WorldWideScience

Sample records for donor risk communication

  1. Communicating identifiability risks to biobank donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, T. J.; Gjerris, Mickey; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2018-01-01

    Recent highly publicized privacy breaches in healthcare and genomics research have led many to question whether current standards of data protection are adequate. Improvements in de-identification techniques, combined with pervasive data sharing, have increased the likelihood that external parties...... concerns can be incorporated into either a detailed or a simplified method of communicating risks during the consent process....

  2. Being a Living Donor: Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to know FAQ Living donation What is living donation? Organs Types Being a living donor First steps Being ... are considering one of these types of living donation, please talk to your transplant center about the organ-specific risks. Psychological concerns You may also have ...

  3. Risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombrowsky, Wolf R.; Kiel Univ.

    2009-01-01

    The study on risk communication identifies the deficiencies concerning empirical and theoretical knowledge on objective radiation hazards of the acting personnel (managers, politicians, jurists, etc.) in administrations, governmental agencies, and business management. This is especially problematic with respect to emergency planning and estimations concerning the public behavior. The incident/accident information in Germany is discussed based on the legislative regulations revealing the controversial perception between industry, legislative and public interest. Further topics include the meandering of the modern safety semantics and the public opinion concerning catastrophic risk.

  4. Development of Organ-Specific Donor Risk Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Akkina, Sanjeev K.; Asrani, Sumeet K.; Peng, Yi; Stock, Peter; Kim, Ray; Israni, Ajay K.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the shortage of deceased donor organs, transplant centers accept organs from marginal deceased donors, including older donors. Organ-specific donor risk indices have been developed to predict graft survival using various combinations of donor and recipient characteristics. We will review the kidney donor risk index (KDRI) and liver donor risk index (LDRI) and compare and contrast their strengths, limitations, and potential uses. The Kidney Donor Risk Index has a potential role in devel...

  5. Development of Organ-Specific Donor Risk Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkina, Sanjeev K.; Asrani, Sumeet K.; Peng, Yi; Stock, Peter; Kim, Ray; Israni, Ajay K.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the shortage of deceased donor organs, transplant centers accept organs from marginal deceased donors, including older donors. Organ-specific donor risk indices have been developed to predict graft survival using various combinations of donor and recipient characteristics. We will review the kidney donor risk index (KDRI) and liver donor risk index (LDRI) and compare and contrast their strengths, limitations, and potential uses. The Kidney Donor Risk Index has a potential role in developing new kidney allocation algorithms. The Liver Donor Risk Index allows for greater appreciation of the importance of donor factors, particularly for hepatitis C-positive recipients; as the donor risk index increases, rates of allograft and patient survival among these recipients decrease disproportionately. Use of livers with high donor risk index is associated with increased hospital costs independent of recipient risk factors, and transplanting livers with high donor risk index into patients with Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores Donor Risk Index has limited this practice. Significant regional variation in donor quality, as measured by the Liver Donor Risk Index, remains in the United States. We also review other potential indices for liver transplant, including donor-recipient matching and the retransplant donor risk index. While substantial progress has been made in developing donor risk indices to objectively assess donor variables that affect transplant outcomes, continued efforts are warranted to improve these indices to enhance organ allocation policies and optimize allograft survival. PMID:22287036

  6. Development of organ-specific donor risk indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkina, Sanjeev K; Asrani, Sumeet K; Peng, Yi; Stock, Peter; Kim, W Ray; Israni, Ajay K

    2012-04-01

    Because of the shortage of deceased donor organs, transplant centers accept organs from marginal deceased donors, including older donors. Organ-specific donor risk indices have been developed to predict graft survival with various combinations of donor and recipient characteristics. Here we review the kidney donor risk index (KDRI) and the liver donor risk index (LDRI) and compare and contrast their strengths, limitations, and potential uses. The KDRI has a potential role in developing new kidney allocation algorithms. The LDRI allows a greater appreciation of the importance of donor factors, particularly for hepatitis C virus-positive recipients; as the donor risk index increases, the rates of allograft and patient survival among these recipients decrease disproportionately. The use of livers with high donor risk indices is associated with increased hospital costs that are independent of recipient risk factors, and the transplantation of livers with high donor risk indices into patients with Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores indices for liver transplantation, including donor-recipient matching and the retransplant donor risk index. Although substantial progress has been made in developing donor risk indices to objectively assess donor variables that affect transplant outcomes, continued efforts are warranted to improve these indices to enhance organ allocation policies and optimize allograft survival. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  7. ORGANIZATIONAL RISK COMMUNICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ris communication tools in organizations differs in several ways from many of tools and techniques developed for public meetings. The traditional view of risk communication seeks to manage the public outrage ssociated with site-based issues. Organizational risk communication seek...

  8. Verbal risk in communicating risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, J.C. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States). School of Communication; Reno, H.W. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.

    1993-03-01

    When persons in the waste management industry have a conversation concerning matters of the industry, thoughts being communicated are understood among those in the industry. However, when persons in waste management communicate with those outside the industry, communication may suffer simply because of poor practices such as the use of jargon, euphemisms, acronyms, abbreviations, language usage, not knowing audience, and public perception. This paper deals with ways the waste management industry can communicate risk to the public without obfuscating issues. The waste management industry should feel obligated to communicate certain meanings within specific contexts and, then, if the context changes, should not put forth a new, more appropriate meaning to the language already used. Communication of the waste management industry does not have to be provisional. The authors suggest verbal risks in communicating risk can be reduced significantly or eliminated by following a few basic communication principles. The authors make suggestions and give examples of ways to improve communication with the general public by avoiding or reducing jargon, euphemisms, and acronyms; knowing the audience; avoiding presumptive knowledge held by the audience; and understanding public perception of waste management issues.

  9. Communication about risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The conditions, difficulties and possibilities of communication on technological risks are detailed here. There is a description of the types and levels of argument on risks and the risk-concept itself, of the research field of risk communication, of the conceptional frame-work of the working-party, of the research programme and of the chances for a long-term prospect from the group. (DG) [de

  10. A simplified donor risk index for predicting outcome after deceased donor kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Christopher J E; Johnson, Rachel J; Birch, Rhiannon; Collett, Dave; Bradley, J Andrew

    2012-02-15

    We sought to determine the deceased donor factors associated with outcome after kidney transplantation and to develop a clinically applicable Kidney Donor Risk Index. Data from the UK Transplant Registry on 7620 adult recipients of adult deceased donor kidney transplants between 2000 and 2007 inclusive were analyzed. Donor factors potentially influencing transplant outcome were investigated using Cox regression, adjusting for significant recipient and transplant factors. A United Kingdom Kidney Donor Risk Index was derived from the model and validated. Donor age was the most significant factor predicting poor transplant outcome (hazard ratio for 18-39 and 60+ years relative to 40-59 years was 0.78 and 1.49, respectively, Pinformed consent.

  11. Electronic messaging and communication with living kidney donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruck, Jessica M; Zhou, Sheng; Thomas, Alvin G; Cramm, Shannon L; Massie, Allan B; Montgomery, John R; Berger, Jonathan C; Henderson, Macey L; Segev, Dorry L

    2018-02-01

    New regulations require living kidney donor (LKD) follow-up for 2 years, but donor retention remains poor. Electronic communication (eg, text messaging and e-mail) might improve donor retention. To explore the possible impact of electronic communication, we recruited LKDs to participate in an exploratory study of communication via telephone, e-mail, or text messaging postdonation; communication through this study was purely optional and did not replace standard follow-up. Of 69 LKDs recruited, 3% requested telephone call, 52% e-mail, and 45% text messaging. Telephone response rate was 0%; these LKDs were subsequently excluded from analysis. Overall response rates with e-mail or text messaging at 1 week, 1 month, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years were 94%, 87%, 81%, 72%, and 72%. Lower response rates were seen in African Americans, even after adjusting for age, sex, and contact method (incidence rate ratio (IRR) nonresponse 2.07 5.81 16.36 , P = .001). Text messaging had higher response rates than e-mail (IRR nonresponse 0.11 0.28 0.71 , P = .007). Rates of nonresponse were similar by sex (IRR 0.68, P = .4) and age (IRR 1.00, P > .9). In summary, LKDs strongly preferred electronic messaging over telephone and were highly responsive 2 years postdonation, even in this nonrequired, nonincentivized exploratory research study. These electronic communication tools can be automated and may improve regulatory compliance and postdonation care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Diversity in Risk Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Nur Probohudono

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the communication of the five major categories of risk (business, strategy, market and credit risk disclosure over the volatile 2007-2009 Global Financial Crisis (GFC time period in key South East Asian countries’ manufacturing listed companies. This study is important as it contributes to the literature by providing insights into the voluntary risk disclosure practices using sample countries with different economic scenarios. Key findings are that business risk is the most disclosed category and strategy risk is the least disclosed. Business and credit risk disclosure consistently increase over the three year period, while operating, market and strategy risk disclosure increase in 2008, but then decrease slightly in 2009. Statistical analysis reveals that country of incorporation and size help predict risk disclosure levels. The overall low disclosure levels (26-29% highlight the potential for far higher communication of key risk factors.

  13. WHO risk communication seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The International EMF project organised by the WHO is now entering its third year. In addition to providing authoritative reviews of the scientific literature on the health effects of exposure to electric and magnetic fields, a key objective of the five year programme is to provide information on the perception, communication and management of risk, and how this relates to electric and magnetic fields. To this end, an International seminar on: Risk perception, risk communication and its application to EMF exposure, was held in Vienna on 22-23 October last year, bringing togehter an array of speakers from around the world to talk about perceptions of risk, how best to communicate risks to the public and present some practical examples. (author)

  14. Frequency and risk factors for donor reactions in an anonymous blood donor survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Mindy; Osmond, Lori; Yi, Qi-Long; Cameron-Choi, Keltie; O'Brien, Sheila F

    2013-09-01

    Adverse donor reactions can result in injury and decrease the likelihood of donor return. Reaction reports captured in the blood center's database provide an incomplete picture of reaction rates and risk factors. We performed an anonymous survey, mailed to 40,000 donors in 2008, including questions about symptoms, height, weight, sex, and donation status. Reaction rates were compared to those recorded in our database. Possible risk factors were assessed for various reactions. The response rate was 45.5%. A total of 32% of first-time and 14% of repeat donors reported having any adverse symptom, most frequently bruising (84.9 per 1000 donors) or feeling faint or weak (66.2 per 1000). Faint reactions were two to eight times higher than reported in our database, although direct comparison was difficult. Younger age, female sex, and first-time donation status were risk factors for systemic and arm symptoms. In females, low estimated blood volume (EBV) was a risk factor for systemic symptoms. Only 51% of donors who consulted an outside physician also called Canadian Blood Services. A total of 10% of first-time donors with reactions found adverse effects information inadequate. This study allowed us to collect more information about adverse reactions, including minor symptoms and delayed reactions. Based on our findings of the risk factors and frequency of adverse reactions, we are implementing more stringent EBV criteria for younger donors and providing more detailed information to donors about possible adverse effects and their management. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  15. Risk communication basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrado, P.G.

    1995-01-01

    In low-trust, high-concern situations, 50% of your credibility comes from perceived empathy and caring, demonstrated in the first 30 s you come in contact with someone. There is no second chance for a first impression. These and other principles contained in this paper provide you with a basic level of understanding of risk communication. The principles identified are time-tested caveats and will assist you in effectively communicating technical information

  16. Risk communication basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corrado, P.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In low-trust, high-concern situations, 50% of your credibility comes from perceived empathy and caring, demonstrated in the first 30 s you come in contact with someone. There is no second chance for a first impression. These and other principles contained in this paper provide you with a basic level of understanding of risk communication. The principles identified are time-tested caveats and will assist you in effectively communicating technical information.

  17. Are live kidney donors at risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamran, T.; Zaheer, K.; Hussain, S.W.; Zahid, K.H.; Akhtar, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To share experience of live donor nephrectomy (including intraoperative variables, morbidity and ethical aspects) and to give an overview of surgical technique being practiced. Results: Majority of the donors (58.5%) were 31-50 years old and 70.6% were first-degree relatives. Left sided kidney was taken in 96.5% cases. Mean operative time was 145 minutes. Mean renal warm ischemia time from cross clamping of renal vessels to cold perfusion on the bench was 1.5 minutes per operation. Operative complications encountered were injury to lumbar veins in 5.1 % cases, slipping of satinsky clamp on vena cava stump in 1.7 % and accidental pleural damage in 5.1 % cases. Postoperative morbid complications found were urinary retention in 6.4 % cases, epididymo-orchitis in 1.7 %, prolonged lymph drain in 3.4 %, stitch infection in 1.7 % and prolonged wound discomfort in 5.1 % patients. Conclusions: Open live donor nepherectomy appears to be safe procedure for harvesting kidney. Related or emotionally related donors must be the choice in all cases. Non-related donors may be entertained in selected cases despite the probability of organ vending in our society. (author)

  18. Risk communication: Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, H.P.

    1991-01-01

    The emphasis is put on communication processes, here in particular with regard to nuclear energy. Not so much dealt with are questions concerning political regulation, the constellation of power between those becoming active and risk perception by the population. Presented are individual arguments, political positions and decision-making processes. Dealt with in particular are safety philosophies, risk debates, and attempts to 'channel' all sides to the subject of nuclear energy. (DG) [de

  19. Risk communication importance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Raquel Dalledone Siqueira da; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de, E-mail: raqueldalledonesiqueira@gmail.com, E-mail: delvonei@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Risk Communication has shown its importance in the elaboration of emergency plans in the Chemical industry. In the 90's, the UNEP developed the APELL (Awareness and Preparedness for Emergency at Local Level) plan, a risk management methodology used by dangerous chemical facilities. The methodology comprises the commitment of both Government and the community located in the risk area in the development of the emergency plan. In the nuclear sector, there is no similar methodology developed so far. However, establishing a communication channel between the nuclear segment and the community is essential. In Brazil, the construction of Angra 3 and the RMB (Multi Purpose Reactor) project stand as nuclear initiatives that improve the importance of a good communication to the public. Security issues of these projects are natural sources of concernment to the public, which is aggravated by events such as the Fukushima disaster. Without an effective communication about what means the presence of nuclear plants and reactors in a specific area, the interested public will only have an alarmist vision of the subject, given by those against these facilities. (author)

  20. Risk communication importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, Raquel Dalledone Siqueira da; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de

    2013-01-01

    Risk Communication has shown its importance in the elaboration of emergency plans in the Chemical industry. In the 90's, the UNEP developed the APELL (Awareness and Preparedness for Emergency at Local Level) plan, a risk management methodology used by dangerous chemical facilities. The methodology comprises the commitment of both Government and the community located in the risk area in the development of the emergency plan. In the nuclear sector, there is no similar methodology developed so far. However, establishing a communication channel between the nuclear segment and the community is essential. In Brazil, the construction of Angra 3 and the RMB (Multi Purpose Reactor) project stand as nuclear initiatives that improve the importance of a good communication to the public. Security issues of these projects are natural sources of concernment to the public, which is aggravated by events such as the Fukushima disaster. Without an effective communication about what means the presence of nuclear plants and reactors in a specific area, the interested public will only have an alarmist vision of the subject, given by those against these facilities. (author)

  1. Risk assessment terminology: risk communication part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Liuzzo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the terminology of risk communication in the view of food safety: the theory of stakeholders, the citizens’ involvement and the community interest and consultation are reported. Different aspects of risk communication (public communication, scientific uncertainty, trust, care, consensus and crisis communication are discussed.

  2. Organ utilization from increased infectious risk donors: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Huillier, Arnaud G; Humar, Atul; Payne, Clare; Kumar, Deepali

    2017-12-01

    Donors with an increased risk of transmitting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), or hepatitis C virus (HCV) (increased risk donors [IRDs]) are a potential source of organs for transplant. Organs from IRDs can be utilized with appropriate recipient consent and post-transplant follow-up. We reviewed the characteristics and utilization of IRDs in our Organ Procurement Organization (OPO) over a 2-year period. Donor information from April 1, 2013 to March 31, 2015 was obtained through the OPO database. Only consented donors were included. Donors were categorized as IRDs according to Health Canada/Canadian Standards Association (CSA) criteria. A total of 494 potential donors were identified, of which 92 (18.6%) were IRDs. Of these, at least one organ was transplanted from 76 (82.6%). Risk factors for IRDs included injection drug user (IDU) (12%), men having sex with men (MSM) (7%), commercial sex worker (CSW) (4%), and incarceration (24%). Fifty-nine percent (253/429) of IRD organs were utilized. The most frequently used organ was kidney, followed by liver. Median number of organs recovered per IRD was 3 (interquartile range: 2-5). Nucleic acid testing (NAT) was performed in 18.5% (17/92) of IRDs. Reasons for NAT were IDU (n = 2), MSM (n = 2), CSW (n = 2), and previous incarceration (n = 7). Organ utilization from donors that had NAT was similar to donors who did not (94% vs 80%, P = .29). Follow-up NAT was done in multiple factors contribute to the perception of infectious risk from such organs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The visual communication of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkus, I M; Hollands, J G

    1999-01-01

    This paper 1) provides reasons why graphics should be effective aids to communicate risk; 2) reviews the use of visuals, especially graphical displays, to communicate risk; 3) discusses issues to consider when designing graphs to communicate risk; and 4) provides suggestions for future research. Key articles and materials were obtained from MEDLINE(R) and PsychInfo(R) databases, from reference article citations, and from discussion with experts in risk communication. Research has been devoted primarily to communicating risk magnitudes. Among the various graphical displays, the risk ladder appears to be a promising tool for communicating absolute and relative risks. Preliminary evidence suggests that people understand risk information presented in histograms and pie charts. Areas that need further attention include 1) applying theoretical models to the visual communication of risk, 2) testing which graphical displays can be applied best to different risk communication tasks (e.g., which graphs best convey absolute or relative risks), 3) communicating risk uncertainty, and 4) testing whether the lay public's perceptions and understanding of risk varies by graphical format and whether the addition of graphical displays improves comprehension substantially beyond numerical or narrative translations of risk and, if so, by how much. There is a need to ascertain the extent to which graphics and other visuals enhance the public's understanding of disease risk to facilitate decision-making and behavioral change processes. Nine suggestions are provided to help achieve these ends.

  4. Communicating water quality risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    Technology for detecting and understanding water quality problems and the impacts of activities on long-range groundwater quality has advanced considerably. In the past a technical solution was considered adequate but today one must consider a wide range of both technical and social factors in evaluating technical alternatives that are also acceptable social solutions. Policies developed and implemented with limited local participation generally are resisted and become ineffective if public cooperation is necessary for effective implementation. The public, the experts and the policymakers all must understand and appreciate the different perspectives present in risk policymaking. The typical model used to involve the public in policy decisions is a strategy described as the decide-announce-defend-approach. Much more acceptable to the public, but also more difficult to implement, is a strategy that calls for free flow of information within the community about the problem, policies and potential solutions. Communication about complex issues will be more successful if the communication is substantial; if it takes advantage of existing interpersonal networks and mass media; if it pays particular attention to existing audience knowledge, interest and behaviors; and if it clearly targets messages to various segments of the audience

  5. Risk communication and environmental risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petts, J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper attempts to provide a broad context for consideration of appropriate risk communication approaches. It examines the basis of public concerns and in particular the non-risk dimensions. The latter are so important in any risk decision that means of communication which can deal with them are required which extend beyond understanding how to present risk estimates. These means relate to (a) the decision processes themselves and the extent to which they provide for involvement of the public in decisions, (b) the communication skills of experts, and (c) the robustness of the risk information which is available. (Author)

  6. Risk controversies. Concepts - conflicts - communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungermann, H.

    1991-01-01

    Common arguments and differences in risk communication in connection with the controversial discussion surrounding the fields of genetic engineering, chemistry, nuclear engineering, information techniques, and climate research are investigated. Presented are comparative analyses on subjects, those becoming active, and strategies of risk communication. (DG) [de

  7. Cancer risk in children born after donor ART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C L; Bunch, K J; Murphy, M F G; Stiller, C A; Botting, B J; Wallace, W H; Davies, M C; Sutcliffe, A G

    2018-01-01

    Do children born after donor ART have an increased risk of developing childhood cancer in comparison to the general population? This study showed no overall increased risk of childhood cancer in individuals born after donor ART. Most large population-based studies have shown no increase in overall childhood cancer incidence after non-donor ART; however, other studies have suggested small increased risks in specific cancer types, including haematological cancers. Cancer risk specifically in children born after donor ART has not been investigated to date. This retrospective cohort study utilized record linkage to determine the outcome status of all children born in Great Britain (1992-2008) after donor ART. The cohort included 12 137 members who contributed 95 389 person-years of follow-up (average follow-up 7.86 years). Records of all children born in Great Britain (England, Wales, Scotland) after all forms of donor ART (1992-2008) were linked to the UK National Registry of Childhood Tumours (NRCT) to determine the number who subsequently developed cancer by 15 years of age, by the end of 2008. Rates of overall and type specific cancer (selected a priori) were compared with age, sex and calendar year standardized population-based rates, stratifying for potential mediating/moderating factors including sex, age at diagnosis, birth weight, multiple births, maternal previous live births, assisted conception type and fresh/ cryopreserved cycles. In our cohort of 12 137 children born after donor ART (52% male, 55% singleton births), no overall increased risk of cancer was identified. There were 12 cancers detected compared to 14.4 expected (standardized incidence ratio (SIR) 0.83; 95% CI 0.43-1.45; P = 0.50). A small, significant increased risk of hepatoblastoma was found, but the numbers and absolute risks were small (ART, the rarity of specific diagnostic subgroups of childhood cancer results in few cases and therefore wide CIs for such outcomes. As this is an

  8. Risk communication in environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahm-Crites, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Germantown, MD (United States). Washington Operations Office

    1996-08-26

    Since the enactment of NEPA and other environmental legislation, the concept of `risk communication` has expanded from simply providing citizens with scientific information about risk to exploring ways of making risk information genuinely meaningful to the public and facilitating public involvement in the very processes whereby risk is analyzed and managed. Contemporary risk communication efforts attempt to find more effective ways of conveying increasingly complex risk information and to develop more democratic and proactive approaches to community involvement, in particular to ensuring the participation of diverse populations in risk decisions. Although considerable progress has been made in a relatively short time, risk communication researchers and practitioners currently face a number of challenges in a time of high expectations, low trust, and low budgets.

  9. Family Communication about Donor Conception: A Qualitative Study with Lesbian Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Parys, Hanna; Wyverkens, Elia; Provoost, Veerle; De Sutter, Petra; Pennings, Guido; Buysse, Ann

    2016-03-01

    In this qualitative study of 10 lesbian couples who built their families through anonymous donor conception, we explore how lesbian parents experience communication about the donor conception within the family. While for these families "disclosure" of donor conception is often seen as evident, the way parents and children discuss this subject and how this is experienced by the parents themselves has not received much research attention. To meet this gap in the literature, in-depth interviews with lesbian couples were conducted. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis showed that this family communication process can be understood within the broader relational context of parent-child relationships. Even though parents handled this family communication in many different ways, these were all inspired by the same motives: acting in the child's best interest and-on a more implicit level-maintaining good relations within the family. Furthermore, parents left the initiative for talking about the DC mostly to the child. Overall, parents aimed at constructing a donor conception narrative that they considered acceptable for both the children and themselves. They used different strategies, such as gradual disclosure, limiting the meaning of the donor, and justifying the donor conception. Building an acceptable donor conception narrative was sometimes challenged by influences from the social environment. In the discussion, we relate this qualitative systemic study to the broader issues of selective disclosure and bidirectionality within families. © 2014 Family Process Institute.

  10. Online sperm donors: the impact of family, friends, personality and risk perception on behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Stephen; Savage, David A; Torgler, Benno

    2017-12-01

    As informal sperm donation becomes more prevalent worldwide, understanding donor psychology and interactions is critical in providing effective policy, equitable legislative frameworks and frontline health support to an ever-growing number of global participants. We analyse data of informal sperm donors who were members of the connection website PrideAngel to identify the role and effect of several factors, e.g. kinship, social networks, personality, and risk perception, on behaviour. A key strength of the study is the ability to analyse various factors, such as the level and history of informal donation, risk concerns, number of women to whom donations are informally made and the number of offspring. Our results indicate donors who have also been active in formal clinical settings (compared with those who exclusively donate informally), donate to more women in the informal market and realise more offspring. Donor's sexual orientation also affects activity. From a personality perspective, conscientiousness provides comparative advantage. It is possible this characteristic provides positive externalities, as more conscientious men may be more efficient or organised in a market that requires increased cooperation and communication. The importance of kin and social networks seems to affect frequency of donation only, possibly representing a time constraint (or opportunity cost). Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Environmental Risk Communication through Qualitative Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabre J. Coleman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental analysts are often hampered in communicating the risks of environmental contaminants due to the myriad of regulatory requirements that are applicable. The use of a qualitative, risk-based control banding strategy for assessment and control of potential environmental contaminants provides a standardized approach to improve risk communication. Presented is a model that provides an effective means for determining standardized responses and controls for common environmental issues based on the level of risk. The model is designed for integration within an occupational health and safety management system to provide a multidisciplinary environmental and occupational risk management approach. This environmental model, which utilizes multidisciplinary control banding strategies for delineating risk, complements the existing Risk Level Based Management System, a proven method in a highly regulated facility for occupational health and safety. A simplified environmental risk matrix is presented that is stratified over four risk levels. Examples of qualitative environmental control banding strategies are presented as they apply to United States regulations for construction, research activities, facility maintenance, and spill remediation that affect air, water, soil, and waste disposal. This approach offers a standardized risk communication language for multidisciplinary issues that will improve communications within and between environmental health and safety professionals, workers, and management.

  12. The problem of risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerup, Per

    1989-01-01

    Communication of risk and risk decisions has always been a matter of great difficulty. A great deal of research has been devoted to improving either the understanding of people's perception of risk or people's understanding of risk itself. These achievements have, however, either failed or the results have not been properly introduced in risk communication. At least this is what can be deduced from recent very heated discussions of risk decisions concerning chemical industry in Denmark. It might thus be that the focus of our interest should be changed from improving already existing methods of risk analysis to improving our understanding of why risk communication very often fails - and fails with very severe consequences. In Denmark a working party set up by the Minister for the Environment has just concluded its work on these matters. This main problem seems to be that the authorities' very one-dimensional perception of risk simply do not reflect the concern of the public and that of many politicians. If this is true the problem is not just a matter of communication but a much more fundamental one which parameters should be introduced in risk evaluation in order to satisfy the need of the public - and how this can be done. (author)

  13. Risk - hazardous incident - communication 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerling, R.; Obermeier, O.P.

    1994-01-01

    Terms such as 'risk', 'hazardous incident', and 'communication' have become major catchwords in discussions about present-day problems, and may be reduced to a common denominator: disaster. Such an association, however, is inappropriate, as the concept indicated by the term 'risk' for instance covers a wide scale of possible danger. Even the term 'hazardous incident' describes events or conditions that are very different in terms of possible danger, let alone disastrous effects. The discrepancy to be observed between the facts and the public perception usually is due to the fact that people have little insight into the complex of problems involved, and to insufficient communication between the world of experts and the general public. The contributions to this publication present information and discuss a variety of solution sets to improve the communication problems in the context of the problem area of 'risk - hazardous incident - communication'. (orig./CB) [de

  14. Communicating risk information and warnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileti, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    Major advances have occurred over the last 20 years about how to effectively communicate risk information and warnings to the public. These lessons have been hard won. Knowledge has mounted on the finding from social scientific studies of risk communication failures, successes and those which fell somewhere in between. Moreover, the last 2 decades have borne witness to the brith, cultivation, and blossoming of information sharing between those physical scientists who discover new information about risk and those communcation scientists who trace its diffusion and then measure pbulic reaction. 

  15. Risk - hazardous incident - communication 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerling, R.; Obermeier, O.P.

    1995-01-01

    It is difficult to develop an objective approach to risks and effects of a hazardous incident that would be acceptable to the community at large. It is a matter of fact that there is great dissimilarity in the way various social groups perceive and define the risks of a particular technology, or the effects of hazardous incidents, sometimes they have even contrary opinions. Hence, open communication is seriously hampered, which in turn aggravates the problems encountered in this context. This second volume of the publication dealing with the problem area of 'risk - hazardous incident - communication' is intended to reveal patterns of the recurrent process which impedes communication, and to bridge the gaps between the various 'styles' of risk perception and definition. (orig./CB) [de

  16. CONSIDERATIONS IN RISK COMMUNICATION: A DIGEST OF RISK COMMUNICATION AS A RISK MANAGEMENT TOOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk communication is the process of informing people about hazards. Like all communication, communicating risk is a two-way exchange in which you inform the target community about possible hazards, but also gather information about those affected by the risk. The purpose of risk...

  17. Deceased Organ Donors and PHS Risk Identification: Impact on Organ Usage and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, Timothy L; Clark, Marissa A; Taranto, Sarah E

    2017-07-01

    In 2013, the public health service (PHS) changed the criteria intended to identify organ donors that put the associated organ recipients at increased risk for acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). The changing donor demographics, organ utilization, and outcomes associated with this change are not known. A review of the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network database was performed to assess the impact of PHS donor designation on organ utilization and outcomes. After the 2013 modification, over 20% of all deceased organ donors in the United States were identified as PHS increased risk. Compared with the standard risk deceased organ donor, the PHS donor was younger, male, died from anoxia, more likely to be HCV and antibody reacting to hepatitis B core antigen+, and less likely to have diabetes or hypertension. Organs from the 18- to 34-year-old deceased donors with PHS risks (but relatively few medical comorbidities) and tested negative for HCV were less frequently transplanted compared with the standard risk donors (3.9 vs 4.2 organs transplanted per donor). However, the transplant patient and graft survival as well as risk of unexpected transmission of HIV, HBV, and HCV were equivalent, irrespective of PHS donor status. The rationale of using PHS donor designation that negatively impacts utilization of high-quality organs without the benefit of identifying the subset of organs with demonstrable proclivity to transmit HIV, HBV, or HCV needs to be reexamined.

  18. Communicating with the public about risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, C.R.; Molony, S.T.; Durbin, M.E.; Klein, S.H.; Wahl, L.E.

    1992-01-01

    Risk communication is a growing specialty field in communication that draws from well-established principles of sociology and psychology. It is a new way to communicate with potentially hostile audiences about sensitive environmental, safety, and health issues they face. This paper explains the most important principles of risk communication and discusses audience analyses, perceptions of risk (outrage factors), and risk comparisons. These principles are applied to a risk communication issue in Malhuevo, a fictitious Arizona community

  19. Low Dose Risk, Decisions, and Risk Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, James

    2002-01-01

    The overall research objective was to establish new levels of information about how people, groups, and communities respond to low dose radiation exposure. This is basic research into the social psychology of individual, group, and community responses to radiation exposures. The results of this research are directed to improving risk communication and public participation in management of environmental problems resulting from low dose radiation

  20. Report from risk communication practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Reiko

    2011-01-01

    National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) set up a phone consulting service early after Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident and inquiries to the service attained over 14,000 at August end, 2011. This paper describes the process, present state and future view of the risk communication based on experiences through the service. The communication is classified in 3 stages of consensus/care in peacetime, crisis, and consensus/care post disaster. The first one contains the consensus of atomic power policy and provision of its information; the second, of evacuation/indoor evacuation and indication of restricted water and food intake; and the third, communication for changes and standard of radiation related matters. Initial inquiries to the NIRS service were many concerning examinations of radiation screening, decontamination and internal exposure, from inside and outside of Fukushima Prefecture, suggesting the concern had been spread to remote area from the Prefecture. Then, the time needed per inquiry/consultation prolonged, implying the wish for solving the concern. The risk communication and consideration for realizing radiation risk at peacetime might have rather unrealistic, which was thought to be the major cause of problems at crisis. In addition, interpretation of various values relating to radiation had been apparently different from expert to expert, and findings by radiation effects and rules of radiation protection had been confusedly understood, which probably influenced on people's correct understanding. However, it is conceivably a fruit of taken risk communication that the past understanding ''radiation, unseeable, is terrible'' has changed to the current understanding ''protection can be done through risk assessment of radiation, measurable''. Hereafter, important are the practical use of various numerical values officially informed and realization of dose through exposure routes, and dispatch of their integrated information to lessen the

  1. High Center Volume Does Not Mitigate Risk Associated with Using High Donor Risk Organs in Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Eliza W; Black, Sylvester M; Mumtaz, Khalid; Hayes, Don; El-Hinnawi, Ashraf; Washburn, Kenneth; Tumin, Dmitry

    2017-09-01

    High-risk donor allografts increase access to liver transplant, but potentially reduce patient and graft survival. It is unclear whether the risk associated with using marginal donor livers is mitigated by increasing center experience. The United Network for Organ Sharing registry was queried for adult first-time liver transplant recipients between 2/2002 and 12/2015. High donor risk was defined as donor risk index >1.9, and 1-year patient and graft survival were compared according to donor risk index in small and large centers. Multivariable Cox regression estimated the hazard ratio (HR) associated with using high-risk donor organs, according to a continuous measure of annual center volume. The analysis included 51,770 patients. In 67 small and 67 large centers, high donor risk index predicted increased mortality (p = 0.001). In multivariable analysis, high-donor risk index allografts predicted greater mortality hazard at centers performing 20 liver transplants per year (HR 1.35; 95% CI 1.22, 1.49; p donor risk index and center volume was not statistically significant (p = 0.747), confirming that the risk associated with using marginal donor livers was comparable between smaller and larger centers. Results were consistent when examining graft loss. At both small and large centers, high-risk donor allografts were associated with reduced patient and graft survival after liver transplant. Specific strategies to mitigate the risk of liver transplant involving high-risk donors are needed, in addition to accumulation of center expertise.

  2. Communicating Risk to Program Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, C. Herbert

    2005-01-01

    Program Managers (PM) can protect program resources and improve chances of success by anticipating, understanding and managing risks. Understanding the range of potential risks helps one to avoid or manage the risks. A PM must choose which risks to accept to reduce fire fighting, must meet the expectations of stakeholders consistently, and avoid falling into costly "black holes" that may open. A good risk management process provides the PM more confidence to seize opportunities save money, meet schedule, even improve relationships with people important to the program. Evidence of managing risk and sound internal controls can mean better support from superiors for the program by building a trust and reputation from being on top of issues. Risk managers have an obligation to provide the PM with the best information possible to allow the benefits to be realized (Small Business Consortium, 2004). The Institute for Chartered Accountants in England and Wales sees very important benefits for companies in providing better information about what they do to assess and manage key business risks. Such information will: a) provide practical forward-looking information; b) reduce the cost of capital; c) encourage better risk management; and d) improve accountability for stewardship, investor protection and the usefulness of financial reporting. We are particularly convinced that enhanced risk reporting will help listed companies obtain capital at the lowest possible cost (The Institute of Chartered Accountants in England &Wales, June 2002). Risk managers can take a significant role in quantifying the success of their department and communicating those figures to executive (program) management levels while pushing for a broader risk management role. Overall, risk managers must show that risk management work matters in the most crucial place-the bottom line- as they prove risk management can be a profit center (Sullivan, 2004).

