doped Bi2WO6 nanoparticles were synthesized by a hydrothermal process. The obtained Bi2WO6:Eu(III) nanoparticles were characterized by XRD, SEM, luminescence spectrophotometer and DRS. The XRD and TEM results indicate that the Eu(III) doping concentration has no influence on the phase and morphology. However, the Eu(III) doping can tune the luminescence and enhance the photocatalytic activity of Bi2WO6. With the increases of Eu(3+) doping concentrations, the emission intensity of WO6(6-) group decreases nut the photocatalytic activity increases. The tunable luminescence of Bi2WO6:Eu(III) nanoparticles results from the energy transfer from WO6(6-) group to Eu(III) ion. The enhanced performance can be ascribed to efficient separation of electron and hole pairs after doping Eu(III) into the Bi2WO6 lattice.

  15. Nanoparticle tracers in calcium carbonate porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yan Vivian

    2014-07-15

    Tracers are perhaps the most direct way of diagnosing subsurface fluid flow pathways for ground water decontamination and for natural gas and oil production. Nanoparticle tracers could be particularly effective because they do not diffuse away from the fractures or channels where flow occurs and thus take much less time to travel between two points. In combination with a chemical tracer they can measure the degree of flow concentration. A prerequisite for tracer applications is that the particles are not retained in the porous media as the result of aggregation or sticking to mineral surfaces. By screening eight nanoparticles (3-100 nm in diameter) for retention when passed through calcium carbonate packed laboratory columns in artificial oil field brine solutions of variable ionic strength we show that the nanoparticles with the least retention are 3 nm in diameter, nearly uncharged, and decorated with highly hydrophilic polymeric ligands. The details of these column experiments and the tri-modal distribution of zeta potential of the calcite sand particles in the brine used in our tests suggests that parts of the calcite surface have positive zeta potential and the retention of negatively charged nanoparticles occurs at these sites. Only neutral nanoparticles are immune to at least some retention. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media.

  16. Enhanced luminescence in Er-doped Si nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Tuan; Mantey, Kevin; Nayfeh, Munir

    2010-03-01

    We have studied the effect of Er ions on the luminescence of the 1-nm and 2.9-nm Si particles in solution. Under UV illumination, the 1-nm and 2.9-nm Si particles are known to have broadband luminescence in the blue and red region, respectively. We observed an enhancement in the luminescence of the particles with increasing concentration of Er ions. We discuss the result in terms of doping of the nanoparticles with Er ions. Preliminary DFT calculation shows that the ion can form a stable state just inside the particle. In this state, the electric field of the Er ion changes the bond length of the dimers, which are believed to be responsible for the optical activity of the particles.

  17. Soft memory in a ferroelectric nanoparticle-doped liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Rajratan

    2014-02-01

    A small quantity of BaTiO3 ferroelectric nanoparticles (FNP) was doped in a liquid crystal (LC), and the LC + FNP hybrid was found to exhibit a nonvolatile electromechanical memory effect in the isotropic phase. The permanent dipole moment of the FNPs causes the LC molecule to form short-range pseudonematic domains surrounding the FNPs. The FNP-induced short-range orders become more prominent in the isotropic phase when the global nematic order is absent. These short-range domains, being anisotropic in nature, interact with an external electric field, exhibiting a Fréedericksz-type transition. When the field is turned off, these domains stay oriented, showing a hysteresis effect due to the absence of any long-range order and restoring forces in the isotropic phase. The hysteresis graph for this memory effect shows a significant pretransitional behavior on approaching the nematic phase from the isotropic phase.

  18. Screening metal nanoparticles using boron-doped diamond microelectrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivandini, Tribidasari A., E-mail: ivandini.tri@sci.ui.ac.id; Rangkuti, Prasmita K. [Department of Chemistry, FMIPA, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok (Indonesia); Einaga, Yasuaki [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University (Japan); JST ACCEL, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

    2016-04-19

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) microelectrodes were used to observe the correlation between electrocatalytic currents caused by individual Pt nanoparticle (Pt-np) collisions at the electrode. The BDD microelectrodes, ∼20 µm diameter and ∼2 µm particle size, were fabricated at the surface of tungsten wires. Pt-np with a size of 1 to 5 nm with agglomerations up to 20 nm was used for observation. The electrolytic currents were observed via catalytic reaction of 15 mM hydrazine in 50 mM phosphate buffer solution at Pt-np at 0.4 V when it collides with the surface of the microelectrodes. The low current noise and wider potential window in the measurements using BDD microelectrode produced a better results, which represents a better correlation to the TEM result of the Pt-np, compared to when gold microelectrodes was used.

  19. Neutron capture nuclei-containing carbon nanoparticles for destruction of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kuo Chu; Lai, Po Dong; Chiang, Chi-Shiun; Wang, Pei-Jen; Yuan, Chiun-Jye

    2010-11-01

    HeLa cells were incubated with neutron capture nuclei (boron-10 and gadolinium)-containing carbon nanoparticles, followed by irradiation of slow thermal neutron beam. Under a neutron flux of 6 x 10(11) n/cm(2) (or 10 min irradiation at a neutron flux of 1 x 10(9) n/cm(2) s), the percentages of acute cell death at 8 h after irradiation are 52, 55, and 28% for HeLa cells fed with BCo@CNPs, GdCo@CNPs, and Co@CNPs, respectively. The proliferation capability of the survived HeLa cells was also found to be significantly suppressed. At 48 h after neutron irradiation, the cell viability further decreases to 35 +/- 5% as compared to the control set receiving the same amount of neutron irradiation dose but in the absence of carbon nanoparticles. This work demonstrates "proof-of-concept" examples of neutron capture therapy using (10)B-, (157)Gd-, and (59)Co-containing carbon nanoparticles for effective destruction of cancer cells. It will also be reported the preparation and surface functionalization of boron or gadolinium doped core-shell cobalt/carbon nanoparticles (BCo@CNPs, GdCo@CNPs and Co@CNPs) using a modified DC pulsed arc discharge method, and their characterization by various spectroscopic measurements, including TEM, XRD, SQUID, FT-IR, etc. Tumor cell targeting ability was introduced by surface modification of these carbon nanoparticles with folate moieties.

  20. Silver-Doping Induced Lattice Distortion in TiO2 Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xue-Wei; WU Da-Jian; LIU Xiao-Jun

    2009-01-01

    The Ag-doping effects on TiO2 nanoparticles are investigated by means of x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman scattering spectroscopy. XRD and Raman results indicate that Ag-doping stabilizes the rutile phase in TiO2.We find an Ag-doping induced lattice expansion in both anatase and rutile phases. The Ag-doping has different influences on the lattice distortion for anatase and rutile phases, that is, the c/a-value for the anatase phasedecreases w/th 0.5% Ag-doping and then increases with 1% Ag-doping while that for the rutile phase shows agradual increase with increasing Ag-doping. We have ascribed the different variations of lattice distortion due to Ag-doping to the change of interfacial interaction between the anatase and rutile phases induced by different Ag concentratious.

  1. Phonon assisted thermophoretic motion of gold nanoparticles inside carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Philipp A. E.; Walther, Jens H.; Poulikakos, Dimos; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2007-06-01

    The authors investigate the thermally driven mass transport of gold nanoparticles confined inside carbon nanotubes using molecular dynamics simulations. The observed thermophoretic motion of the gold nanoparticles correlates with the phonon dispersion exhibited by a standard carbon nanotube and, in particular, with the breathing mode of the tube. Additionally, the results show an increased static friction for gold nanoparticles confines inside a zig-zag carbon nanotube when increasing the size (length) of the nanoparticles. However, an unexpected, opposite trend is observed for the same nanoparticles inside armchair tubes.

  2. Phonon assisted thermophoretic motion of gold nanoparticles inside carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoen, Philipp A.E.; Walther, Jens Honore; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigate the thermally driven mass transport of gold nanoparticles confined inside carbon nanotubes using molecular dynamics simulations. The observed thermophoretic motion of the gold nanoparticles correlates with the phonon dispersion exhibited by a standard carbon nanotube and......, in particular, with the breathing mode of the tube. Additionally, the results show an increased static friction for gold nanoparticles confines inside a zig-zag carbon nanotube when increasing the size length of the nanoparticles. However, an unexpected, opposite trend is observed for the same nanoparticles...

  3. Synthesis, physical properties and catalytic activity of Cr-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djaja, Nadia Febiana; Noorhidayati, Annisa; Saleh, Rosari

    2016-03-01

    The present work studies the photocatalytic degradation of Cr-doped ZnO nanoparticles toward aqueous mixture of organic dyes, such as methyl orange, methylene blue and congo red. Cr-doped ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized using co-precipitation method and characterized by several method of measurements. Photocatalytic mechanism was investigated by measuring the photocatalytic degradation rate in the presence of scavenger. The results revealed that hydroxyl radical plays an important role in photocatalytic activity.

  4. Chromatic instabilities in cesium-doped tungsten bronze nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Kenji; Ota, Yosuke; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Okada, Mika; Oshimura, Nobumitsu; Tofuku, Atsushi

    2013-11-01

    Nanoparticles of alkali-doped tungsten bronzes are an excellent near-infrared shielding material, but exhibit slight chromatic instabilities typically upon applications of strong ultra-violet light or heating in humid environment, which acts detrimentally to long-life commercial applications. Origin of the chromatic instabilities in cesium-doped tungsten bronze has been investigated, and it has been found that the coloration and bleaching processes comprised electronic exchanges which accelerate or depress the polaron excitation and the localized surface plasmon resonance. Coloration on UV illumination is evidenced by electron diffraction as due to the formation of HxWO3, which is considered to take place in the surface Cs-deficient WO3 region via the double charge injection mechanism. On the other hand, bleaching on heating in air and in humid environment is shown to accompany the extraction of Cs and electrons from Cs0.33WO3 by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis and is concluded to be an oxidation of Cs0.33WO3 on the particle surface.

  5. Chromatic instabilities in cesium-doped tungsten bronze nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Kenji, E-mail: kenji-adachi@ni.smm.co.jp; Ota, Yosuke; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Okada, Mika; Oshimura, Nobumitsu; Tofuku, Atsushi [Ichikawa Research Laboratories, Sumitomo Metal Mining Co., Ltd., Ichikawa 272-8588 (Japan)

    2013-11-21

    Nanoparticles of alkali-doped tungsten bronzes are an excellent near-infrared shielding material, but exhibit slight chromatic instabilities typically upon applications of strong ultra-violet light or heating in humid environment, which acts detrimentally to long-life commercial applications. Origin of the chromatic instabilities in cesium-doped tungsten bronze has been investigated, and it has been found that the coloration and bleaching processes comprised electronic exchanges which accelerate or depress the polaron excitation and the localized surface plasmon resonance. Coloration on UV illumination is evidenced by electron diffraction as due to the formation of H{sub x}WO{sub 3}, which is considered to take place in the surface Cs-deficient WO{sub 3} region via the double charge injection mechanism. On the other hand, bleaching on heating in air and in humid environment is shown to accompany the extraction of Cs and electrons from Cs{sub 0.33}WO{sub 3} by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis and is concluded to be an oxidation of Cs{sub 0.33}WO{sub 3} on the particle surface.

  6. Electronic structure, magnetic and structural properties of Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Shalendra, E-mail: shailuphy@gmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changwon National University, 9 Sarim dong, Changwon 641 773 (Korea, Republic of); Vats, Prashant [Material Science Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, S. V. College, Aligarh 202001, Uttar Pradesh (India); Gautam, S. [Advanced Analysis Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Gupta, V.P.; Verma, K.D. [Material Science Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, S. V. College, Aligarh 202001, Uttar Pradesh (India); Chae, K.H. [Advanced Analysis Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Hashim, Mohd [Department of Applied Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202-002 (India); Choi, H.K., E-mail: hkchoi99@changwon.ac.kr [Department of Mechatronics Convergence, College of Engineering, Changwon National University, Changwon 641 773 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • XRD, and HR-TEM results show the single phase nature of Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles. • dc magnetization results indicate the RT-FM in Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles. • Ni L{sub 3,2} edge NEXAFS spectra infer that Ni ions are in +2 valence state. • O K edge NEXAFS spectra show that O vacancy increases with Ni doping in ZnO. - Abstract: We report structural, magnetic and electronic structural properties of Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by auto-combustion method. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, and dc magnetization measurements. The XRD and HR-TEM results indicate that Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles have single phase nature with wurtzite lattice and exclude the presence of secondary phase. NEXAFS measurements performed at Ni L{sub 3,2}-edges indicates that Ni ions are in +2 valence state and exclude the presence of Ni metal clusters. O K-edge NEXAFS spectra indicate an increase in oxygen vacancies with Ni-doping, while Zn L{sub 3,2}-edge show the absence of Zn-vacancies. The magnetization measurements performed at room temperature shows that pure and Ni doped ZnO exhibits ferromagnetic behavior.

  7. Enhanced peroxidase activity and tumour tissue visualization by cobalt-doped magnetoferritin nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tongwei; Cao, Changqian; Tang, Xu; Cai, Yao; Yang, Caiyun; Pan, Yongxin

    2017-01-01

    Magnetoferritin (M-HFn) is a biomimetic magnetic nanoparticle with a human heavy-chain ferritin (HFn) shell, trapping a magnetite (Fe3O4) core that has inherited peroxidase-like activity. In this study, cobalt-doped M-HFn nanoparticles (M-HFn-Co x Fe3-x O4) with different amounts of cobalt were successfully synthesized. Experimental results indicate that the controlled doping of a certain amount of cobalt into the magnetite cores of M-HFn nanoparticles enhances its peroxidase-like catalytic activity and efficacy for visualizing tumour tissues. For example, compared with sample Co0 (without cobalt doping), the peroxidase-like activity of the cobalt-doped nanoparticle sample Co60 (with a cobalt doping molar percentage of ˜34.2%) increases 1.7 times, and has the maximal reaction velocity (V max) values. Moreover, after a one-step incubation with Co60 nanoparticles, and using the peroxidase substrate 3,3‧-diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride (DAB) for colour development, the tumour tissues of breast, colorectal, stomach and pancreas tumours showed a deeper brown colour with clear boundaries between the healthy and tumourous cells. Therefore, this suggests that the cobalt-doped magnetoferritin nanoparticles enhance peroxidase activity and tumour tissue visualization.

  8. Structural, optical, magnetic and photocatalytic properties of Co doped CuS diluted magnetic semiconductor nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreelekha, N.; Subramanyam, K.; Amaranatha Reddy, D.; Murali, G.; Ramu, S.; Rahul Varma, K.; Vijayalakshmi, R. P.

    2016-08-01

    Pristine and Co doped covellite CuS nanoparticles were synthesized in aqueous solution by facile chemical co-precipitation method with Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid (EDTA) as a stabilizing agent. EDAX measurements confirmed the presence of Co in the CuS host lattice. Hexagonal crystal structure of pure and Co doped CuS nanoparticles were authenticated by XRD patterns. TEM images indicated that sphere-shape of nanoparticles through a size ranging from 5 to 8 nm. The optical absorption edge moved to higher energies with increase in Co concentration as indicated by UV-vis spectroscopy. Magnetic measurements revealed that bare CuS sample show sign of diamagnetic character where as in Co doped nanoparticles augmentation of room temperature ferromagnetism was observed with increasing doping precursor concentrations. Photocatalytic performance of the pure and Co doped CuS nanoparticles were assessed by evaluating the degradation rate of rhodamine B solution under sun light irradiation. The 5% Co doped CuS nanoparticles provide evidence for high-quality photocatalytic activity.

  9. Engineering iodine-doped carbon dots as dual-modal probes for fluorescence and X-ray CT imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang M

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Miaomiao Zhang,1,* Huixiang Ju,2,* Li Zhang,1,* Mingzhong Sun,2 Zhongwei Zhou,2 Zhenyu Dai,3 Lirong Zhang,1 Aihua Gong,1 Chaoyao Wu,1 Fengyi Du1 1School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Clinical Laboratory, Affiliated Yancheng Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Yancheng, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China; 3Radiology Department, Affiliated Yancheng Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Yancheng, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: X-ray computed tomography (CT is the most commonly used imaging technique for noninvasive diagnosis of disease. In order to improve tissue specificity and prevent adverse effects, we report the design and synthesis of iodine-doped carbon dots (I-doped CDs as efficient CT contrast agents and fluorescence probe by a facile bottom-up hydrothermal carbonization process. The as-prepared I-doped CDs are monodispersed spherical nanoparticles (a diameter of ~2.7 nm with favorable dispersibility and colloidal stability in water. The aqueous solution of I-doped CDs showed wavelength-dependent excitation and stable photoluminescence similar to traditional carbon quantum dots. Importantly, I-doped CDs displayed superior X-ray attenuation properties in vitro and excellent biocompatibility. After intravenous injection, I-doped CDs were distributed throughout the body and excreted by renal clearance. These findings validated that I-doped CDs with high X-ray attenuation potency and favorable photoluminescence show great promise for biomedical research and disease diagnosis. Keywords: carbon dots, contrast agents, iodine-doped, CT imaging

  10. Development of bioconjugated dye-doped poly(styrene-co-maleimide) nanoparticles as a new bioprobe

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Swanepoel, A

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available -1 Journal of Materials Chemistry B Development of bioconjugated dye-doped poly(styrene-co- maleimide) nanoparticles as a new bioprobe A. Swanepoel, I. du Preez, T. Mahlangu, A. Chetty and B. Klumperman Abstract Fluorescent dye-doped poly...

  11. Carbon encapsulated magnetic nanoparticles produced by hydrothermal reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nong Yue He; Ya Fei Guo; Yan Deng; Zhi Fei Wang; Song Li; Hong Na Liu

    2007-01-01

    Carbon encapsulated magnetic nanoparticles (CEMNs) were synthesized by heating an aqueous glucose solution containing FeAu (Au coated Fe nanoparticles) nanoparticles at 160-180 ℃ for 2 h. This novel hydrothermal approach is not only simple but also provides the surface of CEMNs with functional groups like-OH. The formation of carbon encapsulated magnetic nanoparticles was not favored when using pure Fe nanoparticles as cores because of the oxidation of Fe nanoparticles by H2O during the reaction and,therefore, the surfaces of the naked Fe nanoparticles had to be coated by Au shell in advance. TEM, XRD, XPS and VSM measurments characterized that they were uniform carbon spheres containing some embedded Fe-Au nanoparticles, with a saturation of 14.6 emu/g and the size of the typical product is ~350 nm.

  12. Sonocatalytic degradation of a textile dye over Gd-doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized through sonochemical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khataee, Alireza; Soltani, Reza Darvishi Cheshmeh; Karimi, Atefeh; Joo, Sang Woo

    2015-03-01

    The present study was performed to sonochemically synthesize GdxZn₁-xO (x=0-0.1) nanoparticles for sonocatalysis of Acid Orange 7 (AO7) in an aqueous medium. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirmed proper synthesis of Gd-doped sonocatalyst. 5% Gd-doped ZnO nanoparticles with band gap of 2.8 eV exhibited the highest sonocatalytic decolorization efficiency of 90% at reaction time of 90 min. The effects of initial dye concentration and sonocatalyst dosage on decolorization efficiency were evaluated. In the presence of sodium sulfate, sodium carbonate and sodium chloride the decolorization efficiency decreased from 90 to 78, 65 and 56%, respectively. Among various enhancers, the addition of potassium periodate improved the decolorization efficiency from 90 to 100%. The highest decolorization efficiency was obtained at pH value of 6.34 (90%). The decolorization efficiency decreased only 6% after 4 repeated runs. Therefore, Gd-doped ZnO nanoparticles can be used as a promising catalyst for degradation of organic pollutants with great reusability potential.

  13. Preparation, Electrochemical Property and Application in Bulk-modified Electrode of Dawson-type Phosphomolybdate-doped Polypyrrole Composite Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A kind of inorganic-organic hybrid semiconductor composite nanoparticles: Dawson-type phosphomolybdatedoped polypyrrole (P2Mo18-PPy) was designed and prepared using microemulsion oxidation-polymerization at room temperature and characterized by TEM and IR. The P2Mo18-PPy was used as a bulk-modifier to fabricate a chemically modified carbon paste electrode(CPE) by direct mixing, which represents the example of polyoxometalates (POMs)-doped semiconductor polymer nanoparticles modified electrode. Both the advantage of POMs-doped polymer and the surface-renewal property of the CPE were fully utilized. The electrochemical behavior of the P2Mo18-PPy bulk-modified CPE(P2Mo18-PPy-CPE) was investigated with cyclic voltammetry. Three couples of reversible redox peaks were observed in the range from + 800 to 0 mV, which corresponded to the reduction and oxidation through two-, four- and six-electron processes, respectively. The P2Mo18-PPY-CPE showed a high electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of nitrite, which expanded the application of POMs-doped semiconductor polymer nanoparticles.

  14. Effect of nitrogen doping on structural and optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Kumari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Influence of nitrogen doping on structural and optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles has been studied. Undoped and N doped ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized via chemical precipitation approach. The prepared samples were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM equipped with Energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX spectroscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy (µRS. Wurtzite phase of undoped as well as 0.5–10% N doped ZnO nanoparticles was confirmed through characteristic XRD patterns. The particle size expansion due to N incorporation in ZnO was further revealed by TEM and EDAX analysis where 11 nm size undoped and 18–22 nm size 0.5–10% N doped ZnO (N:ZnO nanoparticles without any impurity were ascertained. Slight blue-shift in band gap energy, as observed in our case, symbolized weak quantum confinement of the prepared nanoparticles. The alterations in vibrational modes of ZnO due to N incorporation, remarkably H substituting at O site and subsequently causing the passivation in N:ZnO nanoparticles, were detected through FTIR analysis. Finally, the effect of the nano-size of crystallite and gradual prominence of N into ZnO lattice due to increase of N doping concentration in prepared nanoparticles was meticulously expatiated though µRS analysis.

  15. Effect of nitrogen doping on structural and optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renu Kumari; Anshuman Sahai; Navendu Goswami

    2015-01-01

    Influence of nitrogen doping on structural and optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles has been studied. Undoped and N doped ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized via chemical precipitation approach. The prepared samples were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) equipped with Energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) spectroscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy (mRS). Wurtzite phase of undoped as well as 0.5–10% N doped ZnO nanoparticles was confirmed through characteristic XRD patterns. The particle size expansion due to N incorporation in ZnO was further revealed by TEM and EDAX analysis where 11 nm size undoped and 18–22 nm size 0.5–10%N doped ZnO (N:ZnO) nanoparticles without any impurity were ascertained. Slight blue-shift in band gap energy, as observed in our case, symbolized weak quantum confinement of the prepared nanoparticles. The alterations in vibrational modes of ZnO due to N incorporation, remarkably H substituting at O site and subsequently causing the passivation in N:ZnO nanoparticles, were detected through FTIR analysis. Finally, the effect of the nano-size of crystallite and gradual prominence of N into ZnO lattice due to increase of N doping concentration in prepared nanoparticles was meticulously expatiated though mRS analysis.

  16. Remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activity by sulfur-doped titanium dioxide in nanohybrids with carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khang, Nguyen Cao; Van, Duong Quoc; Thuy, Nguyen Minh; Minh, Nguyen Van; Minh, Phan Ngoc

    2016-12-01

    TiO2 doped S nanohybrids with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesized with CNTs, thiourea and TiO2 nanoparticles. The result indicated that the TiO2 nanoparticles with about 8 nm in size are attached on the sidewall of CNTs. The nanohybrids material can absorb at longer wavelength and the absorption even covers the whole range of visible region than that only TiO2 nanoparticles. Application of the catalysts to photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) was tested under visible light irradiation. The result suggests that a high MB degradation activity of S-TiO2/CNTs due to a reduce band gap of TiO2 when S is doped, and the decrease in the possibility of electron-hole recombination by CNTs. In addition, the density functional-theory (DFT) calculations of the electronic band structures and density of states (DOS) to understand the bonding states between TiO2 and CNTs, proved that the TiO2/CNTs system is stable.

  17. Effects of carbon doping on the electronic properties of boron nitride nanotubes: Tight binding calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chegel, Raad

    2016-10-01

    The electronic properties of pure and carbon doped zigzag and armchair Boron Nitride Nanotubes (BNNTs) have been investigated based on tight binding formalism. It was found that the band gap is reduced due to substitution of Boron or Nitrogen atoms by carbon atoms and the doping effects of B- and N-substituted BNNTs are different. The applied electric field converts the carbon doped BNNTs from semiconductor to metal. The gap energy reduction shows an identical dependence to electric field and doping for both armchair and zigzag carbon doped BNNTs. Our results indicate that the band gap of carbon doped BNNTs is a function of the Impurity concentration, electric field strength and the direction between the electric field and dopant location. The band gap for C-doped BNNTs with four carbon atoms decreases linearly but for two carbon atoms, it is constant at first then decreases linearly.

  18. Synthesize of N-doped Carbon nanotube according to gas flow rate by Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. B.; Kim, C. D.; Kong, S. J.; Kim, J. H.; Min, B. K.; Jung, W. S.; Lee, H. R.

    2011-12-01

    Nitrogen-doped (N-doped) Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been prepared by Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD). As doping accompanies with the recombination of carbon atoms into CNTs in the CVD process, N atoms can be substitutionally doped into the CNTs lattice, which is hard to realize by other synthetic methods. The synthesis technique and the characteristic analysis of N-doped CNT will move up the industrialization and the basic study of CNT. We will elucidate the basic properties of CNT such as the structural characteristics of the N-doped CNT material and study for the industrial application of the N-doped CNTs to the electrode of fuel cell.

  19. Structural, magnetic and electronic structure properties of Co doped ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Shalendra, E-mail: shailuphy@gmail.com [Institute of Basic Sciences, Changwon National University, Changwon, Gyeongnam 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changwon National University, Changwon, Gyeongnam 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Song, T.K., E-mail: tksong@changwon.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changwon National University, Changwon, Gyeongnam 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Gautam, Sanjeev; Chae, K.H. [Advanced Analysis Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S.S.; Jang, K.W. [Institute of Basic Sciences, Changwon National University, Changwon, Gyeongnam 641-773 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • XRD and HR-TEM results show the single phase nature of Co doped ZnO nanoparticles. • XMCD and dc magnetization results indicate the RT-FM in Co doped ZnO nanoparticles. • Co L{sub 3,2} NEXAFS spectra infer that Co ions are in 2+ valence state. • O K edge NEXAFS spectra show that O vacancy increases with Co doping in ZnO. - Abstract: We reported structural, magnetic and electronic structure studies of Co doped ZnO nanoparticles. Doping of Co ions in ZnO host matrix has been studied and confirmed using various methods; such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersed X-ray (EDX), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, magnetic hysteresis loop measurements and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). From the XRD and HR-TEM results, it is observed that Co doped ZnO nanoparticles have single phase nature with wurtzite structure and exclude the possibility of secondary phase formation. FE-SEM and TEM micrographs show that pure and Co doped nanoparticles are nearly spherical in shape. O K edge NEXAFS spectra indicate that O vacancies increase with Co doping. The Co L{sub 3,2} edge NEXAFS spectra revealed that Co ions are in 2+ valence state. DC magnetization hysteresis loops and XMCD results clearly showed the intrinsic origin of temperature ferromagnetism in Co doped ZnO nanoparticles.

  20. Investigation of the antimicrobial effect of silver doped Zinc Oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzane Hoseyni Dowlatababdi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial effect of metal nanoparticles such as zinc oxide and silver nanoparticles has been taken into great consideration separately during recent years. The useful application of these nanoparticles in the areas of medicine, biotechnology, and professional prevention of microbes motivated us. The aim of this study was to evaluate antibacterial activity properties of silver doped zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO: Ag by synthesizing them.Materials and Methods: The silver doped zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO:Ag were provided with wet chemical method in an aqueous solution, and mercaptoethanol. The physical properties of the sample were investigated with UV, XRD, and TEM techniques. Then, the antibacterial activity of 50 to 3.12 concentrations of the silver doped zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO:Ag was investigated against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus faecalis by well diffusion method. Moreover, the MIC and MBC values of these nanoparticles were assessed by microdilution method.Results: The size of the nanoparticles was obtained as between 12 and 13 nanometers in average. The optical study of the nanoparticles demonstrated that the band gap of the silver doped nanostructures is higher than that of the pure sample. The zone of inhibition diameter in the presence of 50 mg/ml density was 19, 15 and 8 mm against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively.Conclusion: The results showed that silver doped zinc oxide nanoparticles prevented Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but did not affect Enterococcus faecalis. The zone of inhibition diameter increases as the density of the nanoparticles does.

  1. Preparation of asymmetrically distributed bimetal ceria (CeO₂) and copper (Cu) nanoparticles in nitrogen-doped activated carbon micro/nanofibers for the removal of nitric oxide (NO) by reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaduri, Bhaskar; Verma, Nishith

    2014-12-15

    A novel multi-scale web of carbon micro/nanofibers (ACF/CNF) was prepared by the catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD), in which CeO2 and Cu nanoparticles (NPs) were in-situ incorporated during a synthesis step. The CVD temperature was adjusted such that the prepared material had asymmetric distribution of the bimetals, with the Cu NPs located at the tips of the CNFs and the CeO2 particles adhered to the surface of the ACF substrate. The prepared bimetals-dispersed web of ACF/CNF was treated with pyridine and the surface functionalized material was applied for the removal of NO by reduction. The complete reduction of NO was achieved at 500°C and for 400ppm NO concentration. Whereas the Cu NPs acted as the catalyst for the reduction, CeO2 facilitated the incorporation of nitrogen from the pyridine source into the ACF/CNF surface. The produced nitrogen containing surface functional groups enhanced the reactivity of the material toward the NO. The bimetals CeO2 and Cu nanoparticles (NPs)-dispersed ACF/CNF produced in this study is a potential candidate for effectively removing NO by reduction, without requiring urea or ammonia used in conventional abatement methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Rare earth doped nanoparticles in organic and inorganic host materials for application in integrated optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, R.; Hilderink, L.T.H.; Diemeer, Mart; Stouwdam, J.W.; Sudarsan, V; van Veggel, F.C.J.M.; Driessen, A.; Worhoff, Kerstin; Misra, D; Masscher, P.; Sundaram, K.; Yen, W.M.; Capobianco, J.

    2006-01-01

    The preparation and the optical properties of lanthanum fluoride (LaF3) nanoparticles doped with erbium and neodymium will be discussed. Organic and inorganic materials in the form of polymers and sol-gels were used to serve as the hosts for the inorganic nanoparticles, respectively. The organic

  3. Visible light photocatalytic property of Zn doped V2O5 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, R.; Giribabu, K.; Vijayalakshmi, L.; Stephen, A.; Narayanan, V.

    2012-06-01

    The Zn doped V2O5 nanoparticles were synthesized by thermal decomposition method. The prepared samples were characterized by various techniques like Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies, UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The photocatalytic activities of pure and Zn doped V2O5 nanoparticles were examined based on the photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB). Experimental results indicated that the Zn doped V2O5 photocatalyst (the molar ratio of V to Zn is 99: 1) exhibited maximum photocatalytic activity.

  4. Tuning the optical response in carbon doped boron nitride nanodots

    KAUST Repository

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb

    2014-09-04

    Time dependent density functional theory and the hybrid B3LYP functional are used to investigate the structural and optical properties of pristine and carbon doped hexagonal boron nitride nanodots. In agreement with recent experiments, the embedded carbon atoms are found to favor nucleation. Our results demonstrate that carbon clusters of different shapes promote an early onset of absorption by generating in-gap states. The nanodots are interesting for opto-electronics due to their tunable optical response in a wide energy window. We identify cluster sizes and shapes with optimal conversion efficiency for solar radiation and a wide absorption range form infrared to ultraviolet. This journal is

  5. Nitrogen-Doped Hollow Carbon Nanospheres for High-Performance Li-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yufen; Jin, Song; Zhang, Zhen; Du, Zhenzhen; Liu, Huarong; Yang, Jia; Xu, Hangxun; Ji, Hengxing

    2017-04-26

    N-doped carbon materials is of particular attraction for anodes of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) because of their high surface areas, superior electrical conductivity, and excellent mechanical strength, which can store energy by adsorption/desorption of Li(+) at the interfaces between the electrolyte and electrode. By directly carbonization of zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 nanospheres synthesized by an emulsion-based interfacial reaction, we obtained N-doped hollow carbon nanospheres with tunable shell thickness (20 nm to solid sphere) and different N dopant concentrations (3.9 to 21.7 at %). The optimized anode material possessed a shell thickness of 20 nm and contained 16.6 at % N dopants that were predominately pyridinic and pyrrolic. The anode delivered a specific capacity of 2053 mA h g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1) and 879 mA h g(-1) at 5 A g(-1) for 1000 cycles, implying a superior cycling stability. The improved electrochemical performance can be ascribed to (1) the Li(+) adsorption dominated energy storage mechanism prevents the volume change of the electrode materials, (2) the hollow nanostructure assembled by the nanometer-sized primary particles prevents the agglomeration of the nanoparticles and favors for Li(+) diffusion, (3) the optimized N dopant concentration and configuration facilitate the adsorption of Li(+); and (4) the graphitic carbon nanostructure ensures a good electrical conductivity.

  6. Chemical nature of catalysts of oxide nanoparticles in environment prevailing during growth of carbon nanostructures by CCVD

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M JANA; A SIL; S RAY

    2016-12-01

    Carbon nanostructures (CNS) are often grown using oxide nanoparticles as catalyst in chemical vapour deposition and these oxides are not expected to survive as such during growth. In the present study, the catalysts of cobalt- and nickel oxide-based nanoparticles of sizes varying over a range have been reduced at 575$^{\\circ}$C under environment resulting from the introduction of C$_2$H$_2$ $+$ NH$_3$ during growth of CNS as well as under introductionof C$_2$H$_2$ and NH$_3$ separately. The structure of the reduced nanoparticles is often different from the equilibrium structure of the bulk. Nanoparticles of cobalt oxide with and without doping by copper oxide are reduced to cobalt alloy or cobalt nanoparticles having fcc structure, but the rate of reduction is relatively less in NH$_3$ environment. However, reduced nickel oxide nanoparticles with and without doping shows a mix of fcc and hcp phases. The presence of hydrogen and nitrogen in the environment appears to discourage the formation of hcp nickel as inferred from the results in NH$_3$ environment. Cobalt carbide forms when the 10 wt.% or less doped cobalt oxide is reduced in C$_2$H$_2$ $+$ NH$_3$ environment. At higher level of doping of 20 wt.%, separate metallic phase of copper appears andcarbide formation gets suppressed.

  7. Synthesis of nitrogen-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes and monitoring of doping by Raman spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Mu-Hong; Li Xiao; Pan Ding; Liu Lei; Yang Xiao-Xia; Xu Zhi; Wang Wen-Long

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNx-SWNTs) with tunable dopant concentrations were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD),and their structure and elemental composition were characterized by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in combination with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS).By comparing the Raman spectra of pristine and doped nanotubes,we observed the doping-induced Raman G band phonon stiffening and 2D band phonon softening,both of which reflect doping-induced renormalization of the electron and phonon energies in the nanotubes and behave as expected in accord with the n-type doping effect.On the basis of first principles calculations of the distribution of delocalized carrier density in both the pristine and doped nanotubes,we show how the n-type doping occurs when nitrogen heteroatoms are substitutionally incorporated into the honeycomb tube-shell carbon lattice.

  8. Preparation and characterization of Ce-doped HfO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gálvez-Barboza, S. [Centro de Investigación en Química Aplicada, Departamento de Materiales Avanzados, Blvd. Enrique Reyna Hermosillo #140, C.P. 25294 Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico); Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Industria Metalúrgica # 1062 Parque Industrial, C.P. 25900 Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila (Mexico); González, L.A. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Industria Metalúrgica # 1062 Parque Industrial, C.P. 25900 Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila (Mexico); Puente-Urbina, B.A.; Saucedo-Salazar, E.M. [Centro de Investigación en Química Aplicada, Departamento de Materiales Avanzados, Blvd. Enrique Reyna Hermosillo #140, C.P. 25294 Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico); García-Cerda, L.A., E-mail: luis.garcia@ciqa.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Química Aplicada, Departamento de Materiales Avanzados, Blvd. Enrique Reyna Hermosillo #140, C.P. 25294 Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Ce-doped HfO{sub 2} nanoparticles were prepared by a modified solgel method. • Ce-doped HfO{sub 2} nanoparticles have a semispherical shape with sizes between 6 and 11.5 nm. • The samples doped with 10% in weight of Ce directly crystallized in a cubic structure. • A quick, straightforward and effective route for the preparation of Ce-doped nanoparticles. - Abstract: A modified solgel method to synthesize Ce-doped HfO{sub 2} nanoparticles was carried out using a precursor material prepared with cerium nitrate, hafnium chloride, citric acid and ethylene glycol. The obtained precursor material was calcined at 500 and 700 °C for 2 h in air. The influence of the concentration of Ce and the calcination temperature was studied to observe the structural and morphological changes of the obtained materials. For the characterization, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman scattering (RS) were employed. The XRD patterns shown that the Ce-doped HfO{sub 2} undergoes a structural transformation from monoclinic to cubic phase, which is significantly dependent on the Ce content and calcination temperature. TEM images have also confirmed the existence of semispherical nanoparticles with sizes between 6 and 11.5 nm.

  9. Encapsulation of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles into N, S co-Doped Graphene Sheets with Greatly Enhanced Electrochemical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zunxian; Qian, Kun; Lv, Jun; Yan, Wenhuan; Liu, Jiahui; Ai, Jingwei; Zhang, Yuxiang; Guo, Tailiang; Zhou, Xiongtu; Xu, Sheng; Guo, Zaiping

    2016-01-01

    Particular N, S co-doped graphene/Fe3O4 hybrids have been successfully synthesized by the combination of a simple hydrothermal process and a subsequent carbonization heat treatment. The nanostructures exhibit a unique composite architecture, with uniformly dispersed Fe3O4 nanoparticles and N, S co-doped graphene encapsulant. The particular porous characteristics with many meso/micro holes/pores, the highly conductive N, S co-doped graphene, as well as the encapsulating N, S co-doped graphene with the high-level nitrogen and sulfur doping, lead to excellent electrochemical performance of the electrode. The N-S-G/Fe3O4 composite electrode exhibits a high initial reversible capacity of 1362.2 mAhg−1, a high reversible specific capacity of 1055.20 mAhg−1 after 100 cycles, and excellent cycling stability and rate capability, with specific capacity of 556.69 mAhg−1 when cycled at the current density of 1000 mAg−1, indicating that the N-S-G/Fe3O4 composite is a promising anode candidate for Li-ion batteries. PMID:27296103

  10. Encapsulation of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles into N, S co-Doped Graphene Sheets with Greatly Enhanced Electrochemical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zunxian; Qian, Kun; Lv, Jun; Yan, Wenhuan; Liu, Jiahui; Ai, Jingwei; Zhang, Yuxiang; Guo, Tailiang; Zhou, Xiongtu; Xu, Sheng; Guo, Zaiping

    2016-06-01

    Particular N, S co-doped graphene/Fe3O4 hybrids have been successfully synthesized by the combination of a simple hydrothermal process and a subsequent carbonization heat treatment. The nanostructures exhibit a unique composite architecture, with uniformly dispersed Fe3O4 nanoparticles and N, S co-doped graphene encapsulant. The particular porous characteristics with many meso/micro holes/pores, the highly conductive N, S co-doped graphene, as well as the encapsulating N, S co-doped graphene with the high-level nitrogen and sulfur doping, lead to excellent electrochemical performance of the electrode. The N-S-G/Fe3O4 composite electrode exhibits a high initial reversible capacity of 1362.2 mAhg‑1, a high reversible specific capacity of 1055.20 mAhg‑1 after 100 cycles, and excellent cycling stability and rate capability, with specific capacity of 556.69 mAhg‑1 when cycled at the current density of 1000 mAg‑1, indicating that the N-S-G/Fe3O4 composite is a promising anode candidate for Li-ion batteries.

  11. Stable doping of carbon nanotubes via molecular self assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.; Chen, Y.; Podzorov, V., E-mail: podzorov@physics.rutgers.edu [Department of Physics and Institute for Advanced Materials and Devices for Nanotechnology, Rutgers University, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Cook, A.; Zakhidov, A. [Department of Physics and NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75083 (United States)

    2014-10-14

    We report a novel method for stable doping of carbon nanotubes (CNT) based on methods of molecular self assembly. A conformal growth of a self-assembled monolayer of fluoroalkyl trichloro-silane (FTS) at CNT surfaces results in a strong increase of the sheet conductivity of CNT electrodes by 60–300%, depending on the CNT chirality and composition. The charge carrier mobility of undoped partially aligned CNT films was independently estimated in a field-effect transistor geometry (~100 cm²V⁻¹s⁻¹). The hole density induced by the FTS monolayer in CNT sheets is estimated to be ~1.8 ×10¹⁴cm⁻². We also show that FTS doping of CNT anodes greatly improves the performance of organic solar cells. This large and stable doping effect, easily achieved in large-area samples, makes this approach very attractive for applications of CNTs in transparent and flexible electronics.

  12. Room temperature ferromagnetism in Fe-doped CuO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layek, Samar; Verma, H C

    2013-03-01

    The pure and Fe-doped CuO nanoparticles of the series Cu(1-x)Fe(x)O (x = 0.00, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08) were successfully prepared by a simple low temperature sol-gel method using metal nitrates and citric acid. Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction data showed that all the samples were single phase crystallized in monoclinic structure of space group C2/c with average crystallite size of about 25 nm and unit cell volume decreases with increasing iron doping concentration. TEM micrograph showed nearly spherical shaped agglomerated particles of 4% Fe-doped CuO with average diameter 26 nm. Pure CuO showed weak ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature with coercive field of 67 Oe. The ferromagnetic properties were greatly enhanced with Fe-doping in the CuO matrix. All the doped samples showed ferromagnetism at room temperature with a noticeable coercive field. Saturation magnetization increases with increasing Fe-doping, becomes highest for 4% doping then decreases for further doping which confirms that the ferromagnetism in these nanoparticles are intrinsic and are not resulting from any impurity phases. The ZFC and FC branches of the temperature dependent magnetization (measured in the range of 10-350 K by SQUID magnetometer) look like typical ferromagnetic nanoparticles and indicates that the ferromagnetic Curie temperature is above 350 K.

  13. Enhanced stability of Eu in GaN nanoparticles: Effects of Si co-doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Prabhsharan [Dr. Vijay Kumar Foundation, 1969 Sector 4, Gurgaon 122001, Haryana (India); Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005, Punjab (India); Sekhon, S. S. [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005, Punjab (India); Department of Physics, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago); Zavada, J. M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, NYU Polytechnic School of Engineering, Brooklyn, New York 11201 (United States); Kumar, Vijay [Dr. Vijay Kumar Foundation, 1969 Sector 4, Gurgaon 122001, Haryana (India); Center for Informatics, School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar University, NH91, Tehsil Dadri, Gautam Buddha Nagar 201314, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2015-06-14

    Ab initio calculations on Eu doped (GaN){sub n} (n = 12, 13, and 32) nanoparticles show that Eu doping in nanoparticles is favorable compared with bulk GaN as a large fraction of atoms lie on the surface where strain can be released compared with bulk where often Eu doping is associated with a N vacancy. Co-doping of Si further facilitates Eu doping as strain from an oversized Eu atom and an undersized Si atom is compensated. These results along with low symmetry sites in nanoparticles make them attractive for developing strongly luminescent nanomaterials. The atomic and electronic structures are discussed using generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for the exchange-correlation energy as well as GGA + U formalism. In all cases of Eu (Eu + Si) doping, the magnetic moments are localized on the Eu site with a large value of 6μ{sub B} (7μ{sub B}). Our results suggest that co-doping can be a very useful way to achieve rare-earth doping in different hosts for optoelectronic materials.