  3. Potential donor families' experiences of organ and tissue donation-related communication, processes and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marck, C H; Neate, S L; Skinner, M; Dwyer, B; Hickey, B B; Radford, S T; Weiland, T J; Jelinek, G A

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to describe the experiences of families of potential organ and tissue donors eligible for donation after circulatory death or brain death. Forty-nine family members of potential donors from four Melbourne hospitals were interviewed to assess their experiences of communication, processes and the outcomes of donation. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Families expressed a range of perspectives on themes of communication, hospital processes and care, the processes of consent and donation and reflected on decisions and outcomes. They expressed satisfaction overall with communication when receiving bad news, discussing death and donation. Honest and frank communication and being kept up-to-date and prepared for potential outcomes were important aspects for families, especially those of post circulatory death donors. Participants reported high levels of trust in healthcare professionals and satisfaction with the level of care received. Many donor families indicated the process was lengthy and stressful, but not significantly enough to adversely affect their satisfaction with the outcome. Both the decision itself and knowing others' lives had been saved provided them with consolation. No consenting families, and only some non-consenting families, regretted their decisions. Many expressed they would benefit from a follow-up opportunity to ask questions and clarify possible misunderstandings. Overall, while experiences varied, Australian families valued frank communication, trusted health professionals, were satisfied with the care their family member received and with donation processes, despite some apparent difficulties. Family satisfaction, infrequently assessed, is an important outcome and these findings may assist education for Australian organ donation professionals.

  4. Communicating the risk from radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A.; McClelland, G.H.; Schulze, W.D.; Doyle, J.K.

    1991-01-01

    A prominent television station developed a special series of newscasts and public service announcements about radon. This was combined with their advertising of the availability of reduced-price radon test kits in a local supermarket chain. The large number of test kits sold was a success from a marketing perspective, but not from a public health perspective - especially because of the very small share of high readings that were mitigated. In contrast, a study of housing sales showed a much higher testing rate and corresponding mitigation when risk communication accompanied the housing transaction, rather than being directed toward the general public. This paper examined the relative effectiveness of these alternative approaches to radon risk communication, emphasizing the implications for developing and implementing radon programs

  5. Risk for cancer in living kidney donors and recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Zhang, Huai; Zhou, Dan; Qiao, Yong-Chao; Pan, Yan-Hong; Wang, Yan-Chao; Zhao, Hai-Lu

    2018-03-01

    Malignancy following renal transplantation remains inconsistent with the reported safety of kidney donation during the long-term follow-up. We conducted searches of the published literature which included healthy participants, recipients, living kidney donors (LKDs), and the availability of outcome data for malignancy. Eight from 938 potentially relevant studies were analyzed by means of fixed-effects model or random-effects model, as appropriately. In 48,950 participants, the follow-up range was 18 months to 20 years, and the mean age of the subjects was approximately 41 years. The incidence rate with 95% confidence interval (CI) for malignancy after kidney transplantation was 0.03 (0.01-0.05) in recipients and 0.03 (0.1-0.07) in LKDs, giving a pooled incidence rate of 0.03 (95% CI 0.02-0.04). LKDs contrasted nondonors by the overall odds ratio and 95% CI for total cancer of 2.80 (2.69-2.92). Kidney transplantation was associated with an increased risk of cancer during a long-term follow-up. Long-term risk for cancer in LKDs and kidney recipients should be monitored.

  6. Risk of cancer after blood transfusion from donors with subclinical cancer: a retrospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Gustaf; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Reilly, Marie

    2007-01-01

    transmission from blood donors to recipients through blood transfusion. METHODS: We did a register-based retrospective cohort study of cancer incidence among patients who received blood from donors deemed to have a subclinical cancer at the time of donation. These precancerous donors were diagnosed......, and essentially complete, population and health-care registers. The risk of cancer in exposed recipients relative to that in recipients who received blood from non-cancerous donors was estimated with multivariate Poisson regression, adjusting for potential confounding factors. FINDINGS: Of the 354 094 transfusion...... recipients eligible for this analysis, 12,012 (3%) were exposed to blood products from precancerous donors. There was no excess risk of cancer overall (adjusted relative risk 1.00, 95% CI 0.94-1.07) or in crude anatomical subsites among recipients of blood from precancerous donors compared with recipients...

  7. Drinking Water Cyanotoxin Risk Communication Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    The drinking water cyanotoxin risk communication toolbox is a ready-to-use, “one-stop-shop” to support public water systems, states, and local governments in developing, as they deem appropriate, their own risk communication materials.

  8. Analyzing actual risk in malaria-deferred donors through selective serologic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Megan L; Goff, Tami; Gibble, Joan; Steele, Whitney R; Leiby, David A

    2013-08-01

    Approximately 150,000 US blood donors are deferred annually for travel to malaria-endemic areas. However, the majority do not travel to the high-risk areas of Africa associated with transfusion-transmitted malaria (TTM) but visit low-risk areas such as Mexico. This study tests for Plasmodium infection among malaria-deferred donors, particularly those visiting Mexico. Blood donors deferred for malaria risk (travel, residence, or previous infection) provided blood samples and completed a questionnaire. Plasma was tested for Plasmodium antibodies by enzyme immunoassay (EIA); repeat-reactive (RR) samples were considered positive and tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Accepted donors provided background testing data. During 2005 to 2011, a total of 5610 malaria-deferred donors were tested by EIA, including 5412 travel deferrals. Overall, 88 (1.6%) were EIA RR; none were PCR positive. Forty-nine (55.7%) RR donors previously had malaria irrespective of deferral category, including 34 deferred for travel. Among 1121 travelers to Mexico, 90% visited Quintana Roo (no or very low risk), but just 2.2% visited Oaxaca/Chiapas (moderate or high risk). Only two Mexican travelers tested RR; both previously had malaria not acquired in Mexico. Travel to Mexico represents a large percentage of US donors deferred for malaria risk; however, these donors primarily visit no- or very-low-risk areas. No malaria cases acquired in Mexico were identified thereby supporting previous risk estimates. Consideration should be given to allowing blood donations from U.S. donors who travel to Quintana Roo and other low-risk areas in Mexico. A more effective approach to preventing TTM would be to defer all donors with a history of malaria, even if remote. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  9. Risk factors for delayed healing at the free anterolateral thigh flap donor site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiro Abe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The free anterolateral thigh (ALT flap has been widely used for various kinds of reconstructions. However, delayed healing at the donor site occasionally occurs due to wound dehiscence or the partial loss of grafted skin at the donor site. The aim of the present study was to identify reliable predictive factors for delayed healing at the donor site after the harvest of a free ALT flap. Methods This study included 52 patients who underwent reconstructive procedures using free ALT flaps. The delayed healing group included patients with wounds at the donor site that had not healed over 3 weeks after surgery, and the normal healing group included patients who showed wound healing within 3 weeks after surgery. Multivariate logistic regression models were created to identify the risk factors for delayed healing at the ALT flap donor site. Results Among the 52 patients, 24 (46.2% showed delayed healing at the donor site, and 6 patients required additional operative treatment. A high preoperative body mass index (BMI, smoking, and skin grafting were found to be significantly associated with delayed healing at the ALT donor site. Of the 37 patients who underwent skin grafting, 23 (62% experienced delayed healing at the donor site. Conclusions A high preoperative BMI, smoking, and skin grafting were risk factors for delayed healing at the free ALT donor site. Skin grafting at the ALT donor site should be avoided in patients with a high BMI or a habit of smoking.

  10. LOW DOSE RISK, DECISIONS, and RISK COMMUNICATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, James

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this project is to conduct basic research on how people receive, evaluate, and form positions on scientific information and its relationship to low-dose radiation exposure. There are three major areas of study in our research program. First is the development of theories, frameworks and concepts essential to guiding data collection and analysis. The second area is a program of experimental studies on risk perception, evaluation of science information, and the structure of individual positions regarding low-dose exposures. Third is the community-level studies to examine and record how the social conditions, under which science communications take place, influence the development of attitudes and opinions about: low-dose exposures, the available management options, control of radiation risks, and preferences for program and policy goals

  11. A Risk Communication Success Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peecook, Keith

    2010-01-01

    A key success of the decommissioning effort at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Plum Brook Reactor Facility (PBRF) has been the public outreach program. The approach has been based on risk communications rather than a public relations approach. As a result it has kept the public feeling more involved in the process. It ensures they have the information needed to understand the project and its goals, and to make recommendations. All this is done so that NASA can better plan and execute the necessary work without delays or suprises.

  12. Risk Communication and Citizen Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merkelsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Despite the last few decades’ devotion to deliberative methods in risk communication, many studies point to how important challenges arise when citizens are engaged in public dialogue. Since the era of enlightenment public dialogue has occupied a position as a normative ideal for political...... governance. But ideals are social constructions that have a tendency to direct attention away from underlying conflicts. The concept of dialogue is no exception, and exemplified by the Danish solution to dealing with public scepticism in relation to technological controversies, the internationally acclaimed...

  13. Environmental risk communication as an educational process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schottenfeld, Faith

    The purpose of this study was to explore the dynamics of the environmental risk communication process. The goal was to look at the totality of the process by examining the different components: entry to communication (what brings people into the process), maintenance of communication (behaviors of participants, pathways to successful risk communication, barriers to successful risk communication, characteristics of the dialogue) and outcomes of risk communication (what has been learned, what moves the process to social action, what else can come of the process). Interviews and critical incidents were used to explore the experiences of risk communicators in four different practice settings: academia, industry/trade groups, community-based organizations and government. Twenty-four people completed critical incident stories and sixteen participated in in-depth interviews. Data were coded and analyzed for themes. Findings illustrated that successful risk communication results from a deliberative, or purposeful process. This process includes a systematic approach to identifying and inviting people to participate, while considering specific motivating factors that affect participation. Risk communication is maintained by creating and nurturing structured forums for dialogue by acknowledging the varying perspectives of the people who participate and the contextual settings of environmental risks. The result of effective dialogue may range from increased knowledge, to transformative learning to social action and policy change. The researcher recommended that a multi-disciplinary team including risk communicators, adult educators and scientists can work most effectively to plan, implement and evaluate a risk communication process.

  14. Geographic exposure risk of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in US blood donors: a risk-ranking model to evaluate alternative donor-deferral policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Huang, Yin; Gregori, Luisa; Asher, David M; Bui, Travis; Forshee, Richard A; Anderson, Steven A

    2017-04-01

    Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) has been transmitted by blood transfusion (TTvCJD). The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends deferring blood donors who resided in or traveled to 30 European countries where they may have been exposed to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) through beef consumption. Those recommendations warrant re-evaluation, because new cases of BSE and vCJD have markedly abated. The FDA developed a risk-ranking model to calculate the geographic vCJD risk using country-specific case rates and person-years of exposure of US blood donors. We used the reported country vCJD case rates, when available, or imputed vCJD case rates from reported BSE and UK beef exports during the risk period. We estimated the risk reduction and donor loss should the deferral be restricted to a few high-risk countries. We also estimated additional risk reduction by leukocyte reduction (LR) of red blood cells (RBCs). The United Kingdom, Ireland, and France had the greatest vCJD risk, contributing approximately 95% of the total risk. The model estimated that deferring US donors who spent extended periods of time in these three countries, combined with currently voluntary LR (95% of RBC units), would reduce the vCJD risk by 89.3%, a reduction similar to that achieved under the current policy (89.8%). Limiting deferrals to exposure in these three countries would potentially allow donations from an additional 100,000 donors who are currently deferred. Our analysis suggests that a deferral option focusing on the three highest risk countries would achieve a level of blood safety similar to that achieved by the current policy. © 2016 AABB.

  15. Communicating climate risks to Vietnam's vulnerable coastal ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-05-04

    May 4, 2015 ... A key aspect of this research involves communicating climate change ... to more effectively communicate climate change risk and uncertainty to ... youth groups and women's unions, to share climate expertise and improve ...

  16. Living donor risk model for predicting kidney allograft and patient survival in an emerging economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Mirza Naqi; Wong, Germaine; Aziz, Tahir; Abbas, Khawar; Adibul Hasan Rizvi, S

    2018-03-01

    Living donor kidney is the main source of donor organs in low to middle income countries. We aimed to develop a living donor risk model that predicts graft and patient survival in an emerging economy. We used data from the Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT) database (n = 2283 recipients and n = 2283 living kidney donors, transplanted between 1993 and 2009) and conducted Cox proportional hazard analyses to develop a composite score that predicts graft and patient survivals. Donor factors age, creatinine clearance, nephron dose (estimated by donor/recipient body weight ratio) and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) match were included in the living donor risk model. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for graft failures among those who received a kidney with living donor scores (reference to donor score of zero) of 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 1.14 (95%CI: 0.94-1.39), 1.24 (95%CI:1.03-1.49), 1.25 (95%CI:1.03-1.51) and 1.36 (95%CI:1.08-1.72) (P-value for trend =0.05). Similar findings were observed for patient survival. Similar to findings in high income countries, our study suggests that donor characteristics such as age, nephron dose, creatinine clearance and HLA match are important factors that determine the long-term patient and graft survival in low income countries. However, other crucial but undefined factors may play a role in determining the overall risk of graft failure and mortality in living kidney donor transplant recipients. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  17. Donation frequency, iron loss, and risk of cancer among blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Gustaf; Reilly, Marie; Hjalgrim, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term deleterious effects of repeated blood donations may be masked by the donors' healthy lifestyle. To investigate possible effects of blood donation and iron loss through blood donation on cancer incidence while minimizing "healthy donor effects," we made dose......-response comparisons within a cohort of Swedish and Danish blood donors. METHODS: We used a nested case-control study design, in which case patients were defined as all donors who were diagnosed with a malignancy between their first recorded blood donation and study termination (n = 10866). Control subjects (n...... plasma donors (> 25 vs 0 donations, OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.22 to 3.74). CONCLUSIONS: Repeated blood donation was not associated with increased or decreased risk of cancer overall. The lack of consistency across latency periods casts doubt on an apparent association between reduced cancer risk and iron...

  18. The challenges of communicating about risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A.

    1992-01-01

    Managers in the nuclear industry and other potentially hazardous industries face tough but not insurmountable challenges when communicating about the risks for which they are responsible. Two types of information offer hints about successful risk communication: research within and across several disciplines and documentation of case studies. This presentation synthesizes research results and case study experience to define effective risk communication and suggests steps toward achieving it

  19. Risk reduction strategies in laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Manohar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: As the advancements, modifications and standardization of laparoscopy are taking place, there is a need for the reduction in morbidity associated with laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy. This study was performed to determine and reconfirm the advantages of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy over its open counterpart. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred open live donor nephrectomy (ODN cases were compared to 264 cases of laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy (LDN. Pretransplant functional and radiological evaluation was done routinely by excretory urogram and renal arteriography. In case of vascular variations, CT angiography was preferred. Open cases were done by conventional method and laparoscopic group underwent certain technical and surgical modifications, including meticulous planning for the port placement. Operative time, analgesia requirement, start of the orals, hospital stay, blood loss, late allograft function, incidence of rejection, complications and technical problems were analyzed. RESULTS: Operative time was 135.8 ± 43 and 165 ± 44.4 min ( P < 0.0001, requirement of analgesia was 60.5 ± 40 and 320 ± 120 mg ( P < 0.0001, hospital stay was 4 ± 0.04 and 5.7 ± 2.03 days ( P < 0.0001, warm ischemia time was 6.1 ± 2.0 and 4.1 ± 0.80 min ( P < 0.0001 and time taken for the serum creatinine to stabilize in the recipient was 4.1 ± 1.6 and 4.32 ± 1.40 days ( P =0.06 for LDN and ODN groups respectively. There was a significant reduction in the blood loss in LDN group ( P =0.0005. Overall complications were 6.81 and 14.5% and ureteric injury was seen in 0.37 and 1% in LDN and ODN respectively. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy can now be performed with low morbidity and mortality to both donors and recipients and is proving to be the preferred operation to open donor nephrectomy. Our continued innovations in technical modifications have made this novel operation successful.

  20. Deconstructing the risk for malaria in United States donors deferred for travel to Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Bryan; Kleinman, Steven; Custer, Brian; Cable, Ritchard; Wilkinson, Susan L; Steele, Whitney; High, Patrick M; Wright, David

    2011-11-01

    More than 66,000 blood donors are deferred annually in the United States due to travel to malaria-endemic areas of Mexico. Mexico accounts for the largest share of malaria travel deferrals, yet it has extremely low risk for malaria transmission throughout most of its national territory, suggesting a suboptimal balance between blood safety and availability. This study sought to determine whether donor deferral requirements might be relaxed for parts of Mexico without compromising blood safety. Travel destination was recorded from a representative sample of presenting blood donors deferred for malaria travel from six blood centers during 2006. We imputed to these donors reporting Mexican travel a risk for acquiring malaria equivalent to Mexican residents in the destination location, adjusted for length of stay. We extrapolated these results to the overall US blood donor population. Risk for malaria in Mexico varies significantly across endemic areas and is greatest in areas infrequently visited by study donors. More than 70% of blood donor deferrals were triggered by travel to the state of Quintana Roo on the Yucatán Peninsula, an area of very low malaria transmission. Eliminating the travel deferral requirement for all areas except the state of Oaxaca might result in the recovery of almost 65,000 blood donors annually at risk of approximately one contaminated unit collected every 20 years. Deferral requirements should be relaxed for presenting donors who traveled to areas within Mexico that confer exceptionally small risks for malaria, such as Quintana Roo. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  1. Significance and basic patterns of risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obermeier, O.P.

    1996-01-01

    The philosophically coloured paper on the aspects of risk communication patterns in society shows that debates about risks are governed by a number of stereotype characters representing the individualist and manager type, bureaucracy and law-and-order type, ego-centered embarrassment activist, and fundamentalist. Every risk-relevant group in the study tries to push forward its own interests. Risk communication is understood as a process of social dealing. (HP) [de

  2. On independence in risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacronique, J. F.

    2006-01-01

    The term 'independence' is a common key word used by almost all stake holders in the field of nuclear safety regulation. The intention is to persuade the public that it can have more confidence and trust in the persons in charge, if their competence and judgment cannot be altered by any kind of political issue or personal interest. However, it is possible to discuss the reality of this claimed quality: how is it possible to verify that the organization that claim 'independence' really respect it? National expertise Institutions can show that they are independent from the industry, but can they claim total independence from the government? NGO have build a large part of their constituency on 'independence' from industry and governments, but are they independent from the ideological forces -sometimes very powerful - that support them? How can we achieve to make this noble word really meaningful? We will show through different examples, that 'independence' is by definition a fragile and versatile challenge, rather than a durable label. It has to be refreshed regularly and thoroughly. Risk communication, in that context, must respect principles which will build independence as a solid asset, and keep a certain distance with mere marketing purposes or candid wishful thinking

  3. How to encourage non-donors to be more willing to donate blood? Testing of binding communication based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonte, D; Blondé, J; Girandola, F

    2017-06-01

    Our study aims to test the effectiveness of binding communication based interventions (vs classical persuasive communication based ones) inciting non-donors to act in favour of blood donation. The implementation of effective communication interventions represents a major public health issue. Nevertheless, persuasive media campaigns appear to have little effect on behaviours. Even though non-donors hold a positive attitude towards blood donation, they are not inclined to donate. As an alternative to producing behavioural changes, many recent studies have shown the superiority of binding communication over persuasive communication. All participants, non-donors, were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions of a 2 (type of communication: persuasive vs binding) × 2 (source credibility: low vs high) factorial design. Then, they were asked to report their intention to donate blood, and their intention to distribute leaflets regarding blood donation. Binding communication is a more effective strategy for increasing intention towards blood donation compared with persuasive communication, especially when combined with high credibility source. Accordingly this study calls for more consideration of knowledge of social psychology to design effective communication interventions and increase the number of donations. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  4. Risk Factors for Hepatitis C Virus Infection among Blood Donors in Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaller, Nickolas; Nelson, Kenrad E.; Aladashvili, Malvina; Badridze, Nino; Rio, Carlos del; Tsertsvadze, Tengiz

    2004-01-01

    Background: Growing awareness about the importance of blood safety for controlling the transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) has helped to decrease the spread of this virus in many settings. This study was conducted in order to evaluate potential risk factors for HCV infection among blood donors in Georgia. Methods: The study population consisted of 553 blood donors in three major Georgian cities; Tbilisi, the capital city and Batumi and Poti, naval port cities. Risk factors were examined using a behavior questionnaire. All blood samples were initially tested using 3rd generation anti-HCV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and confirmed using recombinant immunoblot assays and nucleic acid testing. Results: Forty-three blood donors, 7.8%, were confirmed HCV positive. Significant risk factors included: drug injection ever (OR: 42; 95% CI: 3.2-550.7); history of hepatitis (OR: 25.9; 95% CI: 4.6-145.5); history of a previous surgical procedure (OR: 148.4; 95% CI: 26.9-817.4); blood transfusion (OR: 25.9; 95% CI: 3.2-210.9). Conclusions: This study found a very high prevalence of HCV among blood donors in Georgia. The main risk factor for HCV infection in this population of blood donors was previous contact with contaminated blood or blood products. Reliable screening of donors and their blood is critical for controlling the further spread of HCV in Georgia

  5. Guidelines for designing messages in risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashita, Hirofumi; Horikoshi, Hidehiko

    2004-07-01

    Risk Communication Study Team (hereafter called RC team) has designed messages for risk communication based on the analysis of the local residents' opinions which were expressed in several questionnaire surveys. The messages are described in a side format (Power Point format) every single content. This report provides basic guidelines for making messages that are used for risk communication, and does not include concrete messages which RC team designed. The RC team has already published the report entitled 'Information materials for risk communication' (JNC TN8450 2003-008) separately, and it gives the concrete messages. This report shows general cautions and checklists in designing messages, comments on the messages from outside risk communication experts, and opinions from local residents. (author)

  6. Risk factors for complications in donors at first and repeat whole blood donation: a cohort study with assessment of the impact on donor return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersum-Osselton, Johanna C; Marijt-van der Kreek, Tanneke; Brand, Anneke; Veldhuizen, Ingrid; van der Bom, Johanna G; de Kort, Wim

    2014-01-01

    First-time donation is among recognised risk factors for vasovagal reactions to blood donation and reactions are known to reduce donor return. We assessed associations between potential risk factors and vasovagal reactions and needle-related complications in first-time whole blood donation in comparison to repeat donation and analysed the impact of complications on donor return. We performed a cohort study on whole blood donations in The Netherlands from 1/1/2010 to 31/12/2010 using data extracted from the blood service information system. Donation data up to 31/12/2011 were used to ascertain donor return. In 2010 28,786 donors made first whole blood donations and there were 522,958 repeat donations. Vasovagal reactions occurred in 3.9% of first donations by males and 3.5% of first donations by females compared to in 0.2% and 0.6%, respectively, of repeat donations. Associations of vasovagal reactions with other factors including age, body weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were similar in first-time and repeat donors. Needle-related complications occurred in 0.2% of male and 0.5% of female first-time donations and in 0.1% and 0.3%, respectively, of repeat donations. Among first-time donors, the return rate within 1 year was 82% following an uncomplicated first donation, but 55% and 61% following vasovagal reactions and needle-related complications, respectively; the corresponding percentages among repeat donors were 86%, 58% and 82%. Among first-time donors, females suffered less than males from vasovagal reactions. Other risk factors had similar associations among first-time and repeat donors. Vasovagal reactions and needle-related complications in both first-time and repeat donors are followed by reduced donor return.

  7. Risk-Factor Profile of Living Kidney Donors: The Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Living Kidney Donor Registry 2004-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Philip A; Saunders, John R; McDonald, Stephen P; Allen, Richard D M; Pilmore, Helen; Saunder, Alan; Boudville, Neil; Chadban, Steven J

    2016-06-01

    Recent literature suggests that living kidney donation may be associated with an excess risk of end-stage kidney disease and death. Efforts to maximize access to transplantation may result in acceptance of donors who do not fit within current guidelines, potentially placing them at risk of adverse long-term outcomes. We studied the risk profile of Australian and New Zealand living kidney donors using data from the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Living Kidney Donor Registry over 2004 to 2012. We compared their predonation profile against national guidelines for donor acceptance. The analysis included 2,932 donors (mean age 48.8 ± 11.2 years, range 18-81), 58% female and 87% Caucasian. Forty (1%) had measured glomerular filtration rate less than 80 mL/min; 32 (1%) had proteinuria >300 mg/day; 589 (20%) were hypertensive; 495 (18%) obese; 9 (0.3%) were diabetic while a further 55 (2%) had impaired glucose tolerance; and 218 (7%) were current smokers. Overall 767 donors (26%) had at least one relative contraindication to donation and 268 (9%) had at least one absolute contraindication according to national guidelines. Divergence of current clinical practice from national guidelines has occurred. In the context of recent evidence demonstrating elevated long-term donor risk, rigorous follow-up and reporting of outcomes are now mandated to ensure safety and document any change in risk associated with such a divergence.

  8. SYSTEMIC COMPLICATIONS AND THEIR RISK FACTORS AMONG TEHRANIAN BLOOD DONOR, 2005

    OpenAIRE

    F. Majlessi; S. Ghafari; A. Rahimi-Foroushani M. Maghsoodlou

    2008-01-01

    The systemic complications of blood donation are the first reasons why patients fail to return for further blood donation. This study was designed to determine the frequency of these complications and their associated risk factors among blood donors in Tehran. Also, we aimed to provide suitable methods to decrease the frequency of these adverse events, thereby eliminating the most important causes of withdrawal, while maintaining the health of the donors. This analytical descriptive cross-sec...

  9. Risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus among blood donors in Cameroon: evidence for the design of an Africa-specific donor history questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagny, Claude T; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Fopa, Diderot; Ashu, Celestin; Tante, Estel; Ngo Balogog, Pauline; Donfack, Olivier; Mbanya, Dora; Laperche, Syria; Murphy, Edward

    2017-08-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa improving the deferral of at-risk blood donors would be a cost-effective approach to reducing transfusion-transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. We performed a pilot case-control study to identify the risk factors for HIV infection and to develop an adapted donor history questionnaire (DHQ) for sub-Saharan Africa. We recruited 137 HIV-positive donors (cases) and 256 HIV-negative donors (controls) and gathered risk factor data using audio computer-assisted self-interview. Variables with univariate associations were entered into a logistic regression model to assess independent associations. A scoring scheme to distinguish between HIV-positive and HIV-negative donors was developed using receiver operating characteristics curves. We identified 16 risk factors including sex with sex worker, past history or treatment for sexually transmitted infections, and having a partner who used injected or noninjected illegal drugs. Two novel risks were related to local behavior: polygamy (odds ratio [OR], 22.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.9-86.7) and medical or grooming treatment on the street (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.0-3.0). Using the 16 selected items the mean scores (>100) were 82.6 ± 6.7 (range, 53.2-95.1) and 85.1 ± 5.2 for HIV-negative donors versus 77.9 ± 6.8 for HIV-positive ones (p = 0.000). Donors who scored between 80 and 90 were more likely to be HIV negative than those who scored less (OR, 31.4; 95% CI, 3.1-313.9). We identified both typical and novel HIV risk factors among Cameroonian blood donors. An adapted DHQ and score that discriminate HIV-negative donors may be an inexpensive means of reducing transfusion-transmitted HIV through predonation screening. © 2017 AABB.

  10. Challenges of using HIV as a primary risk indicator: Need for integrated blood donor risk management model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mapako, T.; Parirewa, J.J.; Emmanuel, J.C.; Mvere, D.A.; Massundah, E.; Mavunganidze, G.; Marowa, L.M.; Postma, M.J.; Van Hulst, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The use of risk modelling in blood safety is increasing getting momentum. NBSZ initiated blood donor risk profiling based on donation frequency (r-coding) since 1994 and in 2006 a generic risk classification model was developed (include age and donation venue) which was mainly based on

  11. Credibility and trust in risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, O.; Levine, D.

    1989-01-01

    The paper attempts to summarize the major findings of the psychological and sociological literature on trust and credibility, and to apply these findings to the specific arena of risk communication. A few guidelines for risk communication that appear appropriate for the social and institutional context in which the risk debate takes place are presented. The case studies of credibility of nuclear energy, biotechnology, medicine, and aviation are discussed. (DG)

  12. Fundamental matters on radiation risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Kunihiko; Nagai, Hiroyuki; Yonezawa, Rika; Ohuchi, Hiroko; Chikamoto, Kazuhiko; Taniguchi, Kazufumi; Morimoto, Eriko

    2009-01-01

    In the field of atomic energy and radiation utilization, radiation risk is considered as one of the social uneasy factors. About the perception of risks, there is a gap between experts and general public (non-experts). It is said that the general public tends to be going to judge risk from intuitive fear and a visible concrete instance whereas the experts judge it scientifically. A company, an administration or experts should disclose relating information about the risks and communicate interactively with the stakeholders to find the way to solve the problem with thinking together. This process is called 'risk communication'. The role of the expert is important on enforcement of risk communication. They should be required to explain the information on the risks with plain words to help stakeholders understand the risks properly. The Japan Health Physics Society (JHPS) is the largest academic society for radiation protection professionals in Japan, and one of its missions is supposed to convey accurate and trustworthy information about the radiation risk to the general public. The expert group on risk communication of ionizing radiation of the JHPS has worked for the purpose of summarizing the fundamental matters on radiation risk communication. 'Lecture on risk communication for the members of the JHPS.' which has been up on the JHPS web-site, and the symposium of 'For better understanding of radiation risk.' are a part of the activities. The expert group proposes that the JHPS should enlighten the members continuously for being interested in and practicing risk communication of radiation. (author)

  13. Emotional tone and argumentation in risk communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Hilton

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I explore how the evolution of emotional expression and co-operative planning in humans may inform the way they communicate about risks, and what implication this may have for models of rationality in risk communication. In particular, I focus on aspects of human language that enable successful co-ordination around shared tasks that involve the management of uncertainty by a group. I distinguish between performative (action-oriented and constative (description-oriented aspects of human communication, and argue that the human logical vocabulary of conditionals, quantifiers and probability expressions often conveys pragmatic signals that implicitly encourage or discourage a course of action that is under discussion. I review some studies that illustrate this perspective by highlighting the role of emotional undertone in risk communication and management, and show how it differs from existing models of risk communication and decision-making.

  14. Risk communication. Risk studies in social science; Risk communication. Risk kenkyu eno shakai kagakuteki approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asami, M. [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-11-05

    It is recently, that is, in and after the 1980s that socio-scientific approaches began to be made to studies on `risk`. It started to be made clear that the progress of the scientific technology does not necessarily bring about good news to man, and obvious estrangement has begun to appear between scientific evaluation and social evaluation of risk. The subject of risk communication (RC) study is to tackle a proposition whether the estrangement will continue to exist as estrangement or the estrangement can be made smaller by any means. This paper explains the recent trend of the study. For example, as for how each individual thinks about risk, that is, the risk perception, a new framework is trially being constructed by introduction of the quantitative method using psychometrics. A duty of RC is to serve to bridge the gap between scientific technology and society which are controlled by values which are incompatible with each other. Therefore, RC will be more and more important. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  15. Transmission of infectious agents from the donor to the recipient. Do we need change in the risk assessment?

    OpenAIRE

    S. V. Zhuravel; N. K. Kuznetsova; T. V. Chernenkaya; I. I. Utkina

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the possible risks of infection by bacterial, fungal and viral infections the recipient of donor organs. Identified infectious diseases in which the reserve of donor organs is contraindicated for the recipient and the diseases for which it is possible to use donor organs.

  16. Inactivation of high-risk human papillomaviruses by Holder pasteurization: implications for donor human milk banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donalisio, Manuela; Cagno, Valeria; Vallino, Marta; Moro, Guido E; Arslanoglu, Sertac; Tonetto, Paola; Bertino, Enrico; Lembo, David

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have recently reported the detection of oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV) in human milk of a minority of lactating mothers. These findings raised safety concerns in the context of human donor milk banking given the potential risk of HPV transmission to recipient infants. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the Holder pasteurization, a procedure currently in use in human donor milk banks for milk pasteurization, completely inactivates high-risk and low-risk HPV. HPV pseudoviruses (PsV) were generated, spiked into cell culture medium or donor human milk and subjected to thermal inactivation. HPV PsV infectivity and morphological integrity was analyzed by cell-based assay and by electron microscopy, respectively. The Holder pasteurization completely inactivated the infectivity of high-risk (types 16 and 18) and low-risk (type 6) HPV both in cell culture medium and in human milk causing PsV particle disassembly. The results presented here indicate that the Holder pasteurization is an efficient procedure to inactivate high-risk and low-risk HPV thus preventing the potential risk of their transmission through human donor milk.

  17. Risk communication on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardekker, J.A.

    2004-10-01

    For the title study use has been made of available scientific literature, results of new surveys and interviews. In the first part of the study attention is paid to the exchange of information between parties involved in climate change and differences in supply and demand of information. In the second part citizens' views on climate change, problems with communication on climate change, and the resulting consequences and options for communication are dealt with. In this second part also barriers to action that are related or influenced by communication are taken into consideration

  18. Environmental risk communication in the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulligan, J.

    1997-01-01

    The principles and practices of risk communication in the petroleum industry in Alberta were presented. In order to effectively communicate about risk, three challenges must be met: (1) the representatives of the oil company must accept the legitimacy of the public's assessment of risk, (2) the communication needs to be two-way, and (3) the risk-related issues in the community must be addressed through a process of participatory decision-making where the public is accepted as a legitimate partner. For the oil and gas companies, failing to undertake effective risk communication can lead to many problems, such as difficulties in obtaining regulatory approvals, production delays, high legal fees, and loss of public trust

  19. Report on the risk communication activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashita, Hirofumi; Yonezawa, Rika; Shobu, Nobuhiro; Ayame, Junko; Gunji, Ikuko; Asanuma, Misuzu

    2008-10-01

    This report summarizes the risk communication activities of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories conducted by mainly Risk Communication Study Office. To gain trust and understanding of the local community for nuclear energy, a 'Risk Communication Study Team' was set up at former Tokai Works, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) in January, 2001. When former JNC and former Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) were merged in October, 2005, the Team was changed to 'Risk Communication Study Office' in Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories. This report shows the risk communication activities implemented from January, 2001 to March 2007. The activities are classified into three categories: research and study on risk communication, message design and development of information transmission tools, and implementation of risk communication. As for the research and study, we investigated the risk communication about nuclear energy in Western countries. As for the message design, we made messages under our basic policy of showing information clearly that residents want to know. We have prepared about 300 messages in slide format (Microsoft Power Point) and compiled them in a report. More easy-to understand messages were created from the viewpoint of the residents by working in collaboration with local residents, not making messages by ourselves. As for the development of information transmission tools, we have been developing a portal website, 'Risk Information Navigator', which provides information about risks that exist in daily life such as traffic accidents and natural disasters, as well as risk information on nuclear technology. We produced videos and environmental panels as information transmission tools, and made poster panels, clear holder, Karuta' (Japanese card game), and so on in the collaboration work with residents. As a practice of risk communication, we have been carrying out Cycle Friendly Talk', which is direct dialogue within

  20. Industry challenge to best practice risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntire, J; Boateng, A

    2012-04-01

    Effective food safety and food defense risk communication helps to inform consumers without causing panic and alarm. The Risk Communication Team of the Natl. Center for Food Protection and Defense has developed a list of 11 best practices recommended for effective risk communication. These practices, designed for a food defense crisis, are currently applied to food safety issues, since fortunately a food defense crisis has yet to occur. IFT examined the utility of these best practices and the limitations on their use during food safety and food defense crises by academics, trade associations, and the government. It was hypothesized that legal and business considerations as well as the nature of the event would determine the implementation of the best practices. Through the use of focus group meetings, it was discovered that there was a low level of awareness of the best practices. However, stakeholders practiced some aspects of the recommended practices. Participants felt some of the practices were related and could be consolidated. They also agreed that a food defense event will increase the urgency of the communication and include players not typically involved in food safety issues. The challenges reported by the stakeholders varied, but legal liability, as well as the impact their communications could have on an industry, were often cited. From the government perspective, their need to act within their authorities drove some of their actions with respect to communication. Determining the differences in communication limitations during food safety against food defense events can provide key information to further developing and refining risk communications and specific messages targeted for a food defense incident. Effective food safety and food defense risk communication helps to inform consumers without causing panic and alarm. Determining the differences in communication limitations during food safety against food defense events can provide key information to

  1. Crises communication practices and their consequences for risk communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom

    Title of paper: Crisis communication practices and their consequences for risk communication   There is a close coverage of disasters in modern western societies in the media. And there is a growing expectation that authorities handle the tasks of crisis communication in certain ways.   The first...... aim of this paper is to show, that the communication practices about the consequences of a disaster tend to focus on the individual citizen’s situation, and include the psychological consequences and suffering to a large degree. At least for a while. Then the debates and discussions about the event...... change from concern and care about the people affected towards discussions about e.g. cause, responsibility or even guilt.   The second aim of the paper is to discuss other ways for a society to come to terms with risks that leads to disastrous situations than through the topics mentioned above...

  2. Crises communication practices and their consequences for risk communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom

    2016-01-01

    Title of paper: Crisis communication practices and their consequences for risk communication There is a close coverage of disasters in modern western societies in the media. And there is a growing expectation that authorities handle the tasks of crisis communication in certain ways. The first aim...... of this paper is to show, that the communication practices about the consequences of a disaster tend to focus on the individual citizen?s situation, and include the psychological consequences and suffering to a large degree. At least for a while. Then the debates and discussions about the event change from...... concern and care about the people affected towards discussions about e.g. cause, responsibility or even guilt. The second aim of the paper is to discuss other ways for a society to come to terms with risks that leads to disastrous situations than through the topics mentioned above, and as well how...

  3. Improving risk communication through interactive training in communication skills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.A.; White, R.K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a workshop in communication and public speaking skills recently conducted for a group of public officials whose responsibilities include presenting risk information at public meetings associated with hazardous waste sites. We detail the development and solution of the 2 1/2-day workshop, including the development and integration of a 45-minute video of a simulated public meeting used to illustrate examples of good and bad communication behaviors. The workshop uses a mock public meeting video, participatory video exercises, role-playing, an instructor and a resource text. This interactive approach to teaching communication skills can help sensitize scientists to the public's understanding of risk and improve scientists confidence and effectiveness in communicating scientific information

  4. Improving risk communication through interactive training in communication skills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.A.; White, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a workshop in communication and public speaking skills recently conducted for a group of public officials whose responsibilities include presenting risk information at public meetings associated with hazardous waste sites. We detail the development and execution of the 2 1/2 day workshop, including the development and integration of a 45-minute video of a simulated public meeting used to illustrate examples of good and bad communication behaviors. The workshop uses a mock public meeting video, participatory video exercises, role-playing, and instructor, and a resource text. This interactive approach to teaching communication skills can help sensitize scientists to the public's understanding of risk and improve scientists' confidence and effectiveness in communicating scientific information. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Objective identification of sexual risk behavior among blood donors in Croatia: is it reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskulin, Maja; Puntaric, Dinko; Bozikov, Jadranka; Miskulin, Ivan; Ruzman, Natasa

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of blood donors positive for herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), to identify the patterns of sexual risk behavior responsible for HSV-2 positivity and to assess the reliability of HSV-2 positivity as a marker of sexual risk behavior in the study population. This cross-sectional study included 423 blood donors of both sexes from eastern Croatia. Their blood samples were tested by ELISA IgG test kit for HSV-2 IgG and Western blot. Data on sexual risk behavior were collected by use of an anonymous questionnaire. Western blot testing showed HSV-2 IgG antibodies in 14 of 423 (3.3%) donor blood samples. The most common patterns of sexual risk behavior potentially associated with test positivity were irregular condom use during sexual intercourse with new partners (294/423; 69.5%) and > or = 5 sexual partners during lifetime (213/423; 50.4%). The population of blood donors from eastern Croatia included subgroups of subjects characterized by sexual risk behavior. Study results pointed to a relationship between various forms of sexual risk behavior and HSV-2 positivity, which could therefore serve as a reliable marker of sexual risk behavior in the study population.

  6. SYSTEMIC COMPLICATIONS AND THEIR RISK FACTORS AMONG TEHRANIAN BLOOD DONOR, 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Majlessi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The systemic complications of blood donation are the first reasons why patients fail to return for further blood donation. This study was designed to determine the frequency of these complications and their associated risk factors among blood donors in Tehran. Also, we aimed to provide suitable methods to decrease the frequency of these adverse events, thereby eliminating the most important causes of withdrawal, while maintaining the health of the donors. This analytical descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on 554 blood donors who had donated blood from February 2005 through September 2005 in four fixed blood donation bases and four mobile blood collection buses. Each base was considered as a stratum, and a stratified random sampling proportional to size was done to select the donors. Results showed donor reaction rate to be 13.4%, the most common of which were blackout of vision (7%, dizziness (6.3%, fatigue (6.1% and nausea (1.8%. There was no significant relationship between the incidence of these complications and type of base blood donation or fasting at the time of blood donation. Logistic Regression analysis showed that sex, condition of blood donor, exercise or walking, duration of donation, and practice to recommendation had significant effects on the odds ratio of systemic complication. Regarding the frequency values derived for the different systemic complications it can be concluded that attention to risk factors of these complications and their control can help encourage donors to become repeated donors as well as to prevent their withdrawal for further blood donation.

  7. Audio visual information materials for risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunji, Ikuko; Tabata, Rimiko; Ohuchi, Naomi

    2005-07-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC), Tokai Works set up the Risk Communication Study Team in January, 2001 to promote mutual understanding between the local residents and JNC. The Team has studied risk communication from various viewpoints and developed new methods of public relations which are useful for the local residents' risk perception toward nuclear issues. We aim to develop more effective risk communication which promotes a better mutual understanding of the local residents, by providing the risk information of the nuclear fuel facilities such a Reprocessing Plant and other research and development facilities. We explain the development process of audio visual information materials which describe our actual activities and devices for the risk management in nuclear fuel facilities, and our discussion through the effectiveness measurement. (author)

  8. Vested interest and environmental risk communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Dominicis, Stefano; Crano, William D.; Ganucci Cancellieri, Uberta

    2014-01-01

    Vested interest theory (VIT), first investigated on environmental risk, suggests that the hedonic relevance of an attitude object moderates relations between attitudes, intentions, and responses to danger. Emphasizing vested interest may maximize impacts of risk communications. Study 1 (N=215...... method of developing effective risk announcements.......) assessed differences between inhabitants of two flood-risk areas in Italy on past experience, risk perceptions, concerns, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. Objectively, higher risk areas' residents reported more experience, and greater perceived risk and concern, while no preparedness differences were...

  9. Heart transplant outcomes in recipients of Centers for Disease Control (CDC) high risk donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiouris, Athanasios; Wilson, Lynn; Sekar, Rajesh B; Mangi, Abeel A; Yun, James J

    2016-12-01

    A lack of donor hearts remains a major limitation of heart transplantation. Hearts from Centers for Disease Control (CDC) high-risk donors can be utilized with specific recipient consent. However, outcomes of heart transplantation with CDC high-risk donors are not well known. We sought to define outcomes, including posttransplant hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, in recipients of CDC high-risk donor hearts at our institution. All heart transplant recipients from August 2010 to December 2014 (n = 74) were reviewed. Comparison of 1) CDC high-risk donor (HRD) versus 2) standard-risk donor (SRD) groups were performed using chi-squared tests for nominal data and Wilcoxon two-sample tests for continuous variables. Survival was estimated with Kaplan-Meier curves. Of 74 heart transplant recipients reviewed, 66 (89%) received a SRD heart and eight (11%) received a CDC HRD heart. We found no significant differences in recipient age, sex, waiting list 1A status, pretransplant left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support, cytomegalovirus (CMV) status, and graft ischemia times (p = NS) between the HRD and SRD groups. All of the eight HRD were seronegative at the time of transplant. Postoperatively, there was no significant difference in rejection rates at six and 12 months posttransplant. Importantly, no HRD recipients acquired hepatitis or HIV. Survival in HRD versus SRD recipients was not significantly different by Kaplan-Meier analysis (log rank p = 0.644) at five years posttransplant. Heart transplants that were seronegative at the time of transplant had similar posttransplant graft function, rejection rates, and five-year posttransplant survival versus recipients of SRD hearts. At our institution, no cases of hepatitis or HIV occurred in HRD recipients in early follow-up. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Risk perception and credibility of risk communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, L

    1992-10-01

    Experts and the public frequently disagree when it comes to risk assessment. The reasons for such disagreement are discussed, and it is pointed out that disagreement among experts and lack of full understanding of real risks contributes to skepticism among the public. The notion that people are in general reacting in a highly emotional and non-rational, phobic, manner is rejected. The very conditions for risk assessment present to the public, and common-sense cognitive dynamics, are better explanations of risk perception, as are some social psychological concepts. If trust is to be established in a country where it is quite low some kind of politically regulated public influence on decision making and risk monitoring is probably needed, e.g. by means of a publicly elected and responsible ombudsman. 57 refs, 8 figs, 5 tabs.

  11. Risk perception and credibility of risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeberg, L.

    1992-10-01

    Experts and the public frequently disagree when it comes to risk assessment. The reasons for such disagreement are discussed, and it is pointed out that disagreement among experts and lack of full understanding of real risks contributes to skepticism among the public. The notion that people are in general reacting in a highly emotional and non-rational, phobic, manner is rejected. The very conditions for risk assessment present to the public, and common-sense cognitive dynamics, are better explanations of risk perception, as are some social psychological concepts. If trust is to be established in a country where it is quite low some kind of politically regulated public influence on decision making and risk monitoring is probably needed, e.g. by means of a publicly elected and responsible ombudsman. 57 refs, 8 figs, 5 tabs

  12. Incidence and Residual Risk of HIV, HBV and HCV Infections Among Blood Donors in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Hamid Reza; Tabatabaee, Seyed Morteza; Abasian, Ali; Jamali, Mostafa; SalekMoghadam, Ebadollah; Hajibeigi, Bashir; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Mirrezaie, Seyed Mohammad

    2017-09-01

    Estimation of residual risk is essential to monitor and improve blood safety. Our epidemiologic knowledge in the Iranian donor population regarding transfusion transmitted viral infections (TTIs), is confined to a few studies based on prevalence rate. There are no reports on residual risk of TTIs in Iran. In present survey, a software database of donor records of Tehran Blood Transfusion Center (TBTC) was used to estimate the incidence and residual risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, by applying the incidence rate/window period (IR-WP) model. A total of 1,207,155 repeat donations was included in the analysis and represented a mean of 8.4 donations per donor over 6 years. The incidence amongst repeat donors was estimated by dividing the number of confirmed seroconverting donors by the total number of person-years at risk. The residual risk was calculated using the incidence/window period model. Incidence rate and residual risk for HBV, HCV and HIV infections were calculated for total (2005-2010) and two consecutive periods (2005-2007 and 2008-2010) of the study. According to the IR-WP model, overall residual risk for HIV and HCV in the total study period was 0.4 and 12.5 per million units, respectively and for HBV 4.57/100,000 donations. The incidence and residual risk of TTIs, calculated on TBTC's blood supply was low and comparable with developed countries for HIV infection but high for HCV and HBV infections. Blood safety may therefore be better managed by applying other techniques like nucleic acid amplification tests.

  13. Risk communication in the real world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartley, Philip L.

    1992-01-01

    As people become more sensitive to health and environmental issues, effective communication of workplace risks becomes more important for both employers and their employees. Risk communication must be given in a clear, simple format that addresses the individual employee's work environment. It must also be provided in a manner that indicates to the employees that the company cares about their safety. Failure to provide this information may result in ineffective communication and reduced company credibility. By using events and issues from the employees every day life, these issues can be effectively managed. (author)

  14. Risk perception and risk communication: lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillif, L.; Sackur, J.

    1998-01-01

    Industry can master risks but it cannot master the representations people have of these risks. This is why distortions may occur, as the public perceives risks where they are not, or in a totally deformed way. To deal with this type of situation which is dangerous in the long run, both for society and industry, it is necessary to study in detail where and how the difference between real risks and perceived risks is introduced. It then becomes possible to determine what means of action are available to manage the representations and the perceptions of risks. We shall mention two rather different examples of type of direct contact with the industrial reality; in France, we have determined policy of visits of nuclear sites (more than 10 000 people visit Cogema- la Hague site yearly), mainly addressed to school children and people living in the vicinity of the site. During these visits there is of course no question of explaining the detailed operation of the facility or the risks it generates. The purpose is to make the representation of the nuclear industry just as familiar as the representation of another large-scale technology tool: trains, dams,. In a different manner, missions are organised by Cogema - B.N.F.L.- O.R.C. (Overseas reprocessing Committee) to de dramatize the transport of high level vitrified wastes from Europe to Japan. these missions travel through those countries the ship come close to. Here, again, although the target is more the relays of opinion, the effective presence of specialized transport ship is a crucial element in putting a halt to phantasmic representations, as they are born from the remoteness of the object. (N.C.)

  15. Risk communication: a mental models approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morgan, M. Granger (Millett Granger)

    2002-01-01

    ... information about risks. The procedure uses approaches from risk and decision analysis to identify the most relevant information; it also uses approaches from psychology and communication theory to ensure that its message is understood. This book is written in nontechnical terms, designed to make the approach feasible for anyone willing to try it. It is illustrat...

  16. Donor blood procurement and the risk of transfusion transmissible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Blood and blood products are scarce commodities. The demand often outweighs the supply. This study is directed at investigating the blood procurement sources and the risk of viral transfusion transmissible infection. Materials and Methods: The records of the blood transfusion unit of a tertiary health facility in ...

  17. Emerging infectious disease outbreaks: estimating disease risk in Australian blood donors travelling overseas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghlan, A; Hoad, V C; Seed, C R; Flower, R Lp; Harley, R J; Herbert, D; Faddy, H M

    2018-01-01

    International travel assists spread of infectious pathogens. Australians regularly travel to South-eastern Asia and the isles of the South Pacific, where they may become infected with infectious agents, such as dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses that pose a potential risk to transfusion safety. In Australia, donors are temporarily restricted from donating for fresh component manufacture following travel to many countries, including those in this study. We aimed to estimate the unmitigated transfusion-transmission (TT) risk from donors travelling internationally to areas affected by emerging infectious diseases. We used the European Up-Front Risk Assessment Tool, with travel and notification data, to estimate the TT risk from donors travelling to areas affected by disease outbreaks: Fiji (DENV), Bali (DENV), Phuket (DENV), Indonesia (CHIKV) and French Polynesia (ZIKV). We predict minimal risk from travel, with the annual unmitigated risk of an infected component being released varying from 1 in 1·43 million to disease outbreak areas to source plasma collection provides a simple and effective risk management approach. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  18. Information needs for risk management/communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, D.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The hazardous waste cleanup program under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (Superfund) is delegated to the ten Regions of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and has, to date, identified more than 33,000 sites for consideration. The size and complexity of the program places great demands on those who would provide information to achieve national consistency in application of risk assessment while meeting site-specific needs for risk management and risk communication.

  19. The Risk of Transplant Failure With HLA Mismatch in First Adult Kidney Allografts 2: Living Donors, Summary, Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert C; Opelz, Gerhard; Weil, E Jennifer; McGarvey, Chelsea J; Chakkera, Harini A

    2017-05-01

    Allografts from living donors survive longer than those from deceased donors but the role of HLA mismatching in living kidney donation is still in question. We examined the effect of HLA compatibility on kidney allograft survival from living donors by studying all first adult kidney transplants performed in the United States over 25 years. Using the United Network for Organ Sharing data, we identified first kidney transplants between October 1, 1987, and December 31, 2013. Recipients were classified by their number of HLA mismatches and stratified by donor origin. Cox multivariate regression analyses adjusting for recipient and donor transplant characteristics were performed to determine impact of HLA compatibility on kidney allograft survival for all living donors and for living related and living unrelated subsets. There were 66 596 first adult transplants from living donors with 348 960 years of follow-up. We found a linear relationship between HLA mismatch and allograft survival. In adjusted analyses, among all living donors, 1 mismatch conferred a 44% higher risk, whereas 6 mismatches conferred a twofold higher risk of allograft failure. When using 0-mismatched full siblings as a reference, living-donor kidneys reduce the hazard of failure by approximately 34% when compared with deceased donors. Twenty-five years of transplant experience, stratified by donor source, was summarized and presented as a guide for allocation. These data reinforce the importance of optimizing HLA matching to further improve survival in first adult kidney allografts in the future, especially in living unrelated donations, when possible.

  20. [Why defer blood donor candidates because of an exposure risk to Chagas disease?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraud, O; Pelletier, B; Aznar, C

    2008-06-01

    Various infectious agents can be transmitted by blood exposure, which comprises of transfusion, of which hemoparasites that are commonly absent from European countries but that can have infected blood donor candidates born, raised or having been living in the Tropics. Among those hemoparasites is Trypanosoma cruzi, responsible for Chagas disease. T. cruzi is responsible for acute post-transfusion infections every year in endemic areas (South America) and also, more incidently, in North America. There are situations which expose European blood donors to this risk and the present essay discusses arguments which have now been taken into consideration by certain transfusion systems such as the French one.

  1. Changing the paradigm of organ utilization from PHS increased-risk donors: an opportunity whose time has come?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibulesky, Lena; Javed, Imran; Reyes, Jorge D; Limaye, Ajit P

    2015-09-01

    Approximately 8-11% of all organ donors are classified by Public Health Service (PHS) as increased-risk. The proportion of PHS increased-risk donors is on the rise. At the University of Washington Medical Center, in 2014, the proportion of transplants from PHS increased-risk donors was 28% of liver transplants and 23% of kidney transplants. Nationally, transplant providers have been reluctant to use organs from PHS increased-risk donors because of concern for transmission of HIV, HCV, or HBV. There is also patient apprehension when these organs are being offered, and thus the discard rate of these otherwise good quality organs is high. Because of the organ shortage, preventing underutilization of such organs is essential. We provide data and considerations that should be used to guide the use of organs from PHS increased-risk donors. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The impact of e-mail in acquiring and retaining whole-blood donors: a comparative analysis of the Puget Sound Blood Center donor e-mail communication program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Maria Elena

    2005-12-01

    With the emergence of e-mail as a common form of communication, it is important to understand the role and impact e-mail can have on acquiring and retaining whole-blood donors. Whole-blood donors who opted in to receive e-mail communications (n = 43,232) from the Puget Sound Blood Center (PSBC) and as a result participated in one or more of five e-mail marketing campaigns between July 2002 and March 2003 were studied. New donors with e-mail addresses grew by 74 percent over the measurement period compared with 2 percent growth of those without e-mail addresses. Nearly 15,000 prospective donors were reached as a result of donors passing along e-mails they received from PSBC to friends and family. Nearly 5 percent of PSBC e-mail campaign recipients registered to donate online. PSBC e-mail campaigns have outperformed e-mail marketing industry mean open rates by 44 percent and click-through rates by 36 percent. E-mail is now a mainstream communication medium. It has proven to be an effective method of reaching new donors and generating new donation registrations. Donors respond more favorably to e-mail communications from PSBC compared with e-mail they receive from other organizations. Deeper understanding of how different segments of blood donors use e-mail may help blood centers adjust their donor acquisition and retention programs. New recruitment methods are needed to grow the overall donor base, and e-mail appears to have the potential to make a significant contribution to meeting this objective.

  3. 75 FR 5335 - Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ...] Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... Communication Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and recommendations to... previously issued communications, emphasizing communications challenges. Examples, selected for illustrative...

  4. Risk communication discourse among ecological risk assessment professionals and its implications for communication with nonexperts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunka, Agnieszka; Palmqvist, Annemette; Thorbek, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    Risk communication, especially to the general public and end users of plant protection products, is an important challenge. Currently, much of the risk communication the general public receives is via the popular press, and risk managers face the challenge of presenting their decisions...... and their scientific basis to the general public in an understandable way. Therefore, we decided to explore the obstacles in risk communication, as done by expert risk assessors and managers. Using the discourse analysis framework and readability tests, we studied perspectives of 3 stakeholder groups......—regulators, industry representatives, and academics across Europe. We conducted 30 confidential interviews (10 participants in each group), with part of the interview guide focused on communication of pesticide risk to the general public and the ideas experts in the field of risk assessment and management hold...

  5. Tattoos and transfusion-transmitted disease risk: implications for the screening of blood donors in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio de A. Nishioka

    Full Text Available Having a tattoo has been associated with serological evidence of hepatitis B and C viruses, as well as human immunodeficiency virus infections and syphilis; all of these are known to be transmissible by blood transfusion. These associations are of higher magnitude for individuals with nonprofessionally-applied tattoos and with two or more tattoos. Tattoos are common among drug addicts and prisoners, conditions that are also associated with transfusion-transmitted diseases. We examined the implications of these associations for the screening of blood donors in Brazil. Numbers of individuals who would be correctly or unnecessarily deferred from blood donation on the basis of the presence of tattoos, and on their number and type, were calculated for different prevalence situations based on published odds ratios. If having a tattoo was made a deferral criterion, cost savings (due to a reduced need for laboratory testing and subsequent follow-up would accrue at the expense of the deferral of appropriate donors. Restricting deferral to more `at-risk' sub-groups of tattooed individuals would correctly defer less individuals and would also reduce the numbers of potential donors unnecessarily deferred. Key factors in balancing cost savings and unnecessary deferrals include the magnitude of the pool of blood donors in the population, the prevalence of individuals with tattoos and the `culture' of tattoos in the population. Tattoos can therefore be an efficient criterion for the screening of blood donors in certain settings, a finding that requires corroboration from larger population-based studies.

  6. Risk Communication, Values Clarification, and Vaccination Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witteman, Holly O; Chipenda Dansokho, Selma; Exe, Nicole; Dupuis, Audrey; Provencher, Thierry; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J

    2015-10-01

    Many health-related decisions require choosing between two options, each with risks and benefits. When presented with such tradeoffs, people often make choices that fail to align with scientific evidence or with their own values. This study tested whether risk communication and values clarification methods could help parents and guardians make evidence-based, values-congruent decisions about children's influenza vaccinations. In 2013-2014 we conducted an online 2×2 factorial experiment in which a diverse sample of U.S. parents and guardians (n = 407) were randomly assigned to view either standard information about influenza vaccines or risk communication using absolute and incremental risk formats. Participants were then either presented or not presented with an interactive values clarification interface with constrained sliders and dynamic visual feedback. Participants randomized to the risk communication condition combined with the values clarification interface were more likely to indicate intentions to vaccinate (β = 2.10, t(399) = 2.63, p communication and values clarification methods may contribute to increased vaccination intentions, which may, in turn, predict vaccination status if logistical barriers are also addressed. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Risk communication in environmental restoration programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, J.A.

    1993-04-01

    The author advocates adoption of a convergence model in place of the traditional source-receiver model of communication for communicating with members of the public who have a stake in remediation of a nearby site. The source-receiver model conceives of communication as the transmission of a message from a risk management agency (sender) to a target audience of the public (receivers). The underlying theme is that the sender intends to change the perception of the receiver of either the issue or the sender of information. The theme may be appropriate for health campaigns which seek to change public behavior; however, the author draws on her experience at a DOE site undergoing remediation to illustrate why the convergence model is more appropriate in the context of cleanup. This alternative model focuses on the Latin derivation of communication as sharing or making common to many, i.e., as involving a relationship between participants who engage in a process of communication. The focus appears to be consistent with recently issued DOE policy that calls for involving the public in identifying issues and problems and in formulating and evaluating decision alternatives in cleanup. By emphasizing context, process and participants, as opposed to senders and receivers, the model identifies key issues to address in facilitating consensus concerning the risks of cleanup. Similarities between the institutional context of DOE and DOD suggest that a convergence model may also prove to be an appropriate conceptual foundation for risk communication at contaminated DOD sites.

  8. Recommendations for citizen-oriented risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertmann, R.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of recommendations for citizen-oriented risk communication should be to provide ''banisters'' which leave the players their freedom of action and allow them to adapt communicative structures to the situation at hand. Uncertainty and controversial issues at the levels of information, participation and assessment are identified as potential stumbling blocks in risk communication. The experiences gained in Hamburg shed a light on a diversity of processes in risk communication, which the present paper proceeds to evaluate. One of its essential recommendations is to have dialogic processes develop into forms of participation. A guide on risk communication which was formulated in the USA has been adapted to conditions as they prevail in Germany. The adapted version is more practically oriented than the rules of the EPA or the more recent CDC recommendations. Suitable success criteria include a fair procedure, a common baseline of what is known and not known, the acceptance of different assessment criteria, and the exchange of the pros and cons of different options

  9. Initial crisis risk communications: A success story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, S.B.; Traverso, D.K.

    1992-01-01

    Federal regulations require nuclear facilities to be prepared for the risk communication aspects of a catastrophic emergency. Thus, all nuclear plants have provisions for a Joint Public Information Center (JPIC). The JPICs are designed to handle more than 300 media for 24 hours a day; to coordinate information among utility, federal, state, and local agencies; to provide spokespersons; etc. For a large-scale emergency, JPICs can work very well. However, some utilities - indeed, most companies - appear to have only two modes of emergency communication response: normal staff and JPIC. Experience has shown that normal staffing is inadequate to handle the risk communication response for media-intensive low-level emergencies and for the initial stages of an escalating emergency. It is clear that initial response will determine how well a company fares in its overall emergency response and in its long-term relations with the media and public. A solution to this risk communication challenge was developed by Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company's Perry Nuclear Plant - the Public Information Response Team. Using existing facilities and staff - only one of whom works regularly with the media - the Perry plant proactively manages its initial risk communication response

  10. Radon risk communication research: Practical lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A.; Johnson, F.R.

    1990-01-01

    Those responsible for state and local radon programs often express frustration about the small share of homes that have been tested for radon, and the small share of those with high readings that have been mitigated. There are now a number of completed studies that have examined how well alternative ways of communicating about radon risk have accomplished the goals of motivating appropriate testing and mitigation. This paper summarizes the research results that are most crucial for planning and implementing effective radon risk communication programs. We identify six reasons why people do not respond to radon as a serious threat and provide some remedies suggested by radon studies

  11. [ALAT and viral RNA as risk factors in 68 blood donors with anti-hepatitis C antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullen, E; De Saussure, P; Soulier-Lauper, M

    1993-01-23

    Determine the risk factors in blood donors with anti hepatitis C antibodies (anti-HCV ab) possible liver involvement and evaluation of their infectious potential by a search for viral RNA in blood. Between July 1990 and October 1991, 19,632 blood donors were screened for hepatitis C. Antibodies to HCV were detected in 74 donors (2nd generation ELISA, Abbott). We evaluated the risk factors, determined ALAT levels and looked for circulating RNA virus by amplification of the non-coding region of the viral genome (RTPCR) in 68 of these 74 donors screened. A control was chosen arbitrarily from 103 donors with high ALAT levels, but with no antibodies to HCV nor detectable circulating viral DNA. The prevalence of anti-HCV ab in blood donors in 0.37%. No risk factor was found in 29 donors (43%). Parenteral exposure (former i.v. drug addiction and history of transfusions) was found to be the mode of transmission of hepatitis C in 23 donors (34%). History of NANB jaundice (non-post transfusion) was reported in 1 donor (1%). The remaining 15 donors (22%) were found to have minor risk factors - either isolated or in combination (exposure, tatoos, multiple sexual partners). Former i.v. drug addiction (p = 0.0000006) as well as a history of transfusions (p = 0.0071) are significantly more frequent in the group of donors with antibodies to HCV. None of the 35 sexual partners of the tested donors proved to be positive. 21 donors (30%) had high ALAT (+2 SD). Viral RNA was detected in blood of 26 donors (38%). The proportion of cases with positive viral RNA was 61% if only those donors with high ALAT levels were taken into consideration (13 positive of 21). Risk factors were found in 39 donors (57%) with antibodies to HCV. History of parenteral exposure was found to be significantly more frequent than in the control group (p = 0.0000054). Sexual transmission within couples was not demonstrated in the population tested. A positive PCR test is a probable indicator of a continuous

  12. Communicating risk to the public - Probabilistically impossible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallina, C.O.

    1992-01-01

    As far as the general public is concerned, scientists can forget about risk perception and risk acceptance. These worthy scientific goals only confuse the one single important issue - how people perceive and accept technology. Risk is rarely accepted in the abstract by the general public. Because people would rather be assured than educated, risk can only be presented within the framework of what people will accept when they accept the technology, which (among other things) produces the aforementioned risk itself. It is in this technological environment that effective risk communication becomes extremely complex. To understand the risk, the public must understand the technology - a formidable task in itself, but one that becomes even more difficult when two additional factors are included: media attention and political influence

  13. Problems in the communication of technological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedemann, P.M.; Hennen, L.

    1989-01-01

    The authors discuss the problems in the communication of technological risks. They show that - contrary to a current popular belief - acceptance problems are not attributable to information deficits: such problems are caused rather by the fact that risks are perceived differently by the various groups in science, industry, politics and the larger public. Nevertheless, improved information about technology may help to find acceptable compromises and, thus, to prevent social conflicts to erupt over technology and to geopardize the basic political consensus. (orig.) [de

  14. Impact of changes to policy for Mexican risk travel on Canadian blood donor deferrals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Sheila F; Uzicanin, Samra; Choquet, Karine; Yi, Qi-Long; Fan, Wenli; Goldman, Mindy

    2013-10-01

    Travel to malaria risk areas such as Mexico is a common source of donor deferral in Canada. On February 21st, 2011 the deferrable regions in Mexico were revised to permit donation if donors travelled to the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico, a popular ocean-side resort area. Canadian travel data and malaria deferral rates since 2007 were plotted to examine trends. Deferral records in one centre were accessed from January to April, 2011 to tabulate travel destinations of deferred donors immediately before and after the change. Travel to Mexico and the Caribbean accounts for 63% of general population travel, and travel to Mexico has been increasing (P <0.05). Deferral for short-term malaria risk travel has a strong seasonal trend with peaks in the winter and troughs in the summer. Approximately 36,000 fewer donations were lost following the change, a reduction of 37% from the previous year. Deferrals in one centre increased for Caribbean/Central America after the change (P <0.05) consistent with the seasonal trend, but decreased for Mexico (P <0.05). Deferrals for malaria risk travel are substantial. Careful revision and refinement of risk areas of travel can significantly reduce the burden of deferral.

  15. Risk Perception, Communication and Food Safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    Developing an effective communication strategy about different food hazards depends not only on technical risk assessments (for example related to health or the environment) but must also take into account consumer perceptions and preferences. In addition, consumers make decisions about food choices

  16. Communication in reducing facility siting risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisconti, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    Today, social considerations are as important as technical ones in siting new nuclear facilities. Siting any industrial facility has become extremely difficult in this era of not in my backyard (NIMBY). Even if NIMBY does not arise locally, well-organized national opposition groups can be counted on to step in to fan the flames, especially when the industrial facility has to do with anything nuclear. It is now generally recognized that the greatest risk of failure for new nuclear facilities is not technical but social. Applying lessons gained from past experience and social science research can help reduce that risk. From these lessons, six principles for public interaction and communication stand out: (1) create goodwill now; (2) involve the community early; (3) establish the need; (4) communicate controls, not risk; (5) avoid jargon; (6) understand your public

  17. Risk disclosure and the recruitment of oocyte donors: are advertisers telling the full story?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta, Hillary B; Berry, Roberta M; Levine, Aaron D

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes 435 oocyte donor recruitment advertisements to assess whether entities recruiting donors of oocytes to be used for in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures include a disclosure of risks associated with the donation process in their advertisements. Such disclosure is required by the self-regulatory guidelines of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) and by law in California for advertisements placed in the state. We find very low rates of risk disclosure across entity types and regulatory regimes, although risk disclosure is more common in advertisements placed by entities subject to ASRM's self-regulatory guidelines. Advertisements placed in California are more likely to include risk disclosure, but disclosure rates are still quite low. California-based entities advertising outside the state are more likely to include risk disclosure than non-California entities, suggesting that California's law may have a modest "halo effect." Our results suggest that there is a significant ethical and policy problem with the status quo in light of the known and unknown risks of oocyte donation and the importance of risk disclosure to informed consent in the context of oocyte donation. © 2014 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  18. Estimating the risk of parvovirus B19 infection in blood donors and pregnant women in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Nabae

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Seroepidemiological study of parvovirus B19 has not taken place for some 20 years in Japan. To estimate the risk of parvovirus B19 infection in Japan among blood donors and pregnant women in this century, a seroepidemiological survey and statistical modeling of the force of infection were conducted. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The time- and age-specific seroprevalence data were suggestive of strong age-dependency in the risk of infection. Employing a piecewise constant model, the highest forces of infection of 0.05 and 0.12 per year were observed among those aged 0-4 and 5-9 years, respectively, while estimates among older individuals were less than 0.01 per year. Analyzing the antigen detection data among blood donors, the age-specific proportion positive was highest among those aged 30-39 years, agreeing with the presence of dip in seroprevalence in this age-group. Among pregnant women, up to 107 fetal deaths and 21 hydrops fetalis were estimated to have occurred annually across Japan. CONCLUSIONS: Seroepidemiological profiles of PVB19 infection in Japan was characterized with particular emphasis on the risk of infection in blood donors and the burden of infection among pregnant women. When a vaccine becomes available in the future, a similar seroepidemiological study is expected to play a key role in planning the appropriate immunization policy.