  14. The Antibacterial Activity of Ta-doped ZnO Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bing-Lei; Han, Ping; Guo, Li-Chuan; Cao, Yan-Qiang; Li, Ai-Dong; Kong, Ji-Zhou; Zhai, Hai-Fa; Wu, Di

    2015-12-01

    A novel photocatalyst of Ta-doped ZnO nanoparticles was prepared by a modified Pechini-type method. The antimicrobial study of Ta-doped ZnO nanoparticles on several bacteria of Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) were performed using a standard microbial method. The Ta-doping concentration effect on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of various bacteria under dark ambient has been evaluated. The photocatalytical inactivation of Ta-doped ZnO nanoparticles under visible light irradiation was examined. The MIC results indicate that the incorporation of Ta(5+) ions into ZnO significantly improve the bacteriostasis effect of ZnO nanoparticles on E. coli, S. aureus, and B. subtilis in the absence of light. Compared to MIC results without light irradiation, Ta-doped ZnO and pure ZnO nanoparticles show much stronger bactericidal efficacy on P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and S. aureus under visible light illumination. The possible antimicrobial mechanisms in Ta-doped ZnO systems under visible light and dark conditions were also proposed. Ta-doped ZnO nanoparticles exhibit more effective bactericidal efficacy than pure ZnO in dark ambient, which can be attributed to the synergistic effect of enhanced surface bioactivity and increased electrostatic force due to the incorporation of Ta(5+) ions into ZnO. Based on the antibacterial tests, 5 % Ta-doped ZnO is a more effective antimicrobial agent than pure ZnO.

  15. Synthesis of ZnO doped ceria nanoparticles via azeotropic distillation processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Xiao-lan; QU Peng; YANG Hua-ming; QIU Guan-zhou

    2006-01-01

    The synthesis of nano-sized ZnO-doped CeO2 of 20 nm in crystal size by a coprecipitation technique was investigated by different scanning calorimetries/thermalgravimetrics(DSC/TG),X-ray diffraction (XRD),transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ultraviolet (UV) absorbance. Azeotropic distillation processing was performed to effectively eliminate the residual water inside the as-prepared precipitate. Doping of ZnO results in the formation of solid solution. The crystal size of the nanoparticles increases with the increase of the doped ZnO amount,the calcination temperature and time. Doped CeO2 nanoparticles show excellent visible-light property and ultraviolet-absorption activity. Doping of ZnO doesn't not weaken the UV-shielding property of ceria.

  16. Effect of silver nanoparticles on the dielectric properties of holmium doped silica glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rejikumar, P.R.; Jyothy, P.V. [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala 686560 (India); Mathew, Siby [Department of Physics, S.H. College, Thevara, Cochin, Kerala 682013 (India); Thomas, Vinoy [Department of Physics, Christian College, Chengannur, Kerala 689122 (India); Unnikrishnan, N.V., E-mail: nvu50@yahoo.co.i [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala 686560 (India)

    2010-03-15

    The effect of silver nanoparticle co-doping on the dielectric properties of holmium doped silica glasses was studied. Silver nanoparticles of size between 20 and 22 nm were produced by the sol-gel technique. One of the samples showed an icosahedral morphology of the nanocrystal formed, along with spherical morphology. It was found that the tuning of the dielectric constant values could be accomplished by co-doping. The sample, with 1 wt% of Ho, had low dielectric constant values within the range 100 Hz-3 MHz due to the formation of quasi-molecular structures of holmium. This effect was evaded to some extent with silver co-doping as a result of the interdispersion of holmium complexes. Also it was found that the co-doping produced a higher dielectric loss which was calculated from the tan delta-log f graph. The Cole-Cole parameters and the Jonscher power law parameters were also calculated and are presented.

  17. Solidification of gold nanoparticles in carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcidiacono, S; Walther, J H; Poulikakos, D; Passerone, D; Koumoutsakos, P

    2005-03-18

    The structure and the solidification of gold nanoparticles in a carbon nanotube are investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations indicate that the predicted solidification temperature of the enclosed particle is lower than its bulk counterpart, but higher than that observed for clusters placed in vacuum. A comparison with a phenomenological model indicates that, in the considered range of tube radii (R(CNT)) of 0.5 < R(CNT) < 1.6 nm, the solidification temperature depends mainly on the length of the particle with a minor dependence on R(CNT).

  18. Fe-Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles Produced via MOCVD: Synthesis, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hajar Othman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles were produced via the metallorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD method at 700∘C. Different amounts of ferrocene as the Fe dopant source (0.001–0.05 g were introduced inside the reactor together with the titanium precursor in order to synthesize different Fe dopant concentrations of TiO2 nanoparticles. Nitrogen (N2 adsorption results showed that increasing the Fe dopant concentration caused a slight increase in the surface area of the nanoparticles due to the decrease in nanoparticle size. The UV-diffuse reflectance spectra demonstrated an absorption shift in Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles to longer wavelengths, thus showing an enhancement of the absorption in the visible spectrum. Bandgap energy values determined from the UV-diffuse reflectance spectra data decreased with an increase in the Fe dopant concentrations. The photocatalytic activity of Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles was investigated via degradation of methylene blue under UV and fluorescent light. It was found that Fe doping reduced the photocatalytic activity of the samples. Based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS results, it is believed that this is due to the unfavourable location of Fe3+ inside the interior matrix of the TiO2 nanoparticles rather than on the exterior surface, which would affect photocatalytic behaviour.

  19. Tunable Band Gap Energy of Mn-Doped ZnO Nanoparticles Using the Coprecipitation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Ling Tan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple coprecipitation technique was introduced to form manganese (Mn doped on zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles effectively. Based on our morphological studies, it was revealed that mean particle size was increased while bigger agglomeration of nanoparticles could be observed as the amount of concentration of Mn was increased. Interestingly, it was found that the position of the absorption spectra was shifted towards the lower wavelength (UV region as correlated with the increasing of Mn dopants concentration into ZnO nanoparticles. This result inferred that optimum content of Mn doped into the ZnO nanoparticles was crucial in controlling the visible/UV-responsive of samples. In the present study, 3 mol% of Mn dopants into the ZnO nanoparticles exhibited the better UV as well as visible light-responsive as compared to the other samples. The main reason might be attributed to the modification of electronic structure of ZnO nanoparticles via lattice doping of Mn ions into the lattice, whereas excessive Mn dopants doped on ZnO nanoparticles caused the strong UV-responsive due to the more 3d orbitals in the valence band.

  20. Investigation on structural, surface morphological and dielectric properties of Zn-doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagadevan, Suresh [Department of Physics, AMET University, Chennai (India); Podder, Jiban, E-mail: sureshsagadevan@gmail.com [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2016-03-15

    Zinc doped Tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation method. The average crystallite size of pure and Zn-doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles was calculated from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. The FT-IR spectrum indicated the strong presence of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The morphology and the particle size were studied using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The particle size of the Zn-doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles was also analyzed, using the Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) experiment. The optical properties were studied by the UV-Visible absorption spectrum. The dielectric properties of Zn-doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles were studied at different frequencies and temperatures. The ac conductivity of Zn-doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles was also studied. (author)

  1. Nanostructure criteria for lithium intercalation in non-doped and phosphorus-doped hard carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenfelder, H.H.; Kitoh, Kenshin; Nemoto, Hiroshi [NGK Insulators Ltd., Nagoya (Japan). Corporate Research and Development Group

    1997-10-01

    Hard carbons from various precursors heat-treated at 1000-2000 C follow a common rule with regard to their structure-capacity correlation for lithium intercalation. A nanostructure containing a large fraction of highly strained carbon layers with large interlayer spacings and small crystallite sizes is a prerequisite to achieve reversible capacities in the range 300-450 mAh/g. P-doping of carbon derived from a polymer precursor causes a softening of the hard carbon structure by decreasing the strain on carbon layers, reducing interlayer spacing and increasing the crystallite sizes. It also induces a reduction of the number of nanopores which become large in size. The amount of space reduction by the softening effect, however, is more than compensated by the dopant so that capacities of 550 mAh/g and first cycle efficiencies improved up to 83% are achieved. (orig.)

  2. Band gap engineering and enhanced photoluminescence of Mg doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by wet chemical route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arshad, Mohd; Meenhaz Ansari, Mohd [Department of Applied Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (India); Ahmed, Arham S. [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (India); Tripathi, Pushpendra [Department of Applied Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (India); Ashraf, S.S.Z. [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (India); Naqvi, A.H. [Department of Applied Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (India); Azam, Ameer, E-mail: azam222@rediffmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (India)

    2015-05-15

    In the present investigations Mg doped ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized using sol–gel method. Mg doping in nanoparticles was found to be a good method for tuning of band gap and photoluminescence of ZnO nanoparticles. Simultaneously, Mg doping also inhibited the growth of particle size and it decreased from 36.1 to 13.5 nm with the increase in doping concentration from 0% to 12%. Optical band gap was found to increase from 3.23 to 3.47 eV and photoluminescence studies revealed that visible PL emission was enhanced with doping concentration. - Highlights: • Significant decrease in particle size with Mg doping. • Increase in band gap with Mg doping. • Enhanced luminescence as a result of Mg doping.

  3. Red Fluorescent Carbon Nanoparticle-Based Cell Imaging Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Haydar; Bhunia, Susanta Kumar; Dalal, Chumki; Jana, Nikhil R

    2016-04-13

    Fluorescent carbon nanoparticle-based probes with tunable visible emission are biocompatible, environment friendly and most suitable for various biomedical applications. However, synthesis of red fluorescent carbon nanoparticles and their transformation into functional nanoparticles are very challenging. Here we report red fluorescent carbon nanoparticle-based nanobioconjugates of nanoparticles are synthesized via high temperature colloid-chemical approach and transformed into water-soluble functional nanoparticles via coating with amphiphilic polymer followed by covalent linking with desired biomolecules. Following this approach, carbon nanoparticles are functionalized with polyethylene glycol, primary amine, glucose, arginine, histidine, biotin and folic acid. These functional nanoparticles can be excited with blue/green light (i.e., 400-550 nm) to capture their emission spanning from 550 to 750 nm. Arginine and folic acid functionalized nanoparticles have been demonstrated as fluorescent cell labels where blue and green excitation has been used for imaging of labeled cells. The presented method can be extended for the development of carbon nanoparticle-based other bioimaging probes.

  4. Preparation and Characterization of Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassim, Aqilah; Rachmawati, Heni

    2010-10-01

    Taking calcium supplements can reduce the risk of developing osteoporosis, but they are not readily absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. Nanotechnology is expected to resolve this problem. In this study, we prepared and characterized calcium carbonate nanoparticle to improve the solubility by using bottom-up method. The experiment was done by titrating calcium chloride with sodium carbonate with the addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as stabilizer, using ultra-turrax. Various concentrations of calcium chloride and sodium carbonate as well as various speed of stirring were used to prepare the calcium carbonate nanoparticles. Evaluations studied were including particle size, polydispersity index (PI) and zeta potential with particle analyzer, surface morphology with scanning electron microscope, and saturated solubility. In addition, to test the ability of PVP to prevent particles growth, short stability study was performed by storing nano CaCO3 suspension at room temperature for 2 weeks. Results show that using 8000 rpm speed of stirring, the particle size tends to be bigger with the range of 500-600 nm (PI between 0.2-0.4) whereas with stirring speed of 4000 rpm, the particle size tends to be smaller with 300-400 nm (PI between 0.2-0.4). Stirring speed of 6000 rpm produced particle size within the range of 400-500 nm (PI between 0.2-0.4). SEM photograph shows that particles are monodisperse confirming that particles were physically stable without any agglomeration within 2 weeks storage. Taken together, nano CaCO3 is successfully prepared by bottom-up method and PVP is a good stabilizer to prevent the particle growth.

  5. Doping of single-walled carbon nanotubes controlled via chemical transformation of encapsulated nickelocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharlamova, Marianna V.; Sauer, Markus; Saito, Takeshi; Sato, Yuta; Suenaga, Kazu; Pichler, Thomas; Shiozawa, Hidetsugu

    2015-01-01

    Controlled doping of carbon nanotubes is elemental for their electronic applications. Here we report an approach to tune the polarity and degree of doping of single-walled carbon nanotubes via filling with nickelocene followed by encapsulated reactions. Using Raman, photoemission spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, we show that nickelocene molecules transform into nickel carbides, nickel and inner carbon nanotubes with reaction temperatures as low as 250 °C. The doping efficiency is determined for each chemical component. Synchronous charge transfer among the molecular components allows bipolar doping of the carbon nanotubes to be achieved in a broad range of +/-0.0012 e- per carbon.

  6. Doping for speed: colloidal nanoparticles for thin-film optoelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noone, Kevin M; Ginger, David S

    2009-02-24

    Solution-processable semiconductor materials ranging from conjugated polymers and small organic molecules to colloidal inorganic nanoparticles are being studied for applications in both low-cost solar cells and photodetectors. High-quality thin films of many inorganic semiconductors can be prepared by techniques such as chemical vapor deposition, molecular beam epitaxy, and atomic layer deposition. In contrast, preparing device-quality films of inorganic materials from colloidal solutions can be more difficult due to the challenge of achieving well-defined doping, controlled trap densities, and reproducible surface chemistry. Nevertheless, solution deposition using colloidal precursors is an attractive goal because of the potential for low-cost, large-area processing. In recent years, a great deal of effort has focused on the colloidal synthesis of wide-band-gap metal oxides such as TiO(2), visible-absorbing II-VI compounds such as CdSe, and small-band-gap materials such as PbSe. Much of the work on visible- and IR-absorbing photodetectors has been done on materials containing metals such as Cd and Pb. A new paper in this issue demonstrates photoconductive detectors made from Cu-containing In(2)S(3) nanoplates. The incorporation of Cu into the In(2)S(3) nanoplates leads to a significant decrease in the lifetime of the photoexcited carriers, resulting in significantly faster response times for the photodetectors processed from colloidal solution.

  7. Magnetic and electrical properties of In doped cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongjai, Razia; Khan, Shakeel; Asokan, K.; Ahmed, Hilal; Khan, Imran

    2012-10-01

    Nanoparticles of CoFe2O4 and CoIn0.15Fe1.85O4 ferrites were prepared by citrate gel route and characterized to understand their structural, electrical, and magnetic properties. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were used to confirm the formation of single phase cubic spinel structure. The average grain sizes from the Scherrer formula were below 50 nm. Microstructural features were obtained by scanning electron microscope and compositional analysis by energy dispersive spectroscopy. The hysteresis curve shows enhancement in coercivity while reduction in saturation magnetization with the substitution of In3+ ions. Enhancement of coercivity is attributed to the transition from multidomain to single domain nature. Electrical properties, such as dc resistivity as a function of temperature and ac conductivity as a function of frequency and temperature were studied for both the samples. The activation energy derived from the Arrhenius equation was found to increase in the doped sample. The dielectric constant (ɛ') and dielectric loss (tan δ) are also studied as a function of frequency and temperature. The variation of dielectric properties ɛ', tan δ, and ac conductivity (σac) with frequency reveals that the dispersion is due to Maxwell-Wagner type of interfacial polarization in general and the hopping of charge between Fe2+ and Fe3+ as well as between Co2+ and Co3+ ions at B-sites. Magnetization and electrical property study showed its dominant dependence on the grain size.

  8. The cellular magnetic response and biocompatibility of biogenic zinc- and cobalt-doped magnetite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moise, Sandhya; Céspedes, Eva; Soukup, Dalibor; Byrne, James M.; El Haj, Alicia J.; Telling, Neil D.

    2017-01-01

    The magnetic moment and anisotropy of magnetite nanoparticles can be optimised by doping with transition metal cations, enabling their properties to be tuned for different biomedical applications. In this study, we assessed the suitability of bacterially synthesized zinc- and cobalt-doped magnetite nanoparticles for biomedical applications. To do this we measured cellular viability and activity in primary human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and human osteosarcoma-derived cells. Using AC susceptibility we studied doping induced changes in the magnetic response of the nanoparticles both as stable aqueous suspensions and when associated with cells. Our findings show that the magnetic response of the particles was altered after cellular interaction with a reduction in their mobility. In particular, the strongest AC susceptibility signal measured in vitro was from cells containing high-moment zinc-doped particles, whilst no signal was observed in cells containing the high-anisotropy cobalt-doped particles. For both particle types we found that the moderate dopant levels required for optimum magnetic properties did not alter their cytotoxicity or affect osteogenic differentiation of the stem cells. Thus, despite the known cytotoxicity of cobalt and zinc ions, these results suggest that iron oxide nanoparticles can be doped to sufficiently tailor their magnetic properties without compromising cellular biocompatibility.

  9. Synthesis, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Properties of Sulfur- and Carbon-Codoped TiO2 Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, S.; Barylyak, A.; Besaha, K.; Bund, A.; Bobitski, Y.; Wojnarowska-Nowak, R.; Yaremchuk, I.; Kus-Liśkiewicz, M.

    2016-03-01

    One-step TiO2 nanoparticle synthesis based on the interaction between thiourea and metatitanic acid is applied for sulfur and carbon anatase codoping. The synthesis of the doped TiO2 has been monitored by means of differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis (DTA-TG), which allows determining the optimal thermal conditions for the process. Electron microscopy showed micrometer-sized (5-15 μm) randomly distributed crystal aggregates, consisting of many 15-40-nm TiO2 nanoparticles. The obtained phase composition and chemical states of the doping elements are analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). XRD displays in both samples (doped and pristine) the existence of only one crystalline phase—the tetragonal modification of TiO2—anatase. Further data assessment by means of Rietveld refinement allowed detection of a slight c lattice parameter and volume increase related to incorporation of the doping elements. XPS demonstrated the presence of carbon and sulfur as doping elements in the material. It was confirmed that carbon is in elemental form and also present in oxygen-containing compounds, which are adsorbed on the particle surface. The binding energy for sulfur electron core shell corresponds to the established data for sulfate compounds, where sulfur is in 6+ oxidation state. The synthesized S- and C-codoped TiO2 showed excellent photocatalytic performance during the degradation of organic dyes (rhodamine B, methylene blue), gas-phase oxidation of ethanol under visible light, and photocatalytic hydrogen generation from ethanol under ultraviolet light.

  10. Mn doped GaN nanoparticles synthesized by rapid thermal treatment in ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šimek, P.; Sedmidubský, D.; Huber, Š.; Klímová, K. [Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Maryško, M. [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, v.v.i., Cukrovarnická 10/112, 162 00 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Mikulics, M. [Peter-Grünberg Institute, PGI-9, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Jülich-Aachen Research Alliance, JARA, Fundamentals of Future Information Technology (Germany); Sofer, Z., E-mail: Zdenek.Sofer@vscht.cz [Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2015-08-15

    We present a novel route for the synthesis of manganese doped GaN nanoparticles. Nanoparticles in the form of hexagonal discs were synthesized by rapid thermal treatment of manganese doped ammonium hexafluorogallate in ammonium atmosphere. The morphology of GaN:Mn nanoparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscopy. A concentration over 0.7 wt.% of Mn was observed by X-ray fluorescence and electron microprobe. Structural and electronic properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and micro-photoluminescence with excitation wavelength of 325 nm and 532 nm. The magnetic properties between 4.5 K and 300 K were investigated by a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. GaN:Mn nanoparticles show a purely paramagnetic behavior which can be interpreted in terms of Mn{sup 2+} ions exhibiting an antiferromagnetic interaction. - Highlights: • A new method for the synthesis of Mn doped GaN nanoparticles. • GaN:Mn nanoparticles form hexagonal discs. • None ferromagnetic ordering observed in GaN:Mn nanoparticles. • The concentration of Mn in GaN:Mn nanoparticles reach up to 0.8 wt.%.

  11. Effect of cobalt doping on structural and optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, J.; Chanda, A., E-mail: anupamamatsc@gmail.com; Gupta, S.; Shukla, P. [Department of Physics, Dr. Harisingh Gour University, Sagar, M.P-470003 (India); Chandra, V. [Department of Chemistry, Dr. Harisingh Gour University, Sagar, M.P-470003 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Cobalt doped ZnO nanoparticles of uniform sizes were prepared by a chemical method using ZnCl{sub 2} and NaOH as the source materials. The formation of Co-doped ZnO nanoparticles was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HR-TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) studies. The optical properties of obtained products were examined using room temperature UV-visible and FTIR spectroscopy. SAED of cobalt doped ZnO nanoparticles shows homogeneous distribution of nanoparticles with hexagonal structure. The HRTEM image of the Co-doped ZnO nanoparticles reveals a clear lattice spacing of 0.52 nm corresponding to the interplanar spacing of wurtzite ZnO (002) plane. The absorption band at 857 cm{sup −1} in FTIR spectra confirmed the tetrahedral coordination of Zn and a shift of absorption peak to shorter wavelength region and decrease in absorbance with Co doping.is observed in UV-Visible spectra.

  12. Effect of doping and annealing on the physical properties of ZnO:Mg nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saber Farjami Shayesteh; Armin Ahmadi Dizgah

    2013-08-01

    Well-dispersed undoped and Mg-doped ZnO nanoparticles with different doping concentrations at various annealing temperatures are synthesized using basic chemical solution method without any capping agent. To understand the effect of Mg doping and heat treatment on the structure and optical response of the prepared nanoparticles, the samples are characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), UV–Vis optical absorption, photoluminescence (PL), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements. The UV–Vis absorbance and PL emission show a blue shift with increasing Mg doping concentration with respect to bulk value. UV–Vis spectroscopy is also used to calculate the band-gap energy of nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction results clearly show that the Mg-doped nanoparticles have hexagonal phase similar to ZnO nanoparticles. TEM image as well as XRD study confirm the estimated average size of the samples to be between 6 and 12 nm. Furthermore, it is seen that there was an increase in the grain size of the particles when the annealing temperature is increased.

  13. Structural, optical and magnetic properties of cobalt-doped CdSe nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jaspal Singh; N K Verma

    2014-05-01

    Pure and Co-doped CdSe nanoparticles have been synthesized by hydrothermal technique. The synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV–Visible), photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), at room temperature. From XRD analysis, pure and cobalt-doped CdSe nanoparticles have been found to be polycrystalline in nature and possess zinc blende phase having cubic structure. In addition to this, some peaks related to secondary phase or impurities such as cobalt diselenide (CoSe2) have also been observed. The calculated average crystallite size of the nanoparticles lies in the range, 3–21 nm, which is consistent with the results obtained from TEM analysis. The decrease in average crystallite size and blue shift in the band gap has been observed with Co-doping into the host CdSe nanoparticles. The magnetic analysis shows the ferromagnetic behaviour up to 10% of Co-doping concentration. The increase of Co content beyond 10% doping concentration leads to antiferromagnetic interactions between the Co ions, which suppress the ferromagnetism.

  14. Catalytic wet air oxidation of phenol over Co-doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xu Chun; Zheng, Yi Fan; Yin, Hao Yong

    2013-08-01

    The Fe3O4 nanoparticles doped with cobalt ions have been successfully synthesized by the co-precipitation process. The X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the as-prepared nanoparticles. The results show that the phase structure of the nanoparticles is spinel structure of pure Fe3O4 with the particle size ranging from 40 to 50 nm. The Co-doping concentration can be controlled by changing the atomic ratio of the stock materials. The catalytic activity of the Co-doped Fe3O4 was further investigated by decomposing the phenol in liquid phase. The results show that cobalt ions doping can improve the catalytic efficiency of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in phenol degradation with catalytic reaction fitting the first-order kinetics. According to the estimated reaction rate of Co-doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles at different temperatures, the activation energy was calculated to be 45.63 kJ/mol.

  15. Enhanced solar energy conversion in Au-doped, single-wall carbon nanotube-Si heterojunction cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of single-wall carbon nanotube (SCNT)/n-type crystalline silicon heterojunction photovoltaic devices is significantly improved by Au doping. It is found that the overall PCE was significantly increased to threefold. The efficiency enhancement of photovoltaic devices is mainly the improved electrical conductivity of SCNT by increasing the carrier concentration and the enhancing the absorbance of active layers by Au nanoparticles. The Au doping can lead to an increase of the open circuit voltage through adjusting the Fermi level of SCNT and then enhancing the built-in potential in the SCNT/n-Si junction. This fabrication is easy, cost-effective, and easily scaled up, which demonstrates that such Au-doped SCNT/Si cells possess promising potential in energy harvesting application. PMID:23663755

  16. Preparation and photocatalytic performance of iodine-doped NaTaO3 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Peilin; Su, Yiguo; Meng, Yue; Wang, Shuwei; Jia, Qingyue; Wang, Xiaojing

    2011-11-01

    Iodine-doped NaTaO3 nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal conditions and explored as the visible-light-driven photocatalysts for photodegradation of methylene blue in water. It is found that I-doped NaTaO3 showed photodegradation efficiency superior over the un-doped NaTaO3. UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra indicate that the absorption edges shifted towards longer wavelength with increasing the iodine concentration. The energy band structure and the transient behavior of the photogenerated charge carriers for both un-doped and doped NaTaO3 powders were investigated using density functional theory. The improved photocatalytic activity under visible light for I-doped NaTaO3 may be caused by both the broadening of valence band that inhibited the recombination of e-h+ pairs and the narrowing of energy band gap due to the much negative energy levels in the bottom of conduction bands.

  17. Room temperature ferromagnetism in Mn-doped NiO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layek, Samar; Verma, H. C.

    2016-01-01

    Mn-doped NiO nanoparticles of the series Ni1-xMnxO (x=0.00, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06) are successfully synthesized using a low temperature hydrothermal method. Samples up to 6% Mn-doping are single phase in nature as observed from powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. Rietveld refinement of the XRD data shows that all the single phase samples crystallize in the NaCl like fcc structure with space group Fm-3m. Unit cell volume decreases with increasing Mn-doping. Pure NiO nanoparticles show weak ferromagnetism, may be due to nanosize nature. Introduction of Mn within NiO lattice improves the magnetic properties significantly. Room temperature ferromagnetism is found in all the doped samples whereas the magnetization is highest for 2% Mn-doping and then decreases with further doping. The ZFC and FC branches in the temperature dependent magnetization separate well above 350 K indicating transition temperature well above room temperature for 2% Mn-doped NiO Nanoparticle. The ferromagnetic Curie temperature is found to be 653 K for the same sample as measured by temperature dependent magnetization study using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) in high vacuum.

  18. Effect of Au Nanoparticles Doping on The Properties of TiO2 Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytaç GÜLTEKİN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, pure and gold (Au nanoparticles doped TiO2 thin films (Au/Ti = 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 at% were prepared by sol-gel method and the impact of Au nanoparticles doping on the optical, structural and morphological properties of these thin films was examined. All thin films were characterized using ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The optical band gap of the thin films increases from 3.74 eV to 3.89 eV with the increase of Au nanoparticles concentrations due to the Moss-Burstein effect. XRD results show that all thin films have cubic poly-crystal structure and the intensities of peaks of the crystalline phase increased with the increase of Au nanoparticles concentrations. The AFM results indicate that the TiO2 thin films are formed from the nanoparticles and the grain size of the films is changed with Au doping level. Consequently, it is shown that the structural, morphological and optical properties of the TiO2 thin films could be changed by Au nanoparticles-doping. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.1.3709

  19. Synthesis and characterization of Ce, Cu co-doped ZnS nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harish, G.S.; Sreedhara Reddy, P., E-mail: psreddy4@gmail.com

    2015-09-15

    Ce, Cu co-doped ZnS nanoparticles were prepared at room temperature using a chemical co-precipitation method. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by X- ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence (PL) and high resolution Raman spectroscopic techniques. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction studies showed that the diameter of the particles was around 2–3 nm. Broadened XRD peaks revealed the formation of nanoparticles with a face centered cubic (fcc) structure. DRS studies confirmed that the band gap increased with an increase in the dopant concentration. The Raman spectra of undoped and Ce, Cu ions co-doped ZnS nanoparticles showed longitudinal optical mode and transverse optical mode. Compared with the Raman modes (276 and 351 cm{sup −1}) of undoped ZnS nanoparticles, the Raman modes of Ce, Cu co- doped ZnS nanoparticles were slightly shifted towards lower frequency. PL spectra of the samples showed remarkable enhancement in the intensity upon doping.

  20. Photocatalytic degradation of phenol by iodine doped tin oxide nanoparticles under UV and sunlight irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Hamdi, Abdullah M.; Sillanpää, Mika [Laboratory of Green Chemistry, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, 50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Dutta, Joydeep, E-mail: dutta@squ.edu.om [Chair in Nanotechnology, Water Research Center, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 17, 123 Al-Khoudh (Oman)

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • A sol–gel method used to synthesize tin oxide nanoparticles. • Nanoparticles of tin oxide doped with different iodine concentrations. • Degradation studies carried up with UV–vis, TOC, HPLC and GC instruments. • 1% iodine doped tin dioxide showed maximum photodegradation efficiency. - Abstract: Iodine doped tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}:I) nanoparticles were prepared by sol–gel synthesis and their photocatalytic activities with phenol as a test contaminant were studied. In the presence of the catalysts, phenol degradation under direct sunlight was comparable to what was achieved under laboratory conditions. Photocatalytic oxidation reactions were studied by varying the catalyst loading, light intensity, illumination time, pH of the reactant and phenol concentration. Upon UV irradiation in the presence of SnO{sub 2}:I nanoparticles, phenol degrades very rapidly within 30 min, forming carboxylic acid which turns the solution acidic. Phenol degradation rate with 1% iodine doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles is at least an order of magnitude higher compared to the degradation achieved through undoped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles under similar illumination conditions.

  1. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Dots for "green" Quantum Dot Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Sun, Pengfei; Cong, Shan; Wu, Jiang; Gao, Lijun; Wang, Yun; Dai, Xiao; Yi, Qinghua; Zou, Guifu

    2016-12-01

    Considering the environment protection, "green" materials are increasingly explored for photovoltaics. Here, we developed a kind of quantum dots solar cell based on nitrogen-doped carbon dots. The nitrogen-doped carbon dots were prepared by direct pyrolysis of citric acid and ammonia. The nitrogen-doped carbon dots' excitonic absorption depends on the N-doping content in the carbon dots. The N-doping can be readily modified by the mass ratio of reactants. The constructed "green" nitrogen-doped carbon dots solar cell achieves the best power conversion efficiency of 0.79 % under AM 1.5 G one full sun illumination, which is the highest efficiency for carbon dot-based solar cells.

  2. Monte Carlo Study on Carbon-Gradient-Doped Silica Aerogel Insulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Tang, G H

    2015-04-01

    Silica aerogel is almost transparent for wavelengths below 8 µm where significant energy is transferred by thermal radiation. The radiative heat transfer can be restricted at high temperature if doped with carbon powder in silica aerogel. However, different particle sizes of carbon powder doping have different spectral extinction coefficients and the doped carbon powder will increase the solid conduction of silica aerogel. This paper presents a theoretical method for determining the optimal carbon doping in silica aerogel to minimize the energy transfer. Firstly we determine the optimal particle size by combining the spectral extinction coefficient with blackbody radiation and then evaluate the optimal doping amount between heat conduction and radiation. Secondly we develop the Monte Carlo numerical method to study radiative properties of carbon-gradient-doped silica aerogel to decrease the radiative heat transfer further. The results indicate that the carbon powder is able to block infrared radiation and thus improve the thermal insulating performance of silica aerogel effectively.

  3. The effect of alkaline doped catalysts on the CVD synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nemeth, Krisztian; Nemeth, Zoltan; Fejes, Dora;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop new doped catalysts for chemical vapour deposition (CVD) synthesis in order to increase the quantity and quality of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Doping compounds such as CsBr, CsCl, KBr and KCl were used to reach higher carbon deposit and carbon yield. The amount o...

  4. Composite Materials with Magnetically Aligned Carbon Nanoparticles Having Enhanced Electrical Properties and Methods of Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Haiping (Inventor); Peterson, G.P. (Bud) (Inventor); Salem, David R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Magnetically aligned carbon nanoparticle composites have enhanced electrical properties. The composites comprise carbon nanoparticles, a host material, magnetically sensitive nanoparticles and a surfactant. In addition to enhanced electrical properties, the composites can have enhanced mechanical and thermal properties.

  5. Nitrogen-doped carbon-TiO2 composite as support of Pd electrocatalyst for formic acid oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuan-Hang; Li, Yunfeng; Lam, Thomas; Xing, Yangchuan

    2015-06-01

    We report Pd nanoparticles supported on a composite consisting of oxide TiO2 and nitrogen-doped carbon for formic acid oxidation (FAO). The nitrogen-doped carbon-TiO2 (NCx-TiO2) composite support was prepared by a simple polymerization-pyrolysis process using commercial TiO2 nanoparticles (P25). Surface analysis showed that elements of Ti, C, O, and N were present on the composite surface, on which nitrogen existed in both pyridinic and quaternary forms. Pd nanoparticles with a mean size of ca. 4 nm were uniformly deposited on the composite via a polyol process. Electrochemical characterizations showed that the NCx-TiO2-supported Pd particles (Pd/NCx-TiO2) exhibited an electrocatalytic activity towards FAO that almost doubled that of the carbon black-supported Pd particles (Pd/C) with much enhanced electrocatalytic stability. The better performance of the composite supported Pd was attributed to a possible electronic structure modification in the metallic Pd particles and bifunctional effect produced by the NCx-TiO2 composite.

  6. Re-dispersible Li+ and Eu3+ co-doped CdS nanoparticles: Luminescence studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N S Gajbhiye; Raghumani Singh Ninghoujam; Asar Ahmed; D K Panda; S S Umare; S J Sharma

    2008-02-01

    Re-dispersible CdS, 5 at.% Eu3+-doped CdS, 2 at.% Li+ and 5 at.% Eu3+ co-doped CdS nanoparticles in organic solvent are prepared by urea hydrolysis in ethylene glycol medium at a low temperature of 170°C. CdS nanoparticles have spherical shape with a diameter of ∼ 80 nm. The asymmetric ratio (21) of the integrated intensities of the electrical dipole transition to the magnetic dipole transition for 5 at.% Eu3+-doped CdS is found to be 3.8 and this ratio is significantly decreased for 2 at.% Li+ and 5 at.% Eu3+ co-doped CdS (21 = 2.6). It establishes that the symmetry environment of Eu3+ ion is more favored by Li-doping. Extra peak at 550 nm (green emission) could be seen for 2 and 5 at.% Eu3+ co-doped CdS. Also, the significant energy transfer from host CdS to Eu3+ is found for 5 at.% Eu3+-doped CdS compared to that for 2 at.% Li+ and 5 at.% Eu3+ co-doped CdS.

  7. Enhanced magnetodielectric and multiferroic properties of Er-doped bismuth ferrite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, A.; Banerjee, M. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur 713209 (India); Basu, S., E-mail: soumen.basu@phy.nitdgp.ac.in [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur 713209 (India); Mukadam, M.D.; Yusuf, S.M. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Pal, M. [CSIR-Central Glass & Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2015-07-15

    An enhancement in multiferroic properties has been achieved for chemically prepared BFO nanoparticles by doping with erbium (Er). XRD along with electron microscopy study reveals the phase purity and nanocrystalline nature of BFO. Enhancement of both the magnetic moment and resistivity is observed by virtue of Er doping. The observed enhanced magnetic moment is considered to be associated with smaller crystallite whereas increase of resistivity may be attributed to a decrease of oxygen vacancies. Doping also display an improvement of leakage behaviour and dielectric constant in nanocrystalline BFO, reflected in well-developed P-E loop. In addition, large enhancement in magnetodielectric coefficient is observed because of Er doping. Therefore, the results provide interesting approaches to improve the multiferroic properties of BFO, which has great implication towards its applications. - Highlights: • Synthesis of pure Er-doped BFO nanoparticles by chemical route. • Large increase in magnetic moment and resistivity due to Er doping. • Er doping produce well developed P-E loop and enhance polarization. • Drastic increase in dielectric constant as well as magnetodielectric coefficient observes because of Er doping.

  8. New strategy for synthesis and functionalization of carbon nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongquan; Chen, Feng; Lagally, Max G; Denes, Ferencz S

    2010-02-02

    We describe a novel "one-step" combined synthesis and functionalization of carbon nanoparticles, using a new generation of all-in-one small submerged-arc plasma reactor that we have developed. We take advantage of long-lived free radicals generated by a submerged-arc helium atmosphere plasma and resident on the nanoparticle surfaces to supply ethylenediamine directly after the plasma to functionalize the carbon nanoparticles. XPS, TG/DTG, FTIR, and fluorescence tests confirm the viability of this new amination process. The nanoparticles are small and relatively uniformly sized. Their dispersibility in aqueous solution is significant.

  9. In-depth nanocrystallization enhanced Li-ions batteries performance with nitrogen-doped carbon coated Fe3O4 yolk-shell nanocapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qianhui; Zhao, Rongfang; Liu, Wenjie; Zhang, Xiue; Shen, Xiao; Li, Wenlong; Diao, Guowang; Chen, Ming

    2017-03-01

    In this paper nitrogen-doped carbon-encapsulation Fe3O4 yolk-shell magnetic nanocapsules (Fe3O4@C-N nanocapsules) have been successfully constructed though a facile hydrothermal method and subsequent annealing process. Fe3O4 nanoparticles are completely enclosed in nitrogen-doped carbon shells with void space between the nanoparticle and the shell. The yolk-shell structure allows Fe3O4 nanoparticles to expand freely without breaking the outer carbon shell during the lithiation/delithiation processes. The volume expansion of Fe3O4 results in the in-depth nanocrystallization. Fortunately, the new generated small nanoparticles can increase the capability with the cycle increase due to the unique confinement effect and excellent electronic conductivity of the nitrogen-doped carbon shells. Hence, after 150 cycles, the discharge capacity of Fe3O4@C-N-700 nanocapsules still remained 832 mA h g-1 at 500 mA g-1, which corresponds to 116.7% of the lowest capacity (713 mA h g-1) at the 16th cycle. We believe that the yolk-shell structure is conducive to enhance the capacity of easy pulverization metal oxidation during the charge/discharge processes.

  10. Study of structural and optical properties of Fe doped CuO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Poonam; Gupta, Ankita; Kaur, Sarabjeet; Singh, Vishal; Kumar, Sacheen; Kumar, Dinesh

    2016-05-01

    Iron doped Copper oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by the co-precipitation method at different concentration (3%, 6%, 9%) at 300-400° C with Copper Acetate and Ferric Chloride as precursors in presence of Polyethylene Glycol and Sodium Hydroxide as stabilizing agent. Effect of doping on the structural and optical properties is studied. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction and UV-Visible Spectroscopy for examining the size and the band gap respectively. The X-Ray Diffraction plots confirmed the monoclinic structure of Copper oxide suggesting the Cu atoms replaced by Fe atoms and no secondary phase was detected. The indirect band gap of Fe doped CuO nanoparticles is 2.4eV and increases to 3.4eV as the concentration of dopant increases. The majority of particle size is in range 8 nm to 35.55 nm investigated by X-ray diffractometer.

  11. Engineering Hydrophobic Organosilica Nanoparticle-Doped Nanofibers for Enhanced and Fouling Resistant Membrane Distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Hammami, Mohammed Amen

    2016-12-15

    Engineering and scaling-up new materials for better water desalination are imperative to find alternative fresh water sources to meet future demands. Herein, the fabrication of hydrophobic poly(ether imide) composite nanofiber membranes doped with novel ethylene-pentafluorophenylene-based periodic mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles is reported for enhanced and fouling resistant membrane distillation. Novel organosilica nanoparticles were homogeneously incorporated into electrospun nanofiber membranes depicting a proportional increase of hydrophobicity to the particle contents. Direct contact membrane distillation experiments on the organosilica-doped membrane with only 5% doping showed an increase of flux of 140% compared to commercial membranes. The high porosity of organosilica nanoparticles was further utilized to load the eugenol antimicrobial agent which produced a dramatic enhancement of the antibiofouling properties of the membrane of 70% after 24 h.

  12. Nickel-doped ceria nanoparticles for promoting catalytic activity of Pt/C for ethanol electrooxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qiang; Du, Chunyu; Sun, Yongrong; Du, Lei; Yin, Geping; Gao, Yunzhi

    2014-10-01

    This paper reports the facile synthesis of monodispersed nickel-doped ceria nanoparticles by a thermal decomposition method, which is used to promote catalytic properties of Pt/C. The Pt/Ni-doped CeO2/C catalyst obtained exhibits remarkably high activity and stability towards the ethanol electrooxidation in acidic media. This is attributed to higher oxygen releasing capacity and stronger interaction of Ni-doped CeO2 with Pt than pure CeO2 nanoparticles that contribute positively to the removal of poisoning intermediates. We believe that the design concept and synthetic strategy of metal doped oxides used for fuel cell catalysts can be potentially extended to other catalytic fields.

  13. Volatile organic compound gas sensor based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide with nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Nak-Jin; Lee, Hyung-Kun; Moon, Seung Eon; Yang, Woo Seok; Kim, Jongdae

    2013-08-01

    Thick film semiconductor gas sensors based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) with nanoparticle size were fabricated to detect volatile organic compound (VOC) existed in building, especially, formaldehyde (HCHO) gas which was known as the cause of sick building syndrome. The sensing materials for screen printing were prepared using roll milling process with binder. The crystallite sizes of prepared materials were about 15 nm through X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Gas response characteristics were examined for formaldehyde (HCHO), benzene, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide gas existing in building. In particular, the sensors showed responses to HCHO gas at sub ppm as a function of operating temperatures and gas concentrations. Also, we investigated sensitivity, repeativity, selectivity, and response time of sensor. The transients were very sharp, taking less than 2 s for 90% response. The sensor has shown very stable response at 350 degrees C and followed a very good behavior and showed 60% response in 50 ppb HCHO concentration at 350 degrees C operating temperatures.

  14. Study of erbium (Ⅲ) doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles by photoacoustic spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪海燕; 杨跃涛; 刘晓峻; 张淑仪

    2010-01-01

    Nanocrystalline titania as photocatalyst has attracted considerable attention for its potential use in environmental cleaning.Recently,lanthanide ions doped titania samples have been shown to increase the photocatalytic efficiency of selected reactions.In this work,TiO2 nanoparticles doped with Er3+ were prepared via an ultrasonic assisted sol-gel method.The optical properties of the samples were determined by photoacoustic(PA) spectroscopy.It was found that the absorption edge shifted to lower wavelength w...

  15. Electrospun Nb-doped TiO2 nanofiber support for Pt nanoparticles with high electrocatalytic activity and durability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, MinJoong; Kwon, ChoRong; Eom, KwangSup; Kim, JiHyun; Cho, EunAe

    2017-03-14

    This study explores a facile method to prepare an efficient and durable support for Pt catalyst of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). As a candidate, Nb-doped TiO2 (Nb-TiO2) nanofibers are simply fabricated using an electrospinning technique, followed by a heat treatment. Doping Nb into the TiO2 nanofibers leads to a drastic increase in electrical conductivity with doping level of up to 25 at. % (Nb0.25Ti0.75O2). Pt nanoparticles are synthesized on the prepared 25 at. % Nb-doped TiO2-nanofibers (Pt/Nb-TiO2) as well as on a commercial powdered carbon black (Pt/C). The Pt/Nb-TiO2 nanofiber catalyst exhibits similar oxygen reaction reduction (ORR) activity to that of the Pt/C catalyst. However, during an accelerated stress test (AST), the Pt/Nb-TiO2 nanofiber catalyst retained more than 60% of the initial ORR activity while the Pt/C catalyst lost 65% of the initial activity. The excellent durability of the Pt/Nb-TiO2 nanofiber catalyst can be attributed to high corrosion resistance of TiO2 and strong interaction between Pt and TiO2.

  16. Electrospun Nb-doped TiO2 nanofiber support for Pt nanoparticles with high electrocatalytic activity and durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjoong; Kwon, Chorong; Eom, Kwangsup; Kim, Jihyun; Cho, Eunae

    2017-03-01

    This study explores a facile method to prepare an efficient and durable support for Pt catalyst of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). As a candidate, Nb-doped TiO2 (Nb-TiO2) nanofibers are simply fabricated using an electrospinning technique, followed by a heat treatment. Doping Nb into the TiO2 nanofibers leads to a drastic increase in electrical conductivity with doping level of up to 25 at. % (Nb0.25Ti0.75O2). Pt nanoparticles are synthesized on the prepared 25 at. % Nb-doped TiO2-nanofibers (Pt/Nb-TiO2) as well as on a commercial powdered carbon black (Pt/C). The Pt/Nb-TiO2 nanofiber catalyst exhibits similar oxygen reaction reduction (ORR) activity to that of the Pt/C catalyst. However, during an accelerated stress test (AST), the Pt/Nb-TiO2 nanofiber catalyst retained more than 60% of the initial ORR activity while the Pt/C catalyst lost 65% of the initial activity. The excellent durability of the Pt/Nb-TiO2 nanofiber catalyst can be attributed to high corrosion resistance of TiO2 and strong interaction between Pt and TiO2.

  17. Electrospun Nb-doped TiO2 nanofiber support for Pt nanoparticles with high electrocatalytic activity and durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, MinJoong; Kwon, ChoRong; Eom, KwangSup; Kim, JiHyun; Cho, EunAe

    2017-01-01

    This study explores a facile method to prepare an efficient and durable support for Pt catalyst of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). As a candidate, Nb-doped TiO2 (Nb-TiO2) nanofibers are simply fabricated using an electrospinning technique, followed by a heat treatment. Doping Nb into the TiO2 nanofibers leads to a drastic increase in electrical conductivity with doping level of up to 25 at. % (Nb0.25Ti0.75O2). Pt nanoparticles are synthesized on the prepared 25 at. % Nb-doped TiO2-nanofibers (Pt/Nb-TiO2) as well as on a commercial powdered carbon black (Pt/C). The Pt/Nb-TiO2 nanofiber catalyst exhibits similar oxygen reaction reduction (ORR) activity to that of the Pt/C catalyst. However, during an accelerated stress test (AST), the Pt/Nb-TiO2 nanofiber catalyst retained more than 60% of the initial ORR activity while the Pt/C catalyst lost 65% of the initial activity. The excellent durability of the Pt/Nb-TiO2 nanofiber catalyst can be attributed to high corrosion resistance of TiO2 and strong interaction between Pt and TiO2. PMID:28290503

  18. Preparation and structure of carbon encapsulated copper nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Chuncheng; Xiao, Feng; Cui, Zuolin

    2008-01-01

    Carbon-encapsulated copper nanoparticles were synthesized by a modified arc plasma method using methane as carbon source. The particles were characterized in detail by transmission electron microscope, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected-area electron diffraction, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry. The encapsulated copper nanoparticles were about 30 nm in diameter with 3-5 nm graphitic carbon shells. The outside graphitic carbon layers effectively prevented unwanted oxidation of the copper inside. The effect of the ratio of He/CH4 on the morphologies and the formation of the carbon shell were investigated.

  19. Preparation and structure of carbon encapsulated copper nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao Chuncheng, E-mail: clx@qust.edu.cn; Xiao Feng; Cui Zuolin [Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Shandong Key Lab for Nanostructured Materials (China)

    2008-01-15

    Carbon-encapsulated copper nanoparticles were synthesized by a modified arc plasma method using methane as carbon source. The particles were characterized in detail by transmission electron microscope, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected-area electron diffraction, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry. The encapsulated copper nanoparticles were about 30 nm in diameter with 3-5 nm graphitic carbon shells. The outside graphitic carbon layers effectively prevented unwanted oxidation of the copper inside. The effect of the ratio of He/CH{sub 4} on the morphologies and the formation of the carbon shell were investigated.

  20. Structural and luminescent properties of Fe3+ doped PVA capped CdTe nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindranadh K.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available During recent decades, magnetic and semiconductor nanoparticles have attracted significant attention of scientists in various fields of engineering, physics, chemistry, biology and medicine. Fe3+ doped PVA capped CdTe nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation method and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, SEM, TEM, FT-IR, optical, EPR and PL techniques to collect the information about the crystal structure, coordination/local site symmetry of doped Fe3+ ions in the host lattice and the luminescent properties of prepared sample. Powder XRD data revealed that the crystal structure belongs to a cubic system and its lattice cell parameters were evaluated. The average crystallite size was estimated to be 8 nm. The morphology of prepared samples was analyzed by using SEM and TEM investigations. Functional groups of the prepared sample were observed in FT-IR spectra. Optical absorption and EPR studies have shown that on doping, Fe3+ ions enter the host lattice in octahedral site symmetry. PL studies of Fe3+ doped PVA capped CdTe nanoparticles revealed UV and blue emission bands. CIE chromaticity coordinates were also calculated from the emission spectrum of Fe3+ doped PVA capped CdTe nanoparticles.

  1. Highly Al-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles produced by Ball Mill Method: structural and electronic characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Desireé M. de los, E-mail: desire.delossantos@uca.es; Navas, Javier, E-mail: javier.navas@uca.es; Sánchez-Coronilla, Antonio; Alcántara, Rodrigo; Fernández-Lorenzo, Concha; Martín-Calleja, Joaquín

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Highly Al-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized using a Ball Mill Method. • Al doping delayed anatase to rutile phase transformation. • Al doping allow controlling the structural and electronic properties of nanoparticles. - Abstract: This study presents an easy method for synthesizing highly doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The Ball Mill method was used to synthesize pure and Al-doped titanium dioxide, with an atomic percentage up to 15.7 at.% Al/(Al + Ti). The samples were annealed at 773 K, 973 K and 1173 K, and characterized using ICP-AES, XRD, Raman spectroscopy, FT-IR, TG, STEM, XPS, and UV–vis spectroscopy. The effect of doping and the calcination temperature on the structure and properties of the nanoparticles were studied. The results show high levels of internal doping due to the substitution of Ti{sup 4+} ions by Al{sup 3+} in the TiO{sub 2} lattice. Furthermore, anatase to rutile transformation occurs at higher temperatures when the percentage of doping increases. Therefore, Al doping allows us to control the structural and electronic properties of the nanoparticle synthesized. So, it is possible to obtain nanoparticles with anatase as predominant phase in a higher range of temperature.

  2. Theory of phonon properties in doped and undoped CuO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahoosh, S. G.; Apostolov, A. T.; Apostolova, I. N.; Wesselinowa, J. M.

    2012-07-01

    We have studied the phonon properties of CuO nanoparticles and have shown the importance of the anharmonic spin-phonon interaction. The Raman peaks of CuO nanoparticles shift to lower frequency and become broader as the particle size decreases in comparison with those of bulk CuO crystals owing to size effects. By doping with different ions, in dependence of their radius compared to the host ionic radius the phonon energies ω could be reduced or enhanced. The phonon damping is always enhanced through the ion doping effects.

  3. Bi-phasic titanium dioxide nanoparticles doped with nitrogen and neodymium for enhanced photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Virginia; Bear, Joseph C.; McNaughter, Paul D.; McGettrick, James D.; Watson, Trystan; Charbonneau, Cecile; O'Brien, Paul; Barron, Andrew R.; Dunnill, Charles W.

    2015-10-01

    Bi-phasic or multi-phasic composite nanoparticles for use in photocatalysis have been produced by a new synthetic approach. Sol-gel methods are used to deposit multiple layers of active material onto soluble substrates. In this work, a layer of rutile (TiO2) was deposited onto sodium chloride pellets followed by an annealing step and a layer of anatase. After dissolving the substrate, bi-phasic nanoparticles containing half anatase and half rutile TiO2; with ``Janus-like'' characteristics are obtained. Nitrogen and neodymium doping of the materials were observed to enhance the photocatalytic properties both under UV and white light irradiation. The unique advantage of this synthetic method is the ability to systematically dope separate sides of the nanoparticles. Nitrogen doping was found to be most effective on the anatase side of the nanoparticle while neodymium was found to be most effective on the rutile side. Rhodamine B dye was effectively photodegraded by co-doped particles under white light.Bi-phasic or multi-phasic composite nanoparticles for use in photocatalysis have been produced by a new synthetic approach. Sol-gel methods are used to deposit multiple layers of active material onto soluble substrates. In this work, a layer of rutile (TiO2) was deposited onto sodium chloride pellets followed by an annealing step and a layer of anatase. After dissolving the substrate, bi-phasic nanoparticles containing half anatase and half rutile TiO2; with ``Janus-like'' characteristics are obtained. Nitrogen and neodymium doping of the materials were observed to enhance the photocatalytic properties both under UV and white light irradiation. The unique advantage of this synthetic method is the ability to systematically dope separate sides of the nanoparticles. Nitrogen doping was found to be most effective on the anatase side of the nanoparticle while neodymium was found to be most effective on the rutile side. Rhodamine B dye was effectively photodegraded by co-doped

  4. Yb-doped yttria-alumino-silicate nano-particles based optical fibers: Fabrication and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, M. C.; Pal, M.; Kir'yanov, A. V.; Das, S.; Bhadra, S. K.; Barmenkov, Yu. O.; Martinez-Gamez, A. A.; Lucio-Martínez, J. L.

    2012-04-01

    An efficient method to fabricate transparent glass ceramic fibers containing in-situ grown Yb 3+ doped oxide nano-particles based on yttria-alumino-silicate glass is presented. These large-mode area Yb 3+ doped fibers having a core diameter around 25.0 μm were drawn by a proper control over the involved process parameters; by this, the size of nano-particles was maintained within 5-10 nm. The main spectroscopic and laser properties of the fabricated fibers along with the nano-structuration results are reported. These results reveal that the developed method offers new scopes for the contemporary Yb 3+ fiber based devices.

  5. Structure evolution on annealing of copper-doped carbon film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onoprienko, A.A. [Frantsevich Institute for Problems of Materials Science, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 3 Krzhyzhanovsky St., 03142 Kiev (Ukraine)]. E-mail: onopr@ipms.kiev.ua; Danilenko, N.I. [Frantsevich Institute for Problems of Materials Science, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 3 Krzhyzhanovsky St., 03142 Kiev (Ukraine); Kossko, I.A. [Frantsevich Institute for Problems of Materials Science, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 3 Krzhyzhanovsky St., 03142 Kiev (Ukraine)

    2007-06-13

    Thin copper-doped (8 at.% Cu) carbon film was deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering of composite graphite/copper target in argon plasma. The evolution of film structure on annealing at 600 deg. C in a vacuum has been studied by transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. The as-deposited film was amorphous with copper atoms uniformly distributed over the film volume. Annealing resulted in precipitation of copper particles within carbon film followed by the decrease in the density of copper particles and increase in particle average size with annealing time due to diffusion coalescence within the ensemble of copper particles. The coalescence occurred by the mixed mechanism of bulk and surface diffusion of copper atoms within carbon film that contained a large number of structural defects. As a result, the mean radius of copper particles in ensemble changed as R-bar {sup 5} {approx} t.

  6. Structural, morphological, optical and antibacterial activity of rod-shaped zinc oxide and manganese-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A DHANALAKSHMI; B NATARAJAN; V RAMADAS; A PALANIMURUGAN; S THANIKAIKARASAN

    2016-10-01

    Pure ZnO and Mn-doped ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by Co-precipitate method. The structural characterizations of the nanoparticles were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. UV–Vis, FTIR and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy were used for analysingthe optical properties of the nanoparticles. XRD results revealed the formation of ZnO and Mn-doped ZnO nanoparticles with wurtzite crystal structure having average crystalline size of 39 and 20 nm. From UV–Vis studies, the optical band-gap energy of 3.20 and 3.25 eV was obtained for ZnO and Mn-doped ZnO nanoparticles, respectively. FTIR spectra confirm the presence of ZnO and Mn-doped ZnO nanoparticles. Photoluminescence analysis of all samples showed four main emission bands: a strong UV emission band, a weak blue band, a weak blue–green band and a weak green band indicating their high structural and optical qualities. The antibacterial efficiency of ZnO and Mn-doped ZnO nanoparticles were studied using disc diffusion method. The Mn-dopedZnO nanoparticles show better antibacterial activity when higher doping level is 10 at% and has longer duration of time.

  7. Very high carbon delta -doping concentration in AlxGa1 - xAs grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy using trimethylaluminum as a doping precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G.; Petravić, M.; Jagadish, C.

    1996-04-01

    Using trimethylaluminum (TMAl) or trimethylgallium (TMGa) as a doping precursor, carbon δ-doped AlxGa1-xAs has been grown in metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. Compared to TMGa, TMAl exhibits very high carbon δ-doping efficiency. The best hole profile of carbon δ-doped Al0.3Ga0.7As grown at 580 °C using TMAl as a doping precursor has a peak hole density of 1.6×1019 cm-3 for a full width at half-maximum of 85 Å with most of the incorporated carbon atoms being electrically active. When TMGa is used as the doping precursor, the hole density of carbon δ-doped AlxGa1-xAs significantly increases with an increase of the Al mole fraction. By comparison, the use of TMAl almost induces independence of the hole density on the Al mole fraction. The hole density of carbon δ-doped Al0.3Ga0.7As weakly increases when reducing the δ-doping temperature regardless of the doping precursors. The hole density of carbon δ-doped Al0.3Ga0.7As grown at 580 °C is proportionally associated with the moles of TMGa or TMAl totally input during a δ-doping step. Using heavily carbon δ-doped layers in Al0.3Ga0.7As, a carbon δ-doped pipi doping superlattice possessing a bulk-doped-like hole profile with an average hole density of 1.1×1019 cm-3 is therefore demonstrated as an alternative with unique advantages over other conventional carbon bulk-doping approaches.

  8. Reduced graphene oxide decorated with Fe doped SnO2 nanoparticles for humidity sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toloman, D.; Popa, A.; Stan, M.; Socaci, C.; Biris, A. R.; Katona, G.; Tudorache, F.; Petrila, I.; Iacomi, F.

    2017-04-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) decorated with Fe doped SnO2 nanoparticles were fabricated via the electrostatic interaction between positively charged modified Fe-doped SnO2 oxide and negatively charged graphene oxide (GO) in the presence of poly(allylamine) hydrochloride (PAH). The decoration of rGO layers with SnO2:Fe nanoparticles was highlited by TEM microsopy. For composite sample the diffraction patterns coincide well with those of SnO2:Fe nanoparticles. The reduction of graphene oxide was evidenced using XRD and FT-IR spectroscopy. The formation of SnO2:Fe-PAH-graphene composites was confirmed by FT-IR, Raman and EPR spectroscopy. Sensitivity tests for relative humidity (RH) measurements were carried out at five different concentrations of humid air at room temperature. The prepared composite sensor exhibited a higher sensing response as compared with Fe:SnO2 nanoparticles.

  9. Preparation and up-conversion luminescence of 8 nm rare-earth doped fluoride nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, V K; Mortier, M; Gredin, P; Patriarche, G; Görller-Walrand, C; Moshchalkov, V V

    2008-09-15

    Free-standing, 8 nm diameter, rare-earth doped nanoparticles Re(10)Pb(25)F(65) have been prepared, where Re stands for either single rare-earth ion, such as Er(3+), Yb(3+), Eu(3+), Dy(3+), Ho(3+), Tm(3+) or combinations of those ions. The nanoparticles have been extracted by chemical etching from the oxyfluoride nano-glass-ceramics template and analyzed by transmission electron microscope with energy dispersion spectroscopy. The nanoparticles show durable up-conversion photoluminescence, which is neither concentration nor impurity quenched after 6 months ageing in ambient atmosphere. High doping levels in these nanoparticles ensure high, up to 15%, quantum yield of up-conversion luminescence.

  10. Vanadium nitride quantum dot/nitrogen-doped microporous carbon nanofibers electrode for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yage; Ran, Fen

    2017-03-01

    In this article, vanadium nitride quantum dot/nitrogen-doped microporous carbon nanofibers (VNQD/CNF) is developed by a method of combination of electrostatic spinning and high-temperature calcination under the atmosphere of NH3: N2 = 3: 2 for high performance supercapacitors. VNQD dispersing into CNF, enrichment of N atom doped in carbon bulk, and abundant porous structure not only prevent the growth and aggregation of VN nanoparticles, improve electrical conductivity, wettability, and stability of the electrode materials, but also enhance fast migration of electrolyte ions during the electrochemical process. Thus, VNQD/CNF exhibits a high specific capacitance of 406.5 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1 and a good rate capability with a capacitance retention of 75.1% at 5.0 A g-1. Additionally, VNQD/CNF as a negative electrode are combined with Ni(OH)2 as a positive electrode to fabricate the hybrid supercapacitor of VNQD/CNF//Ni(OH)2. Remarkably, at a power density of 774.6 W kg-1, the supercapacitor device delivers an ultrahigh energy density of 31.2 Wh kg-1.

  11. Evaluation of novel Ti-doped 3D carbon-carbon composites under transient thermal loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centeno, A. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (CSIC), Apdo. 73, 33080-Oviedo (Spain); Blanco, C., E-mail: clara@incar.csic.e [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (CSIC), Apdo. 73, 33080-Oviedo (Spain); Santamaria, R.; Granda, M.; Menendez, R. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (CSIC), Apdo. 73, 33080-Oviedo (Spain); Pintsuk, G.; Linke, J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, 52425-Juelich (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    3D Ti-doped and undoped carbon-carbon composites (CFCs) were exposed to transient thermal loads to simulate plasma disruptions, in the electron beam test facility JUDITH at different power densities and multiple shots in order to study the evolution in the behavior of the material. The thermal shock response of the undoped and Ti-doped materials was compared in order to study the influence of titanium carbide as dopant. The erosion itself is driven during the first shots by macroscopic erosion (brittle destruction), which is a result of thermally induced stresses. With increasing number of shots, no more brittle destruction is observed and the main erosion mechanism is sublimation due to local overheating. This is also confirmed by the decrease of the erosion rate with increasing the number of shots. The pitch fibers are hardly affected by the applied heat loads and they show almost no erosion, especially in the Ti-doped composite.

  12. nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu-Cabedo, Patricia; Mondragon, Rosa; Hernandez, Leonor; Martinez-Cuenca, Raul; Cabedo, Luis; Julia, J. Enrique

    2014-10-01

    Thermal energy storage (TES) is extremely important in concentrated solar power (CSP) plants since it represents the main difference and advantage of CSP plants with respect to other renewable energy sources such as wind, photovoltaic, etc. CSP represents a low-carbon emission renewable source of energy, and TES allows CSP plants to have energy availability and dispatchability using available industrial technologies. Molten salts are used in CSP plants as a TES material because of their high operational temperature and stability of up to 500°C. Their main drawbacks are their relative poor thermal properties and energy storage density. A simple cost-effective way to improve thermal properties of fluids is to dope them with nanoparticles, thus obtaining the so-called salt-based nanofluids. In this work, solar salt used in CSP plants (60% NaNO3 + 40% KNO3) was doped with silica nanoparticles at different solid mass concentrations (from 0.5% to 2%). Specific heat was measured by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A maximum increase of 25.03% was found at an optimal concentration of 1 wt.% of nanoparticles. The size distribution of nanoparticle clusters present in the salt at each concentration was evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image processing, as well as by means of dynamic light scattering (DLS). The cluster size and the specific surface available depended on the solid content, and a relationship between the specific heat increment and the available particle surface area was obtained. It was proved that the mechanism involved in the specific heat increment is based on a surface phenomenon. Stability of samples was tested for several thermal cycles and thermogravimetric analysis at high temperature was carried out, the samples being stable.

  13. Carbon nanoparticle stabilised liquid|liquid micro-interfaces for electrochemically driven ion-transfer processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, Stuart M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Fletcher, Paul D.I.; Cui Zhenggang [Department of Physical Sciences, Chemistry and Physics, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Opallo, Marcin [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Chen Jingyuan [Department of Applied Physics, University of Fukui, 3-9-1, Bunkyo, Fukui-shi 910-8507 (Japan); Marken, Frank [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)], E-mail: F.Marken@bath.ac.uk

    2007-12-20

    Stabilised liquid|liquid interfaces between an organic 4-(3-phenylpropyl)-pyridine (PPP) phase and an aqueous electrolyte phase are obtained in the presence of suitable nanoparticles. The use of nanoparticulate stabilisers (ca. 30 nm diameter laponite or 9-18 nm diameter carbon) in 'Pickering' emulsion systems allows stable organic microdroplets to be formed and these are readily deposited onto conventional tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) electrodes. In contrast to the electrically insulating laponite nanoparticles, conducting carbon nanoparticles are shown to effectively catalyse the simultaneous electron transfer and ion transfer process at triple phase boundary junctions. Anion transfer processes between the aqueous and organic phase are driven electrochemically at the extensive triple phase junction carbon nanoparticle|4-(3-phenylpropyl)-pyridine|aqueous electrolyte. The organic phase consists of a redox active reagent 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphinato manganese(III) (MnTPP{sup +}), 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphinato iron(III) (FeTPP{sup +}), or proto-porphyrinato-IX iron(III) (hemin) dissolved in 4-(3-phenylpropyl)-pyridine (PPP). The composition of the aqueous electrolyte phase determines the reversible potential for the Nernstian anion transfer process. The methodology is shown to be versatile and, in future, could be applied more generally in liquid|liquid electroanalysis.

  14. Enhanced magnetic and dielectric behavior in Co doped BiFeO{sub 3} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarti, Kaushik; Sarkar, Babusona; Ashok, Vishal Dev [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata-700032 (India); Chaudhuri, Sheli Sinha [Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700032 (India); De, S.K., E-mail: msskd@iacs.res.in [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata-700032 (India)

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic and dielectric properties of Co doped BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) nanoparticles (13 nm) have been investigated. The dopant Co{sup 2+} converts spherical morphology to cubic nanostructures. The significant changes in temperature dependence of magnetization may be due to magnetic disorder phase induced by divalent Co. The substitution of Fe by Co disrupts cycloidal spin structure of BFO and improves the ferromagnetic property. Enhancement of the saturation magnetization and coercivity by about 10 times in doped BFO are due to changes in morphology. High dielectric constant of about 670 and low loss at room temperature show Co doped BFO as promising material for multifunctional devices.

  15. Iron-Doped Titania Nanoparticles for the Photocatalytic Oxidative Degradation of Nitrite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Iron-doped titania nanoparticles exhibit a higher photocatalytic activity than pure TiO2 for the degradation of nitrite. The optimum Fe-doped content in terms of activity is approximately 0. 5 %. The increase in photoactivity is probably due to the higher adsorption and the inhibition of electron-hole recombination. The photocatalytic oxidation reaction of nitrite over the Fe-doped TiO2 catalyst follows zero-order kinetics, which is different from that over pure TiO2. The reaction rate decreases linearly with the increase of the pH of the solution.

  16. Comparison of anti-angiogenic properties of pristine carbon nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierzbicki, Mateusz; Sawosz, Ewa; Grodzik, Marta;

    2013-01-01

    nanoparticles decreased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor. These results provide new insights into the biological activity of carbon nanomaterials and emphasise the potential use of multi-wall nanotubes and diamond nanoparticles in anti-angiogenic tumour therapy.......Angiogenesis is vital for tumour formation, development and metastasis. Recent reports show that carbon nanomaterials inhibit various angiogenic signalling pathways and, therefore, can be potentially used in anti-angiogenic therapy. In the present study, we compared the effect of different carbon...... nanomaterials on blood vessel development. Diamond nanoparticles, graphite nanoparticles, graphene nanosheets, multi-wall nanotubes and C60 fullerenes were evaluated for their angiogenic activities using the in ovo chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane model. Diamond nanoparticles and multi-wall nanotubes...

  17. Self-Assembled Enzyme Nanoparticles for Carbon Dioxide Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanbhag, Bhuvana Kamath; Liu, Boyin; Fu, Jing; Haritos, Victoria S; He, Lizhong

    2016-05-11

    Enzyme-based processes have shown promise as a sustainable alternative to amine-based processes for carbon dioxide capture. In this work, we have engineered carbonic anhydrase nanoparticles that retain 98% of hydratase activity in comparison to their free counterparts. Carbonic anhydrase was fused with a self-assembling peptide that facilitates the noncovalent assembly of the particle and together were recombinantly expressed from a single gene construct in Escherichia coli. The purified enzymes, when subjected to a reduced pH, form 50-200 nm nanoparticles. The CO2 capture capability of enzyme nanoparticles was demonstrated at ambient (22 ± 2 °C) and higher (50 °C) temperatures, under which the nanoparticles maintain their assembled state. The carrier-free enzymatic nanoparticles demonstrated here offer a new approach to stabilize and reuse enzymes in a simple and cost-effective manner.

  18. Red luminescence from hydrothermally synthesized Eu-doped ZnO nanoparticles under visible excitation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P M Aneesh; M K Jayaraj

    2010-06-01

    Eu-doped ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal method. The Eu-dopant concentration has been varied by varying the amount of Eu-dopant concentration. These nanoparticles were structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction and it confirms the formation of nanoparticles having standard wurtzite structure. Photoluminescence studies show that these nanoparticles exhibit a sharp red luminescence due to the intra-4 transitions of Eu3+ ions at an excitation of 397 nm and 466 nm. Luminescence quenching is observed in the nanoparticles as the Eu-dopant concentration increases. Incorporation of Eu in the nanoparticles was confirmed by the energy dispersive X-ray studies.

  19. Conductive and corrosion behaviors of silver-doped carbon-coated stainless steel as PEMFC bipolar plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Liu; Hong-feng Xu; Jie Fu; Ying Tian

    2016-01-01

    Ni–Cr enrichment on stainless steel SS316L resulting from chemical activation enabled the deposition of carbon by spraying a stable suspension of carbon nanoparticles; trace Ag was depositedin situ to prepare a thin continuous Ag-doped carbon film on a porous carbon-coated SS316L substrate. The corrosion resistance of this film in 0.5 mol·L−1 H2SO4 solution containing 5 ppm F− at 80°C was inves-tigated using polarization tests. The results showed that the surface treatment of the SS316L strongly affected the adhesion of the carbon coating to the stainless steel. Compared to the bare SS316L, the Ag-doped carbon-coated SS316L bipolar plate was remarkably more stable in both the anode and cathode environments of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and the interface contact resistance between the specimen and Toray 060 carbon paper was reduced from 333.0 mΩ·cm2 to 21.6 mΩ·cm2 at a compaction pressure of 1.2 MPa.

  20. Photonic Nanoparticle Doped Architectures for Enhanced Solar to Fuel Photocatalytic Conversion 154060

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-09

    zinc- and antimony- doped SnO2. Furthermore, we developed new routes for the preparation of silver, platinum, and palladium seed nanoparticles and...Furthermore, we developed new routes for the preparation of silver, platinum, and palladium seed nanoparticles and demonstrated their use in the...ultrasonicated to generate a uniform dispersion . MPS (100 μL) was then added and stirred overnight. The particles were dried in an oven at 80 °C for

  1. Bismuth doping effect on crystal structure and photodegradation activity of Bi-TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Chung; Chang, Yin-Hsuan; Lin, Ting-Han

    2017-04-01

    The bismuth precursor is adopted as dopant to synthesize bismuth doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles (Bi-TiO2 NPs) with sol-gel method following by the thermal annealing treatment. We systematically developed a series of Bi-TiO2 NPs at several calcination temperatures and discovered the corresponding crystal structure by varying the bismuth doping concentration. At a certain 650 °C calcination temperature, the crystal structure of bismuth titanate (Bi2Ti2O7) is formed when the bismuth doping concentration is as high as 10.0 mol %. The photocatalytic activity of Bi-TiO2 NPs is increased by varying the doping concentration at the particular calcination temperature. By the definition X-ray diffraction (XRD) structural identification, a phase diagram of Bi-TiO2 NPs in doping concentration versus calcination temperature is provided. It can be useful for further study in the crystal structure engineering and the development of photocatalyst.

  2. The effect of Sm-doping on optical properties of LaB{sub 6} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Luomeng [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Inner Mongolia Key Laboratory for Physics and Chemistry of Functional Materials, Inner Mongolia Normal University, Hohhot 010022 (China); Bao, Lihong, E-mail: baolihong@imnu.edu.cn [Inner Mongolia Key Laboratory for Physics and Chemistry of Functional Materials, Inner Mongolia Normal University, Hohhot 010022 (China); Shi, Junjie [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, and Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wei, Wei [Inner Mongolia Key Laboratory for Physics and Chemistry of Functional Materials, Inner Mongolia Normal University, Hohhot 010022 (China); Tegus, O., E-mail: tegusph@imnu.edu.cn [Inner Mongolia Key Laboratory for Physics and Chemistry of Functional Materials, Inner Mongolia Normal University, Hohhot 010022 (China); Zhang, Zhidong [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Nanoparticles of Sm-doped LaB{sub 6} have been prepared by solid state reaction. • All samples exhibit high absorbance in NIR range and UV range. • The increase of Sm-doping amount shifts the position of minimum absorptance value. • The optical properties of Sm-doped LaB{sub 6} were interpreted by DFT theory. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline particles of LaB{sub 6}, SmB{sub 6} and Sm-doped LaB{sub 6} have been prepared by a solid-state reaction in order to investigate the optical properties of ternary rare-earth hexaborides. The sizes of prepared nanoparticles range from dozens to more than 200 nm, as confirmed by XRD, SEM and TEM examinations. The optical property concerning the absorption spectra was tested with ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-vis-NIR) absorption spectrum. All samples exhibit high absorbance in NIR range and UV range. The increase of Sm-doping amount shifts the position of minimum absorptance value of LaB{sub 6} to the long-wave direction. Density functional theory (DFT) is employed to interpret the optical properties of Sm-doped LaB{sub 6}, and results indicate that Sm 4f states change the DOS at near Fermi surface of LaB{sub 6} after Sm doping and the reduced number of conduction electrons results into the change of absorption spectra.

  3. Structural and optical properties of chromium doped zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, Syed Mohd. Adnan, E-mail: adiaks2004@yahoo.co.in [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia); Irshad, Kashif, E-mail: alig.kashif@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia); Soleimani, Hassan, E-mail: hassan.soleimani@petronas.com.my, E-mail: noorhana-yahya@petronas.com.my; Yahya, Noorhana, E-mail: hassan.soleimani@petronas.com.my, E-mail: noorhana-yahya@petronas.com.my

    2014-10-24

    Nanosized Cr-doped ZnO nano particles were synthesized by facile sol-gel auto combustion method. The structural and optical properties of Cr-doped ZnO nanoparticles have been investigated by XRD and UV-Vis spectroscopy at room temperature for 0% to 8% concentration. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the Cr-doped ZnO crystallizes in a single phase polycrystalline nature with wurtzite lattice. With every % of doping, the peaks are shifting scarcely and doping of Cr is possible up to 7%. After that, the last peak vanishes, that signifies its structure is transmuted from 8% doping. The average crystallite size decreases with increase in Cr concentration (i.e. 28.9 nm for 0% to 25.8 nm for 8%). The UV-Vis spectra of the nanoparticles betoken an incrementation in the band gap energy from 3.401, 3.415, 3.431, 3.437,3.453, 3.514,3.521, 3.530 and 3.538 eV respectively, for 0,1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 % doping concentration.

  4. Preparation and Photocatalytic Properties of SnO2 Coated on Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available SnO2 nanoparticles coated on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes were prepared successfully via a simple wet-chemical route. The as-obtained SnO2/CNx composites were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The photocatalytic activity of as-prepared SnO2/CNx for degradation Rhodamine B under UV light irradiation was investigated. The results show that SnO2/CNx nanocomposites have a higher photocatalytic activity than pure SnO2 and SnO2/CNTs nanocomposites. This enhanced photoresponse indicates that the photoinduced electrons in the SnO2 prefer separately transferring to the CNx, which has a high degree of defects. As a consequence, the radiative recombination of the electron-hole pairs is hampered and the photocatalytic activity is significantly enhanced for the SnO2/CNx photocatalysts.

  5. Er3+–Al2O3 nanoparticles doping of borosilicate glass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jonathan Massera; Laeticia Petit; Joona Koponen; Benoit Glorieux; Leena Hupa; Mikko Hupa

    2015-09-01

    Novel borosilicate glasses were developed by adding in the glass batch Er3+–Al2O3 nanoparticles synthetized by using a soft chemical method. A similar nanoparticle doping with modified chemical vapour deposition (MCVD) process was developed to increase the efficiency of the amplifying silica fibre in comparison to using MCVD and solution doping. It was shown that with the melt quench technique, a Er3+–Al22O3 nanoparticle doping neither leads to an increase in the Er3+ luminescence properties nor allows one to control the rare-earth chemical environment in a borosilicate glass. The site of Er3+ in the Er3+–Al2O3 nanoparticle containing glass seems to be similar as in glasses with the same composition prepared using standard raw materials. We suspect the Er3+ ions to diffuse from the nanoparticles into the glass matrix. There was no clear evidence of the presence of Al2O3 nanoparticles in the glasses after melting.

  6. Clean Photothermal Heating and Controlled Release from Near-Infrared Dye Doped Nanoparticles without Oxygen Photosensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Samit; Shaw, Scott K; Spence, Graeme T; Roland, Felicia M; Smith, Bradley D

    2015-07-21

    The photothermal heating and release properties of biocompatible organic nanoparticles, doped with a near-infrared croconaine (Croc) dye, were compared with analogous nanoparticles doped with the common near-infrared dyes ICG and IR780. Separate formulations of lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles and liposomes, each containing Croc dye, absorbed strongly at 808 nm and generated clean laser-induced heating (no production of (1)O2 and no photobleaching of the dye). In contrast, laser-induced heating of nanoparticles containing ICG or IR780 produced reactive (1)O2, leading to bleaching of the dye and also decomposition of coencapsulated payload such as the drug doxorubicin. Croc dye was especially useful as a photothermal agent for laser-controlled release of chemically sensitive payload from nanoparticles. Solution state experiments demonstrated repetitive fractional release of water-soluble fluorescent dye from the interior of thermosensitive liposomes. Additional experiments used a focused laser beam to control leakage from immobilized liposomes with very high spatial and temporal precision. The results indicate that fractional photothermal leakage from nanoparticles doped with Croc dye is a promising method for a range of controlled release applications.

  7. Spatial modulation spectroscopy for imaging and quantitative analysis of single dye-doped organic nanoparticles inside cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadas, Mary Sajini; Devkota, Tuphan; Guha, Samit; Shaw, Scott K.; Smith, Bradley D.; Hartland, Gregory V.

    2015-05-01

    Imaging of non-fluorescent nanoparticles in complex biological environments, such as the cell cytosol, is a challenging problem. For metal nanoparticles, Rayleigh scattering methods can be used, but for organic nanoparticles, such as dye-doped polymer beads or lipid nanoparticles, light scattering does not provide good contrast. In this paper, spatial modulation spectroscopy (SMS) is used to image single organic nanoparticles doped with non-fluorescent, near-IR croconaine dye. SMS is a quantitative imaging technique that yields the absolute extinction cross-section of the nanoparticles, which can be used to determine the number of dye molecules per particle. SMS images were recorded for particles within EMT-6 breast cancer cells. The measurements allowed mapping of the nanoparticle location and the amount of dye in a single cell. The results demonstrate how SMS can facilitate efforts to optimize dye-doped nanoparticles for effective photothermal therapy of cancer.Imaging of non-fluorescent nanoparticles in complex biological environments, such as the cell cytosol, is a challenging problem. For metal nanoparticles, Rayleigh scattering methods can be used, but for organic nanoparticles, such as dye-doped polymer beads or lipid nanoparticles, light scattering does not provide good contrast. In this paper, spatial modulation spectroscopy (SMS) is used to image single organic nanoparticles doped with non-fluorescent, near-IR croconaine dye. SMS is a quantitative imaging technique that yields the absolute extinction cross-section of the nanoparticles, which can be used to determine the number of dye molecules per particle. SMS images were recorded for particles within EMT-6 breast cancer cells. The measurements allowed mapping of the nanoparticle location and the amount of dye in a single cell. The results demonstrate how SMS can facilitate efforts to optimize dye-doped nanoparticles for effective photothermal therapy of cancer. Electronic supplementary information (ESI

  8. Effect of Ag doping on structural, optical, and photocatalytic properties of ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, S.M.; Sarsari, I. Abdolhosseini, E-mail: abdolhosseini@cc.iut.ac.ir; Kameli, P.; Salamati, H.

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Hexagonal-wurtzite phase of ZnO were synthesized by thermal treatment of ball milled precursors at 400 °C. • Silver may be a good candidate for producing p-type ZnO. • Photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanoparticles increased by silver doping. • Reduction the optical energy gap of ZnO by silver doping is an advantage for use in optoelectronic devices. • The Ag 3d binding energy shifts to lower energies via XPS study. - Abstract: Silver-doped ZnO nanoparticles were successfully fabricated at 400 °C via a simple and rapid method based on short time solid state milling and calcination of precursor powders. The effect of Ag dilute doping on the structural, optical, and photocatalytic properties of ZnO nanoparticles was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis spectrophotometer and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. X-ray analysis revealed that Ag doped ZnO solidified in hexagonal wurtzite structure. The intensity of deep level emission was reduced with increasing silver doping in PL measurement. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurement predicted that Ag was mainly in the metallic state and ZnO was in the wurtzite structure. This metallic state accompanied by unique zinc oxide properties decolorized the methyl violet, efficiently. The first-principles calculation represented Ag deep level in ZnO with an n-type behavior, while in ZnO structure with grain boundary p-type nature via shallow states is dominant same as powder samples as studied in this present work. It was suggested that these Ag-doped ZnO nanoparticles may have good applications in optoelectronics, spintronics and wastewater treatment.

  9. Electrical and optical properties of gadolinium doped bismuth ferrite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, A., E-mail: soumen.basu@phy.nitdgp.ac.in; Banerjee, M., E-mail: soumen.basu@phy.nitdgp.ac.in; Basu, S., E-mail: soumen.basu@phy.nitdgp.ac.in [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur-713209 (India); Pal, M. [CSIR-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur-713209 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Multiferroic bismuth ferrite (BFO) and gadolinium (Gd) doped bismuth ferrite had been synthesized by a sol-gel method. Particle size had been estimated by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and found to decrease with Gd doping. We studied the temperature and frequency dependence of impedance and electric modulus and calculated the grain and grain boundary resistance and capacitance of the investigated samples. We observed that electrical activation energy increases for all the doped samples. Optical band gap also increases for the doped samples which can be used in photocatalytic application of BFO.

  10. Synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles containing Fe, Si, and V using multiple diffusion flames and catalytic oxidation capability of carbon-coated nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Ismail, Mohamed

    2016-01-19

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles containing iron, silicon, and vanadium are synthesized using multiple diffusion flames. The growth of carbon-coated (C–TiO2), carbon-coated with iron oxide (Fe/C–TiO2), silica-coated (Si–TiO2), and vanadium-doped (V–TiO2) TiO2 nanoparticles is demonstrated using a single-step process. Hydrogen, oxygen, and argon are utilized to establish the flame, with titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) as the precursor for TiO2. For the growth of Fe/C–TiO2 nanoparticles, TTIP is mixed with xylene and ferrocene. While for the growth of Si–TiO2 and V–TiO2, TTIP is mixed with hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and vanadium (V) oxytriisopropoxide, respectively. The synthesized nanoparticles are characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) with energy-filtered TEM for elemental mapping (of Si, C, O, and Ti), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nitrogen adsorption BET surface area analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. Anatase is the dominant phase for the C–TiO2, Fe/C–TiO2, and Si–TiO2 nanoparticles, whereas rutile is the dominant phase for the V–TiO2 nanoparticles. For C–TiO2 and Fe/C–TiO2, the nanoparticles are coated with about 3-5-nm thickness of carbon. The iron-based TiO2 nanoparticles significantly improve the catalytic oxidation of carbon, where complete oxidation of carbon occurs at a temperature of 470 °C (with iron) compared to 610 °C (without iron). Enhanced catalytic oxidation properties are also observed for model soot particles, Printex-U, when mixed with Fe/C-TiO2. With regards to Si–TiO2 nanoparticles, a uniform coating of 3 to 8 nm of silicon dioxide is observed around the TiO2 particles. This coating mainly occurs due to variance in the chemical reaction rates of the precursors. Finally, with regards to V–TiO2, vanadium is doped within the TiO2 nanoparticles as visualized by HRTEM and XPS further confirms the formation of

  11. Synthesis of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles containing Fe, Si, and V using multiple diffusion flames and catalytic oxidation capability of carbon-coated nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, Mohamed A. [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Clean Combustion Research Center (Saudi Arabia); Memon, Nasir K., E-mail: nmemon@qf.org.qa [HBKU, Qatar Foundation, Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute (QEERI) (Qatar); Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Anjum, Dalaver H. [KAUST, Imaging and Characterization Lab (Saudi Arabia); Chung, Suk Ho [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Clean Combustion Research Center (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-01-15

    Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles containing iron, silicon, and vanadium are synthesized using multiple diffusion flames. The growth of carbon-coated (C–TiO{sub 2}), carbon-coated with iron oxide (Fe/C–TiO{sub 2}), silica-coated (Si–TiO{sub 2}), and vanadium-doped (V–TiO{sub 2}) TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles is demonstrated using a single-step process. Hydrogen, oxygen, and argon are utilized to establish the flame, with titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) as the precursor for TiO{sub 2}. For the growth of Fe/C–TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, TTIP is mixed with xylene and ferrocene. While for the growth of Si–TiO{sub 2} and V–TiO{sub 2}, TTIP is mixed with hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and vanadium (V) oxytriisopropoxide, respectively. The synthesized nanoparticles are characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) with energy-filtered TEM for elemental mapping (of Si, C, O, and Ti), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nitrogen adsorption BET surface area analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. Anatase is the dominant phase for the C–TiO{sub 2}, Fe/C–TiO{sub 2}, and Si–TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, whereas rutile is the dominant phase for the V–TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. For C–TiO{sub 2} and Fe/C–TiO{sub 2}, the nanoparticles are coated with about 3-5-nm thickness of carbon. The iron-based TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles significantly improve the catalytic oxidation of carbon, where complete oxidation of carbon occurs at a temperature of 470 °C (with iron) compared to 610 °C (without iron). Enhanced catalytic oxidation properties are also observed for model soot particles, Printex-U, when mixed with Fe/C-TiO{sub 2}. With regards to Si–TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, a uniform coating of 3 to 8 nm of silicon dioxide is observed around the TiO{sub 2} particles. This coating mainly occurs due to variance in the chemical reaction rates of the precursors. Finally, with regards

  12. Wetting of doped carbon nanotubes by water droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotsalis, E. M.; Demosthenous, E.; Walther, Jens Honore

    2005-01-01

    We study the wetting of doped single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes by water droplets using molecular dynamics simulations. Chemisorbed hydrogen is considered as a model of surface impurities. We study systems with varying densities of surface impurities and we observe increased wetting......, as compared to the pristine nanotube case, attributed to the surface dipole moment that changes the orientation of the interfacial water. We demonstrate that the nature of the impurity is important as here hydrogen induces the formation of an extended hydrogen bond network between the water molecules...