  19. Donor Human Milk for the High-Risk Infant: Preparation, Safety, and Usage Options in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The use of donor human milk is increasing for high-risk infants, primarily for infants born weighing Pasteurized donor milk may be considered in situations in which the supply of maternal milk is insufficient. The use of pasteurized donor milk is safe when appropriate measures are used to screen donors and collect, store, and pasteurize the milk and then distribute it through established human milk banks. The use of nonpasteurized donor milk and other forms of direct, Internet-based, or informal human milk sharing does not involve this level of safety and is not recommended. It is important that health care providers counsel families considering milk sharing about the risks of bacterial or viral contamination of nonpasteurized human milk and about the possibilities of exposure to medications, drugs, or herbs in human milk. Currently, the use of pasteurized donor milk is limited by its availability and affordability. The development of public policy to improve and expand access to pasteurized donor milk, including policies that support improved governmental and private financial support for donor milk banks and the use of donor milk, is important. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. The art of risk communication - on risk, communication and theme management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obermeier, O.P.

    1999-01-01

    The controversies over nuclear power plants, genetic engineering and on great disasters like Eschede are examples of the importance of risk communication. The presented study outlines a communication ''charged by prejudice'' and develops successful behavioural models for companies and their managers [de

  1. Towards risk-aware communications networking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chołda, Piotr; Følstad, Eirik L.; Helvik, Bjarne E.; Kuusela, Pirkko; Naldi, Maurizio; Norros, Ilkka

    2013-01-01

    We promote introduction of risk-awareness in the design and operation of communications networks and services. This means explicit and systematic consideration of uncertainties related to improper behavior of the web of interdependent networks and the resulting consequences for individuals, companies and a society as a whole. Central activities are the recognition of events challenging dependability together with the assessment of their probabilities and impacts. While recognizing the complex technical, business and societal issues, we employ an overall risk framing approach containing risk assessment, response and monitoring. Our paradigm gathers topics that are currently dispersed in various fields of network activities. We review the current state of risk-related activities in networks, identify deficiencies and challenges, and suggest techniques, procedures, and metrics towards higher risk-awareness.

  2. Communicating Zika Risk: Using Metaphor to Increase Perceived Risk Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hang; Schuldt, Jonathon P

    2018-02-27

    Effectively communicating the risks associated with emerging zoonotic diseases remains an important challenge. Drawing on research into the psychological effects of metaphoric framing, we explore the conditions under which exposure to the "nation as a body" metaphor influences perceived risk susceptibility, behavioral intentions, and policy support in the context of Zika virus. In a between-subjects experiment, 354 U.S. adults were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions as part of a 2 (severity message: high vs. low) × 2 (U.S. framing: metaphoric vs. literal) design. Results revealed an interaction effect such that metaphoric (vs. literal) framing increased perceived risk susceptibility in the high-severity condition only. Further analyses revealed that perceived risk susceptibility and negative affect mediated the path between the two-way interaction and policy support and behavioral intentions regarding Zika prevention. Overall, these findings complement prior work on the influence of metaphoric framing on risk perceptions, while offering practical insights for risk communicators seeking to communicate about Zika and other zoonotic diseases. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. Risk management: a proposal for communication strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Fontana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Disasters related to natural hazards have increased in the last few decades. This increment makes it necessary to develop non-structural risk prevention and mitigation measures to improve people’s safety. An effective non-structural measure that can improve the preparedness of the population is a locally adapted communication campaign that is focused on natural hazards. We have developed a hypothetical communication campaign for a specific area in the north of Italy, in which hydro-geological risk is of considerable importance. The content of the campaign is defined by the combination of the requirements of the law with the results of a survey conducted in the study area. The aim of the survey is to evaluate the level of risk perception among the residents, and their attitudes towards prevention activities. The operative procedure of the campaign is modeled on advertising strategies. The campaign is designed to reach each family, and it is aimed at affecting people’s everyday life through a horizontal communication strategy that involves flyers, billboards, umbrellas and a website. The use of umbrellas as a medium for the campaign is the key. People mostly use umbrellas when it rains. Rain is linked with hydrogeological risk. As the content of the campaign is printed on the umbrellas, each time people use these umbrellas, they remember the campaign. The campaign is integrated into a broader communication program that includes meetings with stakeholders, activities in schools, and public conferences. The final goal is to foster the creation of a shared knowledge about risk in the whole population.

  4. Standardised risk analysis as a communication tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluess, Ch.; Montanarini, M.; Bernauer, M.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: several European countries require a risk analysis for the production, storage or transport a dangerous goods. This requirement imposes considerable administrative effort for some sectors of the industry. In order to minimize the effort of such studies, a generic risk analysis for an industrial sector proved to help. Standardised procedures can consequently be derived for efficient performance of the risk investigations. This procedure was successfully established in Switzerland for natural gas transmission lines and fossil fuel storage plants. The development process of the generic risk analysis involved an intense discussion between industry and authorities about methodology of assessment and the criteria of acceptance. This process finally led to scientific consistent modelling tools for risk analysis and to an improved communication from the industry to the authorities and the public. As a recent example, the Holland-Italy natural gas transmission pipeline is demonstrated, where this method was successfully employed. Although this pipeline traverses densely populated areas in Switzerland, using this established communication method, the risk problems could be solved without delaying the planning process. (authors)

  5. Slow graft function and related risk factors in living donor kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesan Pezeshki M.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: While excellent organ quality and ideal transplant conditions eliminate many of the known factors that compromise initial graft function (IGF, slow graft function (SGF, still occurs after living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT. The aim of our current study is determination SGF frequency and its risk factors in LDKT Methods: In this prospective study, between April 2004 and March 2006, data were collected on 340 LDKT, in Baghiyattallah Hospital, Tehran. Recipients were analyzed in two groups based on initial graft function (IGF: Creatinine <3 mg/dl 5 day after transplantation, SGF: Creatinine ≥ 3 mg/dl 5 day after transplantation with out dialysis in the first week. Donors' and recipients' characteristics and recipient lab. data were compared in two groups by chi-square, Mann-whitney & independent samples T-test.Results: The incidence of SGF was 22 (6.2% and IGF 318 (89.8%, Recipients' BMI in IGF were 22.1±3.9 and in SGF were 25.3±3.8 (P=0.001 95% Cl 1.097-1.401 OR= 1.24. SGF relative frequency in female donors is more than male donors. A multivariate analysis model confirms this significant difference. (P=0.044 95% Cl 1.028-7.971 OR= 2.862. SGF relative frequency in PRA (Panel Reactive Antibody positive recipients are more than negative ones. A multivariate analysis model confirms this significant difference. (P=0.007 95%Cl 1.755-35.280 OR= 7.849. Recipients' age and donors' BMI are significant in univariate analysis (P=0.002 & P=0.029 respectively but multivariate analysis model dose not confirm those significance. Serum ca & P & PTH levels don't have significant difference between IGF & SGF. Using calcium channels blockers have not a protective effect. Conclusions: We conclude that negative PRA and lower recipient BMI have protective effects on SGF. Recipients with female donors have higher chance to develop SGF. We recommend recipients reduce their BMI before transplantation. The male donors

  6. 76 FR 58519 - Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ...] Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... Communication Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and recommendations to... discuss implications, for strategic communication, of recent theoretical developments on information use...

  7. Estimating the risk of dengue transmission from Dutch blood donors travelling to Suriname and the Dutch Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oei, W; Lieshout-Krikke, R W; Kretzschmar, M E; Zaaijer, H L; Coutinho, R A; Eersel, M; Jubithana, B; Halabi, Y; Gerstenbluth, I; Maduro, E; Tromp, M; Janssen, M P

    2016-05-01

    The risk of dengue transmitted by travellers is known. Methods to estimate the transmission by transfusion (TT) risk from blood donors travelling to risk areas are available, for instance, the European Up-Front Risk Assessment Tool (EUFRAT). This study aimed to validate the estimated risk from travelling donors obtained from EUFRAT. Surveillance data on notified dengue cases in Suriname and the Dutch Caribbean islands (Aruba, Curaçao, St. Maarten, Bonaire, St. Eustatius and Saba) in 2001-2011 was used to calculate local incidence rates. Information on travel and donation behaviour of Dutch donors was collected. With the EUFRAT model, the TT risks from Dutch travelling donors were calculated. Model estimates were compared with the number of infections in Dutch travellers found by laboratory tests in the Netherlands. The expected cumulative number of donors becoming infected during travels to Suriname and the Dutch Caribbean from 2001 to 2011 was estimated at 5 (95% CI, 2-11) and 86 (45-179), respectively. The infection risk inferred from the laboratory-based study was 19 (9-61) and 28 (14-92). Given the independence of the data sources, these estimates are remarkably close. The model estimated that 0·02 (0·001-0·06) and 0·40 (0·01-1·4) recipients would have been infected by these travelling donors. The EUFRAT model provided an estimate close to actual observed number of dengue infections. The dengue TT risk among Dutch travelling donors can be estimated using basic transmission, travel and donation information. The TT risk from Dutch donors travelling to Suriname and the Dutch Caribbean is small. © 2016 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  8. HTLV-I/II and blood donors: determinants associated with seropositivity in a low risk population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette Catalan Soares

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Blood donors in Brazil have been routinely screened for HTLV-I/II since 1993. A study was performed to estimate the prevalence of HTLV-I/II infection in a low risk population and to better understand determinants associated with seropositivity. METHODS: HTLV-I/II seropositive (n=135, indeterminate (n=167 and seronegative blood donors (n=116 were enrolled in an open prevalence prospective cohort study. A cross-sectional epidemiological study of positive, indeterminate and seronegative HTLV-I/II subjects was conducted to assess behavioral and environmental risk factors for seropositivity. HTLV-I/II serological status was confirmed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA and Western blot (WB. RESULTS: The three groups were not homogeneous. HTLV-I/II seropositivity was associated to past blood transfusion and years of schooling, a marker of socioeconomic status, and use of non-intravenous illegal drugs. CONCLUSIONS: The study results reinforce the importance of continuous monitoring and improvement of blood donor selection process.

  9. Hepatitis C virus risk factors in blood donors from Sohag governorate, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Abdelaziz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Egypt has the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV worldwide. Most of data came from lower Egypt regions (Cairo and northern to it. So, we decided to study risk factors and prevalence of HCV transmission in our governorate. In this cross sectional study, we recruited 631 blood donors from April, 2011 to March 2012 who were tested for anti-HCV, HBs Ag, anti- HBc and anti-HIV. Fifty seven donors were excluded as they are HBs Ag and anti-HBc positive. We found 138 (24% HCV seropositive participants. Logistic regression final model demonstrated that endoscopy, hospital admission, socioeconomic status, IV drug use and age made a significant contribution to prediction (P=0.0001. The level of education also made significant contribution to prediction (P=0.014. In conclusion, it is wise to determine high HCV prevalence areas and risk factors for its seropositivity then build up a governorate suitable infection control program concentrating upon prevention more than treatment of HCV patients. Also, the introduction of pre-test and post-test counseling in blood banks will help in better donor selection and early detection of patients.

  10. Demographic, risk factors and motivations among blood donors with reactive serologic tests for syphilis in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, S C; de Almeida-Neto, C; Nishiya, A S; Oliveira, C D L; Ferreira, J E; Alencar, C S; Levi, J E; Salles, N A; Mendrone, A; Sabino, E C

    2014-06-01

    To identify the demographic characteristics, risk factors and motivations for donating among blood donors with reactive serologic tests for syphilis. Post-donation interviews with syphilis seropositive blood donors improve recruitment and screening strategies. This case-control study compares 75 Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) > 8, EIA+ (enzyme immunoassay) and FTA-ABS+ (fluorescent treponemal antibody); 80 VDRL-, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+; and 34 VDRL- and EIA- donors between 2004 and 2009. Donors were assessed by their demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour, history of alcohol and illicit drugs use, and motivations to donate. Donors with VDRL > 8 were more likely to be divorced [AOR = 12·53; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·30-120·81], to have had more than six sexual partners (AOR=7·1; 95% CI 1·12-44·62) and to report male-male-sex in the past 12 months (AOR=8·18; 95% CI 1·78-37·60). Donors with VDRL-, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+ were less likely to be female (AOR=0·26; 95% CI 0·07-0·96), more likely to be older (AOR=10·2; 95% CI 2·45-42·58 ≥ 39 and illicit drugs use; 30·7% (VDRL > 8) and 12·5% (VDRL-, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+) of donors reported that they had been at risk for HIV infection (P = 0·004). One-third of donors came to the blood bank to help a friend or a relative who needed blood. Although donors exposed to syphilis reported and recognised some high risk behaviour, most were motivated by direct appeal to donate blood. Monitoring the risk profile of blood donors can benefit public health and improve blood safety. © 2014 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2014 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  11. Risk Factors for Transfusion Transmissible Infections Elicited on Post Donation Counselling in Blood Donors: Need to Strengthen Pre-donation Counselling

    OpenAIRE

    Sachdev, Suchet; Mittal, Kshitija; Patidar, Gopal; Marwaha, Neelam; Sharma, Ratti Ram; Duseja, Ajay Kumar; Chawla, Yogesh Kumar; Arora, Sunil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Donor notification and counselling transforms the legal and ethical requirement of disclosure of transfusion transmissible infection (TTI) in a blood donor into practice. The present study was done to assess the response to the disclosure of TTI reactivity results in blood donors, assess the risk factors in blood donors and follow the compliance of the disclosure and clinical referral in a population of blood donors who are difficult to convince that they may be harbouring infections apparent...

  12. Risk communication and the Precautionary Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biocca, Marco

    2004-01-01

    The perception of risks for environment and health deriving from globalization processes and an uncontrolled use of modern technologies is growing everywhere. The greater the capacity of controlling living conditions, the larger is the possibility of misusing this power. In environmental and occupational health research we tend to reduce the complexity of the observed phenomena in order to facilitate conclusions. In social and political sciences complexity is an essential element of the context, which needs to be continuously considered. The Precautionary Principle is a tool for facing complexity and uncertainty in health risk management. This paper is aimed at demonstrating that this is not only a problem of technical risk assessment. Great attention should also be paid to improve risk communication. Communication between the stakeholders (experts, decision makers, political and social leaders, media, groups of interest and people involved) is possibly the best condition to be successful in health risk management. Nevertheless, this process usually runs up against severe obstacles. These are not only caused by existing conflicts of interest. Differences in values, languages, perceptions, resources to have access to information, and to express one's own point of view are other key aspects.

  13. The Nevada initiative: A risk communication Fiasco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, J.; Solvic, P.; Mertz, C.K.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Congress has designated Yucca Mountain, Nevada as the only potential site to be studied for the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository. People in Nevada strongly oppose the program, managed by the U.S. Department of Energy. Survey research shows that the public believes there are great risks from a repository program, in contrast to a majority of scientists who feel the risks are acceptably small. Delays in the repository program resulting in part from public opposition in Nevada have concerned the nuclear power industry, which collects the fees for the federal repository program and believes it needs the repository as a final disposal facility for its high-level nuclear wastes. To assist the repository program, the American Nuclear Energy Council (ANEC), an industry group, sponsored a massive advertising campaign in Nevada. The campaign attempted to assure people that the risks of a repository were small and that the repository studies should proceed. The campaign failed because its managers misunderstood the issues underlying the controversy, attempted a covert manipulation of public opinion that was revealed, and most importantly, lacked the public trust that was necessary to communicate credibly about the risks of a nuclear waste facility. This article describes the advertising campaign and its effects. The manner in which the ANEC campaign itself became a controversial public issue is reviewed. The advertising campaign is discussed as it relates to risk assessment and communication. 29 refs., 2 tabs

  14. The Risk of Transplant Failure With HLA Mismatch in First Adult Kidney Allografts From Deceased Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert C; Opelz, Gerhard; McGarvey, Chelsea J; Weil, E Jennifer; Chakkera, Harini A

    2016-05-01

    Since the beginning of the technology, there has been active debate about the role of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) matching in kidney allograft survival. Recent studies have reported diminishing importance of HLA matching, which have, in turn, been challenged by reports that suggest the continuing importance of these loci. Given the controversies, we examined the effect of HLA compatibility on kidney allograft survival by studying all first adult kidney transplants in the United States from a deceased donor. Using the United Network for Organ Sharing data, we identified first deceased donor kidney transplants between October 1, 1987, and December 31, 2013. Recipients were classified by their number of HLA mismatches. Cox multivariate regression analyses adjusting for recipient and donor transplant characteristics were performed to determine the impact of HLA compatibility on kidney allograft survival. Study cohort included 189 141 first adult kidney alone transplants, with a total of 994 558 years of kidney allograft follow-up time. Analyses adjusted for recipient and donor characteristics demonstrated a 13% higher risk (hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.21) with 1 mismatch and a 64% higher risk (hazard ratio, 1.64, 95% confidence interval, 1.56-1.73) with 6 mismatches. Dividing the mismatch categories into 27 ordered permutations, and testing their 57 within mismatch category differences, demonstrated that all but 1 were equal, independent of locus. A significant linear relationship of hazard ratios was associated with HLA mismatch and affects allograft survival even during the recent periods of increasing success in renal transplantation.

  15. Risk communication strategy development using the aerospace systems engineering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, S.; Sklar, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explains the goals and challenges of NASA's risk communication efforts and how the Aerospace Systems Engineering Process (ASEP) was used to map the risk communication strategy used at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to achieve these goals.

  16. Herbicides and forest ecosystems - approaches to risk communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles K. McMahon

    1992-01-01

    Abstract.It has become apparent to many risk experts that without good communication, risk assessment and risk management efforts may be largely in vain. For the public, perception is reality when it comes to the interpretation of risk information and the shaping of regulatory policy. The findings of several- risk communication experts are reviewed...

  17. RISK COMMUNICATION IN ACTION: THE TOOLS OF MESSAGE MAPPING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk Communication in Action: The Tools of Message Mapping, is a workbook designed to guide risk communicators in crisis situations. The first part of this workbook will review general guidelines for risk communication. The second part will focus on one of the most robust tools o...

  18. Coping with paradoxes of risk communication: Observations and suggestions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.B.

    1993-01-01

    The maturation of the field of risk communication has resulted in several manuals, a National Research Council review, a Society for Risk Analysis subgroup, and critics. Critics Pieter-Jan Stalen and Rob Coppock, and Harry Otway and Brian Wynne, have pointed out that much risk communication is impractical or paradoxical. In this letter, the author supports many of the criticisms of these critics, but also discusses errors and omissions in their viewpoints that he feels will inhibit progress in effective risk communication. Topics discussed are motivations for risk communication, the practicality of advice, the audience for risk communication, credibility, and whose interests are best served by risk communication. The purpose of this essay is therefore to spur further debate on the issue of risk communication. 13 refs

  19. Deferral for low hemoglobin is not associated with increased risk of infection in Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotze, Sebastian Ranzi; Pedersen, Ole B; Petersen, Mikkel S

    2017-01-01

    Donations and Transfusions database, 497,390 donors were followed after 5,458,499 donations in health registers. With 1,339,362 person-years of follow-up, Andersen-Gill Cox regression was used to study the association of Hb levels below deferral thresholds, very low Hb levels (in the lowest 0.1 percentile......% CI, 0.88-0.94). CONCLUSIONS: Neither Hb levels below deferral thresholds nor very low or declining Hb levels were associated with an increased risk of infection. This is reassuring, because blood donation can lead to lower Hb levels....

  20. Risk Factors for Bloodstream Infection After Living-donor Liver Transplantation in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Kensuke; Funaki, Takanori; Kasahara, Mureo; Sakamoto, Seisuke; Fukuda, Akinari; Vaida, Florin; Ito, Kenta; Miyairi, Isao; Saitoh, Akihiko

    2015-10-01

    Postoperative bloodstream infection (BSI) is the most important determinant of recipient morbidity and mortality after liver transplantation (LT). Children who underwent LT are at the highest risk of developing BSI because of the significant surgical intervention, use of multiple devices, and administration of immunosuppressive agents. However, information regarding the risk factors for BSI in children after LT is limited. We retrospectively reviewed 210 children who underwent living-donor LT at the largest pediatric LT center in Japan. Patients' characteristics, blood culture results and clinical outcomes were extracted from electronic medical records. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the risk factors for BSI. Among the 210 LT recipients, 53 (25%) recipients experienced 86 episodes of BSI during the observational period. The source of the BSI was identified only in 38%: catheter-related BSI (27%) peritonitis (7%), urinary tract infection (2%), pneumonia (1%) and infectious endocarditis (1%). A multivariate analysis demonstrated that body weight (P = 0.03), volume of blood loss during LT (P 24 months), blood loss and pediatric end-stage liver disease/model for end-stage liver disease versus positive CMV antigenemia. The volume of blood loss, postoperative CMV antigenemia positivity and body weight were associated with the development of BSI after LT in pediatric living-donor recipients. To identify the age-specific predictors of BSI in children who underwent LT, age-specific analyses are crucial.

  1. Recruitment of feces donors among blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl Jørgensen, Simon Mark; Erikstrup, Christian; Dinh, Khoa Manh

    2018-01-01

    As the use of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has gained momentum, an increasing need for continuous access to healthy feces donors has developed. Blood donors constitute a healthy subset of the general population and may serve as an appropriate group for recruitment. In this study, we...... investigated the suitability of blood donors as feces donors. In a prospective cohort study, we recruited blood donors onsite at a public Danish blood bank. Following their consent, the blood donors underwent a stepwise screening process: First, blood donors completed an electronic pre-screening questionnaire...... to rule out predisposing risk factors. Second, eligible blood donors had blood and fecal samples examined. Of 155 blood donors asked to participate, 137 (88%) completed the electronic pre-screening questionnaire, 16 declined, and 2 were excluded. Of the 137 donors who completed the questionnaire, 79 (58...

  2. Low-Dose Risk, Decisions, and Risk Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, James; Slovic, Paul

    2001-01-01

    To conduct basic research on how people receive, evaluate, and form positions on scientific information and its relationship to low-dose radiation exposure. There are three major areas of study in our research program. First is the development of theories, frameworks and concepts essential to guiding data collection and analysis. The second area is a program of experimental studies on risk perception, evaluation of science information, and the structure of individual positions regarding low dose exposures. This involves the study of existing knowledge and the evaluation of science information presented within a variety of formats, as educational information, news media stories, and alternative communication methods (personal contact, small group interaction, email and internet, etc.). Third is the community-level studies to examine and record how the social conditions, under which science communications take place, influence the development of attitudes and opinions about: low- dose exposures, the available management options, control of radiation risks, and preferences for program and policy goals

  3. TOXOPLASMOSIS: FOOD SAFETY AND RISK COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Celano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis, parasitic pathology supported by Toxoplasma gondii, is a typical example of multi-issue and inter-disciplinary on which, with equal intensity, converge the interests of various branches of human and veterinary medicine. The aim of research was the assessment of risk communication to pregnant women by doctors gynecologists involved in ASL’s territorial about toxoplasmosis, which can have serious effects on pregnancy and the unborn child. The results acquired during the investigation showed the need to develop and implement appropriate information campaigns and proper nutrition education.

  4. Current features on risk perception and risk communication of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Tomoko

    1997-01-01

    Health effects and risks of radiation and radionuclides are being misunderstood by many members of general public. Many peoples have fear and anxieties for radiation. So far, the health effects from radiation at low dose and low dose rate have not been cleared on biological aspects. Then, we have quantitatively estimated health risks of low-dose radiation on the basis of linear dose response relationship without threshold from the viewpoints of radiation protection by using both epidemiological data, such as atomic bomb survivors, and some models and assumptions. It is important for researchers and relevant persons in radiation protection to understand the process of risk estimation of radiation and to communicate an exact knowledge of radiation risks of the public members. (author)

  5. Deceased-Donor Apolipoprotein L1 Renal-Risk Variants Have Minimal Effects on Liver Transplant Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey R Dorr

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1 G1 and G2 renal-risk variants, common in populations with recent African ancestry, are strongly associated with non-diabetic nephropathy, end-stage kidney disease, and shorter allograft survival in deceased-donor kidneys (autosomal recessive inheritance. Circulating APOL1 protein is synthesized primarily in the liver and hydrodynamic gene delivery of APOL1 G1 and G2 risk variants has caused hepatic necrosis in a murine model.To evaluate the impact of these variants in liver transplantation, this multicenter study investigated the association of APOL1 G1 and G2 alleles in deceased African American liver donors with allograft survival. Transplant recipients were followed for liver allograft survival using data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients.Of the 639 liver donors evaluated, 247 had no APOL1 risk allele, 300 had 1 risk allele, and 92 had 2 risk alleles. Graft failure assessed at 15 days, 6 months, 1 year and total was not significantly associated with donor APOL1 genotype (p-values = 0.25, 0.19, 0.67 and 0.89, respectively.In contrast to kidney transplantation, deceased-donor APOL1 G1 and G2 risk variants do not significantly impact outcomes in liver transplantation.

  6. Learning to communicate risk information in groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuchi Ting

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite vigorous research on risk communication, little is known about the social forces that drive these choices. Erev, Wallsten, and Neal (1991 showed that forecasters learn to select verbal or numerical probability estimates as a function of which mode yields on average the larger group payoffs. We extend the result by investigating the effect of group size on the speed with which forecasters converge on the better communication mode. On the basis of social facilitation theory we hypothesized that small groups induce less arousal and anxiety among their members than do large groups when performing new tasks, and therefore that forecasters in small groups will learn the better communication mode more quickly. This result obtained in Experiment 1, which compared groups of size 3 to groups of size 5 or 6. To test whether social loafing rather than social facilitation was mediating the effects, Experiment 2 compared social to personal feedback holding group size constant at 3 members. Learning was faster in the personal feedback condition, suggesting that social facilitation rather than loafing underlay the results.

  7. The impact of risk communications on public understanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, R.E.; Bord, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of different modes of communicating information about risks that are cumulative, uncertain, and long-term (CULT). Do communications that emphasize potential ecological problems have a different impact from messages that discuss health concerns? Is a more emotional style more effective than a traditional standard approach? CULT risks, including those commonly associated with high-level radioactive waste, pose particular problems for risk communicators. nevertheless, the research shows that relatively simple risk communications can effectively lower risk estimates and reduce fears of negative consequences from CULT risks

  8. The Challenge of Communicating Flood Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew, R.

    2015-12-01

    Worldwide, natural hazard risks, and especially flood risk, are increasing dramatically as populations grow, infrastructure deteriorates, and climate change worsens. Street level modeling technologies may help decision makers and the general public understand risk and explore options for building resilience. But there are challenges in linking powerful visualization technologies to people in ways that they trust, support and can use. Technology adoption depends on a host of social and psychological factors—for example, how have past experiences shaped perceptions? Where do people currently turn for information? Who do they trust? Who do they see as responsible for implementing response and resilience measures? What do people think about climate change and sea level rise? What are the values that will motivate them to act? The answers vary from place to place and group to group. Visualization technologies that are responsive to this type of information may be most effective. Through household level survey data collected at sites in California and Mexico, we identify factors that may help in designing effective flood risk communication tools.

  9. 77 FR 70450 - Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ...] Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... Communication Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and recommendations to... 1. Contact Person: Lee L. Zwanziger, Risk Communication Staff, Food and Drug Administration, 10903...

  10. 77 FR 62242 - Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ...] Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... Communication Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and recommendations to... Person: Lee L. Zwanziger, Risk Communication Staff, Office of Planning, Food and Drug Administration...

  11. 75 FR 20608 - Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ...] Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... Communication Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and recommendations to... relevant to improving risk communication at FDA, and discuss applications or gaps for strategic planning of...

  12. 75 FR 65641 - Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ...] Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... meeting of the Risk Communication Advisory Committee. This meeting was announced in the Federal Register... Communication Advisory Committee would be held on November 8 and 9, 2010. On page 57280, in the first column...

  13. 76 FR 44017 - Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ...] Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... Communication Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and recommendations to... and former members of the Risk Communication Advisory Committee. FDA intends to make background...

  14. The role of P24 antigen screening in reducing the risk of HIV transmission by scronegetive bone allograft donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryce, R.N.; Morgan, A.F.; Malhotra, R.

    1999-01-01

    Disease transmission is an infrequent but important risk associated with bone transplantation. Human immunodeficiency virus infection is particularly important because of delay in seroconversion of the potential donor. This is so-call 'window' period may extend for several months. Almost all human immunodeficiency virus transmission via the transplantation of blood or tissue since the implementation of anti-HIV screening in 1985 has been during this window period. The performance of newer assays to detect viral and serologic markers may reduce this risk of disease transmission. We present the strategy employed at the Queensland Bone Bank to minimise the risk of HIV transmission through an infected donor

  15. Chernobyl: four years later: attitudes, risk management and communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pligt, J.; Midden, C.H.J.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the impact that the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl has had on risk management and risk communication in relation to risk perception; decisions and coping with uncertainty; and public opinion, personal attitudes, and public policy.

  16. Prevalence, Incidence, and Residual Risks for Transfusion Transmitted HIV-1/2 Infection among Chinese Blood Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxing; Liu, Jing; Yao, Fuzhu; Wen, Guoxin; Li, Julin; Huang, Yi; Lv, Yunlai; Wen, Xiuqiong; Wright, David; Yu, Qilu; Guo, Nan; Ness, Paul; Shan, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Background There is little data on HIV prevalence, incidence or residual risks for transfusion transmitted HIV infection among Chinese blood donors. Methods Donations from five Chinese blood centers in 2008–2010 were screened using two rounds of ELISA testing for anti-HIV-1/2. A reactive result in either or both rounds led to Western Blot confirmatory testing. HIV prevalence and demographic correlates among first time donors, incidence rate and demographic correlates among repeat donors were examined. Weighted multivariable logistic regression analysis examined correlates of HIV confirmatory status among first time donors. Residual risks for transfusion transmitted HIV infection were evaluated based on incidence among repeat donors. Results Among 821,320 donations, 40% came from repeat donors.1,837 (0.34%) first time and 577 (0.17%) repeat donations screened reactive for anti-HIV-1/2, among which 1,310 and 419 were tested by Western Blot. 233 (17.7%) first time and 44 (10.5%) repeat donations were confirmed positive. Estimated prevalence was 66 infections per 100,000 (95% CI: 59–74) first time donors. Estimated incidence was 9/100,000 (95% CI: 7–12) person-years among repeat donors. Weighted multivariable logistic regression analysis indicate that first time donors 26–45 years old were 1.6–1.8 times likely to be HIV positive than those 25 years and younger. Donors with some college or above education were less likely to be HIV positive than those with middle school education, ORs ranging from 0.35 to 0.60. Minority were 1.6 times likely to be HIV positive than Han majority donors (OR: 1.6; CI: 1.2–2.1). No difference in prevalence was found between gender. Current HIV TTI residual risk was 5.4 (1.2–12.5) infections per million whole blood donations. Conclusion Despite the declining HIV epidemic China, estimated residual risks for transfusion transmitted HIV infection are still high, highlighting the potential blood safety yield of NAT implementation

  17. Interdisciplinary Analysis of Drought Communication Through Social Media Platforms and Risk Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wygant, M.

    2015-12-01

    As droughts continue to impact businesses and communities throughout the United States, there needs to be a greater emphasis on drought communication through interdisciplinary approaches, risk communication, and digital platforms. The purpose of this research is to provide an overview of the current literature on communicating drought and suggests areas for further improvement. Specifically, this research focuses on communicating drought through social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. It also focuses on the conglomeration of theoretical frameworks within the realm of risk communication, to provide a strong foundation towards future drought communication. This research proposal provides a critical step to advocate for paradigmatic shifts within natural hazard communication.

  18. A high risk of hepatitis C infection among Egyptian blood donors: the role of parenteral drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassily, S; Hyams, K C; Fouad, R A; Samaan, M D; Hibbs, R G

    1995-06-01

    To determine the prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among Egyptian blood donors, 188 consecutive adult blood donors from four hospitals and one temporary donor center located in Cairo, Egypt were evaluated. Sera were tested for HCV antibodies (anti-HCV) using second-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kits. Sera that were repeatedly reactive by ELISA were further verified by a second-generation recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA). Antibodies to HCV were detected by RIBA in 26.6% of the blood donors, which is higher than the 10-19% prevalence of antibody found in other studies of Egyptian blood donors. A history of selling blood (odds ratio [OR] = 12.1) and the use of illicit parenteral drugs (OR = 2.5) were significantly associated with anti-HCV seropositivity after controlling for age and gender. These data indicate that the use of illicit drugs may be one reason for high levels of reported HCV infection among Egyptian blood donors. These findings also indicate that Egyptian blood donors should be screened for anti-HCV and individuals who have a history of drug abuse should be deferred from donating blood.

  19. Communication of Audit Risk to Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, C. Wayne; Thompson, James H.

    1986-01-01

    This article focuses on audit risk by examining it in terms of its components: inherent risk, control risk, and detection risk. Discusses applying audit risk, a definition of audit risk, and components of audit risk. (CT)

  20. Public dialogues on flood risk communication: Literature review : Literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orr, Paula; Forrest, Steven; Brooks, Katya; Twigger-Ross, Clare

    2015-01-01

    This literature review summarises the state of knowledge on communicating the risk of flooding to the public as of January 2014. The review considers how different audiences respond to risk communication and the factors which influence that response. The current systems and techniques for flood risk

  1. Crisis and emergency risk communication as an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Barbara; W Seeger, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a model of communication known as crisis and emergency risk communication (CERC). The model is outlined as a merger of many traditional notions of health and risk communication with work in crisis and disaster communication. The specific kinds of communication activities that should be called for at various stages of disaster or crisis development are outlined. Although crises are by definition uncertain, equivocal, and often chaotic situations, the CERC model is presented as a tool health communicators can use to help manage these complex events.

  2. Sodium monofluoroacetate (1080) risk assessment and risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eason, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Sodium monofluoroacetate (1080) is a vertebrate pesticide widely used for possum control in New Zealand. Fluoroacetate is also a toxic component of poisonous plants found in Australia, South Africa, South America, and India. Because of its importance and effectiveness in pest control and the highly toxic nature of this compound, its acute sub-lethal and target organ toxicity have been extensively studied. In relation to its use as a pesticide its environmental fate, persistence, non-target impacts and general toxicology have been and continue to be extensively studied. Toxic baits must be prepared and used with extreme care, otherwise humans, livestock, and non-target wildlife will be put at risk. The high risk of secondary poisoning of dogs is a cause for concern. 1080 acts by interfering with cellular energy production. Possums die from heart failure, usually within 6-18 h of eating baits. Long-term exposure to sub-lethal doses can have harmful effects and strict safety precautions are enforced to protect contractors and workers in the bait manufacturing industry. Considerable care is taken when using 1080 to ensure that the risks of using it are outweighed by the ecological benefits achieved from its use. When its use is controversial, risk communicators must take care not to trivialise the toxicity of the compound. The benefits of 1080 use in conservation, pest control, and disease control should be weighed up alongside the risks of using 1080 and other techniques for pest control

  3. The influence of graphic format on breast cancer risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapira, Marilyn M; Nattinger, Ann B; McAuliffe, Timothy L

    2006-09-01

    Graphic displays can enhance quantitative risk communication. However, empiric data regarding the effect of graphic format on risk perception is lacking. We evaluate the effect of graphic format elements on perceptions of risk magnitude and perceived truth of data. Preferences for format also were assessed. Participants (254 female primary care patients) viewed a series of hypothetical risk communications regarding the lifetime risk of breast cancer. Identical numeric risk information was presented using different graphic formats. Risk was perceived to be of lower magnitude when communicated with a bar graph as compared with a pictorial display (p graphic format used to convey quantitative risk information effects key domains of risk perception. One must be cognizant of these effects when designing risk communication strategies.

  4. Climate change risk perception and communication: addressing a critical moment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidgeon, Nick

    2012-06-01

    Climate change is an increasingly salient issue for societies and policy-makers worldwide. It now raises fundamental interdisciplinary issues of risk and uncertainty analysis and communication. The growing scientific consensus over the anthropogenic causes of climate change appears to sit at odds with the increasing use of risk discourses in policy: for example, to aid in climate adaptation decision making. All of this points to a need for a fundamental revision of our conceptualization of what it is to do climate risk communication. This Special Collection comprises seven papers stimulated by a workshop on "Climate Risk Perceptions and Communication" held at Cumberland Lodge Windsor in 2010. Topics addressed include climate uncertainties, images and the media, communication and public engagement, uncertainty transfer in climate communication, the role of emotions, localization of hazard impacts, and longitudinal analyses of climate perceptions. Climate change risk perceptions and communication work is critical for future climate policy and decisions. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Five walls against risk communication of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Tomoko

    2012-01-01

    The author has made efforts to establish risk communication in the nuclear industry since the JCO criticality accident. Some people understood the importance and the usefulness of risk communication both for local residents and their own business. Others, however, thought it troublesome, costly, and useless for their organization and nuclear safety. I think, unfortunately, experiences after the Fukushima accident force them to hesitate at communicating risks with the public more and more. I will discuss why and how risk communication of nuclear technology is difficult. (author)

  6. Discussions about nuclear and radiation risk information communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bo; Wang Erqi; Peng Xianxun

    2013-01-01

    This paper described the definition and the objective of risk communication and the development of the risk communication research. It stated that how to establish a trustworthy relationship with public and the 8 aspects that should be done for keeping the relationship. With the analysis of the cognition and the influencing of the nuclear and radiation risk, this article figured out the factors which could influence the cognition of public on nuclear and radiation risk. Moreover, it explained the principles for enhancing the efficiency of the risk communication and the specific works in each phase of the risk communication. Finally, the suggestions for the development of the risk communication of the nuclear and radiation in China had been provided. (authors)

  7. Results from a horizon scan on risks associated with transplantation of human organs, tissues and cells: from donor to patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberts, C A; Park, M V D Z; Pot, J W G A; de Vries, C G J C A

    2015-03-01

    The successful transplantation of human materials such as organs, tissues and cells into patients does not only depend on the benefits, but also on the mitigation of risks. To gain insight into recent publications on risks associated with the process of transferring human materials from donor to recipient we performed a horizon scan by reviewing scientific literature and news websites of 2011 on this subject. We found there is ample information on how extended donor criteria, such as donor age, affect the survival rates of organs or patients. Interestingly, gender mismatch does not appear to be a major risk factor in organ rejection. Data on risks of donor tumor transmission was very scarce; however, risk categories for various tumor types have been suggested. In order to avoid rejection, a lot of research is directed towards engineering tissues from a patient's own tissues and cells. Some but not all of these developments have reached the clinic. Developments in the field of stem cell therapy are rapid. However, many hurdles are yet to be overcome before these cells can be applied on a large scale in the clinic. The processes leading to genetic abnormalities in cells differentiated from stem cells need to be identified in order to avoid transplantation of aberrant cells. New insights have been obtained on storage and preservation of human materials, a critical step for success of their clinical use. Likewise, quality management systems have been shown to improve the quality and safety of human materials used for transplantation.

  8. Risky business: challenges and successes in military radiation risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Mark A; Geckle, Lori S; Davidson, Bethney A

    2012-01-01

    Given the general public's overall lack of knowledge about radiation and their heightened fear of its harmful effects, effective communication of radiation risks is often difficult. This is especially true when it comes to communicating the radiation risks stemming from military operations. Part of this difficulty stems from a lingering distrust of the military that harkens back to the controversy surrounding Veteran exposures to Agent Orange during the Vietnam War along with the often classified nature of many military operations. Additionally, there are unique military exposure scenarios, such as the use of nuclear weapons and combat use of depleted uranium as antiarmor munitions that are not found in the civilian sector. Also, the large, diverse nature of the military makes consistent risk communication across the vast and widespread organization very difficult. This manuscript highlights and discusses both the common and the distinctive challenges of effectively communicating military radiation risks, to include communicating through the media. The paper also introduces the Army's Health Risk Communication Program and its role in assisting in effective risk communication efforts. The authors draw on their extensive collective experience to share 3 risk communication success stories that were accomplished through the innovative use of a matrixed, team approach that combines both health physics and risk communication expertise.

  9. Deceased Organ Donors With a History of Increased Risk Behavior for the Transmission of Blood-Borne Viral Infection: The UK Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Patrick B; Summers, Dominic M; Robb, Matthew; Hulme, William; Ushiro-Lumb, Ines; Watson, Christopher J E; Neuberger, James; Bradley, J Andrew

    2017-07-01

    Deceased organ donors are routinely screened for behaviors that increase the risk of transmissible blood-borne viral (BBV) infection, but the impact of this information on organ donation and transplant outcome is not well documented. Our aim was to establish the impact of such behavior on organ donation and utilization, as well transplant recipient outcomes. We identified all UK deceased organ donors from 2003 to 2015 with a disclosed history of increased risk behavior (IRB) including intravenous drug use (IVDU), imprisonment and increased risk sexual behavior. Of 17 262 potential donors, 659 (3.8%) had IRB for BBV and 285 (1.7%) were seropositive for BBV, of whom half had a history of IRB (mostly IVDU [78.5%]). Of actual donors with IRB, 393 were seronegative for viral markers at time of donation. A history of recent IVDU was associated with fewer potential donors proceeding to become actual organ donors (64% vs 75%, P = 0.007). Donors with IRB provided 1091 organs for transplantation (624 kidneys and 467 other organs). Transplant outcome was similar in recipients of organs from donors with and without IRB. There were 3 cases of unexpected hepatitis C virus transmission, all from an active IVDU donor who was hepatitis C virus seronegative at time of donation, but was found to be viremic on retrospective testing. Donors with a history of IRB provide a valuable source of organs for transplantation with good transplant outcomes and there is scope for increasing the use of organs from such donors.

  10. Health risk communication--a view from within industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, G H

    1991-01-01

    Health risk communication is discussed in respect to four principles of biomedical ethics: (1) autonomy, the need to protect confidentiality and provide decision-making information; (2) beneficence, an obligation to inform and to develop trust; (3) non-maleficence, not covering up study findings, not over- or underinterpreting data; and (4) justice, helping place risk in proper perspective. The epidemiologist's role in risk communication includes responsible interpretation of data, balanced and non-judgemental risk communication and careful attention to the biologic and population significance of study findings. Potential problem areas for epidemiologists which are discussed include deciding when risk is significant, working for an agency which does not want a communication to take place and the occasional need to violate confidentiality for overriding societal goals. The paper concludes with an example risk communication which illustrates some of the principles covered in the paper.

  11. Risk communication related to animal products derived from biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrea, D

    2005-04-01

    Previous chapters of this review have dealt with the key considerations related to the application of biotechnology in veterinary science and animal production. This article explores the theory and practice of risk communication and sets out the basic principles for good risk communication when dealing with new technologies, uncertainty, and cautious and sceptical consumers. After failure to communicate with consumers and stakeholders about the risk to human health from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the 1990s, Government Agencies in the United Kingdom have made significant improvements in risk communication. The official inquiry that followed the BSE crisis concluded that a policy of openness was the correct approach, and this article emphasises the importance of consultation, consistency and transparency. There are, however, many different factors that affect public perception of risk (religious, political, social, cultural, etc.) and developing effective risk communication strategies must take all of these complex issues into consideration.

  12. 75 FR 57279 - Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ...] Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... Communication Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and recommendations to... Committee will hear and discuss developments in FDA's ongoing communications programs, such as FDA's...

  13. 76 FR 16427 - Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ...] Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... Communication Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and recommendations to... discuss developments in FDA's ongoing communications programs. The discussion will focus on the use of...

  14. Importance of risk communication during and after a nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perko, Tanja

    2011-07-01

    Past nuclear accidents highlight communication as one of the most important challenges in emergency management. In the early phase, communication increases awareness and understanding of protective actions and improves the population response. In the medium and long term, risk communication can facilitate the remediation process and the return to normal life. Mass media play a central role in risk communication. The recent nuclear accident in Japan, as expected, induced massive media coverage. Media were employed to communicate with the public during the contamination phase, and they will play the same important role in the clean-up and recovery phases. However, media also have to fulfill the economic aspects of publishing or broadcasting, with the "bad news is good news" slogan that is a well-known phenomenon in journalism. This article addresses the main communication challenges and suggests possible risk communication approaches to adopt in the case of a nuclear accident. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  15. Exploring the Role of Gender and Risk Perceptions in People's Decisions to Register as a Bone Marrow Donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaren, Patrick J.; Hyde, Melissa K.; White, Katherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing the number of bone marrow (BM) donors is important to ensure sufficient diversity on BM registries to meet the needs of patients. This study used an experimental approach to test the hypothesis that providing information about the risks of BM donation to allay unsubstantiated fears would reduce male and female participants' perceptions…

  16. Evaluating emergency risk communications: a dialogue with the experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Craig W; Vanderford, Marsha L; Crouse Quinn, Sandra

    2008-10-01

    Evaluating emergency risk communications is fraught with challenges since communication can be approached from both a systemic and programmatic level. Therefore, one must consider stakeholders' perspectives, effectiveness issues, standards of evidence and utility, and channels of influence (e.g., mass media and law enforcement). Evaluation issues related to timing, evaluation questions, methods, measures, and accountability are raised in this dialogue with emergency risk communication specialists. Besides the usual evaluation competencies, evaluators in this area need to understand and work collaboratively with stakeholders and be attuned to the dynamic contextual nature of emergency risk communications. Sample resources and measures are provided here to aid in this emerging and exciting field of evaluation.

  17. Risk communication strategies : achieving a multidisciplinary consensus; La communication des risques : un consensus multidisciplinaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, B.; Cloutier, I. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Mathematiques et de Genie Industriel; Sabourin, J.P. [Ville de Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Risk management related to floods and dam failures requires input from a variety of stakeholders from both the private and the public sector. This paper provided details of a risk management communication strategy based on a consequence approach that established work sequence modes to achieve a multidisciplinary consensus of opinion. The communication of risk was considered as a bilateral exchange of information between concerned parties, who were divided into 2 spheres: (1) a public sphere which included interest groups, government agencies, individuals and the media; and (2) a technical sphere comprised of industry members, scientific experts, and government agencies. Divided between the 2 spheres, government agencies play a distinct role in both the communication and understanding of risk. In Quebec, municipal agencies are required to identify risk and develop plans that ensure public safety. Risk management plans developed by industry members are a valuable source of information for municipal authorities, who can identify vulnerabilities in their own risk communication strategies. In addition, members of the public play an important role in eliciting further risk communications to improve areas of vulnerability. Interest groups can demand further analyses from impartial sources on sensitive issues. Conflicting results offer a plurality of opinions that must be considered to obtain a consensus in risk assessment, which is the ultimate aim of all risk analyses and communications strategies. It was concluded that risk communication strategies benefit from the engagement of a variety of often conflicting views. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Deciding to Help : Effects of Risk and Crisis Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.H.; Kerstholt, J.H.; Giebels, E.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to gain insight into the (combined) effects of risk and crisis communication on adequate behaviour during a crisis situation. In addition, it adds to the existing literature by examining the effects of risk and crisis communication on psychological factors that are involved in

  19. Deciding to help : effects of risk and crisis communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Marije; Kerstholt, Johanna Helena; Giebels, Ellen

    This study aimed to gain insight into the (combined) effects of risk and crisis communication on adequate behaviour during a crisis situation. In addition, it adds to the existing literature by examining the effects of risk and crisis communication on psychological factors that are involved in

  20. Consumer responses to communication about food risk management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van H.; Houghton, J.R.; Kleef, van E.; Lans, van der I.A.; Rowe, G.; Frewer, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    Recent emphasis within policy circles has been on transparent communication with consumers about food risk management decisions and practices. As a consequence, it is important to develop best practice regarding communication with the public about how food risks are managed. In the current study,

  1. 78 FR 70954 - Risk Communications Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... awareness and understanding of the key risk messages, as well as whether the communications are having the... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0001] Risk Communications Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS...

  2. Role of negative emotion in communication about CO2 risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijnders, A.L.; Midden, C.J.H.; Wilke, H.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    This article describes how the effectiveness of risk communication is determined by the interaction between emotional and informative elements. An experiment is described that examined the role of negative emotion in communication about CO2 risks. This experiment was based on the elaboration

  3. Risk Perception and Communication in Commercial Reusable Launch Vehicle Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Terry L.

    2005-12-01

    A number of inventors and entrepreneurs are currently attempting to develop and commercially operate reusable launch vehicles to carry voluntary participants into space. The operation of these launch vehicles, however, produces safety risks to the crew, to the space flight participants, and to the uninvolved public. Risk communication therefore becomes increasingly important to assure that those involved in the flight understand the risk and that those who are not directly involved understand the personal impact of RLV operations on their lives. Those involved in the launch vehicle flight may perceive risk differently from those non-participants, and these differences in perception must be understood to effectively communicate this risk. This paper summarizes existing research in risk perception and communication and applies that research to commercial reusable launch vehicle operations. Risk communication is discussed in the context of requirements of United States law for informed consent from any space flight participants on reusable suborbital launch vehicles.

  4. Informing people about radiation risks: a review of obstacles to public understanding and effective risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covello, V.T.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on informing people about radiation risks. The paper focuses on obstacles to public understanding and effective risk communication. The paper concludes with a set of guidelines for communicating information about radiation risks to the public. The paper also includes an appendix that reviews the literature on one of the most important tools for communicating information about radiation risks: risk comparisons

  5. Communicating actionable risk for terrorism and other hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Michele M; Mileti, Dennis S; Kano, Megumi; Kelley, Melissa M; Regan, Rotrease; Bourque, Linda B

    2012-04-01

    We propose a shift in emphasis when communicating to people when the objective is to motivate household disaster preparedness actions. This shift is to emphasize the communication of preparedness actions (what to do about risk) rather than risk itself. We have called this perspective "communicating actionable risk," and it is grounded in diffusion of innovations and communication theories. A representative sample of households in the nation was analyzed using a path analytic framework. Preparedness information variables (including content, density, and observation), preparedness mediating variables (knowledge, perceived effectiveness, and milling), and preparedness actions taken were modeled. Clear results emerged that provide a strong basis for communicating actionable risk, and for the conclusion both that information observed (seeing preparedness actions that other have taken) and information received (receiving recommendations about what preparedness actions to take) play key, although different, roles in motivating preparedness actions among the people in our nation. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Risk factors of hepatitis B virus infection among blood donors in Duhok city, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R Hussein, Nawfal

    2018-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a public health problem. The lack of information about the seroprevalence and risk factors is an obstacle for preventive public health plans to reduce the burden of viral hepatitis. Therefore, this study was conducted in Iraq, where no studies had been performed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of HBV infection. Blood samples were collected form 438 blood donors attending blood bank in Duhok city. Serum samples were tested for HBV core-antibodies (HBcAb) and HBV surface-antigen (HBsAg) by ELISA. Various risk factors were recorded and multivariate analysis was performed. 5/438 (1.14%) of the subjects were HBsAg positive (HBsAg and HBcAb positive) and 36/438 (8.2%) were HBcAb positive. Hence, 41 cases were exposed to HBV and data analysis was based on that. Univariate analysis showed that there were significant associations between history of illegitimate sexual contact, history of alcohol or history of dental surgeries and HBV exposure (p<0.05 for all). Then, multivariate analysis was conducted to find HBV exposure predictive factors. It was found that history of dental surgery was a predictive factor for exposure to the virus (P=0.03, OR: 2.397). This study suggested that the history of dental surgery was predictive for HBV transmission in Duhok city. Further population-based study is needed to determine HBV risk factors in the society and public health plan based on that should be considered.

  7. Defining moments in risk communication research: 1996-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, Katherine A

    2006-01-01

    Ten years ago, scholars suggested that risk communication was embarking on a new phase that would give increased attention to the social contexts that surround and encroach on public responses to risk information. A decade later, many researchers have answered the call, with several defining studies examining the social and psychological influences on risk communication. This article reviews risk communication research appearing in the published literature since 1996. Among studies, social trust, the social amplification of risk framework, and the affect heuristic figured prominently. Also common were studies examining the influence of risk in the mass media. Among these were content analyses of media coverage of risk, as well as investigations of possible effects resulting from coverage. The use of mental models was a dominant method for developing risk message content. Other studies examined the use of risk comparisons, narratives, and visuals in the production of risk messages. Research also examined how providing information about a risk's severity, social norms, and efficacy influenced communication behaviors and intentions to follow risk reduction measures. Methods for conducting public outreach in health risk communication rounded out the literature.

  8. The role of the media in risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtenberg, J.; MacLean, D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper analyses the origins of risk communication; why the role of the media is difficult to study; the relationship between media coverage and public opinion; the relationship between media coverage and 'reality'; some dilemmas for journalists; the politics of risk communication. More research needs to be done on this issue. Because of the complexities advances will depend partly on cooperation among risk analysts, communications experts, political theorists and philosophers; in any case, progress is likely to be slow and the research costly. The paper demonstrates: It matters greatly that journalists and the rest of us understand the context and the consequences of press coverage of risk issues. (orig./HSCH)

  9. Beyond the organ donor card: the effect of knowledge, attitudes, and values on willingness to communicate about organ donation to family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Susan E; Miller, Jenny K

    2002-01-01

    Although numerous studies have examined many of the predictors of signing an organ donor card, including knowledge, attitudes, values, and demographic variables, very few have examined the factors associated with individuals' willingness to communicate about organ donation with family members. Because organ donation does not take place without the permission of a person's next-of-kin, government agencies and organ procurement organizations have targeted communication with family members as a primary objective of organ donation campaigns. This study reports the results of a survey of a stratified random sample of adults at 2 local sites of a national employer. Results indicate that knowledge, attitude, and altruism are significantly related to 2 measures of willingness to communicate: past behavior (whether respondents had already discussed organ donation with family members) and a scale measuring willingness to communicate about organ donation in the future. Because the quality of discussions between the potential donor and his or her family will depend on how well the donor is able to address vital issues regarding donation, it is concluded that campaigns seeking to promote communication between family members about organ donation must simultaneously seek to increase knowledge, debunk myths, and bolster positive attitudes about donation.

  10. Donor testing and risk: current prevalence, incidence, and residual risk of transfusion-transmissible agents in US allogeneic donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shimian; Stramer, Susan L; Dodd, Roger Y

    2012-04-01

    Over the past 20 years, there has been a major increase in the safety of the blood supply, as demonstrated by declining rates of posttransfusion infection and reductions in estimated residual risk for such infections. Reliable estimates of residual risk have been possible within the American Red Cross system because of the availability of a large amount of reliable and consistent data on donations and infectious disease testing results. Among allogeneic blood donations, the prevalence rates of infection markers for hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus have decreased over time, although rates for markers of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human T-cell lymphotropic virus did not. The incidence (/100 000 person-years) of HIV and HCV among repeat donors showed apparent increases from 1.55 and 1.89 in 2000 through 2001 to 2.16 and 2.98 in 2007 through 2008. These observed fluctuations confirm the need for continuous monitoring and evaluation. The residual risk of HIV, HCV, and human T-cell lymphotropic virus among all allogeneic donations is currently below 1 per 1 million donations, and that of hepatitis B surface antigen is close to 1 per 300 000 donations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) Development Risk Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tony

    2014-01-01

    nuclear radiation from Fukushima" which focus on mis-information and fear mongering. Nuclear power and NTR are powerful resources that can open many doors for future prosperity and capability. With great power comes great responsibility. Radiation and its effects need to be better understood, quantified, and communicated. A human mission to mars has its own risks of deep space radiation and is considered a considerable risk at 400 milli-Sieverts per year in deep space and 245 milli-Sieverts per year on the surface of Mars as measured by the Mars Curiosity mission. Although these quantities of ionizing radiation are within the astronaut career limit, it exceeds the yearly average amounts of ionizing radiation. Astronaut crews have experienced these levels of radiation before, but for durations shorter than a year, and a mission to Mars could possibly be 3 years in length. There is also evidence that people can comfortably handle higher levels of ionizing radiation where the radiation occurs naturally like Ramsar, Iran when people can experience 270 milli-Sieverts per year. A risk posture that the development, test, and flight of an NTR will meet opposition from groups who oppose nuclear energy must be likely and the impact can be sever to the effort. Active risk mitigation must be taken for an NTR full-scale development project. The NTR design must take into account safety for transport and off nominal conditions. Nuclear fuel element must consider containment of fission products and Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) that may meet less opposition should be considered for safety and security reasons. Even though testing was conducted on Rover/NERVA safely and successfully in the 60's with exhaust sent heavenward in to open air, modern testing of NTR must consider full containment and no release of ionizing radiation to the public and must meet the current requirement of no more than 0.1 milli-Sieverts per year to the public. 0.1 milli-Sieverts is equivalent to eating one banana or

  12. Meeting CCS communication challenges head-on: Integrating communications, planning, risk assessment, and project management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, S.; Gauvreau, L.; Hnottavange-Telleen, K.; Finley, R.; Marsteller, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium, Schlumberger Carbon Services, and Archer Daniels Midland has implemented a comprehensive communications plan at the Illinois Basin - Decatur Project (IBDP), a one million metric tonne Carbon Capture and Storage project in Decatur, IL, USA funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. The IBDP Communication Plan includes consortium information, funding and disclaimer citations, description of target audiences, media communications guidelines, paper and presentations guidelines, site visit information, crisis communication, on-site photography regulations, and other components. The creation, development, and implementation processes for the IBDP Communication Plan (the Plan) are shared in this paper. New communications challenges, such as how to address add-on research requests, data sharing and management, scope increase, and contract agreements have arisen since the Plan was completed in January 2009, resulting in development of new policies and procedures by project management. Integrating communications planning, risk assessment, and project management ensured that consistent, factual information was developed and incorporated into project planning, and constitutes the basis of public communications. Successful integration has allowed the IBDP to benefit from early identification and mitigation of the potential project risks, which allows more time to effectively deal with unknown and unidentified risks that may arise. Project risks and risks associated with public perception can be managed through careful planning and integration of communication strategies into project management and risk mitigation. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Risk communications and the Chemical Stockpile Emergency-Planning Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, B.M.; Sorensen, J.H.

    1994-09-01

    The CSEPP (Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program) was created to improve emergency planning and response capabilities at the eight sites around the country that store chemical weapons. These weapons are scheduled to be destroyed in the near future. In preparation of the Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (DPEIS) for the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), it was proposed that the Army mitigate accidents through an enhanced community emergency preparedness program at the eight storage sites. In 1986, the Army initiated the development of an Emergency Response Concept Plan (ERCP) for the CSDP, one of 12 technical support studies conducted during preparation of the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS). The purpose of this document is to provide a fairly comprehensive source book on risk, risk management, risk communication research and recommended risk communication practices. It does not merely summarize each publication in the risk communication literature, but attempts to synthesize them along the lines of a set of organizing principles. Furthermore, it is not intended to duplicate other guidance manuals (such as Covello et al.`s manual on risk comparison). The source book was developed for the CSEPP in support of the training module on risk communications. Although the examples provided are specific to CSEPP, its use goes beyond that of CSEPP as the findings apply to a broad spectrum of risk communication topics. While the emphasis is on communication in emergency preparedness and response specific to the CSEPP, the materials cover other non-emergency communication settings. 329 refs.

  14. Predisposing risk factors for delirium in living donor liver transplantation patients in intensive care units.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Han Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Delirium is one of the main causes of increased length of intensive care unit (ICU stay among patients who have undergone living donor liver transplantation (LDLT. We aimed to evaluate risk factors for delirium after LDLT as well as to investigate whether delirium impacts the length of ICU and hospital stay. METHODS: Seventy-eight patients who underwent LDLT during the period January 2010 to December 2012 at a single medical center were enrolled. The Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU scale was used to diagnose delirium. Preoperative, postoperative, and hematologic factors were included as potential risk factors for developing delirium. RESULTS: During the study period, delirium was diagnosed in 37 (47.4% patients after LDLT. The mean onset of symptoms occurred 7.0±5.5 days after surgery and the mean duration of symptoms was 5.0±2.6 days. The length of stay in the ICU for patients with delirium (39.8±28.1 days was significantly longer than that for patients without delirium (29.3±19.0 days (p<0.05. Risk factors associated with delirium included history of alcohol abuse [odds ratio (OR = 6.40, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.85-22.06], preoperative hepatic encephalopathy (OR = 4.45, 95% CI: 1.36-14.51, APACHE II score ≥16 (OR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.71-2.56, and duration of endotracheal intubation ≥5 days (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.52-2.23. CONCLUSIONS: History of alcohol abuse, preoperative hepatic encephalopathy, APACHE II scores ≥16 and endotracheal intubation ≥5 days were predictive of developing delirium in the ICU following liver transplantation surgery and were associated with increased length of ICU and hospital stay.

  15. The Labor Environment, Risk and Communication Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto César Machado

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: this reflection makes a theoretical analysis on communication in the labor environment of the worker and its social consequences. He analyzes some theoretical precepts that have permeated the social representations and some reflections about it. It discusses the current legislation and makes a theoretical revision regarding the subject, passing through precepts of the language, as well as approaches cognitive values presented in the local and regional work environment and its operational risks, where it discusses the conceptions and the factors that related and articulated with some aspects of this research. The approaches presented in the planning and discussion about the work environment, its risks and the failures in interpersonal communication in the professional activity are analyzed, taking into account the theoretical presuppositions of social cognition in order to attend the approaches focused on the environment, communication and risks at work. In relation to the representations and the theoretical practices of this study, the bibliographic analysis about them makes efforts to conceptualize its closure related to the presented ideas. O Meio Ambiente Laboral, Risco e a Falha na Comunicação Resumo: esta reflexão faz uma análise teórica sobre a comunicação no meio ambiente laborativo do trabalhador e suas consequências sociais. Ele analisa alguns preceitos teóricos que perpassaram pelas representações sociais e algumas reflexões a respeito da mesma. Discute sobre a legislação vigente e faz uma revisão teórica a respeito do tema, perpassando por preceitos da linguagem, bem como aborda valores cognitivos apresentados no ambiente laborativo local, regional e seus riscos operacionais onde discute as concepções e os fatores que relacionaram e articularam junto a algumas vertentes desta investigação. As abordagens apresentadas no planejamento e discussão sobre o ambiente laborativo, seus riscos e as falhas na

  16. Communicating cardiovascular disease risk: an interview study of General Practitioners' use of absolute risk within tailored communication strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Carissa; Jansen, Jesse; McKinn, Shannon; Irwig, Les; Doust, Jenny; Glasziou, Paul; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2014-05-29

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention guidelines encourage assessment of absolute CVD risk - the probability of a CVD event within a fixed time period, based on the most predictive risk factors. However, few General Practitioners (GPs) use absolute CVD risk consistently, and communication difficulties have been identified as a barrier to changing practice. This study aimed to explore GPs' descriptions of their CVD risk communication strategies, including the role of absolute risk. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 25 GPs in New South Wales, Australia. Transcribed audio-recordings were thematically coded, using the Framework Analysis method to ensure rigour. GPs used absolute CVD risk within three different communication strategies: 'positive', 'scare tactic', and 'indirect'. A 'positive' strategy, which aimed to reassure and motivate, was used for patients with low risk, determination to change lifestyle, and some concern about CVD risk. Absolute risk was used to show how they could reduce risk. A 'scare tactic' strategy was used for patients with high risk, lack of motivation, and a dismissive attitude. Absolute risk was used to 'scare' them into taking action. An 'indirect' strategy, where CVD risk was not the main focus, was used for patients with low risk but some lifestyle risk factors, high anxiety, high resistance to change, or difficulty understanding probabilities. Non-quantitative absolute risk formats were found to be helpful in these situations. This study demonstrated how GPs use three different communication strategies to address the issue of CVD risk, depending on their perception of patient risk, motivation and anxiety. Absolute risk played a different role within each strategy. Providing GPs with alternative ways of explaining absolute risk, in order to achieve different communication aims, may improve their use of absolute CVD risk assessment in practice.

  17. A new perspective on radiation risk communication in Fukushima, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svendsen, E.R.

    2013-01-01

    The March 11, 2011 cascading disasters of the historic earthquake, unprecedented tsunami, and subsequent radioactive substances release from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant have shocked the world. But the specter of radiation exposure has complicated the earthquake and tsunami disaster aid activities. Herein is a personal commentary on the current status of the risk communication activities within the disaster populations in Fukushima prefecture. A literature review of the current scientific literature was performed focusing on risk communication within the Fukushima region during the disaster recovery phase. I have limited my commentary to only the 5 most relevant of the publications which focus exclusively on the issue of risk communication and the problems which have generated the urgency to improve risk communication. There were several themes which were consistently identified across the articles and echo some of the personal observations of the many types of responses which victims are now demonstrating: fear, anger, distrust, denial, confusion, uncertainty, ambivalence, and hyperbole stood out regarding their varied responses to the current radiological situation and, regarding the government role in risk communication, corruption and lack of transparency. Two recommendations for helping to address these issues in risk communication are the inclusion of a community intermediary and great use of community engagement in the disaster recovery process. Improved risk communication, perhaps using established guidelines and including both community intermediaries and improved community engagement, may prove useful within the radiation affected populations of Japan. (author)

  18. The public and effective risk communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Public perceptions of risk have often been dismissed on the basis of ¿irrationality¿, and have tended to be excluded from policy processes by risk assessors and managers. People¿s responses to different risks are determined by psychological factors. The technical risk estimates

  19. Current views on risk communication and their implications for crisis and reputation management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutteling, Jan M.

    2001-01-01

    Organizations prepare for crisis communication by designing, implementing, and evaluating procedures, scenarios, and emergency measures. In addition to crisis communication, risk communication is a concern for many organizations as well. Risk communication is viewed as an interactive, multi-actor

  20. Communicating about risk: strategies for situations where public concern is high but the risk is low

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Hooker

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we summarise research that identifies best practice for communicating about hazards where the risk is low but public concern is high. We apply Peter Sandman’s ‘risk = hazard + outrage’ formulation to these risks, and review factors associated with the amplification of risk signals. We discuss the structures that determine the success of risk communication strategies, such as the capacity for early communication to ‘capture’ the dominant representation of risk issues, the importance of communicating uncertainty, and the usefulness of engaging with communities. We argue that, when facing trade-offs in probable outcomes from communication, it is always best to choose strategies that maintain or build trust, even at the cost of initial overreactions. We discuss these features of successful risk communication in relation to a range of specific examples, particularly opposition to community water fluoridation, Ebola, and routine childhood immunisation.

  1. Risk Communication and the Pharmaceutical Industry: what is the reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Brian; Chakraborty, Sweta

    2012-11-01

    Risk communication is central to the risk management strategy of a pharmaceutical company. Pharmaceutical companies primarily communicate risk through labelling tools such as the Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC), package insert, patient information leaflet (PIL) and the carton, which are currently regulated based on templates such as those of the EU. Recent research raises concern about how effective the SmPC is alone in communicating risk. There is some evidence that carton design can influence risk comprehension. Processes to check new trade names cannot be confused with existing names is a simple measure to mitigate one form of risk. Given the central role and the vast amount of resource that is consumed, it is surprising there has not been extensive original research to see whether product information such as the SmPC is a good tool for communicating risk. Recently, EU agencies have assessed the communication value of the PIL and revised the template and guidelines. However, no evaluation of user testing has been conducted at European level since the introduction of these new requirements. As regards 'Dear Healthcare Professional Communications', there is inconsistent evidence about their ability to change patient and physician behaviour. There is a dearth of evidence about what sort of communications materials are the most effective under which circumstances. The use of templates restricts the flexibility of companies to adapt their risk messages to their targets. Effective communication requires understanding how different audiences perceive the message and what the fundamental drivers are for altering patient and prescriber behaviour to be safer. This requires careful consideration of the relationship between risk communication, perception and management. However, the focus of a company's risk communication plan is normally on the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) regions and their regulations. Although the same regulatory tools are

  2. Risk Factors Associated with Ebola and Marburg Viruses Seroprevalence in Blood Donors in the Republic of Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanikaly Moyen

    Full Text Available Ebola and Marburg viruses (family Filoviridae, genera Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus cause haemorrhagic fevers in humans, often associated with high mortality rates. The presence of antibodies to Ebola virus (EBOV and Marburg virus (MARV has been reported in some African countries in individuals without a history of haemorrhagic fever. In this study, we present a MARV and EBOV seroprevalence study conducted amongst blood donors in the Republic of Congo and the analysis of risk factors for contact with EBOV.In 2011, we conducted a MARV and EBOV seroprevalence study amongst 809 blood donors recruited in rural (75; 9.3% and urban (734; 90.7% areas of the Republic of Congo. Serum titres of IgG antibodies to MARV and EBOV were assessed by indirect double-immunofluorescence microscopy. MARV seroprevalence was 0.5% (4 in 809 without any identified risk factors. Prevalence of IgG to EBOV was 2.5%, peaking at 4% in rural areas and in Pointe Noire. Independent risk factors identified by multivariate analysis were contact with bats and exposure to birds.This MARV and EBOV serological survey performed in the Republic of Congo identifies a probable role for environmental determinants of exposure to EBOV. It highlights the requirement for extending our understanding of the ecological and epidemiological risk of bats (previously identified as a potential ecological reservoir and birds as vectors of EBOV to humans, and characterising the protection potentially afforded by EBOV-specific antibodies as detected in blood donors.

  3. How do family physicians communicate about cardiovascular risk? Frequencies and determinants of different communication formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner-Jehle, Stefan; Senn, Oliver; Wegwarth, Odette; Rosemann, Thomas; Steurer, Johann

    2011-04-05

    Patients understand information about risk better if it is communicated in numerical or visual formats (e.g. graphs) compared to verbal qualifiers only. How frequently different communication formats are used in clinical primary care settings is unknown. We collected socioeconomic and patient understanding data using questionnaires and audio-recorded consultations about cardiovascular disease risk. The frequencies of the communication formats were calculated and multivariate regression analysis of associations between communication formats, patient and general practitioner characteristics, and patient subjective understanding was performed. In 73% of 70 consultations, verbal qualifiers were used exclusively to communicate cardiovascular risk, compared to numerical (11%) and visual (16%) formats. Female GPs and female patient's gender were significantly associated with a higher use of verbal formats compared to visual formats (p=0.001 and p=0.039, respectively). Patient subjective understanding was significantly higher in visual counseling compared to verbal counseling (p=0.001). Verbal qualifiers are the most often used communication format, though recommendations favor numerical and visual formats, with visual formats resulting in better understanding than others. Also, gender is associated with the choice of communication format. Barriers against numerical and visual communication formats among GPs and patients should be studied, including gender aspects. Adequate risk communication should be integrated into physicians' education.