  13. Green emission in carbon doped ZnO films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. T. Tseng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The emission behavior of C-doped ZnO films, which were prepared by implantation of carbon into ZnO films, is investigated. Orange/red emission is observed for the films with the thickness of 60–100 nm. However, the film with thickness of 200 nm shows strong green emission. Further investigations by annealing bulk ZnO single crystals under different environments, i.e. Ar, Zn or C vapor, indicated that the complex defects based on Zn interstitials are responsible for the strong green emission. The existence of complex defects was confirmed by electron spin resonance (ESR and low temperature photoluminescence (PL measurement.

  14. Green emission in carbon doped ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, L. T.; Yi, J. B., E-mail: jiabao.yi@unsw.edu.au; Zhang, X. Y.; Xing, G. Z.; Luo, X.; Li, S. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW, 2052 (Australia); Fan, H. M. [School of Chemical Engineering, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Herng, T. S.; Ding, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 119260 (Singapore); Ionescu, M. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, (ANSTO), New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2014-06-15

    The emission behavior of C-doped ZnO films, which were prepared by implantation of carbon into ZnO films, is investigated. Orange/red emission is observed for the films with the thickness of 60–100 nm. However, the film with thickness of 200 nm shows strong green emission. Further investigations by annealing bulk ZnO single crystals under different environments, i.e. Ar, Zn or C vapor, indicated that the complex defects based on Zn interstitials are responsible for the strong green emission. The existence of complex defects was confirmed by electron spin resonance (ESR) and low temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurement.

  15. Gas Sensors Based on Coated and Doped Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Meyyappan, Meyya

    2008-01-01

    Efforts are underway to develop inexpensive, low-power electronic sensors, based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), for measuring part-per-million and part-per-billion of selected gases (small molecules) at room temperature. Chemically unmodified SWCNTs are mostly unresponsive to typical gases that one might wish to detect. However, the electrical resistances of SWCNTs can be made to vary with concentrations of gases of interest by coating or doping the SWCNTs with suitable materials. Accordingly, the basic idea of the present development efforts is to incorporate thus-treated SWCNTs into electronic devices that measure their electrical resistances.

  16. Doping of carbon nanotubes with nitrogen improves protein coverage whilst retaining correct conformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Hilary J.; Antoranz Contera, Sonia; de Planque, Maurits R. R.; Grobert, Nicole; Ryan, J. F.

    2008-09-01

    Relevant parameters for non-covalent protein functionalization of carbon nanotubes are explored. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes are carboxylated and functionalized with metalloproteins. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM) we quantitatively determine that coverage with nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes is superior compared to coverage with un-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes, due to enhanced carboxylation. Conformational analysis using a combination of AFM, antibody binding assays, circular dichroism and UV-visible spectroscopy demonstrates that the metalloproteins retain their native structure when adsorbed to nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes irrespective of their size, charge or folding motif.

  17. Boron/nitrogen pairs Co-doping in metallic carbon nanotubes: a first-principle study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ouyang Fang-Ping; Peng Sheng-Lin; Chen Ling-Na; Sun Shu-Yuan; Xu Hui

    2011-01-01

    By using the first-principles calculations, the electronic structure and quantum transport properties of metallic carbon nanotubes with B/N pairs co-doping have been investigated. It is shown that the total energies of metallic carbon nanotubes are sensitive to the doping sites of the B/N pairs. The energy gaps of the doped metallic carbon nanotubes decrease with decreasing the concentration of the B/N pair not only along the tube axis but also around the tube. Moreover, the I-V characteristics and transmissions of the doped tubes are studied. Our results reveal that the conducting ability of the doped tube decreases with increasing the concentrations of the B/N pairs due to symmetry breaking of the system. This fact opens a new way to modulate band structures of metallic carbon nanotubes by doping B/N pair with suitable concentration and the novel characteristics are potentially useful in future applications.

  18. Defect-induced loading of Pt nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Jin; Park, Yong Jin; Ra, Eun Ju; Kim, Ki Kang; An, Kay Hyeok; Lee, Young Hee; Choi, Jae Young; Park, Chan Ho; Doo, Seok Kwang; Park, Min Ho; Yang, Cheol Woong

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes-supported Pt nanoparticles were loaded using a microwave oven on the defective carbon nanotubes generated by an additional oxidant during acid treatment. The authors' Raman spectra and x-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated that defects created during oxidation and microwave treatment acted as nucleation seeds for Pt adsorption. The generated Pt nanoparticles had the size distributions of 2-3nm and were uniformly distributed on the defects of carbon nanotubes. The authors' density functional calculations showed that the adsorption of Pt atom on the vacancy of nanotube was significantly stronger by s-p hybridization with carbon atoms near the defect site.

  19. Carbon nanoparticles trapped in vivo-similar to carbon nanotubes in time-dependent biodistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-Hui; Yang, Sheng-Tao; Wang, Xin; Wang, Haifang; Liu, Yamin; Luo, Pengju G; Liu, Yuanfang; Sun, Ya-Ping

    2014-08-27

    Carbon nanoparticles are in all of the carbon nanomaterials that are presently widely pursued for potential bioapplications, but their in vivo biodistribution-related properties are largely unknown. In this work, highly (13)C-enriched carbon nanoparticles were prepared to allow their quantification in biological samples by using isotope-ratio mass spectroscopy. The in vivo biodistribution results are presented and discussed, and also compared with those of the aqueous suspended carbon nanotubes reported previously. The distribution profile and time dependencies are largely similar between the nanoparticles and nanotubes, with results on both suggesting meaningful accumulation in some major organs over an extended period of time. Therefore, the surface modification of carbon nanoparticles, preferably the chemical functionalization of the nanoparticles with biocompatible molecules or species, is desirable or necessary in the pursuit of these nanomaterials for various bioapplications.

  20. Effect of doping on structural and optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles: study of antibacterial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddahi, P.; Shahtahmasebi, N.; Kompany, A.; Mashreghi, M.; Safaee, S.; Roozban, F.

    2014-06-01

    Sol-gel method was successfully used for synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles doped with 10 % Mg or Cu. The structure, morphology and optical properties of the prepared nanoparticles were studied as a function of doping content. The synthesized ZnO:(Mg/Cu) samples were characterized using XRD, TEM, FTIR and UV-Vis spectroscopy techniques. The samples show hexagonal wurtzite structure, and the phase segregation takes place for Cu doping. Optical studies revealed that Mg doping increases the energy band gap while Cu incorporation results in decrease of the band gap. The antibacterial activities of the nanoparticles were tested against Escherichia coli (Gram negative bacteria) cultures. It was found that both pure and doped ZnO nanosuspensions show good antibacterial activity which increases with copper doping, and slightly decreases with adding Mg.

  1. Effect of Cu doping on the structure and phase transition of directly synthesized FePt nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanbin; Li, Yang; Chen, Xu; Shu, Dan; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Xina; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Hao; Wang, Yi; Ruterana, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    In this work, ternary Cu doped FePt nanoparticles were prepared in hexadecylamine at 320 °C by choosing FeCl2 as the Fe source. The experimental results showed that without Cu doping the as-prepared FePt nanoparticles possessed fcc structure and gradually exhibited typical fct diffraction peaks after increasing the Cu doping concentration. TEM images showed that the FePt nanoparticles had larger size and wider size distribution after introducing Cu additive. Magnetic property measurement showed that a coercivity of 4800 Oe was obtained when the composition of the ternary nanoparticles reached Fe35Pt45Cu20, in which the content of Fe+Cu was higher than Pt. The research indicates that Cu doping promotes the phase transition of FePt nanoparticles at temperature as low as 320 °C.

  2. Composite supercapacitor electrodes made of activated carbon/PEDOT:PSS and activated carbon/doped PEDOT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T S Sonia; P A Mini; R Nandhini; Kalluri Sujith; Balakrishnan Avinash; S V Nair; K R V Subramanian

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we report on the high electrical storage capacity of composite electrodes made from nanoscale activated carbon combined with either poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) or PEDOT doped with multiple dopants such as ammonium persulfate (APS) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The composites were fabricated by electropolymerization of the conducting polymers (PEDOT:PSS, doped PEDOT) onto the nanoscale activated carbon backbone, wherein the nanoscale activated carbon was produced by ball-milling followed by chemical and thermal treatments. Activated carbon/PEDOT:PSS yielded capacitance values of 640 F g-1 and 26mF cm-2, while activated carbon/doped PEDOT yielded capacitances of 1183 F g-1 and 42 mF cm-2 at 10 mV s-1. This is more than five times the storage capacity previously reported for activated carbon–PEDOT composites. Further, use of multiple dopants in PEDOT improved the storage performance of the composite electrode well over that of PEDOT:PSS. The composite electrodes were characterized for their electrochemical behaviour, structural and morphological details and electronic conductivity and showed promise as high-performance energy storage systems.

  3. Iron Oxide Doped Alumina-Zirconia Nanoparticle Synthesis by Liquid Flame Spray from Metal Organic Precursors

    OpenAIRE

    Juha-Pekka Nikkanen; Helmi Keskinen; Mikko Aromaa; Mikael Järn; Tomi Kanerva; Erkki Levänen; Mäkelä, Jyrki M.; Tapio Mäntylä

    2008-01-01

    The liquid flame spray (LFS) method was used to make iron oxide doped alumina-zirconia nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were generated using a turbulent, high-temperature (Tmax⁡∼3000 K) H2-O2 flame. The precursors were aluminium-isopropoxide, zirconium-n-propoxide, and ferrocene in xylene solution. The solution was atomized into micron-sized droplets by high velocity H2 flow and introduced into the flame where nanoparticles were formed. The particle morphology, size, phase, and chemical compositi...

  4. Doped carbon-sulfur species nanocomposite cathode for Li--S batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Donghai; Xu, Tianren; Song, Jiangxuan

    2015-12-29

    We report a heteroatom-doped carbon framework that acts both as conductive network and polysulfide immobilizer for lithium-sulfur cathodes. The doped carbon forms chemical bonding with elemental sulfur and/or sulfur compound. This can significantly inhibit the diffusion of lithium polysulfides in the electrolyte, leading to high capacity retention and high coulombic efficiency.

  5. Photoluminescence study of Mn doped ZnS nanoparticles prepared by co-precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, M. P., E-mail: vishwadeshpande@yahoo.co.in; Patel, Kamakshi, E-mail: kamphysics@gmail.com; Gujarati, Vivek P.; Chaki, S. H. [Department of Physics, Sardar Patel University, VallabhVidyanagr-388120,Anand, Gujarat, India. (India)

    2016-05-06

    ZnS nanoparticles co-doped with different concentration (5,10,15%) of Mn were synthesized using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a capping agent under microwave irradiation. We confirmed doping of Mn in the host ZnS by EDAX whereas powder X-ray diffractogram showed the cubic zinc blende structure of all these samples. TEM images did showed agglomeration of particles and SAED pattern obtained indicated polycrystalline nature. From SAED pattern we calculated lattice parameter of the samples which have close resemblance from that obtained from XRD pattern. The band gap values of pure and doped ZnS nanoparticles were calculated from UV-Visible absorption spectra. ZnS itself is a luminescence material but when we dope it with transition metal ion such as Mn, Co, and Cu they exhibits strong and intense luminescence in the particular region. The photoluminescence spectra of pure ZnS nanoparticles showed an emission at 421 and 485nm which is blue emission which was originated from the defect sites of ZnS itself and also sulfur deficiency and when doped with Mn{sup 2+} an extra peak with high intensity was observed at 530nm which is nearly yellow-orange emission which isrelated to the presence of Mn in the host lattice.

  6. Electrically active, doped monocrystalline silicon nanoparticles produced by hot wire thermal catalytic pyrolysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scriba, MR

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Doped silicon nanoparticles have successfully been produced by hot wire thermal catalytic pyrolysis at 40 mbar and a filament temperature of 1800 °C, using a mixture of silane and diborane or phosphine. All particles are monocrystalline with shapes...

  7. Bi-phasic titanium dioxide nanoparticles doped with nitrogen and neodymium for enhanced photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Virginia; Bear, Joseph C; McNaughter, Paul D; McGettrick, James D; Watson, Trystan; Charbonneau, Cecile; O'Brien, Paul; Barron, Andrew R; Dunnill, Charles W

    2015-11-14

    Bi-phasic or multi-phasic composite nanoparticles for use in photocatalysis have been produced by a new synthetic approach. Sol-gel methods are used to deposit multiple layers of active material onto soluble substrates. In this work, a layer of rutile (TiO2) was deposited onto sodium chloride pellets followed by an annealing step and a layer of anatase. After dissolving the substrate, bi-phasic nanoparticles containing half anatase and half rutile TiO2; with "Janus-like" characteristics are obtained. Nitrogen and neodymium doping of the materials were observed to enhance the photocatalytic properties both under UV and white light irradiation. The unique advantage of this synthetic method is the ability to systematically dope separate sides of the nanoparticles. Nitrogen doping was found to be most effective on the anatase side of the nanoparticle while neodymium was found to be most effective on the rutile side. Rhodamine B dye was effectively photodegraded by co-doped particles under white light.

  8. In-Situ Grown Erbium-Doped Dielectric Nanoparticles in Silica-Based Transparent Optical Fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Dussardier, Bernard; Mauroy, Valérie; Ude, Michèle; Trzesien, Stanislaw; Mady, Franck; Benabdesselam, Mourad; Monnom, Gérard

    2011-01-01

    An efficient method to fabricate transparent glass ceramic fibers containing in-situ grown Er3+-doped oxide nanoparticles is presented. Characterization of the drawn fibers exhibits low loss (0.4 dB/m) and broadened Er3+ emission spectrum. This attractive method offers new scopes for fiber amplifiers.

  9. Lanthanide-doped nanoparticles as the active optical medium in polymer-based devices

    OpenAIRE

    Stouwdam, Jan Willem

    2004-01-01

    The luminescence of lanthanide ions in organic environment is greatly reduced compared to inorganic materials. This thesis describes the doping of the lanthanide ions in the core of inorganic nanoparticles that are soluble in organic solvents as a way to shield the lanthanide ions from the organic environment and thus to increase the luminescence properties.

  10. Lanthanide-doped nanoparticles as the active optical medium in polymer-based devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouwdam, Jan Willem

    2004-01-01

    The luminescence of lanthanide ions in organic environment is greatly reduced compared to inorganic materials. This thesis describes the doping of the lanthanide ions in the core of inorganic nanoparticles that are soluble in organic solvents as a way to shield the lanthanide ions from the organic e

  11. SYNTHESIS OF M–Nd DOPED Fe3O4 NANOPARTICLES (M = Co ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    series of Nd, Nd-Co, Nd-Ce, Nd-Cr, Nd-Ni doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles were ... good crystal structure, small particle size and high magnetic saturation. ... mmol) and salt of M (3.6×10-3 mmol) (salt of M: cobalt nitrate or chromium(III) nitrate or.

  12. Sensitized Emission in Ln3+-Doped TiO2 Semiconductor Nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouwdam, Jan W.; Veggel, van Frank C.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The doping of lanthanide ions in semiconductor TiO2 nanoparticles is studied. The presence of the TiO2 absorption band in the excitation spectrum of the lanthanide (see graphic; excitation and emission) proves the existence of energy transfer from the host material to the lanthanide ion. Energy tran

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF DOPED NANOPOROUS CARBONS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueking, Angela D.; Li, Qixiu; Badding, John V.; Fonseca, Dania; Gutierrez, Humerto; Sakti, Apurba; Adu, Kofi; Schimmel, Michael

    2010-03-31

    Hydrogen storage materials based on the hydrogen spillover mechanism onto metal-doped nanoporous carbons are studied, in an effort to develop materials that store appreciable hydrogen at ambient temperatures and moderate pressures. We demonstrate that oxidation of the carbon surface can significantly increase the hydrogen uptake of these materials, primarily at low pressure. Trace water present in the system plays a role in the development of active sites, and may further be used as a strategy to increase uptake. Increased surface density of oxygen groups led to a significant enhancement of hydrogen spillover at pressures less than 100 milibar. At 300K, the hydrogen uptake was up to 1.1 wt. % at 100 mbar and increased to 1.4 wt. % at 20 bar. However, only 0.4 wt% of this was desorbable via a pressure reduction at room temperature, and the high lowpressure hydrogen uptake was found only when trace water was present during pretreatment. Although far from DOE hydrogen storage targets, storage at ambient temperature has significant practical advantages oner cryogenic physical adsorbents. The role of trace water in surface modification has significant implications for reproducibility in the field. High-pressure in situ characterization of ideal carbon surfaces in hydrogen suggests re-hybridization is not likely under conditions of practical interest. Advanced characterization is used to probe carbon-hydrogen-metal interactions in a number of systems and new carbon materials have been developed.

  14. Low-temperature CO oxidation over Cu/Pt co-doped ZrO2 nanoparticles synthesized by solution combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhania, Amit; Gupta, Shipra Mital

    2017-01-01

    Zirconia (ZrO2) nanoparticles co-doped with Cu and Pt were applied as catalysts for carbon monoxide (CO) oxidation. These materials were prepared through solution combustion in order to obtain highly active and stable catalytic nanomaterials. This method allows Pt(2+) and Cu(2+) ions to dissolve into the ZrO2 lattice and thus creates oxygen vacancies due to lattice distortion and charge imbalance. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) results showed Cu/Pt co-doped ZrO2 nanoparticles with a size of ca. 10 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectra confirmed cubic structure and larger oxygen vacancies. The nanoparticles showed excellent activity for CO oxidation. The temperature T50 (the temperature at which 50% of CO are converted) was lowered by 175 °C in comparison to bare ZrO2. Further, they exhibited very high stability for CO reaction (time-on-stream ≈ 70 h). This is due to combined effect of smaller particle size, large oxygen vacancies, high specific surface area and better thermal stability of the Cu/Pt co-doped ZrO2 nanoparticles. The apparent activation energy for CO oxidation is found to be 45.6 kJ·mol(-1). The CO conversion decreases with increase in gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) and initial CO concentration.

  15. Carbon Materials Metal/Metal Oxide Nanoparticle Composite and Battery Anode Composed of the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A method of forming a composite material for use as an anode for a lithium-ion battery is disclosed. The steps include selecting a carbon material as a constituent part of the composite, chemically treating the selected carbon material to receive nanoparticles, incorporating nanoparticles into the chemically treated carbon material and removing surface nanoparticles from an outside surface of the carbon material with incorporated nanoparticles. A material making up the nanoparticles alloys with lithium.

  16. Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Decorated with Cobalt Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Larrude

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs synthesized by spray pyrolysis were decorated with cobalt oxide nanoparticles using a simple synthesis route. This wet chemistry method yielded nanoparticles randomly anchored to the surface of the nanotubes by decomposition of cobalt nitrate hexahydrate diluted in acetone. Electron microscopy analysis indicated that dispersed particles were formed on the MWCNTs walls. The average size increased with the increasing concentration of cobalt nitrate in acetone in the precursor mixture. TEM images indicated that nanoparticles were strongly attached to the tube walls. The Raman spectroscopy results suggested that the MWCNT structure was slightly damaged after the nanoparticle growth.

  17. Palladium-nanoparticle-coated carbon nanotube gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Maeum; Jung, Daewoong; Lee, Gil S.

    2014-08-01

    Flexible hydrogen gas sensors were fabricated using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) decorated with Pd nanoparticles for the detection of H2 gas at room temperature. A comparative gas-sensing study was carried out on both the Pd-nanoparticles-decorated and undecorated MWCNT sheets in order to examine the effect of Pd nanoparticles on the gas-sensing performances at room temperature. Experimental results showed that the MWCNTs/Pd sensor exhibited fast response and recovery as well as high sensitivity compared with the pure MWCNT sensor. The improved sensing properties of this sensor were attributed to the spillover effect of Pd nanoparticles and the highly conductive MWCNT sheet.

  18. Ferromagnetism of Mn-doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by sol-gel process at room temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Gui-jun; WANG Jin-bin; ZHONG Xiang-li; ZHOU Gong-cheng; YAN Hai-long

    2006-01-01

    Mn-doped ZnO diluted magnetic semiconductor nanoparticles are prepared by an ultrasonic assisted sol gel process. Transmission electron microscopy shows pseudo-hexagonal nanoparticles with an average size of about 24 nm. From the analysis of X-ray diffraction,the Mn-doped ZnO nanoparticles are identified to be a wurtzite structure without any impurity phases. The magnetic properties are measured by using su perconducting quantum interference device. For the ZnO with 2 % Mn doping concentration, a good hyster esis loop indicates fine ferromagnetism with a Curie temperature higher than 350 K.

  19. Structural and photocatalytic studies of Mn doped TiO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ruby; Kumar, Ashavani; Chaudhary, Ram Pal

    2012-12-01

    Mn-doped TiO(2) nanoparticles (Ti(1-)(x)Mn(x)O(2); where x=0.00-0.10) were synthesized by sol-gel method. The synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and UV-Vis spectrometer. The SEM and TEM micrographs revealed the agglomerated spherical-like morphology and measurements show that the size of crystallites is in the range of 10-20 nm. Optical measurements indicated a red shift in the absorption band edge after Mn doping. Direct allowed band gap of undoped and Mn-doped TiO(2) nanoparticles measured by UV-Vis spectrometer were 3.00 and 2.95 eV at 300 °C, respectively. Photocatalytic activities of TiO(2) and Mn doped TiO(2) were evaluated by irradiating the sample solution of methylene blue (MB) dye under ultraviolet and visible light exposure. It was found that Mn-doped TiO(2) bleaches MB much faster than undoped TiO(2) upon its exposure to the visible light as comparison to ultraviolet light. The experiment demonstrated that the photodegradation efficiency of Mn-doped TiO(2) was significantly higher than that of undoped TiO(2) upon its exposure to visible light.

  20. Multiferroic, magnetoelectric and optical properties of Mn doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Sunil; Kumar, Manoj; Chhoker, Sandeep; Katyal, S. C.; Singh, Hemant; Jewariya, Mukesh; Yadav, K. L.

    2012-03-01

    Mn doped BiFeO3 (5, 10 and 15 mol%) nanoparticles were synthesized using sol-gel technique. The influence of Mn doping on structural, dielectric, magnetic, magnetoelectric and optical properties of BiFeO3 was studied. Rietveld refinement of XRD patterns showed rhombohedral to orthorhombic phase transition for 15 mol% Mn doped BiFeO3 sample. Magnetic measurements revealed the enhancement of ferromagnetic property with increasing Mn doping in BiFeO3. The characteristic dielectric anomaly, expected in the vicinity of antiferromagnetic transition temperature TN (Neel temperature) was found in all Mn doped BiFeO3 samples. The magnetoelectric coupling was evidenced by the change in capacitance with the change in the applied magnetic field. On increasing Mn concentration from 5 to 15 mol% in BiFeO3, a change in magnetocapacitance from 1.46% to 2.6% showed the improvement of multiferroic properties. In order to explore the optical properties of Mn doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles, their photoluminescent properties were also investigated.

  1. Carbon-supported base metal nanoparticles: cellulose at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Jacco; Versluijs-Helder, Marjan; Vlietstra, Edward J; Geus, John W; Jenneskens, Leonardus W

    2015-03-01

    Pyrolysis of base metal salt loaded microcrystalline cellulose spheres gives a facile access to carbon-supported base metal nanoparticles, which have been characterized with temperature-dependent XRD, SEM, TEM, ICP-MS and elemental analysis. The role of cellulose is multifaceted: 1) it facilitates a homogeneous impregnation of the aqueous base metal salt solutions, 2) it acts as an efficacious (carbonaceous) support material for the uniformly dispersed base metal salts, their oxides and the metal nanoparticles derived therefrom, and 3) it contributes as a reducing agent via carbothermal reduction for the conversion of the metal oxide nanoparticles into the metal nanoparticles. Finally, the base metal nanoparticles capable of forming metastable metal carbides catalytically convert the carbonaceous support into a mesoporous graphitic carbon material.

  2. Size-mediated cytotoxicity of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide, pure and zinc-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in human hepatoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devanand Venkatasubbu, G.; Ramasamy, S., E-mail: sinna_ramasamy@yahoo.com [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University (India); Avadhani, G. S. [Indian Institute of Science, Department of Materials Engineering (India); Palanikumar, L.; Kumar, J. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University (India)

    2012-03-15

    Nanoparticles are highly used in biological applications including nanomedicine. In this present study, the interaction of HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCC) with hydroxyapatite (HAp), zinc-doped hydroxyapatite, and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles were investigated. Hydroxyapatite, zinc-doped hydroxyapatite and titanium dioxide nanoparticles were prepared by wet precipitation method. They were subjected to isochronal annealing at different temperatures. Particle morphology and size distribution were characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope. The nanoparticles were co-cultured with HepG2 cells. MTT assay was employed to evaluate the proliferation of tumor cells. The DNA damaging effect of HAp, Zn-doped HAp, and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in human hepatoma cells (HepG2) were evaluated using DNA fragmentation studies. The results showed that in HepG2 cells, the anti-tumor activity strongly depend on the size of nanoparticles in HCC cells. Cell cycle arrest analysis for HAp, zinc-doped HAp, and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles revealed the influence of HAp, zinc-doped HAp, and titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the apoptosis of HepG2 cells. The results imply that the novel nano nature effect plays an important role in the biomedicinal application of nanoparticles.

  3. Studies on Characterization, Optical Absorption, and Photoluminescence of Yttrium Doped ZnS Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganaik Viswanath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure ZnS and ZnS:Y nanoparticles were synthesized by a chemical coprecipitation route using EDTA-ethylenediamine as a stabilizing agent. X-ray diffraction (XRD, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR, thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC, and UV-visible and photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy were employed to characterize the as-synthesized ZnS and ZnS:Y nanoparticles, respectively. XRD and TEM studies show the formation of cubic ZnS:Y particles with an average size of ~4.5 nm. The doping did not alter the phase of the zinc sulphide, as a result the sample showed cubic zincblende structure. The UV-visible spectra of ZnS and ZnS:Y nanoparticles showed a band gap energy value, 3.85 eV and 3.73 eV, which corresponds to a semiconductor material. A luminescence characteristics such as strong and stable visible-light emissions in the orange region alone with the blue emission peaks were observed for doped ZnS nanoparticles at room temperature. The PL intensity of orange emission peak was found to be increased with an increase in yttrium ions concentration by suppressing blue emission peaks. These results strongly propose that yttrium doped zinc sulphide nanoparticles form a new class of luminescent material.

  4. A study of using luminophore-doped silica nanoparticles as fluorescent probe in protein microarray assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Haibo; ZHUANG Zhixia; YANG Huanghao; CHEN Chengxiang; TAN Fang; YAN Qingpi; WANG Xiaoru

    2007-01-01

    A convenient method for the synthesis of tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) dichlororuthenium(Ⅱ)hexahydrate-doped amino-modified double-layer silica nanoparticles is presented in this paper.The synthesized nanoparticles are uniform and photostable,and can be well dispersed in a water solution.Proteins could be directly immobilized onto these nanoparticles by a simple coupling process without losing their biological activities.These nanoparticles were further used as fluorescent probes in protein microarray assay for the quantitative detection of protein.The results obtained by these nanoparticles,with the detection limit of as low as 3.5μg/mL,were much better than those involving the use of conventional FITC probe.

  5. Doping of Metal-Organic Frameworks with Functional Guest Molecules and Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Felicitas; Fischer, Roland A.

    Nanoparticle synthesis within metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is performed by the adsorption of suitable precursor molecules for the metal component and subsequent decomposition to the composite materials nanoparticles@MOF. This chapter will review different approaches of loading MOFs with more complex organic molecules and metal-organic precursor molecules. The related reactions inside MOFs are discussed with a focus on stabilizing reactive intermediates in the corresponding cavities. The syntheses of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles inside MOFs are reviewed, and different synthetic routes compared. Emphasis is placed on the micro structural characterization of the materials nanoparticles@MOF with a particular focus on the location of embedded nanoparticles using TEM methods. Some first examples of applications of the doped MOFs in heterogeneous catalysis and hydrogen storage are described.

  6. Recycling of waste Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets by doping with dysprosium hydride nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘卫强; 李超; ZAKOTNIK Miha; 岳明; 张东涛; 黄秀莲

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of waste sintered Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets by doping DyH3 nanoparticles was investigated. The effect of the DyH3 nanoparticles on the microstructure and magnetic properties of the recycled magnets was studied. As the DyH3 nanoparticles additive increased, the coercivity of recycled magnet increased gradually. The recycled magnets with DyH3 nanoparticle content be-tween 0.0 wt.% and 1.0 wt.% maintained the remanence (Br), but, with higher additions, theBr began to decrease rapidly. The best recycled magnet produced contained 1.0 wt.% of DyH3 nanoparticles when compared to the properties of the starting waste sintering magnet. TheHcj,Br and (BH)max values of 101.7%, 95.4%, and 88.58%, respectively, were recovered.

  7. Yb-doped ZnSe nanoparticles: synthesis, physical properties and photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khataee, A R; Hosseini, M; Hanifehpour, Y; Safarpour, M; Joo, S W

    2014-09-01

    In this study, Yb-doped ZnSe nanoparticles were synthesized by co-reduction method at 150 degrees C and pH = 12 for 24 h. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Powder XRD patterns indicated that the Yb(x)Zn(1-x)Se crystals (x = 0.00-0.10) are isostructural with ZnSe. SEM and TEM images confirmed doping of Yb3+ into the lattice of ZnSe nanoparticles. The UV-Vis diffuse reflectance characteristics of the Yb-doped ZnSe samples were quite similar to that of the undoped sample and showed a strong photoabsorption at visible light range. The electrical conductivity of Yb-doped ZnSe nanomaterials was higher than pure ZnSe at room temperature, and increased with temperature. The photocatalytic activity of synthesized nanoparticles was investigated by the degradation of Orange II solution under visible light irradiation. It was observed that the color removal efficiency of Yb-doped ZnSe catalyst was much higher than that of pure ZnSe (26.28 and 77.10% after 120 min of treatment for ZnSe and Yb(0.06)Zn(0.94)Se, respectively). The results demonstrated the good photocatalytic ability of synthesized nanoparticles under visible light. Also, it was revealed that the decolorization efficiency of Orange II over Yb-doped ZnSe increased with increasing Yb loading up to 6 mol% and then decreased.

  8. Au@AuPt nanoparticles embedded in B-doped graphene: A superior electrocatalyst for determination of rutin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianlan; Yang, Guangming; Feng, Shaoping; Shi, Ling; Huang, Zhaolong; Pan, Haibo; Liu, Wei

    2017-04-01

    A hydrothermal approach was used to prepare B-doped graphene with B2O3 as reductant and boron source. Results reveal that the boron atoms have been successfully embedded into graphene with a high content of a total B species (2.85 at.%). Then, B-doped graphene was exfoliated further into monolayer nanosheet by impregnating Au@AuPt core-shell nanoparticles (Au@AuPt NPs) because boron atom creates a net positive charge, which facilitates Au@AuPt NPs adsorption to form Au@AuPt NPs/B-doped graphene hybrid nanocatalysts. After that, the Au@AuPt NPs/B-doped hybrid suspension was dropped on glassy carbon electrode for sensing rutin. In this way, the dispersed carboxyl units of B-doped graphene can form hydrogen bonding with the phenolic hydroxyl groups of rutin, making rutin enrich easily on modified electrode surface to enhance the electrochemical response. At the same time, its electrochemical mechanism on the modified electrode was elucidated using cyclic voltammetry. It was found that its electrochemical behavior on modified electrode surface was a surface-controlled quasi-reversible process, and the charge transfer coefficient (α) and electron transfer number (n) were 0.296 and 2, respectively. This electrochemical sensor for rutin provided a wide linear response range of 2.00 × 10-9-4.00 × 10-6 M with the detection limit (S/N = 3) of 2.84 × 10-10 M. The proposed method was applied successfully to selective determination of rutin in Tablets with acceptable recovery range (97.23-101.65%).

  9. Carbon nanotubes/laser ablation gold nanoparticles composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascialfari, Luisa [Department of Chemistry, Università di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3-13, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze 50019 (Italy); Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, via Madonna del Piano 10, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze 50019 (Italy); Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali (INSTM), Via Giusti 9, Firenze 50123 (Italy); Marsili, Paolo [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, via Madonna del Piano 10, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze 50019 (Italy); Caporali, Stefano [Department of Chemistry, Università di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3-13, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze 50019 (Italy); Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali (INSTM), Via Giusti 9, Firenze 50123 (Italy); Muniz-Miranda, Maurizio [Department of Chemistry, Università di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3-13, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze 50019 (Italy); Margheri, Giancarlo [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, via Madonna del Piano 10, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze 50019 (Italy); Serafini, Andrea; Brandi, Alberto [Department of Chemistry, Università di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3-13, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze 50019 (Italy); Giorgetti, Emilia, E-mail: emilia.giorgetti@fi.isc.cnr.it [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, via Madonna del Piano 10, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze 50019 (Italy); Cicchi, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.cicchi@unifi.it [Department of Chemistry, Università di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3-13, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze 50019 (Italy); Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali (INSTM), Via Giusti 9, Firenze 50123 (Italy)

    2014-10-31

    The production of nanohybrids formed by oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and nanoparticles, produced by pulsed laser ablation in liquids process, is described. The use of linkers, obtained by transformation of pyrene-1-butanol, is mandatory to generate an efficient and stable interaction between the two components. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed the obtainment of the efficient coverage of the MWCNTs by nanoparticles composed by metal gold and, partially, by oxides. - Highlights: • Laser ablation is a used for the production of gold nanoparticle colloids • An efficient decoration of carbon nanotubes with nanoparticles is obtained through the use of a linker • This method allows an efficient and tunable preparation of carbon nanotube hybrids.

  10. Sonochemical synthesis of Pr-doped ZnO nanoparticles for sonocatalytic degradation of Acid Red 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khataee, Alireza; Karimi, Atefeh; Arefi-Oskoui, Samira; Darvishi Cheshmeh Soltani, Reza; Hanifehpour, Younes; Soltani, Behzad; Joo, Sang Woo

    2015-01-01

    Undoped and Pr-doped ZnO nanoparticles were prepared using a simple sonochemical method, and their sonocatalytic activity was investigated toward degradation of Acid Red 17 (AR17) under ultrasonic (US) irradiation. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. The extent of sonocatalytic degradation was higher compared with sonolysis alone. The decolorization efficiency of sonolysis alone, sonocatalysis with undoped ZnO and 5% Pr-doped ZnO was 24%, 46% and 100% within reaction time of 70min, respectively. Sonocatalytic degradation of AR17 increased with increasing the amount of dopant and catalyst dosage and decreasing initial dye concentration. Natural pH was favored the sonocatalytic degradation of AR17. With the addition of chloride, carbonate and sulfate as radical scavengers, the decolorization efficiency was decreased from 100% to 65%, 71% and 89% at the reaction time of 70min, respectively, indicating that the controlling mechanism of sonochemical degradation of AR17 is the free radicals (not pyrolysis). The addition of peroxydisulfate and hydrogen peroxide as enhancer improved the degradation efficiency from 79% to 85% and 93% at the reaction time of 50min, respectively. The result showed good reusability of the synthesized sonocatalyst.

  11. Synthesis and Fluorescence Properties of Eu2 +-Doped KMgF3 Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The phase diagram of a cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB)/n-butanol/n-octane/KNO3-Mg (NO3) 2 system was drawn. Nanoparticles of Eu2 + -doped KMgF3 were prepared from the quaternary microemulsions of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide(CTAB), n-butanol, n-octane and water. The X-ray diffraction(XRD) patterns were indexed to a pure KMgF3 cubic phase. The environmental scanning electron microscopic(ESEM) images show the presence of spherical Eu2 + -doped KMgF3 nanoparticles with a diameter of ca. 20 nm. The emission of KMgF3: Eu2 + nanoparticles peaks at 360 nm. The excitation band was observed at 250 nm with a blue shift of ca. 70 nm compared with that of KMgF3: Eu2+ single crystal. The preparation method of nano-KMgF3: Eu2+/PMMA composite films was inquired into.

  12. Optical Features of Spherical Gold Nanoparticle-Doped Solid-State Dye Laser Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, D. Q.; Lien, N. T. H.; Duong, V. T. T.; Duong, V.; An, N. T. M.

    2016-05-01

    The development of a new laser medium based on gold nanoparticle/dye-doped polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) has been investigated. In particular, gold nanoparticles with small (16 nm diameter) spherical shape strongly influenced the absorption and fluorescence emission spectra of [2-[2-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]ethenyl]-6-methyl-4 H-pyran-4-ylidene]-propanedinitrile (DCM) laser dye. Fluorescence quenching and enhancement of DCM emission were observed for various concentrations of gold nanoparticles (GNPs). Fluorescence intensity enhancement was recorded for the sample containing 1.5 × 1010 par/mL GNPs and doped with 3 × 10-5 mol/L DCM. Thermal photodegradation was significantly decreased by using low pump energy for laser emission.

  13. Silver-doped calcium phosphate nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and toxic effects toward mammalian and prokaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peetsch, Alexander; Greulich, Christina; Braun, Dieter; Stroetges, Christian; Rehage, Heinz; Siebers, Bettina; Köller, Manfred; Epple, Matthias

    2013-02-01

    Spherical silver-doped calcium phosphate nanoparticles were synthesized in a co-precipitation route from calcium nitrate/silver nitrate and ammonium phosphate in a continuous process and colloidally stabilized by carboxymethyl cellulose. Nanoparticles with 0.39 wt% silver content and a diameter of about 50-60 nm were obtained. The toxic effects toward mammalian and prokaryotic cells were determined by viability tests and determination of the minimal inhibitory and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC). Three mammalian cells lines, i.e. human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) and blood peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMC, monocytes and T-lymphocytes), and two prokaryotic strains, i.e. Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were used. Silver-doped calcium phosphate nanoparticles and silver acetate showed similar effect toward mammalian and prokaryotic cells with toxic silver concentrations in the range of 1-3 μg mL(-1).

  14. Silver Nanoparticle-Doped Titanium Oxide Thin Films for Intermediate Layers in Organic Tandem Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanyi Nie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigate the Ag nanoparticle doping of TiOx used as an intermediate layer between subcells of a tandem organic photovoltaic. We use a model polymer cell structure of P3HT:TiOx:PEDOT:P3HT to observe charge-trapping effects as a function of nanoparticle content in the TiOx, as determined by the shape of the dark and illuminated current voltage curves of the devices. There is a direct correlation between the amount of Ag nanoparticles in the TiOx, and interfacial charge buildup, and charge trapping being completely mitigated at around 0.2% mol. This suggests that such doping schemes might provide a simple approach to the creation and use of TiOx layers for tandem cells.

  15. Direct Synthesis of Co-doped Graphene on Dielectric Substrates Using Solid Carbon Sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Wang; Pingping Zhang; Qiqi Zhuo; Xiaoxin Lv; Jiwei Wang; Xuhui Sun

    2015-01-01

    Direct synthesis of high-quality doped graphene on dielectric substrates without transfer is highly desired for simplified device processing in electronic applications. However, graphene synthesis directly on substrates suitable for device applications, though highly demanded, remains unattainable and challenging. Here, a simple and transfer-free synthesis of high-quality doped graphene on the dielectric substrate has been developed using a thin Cu layer as the top catalyst and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as both carbon precursors and doping sources. N-doped and N, F-co-doped graphene have been achieved using TPB and F16CuPc as solid carbon sources, respectively. The growth conditions were systematically optimized and the as-grown doped graphene were well characterized. The growth strategy provides a controllable transfer-free route for high-quality doped graphene synthesis, which will facilitate the practical applications of graphene.

  16. Chemical bonding between antimony and ionic liquid-derived nitrogen-doped carbon for sodium-ion battery anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Si, Ling; Zhou, Xiaosi; Tu, Fengzhang; Zhu, Xiaoshu; Bao, Jianchun

    2017-05-01

    Antimony has received a great deal of attention as a promising anode material for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) due to its high theoretical capacity of 660 mAh g-1. However, this application is significantly hampered by inherent large volume change and sluggish kinetics. To address these issues, an antimony-cyano-based ionic liquid-derived nitrogen-doped carbon (Sbsbnd CNC) hybrid is proposed and synthesized by ball-milling and subsequent pyrolysis treatment. As an anode material for SIBs, the as-synthesized Sbsbnd CNC hybrid delivers reversible capacities of 475 mAh g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1 and 203 mAh g-1 at 5000 mA g-1, and a 92.4% capacity retention based on the first-cycle capacity after 150 cycles at 100 mA g-1. Using ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and elemental mapping techniques, we attribute the good structural integrity to the formation of Sbsbnd Nsbnd C bonds between Sb and the cyano-based ionic liquid-derived N-doped carbon matrix. Moreover, the presence of N-doped carbon network in the hybrid material serves as a robust protective cover and an electrical highway, buffering the substantial volume expansion of Sb nanoparticles and ensuring the fast electron transport for stable cycling operation.

  17. Optical Dispersion, Permittivity Spectrum and Thermal-Lensing Effect in Nickel-Doped Zinc Sulfide Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, F.; Koushki, E.; Majles Ara, M. H.; Sahraei, R.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, Ni-doped ZnS (ZnS:Ni2+) nanoparticles (NPs) have been prepared through a chemical method. The average size of the particle is 45 nm. Thin films of the particles have been prepared by using the spin-coating method. The linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ni-doped ZnS thin films and the colloidal solution of them have been studied widely. Using a precise numerical method, the refractive index curve (dispersion curve), absorption coefficient and optical permittivity of Ni-doped ZnS film have been obtained. Using these values, the absorption coefficient of the colloidal solution of Ni-doped ZnS particles has been simulated and compared with experimental results. Finally, using the z-scan method at low laser irradiation, the thermo-optical effect has been studied and the nonlinear refractive index due to this effect has been reported.

  18. Room-temperature ferromagnetism in Fe-doped In2O3 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsaprom, Kwanruthai; Sonsupap, Somchai; Maensiri, Santi; Kidkhunthod, Pinit

    2015-10-01

    Nanoparticles of Fe-doped In2O3 [(In1- x Fe x )2O3, 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.10] are prepared by a simple polymerized complex method using indium (III) nitrate hydrate, iron (III) nitrate nonahydrate and polyvinyl pyrrolidone as the starting materials. The XRD, Raman and electron diffraction analysis results indicated that the calcined samples have the cubic structure of In2O3. An X-ray absorption spectroscopy including X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy is used in order to address both qualitative and quantitative of doped Fe valence states. The undoped sample exhibits a diamagnetic behavior, whereas all the Fe-doped samples are ferromagnetic having the magnetizations of ~0.0019-0.2959 emu/g at 10 kOe. Our results indicate that room-temperature ferromagnetism of Fe-doped In2O3 system is intrinsic and is not a result of any ferromagnetic impurity phases.

  19. Crystal and electronic structure study of Mn doped wurtzite ZnO nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    O.M. Ozkendir; S. Yildirimcan; A. Yuzer; K. Ocakoglu

    2016-01-01

    The change in the crystal and electronic structure properties of wurtzite ZnO nanoparticles was studied according to Mn doping in the powder samples. The investigations were conducted by X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy (XAFS) technique for the samples prepared with different heating and doping processes. Electronic analysis was carried out by the collected data from the X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure Spectroscopy (XANES) measurements. Additional crystal structure properties were studied by Extended-XAFS (EXAFS) analysis. Longer heating periods for the undoped wurtzite ZnO samples were determined to own stable crystal geometries. However, for some doped samples, the distortions in the crystal were observed as a result of the low doping amounts of Mn which was treated as an impurity. Besides, the changes in oxygen locations were determined to create defects and distor-tions in the samples.

  20. Crystal and electronic structure study of Mn doped wurtzite ZnO nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Ozkendir

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The change in the crystal and electronic structure properties of wurtzite ZnO nanoparticles was studied according to Mn doping in the powder samples. The investigations were conducted by X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy (XAFS technique for the samples prepared with different heating and doping processes. Electronic analysis was carried out by the collected data from the X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure Spectroscopy (XANES measurements. Additional crystal structure properties were studied by Extended-XAFS (EXAFS analysis. Longer heating periods for the undoped wurtzite ZnO samples were determined to own stable crystal geometries. However, for some doped samples, the distortions in the crystal were observed as a result of the low doping amounts of Mn which was treated as an impurity. Besides, the changes in oxygen locations were determined to create defects and distortions in the samples.

  1. Human health hazards of persistent inorganic and carbon nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2012-01-01

    Persistent inorganic and carbon nanoparticles are increasingly engineered for applications and may also be present in conventional materials such as carbon black. Furthermore, they may originate from conventional non particulate materials by processes such as wear and tear. Persistent inorganic and

  2. A Facile Synthesis of a Palladium-Doped Polyaniline-Modified Carbon Nanotube Composites for Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Soumen; Ghosh, Debasis; Malas, Asish; Das, Chapal Kumar

    2013-08-01

    Supercapacitors have evolved as the premier choice of the era for storing huge amounts of charge in the field of energy storage devices, but it is still necessary to enhance their performance to meet the increasing requirements of future systems. This could be achieved either through advancing the interfaces of the material at the nanoscale or by using novel material compositions. We report a high-performance material composition prepared by combining a transition metal (palladium)-doped conductive polymer with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). MWCNTs/palladium-doped polyaniline (MWCNTs/Pd/PANI) composites and multiwalled carbon nanotube/polyaniline (MWCNTs/PANI) composites (for comparison) were prepared via in situ oxidative polymerization of aniline monomer. The reported composites were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), x-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. FESEM and TEM studies indicated the narrow size distribution of the π-conjugated polymer-protected palladium nanoparticles on the surface of the carbon nanotubes. All the electrochemical characterizations were executed using a three-electrode system in 1 M H2SO4 electrolyte. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) analysis was performed to observe the capacitive performance and redox behavior of the composites. The ion transfer behavior and cyclic stability of the composites were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis and cyclic charge-discharge (CCD) testing, respectively. The MWCNTs/Pd/PANI composite was found to exhibit an especially high specific capacitance value of 920 F/g at scan rate of 2 mV/s.

  3. Novel method for fabrication of metal- or oxide-nanoparticle doped silica-based specialty optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenardič, Borut; Kveder, Miha; Lisjak, Darja; Guillon, Herve; Bonnafous, Samuel

    2011-03-01

    Nanoparticle-doped optical fibers are causing significant scientific interest in different application fields. Nanoparticle-doping of silica glass layers during optical fiber preform fabrication was so far reported by sol-gel and solution doping processes, by flame hydrolysis spraying and by pulling hollow cylinders from nanoparticle suspensions. A new method for fabrication of high quality nanoparticle-doped fibers is suggested. Proposed method is based on "flash vaporization" deposition process, previously reported as method to fabricate rare earth- and metal ion-doped specialty optical fibers. Experiments were made where SiO2 layers were deposited using "flash vaporization"-equipped MCVD system, adding vapors carrying metal or oxide nanoparticles into deposition zone. Analysis of produced preforms confirms presence of nanoparticles in deposited layers, albeit with low deposition rate due to weak thermophoretic forces acting on very small particles or agglomerations. Based on results, a number of improvements were suggested and implemented in fabrication process, device design and choice of precursor materials. "Flash vaporization" method was demonstrated as suitable method for deposition of nanoparticles in silica layers, permitting in-situ fabrication of complete preforms, providing easy upgrade path for existing MCVD and OVD deposition systems and allowing simultaneous co-doping by a wide range of other co-dopants.

  4. Silicon and aluminum doping effects on the microstructure and properties of polymeric amorphous carbon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaoqiang, E-mail: lxq_suse@sina.com [Material Corrosion and Protection Key Laboratory of Sichuan province, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong 643000 (China); Hao, Junying, E-mail: jyhao@licp.cas.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Xie, Yuntao [Material Corrosion and Protection Key Laboratory of Sichuan province, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong 643000 (China)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Evolution of nanostructure and properties of the polymeric amorphous carbon films were firstly studied. • Si doping enhanced polymerization of the hydrocarbon chains and Al doping resulted in increase in the ordered carbon clusters of polymeric amorphous carbon films. • Soft polymeric amorphous carbon films exhibited an unconventional frictional behaviors with a superior wear resistance. • The mechanical and vacuum tribological properties of the polymeric amorphous carbon films were significantly improved by Si and Al co-doping. - Abstract: Polymeric amorphous carbon films were prepared by radio frequency (R.F. 13.56 MHz) magnetron sputtering deposition. The microstructure evolution of the deposited polymeric films induced by silicon (Si) and aluminum(Al) doping were scrutinized through infrared spectroscopy, multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The comparative results show that Si doping can enhance polymerization and Al doping results in an increase in the ordered carbon clusters. Si and Al co-doping into polymeric films leads to the formation of an unusual dual nanostructure consisting of cross-linked polymer-like hydrocarbon chains and fullerene-like carbon clusters. The super-high elasticity and super-low friction coefficients (<0.002) under a high vacuum were obtained through Si and Al co-doping into the films. Unconventionally, the co-doped polymeric films exhibited a superior wear resistance even though they were very soft. The relationship between the microstructure and properties of the polymeric amorphous carbon films with different elements doping are also discussed in detail.

  5. Phosphate-Doped Carbon Black as Pt Catalyst Support: Co-catalytic Functionality for Dimethyl Ether and Methanol Electro-oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Min; Huang, Yunjie; Li, Qingfeng

    2014-01-01

    Niobium-phosphate-doped (NbP-doped) carbon blacks were prepared as the composite catalyst support for Pt nanoparticles. Functionalities of the composite include intrinsic proton conductivity, surface acidity, and interfacial synergistic interactions with methanol and dimethyl ether (DME......). The supported Pt catalysts show significant improvement in catalytic activity towards the direct oxidation of methanol and DME, attributable to the enhanced adsorption and dehydrogenation of methanol and DME, as well as the presence of activated OH species in the catalysts. The latter is demonstrated...

  6. TiO2 nanoparticles co-doped with silver and nitrogen for antibacterial application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yali; Ding, Jianqiang; Xu, Jinsheng; Deng, Jian; Guo, Jianbo

    2010-08-01

    We have prepared a series of TiO2 nanoparticles for antibacterial applications. These TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by the hydrolysis precipitation method with Ti(OBu)4, silver nitrate and ammonia. Crystal structure, particle size, interfacial structure and UV-visible light response of the prepared nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction measurements (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis-DRs). The XRD spectra showed that all samples were anatase structure calcined at 450 degrees C for 3 hours. The Ag doping made the peak of diffraction wider. The results of TEM showed that the nanoparticles of TiO2, N-TiO2 and 1% Ag-N-TiO2 were all spherical in shape and well distributed with a mean size of 19.8 nm, 39.2 nm and 20.7 nm, respectively. N doping caused the nanoparticle size to increase, while, when the doped amount of Ag+ increased, the TiO2 particle size decreased. The FTIR revealed that Ag and N doping of TiO2 appeared to have strong absorption by -OH group and showed the characteristic absorption band of NH4+ and Ag. The UV-Vis-DRs indicated that the absorption band of Ag-N co-doped TiO2 had red shift and that the optical absorption response (between 400 nm and 700 nm) had obvious enhancement. The antibacterial properties of nanoparticles were investigated by agar diffusion method toward Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The results indicated that both Ag- and N-doped TiO2 could increase the antibacterial properties of TiO2 nanoparticles under fluorescent light irradiation. A 1% Ag-N-TiO2 had the highest antibacterial activity with a clear antibacterial circle of 33.0 mm toward Escherichia coli and 22.8 mm toward Bacillus subtilis after cultivation for 24 hours.

  7. Preparation of luminescent CdTe quantum dots doped core-shell nanoparticles and their application in cell recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhaohui; WANG Kemin; TAN Weihong; LI Jun; FU Zhiying; WANG Yilin; LIU Jianbo; YANG Xiaohai

    2005-01-01

    Based on the reverse microemulsion technique, luminescent quantum dots doped core-shell nanoparticles have been prepared by employing silica as the shell and CdTe quantum dots as the core of the nanoparticles, which have an excellent solubility and dispersibility, especially amine and phosphonate groups have been modified on their surface synchronously. In comparison with CdTe quantum dots, these nanoparticles show superiority in chemical and photochemical stability. The quantum dots doped core-shell nanoparticles were successfully linked with lactobionic acid by amine group on it, which was used to recognize living liver cells.

  8. Synthesis of N-doped carbon nanosheets from collagen for electrochemical energy storage/conversion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ying-Hui; Lee, Ying-Feng; Hu, Chi-Chang [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsin-Chu (Taiwan); Chang, Kuo-Hsin [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsin-Chu (Taiwan); Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi (Taiwan)

    2011-01-15

    This study proposes a simple method for synthesizing carbon nanosheets doped with nitrogen through carbonization of collagen. Collagen, the most abundant protein in mammals, was cross-linked with paraformaldehyde and subsequently heated in vacuum at 800 C to obtain N-doped carbon nanosheets with a high specific surface area of 695 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. With the contribution of N-doped structures, the carbon nanosheets show ideal capacitive behavior with 80% capacitance retention in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 1000 mV s{sup -1}. In comparison with a commercial electrocatalyst, 20% Pt on Vulcan XC-72, carbon nanosheets display a positive shift in the onset potential and superior electrocatalytic activity toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The above excellent electrochemical performances render the N-doped carbon nanosheets a promising material for electrochemical energy storage/conversion systems. (author)

  9. Influence of Co doping on combined photocatalytic and antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandan, M.; Dinesh, S.; Krishnakumar, N.; Balamurugan, K.

    2016-11-01

    The present work aims to investigate the structural, optical, photocatalyst and antibacterial properties of bare and cobalt doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) with different concentrations Zn1-x Co x O (x = 0, 0.03, 0.06 and 0.09) synthesized by co-precipitation method. The XRD patterns confirmed that all samples of cobalt doped ZnO nanostructures revealed the formation of single phase having hexagonal wurtzite structure with crystallite size in the range of 31-41 nm. Further, the decreasing trend in lattice parameters and grain sizes were also seen with increasing doping concentrations which confirms the incorporation of Co ions into the ZnO lattice. This result was further supported by the FT-IR data. HR-TEM images demonstrated the distinct hexagonal like morphology with small agglomeration. The UV-visible absorption spectra exhibits red shift with increase in Co doping concentration in ZnO while corresponding bandgap energy of cobalt doped ZnO NPs decreased with increased Co doping concentration. PL spectra showed a weak UV and visible emission band which may be ascribed to the reduction in oxygen vacancy and defects by cobalt doping. XPS and EDX spectral results confirm the composition and the purity of Co doped ZnO NPs. Furthermore, the Co doped ZnO NPs were found to exhibit lesser photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl green dye under UV light illumination in comparison with the bare ZnO NPs. Moreover, anti-bacterial studies reveals that the Co doped ZnO NPs possess more antibacterial effect against gram positive Basillus subtills and gram negative Klebsiella pneumoniae bacterial strains than the bare ZnO NPs.

  10. Microstructure, ferromagnetic and photoluminescence properties of ITO and Cr doped ITO nanoparticles using solid state reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, S. Harinath; Kaleemulla, S.; Rao, N. Madhusudhana; Rao, G. Venugopal; Krishnamoorthi, C.

    2016-11-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) (In0.95Sn0.05)2O3 and Cr doped indium-tin-oxide (In0.90Sn0.05Cr0.05)2O3 nanoparticles were prepared using simple low cost solid state reaction method and characterized by different techniques to study their structural, optical and magnetic properties. Microstructures, surface morphology, crystallite size of the nanoparticles were studied using X-ray diffractometer (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). From these methods it was found that the particles were about 45 nm. Chemical composition and valence states of the nanoparticles were studied using energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). From these techniques it was observed that the elements of indium, tin, chromium and oxygen were present in the system in appropriate ratios and they were in +3, +4, +3 and -2 oxidation states. Raman studies confirmed that the nanoparticle were free from unintentional impurities. Two broad emission peaks were observed at 330 nm and 460 nm when excited wavelength of 300 nm. Magnetic studies were carried out at 300 K and 100 K using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and found that the ITO nanoparticles were ferromagnetic at 100 K and 300 K. Where-as the room temperature ferromagnetism completely disappeared in Cr doped ITO nanoparticles at 100 K and 300 K.

  11. Photocatalytic studies of crystal violet dye using mn doped and PVP capped ZnO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Manish; Sharma, Manoj; Pandey, O P

    2014-04-01

    Mn (0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2%) doped and undoped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) capped with PVP (1.0%) were successfully synthesized via co-precipitation approach using zinc acetate, sodium hydroxide and manganese acetate as precursors. Structural analysis was performed by XRD confirming phase purity and crystalline wurtzite structure. TEM results show average particle size 15-20 nm and 22-25 nm for Mn (1%) and Mn (2%) doped ZnO NPs respectively. Manganese (Mn) doping has led to reduction in band gap which facilitate the absorption of radiation in visible region. The Photocatalytic activity of undoped and Mn (0.5%,1%,1.5% and 2%) doped NPs was analyzed via degradation of crystal violet (CV) dye. The crystal violet decomposition rate of undoped and Mn doped NPs were studied under UV-visible region. It is observed from degradation studies that the doping has a pronounced effect on the photocatalytic activity of ZnO NPs. Kinetic studies shows that photo degradation of CV follow a pseudo first-order kinetic law. Experiments for reusability of Mn (1%) doped with PVP (1%) capped ZnO were also performed to determine the stability of as prepared sample. It shows an increase in catalytic activity of NPs by small amount when exposed to UV irradiation for 3 h. Photoluminescence and UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy studies were also performed for studying the effect of UV irradiation on the surface of ZnO NPs.

  12. Harnessing the Cancer Radiation Therapy by Lanthanide-Doped Zinc Oxide Based Theranostic Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemi, Behnaz; Mashinchian, Omid; Mousavi, Tayebeh; Karimi, Roya; Kharrazi, Sharmin; Amani, Amir

    2016-02-10

    In this paper, doping of europium (Eu) and gadolinium (Gd) as high-Z elements into zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) was designed to optimize restricted energy absorption from a conventional radiation therapy by X-ray. Gd/Eu-doped ZnO NPs with a size of 9 nm were synthesized by a chemical precipitation method. The cytotoxic effects of Eu/Gd-doped ZnO NPs were determined using MTT assay in L929, HeLa, and PC3 cell lines under dark conditions as well as exposure to ultraviolet, X-ray, and γ radiation. Doped NPs at 20 μg/mL concentration under an X-ray dose of 2 Gy were as efficient as 6 Gy X-ray radiation on untreated cells. It is thus suggested that the doped NPs may be used as photoinducers to increase the efficacy of X-rays within the cells, consequently, cancer cell death. The doped NPs also could reduce the received dose by normal cells around the tumor. Additionally, we evaluated the diagnostic efficacy of doped NPs as CT/MRI nanoprobes. Results showed an efficient theranostic nanoparticulate system for simultaneous CT/MR imaging and cancer treatment.

  13. Gd-doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles - A novel material for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotey, Gurmeet Singh; Verma, N. K.

    2013-06-01

    This communication reports a novel idea on dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) fabricated using Gd-doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles with particle size between 26 and 30 nm. The effect of Gd-doping and smaller size of synthesized nanoparticles on the structural, morphological, optical and photo-electrochemical properties have been investigated. The high energy-conversion efficiency, 3.85%, has been achieved for 12% Gd-doped BiFeO3 DSSCs, which is more than 100% higher than the undoped BiFeO3. The possible origin of the observed performance of DSSCs has been explained on the basis of smaller size of the synthesized nanoparticles, doping of Gd and structural transformation with doping in BiFeO3.

  14. Theory of phonon properties in doped and undoped CuO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahoosh, S.G. [Institute of Physics, Martin-Luther-University, D-06099 Halle (Germany); Apostolov, A.T. [University of Architecture, Civil Engineering and Geodesy Faculty of Hydrotechnics, Department of Physics, 1, Hristo Smirnenski Blvd., 1046 Sofia (Bulgaria); Apostolova, I.N. [University of Forestry, Faculty of Forest Industry, 10, Kl. Ohridsky Blvd., 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria); Wesselinowa, J.M., E-mail: julia@phys.uni-sofia.bg [University of Sofia, Department of Physics, 5 J. Bouchier Blvd., 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2012-07-02

    We have studied the phonon properties of CuO nanoparticles and have shown the importance of the anharmonic spin–phonon interaction. The Raman peaks of CuO nanoparticles shift to lower frequency and become broader as the particle size decreases in comparison with those of bulk CuO crystals owing to size effects. By doping with different ions, in dependence of their radius compared to the host ionic radius the phonon energies ω could be reduced or enhanced. The phonon damping is always enhanced through the ion doping effects. -- Highlights: ► The phonon properties of CuO nanoparticles are studied using a miscroscopic model. ► The phonon energy decreases whereas the damping increases with decreasing of particle size. ► It is shown the importance of the anharmonic spin–phonon interaction. ► By doping with RE-ions the phonon energy is reduced, whereas with TM-ions it is enhanced. ► The phonon damping is always enhanced through the ion doping effects.

  15. Iron Oxide Doped Alumina-Zirconia Nanoparticle Synthesis by Liquid Flame Spray from Metal Organic Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha-Pekka Nikkanen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The liquid flame spray (LFS method was used to make iron oxide doped alumina-zirconia nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were generated using a turbulent, high-temperature (Tmax⁡∼3000 K H2-O2 flame. The precursors were aluminium-isopropoxide, zirconium-n-propoxide, and ferrocene in xylene solution. The solution was atomized into micron-sized droplets by high velocity H2 flow and introduced into the flame where nanoparticles were formed. The particle morphology, size, phase, and chemical composition were determined by TEM, XRD, XPS, and N2-adsorption measurements. The collected particulate material consists of micron-sized aggregates with nanosized primary particles. In both doped and undoped samples, tetragonal phase of zirconia was detected in room temperature while alumina was found to be noncrystalline. In the doped powder, Fe was oxidized to Fe2O3. The primary particle size of collected sample was approximately from 6 nm to 40 nm. Doping was observed to increase the specific surface area of the powder from 39 m2/g to 47 m2/g.

  16. Auto-combustion synthesis and characterization of Mg doped CuAlO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Shraddha; Parveen, Azra; Naqvi, A. H.

    2015-06-01

    The synthesis of pure and Mg doped Copper aluminumoxide CuAlO2nanoparticles, a promising p-type TCO (transparent conducting oxide) have been done bysol gel auto combustion method using NaOH as a fuel, calcinated at 600°C. The structural properties were examined by XRD and SEM techniques. The optical absorption spectra of CuAlO2 sample recorded by UV-VIS spectrophotometer in the range of 200 to 800 nm have been presented. The crystallite size was determined by powder X-ray diffraction technique. The electrical behavior of pure and Mg doped CuAlO2 has been studied over a wide range of frequencies by using complex impedance spectroscopy.The variation of a.c. conductivity has been studied as function of frequency and temperature. The data taken together conclude that doping causes decreases in the ac conductivity of the nanoparticles as compared with the pure nanoparticles. Mg doping affects the optical properties and band gap.

  17. Structural and photoluminescence properties of terbium-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningthoujam Surajkumar, Singh; Shougaijam Dorendrajit, Singh; Sanoujam Dhiren, Meetei

    2014-05-01

    We present in this paper a study of the structural and photoluminescence (PL) properties of terbium (Tb) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles synthesized by a simple low temperature chemical precipitation method, using zinc acetate and terbium nitrate in an isopropanol medium with diethanolamine (DEA) as the capping agent at 60 °C. The as-prepared samples were heat treated and the PL of the annealed samples were studied. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD patterns show the pattern of typical ZnO nanoparticles and correspond with the standard XRD pattern given by JCPDS card No. 36-1451, showing the hexagonal phase structure. The PL intensity was enhanced due to Tb3+ doping, and it decreased at higher concentrations of Tb3+ doping after reaching a certain optimum concentration. The PL spectra of Tb3+ doped samples exhibited blue, bluish green, and green emissions at 460 nm (5D3 - 7F3), 484 nm (5D4 - 7F6), and 530 nm (5D4 - 7F5), respectively, which were more intense than the emissions for the undoped ZnO sample. Based on the results, an energy level schematic diagram was proposed to explain the possible electron transition processes.

  18. Auto-combustion synthesis and characterization of Mg doped CuAlO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Shraddha, E-mail: shraddhaa32@gmail.com; Parveen, Azra; Naqvi, A. H. [Centre of Excellence in Materials Science (Nanomaterials), Department of Applied Physics, Z.H. College of Engg.& Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202002 (India)

    2015-06-24

    The synthesis of pure and Mg doped Copper aluminumoxide CuAlO{sub 2}nanoparticles, a promising p-type TCO (transparent conducting oxide) have been done bysol gel auto combustion method using NaOH as a fuel, calcinated at 600°C. The structural properties were examined by XRD and SEM techniques. The optical absorption spectra of CuAlO{sub 2} sample recorded by UV-VIS spectrophotometer in the range of 200 to 800 nm have been presented. The crystallite size was determined by powder X-ray diffraction technique. The electrical behavior of pure and Mg doped CuAlO{sub 2} has been studied over a wide range of frequencies by using complex impedance spectroscopy.The variation of a.c. conductivity has been studied as function of frequency and temperature. The data taken together conclude that doping causes decreases in the ac conductivity of the nanoparticles as compared with the pure nanoparticles. Mg doping affects the optical properties and band gap.

  19. Plasmon assisted 3D microstructuring of gold nanoparticle-doped polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonušauskas, Linas; Lau, Marcus; Gruber, Peter; Gökce, Bilal; Barcikowski, Stephan; Malinauskas, Mangirdas; Ovsianikov, Aleksandr

    2016-04-01

    3D laser lithography of a negative photopolymer (zirconium/silicon hybrid solgel SZ2080) doped with gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) is performed with a 515 nm and 300 fs laser system and the effect of doping is explored. By varying the laser-generated Au NP doping concentration from 4.8 · 10-6 wt% to 9.8 · 10-3 wt% we find that the fabricated line widths are enlarged by up to 14.8% compared to structures achieved in pure SZ2080. While implicating a positive effect on the photosensitivity, the doping has no adverse impact on the mechanical quality of intricate 3D microstructures produced from the doped nanocompound. Additionally, we found that SZ2080 increases the long term (˜months) colloidal stability of Au NPs in isopropanol. By discussing the nanoparticle-light interaction in the 3D polymer structures we provide implications that our findings might have on other fields, such as biomedicine and photonics.

  20. Structural, optical, and magnetic properties of Mn and Fe-doped Co3O4 nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Stella

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mn and Fe-doped Co3O4 nanoparticles were prepared by a simple precipitation method. The synthesized particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, transmission electron microscope (TEM, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM techniques. XRD analysis showed the cubic structure of Co3O4. SEM and TEM images confirmed the formation of interconnected nanoparticles. Mn and Fe-doped Co3O4 showed broad absorption in the visible region compared to undoped sample and the band gap values are red shifted. Five Raman active modes were observed from the Raman spectra. FTIR spectra confirmed the spinel structure of Co3O4 and the doping of Mn and Fe shifts the vibrational modes to lower wave number region. The magnetic measurements confirmed that Fe-doped Co3O4 shows a little ferromagnetic behavior compared to undoped and Mn-doped Co3O4, which could be related to the uncompensated surface spins and the finite size effects.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and study of band gap variations of vanadium doped indium oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhoodeh, Saeed; Kowsari, Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    In this study, effects of vanadium doping in crystal lattice structure of indium oxide (In2O3) were investigated. Indium oxide nanoparticles with different amounts of dopant concentrations were fabricated by a facile and cost effective method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the formation of cubic phase for doped and undoped samples. It was observed that the lattice parameters of doped samples were decreased respect to the pure indium oxide, but the crystallite sizes and the particles' sizes of doped samples were increased in result of substitution of vanadium in crystal lattice of In2O3. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of samples showed that all samples have spherical shapes, and their distribution sizes are between 10 and 70 nm. It was found that the average sizes of nanoparticles were increased linearly with the amounts of dopant concentration. A red shift was founded in the band gap of vanadium doped samples respect to pure In2O3. The maximum of the band gap shift was observed for samples with 0.025 M concentration of dopant. Based on impedance spectroscopy data, it was found that impedances of samples are increased by increasing of dopant concentration for all frequencies which were tested in this study.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and study of band gap variations of vanadium doped indium oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parhoodeh, Saeed, E-mail: saeed.parhoodeh@gmail.com [Physics Department, Shiraz branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kowsari, Mohammad [Department of Electronics, Sepidan branch, Islamic Azad University, Sepidan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-01

    In this study, effects of vanadium doping in crystal lattice structure of indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were investigated. Indium oxide nanoparticles with different amounts of dopant concentrations were fabricated by a facile and cost effective method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the formation of cubic phase for doped and undoped samples. It was observed that the lattice parameters of doped samples were decreased respect to the pure indium oxide, but the crystallite sizes and the particles’ sizes of doped samples were increased in result of substitution of vanadium in crystal lattice of In{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of samples showed that all samples have spherical shapes, and their distribution sizes are between 10 and 70 nm. It was found that the average sizes of nanoparticles were increased linearly with the amounts of dopant concentration. A red shift was founded in the band gap of vanadium doped samples respect to pure In{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The maximum of the band gap shift was observed for samples with 0.025 M concentration of dopant. Based on impedance spectroscopy data, it was found that impedances of samples are increased by increasing of dopant concentration for all frequencies which were tested in this study.

  3. Magnetic properties of doped and undoped CuO nanoparticles taking into account spin-phonon interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesselinowa, J. M.

    2011-03-01

    We have studied the influence of doping effects on magnetization M and Neel temperature T of CuO nanoparticles based on the Heisenberg model including spin-phonon interactions. The experimentally obtained room temperature magnetization M is due to surface or/and doping effects in CuO nanoparticles. We have shown the importance of the effect of the spin-phonon interaction on different properties.

  4. Magnetic properties of doped and undoped CuO nanoparticles taking into account spin-phonon interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesselinowa, J.M., E-mail: julia@phys.uni-sofia.b [University of Sofia, Department of Physics, 5 J. Bouchier Blvd., 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-03-14

    We have studied the influence of doping effects on magnetization M and Neel temperature T{sub N} of CuO nanoparticles based on the Heisenberg model including spin-phonon interactions. The experimentally obtained room temperature magnetization M is due to surface or/and doping effects in CuO nanoparticles. We have shown the importance of the effect of the spin-phonon interaction on different properties.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of Sn-doped CdZnS nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Shrivastava; S C Shrivastava

    2015-09-01

    Tin (Sn)-doped cadmium zinc sulphide nanoparticles (CdZnS : Sn) were synthesized by the chemical bath deposition method with two different concentrations of Sn (2 and 4 mol%). X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern reveals the formation of CdZnS nanoparticles with cubic and hexagonal structure. It was observed that the presence of Sn does not alter the structure of CdZnS. Average crystallite size was measured from XRD data by using Scherrer’s formula. From the study of absorption spectra, band-to-band absorption was obtained at 460 and 490 nm, respectively, for the Sn-doped (2 and 4 mol%) CdZnS nanoparticles. Energy bandgap for undoped and Sn-doped CdZnS varies from 3.5 to 2.9 eV with error ± 0.05 eV. The presence of Sn was confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The effect of dopant concentration on the photoluminescence (PL) intensity has also been studied. The PL emission peak has been observed at 540, 550 and 560 nm for the Sn-doped (CdZnS, CdZnS 2 mol% and CdZnS 4 mol%), respectively, nanoparticles. XRD and PL analyses demonstrate that the Sn2+ ions uniformly substitute Cd2+ sites or interstitial sites in CdZnS lattice, which influence the optical properties. Increase in the concentration of Sn shifts the UV–vis absorption spectra and PL emission spectra towards higher wavelength side. Particle size and the crystallinity of CdZnS : Sn nanoparticles were confirmed through atomic force microscopy.

  6. Metal enhanced fluorescence in rare earth doped plasmonic core-shell nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derom, S; Berthelot, A; Pillonnet, A; Benamara, O; Jurdyc, A M; Girard, C; Colas des Francs, G

    2013-12-13

    We theoretically and numerically investigate metal enhanced fluorescence of plasmonic core-shell nanoparticles doped with rare earth (RE) ions. Particle shape and size are engineered to maximize the average enhancement factor (AEF) of the overall doped shell. We show that the highest enhancement (11 in the visible and 7 in the near-infrared) is achieved by tuning either the dipolar or the quadrupolar particle resonance to the rare earth ion's excitation wavelength. Additionally, the calculated AEFs are compared to experimental data reported in the literature, obtained in similar conditions (plasmon mediated enhancement) or when a metal-RE energy transfer mechanism is involved.

  7. Studies on Ferromagnetic and Photoluminescence Properties of ITO and Cu-Doped ITO Nanoparticles Synthesized by Solid State Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, S. Harinath; Kaleemulla, S.; Rao, N. Madhusudhana; Krishnamoorthi, C.

    2016-11-01

    Cubic structured indium-tin-oxide (ITO) and copper-doped ITO nanoparticles were synthesized by solid state reaction. The structure, morphology, chemical, magnetic, and photoluminescence properties of the synthesized nanoparticles were studied by x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry, and photoluminescence spectrophotometry, respectively. Magnetic studies confirmed that the ITO nanoparticles were ferromagnetic at room temperature (300 K) and at 100 K, and it was believed that the observed ferromagnetism may be due to oxygen vacancies and defects present in the system. No hysteresis loop was observed in copper-doped ITO nanoparticles at room temperature and 100 K. The ITO and Cu-doped ITO nanoparticles exhibited two broad emission peaks in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  8. Doping effects on the structural, magnetic, and hyperfine properties of Gd-doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho-Júnior, H.; Aquino, J. C. R.; Aragón, F. H. [Universidade de Brasília, Núcleo de Física Aplicada, Instituto de Física (Brazil); Hidalgo, P. [Universidade de Brasília, Faculdade Gama-FGA, Setor Central Gama (Brazil); Cohen, R.; Nagamine, L. C. C. M. [Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Física (Brazil); Coaquira, J. A. H., E-mail: coaquira@unb.br; Silva, S. W. da [Universidade de Brasília, Núcleo de Física Aplicada, Instituto de Física (Brazil); Brito, H. F. [Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Química (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    In this work we present the study of the structural, magnetic, and hyperfine properties of Gd-doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles synthesized by a polymer precursor method. The X-ray diffraction data analysis shows the formation of the rutile-type structure in all samples with Gd content from 1.0 to 10.0 mol%. The mean crystallite size is ∼11 nm for the 1.0 mol% Gd-doped samples and it shows a decreasing tendency as the Gd content is increased. The analysis of magnetic measurements indicates the coexistence of ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases for the 1.0 mol% Gd-doped sample; however, above that content, only a paramagnetic phase is observed. The ferromagnetic phase observed in the 1.0 mol% Gd-doped sample has been assigned to the presence of bound magnetic polarons which overlap to create a spin-split impurity band. Room-temperature {sup 119}Sn Mössbauer measurements reveal the occurrence of strong electric quadrupole interactions. It has been determined that the absence of magnetic interactions even for 1.0 mol% Gd-doped sample has been related to the weak magnetic field associated to the exchange interaction between magnetic ions and the donor impurity band. The broad distribution of electric quadrupole interactions are attributed to the several non-equivalent surroundings of Sn{sup 4+} ions provoked by the entrance of Gd{sup 3+} ions and to the likely presence of Sn{sup 2+} ions. The isomer shift seems to be nearly independent of the Gd content for samples with Gd content below 7.5 mol%.

  9. Versatile, Fast, and Easy One-Step Method for the Synthesis of Hydrophilic Lanthanide-Doped Nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grana Suarez, Laura; Verboom, Willem; Sarkar, Shyam; Mahalingam, V.; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2016-01-01

    The preparation of hydrophilic lanthanide-doped nanoparticles (NPs) following a versatile one-step colloidal method at low temperature and short reaction time with different doped lanthanides, capping ligands, and fluoride sources is presented. The photoluminescence of the particles, via both

  10. Effects of phosphorus-doping upon the electronic structures of single wall carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN AQing; SHAO QingYi; LIN ZhiCheng

    2009-01-01

    The phosphorus-doped single wall carbon nanotube (PSWCNT) is studied by using First-Principle methods based on Density Function Theory (DFT). The formation energy, total energy, band structure, geometry structure and density of states are calculated. It is found that the formation energy of the P-doped single carbon nanotubes increases with diameters; the total energy of carbon nanotubes with the same diameter decreases as the doping rate increases. The effects of impurity position on the im-purity level are discussed. It illustrates that the position of the impurity level may depend on the C-P-C bond angle. According to the above results, it is feasible to substitute a carbon atom with a phosphorus atom in SWCNT. It is also found that P-doped carbon nanotubes are N type semiconductor.

  11. Effects of phosphorus-doping upon the electronic structures of single wall carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The phosphorus-doped single wall carbon nanotube(PSWCNT) is studied by using First-Principle methods based on Density Function Theory(DFT).The formation energy,total energy,band structure,geometry structure and density of states are calculated.It is found that the formation energy of the P-doped single carbon nanotubes increases with diameters;the total energy of carbon nanotubes with the same diameter decreases as the doping rate increases.The effects of impurity position on the impurity level are discussed.It illustrates that the position of the impurity level may depend on the C-P-C bond angle.According to the above results,it is feasible to substitute a carbon atom with a phosphorus atom in SWCNT.It is also found that P-doped carbon nanotubes are N type semiconductor.

  12. Nickel tetraphenylporphyrin doping into ZnO nanoparticles for flexible dye-sensitized solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamimul Haque Choudhury, Mohammad; Kato, Shinya; Kishi, Naoki; Soga, Tetsuo

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we report on ZnO-based flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) doped with different concentrations of 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphyrin nickel(II) (NiTPP). The photoelectrodes were prepared by blade coating, followed by a hot-compression technique. The effects of NiTPP doping on the surface morphology, structural, optical, and photovoltaic properties were studied. The surface morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which confirmed the presence of NiTPP particles and also some aggregated particles visible at higher doping concentrations. The structural properties were examined by X-ray diffraction analysis and Raman spectroscopy, which confirmed the hexagonal wurtzite ZnO structure. The crystallite size of the ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) increased while the lattice strain decreased with increasing NiTPP doping concentration. The increment in the crystallite size might have induced light scattering inside the film to some extent. Optical absorption spectra showed the broadening of the spectrum in the lower-wavelength region, and a new absorption peak appeared (at 422 nm) as an effect of NiTPP doping. The red and blue shifts were observed for that peak as an effect of various doping concentrations. The Raman study of the films showed that there is no significant changes in the ZnO or NiTPP crystallite structure because of the NiTPP doping at different concentrations. Photocurrent-voltage (I-V) analysis showed that the 0.7%-NiTPP-doped cell attained the highest light-to-electric conversion efficiency of 2.7% in this investigation, which was about 42% higher than that of a non-NiTPP-doped cell.

  13. Biomaterial-Derived Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles for Enteric Drug Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Diane Render; Temesgen Samuel; Howard King; Madan Vig; Shaik Jeelani; Ramapuram Jayachandra Babu; Vijaya Rangari

    2016-01-01

    Oral drug delivery systems provide the most convenient, noninvasive, readily acceptable alternatives to parenteral systems. In the current work, eggshell-derived calcium carbonate (CaCO3) nanoparticles were used to develop enteric drug delivery system in the form of tablets. CaCO3 nanoparticles were manufactured using top-down ball-milling method and characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and loaded with 5-fluorouracil as a model drug. Tablets w...

  14. Characterisation of carbon nanotubes decorated with platinum nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    M. Pawlyta; D. Łukowiec; A.D. Dobrzańska-Danikiewicz

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In presented work results of synthesis of carbon nanotubes decorated with platinum nanoparticles by organic colloidal process as an example of direct formation of nanoparticles onto CNTs are reported.Design/methodology/approach: Powder XRD and transmission electron microscopy were used for characterisation of the morphology of composite as well as the distribution of nanocrystals on the CNTs surfaces.Findings: TEM results confirm that CNT were homogeneous and clean, without any admix...

  15. Absorption-Dominated Electromagnetic Wave Suppressor Derived from Ferrite-Doped Cross-Linked Graphene Framework and Conducting Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sourav; Arief, Injamamul; Panja, Sujit Sankar; Bose, Suryasarathi

    2017-01-25

    To minimize electromagnetic (EM) pollution, two key parameters, namely, intrinsic wave impedance matching and intense absorption of incoming EM radiation, must satisfy the utmost requirements. To target these requirements, soft conducting composites consisting of binary blends of polycarbonate (PC) and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) were designed with doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and a three-dimensional cross-linked graphene oxide (GO) framework doped with ferrite nanoparticles. The doping of α-MnO2 onto the MWCNTs ensured intrinsic wave impedance matching in addition to providing conducting pathways, and the ferrite-doped cross-linked GO facilitated the enhanced attenuation of the incoming EM radiation. This unique combination of magnetodielectric coupling led to a very high electromagnetic shielding efficiency (SE) of -37 dB at 18 GHz, dominated by absorption-driven shielding. The promising results from the composites further motivated us to rationally stack individual composites into a multilayer architecture following an absorption-multiple reflection-absorption pathway. This resulted in an impressive SE of -57 dB for a thin shield of 0.9-mm thickness. Such a high SE indicates >99.999% attenuation of the incoming EM radiation, which, together with the improvement in structural properties, validates the potential of these materials in terms of applications in cost-effective and tunable solutions.

  16. Nickel doped zinc oxide nanoparticles produced by hydrothermal decomposition of nickel-doped zinc hydroxide nitrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Yeganeh Ghotbi

    2012-01-01

    Zinc hydroxide nitrate,an anionic exchanger layered material,undoped as well as doped with 2-10% nickel,was synthesized by using a pH-controlled precipitation method.The layered materials were then used to produce the undoped and nickel-doped zinc oxides by hydrothermal-treatment.X-ray diffraction,Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the formation of pure phase undoped and nickel-doped layered materials,as well as the products of the hydrothermaltreated materials,nanostructured zinc oxides.Optical studies of the nanostructured zinc oxides showed a decrease in band gap with increasing content of the doping agent,nickel.

  17. Size-dependent cytotoxicity of europium doped NaYF{sub 4} nanoparticles in endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shizhu; Zhang, Cuimiao; Jia, Guang; Duan, Jianlei; Wang, Shuxiang, E-mail: wsx@hbu.edu.cn; Zhang, Jinchao, E-mail: jczhang6970@163.com

    2014-10-01

    Lanthanide-doped sodium yttrium fluoride (NaYF{sub 4}) nanoparticles exhibit novel optical properties which make them be widely used in various fields. The extensive applications increase the chance of human exposure to these nanoparticles and thus raise deep concerns regarding their riskiness. In the present study, we have synthesized europium doped NaYF{sub 4} (NaYF{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+}) nanoparticles with three diameters and used endothelial cells (ECs) as a cell model to explore the potential toxic effect. The cell viability, cytomembrane integrity, cellular uptake, intracellular localization, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), apoptosis detection, caspase-3 activity and expression of inflammatory gene were studied. The results indicated that these nanoparticles could be uptaken into ECs and decrease the cell viability, induce the intracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, increase the ROS level, and decrease the cell MMP in a size-dependent manner. Besides that, the cells were suffered to apoptosis with the caspase-3 activation, and the inflammation specific gene expressions (ICAM1 and VCAM1) were also increased. Our results suggest that the damage pathway may be related to the ROS generation and mitochondrial damage. The results provide novel evidence to elucidate their toxicity mechanisms and may be helpful for more rational applications of these compounds in the future. - Highlights: • NaYF{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} nanoparticles with three diameters have been synthesized. • NaYF{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} nanoparticles could be uptaken by endothelial cells (ECs). • NaYF{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} nanoparticles show a significant cytotoxicity on ECs. • The size of NaYF{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} nanoparticles may be important to their toxicology effect.

  18. Enhanced thermal lens effect in gold nanoparticle-doped Lyotropic liquid crystal by nanoparticle clustering probed by Z-scan technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, S.L.; Lenart, V.M., E-mail: sgomez@uepg.br [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Turchiello, R.T. [Universidade Federal Tecnologica do Parana (UFTPR), Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Goya, G.F. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Aragon Institute of Nanoscience, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2015-10-01

    This work presents an experimental study of the thermal lens effect in Au nanoparticles-doped lyotropic liquid crystals under cw 532 nm optical excitation. Spherical Au nanoparticles of about 12 nm were prepared by Turkevich’s method, and the lyotropic liquid crystal was a ternary mixture of SDS, 1-DeOH, and water that exhibits an isotropic phase at room temperature. The lyotropic matrix induces aggregation of the nanoparticles, leading to a broad and a red-shifted surface plasmon resonance. The thermal nonlinear optical refraction coefficient n{sub 2} increases as a power of number density of nanoparticles, being possible to address this behavior to nanoparticle clustering. (author)

  19. Size-Dependent Electrocatalytic Activity of Gold Nanoparticles on HOPG and Highly Boron-Doped Diamond Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Brülle

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles were prepared by electrochemical deposition on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG and boron-doped, epitaxial 100-oriented diamond layers. Using a potentiostatic double pulse technique, the average particle size was varied in the range from 5 nm to 30 nm in the case of HOPG as a support and between < 1 nm and 15 nm on diamond surfaces, while keeping the particle density constant. The distribution of particle sizes was very narrow, with standard deviations of around 20% on HOPG and around 30% on diamond. The electrocatalytic activity towards hydrogen evolution and oxygen reduction of these carbon supported gold nanoparticles in dependence of the particle sizes was investigated using cyclic voltammetry. For oxygen reduction the current density normalized to the gold surface (specific current density increased for decreasing particle size. In contrast, the specific current density of hydrogen evolution showed no dependence on particle size. For both reactions, no effect of the different carbon supports on electrocatalytic activity was observed.