  4. How do family physicians communicate about cardiovascular risk? Frequencies and determinants of different communication formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemann Thomas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients understand information about risk better if it is communicated in numerical or visual formats (e.g. graphs compared to verbal qualifiers only. How frequently different communication formats are used in clinical primary care settings is unknown. Methods We collected socioeconomic and patient understanding data using questionnaires and audio-recorded consultations about cardiovascular disease risk. The frequencies of the communication formats were calculated and multivariate regression analysis of associations between communication formats, patient and general practitioner characteristics, and patient subjective understanding was performed. Results In 73% of 70 consultations, verbal qualifiers were used exclusively to communicate cardiovascular risk, compared to numerical (11% and visual (16% formats. Female GPs and female patient's gender were significantly associated with a higher use of verbal formats compared to visual formats (p = 0.001 and p = 0.039, respectively. Patient subjective understanding was significantly higher in visual counseling compared to verbal counseling (p = 0.001. Conclusions Verbal qualifiers are the most often used communication format, though recommendations favor numerical and visual formats, with visual formats resulting in better understanding than others. Also, gender is associated with the choice of communication format. Barriers against numerical and visual communication formats among GPs and patients should be studied, including gender aspects. Adequate risk communication should be integrated into physicians' education.

  5. Improving Asthma Communication in High-Risk Children

    OpenAIRE

    Butz, Arlene M.; Walker, Jennifer; Land, Cassia Lewis; Vibbert, Carrie; Winkelstein, Marilyn

    2007-01-01

    Few child asthma studies address the specific content and techniques needed to enhance child communication during asthma preventive care visits. This study examined the content of child and parent communications regarding their asthma management during a medical encounter with their primary care provider (PCP). The majority of parents and children required prompting to communicate symptom information to the PCP during the clinic visit. Some high-risk families may require an asthma advocate to...

  6. Renal transplantation across the donor-specific antibody barrier: Graft outcome and cancer risk after desensitization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ching-Yao; Lee, Chih-Yuan; Yeh, Chi-Chuan; Tsai, Meng-Kun

    2016-06-01

    Desensitization regimens including use of intravenous immune globulin and rituximab have been reported to overcome renal transplant hyperacute rejection. A retrospective case-control study was performed to assess the results and complications of renal transplantation with desensitization therapy for donor-specific antibody (DSA) in a transplant center in Asia, where donor exchange was usually not allowed. Between January 2007 and December 2013, 22 patients with DSA received live-donor renal transplantation after desensitization (DSA group). During the same period, the DSA group was compared to the NSA group (152 renal transplants) who had no specific antibody to the donors (66 from deceased donors and 86 from living relatives). Rejection, renal function, graft and patient survival rates, infection, and cancer incidence were reviewed and analyzed from medical records. The DSA group (46.8%) had significantly higher acute rejection rates than the NSA group (13.7%) at the 1-year follow-up. The estimated renal function, 5-year graft, and patient survival rates were comparable between the groups. The DSA group (19.6%) had significantly higher 5-year de novo cancer incidence than the NSA group (8.5%; p = 0.028); three patients of the DSA group developed urothelial carcinoma 17.0 ± 3.0 months after transplantation. By using stepwise Cox regression analysis, desensitization therapy was identified as the sole independent risk factor for post-transplant urothelial carcinoma. When compared to renal transplantation without DSA, desensitization therapy for DSA resulted in equivalent renal transplant outcome but potentially increased risk of urothelial carcinoma after transplantation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Operation and evaluation of online risk communication assistant tool, 'ORCAT'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hiroshi; Katsumura, Soichiro; Furuta, Kazuo; Matsumura, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    Risk communication about the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal is necessary for public acceptance of HLW disposal program. Online Risk Communication Assistant Tool (ORCAT) system is developed in order to support risk communication for high-level radioactive disposal on World Wide Web. We have carried out two test operations of ORCAT system. First test operation is carried out from Jun. 26 to Feb. 13, 2003. After the first operation, we improved the ORCAT system, and carried out the second test operation from Dec. 4 to 22, 2004. In the second test operation, 20 participants replayed the questionnaire about usability of ORCAT system. In consequence, we found that the ORCAT system remains what need to refine, but is evaluated useful to the risk communication about the HLW disposal. (author)

  8. Effects of risk communication on natural hazards on real estate owners' risk perception and risk behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchecker, M.; Maidl, E.

    2012-04-01

    In the last decade, in most of the European countries risk maps on natural hazards have been elaborated but there is so far little experience how to efficiently communicate these maps to the public. Recently, the public authorities of Zurich informed the owners of buildings located within the hazard zone on urban flood risks The owners received official letters containing information on potential danger, the probability of flood events, constructional safety measures, and guidelines for appropriate actions in case of an immediate flood. In the cover letter they were also encouraged to achieve more detailed information about the particular risks for their building using an online accessible risk map within a geographic information system (GIS). This risk communication campaign was based on the expectation that informing citizens increases their risk awareness and that citizens aware of risks are more likely to undertake actions to protect themselves and their property. There is, however, little empirical evidence that these expected outcomes can be achieved by written forms of risk communication. With this project we aim to find out to which degree a campaign of written risk communication can shape land owners risk perception and risk behaviour, and which other factors (e.g. trust in authorities, risk, risk zone category of the building) contributed to these outcomes... In collaboration with public authorities we conducted a survey among 1500 owners of buildings in the hazard zones in Zurich (50 % in blue zone, 50 % in yellow and yellow-white zone), that is 14% of all persons who were addressed by the authorities of the city. The standardized questionnaire comprises in particular items measuring respondents' evaluation of the virtual and physical information material, the time they spent for studying the information material, the dimensions of their risk perception, their acceptability of risks and their preparedness to implement constructional and other safety

  9. Communicating health risks to the public: a global perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hillier, Dawn

    2006-01-01

    ... under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, to be identified as the author of this work. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Communicating health risks to the public : a global perspective 1. Health risk communication I. Hillier, Dawn, 1950- 614.4'4 ISBN-13: 978-0-566-08672-4 ISBN-10: 0 566 08672 7 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publ...

  10. Role of negative emotion in communication about CO2 risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijnders, A L; Midden, C J; Wilke, H A

    2001-10-01

    This article describes how the effectiveness of risk communication is determined by the interaction between emotional and informative elements. An experiment is described that examined the role of negative emotion in communication about CO2 risks. This experiment was based on the elaboration likelihood model and the related heuristic systematic model of attitude formation. The results indicated that inducing fear of CO2 risks leads to systematic processing of information about energy conservation as a risk-reducing strategy. In turn, this results in more favorable attitudes toward energy conservation if strong arguments are provided. Individual differences in concern seem to have similar effects.

  11. Risk communication and radiological/nuclear terrorism: a strategic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Steven M

    2011-11-01

    It is now widely recognized that effective communication is a crucial element in radiological/nuclear terrorism preparedness. Whereas in the past, communication and information issues were sometimes viewed as secondary in comparison with technical concerns, today the need to improve risk communication, public information, and emergency messaging is seen as a high priority. The process of improving radiological/nuclear terrorism risk communication can be conceptualized as occurring in four overlapping phases. The first phase involves the recognition that communication and information issues will be pivotal in shaping how a radiological/nuclear terrorism incident unfolds and in determining its outcome. This recognition has helped shape the second phase, in which various research initiatives have been undertaken to provide an empirical basis for improved communication. In the third and most recent phase, government agencies, professional organizations and others have worked to translate research findings into better messages and informational materials. Like the first and second phases, the third phase is still unfolding. The fourth phase in risk communication for radiological/nuclear terrorism-a mature phase-is only now just beginning. Central to this phase is a developing understanding that for radiological/nuclear terrorism risk communication to be fully effective, it must go beyond crafting better messages and materials (as essential as that may be). This emerging fourth phase seeks to anchor radiological/nuclear communication in a broader approach: one that actively engages and partners with the public. In this article, each of the four stages is discussed, and future directions for improving radiological/nuclear terrorism risk communication are explored.

  12. Risk communication on the siting of radioactive waste management facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okoshi, Minoru; Torii, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Yasuhiko

    2007-01-01

    Siting of radioactive waste management facilities frequently raise arguments among stakeholders such as a municipal government and the residents. Risk communication is one of the useful methods of promoting mutual understanding on related risks among stakeholders. In Finland and Sweden, siting selection procedures of repositories for spent nuclear fuels have been carried out successfully with risk communication. The success reasons are analyzed based on the interviews with those who belong to the regulatory authorities and nuclear industries in both countries. Also, in this paper, risk communication among the Japan Radioisotope Association (JRIA), a local government and the general public, which was carried out during the establishment process of additional radioactive waste treatment facilities in Takizawa Village, Iwate Prefecture, is analyzed based on articles in newspapers and interviews with persons concerned. The analysis results showed that good risk communication was not carried out because of the lack of confidence on the JRIA, decision making rules, enough communication chances and economic benefits. In order to make good use of these experiences for the future establishment of radioactive waste management facilities, the lessons learned from these cases are summarized and proposals for good risk communication (establishment of exploratory committee and technical support system for decision making, and measurements to increase familiarity of radioactive waste) are discussed. (author)

  13. Comparison of risk factors among blood donors, volunteers and replacement individuals, infected or not by hepatitis C virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJDB Felippe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily parenterally by contaminated blood and is often associated with: intravenous drug abuse, invasive procedures, blood transfusions, acupuncture, tattooing, and alcohol and tobacco use. This study aimed to quantify and evaluate the risk factors among blood donors, volunteer blood donors and replacement individuals, infected or not by the C virus. The main transmission routes of C virus were identified in 55 men and 25 women (GI monitored by the Ambulatory Unit of the Department of Tropical Diseases, Botucatu Medical School, and in 24 men and 26 women (GII, all active blood donors at the Bauru State Hospital Transfusional Agency. Both groups were similar in: tobacco and alcohol consumption, sexual behavior, tattooing and illicit drug use. The duration of alcohol and tobacco consumption and blood transfusions in GI were longer, whereas the option for steady partners, condom use, disposable materials and piercings were predominant in GII. In conclusion, the risk factors for hepatitis C demonstrate the necessity of health policies that act on the primary and secondary prevention levels (respectively, reduction of infection incidence and hepatopathy risk.

  14. Tailoring in risk communication by linking risk profiles and communication preferences: The case of speeding of young car drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Sarah; Baumann, Eva; Klimmt, Christoph

    2016-12-01

    Speeding is one of the most relevant risk behaviors for serious and fatal accidents, particularly among young drivers. This study presents a tailoring strategy for anti-speeding communication. By referring to their motivational dispositions toward speeding derived from motivational models of health behavior, young car drivers were segmented into different risk groups. In order to ensure that risk communication efforts would actually be capable to target these groups, the linkage between the risk profiles and communication preferences were explored. The study was conducted on the basis of survey data of 1168 German car drivers aged between 17 and 24 years. The data reveal four types of risk drivers significantly differing in their motivational profiles. Moreover, the findings show significant differences in communication habits and media use between these risk groups. By linking the risk profiles and communication preferences, implications for tailoring strategies of road safety communication campaigns are derived. Promising segmentation and targeting strategies are discussed also beyond the current case of anti-speeding campaigns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk communication: Anthropogenically induced climatic changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankenberg, P.

    1991-01-01

    In order to reduce the risk of the greenhouse effect, conventional thermal power plants should be substituted by maximum energy conservation, use of renewable energies, and low-risk, high-tech nuclear power plants. Motor traffic exhausts could be eliminated by alternative fuels, and trace gas reducers, such as tropical rain forests, preserved by financial adjustments. CFC's are to be reduced in any case in order to lower the ozone risk. (DG) [de

  16. Pilot research project of risk communication on nuclear technology and its utilization. Toward communication and collaboration with community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Tomoko

    2003-01-01

    Although the importance of risk communication has been pointed out over the last decade in nuclear community, both public authorities and nuclear industry have not conducted the definite actions yet. It will be reflected in the public eye that nuclear community's attitude toward communication and consultation with the public about risk issues is half-hearted, comparing with chemical and food safety fields which recently launched their risk communication activities. In this study, we conduct risk communication experiments on some risk issues associated with nuclear technology and its utilization in Tokai village, for the purpose of establishment of risk communication in our society that might be one of the new relationships between science and technology and society. The outcomes of FY2002 study are the following threefold; 1) preparation of risk communication experiments on nuclear technology and its utilization, 2) assessment of social effects of risk communication activities, 3) preparation of practical guidebook for risk communication experiments. (J.P.N.)

  17. Study on information dissemination for effective nuclear risk communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The aim of this study are to develop an information system and guideline for nuclear risk communication between expert and citizens as well as between both experts in terms of lessons learned from serious disaster such as Fukushima Dai-ich NPP accident. Technical standards for disseminating a result and process of seismic/tsunami PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) of nuclear facility as well as nuclear risk information in an emergency, and risk communication in normal times are needed. Tins study examines the framework, contents, and technical basis for developing an information system for nuclear risk communication. In addition, this study identifies the communication issues of nuclear risk communication concerning the seismic/tsunami PRA through the testing information systems in areas around nuclear facilities and by providing effective implementation guidelines. JNES has developed the information system specified as Protection of Nuclear Power Plants against Tsunamis and Post Earthquake considerations in the External Zone (TiPEEZ) as part of IAEA International Seismic Safety Centre (ISSC) Extra Budgetary Programme (EBP). The EBP is currently preparing technical documents (TECDOC) regarding the implementation of the TiPEEZ. After the Fukushima accident, there has been increasing demand for disaster mitigation systems to share risk information between nuclear organizations and local municipalities. JNES and Niigata Institute of Technology conduct implementation of TiPEEZ for the practical use based on the corroborative works with Kashiwazaki city and citizens. (author)

  18. The spectre of uncertainty in communicating technological risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broesius, Michael T. [Univ. of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The literature does not clearly describe the potential moral and ethical conflicts that can exist between technology sponsors and the technical communicators whose job it is to present potentially risky technology to the non-technical people most likely to be imperiled by such risk. Equally important, the literature does not address the issue of uncertainty -- not the uncertainty likely to be experienced by the community at risk, but the unreliable processes and methodologies used by technology sponsors to define, quantify, and develop strategies to mitigate technological risks. In this paper, the author goes beyond a description of risk communication, the nature of the generally predictable interaction between technology advocates and non-technically trained individuals, and current trends in the field. Although that kind of information is critical to the success of any risk communication activity, and he has included it when necessary to provide background and perspective, without knowing how and why risk assessment is done, it has limited practical applicability outside the sterile, value-free vacuum in which it is usually framed. Technical communicators, particularly those responsible for communicating potential technological risk, must also understand the social, political, economic, statistical, and ethical issues they will invariably encounter.

  19. Study on information dissemination for effective nuclear risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study are to develop an information system and guideline for nuclear risk communication between expert and citizens as well as between both experts in terms of lessons learned from serious disaster such as Fukushima Dai-ich NPP accident. Technical standards for disseminating a result and process of seismic/tsunami PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) of nuclear facility as well as nuclear risk information in an emergency, and risk communication in normal times are needed. Tins study examines the framework, contents, and technical basis for developing an information system for nuclear risk communication. In addition, this study identifies the communication issues of nuclear risk communication concerning the seismic/tsunami PRA through the testing information systems in areas around nuclear facilities and by providing effective implementation guidelines. JNES has developed the information system specified as Protection of Nuclear Power Plants against Tsunamis and Post Earthquake considerations in the External Zone (TiPEEZ) as part of IAEA International Seismic Safety Centre (ISSC) Extra Budgetary Programme (EBP). The EBP is currently preparing technical documents (TECDOC) regarding the implementation of the TiPEEZ. After the Fukushima accident, there has been increasing demand for disaster mitigation systems to share risk information between nuclear organizations and local municipalities. JNES and Niigata Institute of Technology conduct implementation of TiPEEZ for the practical use based on the corroborative works with Kashiwazaki city and citizens. (author)

  20. Nanotechnology risk perceptions and communication: emerging technologies, emerging challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidgeon, Nick; Harthorn, Barbara; Satterfield, Terre

    2011-11-01

    Nanotechnology involves the fabrication, manipulation, and control of materials at the atomic level and may also bring novel uncertainties and risks. Potential parallels with other controversial technologies mean there is a need to develop a comprehensive understanding of processes of public perception of nanotechnology uncertainties, risks, and benefits, alongside related communication issues. Study of perceptions, at so early a stage in the development trajectory of a technology, is probably unique in the risk perception and communication field. As such it also brings new methodological and conceptual challenges. These include: dealing with the inherent diversity of the nanotechnology field itself; the unfamiliar and intangible nature of the concept, with few analogies to anchor mental models or risk perceptions; and the ethical and value questions underlying many nanotechnology debates. Utilizing the lens of social amplification of risk, and drawing upon the various contributions to this special issue of Risk Analysis on Nanotechnology Risk Perceptions and Communication, nanotechnology may at present be an attenuated hazard. The generic idea of "upstream public engagement" for emerging technologies such as nanotechnology is also discussed, alongside its importance for future work with emerging technologies in the risk communication field. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  1. Communicating Health Risks under Pressure: Homeland Security Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrahan, K.G.; Collie, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) Threat and Consequence Assessment Division (TCAD) within the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) has developed a tool for rapid communication of health risks and likelihood of exposure in preparation for terrorist incidents. The Emergency Consequence Assessment Tool (ECAT) is a secure web-based tool designed to make risk assessment and consequence management faster and easier for high priority terrorist threat scenarios. ECAT has been designed to function as 'defensive play-book' for health advisors, first responders, and decision-makers by presenting a series of evaluation templates for priority scenarios that can be modified for site-specific applications. Perhaps most importantly, the risk communication aspect is considered prior to an actual release event, so that management or legal advisors can concur on general risk communication content in preparation for press releases that can be anticipated in case of an actual emergency. ECAT serves as a one-stop source of information for retrieving toxicological properties for agents of concern, estimating exposure to these agents, characterizing health risks, and determining what actions need to be undertaken to mitigate the risks. ECAT has the capability to be used at a command post where inputs can be checked and communicated while the response continues in real time. This front-end planning is intended to fill the gap most commonly identified during tabletop exercises: a need for concise, timely, and informative risk communication to all parties. Training and customization of existing chemical and biological release scenarios with modeling of exposure to air and water, along with custom risk communication 'messages' intended for public, press, shareholders, and other partners enable more effective communication during times of crisis. For DOE, the ECAT could serve as a prototype that would be amenable to

  2. Risk of Exposure to Zika Virus and Impact on Cord Blood Banking and Adult Unrelated Donors in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: The Canadian Blood Services Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Zachary; Morris, Gail; Campbell, Todd; Mostert, Karen; Dibdin, Nicholas; Fearon, Margaret; Elmoazzen, Heidi; Mercer, Dena; Young, Kimberly; Allan, David

    2018-04-01

    Zika virus has emerged as a potential threat to the Canadian blood supply system. Stem cell donors within Canadian Blood Services' Cord Blood Bank (CBB) and OneMatch Stem Cell and Marrow Network (OM) now undergo screening measures designed to reduce the risk of Zika virus transmission. The impact these screening measures have on cord blood and unrelated adult stem cell donations is currently unknown. Among 146 donor workups initiated by OM between July 2016 and May 2017, 102 were completed and 44 workups were canceled. There were 17 potential donors (11.6%) with a risk of Zika virus exposure identified by the donor questionnaire (13 completed, 4 canceled workups). None of the workups involved a donor diagnosed with confirmed Zika virus within the past 6 months. Only 1 of the 44 canceled workups (and only 1 of 4 cases with a risk of Zika transmission) was canceled because of the risk of Zika transmission, and a backup donor was selected. Canadian Blood Services' CBB identified 25 of 875 cord blood units (2.9%) from women who donated their infants' cord blood and underwent screening that otherwise met the initial cell number thresholds for banking and had at least 1 risk factor for exposure to Zika virus. No women were diagnosed with Zika virus at any point of their pregnancy. All 25 units were discarded. Unrelated donors at OM have a higher incidence of a risk of exposure to Zika virus compared with cord blood donors. Only rarely did transplant centers cancel donor workups due to potential Zika virus exposure. The impact of screening for Zika virus exposure risk on cord blood banking was minor. Continued vigilance and surveillance is recommended. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of a visual risk communication tool: effects on knowledge and perception of blood transfusion risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D H; Mehta, M D

    2003-06-01

    Effective risk communication in transfusion medicine is important for health-care consumers, but understanding the numerical magnitude of risks can be difficult. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a visual risk communication tool on the knowledge and perception of transfusion risk. Laypeople were randomly assigned to receive transfusion risk information with either a written or a visual presentation format for communicating and comparing the probabilities of transfusion risks relative to other hazards. Knowledge of transfusion risk was ascertained with a multiple-choice quiz and risk perception was ascertained by psychometric scaling and principal components analysis. Two-hundred subjects were recruited and randomly assigned. Risk communication with both written and visual presentation formats increased knowledge of transfusion risk and decreased the perceived dread and severity of transfusion risk. Neither format changed the perceived knowledge and control of transfusion risk, nor the perceived benefit of transfusion. No differences in knowledge or risk perception outcomes were detected between the groups randomly assigned to written or visual presentation formats. Risk communication that incorporates risk comparisons in either written or visual presentation formats can improve knowledge and reduce the perception of transfusion risk in laypeople.

  4. The globalization of risk and risk perception: why we need a new model of risk communication for vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Heidi; Brocard Paterson, Pauline; Erondu, Ngozi

    2012-11-01

    Risk communication and vaccines is complex and the nature of risk perception is changing, with perceptions converging, evolving and having impacts well beyond specific geographic localities and points in time, especially when amplified through the Internet and other modes of global communication. This article examines the globalization of risk perceptions and their impacts, including the example of measles and the globalization of measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine risk perceptions, and calls for a new, more holistic model of risk assessment, risk communication and risk mitigation, embedded in an ongoing process of risk management for vaccines and immunization programmes. It envisions risk communication as an ongoing process that includes trust-building strategies hand-in-hand with operational and policy strategies needed to mitigate and manage vaccine-related risks, as well as perceptions of risk.

  5. A genetic risk factor for low serum ferritin levels in Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Erik; Grau, Katrine; Berg, Trine

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency is a frequent side effect of blood donation. In recent years, several studies have described genetic variants associated with iron concentrations. However, the impact of these variants on iron levels is unknown in blood donors. Knowledge of genetic variants....../or restless leg syndrome (RLS) were investigated in two groups of female blood donors. The first group had low iron stores (serum ferritin ≤ 12 µg/L, n = 657), and the second group had normal to high iron stores (serum ferritin > 30 µg/L, n = 645). Genotype distribution for each of the SNPs was compared......: A frequent polymorphism in BTBD9 was significantly associated with serum ferritin. This polymorphism has previously been associated with RLS, but not low iron stores in blood donors....

  6. Cardiovascular risk after preeclampsia : The effect of communicating risk factors on intended healthy behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokslag, Anouk; Kroeze, Willemieke; de Groot, Christianne J.M.; Teunissen, Pim W.

    Objective: We studied the effect of communicating cardiovascular risk factors on intended healthy behavior in women with a history of preeclampsia or uncomplicated pregnancy. Methods: Intention for healthy behavior was assessed before and after cardiovascular risk assessment. Changes were calculated

  7. Public responses to Chernobyl: lessons for risk management and communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, O.

    1988-01-01

    The question of how the public in many European countries and the US perceived the danger of the radiation fallout from Chernobyl and how they reacted to the management of risk in each country is addressed. In addition, the lessons learned about communicating risk are discussed on the basis of studies of public attitudes and the effects of media coverage. (author)

  8. Risk Factors for Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases at Gilgel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moreover, the distributions of the specific risk factors are not systematically identified in those countries hampering the designing of appropriate preventive and control strategies. The objective of this component of the study was to describe the distribution of risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases. METHODS: ...

  9. 77 FR 31025 - Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... on communicating and understanding uncertainty, and risk perception and information seeking when facing multiple risks. FDA intends to make background material available to the public no later than 2... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-0001...

  10. Cartograms Facilitate Communication of Climate Change Risks and Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döll, Petra

    2017-12-01

    Communication of climate change (CC) risks is challenging, in particular if global-scale spatially resolved quantitative information is to be conveyed. Typically, visualization of CC risks, which arise from the combination of hazard, exposure and vulnerability, is confined to showing only the hazards in the form of global thematic maps. This paper explores the potential of contiguous value-by-area cartograms, that is, distorted density-equalizing maps, for improving communication of CC risks and the countries' differentiated responsibilities for CC. Two global-scale cartogram sets visualize, as an example, groundwater-related CC risks in 0.5° grid cells, another one the correlation of (cumulative) fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions with the countries' population and gross domestic product. Viewers of the latter set visually recognize the lack of global equity and that the countries' wealth has been built on harmful emissions. I recommend that CC risks are communicated by bivariate gridded cartograms showing the hazard in color and population, or a combination of population and a vulnerability indicator, by distortion of grid cells. Gridded cartograms are also appropriate for visualizing the availability of natural resources to humans. For communicating complex information, sets of cartograms should be carefully designed instead of presenting single cartograms. Inclusion of a conventionally distorted map enhances the viewers' capability to take up the information represented by distortion. Empirical studies about the capability of global cartograms to convey complex information and to trigger moral emotions should be conducted, with a special focus on risk communication.

  11. Brief Communication: The dark side of risk and crisis communication: legal conflicts and responsibility allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolobig, A.

    2015-06-01

    Inadequate, misinterpreted, or missing risk and crisis communication may be a reason for practitioners, and sometimes science advisors, to become the subjects of criminal investigations. This work discusses the legal consequences of inadequate risk communication in these situations. After presenting some cases, the discussion focuses on three critical issues: the development of effective communication protocols; the role, tasks, and responsibilities of science advisors; and the collateral effects of practitioners' defensive behaviours. For example, if the avoidance of personal liability becomes a primary objective for practitioners, it may clash with other objectives, such as the protection of vulnerable communities or the transparency of decision making. The conclusion presents some ideas for future research on the legal aspects of risk communication.

  12. Risk communication between general practitioners and patients with hypercholesterolemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bo; Kirkegaard, Pia; Lauritzen, Torsten

      Purpose: It is important that the general practitioners (GPs) are able to intervene to reduce risk of disease. One of the key points in doing so is effective risk communication that decreases uncertainty about choice of treatment and gives the patients a greater understanding of benefits......, and psychological well-being.    Methods: 40 GPs receive training in risk communication. Each GP selects 7 patients with elevated cholesterol. These patients are informed about the opportunity to receive preventive pharmacological treatment. Another 280 patients receive the same opportunity from 40 GPs without...... their psychological well-being.   Conclusion: This randomised intervention study will produce new knowledge about the effect of training GPs in risk communication....

  13. Risk communication between Experts and the Public: Perceptions and Intentions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeberg, Lennart; Verhost, Philippe; Bouzon, Arlette

    2002-01-01

    This paper develops a conceptual and theoretical analysis of risk communication in cases where experts and the public have widely divergent views about the size of a risk: experts find it very small but some members of the public have an opposite view. Other members of the public agree with the experts. Applications are chosen from the risk management problems inhere in the handling of spent nuclear fuel. It is pointed out that the conflicting views have very different bases.The role of trust is analyzed and while it is a crucial issue, it is much broader than what has usually been assumed. Trust refers not only to social trust (i.e. trust in experts or authorities/corporation) but also to basic notions regarding knowledge and science. In a communication situation, the communicated position with regard to risk seems may not be perceived correctly by any of the parties, and positions tend to be entrenched

  14. Space Nuclear Power Public and Stakeholder Risk Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Sandra M.; Sklar, Maria

    2005-01-01

    The 1986 Challenger accident coupled with the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident increased public concern about the safety of spacecraft using nuclear technology. While three nuclear powered spacecraft had been launched before 1986 with little public interest, future nuclear powered missions would see significantly more public concern and require NASA to increase its efforts to communicate mission risks to the public. In 1987 a separate risk communication area within the Launch Approval Planning Group of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory was created to address public concern about the health, environmental, and safety risks of NASA missions. The lessons learned from the risk communication strategies developed for the nuclear powered Galileo, Ulysses, and Cassini missions are reviewed in this paper and recommendations are given as to how these lessons can be applied to future NASA missions that may use nuclear power systems and other potentially controversial NASA missions.

  15. Risk communication, public participation and the Seveso II directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, G.; Simmons, P.; Wynne, B.; Irwin, A.

    1999-01-01

    Risk communication and public participation are considered in the context of the forthcoming requirements of the 'Seveso II' Directive. The discussion draws substantially on the findings of a research project which has investigated public perceptions of the risks from major accident hazards in seven communities in the UK. Implications for the Directive's requirements on emergency information provision, public access to safety reports and consultation on emergency plans are considered. Our conclusions stress the need for risk communication to be seen as a long term and ongoing process, involving active listening to public reasoning about risk and a sensitivity to the context in which communication is taking place. In meeting both needs and rights to information and encouraging and enabling public participation, we conclude that the Directive should contribute in some degree to an improved environment for dialogue and the building of trust. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  16. Ten years cardiovascular risk estimation according to Framingham score and non HDL-cholesterol in blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffigna, Mabel Nora; Berg, Gabriela; Migliano, Marta; Salgado, Pablo; Soutelo, Jimena; Musso, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is currently the primary cause of morbidity and mortality. (1) Assess the 10 years risk for CVD in Argentinean blood donors, according to Framingham score (updated by ATP III), (2) evaluate the prevalence of the MS, (3) evaluate non HDL-cholesterol level in this population as other risk for CVD. A prospective, epidemiological, transversal study was performed to evaluate 585 volunteer blood donors for two years. Non HDL-C was calculated as total cholesterol minus HDL-C and we evaluated the 10 years risk for CVD according to Framingham score (updated by ATP III). Metabolic syndrome prevalence was estimated according to ATP III and IDF criteria. Non HDL-C was (media±SD) 178.3±48.0 mg/dl in participants with MS and 143.7±39.3 mg/dl without MS (ATPIII) and 160.1±43.6 mg/dl in participants with MS and 139.8±43.1 mg/dl without MS (IDF). Participants with MS presented an OR of 3.1; IC 95% (2-5) of CVD according to de Framingham score. Individuals with MS and elevated non HDL-C are at a higher estimated risk for cardiovascular events in the next 10 years according to the Framingham risk score. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Research of the tasks on risk communication enforcement (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Masaru; Aoyama, Isao; Ishizaka, Kaoru; Ohata, Yuki; Fukuike, Iori; Miyagawa, Hiroshi; Ishimori, Yuu

    2017-01-01

    From 1955 to 2001, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) carried out research and development projects related to uranium exploration, mining, refining, conversion and enrichment at/around Ningyo-toge in Japan. Subsequently, JAEA has been carrying out remediation of the uranium mine legacy sites and decommissioning of the nuclear fuel cycle facilities. JAEA has many experiences of communication with local stakeholders from these projects. Among such experiences, management of the waste rock sites became local concern in 1988, 27 years after completion of the exploration. The issue was resolved in 2012 after several efforts. From this experience, it was suggested that the lack of information sharing with local stakeholders and that the inadequate support to stakeholder's requests caused the delay of problem solving. Therefore, sustainable relationship with local stakeholders for over decades is important for JAEA Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center. As reference, similar domestic cases were investigated and strategies for risk communication were planned. As follows; (1) Clarify roles and responsibilities of communication staffs for sustainable communicating with local residents. (2) Identify gaps in risk communication knowledge among center and local residents and work toward filling those gaps. (3) Improve the effectiveness of Ningyo-toge center's website and PR-magazines as primary mechanism for communicating with wide stakeholders. (4) Investigate new communication methods for sustainable communicating, such as combination of environmental restoration studies by experts and environmental learning activities by residents. (author)

  18. Mechanism of immune tolerance induced by donor derived immature dendritic cells in rat high-risk corneal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Dong Zhao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the role of immature dendritic cells (imDCs on immune tolerance in rat penetrating keratoplasty (PKP in high-risk eyes and to investigate the mechanism of immune hyporesponsiveness induced by donor-derived imDCs. METHODS: Seventy-five SD rats (recipient and 39 Wistar rats (donor were randomly divided into 3 groups: control, imDC and mature dendritic cell (mDC group respectively. Using a model of orthotopic corneal transplantation in which allografts were placed in neovascularized high-risk eyes of recipient rat. Corneal neovascularization was induced by alkaline burn in the central cornea of recipient rat. Recipients in imDC group or mDC group were injected donor bone marrow-derived imDCs or mDCs of 1×106 respectively 1 week before corneal transplantation via tail vein. Control rat received the same volume of PBS. In each group, 16 recipients were kept for determination of survival time and other 9 recipients were executed on day 3, 7 and 14 after transplantation. Cornea was harvested for hematoxylin-eosin staining and acute rejection evaluation, Western blot was used to detect the expression level of Foxp3. RESULTS: The mean survival time of imDC group was significantly longer than that of control and mDC groups (all P<0.05. The expression level of Foxp3 on CD4+CD25+T cells of imDC group (2.24±0.18 was significantly higher than that in the control (1.68±0.09 and mDC groups (1.46±0.13 (all P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Donor-derived imDC is an effective treatment in inducing immune hyporesponsiveness in rat PKP. The mechanism of immune tolerance induced by imDC might be inhibit T lymphocytes responsiveness by regulatory T cells.

  19. [Risk communication in construction of new nuclear power plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gui-Zhen; Lü, Yong-Long

    2013-03-01

    Accompanied by construction of new nuclear power plants in the coming decades in China, risk management has become increasingly politicized and contentious. Nuclear risk communication is a critical component in helping individuals prepare for, respond to, and recover from nuclear power emergencies. It was discussed that awareness of trust and public attitudes are important determinants in nuclear power risk communication and management. However, there is limited knowledge about how to best communicate with at-risk populations around nuclear power plant in China. To bridge this gap, this study presented the attitudinal data from a field survey in under-building Haiyang nuclear power plant, Shandong Province to measure public support for and opposition to the local construction of nuclear power plant. The paper discussed the structure of the communication process from a descriptive point of view, recognizing the importance of trust and understanding the information openness. The results showed that decision-making on nuclear power was dominated by a closed "iron nuclear triangle" of national governmental agencies, state-owned nuclear enterprises and scientific experts. Public participation and public access to information on nuclear constructions and assessments have been marginal and media was a key information source. As information on nuclear power and related risks is very restricted in China, Chinese citizens (51%) tend to choose the government as the most trustworthy source. More respondents took the negative attitudes toward nuclear power plant construction around home. It drew on studies about risk communication to develop some guidelines for successful risk communication. The conclusions have vast implications for how we approach risk management in the future. The findings should be of interest to state and local emergency managers, community-based organizations, public health researchers, and policy makers.

  20. Communication about melanoma and risk reduction after melanoma diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Vivian M; Berwick, Marianne; Hay, Jennifer L

    2017-12-01

    Melanoma patients are advised to perform regular risk-reduction practices, including sun protection as well as skin self-examinations (SSEs) and physician-led examinations. Melanoma-specific communication regarding family risk and screening may promote such behaviors. To this end, associations between patients' melanoma-specific communication and risk reduction were examined. Melanoma patients (N = 169) drawn from a population-based cancer registry reported their current risk-reduction practices, perceived risk of future melanoma, and communication with physicians and relatives about melanoma risk and screening. Patients were, on average, 56 years old and 6.7 years' post diagnosis; 51% were male, 93% reported "fair/very fair" skin color, 75% completed at least some college, and 22% reported a family history of melanoma. Patients reported varying levels of regular (always/nearly always) sun protection: sunscreen use (79%), shade seeking (60%), hat use (54%), and long-sleeve shirt use (30%). Only 28% performed thorough SSE regularly, whereas 92% reported undergoing physician-led skin examinations within the past year. Participants who were female, younger, and had a higher perceived risk of future melanoma were more likely to report past communication. In adjusted analyses, communication remained uniquely associated with increased sunscreen use and SSE. Encouraging melanoma patients to have a more active role in discussions concerning melanoma risk and screening with relatives and physicians alike may be a useful strategy to promote 2 key risk-reduction practices post melanoma diagnosis and treatment. Future research is needed to identify additional strategies to improve comprehensive risk reduction in long-term melanoma patients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Priorities for autism spectrum disorder risk communication and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudell, Michael; Tabor, Holly K; Dawson, Geraldine; Rossi, John; Newschaffer, Craig

    2013-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are an issue of increasing public health significance. The incidence of autism spectrum disorders has been increasing in recent years, and they are associated with significant personal and financial impacts for affected persons and their families. In recent years, a large number of scientific studies have been undertaken, which investigate genetic and environmental risk factors for autism, with more studies underway. At present, much remains unknown regarding autism spectrum disorder risk factors, but the emerging picture of causation is in many cases complex, with multiple genes and gene-environment interactions being at play. The complexity and uncertainty surrounding autism spectrum disorder risk factors raise a number of questions regarding the ethical considerations that should be taken into account when undertaking autism spectrum disorder risk communication. At present, however, little has been written regarding autism spectrum disorder risk communication and ethics. This article summarizes the findings of a recent conference investigating ethical considerations and policy recommendations in autism spectrum disorder risk communication, which to the authors' knowledge is the first of its kind. Here, the authors discuss a number of issues, including uncertainty; comprehension; inadvertent harm; justice; and the appropriate roles of clinicians, scientists, and the media in autism spectrum disorder risk communication.

  2. Affective Stancetaking in the English Communicative Situation of Risk.

    OpenAIRE

    Ushchyna, Valentyna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. The article deals with the study of psycholinguistic and sociocognitive dynamics of stancetaking in the communicative situation of risk. The concept of risk presupposes decision making, while the process of decision making is seen here as a stancetaking on risk. A speaker’s stance includes subjective expressions of the speaker’s attitude towards the object of conversation, his mood, evaluations, perspective, knowledge, point of view and opinion. Stances are reflected at different le...

  3. Communicating the risks, and the benefits, of nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Emmanuelle

    2009-01-01

    Issues surrounding the wide spectrum of (perceived) risks and possible benefits associated with the rapid advance of modern nanotechnology are deliberated. These include the current realities of nanotechnological hazards, their impact vis-à-vis perceived nanotech-risks and perceived nanotech-benefits, and the consequent repercussions on the public and society. It is argued that both the risks and the benefits of nanoscientific advances must be properly communicated if the public is to support this emerging technology. PMID:19823594

  4. Risk Factors for Transfusion Transmissible Infections Elicited on Post Donation Counselling in Blood Donors: Need to Strengthen Pre-donation Counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Suchet; Mittal, Kshitija; Patidar, Gopal; Marwaha, Neelam; Sharma, Ratti Ram; Duseja, Ajay Kumar; Chawla, Yogesh Kumar; Arora, Sunil Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Donor notification and counselling transforms the legal and ethical requirement of disclosure of transfusion transmissible infection (TTI) in a blood donor into practice. The present study was done to assess the response to the disclosure of TTI reactivity results in blood donors, assess the risk factors in blood donors and follow the compliance of the disclosure and clinical referral in a population of blood donors who are difficult to convince that they may be harbouring infections apparently in a healthy state today but with possible clinical disease consequences in the future. A retrospective study was conducted from April 2011 to November 2012. Screening was done using third generation ELISA kits used according to the manufacturer's directions; these kits were approved for use in blood banks by the Drug Controller General of India. Those testing repeat reactive were referred for further confirmation and management. The total number of TTI reactive donors was 787 (0.93 %, N = 83,865). The observed response rate in the present study is 21.6 % (167, N = 787). The risk factors for acquiring infections in TTI reactive donors were statistically significant history of high risk behaviour (20.3 %) for human immunodeficiency virus infection and history of jaundice in themselves, family or close contacts (16.1 %) for hepatitis B virus infection. One hundred and ten (65.8 %) of the referred donors were on outpatient clinical care when post-referral follow up was conducted. The study emphasises on continuing sensitization of blood donation camp organisers to the need of privacy during blood donor selection. The study also stresses the need to strengthen the pre-donation counselling at outdoor blood donation at the same time raise awareness amongst blood donors about the importance of post-donation counselling and follow up.

  5. Wildfire communication and climate risk mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robyn S. Wilson; Sarah M. McCaffrey; Eric. Toman

    2017-01-01

    Throughout the late 19th century and most of the 20th century, risks associated with wildfire were addressed by suppressing fires as quickly as possible. However, by the 1960s, it became clear that fire exclusion policies were having adverse effects on ecological health, as well as contributing to larger and more damaging wildfires over time. Although federal fire...

  6. Pharmaceutical company perspectives on current safety risk communications in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urushihara, Hisashi; Kobashi, Gen; Masuda, Hideaki; Taneichi, Setsuko; Yamamoto, Michiko; Nakayama, Takeo; Kawakami, Koji; Matsuda, Tsutomu; Ohta, Kaori; Sugimori, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    In 1987, a group infection of hepatitis in patients receiving a contaminated fibrinogen product was first reported to the Japanese regulatory agency. Eventually, this serious drug incident involved more than 10,000 cases of infection. In response, the Government of Japan established a responding inspection committee in 2008 to make recommendations for the restructuring of drug regulatory administration. The final report was issued in 2010. One agenda item of this restructuring was the improvement of drug-related safety risk communications. Our research group on drug safety risk communications, which is funded by the Government of Japan, surveyed pharmaceutical companies regarding their perspective on current risk communications. The survey was conducted using an anonymous questionnaire developed for this study which included the three operational domains of targets, contents, and measures of drug risk communication. Fifty-two of the 74 member companies of the Post-marketing Surveillance Subcommittee of the Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturer's Association participated, and this response rate of more than 70% was considered sufficient to ensure the external validity of the survey results. Results showed that the most highly prioritized aspect of risk messaging was the strength of evidence, and that outcome evaluation of risk communication gained recognition. Further, while physicians and pharmacists were the most prioritized communication targets, pharmacovigilance departments devoted the most resources to regulators, at more than 30%. The Internet was recognized as a useful public source of risk information, whereas Drug Guides for Patients delivered on the web were considered under-recognized. Further discussion of these results with the aim of enhancing the restructuring of the Japanese drug regulatory administration system are warranted.

  7. Lost in Interpretation – Communicating Risk to the Public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meschenmoser, P.

    2016-01-01

    Communicating radiation incidents and emergencies to the public always has been challenging. No other type of emergency is related to such disproportional risk perception, so little public knowledge about the subject matter and so many contradicting expert analyses when it comes to public communications. The rise of social media and citizen journalism resulted in a dramatic acceleration of global communications and widespread misinformation. News does not break on television anymore but on Twitter, Facebook & Co. As a consequence, professional communicators not only have to take initiative considerably faster than in the past and deal with rumours. Their message has to be brief and on the point and is sometimes limited to just some 140 characters, the maximum length of a Tweet. More than ever it is essential to timely communicate in plain language and to clearly tell what needs to be done to be safe and to remain safe. Otherwise, the public will be lost in interpretation. (author)

  8. Lost in Interpretation – Communicating Risk to the Public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meschenmoser, P.

    2017-01-01

    Communicating radiation incidents and emergencies to the public always has been challenging. No other type of emergency is related to such disproportional risk perception, so little public knowledge about the subject matter and so many contradicting expert analyses when it comes to public communications. The rise of social media and citizen journalism resulted in a dramatic acceleration of global communications and widespread misinformation. News does not break on television anymore but on Twitter, Facebook & Co. As a consequence, professional communicators not only have to take initiative considerably faster than in the past and deal with rumours. Their message has to be brief and on the point and is sometimes limited to just some 140 characters, the maximum length of a Tweet. More than ever it is essential to timely communicate in plain language and to clearly tell what needs to be done to be safe and to remain safe. Otherwise, the public will be lost in interpretation. (author)

  9. Speak no evil: The promotional heritage of nuclear risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwin, L.

    1990-01-01

    Louis Gwin addresses the critically important problem of nuclear risk communication. His research suggests that while an orderly evacuation of the population actually at risk may be workable in theory, the more likely occurrence is widespread panic and gridlock. Gwin's research suggests that existing programs of nuclear risk communication actually make this problem worse. He found that those who had received no prior information on what to do in an emergency were significantly more likely to do the right thing (e.g., await further instructions) than those who had received instructions. With utilities themselves retaining the ultimate responsibility for developing communication programs, it is not surprising that they have been reluctant; to issue instructions on what to do in the event of a nuclear accident is to acknowledge that such accidents can and do occur. Gwin makes no attempt to protray the nuclear industry as purposefully dishonest or evil. The bottom line is that programs that combine the communication of emergency plans with a latent desire to reassure the public fail in their primary purpose. As Gwin observes the key issue is one of trust. People see such communications as little more than propaganda put out by industry for its own purposes and do not trust the utilities to tell them what to do in the event of an accident. It will be every man for himself, with potentially disastrous consequences. How do we restore trust in nuclear risk communications? Gwin offers a number of valuable suggestions such as placing communication responsibility in state or local agencies or in FEMA, and to ensure some form of public participation in the development and communication of emergency plans. This is an excellent study of an important and timely subject. It provides a much needed picture of just how badly our plans are likely to work in the next nuclear emergency. Gwin's warning should be heeded by policymakers now, while there is still time

  10. The evolution of risk communication at the Weldon Spring site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCracken, S.; Sizemore, M.; Meyer, L.; MacDonell, M.; Haroun, L.

    1993-01-01

    Clear risk communication is one of the keys to establishing a positive relationship with the public at an environmental restoration site. This effort has been evolving at the Weldon Spring site over the past few years, with considerable input from the local community. The recent signing of the major cleanup decision for this site, which identifies on-site disposal as the remedy reflects the strength of the communication program that has evolved for the project

  11. Marburg biosafety and biosecurity scale (MBBS): a framework for risk assessment and risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickmann, Petra; Apfel, Franklin; Biedenkopf, Nadine; Eickmann, Markus; Becker, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Current risk assessment and risk communication of biosafety and biosecurity concerns lack a convenient metric and conceptual framework. The absence of such a systematic tool makes communication more difficult and can lead to ambiguous public perception of and response to laboratory biosafety incidents and biosecurity threats. A new 7-category scoring scale is proposed for incidents and situations in laboratories related to the handling of human and animal pathogens. The scale aims to help clarify risk categories, facilitate coordination and communication, and improve public understanding of risk related to biosafety and biosecurity.

  12. Decision-making and risk-assessment in living liver donation: how informed is the informed consent of donors? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachristou, Christina; Walter, Marc; Marc, Walter; Frommer, Joerg; Frommer, Jeorg; Klapp, Burghard F

    2010-01-01

    The practice of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been increasing over the past 20 years. In LDLT, a healthy individual offers a substantial part of his or her liver (up to 60%) for the benefit of a terminally-ill recipient. The aim of the study was to identify decision-making and risk-assessment patterns of living liver donors and assess whether the principles of informed consent and decision autonomy are being met. The authors conducted semistructured clinical interviews with 28 donors before transplantation. The authors found that a decision was being reached before a decision-making process could take place. Surgery risks were perceived and processed in different ways, including the factors of risk-awareness, denial, limited acceptance, and fatalism. The authors assess concepts of informed consent and decision autonomy in LDLT, and offer suggestions for donor selection.

  13. Risk perception and communication in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodoo, Alexander; Hugman, Bruce

    2012-11-01

    In this narrative review, a brief summary of theoretical approaches to risk perception is followed by an analysis of some of the special factors influencing risk perception and risk communication in sub-Saharan Africa. Examples of recent and emergent local medicines and vaccine controversies in several countries are given along with evidence and analysis of how they were managed. These demonstrate, among other things, the extent to which ethnic, religious and cultural issues influence popular perception, and the power of rumour and anecdote in shaping public opinion and official responses to events. Where safety monitoring systems exist, they are in their infancy, with limited capacity for data collection, credible scientific review, effective public communication and robust crisis management. Although increasing democratic freedoms, including less restricted media, and evolving health systems are addressing the challenges and give hope for further progress, there are still deep and intractable issues that inhibit transparent and effective risk communication and stand in the way of African populations comprehending medicines and their risks in safer and more balanced ways. Some proposals for future change and action are offered, including the pursuit of a deeper understanding of local and national values, assumptions and beliefs that drive risk perception; tailoring public health planning and communications to specifically-targeted regions and populations; strengthening of safety surveillance and data-collection systems; giving higher priority to medicines safety issues in healthcare training and public education.

  14. Improving sexual risk communication with adolescents using event history calendars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, Kristy K; Darling-Fisher, Cynthia; Pardee, Michelle; Ronis, David L; Felicetti, Irene L; Saftner, Melissa A

    2012-04-01

    This study was conducted to explore the effects of an event history calendar (EHC) approach on adolescent sexual risk communication and sexual activity. Adolescent school-linked health clinic patients (n = 30) who reported sexual activity self-administered the EHC that was used by nurse practitioners (NPs; n = 2) during a clinic visit. Immediately pre- and post-visit, and at 1 and 3 months, adolescents reported sexual risk behaviors and perceptions about EHC communication on questionnaires and by interview. NPs reported their perceptions of EHCs by questionnaire after the visit and poststudy interview. The EHC approach facilitated communication and adolescent awareness of their risk behaviors. Scores increased on Amount of Communication, t(29) = 8.174, p Communication, t(29) = 3.112, p = .004; Client Involvement in Decision Making, t(29) = 3.901, p = .001, and Client Satisfaction with Interpersonal Style, t(29) = 3.763, p = .001. Adolescents reported decreased sexual intercourse at 1 month, p = .031. School nurses could use the EHC approach to facilitate adolescent communication and tailoring of interventions.

  15. Cornerstones of the Austrian radon risk communication strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunte, A.; Ringer, W.

    2015-01-01

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW), the National Radon Centre of Austria developed the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy. The superior goal is the reduction of the radon exposure of Austrian citizens as well as the reduction of radon-related lung cancer deaths. Austria, like many other countries, follows the approach to raise awareness and to inform the public to achieve this goal. The presented strategy deals with the question of how radon protection issues can be communicated to the public, existing fears can be reduced and affected people can be motivated to take action (perform a radon test, if necessary, mitigate or install preventive measures in new buildings). The cornerstones of the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy can be summarized as follows: - Definition of communication goals - Identification and categorization of target groups - Development of specific key messages for each of the target groups - Determination of communication channels and assessment of their efficiency - Integration of the radon issue in education and training - Cooperation with relevant organizations and platforms. The communication objectives, target groups and communication paths (and their evaluation) will be discussed during the presentation in detail.

  16. Risk communication on the construction of radioactive waste treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okoshi, Minoru

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, risk communications among the Japan Radioisotope Association (JRIA), a local government and the general public which were carried out during the development process of a radioactive waste treatment facility in Takizawa Village, Iwate Prefecture are analyzed based on the articles of newspapers and the interviews with the concerned people. The analysis results show good risk communications were not carried out because of the absence of the confidence to the JRIA, decision making rules and the merits. In order to make good use of this experience for the future development of radioactive waste management facilities, the lessons learned from this case are summarized and the check lists for good risk communication are proposed. (author)

  17. The effect of bright lines in environmental risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, K.N.; Desvousges, W.H.; Smith, K.V.; Payne, J.

    1993-01-01

    Bright lines in environmental risk communication refer to the specific levels at which an environmental risk becomes a serious health threat and action should be taken to mitigate its effects. This study examined the effect of ''bright lines'' in risk communication by emphasizing the radon exposure threshold level of 4 picocuries per liter. Specifically, the authors developed a computer-assisted interview containing bright-line versions of risk information. The bright-line version contained a range of possible radon levels, the corresponding number of estimated lung cancer cases, the relative health risk from radon compared to other health risks, and the EPA guidelines for mitigating levels above 4 picocuries in the home. The non-bright line version was identical to the bright-line version, except it did not include the EPA's mitigation recommendations. Effect measures included respondents' change in perceived risk after reading their materials, intended testing behavior, and advice to their neighbor for a specified radon level either above or below the 4 picocury threshold level. This paper discusses broader policy implications for designing effective risk communication programs

  18. Risk perception, scientific culture and communication media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto Lobo, M. R.

    2002-01-01

    The people who asked me to give a talk for the Spanish Nuclear Society's 28th Annual Meeting, at the invitation of WIN (Women in Nuclear), have challenged me, or at least that is what my colleagues believe, to tackle the difficult task of venturing into fields unfamiliar to anyone who is not involved in University teaching in communication and journalism. However, the challenge was very appealing to me, first of all because it was an invitation from WIN (Women in Nuclear), which I would like to congratulate, together with the Steering Committee, for having selected Salamanca as the meeting venue in this very important year for this city (it has been selected as European cultural city for 2002, along with the Belgian city of Bruges), If there is any place that has been immersed in scientific culture throughout the centuries it is Salamanca, where every one of its stones could tell us a history of the convergence and divergence between knowledge and society. This Universidad Pontificia of Salamanca also encloses centuries of wisdom within its walls. I have mentioned the first reason for accepting the challenge: the invitation from WIN Espana. The second reason why I accepted is that, some years ago, the world of nuclear energy, them unknown to me, started coming up in conversations with friends, one of whom works in this field. That history of discovery began in a levelly little Swiss town, in Grundenwald, not far from Eintein's Bern, whom I will mention later on

  19. Evaluating Risk Communication After the Fukushima Disaster Based on Nudge Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Michio; Tsubokura, Masaharu

    2017-03-01

    Using nudge theory and some examples of risk communication that followed the Fukushima disaster, this article discusses the influences and justifications of risk communication, in addition to how risk communication systems are designed. To assist people in making decisions based on their own value systems, we provide three suggestions, keeping in mind that people can be influenced (ie, "nudged") depending on how risk communication takes place: (1) accumulate knowledge on the process of evaluating how the method of risk communication and a system's default design could impact people; (2) clarify the purpose and outcomes of risk communication; and (3) see what risk communication might be ethically unjustifiable. Quantitative studies on risk communication and collective narratives will provide some ideas for how to design better risk communication systems and to help people make decisions. Furthermore, we have shown examples of unjustifiable risk communication.

  20. RISK ANALYSIS IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND COMMUNICATION OUTSOURCING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmir Parada Vasques Prado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at evaluating the risk analysis process in Information Technology and Communication (ICT outsourcing conducted by organizations of the private sector. The research is characterized by being a descriptive, quantitative and transversal type study, which was used the survey method. Data were collected through questionnaire, the sample is not random and we used a convenience sampling process. The research made contributions to understanding the risk analysis process in ICT services outsourcing, and identified statistically significant relationships between risk analysis, organization's size and its industry, and between risk analysis and diversity of outsourced services

  1. Risk communication in the case of the Fukushima accident: Impact of communication and lessons to be learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perko, Tanja

    2016-10-01

    Risk communication about the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in 2011 was often not transparent, timely, clear, nor factually correct. However, lessons related to risk communication have been identified and some of them are already addressed in national and international communication programmes and strategies. The Fukushima accident may be seen as a practice scenario for risk communication with important lessons to be learned. As a result of risk communication failures during the accident, the world is now better prepared for communication related to nuclear emergencies than it was 5 years ago The present study discusses the impact of communication, as applied during the Fukushima accident, and the main lessons learned. It then identifies pathways for transparent, timely, clear and factually correct communication to be developed, practiced and applied in nuclear emergency communication before, during, and after nuclear accidents. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:683-686. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  2. Communicating risk using absolute risk reduction or prolongation of life formats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Charlotte Gry; Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø; Larsen, Pia Veldt

    2014-01-01

    . The COMRADE questionnaire was used to measure patients' confidence in their decision and satisfaction with the risk communication. RESULTS: Of the 240 patients included for analyses, 112 were allocated to POL information and 128 to ARR. Patients redeeming a statin prescription totalled six (5.4%) when...... informed using POL, and 32 (25.0%) when using ARR. The level of confidence in decision and satisfaction with risk communication did not differ between the risk formats. CONCLUSION: Patients redeemed statin prescriptions less often when their GP communicated treatment effectiveness using POL compared......BACKGROUND: It is important that patients are well-informed about risks and benefits of therapies to help them decide whether to accept medical therapy. Different numerical formats can be used in risk communication but It remains unclear how the different formats affect decisions made by real...

  3. Injury prevention risk communication: A mental models approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Laurel Cecelia; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2012-01-01

    fail to see risks, do not make use of available protective interventions or misjudge the effectiveness of protective measures. If these misunderstandings can be reduced through context-appropriate risk communications, then their improved mental models may help people to engage more effectively...... and create an expert model of the risk situation, interviewing lay people to elicit their comparable mental models, and developing and evaluating communication interventions designed to close the gaps between lay people and experts. This paper reviews the theory and method behind this research stream...... interventions on the most critical opportunities to reduce risks. That research often seeks to identify the ‘mental models’ that underlie individuals' interpretations of their circumstances and the outcomes of possible actions. In the context of injury prevention, a mental models approach would ask why people...

  4. Vaccine hesitancy and trust. Ethical aspects of risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihlén Fahlquist, Jessica

    2018-03-01

    This paper analyses vaccination policy from an ethical perspective, against the background of the growing hesitancy towards e.g. the measles vaccine. The paper is normative and analyses ethical aspects of risk communication in the context of vaccination. It is argued that ethical analysis of risk communication should be done at the level of the message, the procedure and the effects. The paper takes examples from the Swedish context, linking the current lack of trust in experts to the 2009 vaccination policy and communication promoting the H1N1 vaccine Pandemrix. During the Swedish H1N1 vaccination policy in 2009, the message was that the vaccine is safe. However, a group of adolescents developed narcolepsy as a side effect of the vaccine. Taking this into account, it becomes clear that the government should communicate risks and benefits responsibly and take responsibility for individuals affected negatively by populational health interventions. To communicate respectfully entails not treating vaccine sceptics as ill-informed or less educated, but instead taking the concerns of the vaccine hesitant, who potentially could change their minds, as a starting-point of a respectful discussion. There will inevitably be individuals who suffer from side effects of justifiable population-based health promotion activities. However, the public should be able to trust the message and count on the government to take responsibility for individuals affected by side effects. This is important for normative reasons, but is additionally likely to contribute to restored and maintained trust.

  5. Communication about environmental health risks: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick-Lewis, Donna; Yost, Jennifer; Ciliska, Donna; Krishnaratne, Shari

    2010-11-01

    Using the most effective methods and techniques for communicating risk to the public is critical. Understanding the impact that different types of risk communication have played in real and perceived public health risks can provide information about how messages, policies and programs can and should be communicated in order to be most effective. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify the effectiveness of communication strategies and factors that impact communication uptake related to environmental health risks. A systematic review of English articles using multiple databases with appropriate search terms. Data sources also included grey literature. Key organization websites and key journals were hand searched for relevant articles. Consultation with experts took place to locate any additional references.Articles had to meet relevance criteria for study design [randomized controlled trials, clinical controlled trials, cohort analytic, cohort, any pre-post, interrupted time series, mixed methods or any qualitative studies), participants (those in community-living, non-clinical populations), interventions (including, but not limited to, any community-based methods or tools such as Internet, telephone, media-based interventions or any combination thereof), and outcomes (reported measurable outcomes such as awareness, knowledge or attitudinal or behavioural change). Articles were assessed for quality and data was extracted using standardized tools by two independent reviewers. Articles were given an overall assessment of strong, moderate or weak quality. There were no strong or moderate studies. Meta-analysis was not appropriate to the data. Data for 24 articles were analyzed and reported in a narrative format. The findings suggest that a multi-media approach is more effective than any single media approach. Similarly, printed material that offers a combination of information types (i.e., text and diagrams) is a more effective than just a single type, such

  6. Communication about environmental health risks: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciliska Donna

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using the most effective methods and techniques for communicating risk to the public is critical. Understanding the impact that different types of risk communication have played in real and perceived public health risks can provide information about how messages, policies and programs can and should be communicated in order to be most effective. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify the effectiveness of communication strategies and factors that impact communication uptake related to environmental health risks. Methods A systematic review of English articles using multiple databases with appropriate search terms. Data sources also included grey literature. Key organization websites and key journals were hand searched for relevant articles. Consultation with experts took place to locate any additional references. Articles had to meet relevance criteria for study design [randomized controlled trials, clinical controlled trials, cohort analytic, cohort, any pre-post, interrupted time series, mixed methods or any qualitative studies, participants (those in community-living, non-clinical populations, interventions (including, but not limited to, any community-based methods or tools such as Internet, telephone, media-based interventions or any combination thereof, and outcomes (reported measurable outcomes such as awareness, knowledge or attitudinal or behavioural change. Articles were assessed for quality and data was extracted using standardized tools by two independent reviewers. Articles were given an overall assessment of strong, moderate or weak quality. Results There were no strong or moderate studies. Meta-analysis was not appropriate to the data. Data for 24 articles were analyzed and reported in a narrative format. The findings suggest that a multi-media approach is more effective than any single media approach. Similarly, printed material that offers a combination of information types (i.e., text and

  7. Risk communication for existing exposure situation after the nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    The title subject is explained for its better understanding and recognition. The present state (Oct. 2011) where crisis of Fukushima Nuclear Accident has reached a settlement with release of 0.1 GBq/hr from the reactor container, is called the existing exposure situation. Radiation risk must be reduced under such a situation as people have to live in. Risk is defined to be a probability of matters undesirable, its size is assessed by various conditions and assumptions, it is manageable on its assessment, but its realization largely depends on subjectivity. Measures for lessening the risk usually accompany a load and disadvantage, leading to an antinomy structure (trade-off), of which problem is ultimately an ethical task of public health and cannot be solved in the form everybody agrees with. Therefore, a mutual consent among concerned people is required for deciding the principle of the risk management, for which the risk communication is essential. Risk communication about radiation is an unavoidable task of medical staffs as guided by International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) (2001), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (2008) reports, World Health Organization (WHO), etc. However, the communication about radiation has now become also a task of the ordinary public under the present situation. For this, medical staffs are expected to play their role by acquiring the statistical literacy as well as with the radiological concept because the risk assessment accompanies the uncertainty. The author concludes that the risk communication is a problem of resolution to act, not of coping with. (T.T.)

  8. Guidelines for communicating about the risks of nuclear energy effectively, responsibly, and ethically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covello, V.T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses guidelines for communicating information about the risks of nuclear energy effectively, responsibility, and ethically. It consists of four parts: guidelines for communicating risk information; guidelines for presenting and explaining risk-related numbers and statistics; guidelines for presenting and explaining risk comparisons; and problems frequently encountered in communicating risk information

  9. Food for thought - Communicating food-related risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sturloni Giancarlo

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, a continuous series of food alerts have caught the attention of the media and the public in Europe. First, eggs and pork contaminated with dioxins; then, “mad cow” disease, while, all along in the background, a battle against genetically modified plants has been in progress. These food alerts have had complex repercussions on the perception of risks associated with food production. Experts have often been divided over these issues, and the uncertainty of scientific data has been indicated on more than one occasion as one of the factors that influence risk perception. However, the most important factor seems to be undoubtedly the way in which the risk has been communicated (or not communicated to the public. Therefore, risk communication analysis offers an excellent opportunity to understand the profound changes that are taking place in relations among the scientific community, mass media and other members of civil society now that they are fully aware that scientific and technological innovation, the real driving force of modern industrial society, is a source of development but also a source of risks which are not always acceptable. Within this different context, a debate open to all interested parties appears to have become a dire necessity for the “risk society”, especially as far as food is concerned because food has extremely important psychological, ethical and cultural values.

  10. Challenges to communicate risks of human-caused earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, C. D.

    2014-12-01

    The awareness of natural hazards has been up-trending in recent years. In particular, this is true for earthquakes, which increase in frequency and magnitude in regions that normally do not experience seismic activity. In fact, one of the major concerns for many communities and businesses is that humans today seem to cause earthquakes due to large-scale shale gas production, dewatering and flooding of mines and deep geothermal power production. Accordingly, without opposing any of these technologies it should be a priority of earth scientists who are researching natural hazards to communicate earthquake risks. This presentation discusses the challenges that earth scientists are facing to properly communicate earthquake risks, in light of the fact that human-caused earthquakes are an environmental change affecting only some communities and businesses. Communication channels may range from research papers, books and class room lectures to outreach events and programs, popular media events or even social media networks.

  11. Planning risk communication for UMTRA project groundwater restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hundertmark, Charles [Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. and University of Phoenix (United States); Hoopes, Jack [Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. (United States); Flowers, Len [Roy F. Weston Company (United States); Jackson, David G [U.S. Department of Energy (United States)

    1992-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is entering a new phase in which groundwater contamination will become a growing focus as surface remedial action draws toward completion. Planning for risk communication associated with the groundwater project will be a major factor in the successful initiation of the program. (author)

  12. Improving Sexual Risk Communication with Adolescents Using Event History Calendars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, Kristy K.; Darling-Fisher, Cynthia; Pardee, Michelle; Ronis, David L.; Felicetti, Irene L.; Saftner, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the effects of an event history calendar (EHC) approach on adolescent sexual risk communication and sexual activity. Adolescent school-linked health clinic patients (n = 30) who reported sexual activity self-administered the EHC that was used by nurse practitioners (NPs; n = 2) during a clinic visit. Immediately…

  13. Planning risk communication for UMTRA project groundwater restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundertmark, Charles; Hoopes, Jack; Flowers, Len; Jackson, David G.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is entering a new phase in which groundwater contamination will become a growing focus as surface remedial action draws toward completion. Planning for risk communication associated with the groundwater project will be a major factor in the successful initiation of the program. (author)

  14. Beyond Words: Amplification of Cancer Risk Communication on Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalova, Yulia A; Krieger, Janice L

    2017-10-01

    Social media provide a unique channel for disseminating evidence-based information to diverse audiences and organizational and private stakeholders, thus facilitating a dialog about health and health risks. Guided by the social amplification of risk framework, the goal of this study was to assess the level of audience engagement with messages posted on the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Facebook page and evaluate the differences in the audience information behavior toward risk-related and non-risk posts. Data included 1,975 posts published on the NCI Facebook page as well as the corresponding 4,537 comments, 77,298 shares, and 145,462 likes. Links and images were the top two most frequent types of content for both risk-related and non-risk posts, but risk-related messages were more amplified through comments, shares, and likes. Comparing the modality of risk-related messages, videos, contrary to the prediction, were not more effective in attracting audience engagement than images. Finally, comments to risk-related posts did not repeat risk-related language suggesting that future studies should examine risk signal recognition and dissemination as separate behaviors. This study's findings emphasize the importance of focused investigation of message design strategies and message effects on the dissemination and amplification of communication related to health risks.

  15. Philanthropic Motivations of Community College Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Linnie S.; Duggan, Molly H.

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive study surveyed current, lapsed, and major gift donors to explore the impact of college communications on donors' decisions to contribute to the college, the likelihood of donor financial support for various college projects, and the philanthropic motivation profiles of the donors of a midsized, multicampus community college in…

  16. Radon risks: Attitudes, perceptions and actions. Risk communication series. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, L.

    1989-08-01

    As many as 8 million homes in the United States may have elevated radon levels, with accompanying lung cancer risks several orders of magnitude higher than for most other environmental risks. The U.S. Environmental Protection Program (EPA) does not have clear regulatory authority over radon, so has relied on an information program. Less than 5% of homes have been tested, which is disappointing from a public health stance. The report summarizes the available research on communicating about the risk from radon from the perspective of a psychologist. The research results are critiqued to draw practical conclusions for radon policy and suggest the most important topics for further risk communication research.

  17. COMMUNICATION SKILLS, A SOLUTION DIMINISHING RISKS IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisoara Duica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the latest approaches in the field, the integrated marketing communication requires a planned organizational approach, creating and maintaining in time good relations with the customers of its products or services, but also with its other stakeholders. According to the data provided by the National Statistics Institute (INS, the year 2014 is the first year in history when the Romanian exports exceeded the amount of EUR 50 billion. However, within the context of the economic crisis, numerous Romanian brands have disappeared from the market and Romania risks becoming a simple outlet market if the local companies do not improve their communication processes and skills, as sources of competitive advantage by which the Romanian products and services may differ in relation to those of the E.U. member countries. Within the context of business globalization and of the knowledge society, the present paper is trying to identify ways of developing the communication skills, which can be integrated in a formal risk management system, allowing the decrease of the risks triggered by the cultural differences specific of communication in international business.