  20. Enhancing the visible light absorption of titania nanoparticles by S and C doping in a single-step process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarisoreanu, M. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor, POB MG-36, Magurele, Bucharest 077125 (Romania); Morjan, I., E-mail: ion.morjan@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor, POB MG-36, Magurele, Bucharest 077125 (Romania); Alexandrescu, R.; Fleaca, C.T.; Badoi, A.; Dutu, E.; Niculescu, A.-M.; Luculescu, C. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor, POB MG-36, Magurele, Bucharest 077125 (Romania); Vasile, E. [Metav, Research and Development, 31C.A. Rosetti, Bucharest 020011 (Romania); Wang, J.; Bouhadoun, S.; Herlin-Boime, N. [IRAMIS/SPAM/LFP, CEA-CNRS URA 2453, CEA de Saclay, Gif sur Yvettes 91191 (France)

    2014-05-01

    We report the synthesis of carbon coated and sulfur doped titania nanoparticles using a continuous, single-step laser pyrolysis technique. We employed air as oxidant and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} as laser energy transfer agent (sensitizer)/carbon donor, both carrying the TiCl{sub 4} vapors as a titania precursor. The volatile (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}S{sub 2} was used to introduce sulfur as dopant in the nanopowders. The incorporation of C and S atoms in nanopowders with anatase dominant phase and with average particle diameter between 18 and 25 nm was performed through the addition of S{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}){sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} to the reactive precursor mixtures. The samples were characterized by: EDX, XRD, TEM, XPS and UV–Vis spectroscopy. By the introduction of the sulfur precursor, the anatase-to-rutile ratio within the resulted TiO{sub 2}-based nanoparticles decreased, as well as their bandgap energy values which are also lower than those of commercial TiO{sub 2} Degussa P25.

  1. Enhancing the visible light absorption of titania nanoparticles by S and C doping in a single-step process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarisoreanu, M.; Morjan, I.; Alexandrescu, R.; Fleaca, C. T.; Badoi, A.; Dutu, E.; Niculescu, A.-M.; Luculescu, C.; Vasile, E.; Wang, J.; Bouhadoun, S.; Herlin-Boime, N.

    2014-05-01

    We report the synthesis of carbon coated and sulfur doped titania nanoparticles using a continuous, single-step laser pyrolysis technique. We employed air as oxidant and C2H4 as laser energy transfer agent (sensitizer)/carbon donor, both carrying the TiCl4 vapors as a titania precursor. The volatile (CH3)2S2 was used to introduce sulfur as dopant in the nanopowders. The incorporation of C and S atoms in nanopowders with anatase dominant phase and with average particle diameter between 18 and 25 nm was performed through the addition of S2(CH3)2 and C2H4 to the reactive precursor mixtures. The samples were characterized by: EDX, XRD, TEM, XPS and UV-Vis spectroscopy. By the introduction of the sulfur precursor, the anatase-to-rutile ratio within the resulted TiO2-based nanoparticles decreased, as well as their bandgap energy values which are also lower than those of commercial TiO2 Degussa P25.

  2. Formation and microstructure of carbon encapsulated superparamagnetic Co nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiang-Cheng; Reyes-Gasga, J.; Dong, X. L.

    Carbon encapsulated magnetic cobalt nanoparticles have been synthesized by the modified arc-discharge method. Both high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HREM) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) profiles reveal the presence of 8-15nm diameter crystallites coated with 1-3 carbon layers. In particular, HREM images indicate that the intimate and contiguous carbon fringe around those Co nanoparticles is good evidence for complete encapsulation by carbon shell layers. The encapsulated phases are identified as hcp α-Co, fcc β-Co and cobalt carbide (Co 3 C) nanocrystals using X-ray diffraction (XRD), nano-area electron diffraction (SAED) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). However, some fcc β-Co particles with a significant fraction of stacking faults are observed by HREM and confirmed by means of numerical fast Fourier transform (FFT) of HREM lattice images. The carbon encapsulation formation and growth mechanism are also reviewed.

  3. Size Dependent Phase Diagrams of Nickel-Carbon Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnin, Y; Zappelli, A; Amara, H; Ducastelle, F; Bichara, C

    2015-11-13

    The carbon rich phase diagrams of nickel-carbon nanoparticles, relevant to catalysis and catalytic chemical vapor deposition synthesis of carbon nanotubes, are calculated for system sizes up to about 3 nm (807 Ni atoms). A tight binding model for interatomic interactions drives the grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations used to locate solid, core shell and liquid stability domains, as a function of size, temperature, and carbon chemical potential or concentration. Melting is favored by carbon incorporation from the nanoparticle surface, resulting in a strong relative lowering of the eutectic temperature and a phase diagram topology different from the bulk one. This should lead to a better understanding of the nanotube growth mechanisms.

  4. Chemical synthesis, structural, optical, magnetic characteristics and enhanced visible light active photocatalysis of Ni doped CuS nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyam, K.; Sreelekha, N.; Amaranatha Reddy, D.; Murali, G.; Rahul Varma, K.; Vijayalakshmi, R. P.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we report systematic investigations on the effects of Ni doping on the structural, optical, magnetic and photocatalytic characteristics of CuS nanoparticles synthesized by simplistic wet chemical co-precipitation route via EDTA molecules as templates. XRD studies confirmed that accurate phase formation of synthesized nanoparticles and chemical composition were obtained by EDX. Magnetic measurements revealed that 3% Ni doped CuS nanoparticles show signs of good ferromagnetism at room temperature and transition of magnetic signs from ferromagnetic to paramagnetic nature by increasing the Ni dopant concentration in CuS host matrix. The photocatalytic degradation efficiency of the prepared pure and Ni doped CuS nanoparticles were evaluated as a function of simulated sunlight irradiation via RhB organic dye pollutant as a test molecule. Particularly, in the presence of 3% Ni doped CuS nanoparticles in pollutant solution 98.46% degradation efficiency was achieved within 60 min of sunlight irradiation; meanwhile bare CuS attained only 83.22%. Further, after five cycles 3% Ni doping CuS nanoparticles exhibit good photocatalytic stability with very negligible catalyst loss. We believe that the investigations in this study provides adaptable pathway for the synthesizing of various diluted magnetic semiconductor nanoparticles and their applications in spintronic devices as well as sunlight-driven photocatalysts intended for wastewater purification.

  5. Heteroatom-Doped Carbon Nanostructures Derived from Conjugated Polymers for Energy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhen He

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Heteroatom-doped carbon materials have been one of the most remarkable families of materials with promising applications in fuel cells, supercapacitors, and batteries. Among them, conjugated polymer (CP-derived heteroatom-doped carbon materials exhibit remarkable electrochemical performances because the heteroatoms can be preserved at a relatively high content and keep stable under harsh working conditions. In this review, we summarized recent advances in the rational design and various applications of CP-derived heteroatom-doped carbon materials, including polyaniline (PANI, polypyrrole (PPy, and their ramification-derived carbons, as well as transition metal-carbon nanocomposites. The key point of considering CP-derived heteroatom-doped carbon materials as important candidates of electrode materials is that CPs contain only nonmetallic elements and some key heteroatoms in their backbones which provide great chances for the synthesis of metal-free heteroatom-doped carbon nanostructures. The presented examples in this review will provide new insights in designing and optimizing heteroatom-doped carbon materials for the development of anode and cathode materials for electrochemical device applications.

  6. Synthesis of Carbon Encapsulated Mono- and Multi-Iron Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Reza Sanaee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Core–shell nanostructures of carbon encapsulated iron nanoparticles (CEINPs show unique properties and technological applications, because carbon shell provides extreme chemical stability and protects pure iron core against oxidation without impairing the possibility of functionalization of the carbon surface. Enhancing iron core magnetic properties and, in parallel, improving carbon shell sealing are the two major challenges in the synthesis of CEINPs. Here, we present the synthesis of both CEINPs and a new carbon encapsulated multi-iron nanoparticle by a new modified arc discharge reactor. The nanoparticle size, composition, and crystallinity and the magnetic properties have been studied. The morphological properties were observed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In order to evaluate carbon shell protection, the iron cores were characterized by selected area diffraction and fast Fourier transform techniques as well as by electron energy loss and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopies. Afterward, the magnetic properties were investigated using a superconducting quantum interference device. As main results, spherical, oval, and multi-iron cores were controllably synthesized by this new modified arc discharge method. The carbon shell with high crystallinity exhibited sufficient protection against oxidation of pure iron cores. The presented results also provided new elements for understanding the growth mechanism of iron core and carbon shell.

  7. Photocatalytic composites based on titania nanoparticles and carbon nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Bich Ha; Hieu Nguyen, Van; Vu, Dinh Lam

    2015-09-01

    In this article we present a review on recent experimental works toward the formation of visible light responsive composite photocatalysts on the basis of titania nanoparticles and carbon nanomaterials of different types. The research results achieved in last years has shown that the nanocomposite photocatalysts comprising titania nanoparticles and graphene or graphene oxide sheets, and also nanoparticles of noble metals and metallic oxides, exhibited the evident priority compared to the others. Therefore our review emphasizes the research on these promising visible light responsive nanophotocatalysts.

  8. Assessment of carbon nanoparticle exposure on murine macrophage function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suro-Maldonado, Raquel M.

    There is growing concern about the potential cytotoxicity of nanoparticles. Exposure to respirable ultrafine particles (2.5uM) can adversely affect human health and have been implicated with episodes of increased respiratory diseases such as asthma and allergies. Nanoparticles are of particular interest because of their ability to penetrate into the lung and potentially elicit health effects triggering immune responses. Nanoparticles are structures and devises with length scales in the 1 to 100-nanometer range. Black carbon (BC) nanoparticles have been observed to be products of combustion, especially flame combustion and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) have been shown to be found in both indoor and outdoor air. Furthermore, asbestos, which have been known to cause mesothelioma as well as lung cancer, have been shown to be structurally identical to MWCNTs. The aims of these studies were to examine the effects of carbon nanoparticles on murine macrophage function and clearance mechanisms. Macrophages are immune cells that function as the first line of defense against invading pathogens and are likely to be amongst the first cells affected by nanoparticles. Our research focused on two manufactured nanoparticles, MWCNT and BC. The two were tested against murine-derived macrophages in a chronic contact model. We hypothesized that long-term chronic exposure to carbon nanoparticles would decrease macrophages ability to effectively respond to immunological challenge. Production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), cell surface macrophage; activation markers, reactive oxygen species formation (ROS), and antigen processing and presentation were examined in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) following a 144hr exposure to the particulates. Data demonstrated an increase in TNF-alpha, and NO production; a decrease in phagocytosis and antigen processing and presentation; and a decrease in the expression levels of cell surface macrophage

  9. Pyrolysis of cellulose under ammonia leads to nitrogen-doped nanoporous carbon generated through methane formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Wang, Bao; Heron, Christopher G; Allen, Marshall J; Morre, Jeff; Maier, Claudia S; Stickle, William F; Ji, Xiulei

    2014-01-01

    Here, we present a simple one-step fabrication methodology for nitrogen-doped (N-doped) nanoporous carbon membranes via annealing cellulose filter paper under NH3. We found that nitrogen doping (up to 10.3 at %) occurs during cellulose pyrolysis under NH3 at as low as 550 °C. At 700 °C or above, N-doped carbon further reacts with NH3, resulting in a large surface area (up to 1973.3 m(2)/g). We discovered that the doped nitrogen, in fact, plays an important role in the reaction, leading to carbon gasification. CH4 was experimentally detected by mass spectrometry as a product in the reaction between N-doped carbon and NH3. When compared to conventional activated carbon (1533.6 m(2)/g), the N-doped nanoporous carbon (1326.5 m(2)/g) exhibits more than double the unit area capacitance (90 vs 41 mF/m(2)).

  10. Soft-to-hard templating to well-dispersed N-doped mesoporous carbon nanospheres via one-pot carbon/silica source copolymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qinglu Kong; Lingxia Zhang; Min Wang; Mengli Li; Heliang Yao; Jianlin Shi

    2016-01-01

    Here we report a new approach referred as "softto-hard templating" strategy via the copolymerization of carbon source (dopamine) and silica source (tetraethyl orthosilicate) for the synthesis of well dispersed N-doped mesoporous carbon nanospheres (MCNs),which exhibit high performance for electrochemical supercapacitor.This method overcomes the shortcoming of uncontrolled dispersity and complicated procedures of soft-or hard-tem-plating methods,respectively.Moreover,the synthesized MCNs feature enriched heteroatom N-doping and easy functionalization by noble-metal nanoparticles during the one-pot synthesis.All the above characters make the asprepared MCNs a promising platform in a variety of applications.To demonstrate the applicability of the synthesized nitrogen-doped MCNs,this material has been employed as an electrode for high-performance electrochemical supercapacitor,which shows a capacitance of 223 and 140 F/g at current densities of 0.5 and 10 A/g in 1 mol/L KOH electrolyte,respectively.

  11. Hafnium-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles with ionizing radiation for lung cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min-Hua; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Huang, Jian-Yuan; Li, Keng-Yuan; Lin, Chun-Pin; Lin, Feng-Huei

    2016-06-01

    Recently, photodynamic therapy (PDT) is one of the new clinical options by generating cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) to kill cancer cells. However, the optical approach of PDT is limited by tissue penetration depth of visible light. In this study, we propose that a ROS-enhanced nanoparticle, hafnium-doped hydroxyapatite (Hf:HAp), which is a material to yield large quantities of ROS inside the cells when the nanoparticles are bombarded with high penetrating power of ionizing radiation. Hf:HAp nanoparticles are generated by wet chemical precipitation with total doping concentration of 15mol% Hf(4+) relative to Ca(2+) in HAp host material. The results show that the HAp particles could be successfully doped with Hf ions, resulted in the formation of nano-sized rod-like shape and with pH-dependent solubility. The impact of ionizing radiation on Hf:HAp nanoparticles is assessed by using in-vitro and in-vivo model using A549 cell line. The 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) results reveal that after being exposed to gamma rays, Hf:HAp could significantly lead to the formation of ROS in cells. Both cell viability (WST-1) and cytotoxicity (LDH) assay show the consistent results that A549 lung cancer cell lines are damaged with changes in the cells' ROS level. The in-vivo studies further demonstrate that the tumor growth is inhibited owing to the cells apoptosis when Hf:HAp nanoparticles are bombarded with ionizing radiation. This finding offer a new therapeutic method of interacting with ionizing radiation and demonstrate the potential of Hf:HAp nanoparticles in tumor treatment, such as being used in a palliative treatment after lung surgical procedure. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is one of the new clinical options by generating cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) to kill cancer cells. Unfortunately, the approach of PDT is usually limited to the treatment of systemic disease and deeper tumor, due to the limited tissue penetration depth of visible

  12. First-principles study of metallic carbon nanotubes with boron/nitrogen co-doping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Ling-Na; Ma Song-Shan; OuYang Fang-Ping; Xiao Jin; Xu Hui

    2011-01-01

    Using the first-principles calculations, we investigate the electronic band structure and the quantum transport properties of metallic carbon nanotubes (MCNTs) with B/N pair co-doping. The results about formation energy show that the B/N pair co-doping configuration is a most stable structure. We find that the electronic structure and the transport properties are very sensitive to the doping concentration of the B/N pairs in MCNTs, where the energy gaps increase with doping concentration increasing both along the tube axis and around the tube, because the mirror symmetry of MCNT is broken by doping B/N pairs. In addition, we discuss conductance dips of the transmission spectrum of doped MCNTs. These unconventional doping effects could be used to design novel nanoelectronic devices.

  13. Further improvement of mechanical and tribological properties of Cr-doped diamond-like carbon nanocomposite coatings by N codoping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Changwei; Xie, Wei; Tang, Xiaoshan

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the effects of nitrogen codoping on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Cr-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) nanocomposite coatings were investigated in detail. Compared with undoped DLC coatings, the Cr-DLC and N/Cr-DLC coatings showed higher root-mean-square (RMS) roughness values. However, from the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman results, the fraction of sp2 carbon bonds of N/Cr-DLC coatings increased with increasing N content, which indicated the graphitization of the coatings. The hardness and elastic modulus of N/Cr-DLC coatings with 1.8 at. % N were about 26.8 and 218 GPa, respectively. The observed hardness increase with N codoping was attributed to the incorporation of N in the C network along with the formation of CrC(N) nanoparticles, as confirmed from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results. The internal stress markedly decreased from 0.93 to 0.32 GPa as the N content increased from 0 to 10.3 at. %. Furthermore, N doping significantly improved the high-temperature dry friction behavior of DLC coatings. The friction coefficient of N/Cr-DLC coatings with 8.0 and 10.3 at. % N was kept at about 0.2 during the overall sliding test at 500 °C. These results showed that appropriate N doping could promote the mechanical and tribological properties of Cr-DLC nanocomposite coatings.

  14. Phosphates nanoparticles doped with zinc and manganese for sunscreens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, T.S. de, E-mail: tatiana.araujo@ifs.edu.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Sergipe (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Ciencias e Tecnologia de Sergipe, Sergipe (Brazil); Souza, S.O. de [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Sergipe (Brazil); Miyakawa, W. [Divisao de Fotonica - Instituto de Estudos Avancados, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil); Sousa, E.M.B. de [Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear - CDTN/CNEN, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2010-12-01

    The crescent number of skin cancer worldwide gives impulse to the development of sunscreen that can both prevent skin cancer and also permit gradual tanning. In this work, the synthesis of hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate nanocrystalline powders was investigated in order to obtain materials with optical properties and appropriate size for sunscreen. Pure, Zn{sup 2+}-doped and Mn{sup 2+}-doped hydroxyapatite (HAP) and tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) were produced by the wet precipitation process using diammonium phosphate, calcium nitrate, ammonium hydroxide, zinc nitrate and manganese nitrate as reagents. The pure and doped HAP precipitates were calcined at 500 deg. C for 1 h, while the {beta}-TCP (pure and doped) were calcined at 800 deg. C for 2 h. The powder samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ultraviolet (UV)-vis spectroscopy. XRD and EDX showed the formation of the expected materials (HAP and {beta}-TCP) without toxic components. AFM micrographs showed aggregated ellipsoidal particles with dimensions smaller than 120 nm. Optical absorption spectra showed that the calcium phosphate produced in this work absorbs in the UV region. The obtained materials presented structural, morphological and optical properties that allow their use as the active centers in sunscreens.

  15. Defect mediated magnetic interaction and high Tc ferromagnetism in Co doped ZnO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Bappaditya; Giri, P K

    2011-10-01

    Structural, optical and magnetic studies have been carried out for the Co-doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs). ZnO NPs are doped with 3% and 5% Co using ball milling and ferromagnetism (FM) is studied at room temperature and above. A high Curie temperature (Tc) has been observed from the Co doped ZnO NPs. X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis confirm the absence of metallic Co clusters or any other phase different from würtzite-type ZnO. UV-visible absorption and photoluminescence studies on the doped samples show change in band structure and oxygen vacancy defects, respectively. Micro-Raman studies of doped samples shows defect related additional strong bands at 547 and 574 cm(-1) confirming the presence of oxygen vacancy defects in ZnO lattice. The field dependence of magnetization (M-H curve) measured at room temperature exhibits the clear M-H loop with saturation magnetization and coercive field of the order of 4-6 emu/g and 260 G, respectively. Temperature dependence of magnetization measurement shows sharp ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition with a high Tc = 791 K for 3% Co doped ZnO NPs. Ferromagnetic ordering is interpreted in terms of overlapping of polarons mediated through oxygen vacancy defects based on the bound magnetic polaron (BMP) model. We show that the observed FM data fits well with the BMP model involving localised carriers and magnetic cations.

  16. Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity of Mo-Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-guo Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The undoped and Mo-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, diffuse reflectance UV-visible absorption spectra (UV-vis DRS, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under irradiation of a 500 W xenon lamp and natural solar light outdoor. Effects of calcination temperatures and Mo doping amounts on crystal phase, crystallite size, lattice distortion, and optical properties were investigated. The results showed that most of Mo6+ took the place of Ti4+ in the crystal lattice of TiO2, which inhibited the growth of crystallite size, suppressed the transformation from anatase to rutile, and led to lattice distortion of TiO2. Mo doping narrowed the band gap (from 3.05 eV of TiO2 to 2.73 eV of TiMo0.02O and efficiently increased the optical absorption in visible region. Mo doping was shown to be an efficient method for degradation of methylene blue under visible light, especially under solar light. When the calcination temperature was 550°C and the Mo doping amount was 2.0%, the Mo-doped TiO2 sample exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity.

  17. Temperature Dependence of Sensors Based on Silver-Decorated Nitrogen-Doped Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gracia-Espino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vapor sensors are easily fabricated onto alumina substrates using foils of silver-decorated nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNX-MWNTs-Ag as active sensing material. The vapor sensors are tested using carbon disulfide, acetone, ethanol, and chloroform vapors. The CNX-MWNTs are produced by chemical vapor deposition process and then decorated with 14 nm Ag nanoparticles (Ag-NPs. The samples are characterized using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Our results demonstrate that Ag-decorated CNX-MWNTs exhibit a better response and sensitivity when compared with pristine CNX-MWNTs based sensors, making them promising candidates for air-pollutants environmental monitoring. The temperature effect on the sensor performance is also studied; we found that the detection mechanism could be tuned from physisorption, at room temperature, to chemisorption at higher working temperature. Finally, first-principles density functional calculations are carried out to understand the interactions between the systems involved in the sensors, finding good agreement between experimental results and the theoretical approach.

  18. Neodymium-doped nanoparticles for infrared fluorescence bioimaging: The role of the host

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosal, Blanca del; Pérez-Delgado, Alberto; Rocha, Ueslen; Martín Rodríguez, Emma; Jaque, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.jaque@uam.es [Fluorescence Imaging Group, Dpto. de Física de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Misiak, Małgorzata; Bednarkiewicz, Artur [Wroclaw Research Centre EIT+, ul. Stabłowicka 147, 54-066 Wrocław (Poland); Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, 14c Ravila Str., 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Vanetsev, Alexander S. [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, PAS, ul. Okólna 2, 50-422 Wrocław (Poland); Orlovskii, Yurii [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, PAS, ul. Okólna 2, 50-422 Wrocław (Poland); Prokhorov General Physics Institute RAS, 38 Vavilov Str., 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Jovanović, Dragana J.; Dramićanin, Miroslav D. [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, Belgrade 11001 (Serbia); Upendra Kumar, K.; Jacinto, Carlos [Grupo de Fotônica e Fluidos Complexos, Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-900 Maceió-AL (Brazil); Navarro, Elizabeth [Depto. de Química, Eco Catálisis, UAM-Iztapalapa, Sn. Rafael Atlixco 186, México 09340, D.F (Mexico); and others

    2015-10-14

    The spectroscopic properties of different infrared-emitting neodymium-doped nanoparticles (LaF{sub 3}:Nd{sup 3+}, SrF{sub 2}:Nd{sup 3+}, NaGdF{sub 4}: Nd{sup 3+}, NaYF{sub 4}: Nd{sup 3+}, KYF{sub 4}: Nd{sup 3+}, GdVO{sub 4}: Nd{sup 3+}, and Nd:YAG) have been systematically analyzed. A comparison of the spectral shapes of both emission and absorption spectra is presented, from which the relevant role played by the host matrix is evidenced. The lack of a “universal” optimum system for infrared bioimaging is discussed, as the specific bioimaging application and the experimental setup for infrared imaging determine the neodymium-doped nanoparticle to be preferentially used in each case.

  19. Stable tetragonal phase and magnetic properties of Fe-doped HfO2 nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. N. Sales

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect in structural and magnetic properties of iron doping with concentration of 20% in hafnium dioxide (HfO2 nanoparticles is investigated. HfO2 is a wide band gap oxide with great potential to be used as high-permittivity gate dielectrics, which can be improved by doping. Nanoparticle samples were prepared by sol-gel chemical method and had their structure, morphology, and magnetic properties, respectively, investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM with electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD, and magnetization measurements. TEM and SEM results show size distribution of particles in the range from 30 nm to 40 nm with small dispersion. Magnetization measurements show the blocking temperature at around 90 K with a strong paramagnetic contribution. XRD results show a major tetragonal phase (94%.

  20. Evidence of a cluster glass-like behavior in Fe-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, J. E.; Montero-Muñoz, M.; Coaquira, J. A. H.; Rodríguez-Páez, J. E.

    2014-05-01

    We report on the study of the structural and magnetic properties of crystalline Fe-doped ZnO nanoparticles with Fe content up to 10% synthesized by a co-precipitation method. The Rietveld analysis indicates that the Fe-doped ZnO nanoparticles are formed in a single phase wurtzite structure. DC magnetization (M) vs. applied magnetic field (H) curves obtained at 5 K show the occurrence of a ferromagnetic behavior. The coercive field and saturation magnetization depend on the Fe content. At room temperature, M vs. H curves show features consistent with a superparamagnetic state of nanoscale system. The temperature dependence of the AC and DC magnetic susceptibilities show features related to the thermal relaxation of the nano-sized particles. From the AC data analysis, a magnetic transition from the superparamagnetic to cluster-glass state is determined.

  1. N-doped graphitic layer encased cobalt nanoparticles as efficient oxygen reduction catalysts in alkaline media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ce; Bo, Xiangjie; Zhang, Yufan; Li, Mian; Nsabimana, Anaclet; Guo, Liping

    2015-03-01

    Nitrogen doped graphitic layer encased cobalt (N-C@Co) nanoparticles, as novel non-precious-metal catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), were fabricated by a facile method using cyanamide and cobalt nitrate as precursors. The N-C@Co catalysts exhibited comparable catalytic performance, better stability and improved methanol tolerance towards the ORR than those of the commercial Pt/C catalyst.Nitrogen doped graphitic layer encased cobalt (N-C@Co) nanoparticles, as novel non-precious-metal catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), were fabricated by a facile method using cyanamide and cobalt nitrate as precursors. The N-C@Co catalysts exhibited comparable catalytic performance, better stability and improved methanol tolerance towards the ORR than those of the commercial Pt/C catalyst. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr07571d

  2. Bio-green synthesis of Fe doped SnO2 nanoparticle thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattu, Ketan P.; Ghule, Kalyani; Huse, Nanasaheb P.; Dive, Avinash S.; Bagul, Sagar B.; Digraskar, Renuka V.; Sharma, Ramphal; Ghule, Anil V.

    2017-05-01

    Herein Fe doped SnO2 nanoparticles have been synthesized using simple, cost effective and ecofriendly biosynthesis method, in which remnant water (ideally kitchen waste) collected from soaked Bengal gram beans (Cicer arietinum L.) was used. This extract consists of different bio-molecules which acted as complexing as well as capping agents for synthesis of Fe-doped SnO2 nanoparticles. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) revealed uniform size distribution with the average size of 6 nm and confirmed the formation of rutile structure with space group (P42/mnm) and nanocrystalline nature of the products with spherical morphology. Further, the gas sensing properties of the materials have been studied in comparison with other gases. The reported gas sensing results are promising, which suggest that the Fe-dopant is a promising noble metal additives to fabricate low cost SnO2 based sensor.

  3. Green Synthesis of Nanoparticles Molybdate Doped with Rare Earth Ion and Its Luminescence Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to prepare nanoparticles molybdates doped with rare earth ion Eu3+ synthesized by sol-gel method to study the luminescence property of these crystal powders. The influence of pH and doping amount of Eu3+ on these nanoparticles was also investigated. The results showed that CaMoO4: Eu3+ (6%, mass ratio prepared in pH value 7-9 and calcined at 700°C became uniformly cubic crystal and exhibited red photoluminescence with strongest emission peak at 612×258 nm excitation, which was caused by 5D0→7F2 transition of Eu3+. It can be predicted this CaMoO4: Eu3+ phosphor could be a potential phosphor material for white-light LED application in the future.

  4. Capillary-force-induced formation of luminescent polystyrene/(rare-earth-doped nanoparticle) hybrid hollow spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Xie, Lin; Li, Fuyou; Zhou, Shuxue; Wu, Limin

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents a "one-pot" procedure to synthesize polystyrene/(rare-earth-doped nanoparticles) (PS/REDNPs) hybrid hollow spheres via the in situ diffusion of organic core into inorganic shell under strong capillary force. In this approach, when carboxyl-capped PS colloids were deposited by different REDNPs in aqueous medium, such as LaF3:Eu3+, LaF3:Ce3+-Tb3+, and YVO4:Dy3+, PS/REDNPs inorganic-organic hybrid hollow spheres could be directly obtained via the in situ diffusion of core PS chains into the voids between rare-earth-doped nanoparticles through the strong capillary force. Not only is the synthetic procedure versatile and very simple, but also the obtained hybrid hollow spheres are hydrophilic and luminescent and could be directly used in chemical and biological fields.

  5. Controllable Synthesis of Mn6+ Doped Nanoparticles by a Facile Anion Exchange Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowen; Li, Yang; Liao, Chenxing; Chen, Zhi; Qiu, Jianrong

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescence imaging in the second near-infrared window (NIR-II, 1000-1400 nm) is attracting extensive attention. Mn6+ doped BaSO4 with broadband emission from 900 nm to 1400 nm is emerging as a new class of NIR phosphor for fluorescence imaging. Manganese has diverse valence states, thus it is difficult to prevent valence change of Mn6+ during traditional synthesis process. In this work, BaSO4:Mn6+ nanoparticles with uniform size and morphology were first successfully prepared through a fast liquid-solid solution route at room temperature. The nanoparticles exhibit broadband NIR emission from Mn6+ when excited by 808 nm lasers. This convenient strategy, based on an efficient anion exchange reaction, is proved effective for synthesizing nano-sized materials. The results reveal that our strategy has great potential in fabricating special valence state ion doped nanomaterials.

  6. Antibacterial property of Ag nanoparticle-impregnated N-doped titania films under visible light

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Ming-Show; Chen, Chun-Wei; Hsieh, Chia-Chun; Hung, Shih-Che; Sun, Der-Shan; Chang, Hsin-Hou

    2015-01-01

    Photocatalysts produce free radicals upon receiving light energy; thus, they possess antibacterial properties. Silver (Ag) is an antibacterial material that disrupts bacterial physiology. Our previous study reported that the high antibacterial property of silver nanoparticles on the surfaces of visible light-responsive nitrogen-doped TiO2 photocatalysts [TiO2(N)] could be further enhanced by visible light illumination. However, the major limitation of this Ag-TiO2 composite material is its du...

  7. Electron magnetic resonance and Moessbauer studies on iron doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grecu, Maria Nicoleta, E-mail: mgrecu@infim.ro; Constantinescu, Serban Gr.; Ghica, Daniela; Tarabasanu-Mihaila, Doina; Diamandescu, Lucian [National Institute of Materials Physics (Romania)

    2012-03-15

    Iron doped (0.25-7.5% molar) hydrothermal nano-SnO{sub 2} was characterized by electron magnetic resonance (EMR) and Moessbauer spectroscopies. Only a small fraction of transition metal ions are in magnetic ordered state, contrary to the similar crystallographic compound TiO{sub 2}. Temperature dependences of spectra suggest that by increasing iron concentration, or annealing temperature, iron ions migrate to nanoparticles surfaces forming disordered iron oxides.

  8. Chemical Precipitation Synthesis of Ferric Chloride Doped Zinc Sulphide Nanoparticles and Their Characterization Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Theivasanthi, T.; Kartheeswari, N.; Alagar, M.

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles of Ferric Chloride doped ZnS has been synthesized by simple chemical precipitation method and characterized by XRD, SEM, UV-Vis analysis, Differential Thermal Analysis, Thermo Gravimetric Analysis and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. XRD patterns of the samples reveal particle size, specific surface area and the formation of cubic structure. The SEM images show that the cauliflower likes structure. Optical band gap values have been obtained from UV-Vis absorption spectra. It h...

  9. Magnetic nanoparticles formed in glasses co-doped with iron and larger radius elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelman, I.; Ivanova, O.; Ivantsov, R.; Velikanov, D.; Zabluda, V. [L.V. Kirensky Institute of Physics SB RAS, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Zubavichus, Y.; Veligzhanin, A. [NRC ' Kurchatov Institute,' 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zaikovskiy, V. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Stepanov, S. [S.I. Vavilov State Optical Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Artemenko, A. [ICMCB, UPR CNRS 9048, 33608 Pessac cedex (France); Curely, J.; Kliava, J. [LOMA, UMR 5798 Universite Bordeaux 1-CNRS, 33405 Talence cedex (France)

    2012-10-15

    A new type of nanoparticle-containing glasses based on borate glasses co-doped with low contents of iron and larger radius elements, Dy, Tb, Gd, Ho, Er, Y, and Bi, is studied. Heat treatment of these glasses results in formation of magnetic nanoparticles, radically changing their physical properties. Transmission electron microscopy and synchrotron radiation-based techniques: x-ray diffraction, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, x-ray absorption near-edge structure, and small-angle x-ray scattering, show a broad distribution of nanoparticle sizes with characteristics depending on the treatment regime; a crystalline structure of these nanoparticles is detected in heat treated samples. Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) studies of samples subjected to heat treatment as well as of maghemite, magnetite, and iron garnet allow to unambiguously assign the nanoparticle structure to maghemite, independently of co-dopant nature and of heat treatment regime used. Different features observed in the MCD spectra are related to different electron transitions in Fe{sup 3+} ions gathered in the nanoparticles. The static magnetization in heat treated samples has non-linear dependence on the magnetizing field with hysteresis. Zero-field cooled magnetization curves show that at higher temperatures the nanoparticles occur in superparamagnetic state with blocking temperatures above 100 K. Below ca. 20 K, a considerable contribution to both zero field-cooled and field-cooled magnetizations occurs from diluted paramagnetic ions. Variable-temperature electron magnetic resonance (EMR) studies unambiguously show that in as-prepared glasses paramagnetic ions are in diluted state and confirm the formation of magnetic nanoparticles already at earlier stages of heat treatment. Computer simulations of the EMR spectra corroborate the broad distribution of nanoparticle sizes found by 'direct' techniques as well as superparamagnetic nanoparticle behaviour demonstrated in the

  10. Nitrogen Doped Carbon Nanotubes from Organometallic Compounds: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil J. Coville

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs have become a topic of increased importance in the study of carbonaceous materials. This arises from the physical and chemical properties that are created when N is embedded in a CNT. These properties include modified chemical reactivity and modified conductivity and mechanical properties. A range of methodologies have been devised to synthesize N-CNTs. One of the procedures uses a floating catalyst in which an organometallic complex is decomposed in the gas phase in the presence of a nitrogen containing reactant to give N-CNTs. Most studies have been limited to ferrocene, ring substituted ferrocene and Fe(CO5. This review covers the synthesis (and properties of N-CNTs and other shaped carbon nanomaterials (SCNMs produced using organometallic complexes. It summarizes the effects that physical parameters such as temperature, pressure, gas flow rates, type and concentration of N source etc. have on the N-CNT type, size and yields as well as the nitrogen content incorporated into the tubes that are produced from organometallic complexes. Proposed growth models for N-CNT synthesis are also reported.

  11. Nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbons for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai; Liu, Qiming

    2016-08-01

    The mesoporous carbons have been synthesized by using α-D(+)-Glucose, D-Glucosamine hydrochloride or their mixture as carbon precursors and mesoporous silicas (SBA-15 or MCF) as hard templates. The as-prepared products show a large pore volume (0.59-0.97 cm3 g-1), high surface areas (352.72-1152.67 m2 g-1) and rational nitrogen content (ca. 2.5-3.9 wt.%). The results of electrochemical tests demonstrate that both heteroatom doping and suitable pore structure play a decisive role in the performance of supercapacitors. The representative sample of SBA-15 replica obtained using D-Glucosamine hydrochloride only exhibits high specific capacitance (212.8 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1) and good cycle durability (86.1% of the initial capacitance after 2000 cycles) in 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte, which is attributed to the contribution of double layer capacitance and pseudo-capacitance. The excellent electrochemical performance makes it a promising electrode material for supercapacitors.

  12. A facile route to synthesize nanogels doped with silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coll Ferrer, M. Carme [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Materials Science (United States); Ferrier, Robert C. [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (United States); Eckmann, David M. [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care (United States); Composto, Russell J., E-mail: composto@seas.upenn.edu [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Materials Science (United States)

    2013-01-15

    In this study, we describe a simple method to prepare hybrid nanogels consisting of a biocompatible core-shell polymer host containing silver nanoparticles. First, the nanogels (NG, {approx}160 nm) containing a lysozyme rich core and a dextran rich shell, are prepared via Maillard and heat-gelation reactions. Second, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs, {approx}5 nm) are synthesized 'in situ' in the NG solution without requiring additional reducing agents. This approach leads to stable Ag NPs located in the NG. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the amount of Ag NPs in the NG can be tuned by varying silver precursor concentration. Hybrid nanogels with silver nanoparticles have potential in antimicrobial, optical, and therapeutic applications.

  13. Photoluminescence quenching and enhanced spin relaxation in Fe doped ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovhal, Manoj M.; Santhosh Kumar, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology, Girinagar, Pune 411025 (India); Khullar, Prerna [School of Materials Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India); Kumar, Manjeet [Department of Materials Engineering, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology, Girinagar, Pune 411025 (India); Abhyankar, A.C., E-mail: ashutoshabhyankar@gmail.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology, Girinagar, Pune 411025 (India)

    2017-07-01

    Cost-effective ultrasonically assisted precipitation method is utilized to synthesize Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) at room temperature and the effect of Iron (Fe) doping on structural, optical and spin relaxation properties also presented. As-synthesized pure and Fe doped ZnO NPs possess a perfect hexagonal growth habit of wurtzite zinc oxide, along the (101) direction of preference. With Fe doping, ‘c/a’ ratio and compressive lattice strain in ZnO NPs are found to reduce and increase, respectively. Raman studies demonstrate that the E{sub 1} longitudinal optical (LO) vibrational mode is very weak in pure which remarkably enhanced with Fe doping into ZnO NPs. The direct band gap energy (E{sub g}) of the ZnO NPs has been increased from 3.02 eV to 3.11 eV with Fe doping. A slight red-shift observed with strong green emission band, in photoluminescence spectra, is strongly quenched in 6 wt.% Fe doped ZnO NPs. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals spherical shape of ZnO NPs with 60–70 nm, which reduces substantially on Fe doping. The energy dispersive X-ray spectrum and elemental mapping confirms the homogeneous distribution of Fe in ZnO NPs. Moreover, the specific relaxation rate (R{sub 2sp} = 1/T{sub 2}) has been measured using Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) method and found to be maximum in 6 wt.% Fe doped ZnO NPs. Further, the correlation of structural, optical and dynamic properties is proposed. - Highlights: • Pure ZnO and Fe doped ZnO NPs were successfully prepared by cost effective ultrasonically assisted precipitation method. • The optical band gap of ZnO has been enhanced form 3.02–3.11 eV with Fe doping. • PL quenching behaviour has been observed with Fe{sup 3+} ions substitution in ZnO lattice. • Specific relaxation rate (R{sub 2sp} = 1/T{sub 2}) has been varied with Fe doping and found to be maximum in 6 wt.% Fe doped ZnO NPs.

  14. Preparation of Mn doped CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles with enhanced ferromagnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravi, S., E-mail: sravi@mepcoeng.ac.in; Winfred Shashikanth, F.

    2017-06-15

    Spherical-like CeO{sub 2} and Mn-doped CeO{sub 2} using 6-aminohexanoic acid as surfactant exhibit enhanced ferromagnetism. The optical absorption spectra reveal a red shift with a band gap of 2.51 eV. The mechanics of ferromagnetism and the red shift were analyzed. These results provide a promising platform for developing a dilute magnetic semiconductor in spintronics. - Highlights: • Pure and Mn-doped CeO{sub 2} is prepared with aminohexanoic acid as capping. • They exhibit wide optical absorption with red-shift in their band gap. • Mn-doped CeO{sub 2} nanoparticle exhibit hysteresis at room temperature. • Results were promising to use in spintronics and opto-electronics field.

  15. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue with Fe doped ZnS nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ruby; Kumar, Ashavani; Chaudhary, Ram Pal

    2013-09-01

    Fe doped ZnS nanoparticles (Zn1-xFexS; where x=0.00, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.10) were synthesized by a chemical precipitation method. The synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectrometer. The X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope studies show that the size of crystallites is in the range of 2-5 nm. Photocatalytic activities of ZnS and 3, 5 and 10 mol% Fe doped ZnS were evaluated by decolorization of methylene blue in aqueous solution under ultraviolet and visible light irradiation. It was found that the Fe doped ZnS bleaches methylene blue much faster than the undoped ZnS upon its exposure to the visible light as compared to ultraviolet light. The optimal Fe/Zn ratio was observed to be 3 mol% for photocatalytic applications.

  16. Magnetic Properties of Fe and Ni Doped SnO2 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report the room temperature ferromagnetism in Sn1‐xFexO2 and Sn1‐xNixO2 (x = 0.00, 0.03 and 0.05 nano‐crystalline powders. All the samples were prepared using co‐precipitation method. X‐Ray Diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, energy dispersive x‐ray analysis (EDAX, UV‐ visible absorption spectroscopy and room temperature magnetization measurements were performed to study the crystal structure, morphology, elemental analysis, optical band gap and magnetic properties of Fe and Ni doped SnO2. TEM results depict the formation of spherically shaped and small sized nanoparticles of the diameter of ~ 3 nm. The band gap energy of the Fe and Ni doped samples found to decrease with increasing their concentrations. The higher saturation magnetization was observed in low concentration Fe and Ni doped tin oxide.

  17. Solvothermal Synthesis and Photocatalytic Properties of Nitrogen-Doped SrTiO3 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uyi Sulaeman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Perovskite-type nitrogen-doped SrTiO3 nanoparticles of 50–80 nm in diameter were successfully synthesized by the solvothermal of Ti(OC3H74, SrCl2⋅6H2O, and hexamethylenetetramine in KOH aqueous solution. Nitrogen-doped SrTiO3 showed excellent photocatalytic activity under both UV and visible light irradiation, that is, the photocatalytic activity of N-doped SrTiO3 for DeNOx reaction was greater than that of SrTiO3 and commercial TiO2 (Degussa P25 in both visible light region (>510 nm and UV light region (>290 nm. The excellent visible light photocatalytic activity of this substance was caused by generating a new band gap that absorbs visible light.

  18. In situ aggregation of ZnSe nanoparticles into supraparticles: shape control and doping effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gaoling; Zhong, Haizheng; Liu, Ruibin; Li, Yongfang; Zou, Bingsuo

    2013-02-12

    The ability to tune the size, shape, and properties of supraparticles is of great importance for fundamental study as well as their promising applications. We previously developed a method to synthesize monodisperse ZnSe supraparticles via "in situ aggregation" of ZnSe nanoparticles through a simple hot-injection method. In the present work, we show that the "in situ aggregation" strategy can be extended to tune the shapes of ZnSe supraparticles, and introduce novel functional magnetic and luminescence properties. Shape control is manipulated with oleic acid as ligands, which balances the attractive interparticles van der Waals forces and steric repulsive forces from the ligands. With the increase of oleic acid concentration, a morphology change from microspheres to asymmetrical multimer and three-dimensional nanoflowers was observed. "Doping" preformed Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles into ZnSe supraparticles endow them with magnetic properties. The magnetism of these Fe(3)O(4)@ZnSe supraparticles depends on the dosage of dopant. Doping of preformed CdS nanocrystals was also studied, resulting in emissive hybrid CdS@ZnSe supraparticles with diameters of 50-100 nm. It is noted that the doping of Fe(3)O(4) and CdS nanoparticles show differing morphologies. The differences can be explained by variance in the lattice mismatches which leads to differing potentials for crystal growth.

  19. Synthesis and Modification of Zn-doped TiO2 Nanoparticles for the Photocatalytic Degradation of Tetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Shuo; Huang, Ji-Guo; Su, Yun; Geng, Bo; Lei, Su-Yuan; Huang, Yu-Ting; Lyu, Cong; Liu, Xing-Juan

    2016-09-01

    The synthesis of Zn-doped TiO2 nanoparticles by solgel method was investigated in this study, as well as its modification by H2 O2 . The catalyst was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, UV-visible reflectance spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that doping Zn into TiO2 nanoparticles could inhibit the transformation from anatase phase to rutile phase. Zn existed as the second valence oxidation state in the Zn-doped TiO2 . Zn-doped TiO2 that was synthesized by 5% Zn doping at 450°C exhibited the best photocatalytic activity. Then, the H2 O2 modification further enhanced the photocatalytic activity. Zn doping and H2 O2 modifying narrowed the band gap and efficiently increased the optical absorption in visible region. The optimal degradation rate of tetracycline by Zn-doped TiO2 and H2 O2 modified Zn-doped TiO2 was 85.27% and 88.14%. Peroxide groups were detected in XPS analysis of H2 O2 modified Zn-doped TiO2 , favoring the adsorption of visible light. Furthermore, Zn-doped TiO2 modified by H2 O2 had relatively good reusability, exhibiting a potential practical application for tetracycline's photocatalytic degradation.

  20. The phase transition of W-doped VO2 nanoparticles synthesized by an improved thermolysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jiwei; Zhang, Jianwu; Wang, Zhongping; Zhang, Zengming; Ding, Zejun

    2013-02-01

    High-quality thermochromic monoclinic VO2(M) and series of W-doped V(1-x)W(x)O2(M) nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by an improved thermolysis method. The products were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) technologies. The measurement of DSC revealed that the metal-insulator phase transition (MIT) of 2.0% W-doped VO2 sample occurred at 25.6 degrees C, which was much lower than the MIT of host VO2(M) nanoparticles at 67.6 degrees C. The results showed that the proportion of the transmittance of tetragonal phase reached only about 29% of that of monoclinic phase for 0.5% W-doped VO2 at the wavenumber 900 cm(-1), which indicated W-doped VO2(M) was an intelligent window and optical switch materials.

  1. Determining the thermophysical properties of Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles by the photoacoustic technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.A.El-Brolossy; O.Saber; S.S.Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of undoped and Al-doped (1-10 at.%) ZnO nanoparticles prepared using the solvent thermal method are determined by measuring both thermal diffusivity and thermal effusivity of a pressed powder compact of the prepared nanoparticles by using the laser-induced photoacoustic technique.The impact of Al doping versus the microstructure of the samples on such thermal parameters has been investigated.The results reveal an obvious enhancement in the specific heat capacity when decreasing the particle size,while the effect of Al doping on the specific heat capacity is minor.The measured thermal conductivities are about one order of magnitude smaller than that of the bulk ZnO due to several nested reducing heat transfer mechanisms.The results also show that Al doping significantly influences the thermal resistance.Using a simple thermal impedance model,the added thermal resistance due to Al dopant has been estimated.

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Cerium (III Doped Captopril Nanoparticles and Study of their Photoluminescence Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghamami Shahriar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research Ce3+ doped Captopril nanoparticles (Ce3+ doped CAP-NP were prepared by a cold welding process and have been studied. Captopril may be applied in the treatment of hypertension and some types of congestive heart failure and for preventing kidney failure due to high blood pressure and diabetes. CAP-NP was synthesized by a cold welding process. The cerium nitrate was added at a ratio of 10% and the optical properties have been studied by photoluminescence (PL. The synthesized compounds were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The size of CAP-NP was calculated by X-ray diffraction (XRD. The size of CAP-NP was in the range of 50 nm. Morphology of surface of synthesized nanoparticles was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Finally the luminescence properties of undoped and doped CAP-NP were compared. PL spectra from undoped CAP-NP show a strong pack in the range of 546 nm after doped cerium ion into the captopril appeared two bands at 680 and 357 nm, which is ascribed to the well-known 5d–4f emission band of the cerium.

  3. Structure and high photocatalytic activity of (N, Ta)-doped TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, N. T. H.; Thanh, T. D.; Pham, V.-T.; Phan, T. L.; Lam, V. D.; Manh, D. H.; Anh, T. X.; Le, T. K. C.; Thammajak, N.; Hong, L. V.; Yu, S. C.

    2016-10-01

    A hydrothermal method was used to prepare three nano-crystalline samples of TiO2 (S1), N-doped TiO2 (S2), and (N, Ta)-codoped TiO2 (S3) with average crystallite sizes (D) of 13-25 nm. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed a single phase of the samples with a tetragonal/anatase structure. A slight increase in the lattice parameters was observed when N and/or Ta dopants were doped into the TiO2 host lattice. Detailed analyses of extended X-ray absorption spectra indicated that N- and/or Ta-doping into TiO2 nanoparticles influenced the co-ordination number and radial distance (R) of Ti ions in the anatase structure. Concerning their absorption spectra, (N, Ta)-doping narrowed the band gap (Eg) of TiO2 from 3.03 eV for S1 through 2.94 eV for S2 to 2.85 eV for S3. Such results revealed the applicability of these nanoparticles in the photocatalytic field working in the ultraviolet (UV)-visible region. Among these, photocatalytic activity of S3 was the strongest. By using S3 as a catalyst powder, the degradation efficiency of methylene blue solution was about 99% and 93% after irradiation of UV-visible light for 75 min and visible-light for 180 min, respectively.

  4. Comparative Solid Phase Photocatalytic Degradation of Polythene Films with Doped and Undoped TiO2 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasim Asghar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative photocatalytic degradation of polythene films was investigated with undoped and metal (Fe, Ag, and Fe/Ag mix doped TiO2 nanoparticles under three different conditions such as UV radiation, artificial light, and darkness. Prepared photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, SEM, and EDS techniques. Photocatalytic degradation of the polythene films was determined by monitoring their weight reduction, SEM analysis, and FTIR spectroscopy. Weight of PE films steadily decreased and led to maximum of 14.34% reduction under UV irradiation with Fe/Ag mix doped TiO2 nanoparticles and maximum of 14.28% reduction under artificial light with Ag doped TiO2 nanoparticles in 300 hrs. No weight reduction was observed under darkness. Results reveal that polythene-TiO2 compositing with metal doping has the potential to degrade the polythene waste under irradiation without any pollution.

  5. MnO nanoparticles as the cause of ferromagnetism in bulk dilute Mn-doped ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lançon, Diane; Nilsen, Gøran J.; Wildes, Andrew R.; Nemkovski, Kirill; Huang, Ping; Fejes, Dóra; Rønnow, Henrik M.; Magrez, Arnaud

    2016-12-01

    We show that the observed ferromagnetic behavior of ZnO lightly doped with Mn coincides with the presence of MnO nanoparticles, whereas cluster-free Mn doped ZnO behaves paramagnetically. This conclusion is reached by a study of the structural and magnetic properties of powdered samples of (Mnx,Zn1-x)O with x ≤ 0.033 using polarized neutron scattering. Two types of samples were synthesized via, respectively, a solid state method and the decomposition of hydrozincite. Further characterization has been performed using standard X-ray diffraction and magnetization measurements. The results show evidence for the formation of MnO nanoparticles in the highest doped samples for both synthesis methods, with a ferromagnetic behavior attributed to uncompensated Mn2+ in the MnO nanoparticles. The lower Mn-doped samples showed no evidence for structural segregation or magnetic correlations and showed only a paramagnetic behaviour.

  6. Solution Synthesis of Iodine-Doped Red Phosphorus Nanoparticles for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Chung; Tseng, Kuan-Wei; Tuan, Hsing-Yu

    2017-02-08

    Red phosphorus (RP) is a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries due to its earth abundance and a high theoretical capacity of 2596 mA h g(-1). Although RP-based anodes for lithium-ion batteries have been reported, they were all in the form of carbon-P composites, including P-graphene, P-graphite, P-carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and P-carbon black, to improve P's extremely low conductivity and large volume change during cycling process. Here, we report the large-scale synthesis of red phosphorus nanoparticles (RPNPs) with sizes ranging from 100 to 200 nm by reacting PI3 with ethylene glycol in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in ambient environment. Unlike the insulator behavior of commercial RP (conductivity of <10 (-12) S m(-1)), the conductivity of RPNPs is between 2.62 × 10(-3) and 1.81 × 10(-2) S m(-1), which is close to that of semiconductor germanium (1.02 × 10(-2) S m(-1)), and 2 orders of magnitude higher than silicon (5.35 × 10(-4) S m(-1)). Around 3-5 wt % of iodine-doping was found in RPNPs, which was speculated as the key to significantly improve the conductivity of RPNPs. The significantly improved conductivity of RPNPs and their uniform colloidal nanostructures enable them to be used solely as active materials for LIBs anodes. The RPNPs electrodes exhibit a high specific capacity of 1700 mA h g(-1) (0.2 C after 100 cycles, 1 C = 2000 mA g(-1)), long cycling life (∼900 mA h g(-1) after 500 cycles at 1 C), and outstanding rate capability (175 mA h g(-1) at the charge current density of 120 A g(-1), 60 C). Moreover, as a proof-of-concept example, pouch-type full cells using RPNPs anodes and Li(Ni0.5Co0.3Mn0.2)O2 (NCM-532) cathodes were assembled to show their practical uses.

  7. Mesoporous Nitrogen Doped Carbon-Glass Ceramic Cathode for High Performance Lithium-Oxygen Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Hardwick, and J.- M. Tarascon, Nature Materials, vol. 11, pp 19-29, 2012. 2. Linden , D. (Ed), Handbook of Batteries , 2nd Edition, Mc-Graw-Hill, New...AFRL-RQ-WP-TP-2015-0053 MESOPOROUS NITROGEN DOPED CARBON-GLASS CERAMIC CATHODE FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE LITHIUM-OXYGEN BATTERY (POSTPRINT...DOPED CARBON-GLASS CERAMIC CATHODE FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE LITHIUM-OXYGEN BATTERY (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  8. Electrochemical Performance of Highly Mesoporous Nitrogen Doped Carbon Cathode in Lithium-Oxygen Batteries (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Chem. Lett. 1 (2010) 2193–2203. [3] F.T. Wagner, B. Lakshmanan, M.F. Mathias, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1 (2010) 2204–2219. [4] D. Linden (Ed.), Handbook ...AFRL-RQ-WP-TP-2015-0052 ELECTROCHEMICAL PERFORMANCE OF HIGHLY MESOPOROUS NITROGEN DOPED CARBON CATHODE IN LITHIUM-OXYGEN BATTERIES ...01 March 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ELECTROCHEMICAL PERFORMANCE OF HIGHLY MESOPOROUS NITROGEN DOPED CARBON CATHODE IN LITHIUM-OXYGEN BATTERIES

  9. Effect of Carbon Doping on the Electronic Structure and Elastic Properties of Boron Suboxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    of Boron Suboxide by Amol B Rahane, Jennifer S Dunn, and Vijay Kumar Approved for public release; distribution unlimited...Laboratory Effect of Carbon Doping on the Electronic Structure and Elastic Properties of Boron Suboxide by Amol B Rahane and Vijay Kumar Dr...SUBTITLE Effect of Carbon Doping on the Electronic Structure and Elastic Properties of Boron Suboxide 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  10. Gd(iii)-doped carbon dots as a dual fluorescent-MRI probe

    KAUST Repository

    Bourlinos, Athanasios B.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the synthesis of Gd(iii)-doped carbon dots as dual fluorescence-MRI probes for biomedical applications. The derived Gd(iii)-doped carbon dots show uniform particle size (3-4 nm) and gadolinium distribution and form stable dispersions in water. More importantly, they exhibit bright fluorescence, strong T1-weighted MRI contrast and low cytotoxicity. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.

  11. Functional Species Encapsulated in Nitrogen-Doped Porous Carbon as a Highly Efficient Catalyst for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li; Wang, Tao; Ma, Yiou; Xue, Hairong; Guo, Hu; Fan, Xiaoli; Xia, Wei; Gong, Hao; He, Jianping

    2017-03-08

    The scarcity, high cost, and poor stability of precious metal-based electrocatalysts have stimulated the development of novel non-precious metal catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) for use in fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Here, we fabricated in situ a hybrid material (Co-W-C/N) with functional species (tungsten carbide and cobalt nanoparticles) encapsulated in an N-doped porous carbon framework, through a facile multi-constituent co-assembly method combined with subsequent annealing treatment. The unique structure favors the anchoring active nanoparticles and facilitates mass transfer steps. The homogenously distributed carbide nanoparticles and adjacent Co-N-C sites lead to the electrocatalytic synergism for the ORR. The existence of Co and W can promote the graphitization of the carbon matrix. Benefiting from its structural and material superiority, the Co-W-C/N electrocatalyst exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity (with a half-wave potential of 0.774 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE)), high stability (96.3 % of the initial current remaining after 9000 s of continuous operation), and good immunity against methanol in alkaline media.

  12. Carbon Nanotube/Graphene Supercapacitors Containing Manganese Oxide Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    electrolytes : 0.5 M K2SO4, 1 M sodium chloride (NaCl), and 1 M calcium chloride (CaCl2). The qualitative CV behavior of the three electrolytes can be seen...Carbon Nanotube/ Graphene Supercapacitors Containing Manganese Oxide Nanoparticles by Matthew Ervin, Vinay Raju, Mary Hendrickson, and...Laboratory Adelphi, MD 20783-1197 ARL-TR-6289 December 2012 Carbon Nanotube/ Graphene Supercapacitors Containing Manganese Oxide

  13. Presence of Fluorescent Carbon Nanoparticles in Baked Lamb: Their Properties and Potential Application for Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haitao; Xie, Yisha; Liu, Shan; Cong, Shuang; Song, Yukun; Xu, Xianbing; Tan, Mingqian

    2017-08-30

    The presence of nanoparticles in food has drawn much attention in recent years. Fluorescent carbon nanoparticles are a new class of nanostructures; however, the distribution and physicochemical properties of such nanoparticles in food remain unclear. Herein, the presence of fluorescent carbon nanoparticles in baked lamb was confirmed, and their physicochemical properties were investigated. The fluorescent carbon nanoparticles from baked lamb emit strong blue fluorescence under ultraviolet light with a 10% fluorescent quantum yield. The nanoparticles are roughly spherical in appearance with a diameter of around 2.0 nm. Hydroxyl, amino, and carboxyl groups exist on the surface of nanoparticles. In addition, the nanoparticles could serve as a fluorescence sensor for glucose detection through an oxidation-reduction reaction. This work is the first report on fluorescent carbon nanoparticles present in baked lamb, which provides valuable insight into the physicochemical properties of such nanoparticles and their potential application in sensors.

  14. Ultrasonic-assisted degradation of phenazopyridine with a combination of Sm-doped ZnO nanoparticles and inorganic oxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandarloo, Hamed; Badiei, Alireza; Behnajady, Mohammad A; Ziarani, Ghodsi Mohammadi

    2016-01-01

    Pure and samarium doped ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by a sonochemical method and characterized by TEM, SEM, EDX, XRD, Pl, and DRS techniques. The average crystallite size of pure and Sm-doped ZnO nanoparticles was about 20 nm. The sonocatalytic activity of pure and Sm-doped ZnO nanoparticles was considered toward degradation of phenazopyridine as a model organic contaminant. The Sm-doped ZnO nanoparticles with Sm concentration of 0.4 mol% indicated a higher sonocatalytic activity (59%) than the pure ZnO (51%) and other Sm-doped ZnO nanoparticles. It was believed that Sm(3+) ion with optimal concentration (0.4 mol%) can act as superficial trapping for electrons in the conduction band of ZnO and delayed the recombination of charge carriers. The influence of the nature and concentration of various oxidants, including periodate, hydrogen peroxide, peroxymonosulfate, and peroxydisulfate on the sonocatalytic activity of Sm-doped ZnO nanoparticles was studied. The influence of the oxidants concentration (0.2-1.4 g L(-1)) on the degradation rate was established by the 3D response surface and the 2D contour plots. The results demonstrated that the utilizing of oxidants in combination with Sm-doped ZnO resulting in rapid removal of contaminant, which can be referable to a dual role of oxidants; (i) scavenging the generated electrons in the conduction band of ZnO and (ii) creating highly reactive radical species under ultrasonic irradiation. It was found that the Sm-doped ZnO and periodate combination is the most efficient catalytic system under ultrasonic irradiation.

  15. Structural, optical, dielectric and antibacterial studies of Mn doped Zn0.96Cu0.04O nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeetha, R; Muthukumaran, S; Ashokkumar, M

    2015-06-05

    Zn(0.96-x)Cu0.04Mn(x)O (0⩽x⩽0.04) nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel method. The X-ray diffraction pattern indicated that doping of Mn and Cu did not change the ZnO hexagonal wurtzite structure. The Mn doped nanoparticles had smaller average crystallite size than un-doped Zn0.96Cu0.04O nanoparticles due to the distortion in the host ZnO lattice. This distortion prevented the subsequent growth and hence the size reduced by Mn doping. The changes in lattice parameters, average crystallite size, peak position and peak intensity confirmed the Mn substitution in Zn-Cu-O lattice. The Mn and Cu co-doping increased the charge carrier density in ZnO nanoparticles which led to increase the dielectric constant. The dielectric constant also varied by depend the size of the nanoparticles. The change in morphology by Mn-doping was studied by transmission electron microscope. The optical absorption and band gap were changed with respect to both compositional and size effects. The band gap was initially increased from 3.65 to 3.73 eV at 1% of Mn doping, while decreasing trend in band gap was noticed for further increase of Mn. The band gap was decreased from 3.73 to 3.48 eV when Mn concentration was increased from 2% to 4%. Presence of chemical bonding and purity of the nanoparticles were confirmed by FTIR spectra. The antibacterial study revealed that that the antibacterial activity of Zn0.96Cu0.04O is enhanced by Mn doping.

  16. Nanostructured nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon derived from polyacrylonitrile for advanced lithium sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ying; Zhao, Xiaohui; Chauhan, Ghanshyam S. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Research Institute for Green Energy Convergence Technology, Gyeongsang National University, 501 Jinju-daero, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jou-Hyeon, E-mail: jhahn@gnu.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering and Research Institute for Green Energy Convergence Technology, Gyeongsang National University, 501 Jinju-daero, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Engineering and Convergence Technology and RIGET, Gyeongsang National University, 501 Jinju-daero, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-01

    Graphical abstract: Well-ordered nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon materials were prepared by in-situ polymerization of polyacrylonitrile in SBA-15 template. The composite of sulfur and nitrogen-doped carbon was successfully used as a cathode material for lithium sulfur battery. - Highlights: • N-doped mesoporous carbons were prepared with PAN as carbon source. • Highly ordered pore system facilitates sulfur loading. • Ladder-type carbon matrix provides good structural stability for confining sulfur. • N-doping ensures an improved absorbability of soluble polysulfides. - Abstract: Nitrogen doping in carbon matrix can effectively improve the wettability of electrolyte and increase electric conductivity of carbon by ensuring fast transfer of ions. We synthesized a series of nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbons (CPANs) via in situ polymerization of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in SBA-15 template followed by carbonization at different temperatures. Carbonization results in the formation of ladder structure which enhances the stability of the matrix. In this study, CPAN-800, carbon matrix synthesized by the carbonization at 800 °C, was found to possess many desirable properties such as high specific surface area and pore volume, moderate nitrogen content, and highly ordered mesoporous structure. Therefore, it was used to prepare S/CPAN-800 composite as cathode material in lithium sulfur (Li-S) batteries. The S/CPAN-800 composite was proved to be an excellent material for Li-S cells which delivered a high initial discharge capacity of 1585 mAh g{sup −1} and enhanced capacity retention of 862 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.1 C after 100 cycles.

  17. Degradation of Pollutant and Antibacterial Activity of Waterborne Polyurethane/Doped TiO2 Nanoparticle Hybrid Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Shan; DENG Fengxia; XU Shanwen; LIU Peng; MIN Xinmin; MA Fang

    2015-01-01

    The waterborne polyurethane/doped TiO2 nanoparticle hybrid films were prepared. Nd, I doped TiO2 was prepared with a 50 nm particle sizefi rstly. The hybridfi lm was prepared by mixing doped TiO2 with waterborne polyurethane, followed by heat treatment. The presence and nanometric distribution of doped TiO2 nanoparticles in prepared membranes is evident according to SEM images. The photocatalytic activities of doped TiO2 were signifi cantly enhanced compared with pure TiO2 powders. After the hybridfi lm fabrication, the photocatalytic activities were almost the same as the pure catalysts withkMB of 0.046. In the antibacterial testing, the hybridfi lms can inhibitE. coli growth. A signifi cant decrease in membranefl uidity and increase of permeability ofE. coli were observed.

  18. Substitutional doping of carbon nanotubes with heteroatoms and their chemical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yexin; Zhang, Jian; Su, Dang Sheng

    2014-05-01

    The electronic properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be tuned by substitutional doping with heteroatoms (mainly B and N) to expand the applications of CNTs. Based on the comprehensive understanding of the substitutional doping of CNTs, it should be possible to deliberately design doped CNTs for specific purposes. Thus, relevant experimental and theoretical works are reviewed herein in an attempt to correlate the synthetic methods, electronic properties, and applications of heteroatom-doped CNTs. The distribution and arrangement of heteroatoms in the graphitic lattice of CNTs can be modulated through the choice of synthetic conditions, which would further lead to different electronic properties of CNTs for their chemical applications.

  19. Composite films of metal doped CoS/carbon allotropes; efficient electrocatalyst counter electrodes for high performance quantum dot-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Seyede Sara; Dehghani, Hossein; Afrooz, Malihe

    2017-05-01

    This study reports the enhanced catalytic ability of metal ions-doped CoS and CoS/carbon allotrope counter electrodes (CEs) (synthesized using a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method) to improve the power conversion efficiency (η) in quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). Firstly, doping effects of different metal ions (Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Sr(2+) and Ba(2+)) in the CoS CE on the QDSSCs performance have been investigated. Overall, among the different metal doped CoS CEs, the best energy conversion efficiency of 2.19%, achieved for Sr, is the highest reported for QDSSCs constructed with metal doped CoS. A sandwich structural Sr- and Ba-CoS/carbon allotrope (graphene sheet (GS), graphene oxide (GO) and carbon nanotube (CNT)) composite CEs have been prepared by repeating electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of carbon materials and deposition of CoS nanoparticles. Dramatic enhancements of η have been observed with the Sr- and Ba-CoS/GO CEs based QDSSCs (∼76% and ∼41%, respectively), which is higher than that of the bare CoS CE. Because of the large specific surface area and superior electrical conductivity of GS, GO and CNT and the high electrocatalytic activity of CoS, these CEs show an improvement in the photocurrent density in the cells, as revealed from electrochemical and spectral data.

  20. Synthesis, characterization and optical properties of gelatin doped with silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, K H; Abbo, M

    2013-12-01

    In this study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical reduction of silver salt (AgNO3) solution. Formation of nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-visible spectrometry. The surface plasmon resonance peak is located at 430 nm. Doping of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) with gelatin biopolymer was studied. The silver content in the polymer matrix was in the range of 0.4-1 wt%. The formation of nanoparticles disappeared for silver content higher than 1 wt%. The morphology and interaction of gelatin doped with Ag NPs was examined by transmission electron microscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. The content of Ag NPs has a pronounced effect on optical and structural properties of gelatin. Optical parameters such as refractive index, complex dielectric constant were calculated. The dispersion of the refractive index was discussed in terms of the single--oscillator Wemple-DiDomenico model. Color properties of the prepared samples were discussed in the framework of CIE L(*)u(*)v(*) color space. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Photocatalytic Degradation of Nitro and Chlorophenols Using Doped and Undoped Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ilyas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure and Ag-TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized, with the metallic doping being done using the Liquid Impregnation (LI method. The resulting nanoparticles were characterized by analytical methods such as scanning electron micrographs (SEMs, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. XRD analysis indicated that the crystallite size of TiO2 was 27 nm to 42 nm while the crystallite size of Ag-TiO2 was 11.27 nm to 42.52 nm. The photocatalytic activity of pure TiO2 and silver doped TiO2 was tested by photocatalytic degradation of p-nitrophenol as a model compound. Ag-TiO2 nanoparticles exhibited better results (98% degradation as compared to pure TiO2 nanoparticles (83% degradation in 1 hour for the degradation of p-nitrophenol. Ag-TiO2 was further used for the photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-dichlorphenol (99% degradation, 2,5-dichlorophenol (98% degradation, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (96% degradation in 1 hour. The degree of mineralization was tested by TOC experiment indicating that 2,4-DCP was completely mineralized, while 2,5-DCP was mineralized upto 95 percent and 2,4,6-TCP upto 86 percent within a period of 2 hours.

  2. Low-temperature solution synthesis and characterization of Ce-doped YAG nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉成; 冀立宇; 连刘超; 沈丽明; 张晓艳; 王一峰

    2015-01-01

    Monophasic Ce3+-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Ce:YAG) nanoparticles with high crystallinity and tunable grain size ranging from ~19–30 nm were prepared by a modified co-precipitation process with a follow-up calcination treatment. For the syn-thesis, aluminum, yttrium, and cerium nitrates were used as starting materials, ammonium sulfate as dispersant, and a combination of ammonium bicarbonate and ammonia as precipitating agent. Influence of precipitation temperature, the pH value of precipitant solu-tions, aging period, calcination conditions, and Ce-doping level were investigated for controlling the purity, particle size, and photo-luminescence performance of the Ce:YAG nanoparticles. High-purity YAG nanoparticles were prepared at pH=10.50–11.00 and cal-cination temperatures of 850–1100 ºC with a calcination time of 3 h. With increasing Ce3+ concentration, the peak in the emission spectra of the obtained nanopowders shifted from 529 nm for the 0.67 wt.%-Ce:YAG to 544 nm for the 3.4 wt.%-Ce:YAG, while the strongest photoluminescence intensity was observed for the 1.3 wt.%-Ce:YAG nanoparticles.

  3. DNA base pair resolution measurements using resonance energy transfer efficiency in lanthanide doped nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Delplanque

    Full Text Available Lanthanide-doped nanoparticles are of considerable interest for biodetection and bioimaging techniques thanks to their unique chemical and optical properties. As a sensitive luminescence material, they can be used as (bio probes in Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET where trivalent lanthanide ions (La3+ act as energy donors. In this paper we present an efficient method to transfer ultrasmall (ca. 8 nm NaYF4 nanoparticles dispersed in organic solvent to an aqueous solution via oxidation of the oleic acid ligand. Nanoparticles were then functionalized with single strand DNA oligomers (ssDNA by inducing covalent bonds between surface carboxylic groups and a 5' amine modified-ssDNA. Hybridization with the 5' fluorophore (Cy5 modified complementary ssDNA strand demonstrated the specificity of binding and allowed the fine control over the distance between Eu3+ ions doped nanoparticle and the fluorophore by varying the number of the dsDNA base pairs. First, our results confirmed nonradiative resonance energy transfer and demonstrate the dependence of its efficiency on the distance between the donor (Eu3+ and the acceptor (Cy5 with sensitivity at a nanometre scale.

  4. Synthesis of Ce-doped SnO2 nanoparticles and their acetone gas sensing properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Xiaoxue; Li, Yan; Tong, Xiaoqiang; Zou, Yunling; Liu, Xiulin; An, Dongmin; Wang, Qiong

    2017-06-01

    Hydrothermal method was generally used to synthesis nanoparticles, which was used to fabricate pure and Ce-doped (3 wt%, 5 wt%, 7 wt%) SnO2 nanoparticles in this experiment. The as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). The results clearly indicated that the nanoparticles were composed of SnO2 nanoparticles and Ce ions were successfully doped into the SnO2 lattice, and 5 wt% SnO2:Ce has a higher specific surface area (173.53 m2/g). Importantly, SnO2:Ce sensor had obviously improved performance compared to pure SnO2 and exhibited the highest response values (50.5 for 50 ppm) and a well selectivity to acetone at 270 °C. It could detect acetone gas in a wide concentration range with very high response, good long-term stability and repeatability of response. The possible sensing mechanism was discussed in this paper.

  5. A palladium-doped ceria@carbon core-sheath nanowire network: a promising catalyst support for alcohol electrooxidation reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qiang; Du, Chunyu; Sun, Yongrong; Du, Lei; Yin, Geping; Gao, Yunzhi

    2015-08-01

    A novel palladium-doped ceria and carbon core-sheath nanowire network (Pd-CeO2@C CSNWN) is synthesized by a template-free and surfactant-free solvothermal process, followed by high temperature carbonization. This hierarchical network serves as a new class of catalyst support to enhance the activity and durability of noble metal catalysts for alcohol oxidation reactions. Its supported Pd nanoparticles, Pd/(Pd-CeO2@C CSNWN), exhibit >9 fold increase in activity toward the ethanol oxidation over the state-of-the-art Pd/C catalyst, which is the highest among the reported Pd systems. Moreover, stability tests show a virtually unchanged activity after 1000 cycles. The high activity is mainly attributed to the superior oxygen-species releasing capability of Pd-doped CeO2 nanowires by accelerating the removal of the poisoning intermediate. The unique interconnected one-dimensional core-sheath structure is revealed to facilitate immobilization of the metal catalysts, leading to the improved durability. This core-sheath nanowire network opens up a new strategy for catalyst performance optimization for next-generation fuel cells.A novel palladium-doped ceria and carbon core-sheath nanowire network (Pd-CeO2@C CSNWN) is synthesized by a template-free and surfactant-free solvothermal process, followed by high temperature carbonization. This hierarchical network serves as a new class of catalyst support to enhance the activity and durability of noble metal catalysts for alcohol oxidation reactions. Its supported Pd nanoparticles, Pd/(Pd-CeO2@C CSNWN), exhibit >9 fold increase in activity toward the ethanol oxidation over the state-of-the-art Pd/C catalyst, which is the highest among the reported Pd systems. Moreover, stability tests show a virtually unchanged activity after 1000 cycles. The high activity is mainly attributed to the superior oxygen-species releasing capability of Pd-doped CeO2 nanowires by accelerating the removal of the poisoning intermediate. The unique

  6. Electrical conductivity of metal–carbon nanotube structures: Effect of length and doping

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Nigam; S Habeeb; A Priyadarshi; N Jaggi

    2014-08-01

    The electrical properties of asymmetric metal–carbon nanotube (CNT) structures have been studied using density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green’s function method with Atomistix tool kit. The models with asymmetric metal contacts and carbon nanotube bear resemblance to experimental set-ups. The study shows the effect of varying length of carbon nanotube on electronic transmission and conductance of various structures. The effects of silicon doping on CNT-based structures have also been studied. The conductance of structure with longer CNT is more compared with shorter CNT. Silicon doping increases the conductivity of carbon nanotube-based structure.

  7. Solid-state NMR and EPR analysis of carbon-doped titanium dioxide photocatalysts (TiO(2-)(x)C(x)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Garcia, Enrique A; Sun, Yanping; Reyes-Gil, Karla R; Raftery, Daniel

    2009-04-01

    Carbon-doped TiO(2) have received attention recently because of their potential for environmental photocatalysis and solar hydrogen conversion applications. Three different carbon-doped TiO(2) nanoparticle materials were synthesized via sol-gel and hydrothermal procedures, and analyzed by (13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) and other methods to characterize the environment of the doping species. UV/vis spectra and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that the synthesized materials absorbed visible light and their crystal structures corresponded to anatase. (13)C SSNMR analyses of TiO(2-)(x)C(x) displayed signals corresponding to carbonate-type or sp(2)-type carbon species. Variable contact CP-MAS and dipolar dephasing analyses gave evidence for the presence and proximity of H atoms near these carbonate species. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy showed that the thermally oxidized TiO(2-)(x)C(x) displayed a complex mixture of point defects, electron and hole trapping centers, all attributable to the incorporation of carbon, while the XPS data ruled out the presence of carbide species.

  8. A nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon containing an embedded network of carbon nanotubes as a highly efficient catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Cheng; Zhao, Shi-Yong; Hou, Peng-Xiang; Fang, Ruo-Pian; Liu, Chang; Liang, Ji; Luan, Jian; Shan, Xu-Yi; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2015-12-01

    A nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon containing a network of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was produced for use as a catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). SiO2 nanoparticles were decorated with clusters of Fe atoms to act as catalyst seeds for CNT growth, after which the material was impregnated with aniline. After polymerization of the aniline, the material was pyrolysed and the SiO2 was removed by acid treatment. The resulting carbon-based hybrid also contained some Fe from the CNT growth catalyst and was doped with N from the aniline. The Fe-N species act as active catalytic sites and the CNT network enables efficient electron transport in the material. Mesopores left by the removal of the SiO2 template provide short transport pathways and easy access to ions. As a result, the catalyst showed not only excellent ORR activity, with 59 mV more positive onset potential and 30 mV more positive half-wave potential than a Pt/C catalyst, but also much longer durability and stronger tolerance to methanol crossover than a Pt/C catalyst.

  9. Functionalized Fluorescein-doped SiO2 Nanoparticles for Immunochromatographic Assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敏; 刘兆阅; 吕强; 袁航; 马岚; 李景虹; 白玉白; 李铁津

    2005-01-01

    A simple but effective approach was developed to synthesize amino functionalized fluorescein isothiocyanate-doped silica nanoparticles based upon polycondensation of tetraethoxysilane. Organic dye molecule (fluorescein isothiocyanate) coupled with a silane coupling agent, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, was incorporated into silica sphere through controlled hydrolysis and polymerization of tetraethoxysilane. The dye was connected with silica sphere through 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, which avoided the leakage of the dye. The cohydrolysis and polymerization of tetraethoxysilane and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane outside the surface of the silica sphere formed another thin silica shell with the functionalized amino groups on the surface. With amino groups on the surface, the nanoparticle surface was affluent in positive charges. The amino-functionalized nanoparticles were linked with mouse monoclonal antibody against hepatitis B virus surface antigen through electrostatic interaction to form fluorescence probes, which were tested by immunochromatographic assay using immunochromatography test strip. It was indicated that the fluorescence probe was suitable for immunoassay.

  10. Combined sonochemical/CVD method for preparation of nanostructured carbon-doped TiO2 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoulnezhad, Hossein; Kavei, Ghassem; Ahmadi, Kamran; Rahimipour, Mohammad Reza

    2017-06-01

    The present work reports the successful synthesis of the nanostructured carbon-doped TiO2 thin films on glass substrate by combination of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and ultrasonic methods, for the first time. In this method the ultrasound waves act as nebulizer for converting of sonochemically prepared TiO2 sol to the mist particles. These mist particles were thermally decomposed in subsequent CVD chamber at 320 °C to produce the carbon-doped TiO2 thin films. The obtained thin films were characterized by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The results show that the prepared thin films have anatase crystal structure and nanorod morphology, which calcination of them at 800 °C results in the conversion of nanorods to nanoparticles. In addition, the prepared samples have high transparency, monodispersity and homogeneity. The presence of the carbon element in the structure of the thin films causes the narrowing of the band-gap energy of TiO2 to about 2.8 eV, which results in the improvement of visible light absorption capabilities of the thin film.

  11. Nanoparticles of carbon allotropes inhibit glioblastoma multiforme angiogenesis in ovo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodzik, Marta; Sawosz, Ewa; Wierzbicki, Mateusz

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of carbon nanoparticles produced by different methods on the growth of brain tumor and the development of blood vessels. Glioblastoma multiforme cells were cultured on the chrioallantoic membrane of chicken embryo and after 7 days of incubati...

  12. The point-defect of carbon nanotubes anchoring Au nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lv, Y. A.; Cui, Y. H.; Li, X. N.

    2010-01-01

    The understanding of the interaction between Au and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is very important since Au/CNTs composites have wide applications in many fields. In this study, we investigated the dispersion of Au nanoparticles on the CNTs by transmission electron microscopy and the bonding mechanism...... of states, charge transfer and frontier molecular orbitals. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  13. Carbon-supported base metal nanoparticles : Cellulose at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Jacco; Versluijs-Helder, Marjan; Vlietstra, Edward J.; Geus, John W.; Jenneskens, Leonardus W.

    2015-01-01

    Pyrolysis of base metal salt loaded microcrystalline cellulose spheres gives a facile access to carbon-supported base metal nanoparticles, which have been characterized with temperature-dependent XRD, SEM, TEM, ICP-MS and elemental analysis. The role of cellulose is multifaceted: 1) it facilitates a

  14. Effect of annealing on properties of Mg doped Zn-ferrite nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. Nadeemn; S. Rahman; M. Mumtaz

    2015-01-01

    A comparison of structural and magnetic properties of as-prepared and annealed (900 1C) Mg doped Zn ferrite nanoparticles (Zn1 ? xMgxFe2O4, with x ¼ 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5) is presented. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies confirmed the cubic spinel structure for both the as-prepared and annealed nanoparticles. The average crystallite size and lattice parameter were increased by annealing. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images also showed that the average particle size increased after annealing. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) also confirmed the spinel structure for both series of nanoparticles. For both annealed and as-prepared nanoparticles, the O–Mtet.–O vibrational band shifts towards higher wave numbers with increased Mg concentration due to cationic rearrangement on the lattice sites. Magnetization studies revealed an anomalous decreasing magnetization for the annealed nanoparticles which is also ascribed to cationic rearrangement on the lattice sites after annealing. The measurement of coercivity showed a decreasing trend by annealing due to the increased nanoparticle size and better crystallinity.&2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.

  15. Effect of annealing on properties of Mg doped Zn-ferrite nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nadeem

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of structural and magnetic properties of as-prepared and annealed (900 °C Mg doped Zn ferrite nanoparticles (Zn1−xMgxFe2O4, with x=0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 is presented. X-ray diffraction (XRD studies confirmed the cubic spinel structure for both the as-prepared and annealed nanoparticles. The average crystallite size and lattice parameter were increased by annealing. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images also showed that the average particle size increased after annealing. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR also confirmed the spinel structure for both series of nanoparticles. For both annealed and as-prepared nanoparticles, the O–Mtet.–O vibrational band shifts towards higher wave numbers with increased Mg concentration due to cationic rearrangement on the lattice sites. Magnetization studies revealed an anomalous decreasing magnetization for the annealed nanoparticles which is also ascribed to cationic rearrangement on the lattice sites after annealing. The measurement of coercivity showed a decreasing trend by annealing due to the increased nanoparticle size and better crystallinity.

  16. Synthesis and photocatalytic performance of europium-doped graphitic carbon nitride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐冬冬; 李晓妮; 刘娟; 黄浪欢

    2013-01-01

    Europium-doped graphitic carbon nitride was synthesized by an easy method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), photolu-minescence spectra (PL) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of dopant concentration on the rate of photocata-lytic degradation was investigated through degrading methylene blue aqueous solution. The results indicated that the europium-doped samples all possessed increased photocatalytic activity and the optimal europium content was 0.38 wt.%. Moreover, a possible photo-catalytic mechanism for the europium-doped graphitic carbon nitride was proposed.

  17. Cyanogel-derived N-doped C nanosheets immobilizing Pd-P nanoparticles: One-pot synthesis and enhanced hydrogenation catalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Yan, Xiaohong; Huang, Yundi; Zhang, Mengru; Tang, Yawen; Sun, Dongmei; Xu, Lin; Wei, Shaohua

    2017-02-01

    For Pd-based nanocatalysts, stabilization of Pd nanoparticles on carbon support could not only effectively avoid particle aggregation and maintain catalytic stability during catalytic processes, but also facilitate enhancing the catalytic activity due to the synergy between Pd nanoparticles and carbon support. Furthermore, the incorporation of non-metal of phosphorus (P) into Pd could effectively modulate the electronic structure of Pd and thus help to boost the catalytic properties. However, one-pot synthesis of such nanohybrids remains a great challenge due to the distinct physiochemical properties of Pd, P and C components. Herein, we demonstrate a one-pot and scalable synthesis of highly dispersed PdP alloy nanoparticle-immobilized on N-doped graphitic carbon nanosheets (abbreviated as Pd-P@N-C nanosheets) by using inorganic-organic hybrid cyanogel as a reaction precursor. In virtue of both compositional and structural advantages, the as-synthesized Pd-P@N-C nanosheets manifest a superior catalytic activity and stability toward the hydrogenation of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). We believe that the present work will provide a feasible and versatile strategy for the development of efficient catalysts for environmental remediation and can also be extendable to other carbon-based nanohybrids with desirable functionalities.

  18. Structural, electronic properties, and quantum capacitance of B, N and P-doped armchair carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi-Khoshdel, S. Morteza; Jahanbakhsh-bonab, Parisa; Targholi, Ehsan

    2016-10-01

    Using DFT calculations, we study the structural parameters, electronic properties and quantum capacitance of N, B, and P-doped armchair carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Fermi level shifts towards conduction band and valence band in N- and B-doped CNTs, respectively. While in the case of P atom, despite having an extra valence electron than carbon, there is no shift in Fermi level. The results revealed from a symmetric capacitance enhancement in P-doped CNT and an asymmetric capacitance enhancement in B and N-doped CNTs. The greatest amount of quantum capacitance of N-doped (6, 6) CNT could be achieved at the concentration range of 0.1-0.15.

  19. Hyaluronan and calcium carbonate hybrid nanoparticles for colorectal cancer chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jinghui; Xu, Jian; Zhao, Jian; Zhang, Rui

    2017-09-01

    A hybrid drug delivery system (DDS) composed of hyaluronan and calcium carbonate (CC) was developed. By taking advantage of the tumor-targeting ability of hyaluronan and the drug-loading property of CC, the well-formed hyaluronan–CC nanoparticles were able to serve as a DDS targeting colorectal cancer with a decent drug loading content, which is beneficial in the chemotherapy of colorectal cancer. In this study, hyaluronan–CC nanoparticles smaller than 100 nm were successfully developed to load the wide-range anti-cancer drug adriamycin (Adr) to construct hyaluronan–CC/Adr nanoparticles. On the other hand, we also found that hyaluronan–CC/Adr nanoparticles can possibly increase the uptake ratio of Adr into HT29 colorectal cancer cells when compared with hyaluronan-free nanoparticles (CC/Adr) via the CD44 receptor-mediated endocytosis via competitive uptake and in vivo imaging assays. Note that both in vitro (CCK-8 assay on HT29 cells) and in vivo (anti-cancer assay on HT-29 tumor-bearing nude mice model) experiments revealed that hyaluronan–CC/Adr nanoparticles exhibited stronger anti-cancer activity than free Adr or CC/Adr nanoparticles with minimized toxic side effects and preferable cancer-suppression potential.

  20. Synthesis of Er-doped Lu2O3 nanoparticles and transparent ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serivalsatit, K.; Wasanapiarnpong, T.; Kucera, C.; Ballato, J.

    2013-05-01

    Transparent rare earth-doped Lu2O3 ceramics have received much attention for use in solid-state scintillator and laser applications. The fabrication of these ceramics, however, requires ultrafine and uniform powders as precursors. Presented here is the synthesis of Er-doped Lu2O3 nanopowders by a solution precipitation method using Er-doped lutetium sulfate solution and hexamethylenetetramine as a precipitant and the fabrication of Er-doped Lu2O3 transparent ceramics from these nanopowders. The precipitated precursors were calcined at 1100 °C for 4 h in order to convert the precursors into Lu2O3 nanoparticles with an average particle size of 60 nm. Thermal decomposition and phase evolution of the precursors were studied by simultaneous thermal analysis (STA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Er-doped Lu2O3 transparent ceramics were fabricated from these nanopowders using vacuum sintering followed by hot isostatic pressing at 1700 °C for 8 h. The transparent ceramics exhibit an optical transmittance of 78% at a wavelength of 1.55 μm.

  1. Luminescent Ag-doped In2S3 nanoparticles stabilized by mercaptoacetate in water and glycerol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raevskaya, Alexandra E.; Ivanchenko, Maria V.; Stroyuk, Oleksandr L.; Kuchmiy, Stepan Ya.; Plyusnin, Victor F.

    2015-03-01

    Colloidal nanoparticles (NPs) of tetragonal β-In2S3 were stabilized in water and glycerol by mercaptoacetate anions. Doping of In2S3 NPs with AgI cations at the time of the synthesis imparts the NPs with the photoluminescence (PL) in the visible part of the spectrum. The doping results also in a shift of the absorption threshold and the PL band maximum to longer wavelengths proportional to the AgI content. The PL band maximum of AgI-doped In2S3 NPs can be varied from 575-580 to 760-765 nm by augmenting the silver(I) amount and the duration and temperature of the post-synthesis aging. The average radiative life-time of AgI-doped In2S3 NPs also depends on the silver(I) content and reaches the maximal value, 960 ns, at a molar Ag:In ratio of 1:4. The maximal quantum yield of stationary PL, 12 %, is observed at this Ag:In ratio as well. Deposition of a ZnS "shell" on the surface of AgI-doped In2S3 NPs results in an increase of the PL quantum yield to 30 %.

  2. Sb-Doped SnO2 Nanoparticles Synthesized by Sonochemical-Assisted Precipitation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonuruk, Russameeruk; Vittayakorn, Naratip; Mekprasart, Wanichaya; Sritharathikhun, Jaran; Pecharapa, Wisanu

    2015-03-01

    Sb-doped SnO2 nanopowders were synthesized by sonochemical-assisted precipitation process using stannic chloride pentahydrate (SnCl4.5H2O) and antimony chloride (SbC3) as starting precursors. Effect of sonication and Sb doping concentrations on physical structures and electrical properties of Sb-doped SnO2 nanoparticles were investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and two-point probe method. The results indicated that the good dispersion with less agglomeration of particles in SnO2 phase can be obtained by single step sonochemical-assisted process. Moreover, XRD results indicated that the crystallinity of Sb-doped SnO2 nanopowders deteriorated with increasing Sb content, suggesting that Sb dopant significantly prevent SnO2 crystallite growth. The XPS spectra of Sb-doped SnO2 obviously confirmed the existence of Sb ion incorporated into SnO2 matrix. These results revealed that incorporation of Sb ions into SnO2 lattice with specific concentration has significant influence on formation and crystallization and can dramatically enhance the conductivity of tin oxide.

  3. Effect of vanadium doping on structural, magnetic and optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahir, N. [National Centre for Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Hussain, S.T., E-mail: dr_tajammul@yahoo.ca [National Centre for Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Usman, M.; Hasanain, S.K.; Mumtaz, A. [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2009-07-30

    V-doped ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by heating metal acetates in organic solvent. All synthesized samples were annealed in air and reducing gas atmosphere at 600 deg. C for 8 h. The XRD patterns of both samples annealed in air and reducing atmosphere indicate that samples have polycrystalline wurtzite structure with increase in lattice constant with increase in V-doping. The particle sizes were calculated by using Scherrer's equation which lies in the range of 25-30 nm. The SEM images show that particles annealed in air and under reducing environment are spherical in nature. The EDX results reveal that samples contain V, Zn, and O contents only. The TPR results indicate that the system contains isolated VO{sub x}, ZnO{sub x} and bimetallic Zn: V (O{sub x}) sites and indication of electronically excited bimetal sites. There is no signature of ferromagnetism in all samples annealed in air while room temperature ferromagnetism has been observed only under reducing atmosphere annealing. There is monotonically increase in saturation magnetization with V-doping concentration. UV-vis spectroscopy study shows that there is a linear increase in band gap energy with increase in V-doping, a direct evidence of change in magnetic properties due to V-doping and under reducing environment.

  4. Fluorescently tuned nitrogen-doped carbon dots from carbon source with different content of carboxyl groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (NCDs were tuned via varying the sources with different number of carboxyl groups. Owing to the interaction between amino and carboxyl, more amino groups conjugate the surface of the NCDs by the source with more carboxyl groups. Fluorescent NCDs were tuned via varying the sources with different content of carboxyl groups. Correspondingly, the nitrogen content, fluorescence quantum yields and lifetime of NCDs increases with the content of carboxyl groups from the source. Furthermore, cytotoxicity assay and cell imaging test indicate that the resultant NCDs possess low cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility.

  5. Fluorescently tuned nitrogen-doped carbon dots from carbon source with different content of carboxyl groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Yun; Dai, Xiao; Zou, Guifu, E-mail: kqzhang@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: zouguifu@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Gao, Peng; Zhang, Ke-Qin, E-mail: kqzhang@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: zouguifu@suda.edu.cn; Du, Dezhuang [National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Guo, Jun [Testing and Analysis Center, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2015-08-01

    In this study, fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (NCDs) were tuned via varying the sources with different number of carboxyl groups. Owing to the interaction between amino and carboxyl, more amino groups conjugate the surface of the NCDs by the source with more carboxyl groups. Fluorescent NCDs were tuned via varying the sources with different content of carboxyl groups. Correspondingly, the nitrogen content, fluorescence quantum yields and lifetime of NCDs increases with the content of carboxyl groups from the source. Furthermore, cytotoxicity assay and cell imaging test indicate that the resultant NCDs possess low cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility.

  6. Chemisorption of CH2O on N-doped TiO2 anatase nanoparticle as modified nanostructure media: A DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Amirali; Sardroodi, Jaber Jahanbin; Ebrahimzadeh, Alireza Rastkar

    2016-12-01

    The structural and electronic properties of N-doped TiO2 anatase nanoparticles and their effects on the adsorption of formaldehyde molecule have been investigated using the density functional theory computations. Given the need to better understand the behavior of the adsorbed CH2O molecule on the anatase nanoparticle, we report results of density functional theory studies of the N-doped nanoparticles, as well as complex systems consisting of the CH2O molecule bound to a TiO2 nanoparticle. N-doped nanoparticle was obtained by substitution of nitrogen atom of TiO2 instead of oxygen atom. Adsorptions of the CH2O molecule on the dangling oxygen atom, twofold coordinated oxygen atom and doped nitrogen atom sites of the pristine and N-doped anatase nanoparticles were investigated. The results presented include structural parameters such as adsorption energies, bond lengths and bond angles and electronic properties such as density of states, spin distribution densities and molecular orbitals. It was found that the adsorption of the CH2O molecule on the dangling oxygen of considered N-doped TiO2 anatase nanoparticles is energetically more favorable than the adsorption on the undoped ones. It means a more stable configuration compared to the undoped nanoparticle adsorption, but not as stable as the CH2O adsorption on the doped nitrogen site of N-doped nanoparticles.

  7. Nitrogen-doped porous carbon from Camellia oleifera shells with enhanced electrochemical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yunbo; Xu, Bibo; Zhu, Yun; Qing, Renpeng; Peng, Chuan; Wang, Tengfei; Li, Caiting; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen doped porous activated carbon was prepared by annealing treatment of Camellia oleifera shell activated carbon under NH3. We found that nitrogen content of activated carbon up to 10.43 at.% when annealed in NH3 at 800 °C. At 600 °C or above, the N-doped carbon further reacts with NH3, leads to a low surface area down to 458 m(2)/g and low graphitization degree. X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) analysis indicated that the nitrogen functional groups on the nitrogen-doped activated carbons (NACs) were mostly in the form of pyridinic nitrogen. We discovered that the oxygen groups and carbon atoms at the defect and edge sites of graphene play an important role in the reaction, leading to nitrogen atoms incorporated into the lattice of carbon. When temperatures were lower than 600 °C the nitrogen atoms displaced oxygen groups and formed nitrogen function groups, and when temperatures were higher than 600 °C and ~4 at.% carbon atoms and part of oxygen function groups reacted with NH3. When compared to pure activated carbon, the nitrogen doped activated carbon shows nearly four times the capacitance (191 vs 51 F/g).

  8. Deposition of boron doped diamond and carbon nanomaterials on graphite foam electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marton, Marian, E-mail: marian.marton@stuba.sk; Vojs, Marian; Kotlár, Mário; Michniak, Pavol; Vančo, Ľubomír; Veselý, Marian; Redhammer, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • The possibility of boron doped diamond deposition on porous carbon foam by HFCVD method was demonstrated. • Various carbon forms were synthesized including BDD, thin films of graphite nanosheets, carbon nanowalls, graphite nanotips and its composites. • Carbon nanowalls were overgrown by BDD nanocrystals, thus creating a new type of carbon nanomaterial not published yet, a CNW/BDD composite with a unique Raman spectrum. - Abstract: Boron doped diamond (BDD) has remarkable physical and chemical properties, that makes it an attractive material for electrochemical applications. In this study, deposition process of BDD on porous carbon foam electrodes was performed by HFCVD method. After depositions, the substrates were not homogenously covered by the BDD thin film only. Depending on the deposition temperature, foam porosity and distance from heated filaments, different carbon nanomaterials were synthesized. The boron doped diamond, graphite nanosheets, carbon nanowalls and its composites occurred on the foams outer and inner surfaces. Two new observed types of carbon structures, the carbon nanowalls – boron doped diamond composite and graphite nanotips are analyzed and described. Analyses were made by SEM and Raman spectroscopy. The influence of deposition conditions on the growth process is discussed.

  9. Preparation of acridine orange-doped silica nanoparticles for pH measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jinshui, E-mail: jsliu@sina.com; Zang, Lingjie; Wang, Yiru; Liu, Guoning

    2014-03-15

    Acridine orange was first encapsulated into silica shell via a facile reverse microemusion method to built core–shell fluorescent nanoparticles. The nanoparticles are all in spherical shape and have a narrow size distribution, and its application as a optical pH sensor has been demonstrated. This novel sensor is based on the pH-dependent fluorescence intensities of acridine orange in different pH value. The fluorescence intensity of acridine orange-doped silica nanoparticles was decreased by increasing pH value. Under optimum conditions, the changes of fluorescence intensity were proportional to the pH value in the range of 8.00–10.90. In addition, the sensor can be easily separated by centrifugation and adds no pollution to the environment compared to the free dyes. Furthermore, the effects of ionic strength and co-existing substances were proved to have little influence on the determination of pH. The sensor has been successfully applied to determine the pH of two artificial samples. Hence, the core–shell fluorescent nanoparticles show potential for practical application. -- Highlights: • Acridine orange was encapsulated into silica shell via a facile reverse microemusion method to built core–shell fluorescent nanoparticles. • The fluorescence intensity of acridine orange-doped silica nanoparticles was decreased by increasing pH value. • Its can be used as an optical pH sensor. • The sensor can be easily separated by centrifugation and adds no pollution to the environment compared to the free dyes. • The sensor has been successfully applied to determine the pH of artificial samples.

  10. Surface modification of Na3V2(PO4)3 by nitrogen and sulfur dual-doped carbon layer with advanced sodium storage property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xinghui; Ou, Xing; Zheng, Fenghua; Pan, Qichang; Xiong, Xunhui; Hu, Renzong; Yang, Chenghao; Liu, Meilin

    2017-03-27

    Nitrogen and sulfur dual-doped carbon layer wrapped Na3V2(PO4)3 nanoparticles (NVP@NSC) have been successfully fabricated by a facile solid-state method. In this hierarchical structure, the Na3V2(PO4)3 nanoparticles are well dispersed and closely coated by nitrogen and sulfur dual-doped carbon layer, constructing an effective and interconnected conducting network to reduce the internal resistance. Furthermore, the uniform coating layers alleviate the agglomeration of Na3V2(PO4)3, as well as mitigate the side reaction between electrode and electrolyte. Due to the excellent electron transfer mutually enhancing sodium diffusion for this extraordinary structure, the NVP@NSC composite delivers an impressive discharge capacity of 113.0 mAh g-1 at 1C, and shows a capacity retention of 82.1% after 5000 cycles at an ultrahigh rate of 50C, suggesting the remarkable rate capability and long cyclicity. Surprisingly, a reversible capacity of 91.1 mAh g-1 is maintained after 1000 cycles at 5C under the elevated temperature of 55°C. The approach of nitrogen and sulfur dual-doped carbon coated Na3V2(PO4)3 provides an effective and promising strategy to enhance the ultrahigh rate and ultralong life property of cathode, which can be used for large-scale commercial production in sodium ion batteries.

  11. Nitrogen-doped carbons in Li-S batteries: materials design and electrochemical mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia eLi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Li-S batteries have been considered as next generation Li batteries due to their high theoretical energy density. Over the past few years, researchers have made significant efforts in breaking through critical bottlenecks which impede the commercialization of Li-S batteries. Beginning with a basic introduction to Li-S systems and their associated mechanism, this review will highlight the application of one specific carbon family, nitrogen-doped carbon materials in sulfur based cathodes. These materials will include nitrogen doped porous carbon, carbon nanotubes, nanofibers and graphene. The article will conclude with a summary of recent research efforts in this field as well as the future prospects for the use of nitrogen-doped carbon materials in Li-S batteries.

  12. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotube and Graphene Materials for Oxygen Reduction Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiliang Wei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen-doped carbon materials, including nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNTs and nitrogen-doped graphene (NG, have attracted increasing attention for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR in metal-air batteries and fuel cell applications, due to their optimal properties including excellent electronic conductivity, 4e− transfer and superb mechanical properties. Here, the recent progress of NCNTs- and NG-based catalysts for ORR is reviewed. Firstly, the general preparation routes of these two N-doped carbon-allotropes are introduced briefly, and then a special emphasis is placed on the developments of both NCNTs and NG as promising metal-free catalysts and/or catalyst support materials for ORR. All these efficient ORR electrocatalysts feature a low cost, high durability and excellent performance, and are thus the key factors in accelerating the widespread commercialization of metal-air battery and fuel cell technologies.

  13. Promotion of Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution Reaction on Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanosheets with Secondary Heteroatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Konggang; Zheng, Yao; Zhang, Xianxi; Davey, Ken; Dai, Sheng; Qiao, Shi Zhang

    2017-07-25

    Dual heteroatom-doped carbon materials are efficient electrocatalysts via a synergistic effect. With nitrogen as the primary dopant, boron, sulfur, and phosphorus can be used as secondary elements for co-doped carbons. However, evaluation and analysis of the promotional effect of B, P, and S to N-doped carbons has not been widely researched. Here we report a robust platform that is constructed through polydopamine to prepare N,B-, N,P-, and N,S-co-doped carbon nanosheets, characterized by similar N species content and efficient B, P, and S doping. Systematic investigation reveals S to have the greatest promotional effect in hydrogen evolution reactions (HER) followed by P and that B decreases the activity of N-doped carbons. Experimental and theoretical analyses show the secondary heteroatom promotional effect is impacted by the intrinsic structures and extrinsic surface areas of both materials, i.e., electronic structures exclusively determine the catalytic activity of active sites, while large surface areas optimize apparent HER performance.

  14. Chemical sensors using coated or doped carbon nanotube networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing (Inventor); Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Methods for using modified single wall carbon nanotubes ("SWCNTs") to detect presence and/or concentration of a gas component, such as a halogen (e.g., Cl.sub.2), hydrogen halides (e.g., HCl), a hydrocarbon (e.g., C.sub.nH.sub.2n+2), an alcohol, an aldehyde or a ketone, to which an unmodified SWCNT is substantially non-reactive. In a first embodiment, a connected network of SWCNTs is coated with a selected polymer, such as chlorosulfonated polyethylene, hydroxypropyl cellulose, polystyrene and/or polyvinylalcohol, and change in an electrical parameter or response value (e.g., conductance, current, voltage difference or resistance) of the coated versus uncoated SWCNT networks is analyzed. In a second embodiment, the network is doped with a transition element, such as Pd, Pt, Rh, Ir, Ru, Os and/or Au, and change in an electrical parameter value is again analyzed. The parameter change value depends monotonically, not necessarily linearly, upon concentration of the gas component. Two general algorithms are presented for estimating concentration value(s), or upper or lower concentration bounds on such values, from measured differences of response values.

  15. Highly sensitive thermoluminescent carbon doped nanoporous aluminium oxide detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo, W M; de Oliveira, G B; da Silva, E F; Khoury, H J; Oliveira de Jesus, E F

    2006-01-01

    In this work we present the synthesis, characterisation and the thermoluminescence (TL) response of nanoporous carbon doped aluminium oxide Al2O3:C produced by anodic oxidation of aluminium in organic and inorganic solvents. The X-ray and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements reveal that the synthesised samples are amorphous and present highly ordered structures with uniform pore distribution with diameter of the order 50 nm. The photoluminescence and spectroscopic analysis in the visible and infrared regions show that the luminescence properties presented by the samples prepared in organic acid are due to carboxylate species, incorporated in anodic alumina films during the synthesis process. After an annealing treatment, part of the incorporated species decomposes and is incorporated into the structure of the aluminium oxide yielding a highly thermoluminescent detector (TL) . The results for X-ray irradiation in the range from 21 to 80 keV indicate a linear TL response with the dose in the range from 5 mGy to 1 Gy, suggesting that nanoporous aluminium oxide produced in the present route of synthesis is a suitable detector for radiation measurements.

  16. Enhanced methanol electro-oxidation activity of PtRu catalysts supported on heteroatom-doped carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Gang [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)], E-mail: wugang@lanl.gov; Swaidan, Raja [Department of Chemical Engineering, Cooper Union, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Li Deyu; Li Ning [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2008-11-01

    A typical heteroatom (nitrogen)-doped carbon materials were successfully synthesized through the carbonization of a hybrid containing traditional carbon black covered by in situ polymerized polyaniline. The nitrogen content onto carbon can be adjusted up to 5.1 at.% by changing the coverage of polyaniline. The effects of nitrogen doping on the surface physical and electrochemical properties of carbon were studied using XPS, XRD and HRTEM, as well as CV and EIS techniques. With increasing nitrogen doping, the carbon structure became more compact, showing curvatures and dislocations in the graphene stacking. The nitrogen-doped carbon also exhibited a higher accessible surface area in electrochemical reactions, and a lower charge transfer resistance at the carbon/electrolyte interface. Moreover, to investigate the influence of nitrogen doping on the electrocatalytic activity of the PtRu/C catalyst, comparisons in CO stripping and methanol oxidation were carried out on PtRu catalysts supported by non-doped and nitrogen-doped carbon. Since the promotional roles of nitrogen doping, including the high electrochemically accessible surface area, the richness of the disordered nanostructures and defects, and the high electron density on N-doped carbon supports, contribute to the synthesis of well-dispersed PtRu particles with high Pt utilization and stronger metal-support interactions, an enhanced catalytic activity for methanol oxidation was obtained in the case of the PtRu/N-C catalyst in comparison with the traditional PtRu/C catalyst.

  17. Enhanced methanol electro-oxidation activity of PtRu catalysts supported on heteroatom-doped carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Gang; Li, Deyu; Li, Ning [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Swaidan, Raja [Department of Chemical Engineering, Cooper Union, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2008-11-01

    A typical heteroatom (nitrogen)-doped carbon materials were successfully synthesized through the carbonization of a hybrid containing traditional carbon black covered by in situ polymerized polyaniline. The nitrogen content onto carbon can be adjusted up to 5.1 at.% by changing the coverage of polyaniline. The effects of nitrogen doping on the surface physical and electrochemical properties of carbon were studied using XPS, XRD and HRTEM, as well as CV and EIS techniques. With increasing nitrogen doping, the carbon structure became more compact, showing curvatures and dislocations in the graphene stacking. The nitrogen-doped carbon also exhibited a higher accessible surface area in electrochemical reactions, and a lower charge transfer resistance at the carbon/electrolyte interface. Moreover, to investigate the influence of nitrogen doping on the electrocatalytic activity of the PtRu/C catalyst, comparisons in CO stripping and methanol oxidation were carried out on PtRu catalysts supported by non-doped and nitrogen-doped carbon. Since the promotional roles of nitrogen doping, including the high electrochemically accessible surface area, the richness of the disordered nanostructures and defects, and the high electron density on N-doped carbon supports, contribute to the synthesis of well-dispersed PtRu particles with high Pt utilization and stronger metal-support interactions, an enhanced catalytic activity for methanol oxidation was obtained in the case of the PtRu/N-C catalyst in comparison with the traditional PtRu/C catalyst. (author)

  18. Fast Conversion of Ionic Liquids and Poly(Ionic Liquid)s into Porous Nitrogen-Doped Carbons in Air

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Ionic liquids and poly(ionic liquid)s have been successfully converted into nitrogen-doped porous carbons with tunable surface area up to 1200 m2/g at high temperatures in air. Compared to conventional carbonization process conducted under inert gas to produce nitrogen-doped carbons, the new production method was completed in a rather shorter time without noble gas protection.

  19. Antibody-Conjugated Rubpy Dye-Doped Silica Nanoparticles as Signal Amplification for Microscopic Detection of Vibrio cholerae O1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nualrahong Thepwiwatjit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrated the potential application of antibody-conjugated Rubpy dye-doped silica nanoparticles for immunofluorescence microscopic detection of Vibrio cholerae O1. The particle synthesis of 20X of the original ratio was accomplished yielding spherical nanoparticles with an average size of 45±3 nm. The nanoparticles were carboxyl functionalized and then conjugated with either monoclonal antibody or polyclonal antibody against V. cholerae O1. The antibody-conjugated nanoparticles were tested with two target bacteria and three challenge strains. The result showed that monoclonal antibody-conjugated Rubpy dye-doped silica nanoparticles could be effectively used as signal amplification to detect V. cholerae O1 under a fluorescence microscope. Their extremely strong fluorescence signal also enables the detection of a single cell bacterium.

  20. Complexation-Coprecipitation Synthesis and Characterization of Neodymium and Antimony Doped SnO2 Conductive Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Nd and Sb doped SnO2 conductive nanoparticles were prepared by the complexation-coprecipitation method with Sn, Sb2O3 and Nd2O3 as the raw materials. Thermal behavior, crystal phase, and structure of the prepared conductive nanoparticles were characterized by TG/DSC/DTG, FTIR, XRD and TEM techniques, respectively. The resistivity of the prepared conductive nanoparticles was 0.12 Ω·cm. TG/DSC/DTG curves show that the precursors lose weight completely before 750 ℃. FTIR spectrum shows that the vibration peaks are wide peaks in 731~617 cm-1, and the Nd and Sb doped SnO2 conductive nanoparticles have intense absorption in 4000~2000 cm-1. Nd and Sb doped SnO2 have a structure of tetragonal rutile, and complex doping is achieved well by complexation-coprecipitation method and is recognized as replacement doping or caulking doping. TME shows that the particles are weakly agglomerated, and the size of the particles calcined at 1000 ℃ ranges about 10 nm to 30 nm.

  1. Solvothermal synthesis of carbon coated N-doped TiO{sub 2} nanostructures with enhanced visible light catalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Xuemin, E-mail: yanzhangmm2002@163.com [College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434023 (China); Kang Jialing; Gao Lin; Xiong Lin; Mei Ping [College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434023 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chitosan was used as carbon and nitrogen resource to modify TiO{sub 2} nanostructure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanocomposites with mesostructure were obtained by one-step solvothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon species were modified on the surface of TiO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogen was doped into the anatase titania lattice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CTS-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites show superior visible light photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Visible light-active carbon coated N-doped TiO{sub 2} nanostructures(CTS-TiO{sub 2}) were prepared by a facile one-step solvothermal method with chitosan as carbon and nitrogen resource at 180 Degree-Sign C. The as-prepared samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The CTS-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites possess anatase phase of nanocrystalline structure with average particle size of about 5-7 nm. A wormhole mesostructure can be observed in the CTS-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites due to the constituent agglomerated of nanoparticles. It has been evidenced that the nitrogen was doped into the anatase titania lattice and the carbon species were modified on the surface of TiO{sub 2}. The photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared photocatalysts were measured by the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation at {lambda} {>=} 400 nm. The results show that CTS-TiO{sub 2} nanostructures display a higher visible light photocatalytic activity than pure TiO{sub 2}, commercial P25 and C-coated TiO{sub 2} (C-TiO{sub 2}) photocatalysts. The higher photocatalytic activity could be attributed to the band-gap narrowed by N-doping and the accelerated separation of the photo-generated electrons

  2. Apparatus for producing carbon-coated nanoparticles and carbon nanospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, W. Lee; Weigle, John C.; Phillips, Jonathan

    2015-10-20

    An apparatus for producing carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles comprising a container for entraining particles in an aerosol gas, providing an inlet for carbon-containing gas, providing an inlet for plasma gas, a proximate torch for mixing the aerosol gas, the carbon-containing gas, and the plasma gas, bombarding the mixed gases with microwaves, and providing a collection device for gathering the resulting carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles. Also disclosed is a method and apparatus for making hollow carbon nano- or micro-scale spheres.

  3. Effect of metal-doping of TiO2 nanoparticles on their photocatalytic activities toward removal of organic dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khairy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available M-doped TiO2 nanoparticles (M = Cu, Zn were prepared by the sol–gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, FT-IR and UV–vis spectroscopy techniques were used to characterize the samples. Photocatalytic activities of samples for methyl orange (MO degradation and the chemical oxygen demand (COD were investigated. XRD results confirmed the formation of the anatase phase for the TiO2 nanoparticles, with crystallite sizes in the range of 9–21 nm. The small crystallite size and doping ions (Cu and Zn inhibited any phase transformation and promoted the growth of the TiO2 anatase phase. The optical study showed that doping ions lead to an increase in the absorption edge wavelength, and a decrease in the band gap energy of TiO2 nanoparticles. The doped TiO2 nanoparticles in general showed higher photocatalytic activities than the pure ones. The Cu doped TiO2 nanoparticles showed the best photocatalytic activity based on the measured COD values.

  4. Spectral features and antibacterial properties of Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by sol-gel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alireza Samavati; A F Ismail; Hadi Nur; Z Othaman; M K Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Zn1−x Cux O (x=0.00, 0.01, 0.03, and 0.05) nanoparticles are synthesized via the sol-gel technique using gelatin and nitrate precursors. The impact of copper concentration on the structural, optical, and antibacterial properties of these nanoparticles is demonstrated. Powder x-ray diffraction investigations have illustrated the organized Cu doping into ZnO nanoparticles up to Cu concentration of 5% (x=0.05). However, the peak corresponding to CuO for x=0.01 is not distinguishable. The images of field emission scanning electron microscopy demonstrate the existence of a nearly spherical shape with a size in the range of 30–52 nm. Doping Cu creates the Cu–O–Zn on the surface and results in a decrease in the crystallite size. Photoluminescence and absorption spectra display that doping Cu causes an increment in the energy band gap. The antibacterial activities of the nanoparticles are examined against Escherichia coli (Gram negative bacteria) cultures using optical density at 600 nm and a comparison of the size of inhibition zone diameter. It is found that both pure and doped ZnO nanoparticles indicate appropriate antibacterial activity which rises with Cu doping.

  5. Spectral features and antibacterial properties of Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alireza, Samavati; A, F. Ismail; Hadi, Nur; Z, Othaman; M, K. Mustafa

    2016-07-01

    Zn1-x Cu x O (x = 0.00, 0.01, 0.03, and 0.05) nanoparticles are synthesized via the sol-gel technique using gelatin and nitrate precursors. The impact of copper concentration on the structural, optical, and antibacterial properties of these nanoparticles is demonstrated. Powder x-ray diffraction investigations have illustrated the organized Cu doping into ZnO nanoparticles up to Cu concentration of 5% (x = 0.05). However, the peak corresponding to CuO for x = 0.01 is not distinguishable. The images of field emission scanning electron microscopy demonstrate the existence of a nearly spherical shape with a size in the range of 30-52 nm. Doping Cu creates the Cu-O-Zn on the surface and results in a decrease in the crystallite size. Photoluminescence and absorption spectra display that doping Cu causes an increment in the energy band gap. The antibacterial activities of the nanoparticles are examined against Escherichia coli (Gram negative bacteria) cultures using optical density at 600 nm and a comparison of the size of inhibition zone diameter. It is found that both pure and doped ZnO nanoparticles indicate appropriate antibacterial activity which rises with Cu doping. Project supported by the Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) (Grant No. R. J1300000.7809.4F626). Dr. Samavati is thankful to RMC for postdoctoral grants.

  6. W-doped TiO2 mesoporous electron transport layer for efficient hole transport material free perovskite solar cells employing carbon counter electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yuqing; Cheng, Nian; Kondamareddy, Kiran Kumar; Wang, Changlei; Liu, Pei; Guo, Shishang; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

    2017-02-01

    Doping of TiO2 by metal elements for the scaffold layer of the perovskite solar cells has been proved to be one of the effective methods to improve the power conversion efficiency. In the present work, we report the impact of doping of TiO2 nanoparticles with different amounts of tungsten (W) on the photovoltaic properties of hole transport material free perovskite solar cells (PSCs) that employ carbon counter electrode. Light doping with W (less than 1000 ppm) improves the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of solar cells by promoting the electron conductivity in the TiO2 layer which facilitates electron transfer and collection. With the incorporation of W, average efficiency of PSCs is increased from 9.1% for the un-doped samples to 10.53% for the 1000 ppm W-doped samples, mainly originates from the increase of short circuit current density and fill factor. Our champion cell exhibits an impressive PCE of 12.06% when using the 1000 ppm W-doped TiO2 films.

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Holmium-Doped Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Bloemen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rare earth atoms exhibit several interesting properties, for example, large magnetic moments and luminescence. Introducing these atoms into a different matrix can lead to a material that shows multiple interesting effects. Holmium atoms were incorporated into an iron oxide nanoparticle and the concentration of the dopant atom was changed in order to determine its influence on the host crystal. Its magnetic and magneto-optical properties were investigated by vibrating sample magnetometry and Faraday rotation measurements. The luminescent characteristics of the material, in solution and incorporated in a polymer thin film, were probed by fluorescence experiments.

  8. Nitrogen-doped porous carbon monoliths from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and carbon nanotubes as electrodes for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqing; Fugetsu, Bunshi; Wang, Zhipeng; Gong, Wei; Sakata, Ichiro; Morimoto, Shingo; Hashimoto, Yoshio; Endo, Morinobu; Dresselhaus, Mildred; Terrones, Mauricio

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped porous activated carbon monoliths (NDP-ACMs) have long been the most desirable materials for supercapacitors. Unique to the conventional template based Lewis acid/base activation methods, herein, we report on a simple yet practicable novel approach to production of the three-dimensional NDP-ACMs (3D-NDP-ACMs). Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) contained carbon nanotubes (CNTs), being pre-dispersed into a tubular level of dispersions, were used as the starting material and the 3D-NDP-ACMs were obtained via a template-free process. First, a continuous mesoporous PAN/CNT based 3D monolith was established by using a template-free temperature-induced phase separation (TTPS). Second, a nitrogen-doped 3D-ACM with a surface area of 613.8 m2/g and a pore volume 0.366 cm3/g was obtained. A typical supercapacitor with our 3D-NDP-ACMs as the functioning electrodes gave a specific capacitance stabilized at 216 F/g even after 3000 cycles, demonstrating the advantageous performance of the PAN/CNT based 3D-NDP-ACMs.

  9. Nitrogen-doped porous carbon monoliths from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and carbon nanotubes as electrodes for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqing; Fugetsu, Bunshi; Wang, Zhipeng; Gong, Wei; Sakata, Ichiro; Morimoto, Shingo; Hashimoto, Yoshio; Endo, Morinobu; Dresselhaus, Mildred; Terrones, Mauricio

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped porous activated carbon monoliths (NDP-ACMs) have long been the most desirable materials for supercapacitors. Unique to the conventional template based Lewis acid/base activation methods, herein, we report on a simple yet practicable novel approach to production of the three-dimensional NDP-ACMs (3D-NDP-ACMs). Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) contained carbon nanotubes (CNTs), being pre-dispersed into a tubular level of dispersions, were used as the starting material and the 3D-NDP-ACMs were obtained via a template-free process. First, a continuous mesoporous PAN/CNT based 3D monolith was established by using a template-free temperature-induced phase separation (TTPS). Second, a nitrogen-doped 3D-ACM with a surface area of 613.8 m2/g and a pore volume 0.366 cm3/g was obtained. A typical supercapacitor with our 3D-NDP-ACMs as the functioning electrodes gave a specific capacitance stabilized at 216 F/g even after 3000 cycles, demonstrating the advantageous performance of the PAN/CNT based 3D-NDP-ACMs. PMID:28074847

  10. Granulometric characterization of airborne particulate release during spray application of nanoparticle-doped coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göhler, Daniel; Stintz, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Airborne particle release during the spray application of coatings was analyzed in the nanometre and micrometre size range. In order to represent realistic conditions of domestic and handcraft use, the spray application was performed using two types of commercial propellant spray cans and a manual gravity spray gun. Four different types of coatings doped with three kinds of metal-oxide tracer nanoparticle additives (TNPA) were analyzed. Depending on the used coating and the kind of spray unit, particulate release numbers between 5 × 108 and 3 × 1010 particles per gram ejection mass were determined in the dried spray aerosols. The nanoparticulate fraction amounted values between 10 and 60 no%. The comparison between nanoparticle-doped coatings with non-doped ones showed no TNPA-attributed differences in both the macroscopic spray process characteristics and the particle release numbers. SEM, TEM and EDX-analyzes showed that the spray aerosols were composed of particles made up solely from matrix material and sheathed pigments, fillers and TNPAs. Isolated ZnO- or Fe2O3-TNPAs could not be observed.

  11. Optical and Magnetic Properties of Fe Doped ZnO Nanoparticles Obtained by Hydrothermal Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojuan Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diluted magnetic semiconductors Zn1-xFexO nanoparticles with different doping concentration (x=0, 0.01, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.20 were successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method. The crystal structure, morphology, and optical and magnetic properties of the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, Raman scattering spectra (Raman, photoluminescence spectra (PL, and the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM. The experiment results show that all samples synthesized by this method possess hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure with good crystallization, no other impurity phases are observed, and the morphology of the sample shows the presence of ellipsoidal nanoparticles. All the Fe3+ successfully substituted for the lattice site of Zn2+ and generates single-phase Zn1-xFexO. Raman spectra shows that the peak shifts to higher frequency. PL spectra exhibit a slight blue shift and the UV emission is annihilated with the increase of Fe3+ concentration. Magnetic measurements indicated that Fe-doped ZnO samples exhibit ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature and the saturation magnetization is enhanced with the increase of iron doping content.

  12. Thermal, structural and optical investigation of Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chithra, Maruthanayagam Jay; Pushpanathan, Kuppusamy

    2016-12-01

    Well-dispersed undoped and copper-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles (Zn1-xCuxO, x = 0, 1, 5 and 10 wt.%) have been synthesized by precipitation method at room temperature. X-ray diffraction data revealed that the undoped and copper-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles are in phase pure wurtzite structure and the crystallite size increases from 24 nm to 36 nm with increase in dopant concentration. The optical band gap was found to decrease with increasing dopant concentration, which clearly indicates the blue shift. High-resolution scanning electron microscope image shows that the synthesized samples consist of an assembly of nanopetals. Transmission electron microscope image also confirmed the average particle size of 20-50 nm. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectrum shows that the prepared samples are free from impurities. Photoluminescence spectra exposed that copper ions are doped into the lattice positions of ZnO. A simultaneous differential scanning calorimeter/thermogravimetric analysis combination was used to study the phase variations.

  13. Granulometric characterization of airborne particulate release during spray application of nanoparticle-doped coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göhler, Daniel; Stintz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Airborne particle release during the spray application of coatings was analyzed in the nanometre and micrometre size range. In order to represent realistic conditions of domestic and handcraft use, the spray application was performed using two types of commercial propellant spray cans and a manual gravity spray gun. Four different types of coatings doped with three kinds of metal-oxide tracer nanoparticle additives (TNPA) were analyzed. Depending on the used coating and the kind of spray unit, particulate release numbers between 5 × 10(8) and 3 × 10(10) particles per gram ejection mass were determined in the dried spray aerosols. The nanoparticulate fraction amounted values between 10 and 60 no%. The comparison between nanoparticle-doped coatings with non-doped ones showed no TNPA-attributed differences in both the macroscopic spray process characteristics and the particle release numbers. SEM, TEM and EDX-analyzes showed that the spray aerosols were composed of particles made up solely from matrix material and sheathed pigments, fillers and TNPAs. Isolated ZnO- or Fe2O3-TNPAs could not be observed.

  14. Novel strontium-doped bioactive glass nanoparticles enhance proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strobel, L. A. [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg Medical Center, Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery (Germany); Hild, N.; Mohn, D.; Stark, W. J. [ETH Zurich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering (Switzerland); Hoppe, A. [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Biomaterials (Germany); Gbureck, U. [University of Wuerzburg, Department for Functional Materials in Medicine and Dentistry (Germany); Horch, R. E.; Kneser, U. [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg Medical Center, Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery (Germany); Boccaccini, A. R., E-mail: aldo.boccaccini@ww.uni-erlangen.de [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Biomaterials (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    The present study investigates a new family of bioactive glass nanoparticles with and without Sr-doping focusing on the influence of the nanoparticles on human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) in vitro. The bioactive glass nanoparticles were fabricated by flame spray synthesis and a particle diameter of 30-35 nm was achieved. Glass nanoparticles were undoped (BG 13-93-0Sr) or doped with 5 wt% strontium (Sr) (BG 13-93-5Sr) and used at concentrations of 10 and 100 {mu}g/cm Superscript-Two (particles per culture plate area), respectively. Cells were cultured for 14 days after which the samples were analysed regarding metabolic activity and expression of various bone-specific genes. Cell growth and morphology indicated the high cytocompatibility of the nanoparticulate bioactive glass. The presence of the nanoparticles enhanced cell growth compared to the plain polystyrene control group. At a concentration of 100 {mu}g/cm Superscript-Two , Sr-doped particles led to significantly enhanced gene expression of osteocalcin, collagen type 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor. Thus, Sr-doped nanoparticles showing a dose-dependent increase of osteogenic differentiation in hBMSCs are a promising biomaterial for bone regeneration purposes.

  15. Enhanced microwave absorbing properties of carbonyl iron-doped Ag/ordered mesoporous carbon nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Hongjing, E-mail: wuhongjing@mail.nwpu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, School of Science, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Wang Liuding, E-mail: wangld@nwpu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, School of Science, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Wang Yiming; Guo Shaoli; Shen Zhongyuan [Department of Applied Physics, School of Science, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ag/OMC-CI paraffin wax composites were successfully prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reflection loss value below -10 dB at 12 GHz was obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ag/OMC-CI showed excellent microwave absorption with respect to OMC-CI and Ag/OMC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This could be attributed to the enhancement of interfacial polarization. - Abstract: Microwave absorbing materials carbonyl iron (CI)-doped Ag/ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) paraffin wax composites were prepared by colloidal deposition and impregnation methods, and their electromagnetic and microwave absorbing properties were investigated in the frequency ranging from 2 to 18 GHz. The microstructures and chemical compositions of the Ag/OMC and Ag/OMC-CI paraffin wax composites were characterized by TEM, XRD, XPS, SEM and EDS, respectively. The complex permittivity of the paraffin wax composites show dual resonance behavior, resulting from the multi-interfaces among Ag nanoparticles, OMC nanorods, CI and paraffin wax. The magnetic loss was mainly caused by natural resonance and eddy current loss, respectively. The minimum reflection loss (RL) value of Ag/OMC-CI was below -10 dB at 12 GHz, which were superior to those of OMC-CI and Ag/OMC. This phenomenon is attributed to the enhancement of dielectric polarization and magnetic loss.

  16. Magnetic properties of Co-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, A.; Pessoni, H. V. S.; Ribeiro, P. R. T.; Machado, F. L. A.

    2017-03-01

    The magnetism in nanoparticulate powders of Zn1-xCoxO with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.09 synthesized by a combustion reaction technique is investigated in a broad range of temperatures (5 ≤T ≤ 750K) for applied magnetic fields up to 85 kOe. The hysteresis loops indicated the presence of both ferromagnetic and paramagnetic ordering at room temperature. An additional antiferromagnetic phase was observed for temperatures below 260 K . A particle model that can account for the results is that the some of doping Co2+ ions are not interagent among themselves, a small quantity form clusters, leading to the ferromagnetic ordering with some of the particles in the superparamagnetic state, and few others Co2+ ions form CoO at the grain boundary yielding the antiferromagnetic phase. It was also found that a modified Langevin function can be used for describing the H - dependence for magnetization data.

  17. Cytotoxicity and physicochemical characterization of iron–manganese-doped sulfated zirconia nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Fahdawi MQ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed Qasim Al-Fahdawi,1 Abdullah Rasedee,1,2 Mothanna Sadiq Al-Qubaisi,1 Fatah H Alhassan,3,4 Rozita Rosli,1 Mohamed Ezzat El Zowalaty,1,5 Seïf-Eddine Naadja,6 Thomas J Webster,7,8 Yun Hin Taufiq-Yap3,41Institute of Bioscience, 2Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 3Catalysis Science and Technology Research Centre, Faculty of Science, 4Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, 5Biomedical Research Center, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; 6Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 7Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 8Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Iron–manganese-doped sulfated zirconia nanoparticles with both Lewis and Brønsted acidic sites were prepared by a hydrothermal impregnation method followed by calcination at 650°C for 5 hours, and their cytotoxicity properties against cancer cell lines were determined. The characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Brauner–Emmett–Teller (BET surface area measurements, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, zeta size potential, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The cytotoxicity of iron–manganese-doped sulfated zirconia nanoparticles was determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assays against three human cancer cell lines (breast cancer MDA-MB231 cells, colon carcinoma HT29 cells, and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells and two normal human cell lines (normal hepatocyte Chang cells and normal human umbilical vein endothelial cells [HUVECs]. The results suggest for the first time that iron–manganese-doped sulfated zirconia nanoparticles are cytotoxic to MDA-MB231

  18. Preparation and characterization of zinc and copper co-doped WO3 nanoparticles: Application in photocatalysis and photobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Sanaz; Sohrabi, Maryam; Golikand, Ahmad Nozad; Fakhri, Ali

    2016-08-01

    In this study, pure, Zn, Cu, Zn,Cu co-doped WO3 nanoparticles samples were prepared by precipitation and co-precipitation methods. These nanoparticles were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), Dynamic light scattering (DLS), UV-visible and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The synthesized pure, Zn, Cu, Zn,Cu co-doped WO3 nanoparticles have smart optical properties and average sizes with 3.2, 3.12, 3.08 and 2.97eV of band-gap, 18.1, 23.2, 25.7 and 30.2nm, respectively. Photocatalytic activity of four nanoparticles was studying towards degradation of gentamicin antibiotic under ultraviolet and visible light irradiation. The result showed that Zn,Cu co-doped WO3 possessed high photocatalytic activity. The photocatalytic activity of WO3 nanoparticles could be remarkably increased by doping the Zn and Cu impurity. This can be attributed to the fact that the red shift of absorption edge and the trapping effect of the mono and co-doped WO3 nanoparticles. The research result presents a general and effective way to prepare different photocatalysts with enhanced visible and UV light-driven photocatalytic performance. Antibacterial activity of four different WO3 nanoparticles against Escherichia coli bacterium has been assessed by the agar disc method under light irradiation and dark medium. It is concluded from the present findings that WO3 nanoparticles can be used as an efficient antibacterial agent.

  19. Room-temperature synthesis of soluble, fluorescent carbon nanoparticles from organogel precursors.</