  18. Risk communication. The key of the policy success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covalschi, Valentina

    2005-01-01

    Today, in a democratic society, nuclear power development is subject to public acceptance. The acceptance of the nuclear activities development implies both the approval by the government's proper authorities and also the standpoints of the civil society, expressed in forms more or less institutionalized. The public has an important role to play in addressing issues of health, safety and environment. Therefore, all activities of a nuclear organization need to be both transparent and should provide for the public's appropriate involvement, with input not only from the nuclear community, but also from members of the public, interested groups, media, as well as public representatives in local and national councils and groups. How to communicate clearly with the public is a very challenging job that requires special attention. Risk communication is the art or practice of talking about scientific information and principles to a non - expert audience. Its goal is to convey accurate and trustworthy information about safety to decision - makers, the public, or anyone else with an interest in the safety of the public or themselves. The science of communication, public education for a proper perception of risks are the key for attaining social acceptance of any technology that is about to become part of the sustainable development process and hence, of nuclear energy. The paper describes the way our nuclear organization is acting and the results in risk communication activity it achieves. (author)

  19. TU-F-16A-01: Communicating Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCollough, C; Kofler, J; Wagner, L; Brateman, L

    2014-01-01

    The radiobiological risks associated with medical imaging are generally considered to be small, if existent. However, the public view of the risk of medical radiation at diagnostic levels can be substantially different from the clinical reality. Radiation science is not taught to the general public, and so perception of radiation risks can be based on a variety sources, including some that may be misleading, incorrect, or sensationalized. Consequently, patients can have significant concerns about procedures they or their loved ones might have had or that might be needed in their medical care. It is the responsibility of the physicist to be able to communicate risk in a manner that is clear, understandable, and respectful. This session will present a number of real life scenarios of patient or family concern about radiation risks. The panel will, through demonstration or discussion, present various options for handling each situation. The audience will be involved in discussion and critique of the approaches presented. Learning Objectives: To gain insight to the patients perspective on radiation risk and how to respond professionally to their concerns. To learn basic principles for effectively communicating with patients about radiation risk. To gain tools and approaches for addressing a wide range of patient concerns

  20. monIT: A Portuguese Risk Communication Project on EMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Carla; Sebastiao, Daniel; Carpinteiro, Goncalo; Fernandes, Carlos A.; Correia, Luis M.

    2006-01-01

    The monIT project is a risk communication programme, aiming at providing information on exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) from mobile communication systems in Portugal. monIT's website, www.lxlit.pt/monit, is the main interface for dissemination of information. Besides including relevant information about EMF for both the general public and the technical community, this website provides results from extensive measurement campaigns performed all over Portugal during the last three years. This paper presents the project's structure and activities, practical results achieved and ends with some conclusions and action lines for future work. (author)

  1. Nuclear risk and communication: the essential role of safety authorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautin, N.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: whether concerning mad cow disease, asbestos, nuclear, OGM or now, dioxin in French meat, public health risks have been making the headlines of newspapers for a while. And, firms whose activity is associated with these risks are in effect in the defendants box. Therefore, communicating becomes difficult: their word is suspect and, debates quite rapidly exceed the firm competencies to become a socio-cultural conflict. This paper explores in nuclear fields the essential role of safety authorities in such communication cases. Our surveys and the comparative case study between the pipe at La Hague and 'contaminated' nuclear transports in France are eloquent: the messages of nuclear firms is perceived through their image of a State within the State built from the past and reinforced by the negative prism of the news. Regular and technical arguments (the respect of norms) entertain the debate rather than hush it. That is why we could infer an objective, and independent opinion is required, one different from the firm, the public and ministries: its role of referee could allow a constructive dialog between the public and the firm. Risk communication nature and efficiency depend on that (cf. the diagram). As a solution, we think about a legitimate authority organization identified by the public first, but by other actors as well. From the public point of view, if we see the place of pressure groups (e.g. Greenpeace) in the debate as a measure of the lack of trust in the independence of safety authorities, we can infer that it is a reaffirmation of democracy which is demanded by the French public, which could be satisfied with powerful safety authorities. That is why safety authorities have an essential role to play, beyond this of control, in nuclear risk communication towards the public. Diagram: communication path between a nuclear firm and the public during conflict. (author)

  2. Material Exchange in Photoreceptor Transplantation: Updating Our Understanding of Donor/Host Communication and the Future of Cell Engraftment Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Philip E B; Ortin-Martinez, Arturo; Wallace, Valerie A

    2018-01-01

    Considerable research effort has been invested into the transplantation of mammalian photoreceptors into healthy and degenerating mouse eyes. Several platforms of rod and cone fluorescent reporting have been central to refining the isolation, purification and transplantation of photoreceptors. The tracking of engrafted cells, including identifying the position, morphology and degree of donor cell integration post-transplant is highly dependent on the use of fluorescent protein reporters. Improvements in imaging and analysis of transplant recipients have revealed that donor cell fluorescent reporters can transfer into host tissue though a process termed material exchange (ME). This recent discovery has chaperoned a new era of interpretation when reviewing the field's use of dissociated donor cell preparations, and has prompted scientists to re-examine how we use and interpret the information derived from fluorescence-based tracking tools. In this review, we describe the status of our understanding of ME in photoreceptor transplantation. In addition, we discuss the impact of this discovery on several aspects of historical rod and cone transplantation data, and provide insight into future standards and approaches to advance the field of cell engraftment.

  3. Material Exchange in Photoreceptor Transplantation: Updating Our Understanding of Donor/Host Communication and the Future of Cell Engraftment Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip E. B. Nickerson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Considerable research effort has been invested into the transplantation of mammalian photoreceptors into healthy and degenerating mouse eyes. Several platforms of rod and cone fluorescent reporting have been central to refining the isolation, purification and transplantation of photoreceptors. The tracking of engrafted cells, including identifying the position, morphology and degree of donor cell integration post-transplant is highly dependent on the use of fluorescent protein reporters. Improvements in imaging and analysis of transplant recipients have revealed that donor cell fluorescent reporters can transfer into host tissue though a process termed material exchange (ME. This recent discovery has chaperoned a new era of interpretation when reviewing the field’s use of dissociated donor cell preparations, and has prompted scientists to re-examine how we use and interpret the information derived from fluorescence-based tracking tools. In this review, we describe the status of our understanding of ME in photoreceptor transplantation. In addition, we discuss the impact of this discovery on several aspects of historical rod and cone transplantation data, and provide insight into future standards and approaches to advance the field of cell engraftment.

  4. Decision making biases in the communication of earthquake risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, M. B.; Steacy, S.; Begg, S. H.; Navarro, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    L'Aquila, with 6 scientists convicted of manslaughter, shocked the scientific community, leading to urgent re-appraisal of communication methods for low-probability, high-impact events. Before the trial, a commission investigating the earthquake recommended risk assessment be formalised via operational earthquake forecasts and that social scientists be enlisted to assist in developing communication strategies. Psychological research has identified numerous decision biases relevant to this, including hindsight bias, where people (after the fact) overestimate an event's predictability. This affects experts as well as naïve participants as it relates to their ability to construct a plausible causal story rather than the likelihood of the event. Another problem is availability, which causes overestimation of the likelihood of observed rare events due to their greater noteworthiness. This, however, is complicated by the 'description-experience' gap, whereby people underestimate probabilities for events they have not experienced. That is, people who have experienced strong earthquakes judge them more likely while those who have not judge them less likely - relative to actual probabilities. Finally, format changes alter people's decisions. That is people treat '1 in 10,000' as different from 0.01% despite their mathematical equivalence. Such effects fall under the broad term framing, which describes how different framings of the same event alter decisions. In particular, people's attitude to risk depends significantly on how scenarios are described. We examine the effect of biases on the communication of change in risk. South Australian participants gave responses to scenarios describing familiar (bushfire) or unfamiliar (earthquake) risks. While bushfires are rare in specific locations, significant fire events occur each year and are extensively covered. By comparison, our study location (Adelaide) last had a M5 quake in 1954. Preliminary results suggest the description

  5. Incidence of and risk factors for bile duct stones after living donor liver transplantation: An analysis of 100 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senoo, Takemasa; Ichikawa, Tatsuki; Taura, Naota; Miyaaki, Hisamitsu; Miuma, Satoshi; Shibata, Hidetaka; Honda, Takuya; Takatsuki, Mitsuhisa; Hidaka, Masaaki; Soyama, Akihiko; Eguchi, Susumu; Nakao, Kazuhiko

    2015-09-01

    Although bile duct stone (BDS) is one of the biliary complications of liver transplantation, analytical studies, particularly on living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) cases, are rare. This study aimed to clarify the incidence of and risk factors for BDS following LDLT. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 100 patients who underwent LDLT at our institute from August 2000 to May 2012, and analyzed their clinical characteristics and risk factors for BDS. Of these, 10 patients (10.0%) developed BDS during the observation period. The median follow-up period to BDS diagnosis was 45.5 months (range, 5-84) after LDLT. Univariate analysis revealed male sex, right lobe graft and bile duct strictures as factors that significantly correlated with BDS formation. Multivariate analysis revealed bile duct strictures (odds ratio, 7.17; P = 0.011) and right lobe graft (odds ratio, 10.20; P = 0.040) to be independent risk factors for BDS formation. One patient with BDS and biliary strictures succumbed to sepsis from cholangitis. In the present study, right lobe graft and bile duct strictures are independent risk factors for BDS formation after LDLT. More careful observation and monitoring are required in the patients with high-risk factors. © 2014 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  6. Risk of tumor transmission after thoracic allograft transplantation from adult donors with central nervous system neoplasm-A UNOS database study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Conor F; Ramakrishnan, Karthik; Alfares, Fahad A; Endicott, Kendal M; Hammond-Jack, Katrina; Zurakowski, David; Jonas, Richard A; Nath, Dilip S

    2017-04-01

    We analyzed the UNOS database to better define the risk of transmission of central nervous system (CNS) tumors from donors to adult recipients of thoracic organs. Data were procured from the Standard Transplant Analysis and Research dataset files. Donors with CNS tumors were identified, and recipients from these donors comprised the study group (Group I). The remaining recipients of organs from donors who did not have CNS tumors formed the control group (Group II). Incidence of recipient CNS tumors, donor-related malignancies, and overall survival were calculated and compared in addition to multivariable logistic regression. A cohort of 58 314 adult thoracic organ recipients were included, of which 337 received organs from donors who had documented CNS tumors (Group I). None of these recipients developed CNS tumors at a median follow-up of 72 months (IR: 30-130 months). Although overall mortality in terms of the percentage was higher in Group I than Group II (163/320=51% vs 22 123/52 691=42%), Kaplan-Meier curves indicate no significant difference in the time to death between the two groups (P=.92). There is little risk of transmission of the common nonaggressive CNS tumors to recipients of thoracic organs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The perception of the risk and the system of communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touzet, Rodolfo

    2008-01-01

    The measures that are applied to regulate a certain practice, are based on the risk that implies the practice and in the acceptance of the above mentioned risk from the part affected by the practice. If the perception of the risk does not correspond to the reality the situation is unstable and it is possible to lose the control of the situation. When discrepancies exist in the Perception of the Risk on the part of different sectors of the society, they can produce serious conflicts that affect the establishment of the protection measures. The problem of the 'perception of the risk' rests on the fact that the technical people and the public use generally different reasoning and therefore its coincidence is almost fortuitous. The intuitive perception of the risk is often narrowly tied to a 'symbolic mechanism' and once established the symbolic relation can produce a psychological phenomenon by means of which the individuals resist to the reality, and the symbols make prevail over the facts in order not to alter the interior symbolic pre-established scheme. The perception of the risk appears in two different groups of persons: 1) The persons affected by the risk (the public); and 2) The persons who can modify this risk (operators). It is important that the perception of the risk is compatible with the scientific hypotheses to avoid conflicts in the situation 1 and to assure the control in the situation 2 (safety culture). The 'perception of the risk' is fundamental to support the control of a practice and it is possible to modify it across the communication. It is necessary to know which are all The Factors that affect the perception of the risk to be able to design a strategy of suitable communication. Across different studies it has been learned which are the factors that affect the perception of risk: 1) Some factors depend on the proper characteristics of the risk; 2) Others depend on the proper characteristics of the individuals and finally; 3) Other factors

  8. The role of stakeholder involvement in risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, O.

    2004-01-01

    Inviting stakeholders to be part of the decision making process in risk analysis and management improves the likelihood that the resulting decision will be accepted. Unfortunately, early public involvement may compromise, however, the objective of efficient and effective risk reduction or violate the principle of fairness. Another problem is that the public consists of many groups with different value structures and preferences. Without a systematic procedure to reach consensus on values and preferences, the public's position often appears as unclear. Participatory processes are thus needed that combine technical expertise, rational decision making, and public values and preferences. The recent report by the National Academy of Sciences encourages risk professionals to foster citizen participation and public involvement in risk management. The report emphasizes the need for a combination of assessment and dialogue which the authors have framed the 'analytic-deliberative' approach. The popularity associated with the concepts of two-way-communication, trust-building, and citizen participation, however, obscures the challenge of how to put these noble goals into practice and how to ensure that risk management reflects competence, efficiency, and fair burden sharing. This paper discusses the potential and requirements for stakeholder participation in the field of risk management and communication. (orig.)

  9. Dynamics of the public concern and risk communication program implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaryabova, Victoria; Israel, Michel

    2015-09-01

    The public concern about electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure varies due to different reasons. A part of them are connected with the better and higher quality of information that people receive from science, media, Internet, social networks, industry, but others are based on good communication programs performed by the responsible institutions, administration and persons. Especially, in Bulgaria, public concern follows interesting changes, some of them in correlation with the European processes of concern, but others following the economic and political processes in the country. Here, we analyze the dynamics of the public concern over the last 10 years. Our explanation of the decrease of the people's complaints against EMF exposure from base stations for mobile communication is as a result of our risk communication program that is in implementation for >10 years.

  10. What not to say: risk communication for botulism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glik, Deborah C; Drury, Allison; Cavanaugh, Clint; Shoaf, Kimberley

    2008-03-01

    This formative research study used qualitative methods to test the suitability of messages about botulism for the general public. Nine focus group interviews and 27 cognitive interviews were conducted with diverse audiences to pretest radio, television, and fact sheet messages predicated on a hypothetical terrorist attack using botulinum toxin. Narrative data were collected, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using content domains based on risk and health communication theories. While participants accepted the need for materials, the messages produced contained images and references describing botulism as a toxin-caused illness spread both by food and water contamination as well as by airborne means. The audience's lack of understanding of the term toxin and an imperfect understanding of airborne transmission of a toxic substance meant that some people interpreted botulism as being an infectious disease rather than a type of poisoning. The communication materials did not clearly show how the set of botulism symptoms are unique and described the anti-toxin as "not a cure," thus compounding the audience's misunderstanding. Using models from cognitive and developmental psychology, our findings were interpreted to show that certain terms evoke or elicit long-held conceptual frameworks that lay audiences use to explain medical phenomena. Relevant to botulism, poisoning events are distinct from infectious diseases, but prepared messages did not reinforce these distinctions. Ignoring how people organize preexisting health information when trying to communicate new information is a prescription for failure, especially in a crisis risk communication scenario. Findings from this study have been used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to reformulate pre-event crisis risk communication materials for botulism.

  11. Mitigation of the threat posed to transfusion by donors traveling to Zika-affected areas: a Canadian risk-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Marc; Delage, Gilles; O'Brien, Sheila F; Grégoire, Yves; Fearon, Margaret; Devine, Dana

    2017-10-01

    The recent spread of the Zika virus to the Americas and the recognition that it can cause severe disease in the developing fetus has prompted the adoption of measures to mitigate the risk that this virus might pose to transfusion safety. In nonendemic countries, the risk to transfusion results from donors traveling to an endemic region. Canada implemented a 21-day temporary deferral for prospective donors who traveled to such regions. We present the rationale for this policy, including a quantitative risk assessment supported by a Monte Carlo simulation. The model considered the following parameters, each with specified values and ranges: the probability that a donor recently returned from a Zika-endemic region, the duration of travel to this region, the daily risk of acquiring Zika while in an endemic region, and the incubation and viremic periods. We ran the simulation 20 times, each with 10 million iterations. In the absence of any travel deferral, 32 donors (range, 20-46 donors) would be able to donate while still being at risk of transmitting Zika, corresponding to a rate of 1:312,500 (range, 1:217,000 to 1:500,000). None of these donors would be viremic beyond 21 days after returning from their travel, with a risk estimated at less than 1:200,000,000. A 21-day temporary travel deferral offers an extremely wide margin of safety for the possible transmission of Zika by a donation obtained from someone who recently returned from a country where the virus is circulating. © 2017 AABB.

  12. Ten practical lessons for an effective radon risk communication program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A.; Johnson, F.R.

    1990-01-01

    Those responsible for state and local radon programs often express frustration about the small share of homes that have been tested for radon, and the small share of those with high readings that have been mitigated. Several recent studies have examined how well alternative ways of communicating about radon's risk have accomplished the goals of motivating appropriate testing and mitigation. Unfortunately, the results of these studies have not reached practitioners. This paper is for them. It summarizes the practical implications that are most crucial for planning and implementing an effective radon risk communication program--a program that will motivate people to test for radon and mitigate when radon levels are high, without unduly alarming those whose radon levels are low

  13. Risk management in methodologies of information technology and communications projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Carrillo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2013/10/02 - Accepted: 2013/12/13At present there are methodologies that have several alternatives and methods to manage projects of Information and Communication Technologies. However, these do not cover a solution for the technology events that can occur in the industry, government, education, among others. In the technology market there are several models to identify and analyze risks according to relevant aspects of their area of specialty e.g. projects, in software development, communications, information security and business alignment. For this reason, this research conducted an evaluation of risk management activities of the methodologies used mostly to know which of them includes more correspondence with basic elements of IT using a rating scale.

  14. Alcohol impairs predation risk response and communication in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Acosta Oliveira

    Full Text Available The effects of ethanol exposure on Danio rerio have been studied from the perspectives of developmental biology and behavior. However, little is known about the effects of ethanol on the prey-predator relationship and chemical communication of predation risk. Here, we showed that visual contact with a predator triggers stress axis activation in zebrafish. We also observed a typical stress response in zebrafish receiving water from these conspecifics, indicating that these fish chemically communicate predation risk. Our work is the first to demonstrate how alcohol effects this prey-predator interaction. We showed for the first time that alcohol exposure completely blocks stress axis activation in both fish seeing the predator and in fish that come in indirect contact with a predator by receiving water from these conspecifics. Together with other research results and with the translational relevance of this fish species, our data points to zebrafish as a promising animal model to study human alcoholism.

  15. Social media in food risk and benefit communication

    OpenAIRE

    Rutsaert, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    The overall objective of this doctoral thesis was to contribute to a better understanding of the role social media can fulfil for the communication of food-related risks and benefits. Social media is the collective name for a number of online applications, including social networks, video- and picture-sharing websites, blogs, and microblogs, that allow users to generate and share information online. As a consequence users now control how information is found and used instead of the producers....

  16. Biological Risks to Public Health: Lessons from an International Conference to Inform the Development of National Risk Communication Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickmann, Petra; Bhatiasevi, Aphaluck; Chaib, Fadela; Baggio, Ombretta; Banluta, Christina; Hollenweger, Lilian; Maaroufi, Abderrahmane

    Biological risk management in public health focuses on the impact of outbreaks on health, the economy, and other systems and on ensuring biosafety and biosecurity. To address this broad range of risks, the International Health Regulations (IHR, 2005) request that all member states build defined core capacities, risk communication being one of them. While there is existing guidance on the communication process and on what health authorities need to consider to design risk communication strategies that meet the requirements on a governance level, little has been done on implementation because of a number of factors, including lack of resources (human, financial, and others) and systems to support effective and consistent capacity for risk communication. The international conference on "Risk communication strategies before, during and after public health emergencies" provided a platform to present current strategies, facilitate learning from recent outbreaks of infectious diseases, and discuss recommendations to inform risk communication strategy development. The discussion concluded with 4 key areas for improvement in risk communication: consider communication as a multidimensional process in risk communication, broaden the biomedical paradigm by integrating social science intelligence into epidemiologic risk assessments, strengthen multisectoral collaboration including with local organizations, and spearhead changes in organizations for better risk communication governance. National strategies should design risk communication to be proactive, participatory, and multisectoral, facilitating the connection between sectors and strengthening collaboration.

  17. Progress in violence risk assessment and communication: hypothesis versus evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Grant T; Rice, Marnie E

    2015-02-01

    We draw a distinction between hypothesis and evidence with respect to the assessment and communication of the risk of violent recidivism. We suggest that some authorities in the field have proposed quite valid and reasonable hypotheses with respect to several issues. Among these are the following: that accuracy will be improved by the adjustment or moderation of numerical scores based on clinical opinions about rare risk factors or other considerations pertaining to the applicability to the case at hand; that there is something fundamentally distinct about protective factors so that they are not merely the obverse of risk factors, such that optimal accuracy cannot be achieved without consideration of such protective factors; and that assessment of dynamic factors is required for optimal accuracy and furthermore interventions aimed at such dynamic factors can be expected to cause reductions in violence risk. We suggest here that, while these are generally reasonable hypotheses, they have been inappropriately presented to practitioners as empirically supported facts, and that practitioners' assessment and communication about violence risk run beyond that supported by the available evidence as a result. We further suggest that this represents harm, especially in impeding scientific progress. Nothing here justifies stasis or simply surrendering to authoritarian custody with somatic treatment. Theoretically motivated and clearly articulated assessment and intervention should be provided for offenders, but in a manner that moves the field more firmly from hypotheses to evidence. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The influence of narrative risk communication on feelings of cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Eva; van Osch, Liesbeth; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian

    2013-05-01

    Evidence is accumulating for the importance of feelings of risk in explaining cancer preventive behaviours, but best practices for influencing these feelings are limited. The aim of this experimental study was to compare the effects of narrative and non-narrative risk communication about sunbed use on ease of imagination and feelings of cancer risk. A total of 233 female sunbed users in the general Dutch population were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: a narrative message (i.e., personal testimonial), a non-narrative cognitive message (i.e., factual risk information using cognitive-laden words), or a non-narrative affective message (i.e., factual risk information using affective-laden words). Ease of imagination and feelings of risk were assessed directly after the risk information was given (T1). Three weeks after the baseline session, feelings of risk were measured again (T2). The results revealed that sunbed users who were exposed to narrative risk information could better imagine themselves developing skin cancer and reported higher feelings of skin cancer risk at T1. Moreover, ease of imagination mediated the effects of message type on feelings of risk at T1 and T2. The findings provide support for the effects of narrative risk communication in influencing feelings of cancer risk through ease of imagination. Cancer prevention programmes may therefore benefit from including narrative risk information. Future research is important to investigate other mechanisms of narrative information and their most effective content and format. What is already known on this subject? Evidence is growing for the importance of feelings of risk in explaining cancer preventive behaviours. Narratives have increasingly been considered as an effective format for persuasive risk messages and studies have shown narrative risk communication to be effective in influencing cognitive risk beliefs. What does this study add? Increasing understanding of how feelings of cancer

  19. Disparate rates of acute rejection and donor-specific antibodies among high-immunologic risk renal transplant subgroups receiving antithymocyte globulin induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Samir J; Suki, Wadi N; Loucks-DeVos, Jennifer; Graviss, Edward A; Nguyen, Duc T; Knight, Richard J; Kuten, Samantha A; Moore, Linda W; Teeter, Larry D; Gaber, Lillian W; Gaber, A Osama

    2016-08-01

    Lymphocyte-depleting induction lowers acute rejection (AR) rates among high-immunologic risk (HIR) renal transplant recipients, including African Americans (AAs), retransplants, and the sensitized. It is unclear whether different HIR subgroups experience similarly low rates of AR. We aimed to describe the incidence of AR and de novo donor-specific antibody (dnDSA) among HIR recipients categorized by age, race, or donor type. All received antithymocyte globulin (ATG) induction and triple maintenance immunosuppression. A total of 464 HIR recipients from 2007 to 2014 were reviewed. AR and dnDSA rates at 1 year for the entire population were 14% and 27%, respectively. AR ranged from 6.7% among living donor (LD) recipients to 30% in younger AA deceased donor (DD) recipients. De novo donor-specific antibody at 1 year ranged from 7% in older non-AA LD recipients to 32% in AAs. AA race remained as an independent risk factor for AR among DD recipients and for dnDSA among all HIR recipients. Development of both AR and dnDSA within the first year was associated with a 54% graft survival at 5 years and was an independent risk factor for graft loss. Despite utilization of recommended immunosuppression for HIR recipients, substantial disparities exist among subgroups, warranting further consideration of individualized immunosuppression in certain HIR subgroups. © 2016 Steunstichting ESOT.

  20. A risk communication case study: the Nevada risk assessment/management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hechanova, A.E.

    2001-01-01

    The Nevada Risk Assessment/Management Program is part of a national effort by the U.S. Department of Energy (Grant DE-FG01-96EW56093) to develop new sources of information and approaches to risk assessment, risk management, risk communication and public outreach as these objectives relate to the ecological and human health effects of radioactive and hazardous material management and site remediation activities. This paper reviews the innovation behind the Nevada Risk Assessment/Management Program and presents a synopsis of the effort that began in 1995 and will officially conclude on April 30, 2000. (author)

  1. Risk communication: Translating technically complex information to facilitate informed decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprecher, W.M.; Turner, E.

    1991-01-01

    Based on a review of risk communication and related literature, including policy material, this paper describes the newly revamped risk management program of the DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), and some of the risk-related issues being confronted as the high-level waste management program moves forward. It also describes preliminary activities underway in which the OCRWM is developing strategies for risk communication. The authors offer a definition of risk management as comprised by the components of risk assessment and risk communication. The paper explores the discrepant views that experts and nonexperts have with respect to what constitutes a valid risk assessment model. By illustrating differences in the assessment of risk by experts and lay people, the paper demonstrates how these differences can create challenges in communicating risk and making decisions about risk. Finally, the paper discusses ways in which risk communication could be enhance, and elaborates on the OCRWM's commitment to improve its overall risk management efforts

  2. An empirical analysis of communication flow, strategy and stakeholders' participation in the risk communication literature 1988-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gurabardhi, Z.; Gutteling, Jan M.; Kuttschreuter, M.

    2005-01-01

    Risk communication during the years has shown its vitality and has proved its importance as a field of research. This article provides a brief record of the development of risk communication in the environmental and technological domain by examining some of the trends resulting from the analysis of

  3. Communicating Radiation Risk to the Population of Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamura, N.; Taira, Y.; Yoshida, K.; Nakashima-Hashiguchi, K.; Orita, M.; Yamashita, S.

    2016-01-01

    Radiological specialists from Nagasaki University have served on the medical relief team organized at Fukushima Medical University Hospital (Fukushima City) ever since the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. Furthermore, we have conducted the radiation crisis communication efforts by spreading correct information on the health effects of radiation as 'advisors on radiation health risk control'. Nagasaki University has been assisting the reconstruction efforts of Kawauchi Village in Fukushima Prefecture, which was the first village to declare that residents could safely return to their homes because radiation doses were found to be at comparatively low levels. In April 2013, Nagasaki University and the Kawauchi government office concluded an agreement concerning comprehensive cooperation toward reconstruction of the village. As a result, we established a satellite facility of the university in the village. In conclusion, training of specialists who can take responsibility for long-term risk communication regarding the health effects of radiation as well as crisis communication in the initial phase of the accident is an essential component of all such recovery efforts. Establishment of a training system for such specialists will be very important both for Japan and other countries worldwide. (authors)

  4. One exhibition, many goals. Combining scientific research and risk communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrière, Marie; Bogaard, Thom; Junier, Sandra; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Mostert, Erik

    2015-04-01

    How effective is visual communication to increase awareness of natural hazards and risks? To answer this research question, we developed a research design that was at the same time an experimental setting and an actual communication effort. Throughout the full length of the 2-years project held in the Ubaye valley (southeastern France), we collaborated with local and regional stakeholders (politicians and technicians). During a consultation phase, the communication context was determined, the audience of the project was defined and finally the testing activity-communication effort was determined. We were offered the opportunity to design an exhibition for the local public library. In a consultation phase that corresponded to the design of the exhibition, the stakeholders contributed to its content as well as helping with the funding of the exhibition. Finally, during the experimentation phase, the stakeholders participated in advertising the activity, gathering of participants and designing the scientific survey. In order to assess the effects of the exhibition on risk awareness, several groups of children, teenagers and adults were submitted to a research design, consisting of 1) a pre-test, 2) the visit of the exhibition and 3) a post-test similar to the pre-test. In addition, the children answered a second post-test 3 months after the visit. Close ended questions addressed the awareness indicators mentioned in the literature, i.e. worry level, previous experiences with natural hazards events, exposure to awareness raising, ability to mitigate/respond/prepare, attitude to risk, and demographics. In addition, the post-test included several satisfaction questions concerning the visual tools displayed in the exhibition. A statistical analysis of the changes between the pre- and post- tests (paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test and bootstrapping) allowed to verify whether the exhibition had an impact on risk awareness or not. In order to deduce which variable

  5. The elaboration likelihood model and communication about food risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewer, L J; Howard, C; Hedderley, D; Shepherd, R

    1997-12-01

    Factors such as hazard type and source credibility have been identified as important in the establishment of effective strategies for risk communication. The elaboration likelihood model was adapted to investigate the potential impact of hazard type, information source, and persuasive content of information on individual engagement in elaborative, or thoughtful, cognitions about risk messages. One hundred sixty respondents were allocated to one of eight experimental groups, and the effects of source credibility, persuasive content of information and hazard type were systematically varied. The impact of the different factors on beliefs about the information and elaborative processing examined. Low credibility was particularly important in reducing risk perceptions, although persuasive content and hazard type were also influential in determining whether elaborative processing occurred.

  6. Understanding and acknowledging the ice throw hazard - consequences for regulatory frameworks, risk perception and risk communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredesen, R. E.; Drapalik, M.; Butt, B.

    2017-11-01

    This study attempts to provide the necessary framework required to make sufficiently informed decisions regarding the safety implications of ice throw. The framework elaborates on how to cope with uncertainties, and how to describe results in a meaningful and useful manner to decision makers. Moreover, it points out the moral, judicial and economical obligations of wind turbine owners such that they are able to minimize risk of ice throws as much as possible. Building on the strength of knowledge as well as accounting for uncertainty are also essential in enabling clear communication with stakeholders on the most important/critical/vital issues. With increasing empirical evidence, one can assign a higher confidence level on the expert opinions on safety. Findings regarding key uncertainties of ice risk assessments are presented here to support the ongoing IEA Wind Task 19's work on creating the international guidelines on ice risk assessment due in 2018 (Krenn et al. 2017)[1-6]. In addition the study also incorporates the findings of a Norwegian information project, which focuses on the ice throw hazard for the public (Bredesen, Flage, Butt, Winterwind 2018)[7-9]. This includes measures to reduce damage and hazard from wind turbines for the general public. Recent theory of risk assessment questions the use of risk criteria for achieving optimum risk reduction and favours the use of the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle. Given the several practical problems associated with the ALARA approach (e.g. judicial realization), a joint approach, which uses a minimum set of criteria as well as the obligation to meet ALARA is suggested (associated with acceptable cost). The actual decision about acceptance criteria or obligations is a societal one, thus suggestions can be made at best. Risk acceptance, risk perception and risk communication are inextricably linked and should thus never be considered separately. Risk communication can shape risk perception

  7. Passing crisis and emergency risk communications: the effects of communication channel, information type, and repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edworthy, Judy; Hellier, Elizabeth; Newbold, Lex; Titchener, Kirsteen

    2015-05-01

    Three experiments explore several factors which influence information transmission when warning messages are passed from person to person. In Experiment 1, messages were passed down chains of participants using five different modes of communication. Written communication channels resulted in more accurate message transmission than verbal. In addition, some elements of the message endured further down the chain than others. Experiment 2 largely replicated these effects and also demonstrated that simple repetition of a message eliminated differences between written and spoken communication. In a final field experiment, chains of participants passed information however they wanted to, with the proviso that half of the chains could not use telephones. Here, the lack of ability to use a telephone did not affect accuracy, but did slow down the speed of transmission from the recipient of the message to the last person in the chain. Implications of the findings for crisis and emergency risk communication are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  8. The Risk of Transplant Failure With HLA Mismatch in First Adult Kidney Allografts 2: Living Donors, Summary, Guide

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Robert C.; Opelz, Gerhard; Weil, E. Jennifer; McGarvey, Chelsea J.; Chakkera, Harini A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Allografts from living donors survive longer than those from deceased donors but the role of HLA mismatching in living kidney donation is still in question. We examined the effect of HLA compatibility on kidney allograft survival from living donors by studying all first adult kidney transplants performed in the United States over 25 years. Methods Using the United Network for Organ Sharing data, we identified first kidney transplants between October 1, 1987, and December 31, 2013. ...

  9. Informed consent and decision-making about adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation: a systematic review of empirical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Elisa J; Daud, Amna; Caicedo, Juan Carlos; Cameron, Kenzie A; Jay, Colleen; Fryer, Jonathan; Beauvais, Nicole; Skaro, Anton; Baker, Talia

    2011-12-27

    Adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is a complex procedure that poses serious health risks to and provides no direct health benefit for the donor. Because of this uneven risk-benefit ratio, ensuring donor autonomy through informed consent is critical. To assess the current knowledge pertaining to informed consent for LDLT, we conducted a systematic review of the empirical literature on donors' decision-making process, comprehension about risks and outcomes, and information needs for LDLT. Of the 1423 identified articles, 24 met final review criteria, representing the perspective of approximately 2789 potential and actual donors. As donors' decisions to donate often occur before evaluation, they often make uninformed decisions. The review found that 88% to 95% of donors reported understanding information clinicians disclosed about risks and benefits. However, donors reported unmet information needs, knowledge gaps regarding risks, and unanticipated complications. Few donors reported feeling pressure to donate. Most studies were limited by cultural differences, small sample sizes, inconsistent measures, and poor methodological approaches. This systematic review suggests that informed consent for LDLT is sub-optimal as donors do not adequately appreciate disclosed information during the informed consent process, despite United Network for Organ Sharing/CMS regulations requiring formal psychological evaluation of donor candidates. Interventions are needed to improve donor-clinician communication during the LDLT informed consent process such as through the use of comprehension assessment tools and e-health educational tools that leverage adult learning theory to effectively convey LDLT outcome data.

  10. Social Amplification of Risk and Crisis Communication Planing - Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciugelu, I.; Frunzaru, V.; Armas, I.; Duntzer, A.; Stan, S.

    2012-04-01

    Risk management has become a dominant concern of public policy and the ability of government to anticipate the strength and focus of public concerns remains weak. The Social Amplification of Risk Framework (SARF) was designed to assist in this endeavor. It aims to facilitate a greater understanding of the social processes that can mediate between a hazard event and its consequences. SARF identifies categories of mediator/moderator that intervene between risk event and its consequences and suggests a causal and temporal sequence in which they act. Information flows first through various sources and then channels, triggering social stations of amplification, initiating individual station of amplification and precipitating behavioral reactions. The International Risk Governance Council Framework is an interdisciplinary and multilevel approach, linking risk management and risk assessment sphere through communication. This study aims to identify categories of mediator/moderator that intervene between the risk event and its consequences, using a survey on earthquake risk perception addressing population of Bucharest city. Romania has a unique seismic profile in Europe, being the country with the biggest surface affected in case of a serious earthquake. Considering the development of the urban area that took place in the last two decades and the growing number of inhabitants, Bucharest is the largest city in Romania and is exposed to extensive damages in case of an earthquake. The sociological survey has been conducted in December 2009 on a representative sample of the Bucharest population aged 18 and over (N=1376) using one stage sampling design. We used a stratified sample method shearing the investigated populations in six layers according to the six sectors of Bucharest. The respondents were selected using random digit dialling method (RDD) and the questionnaires were administered by research staff with computer assisted telephone interviewing method (CATI). The

  11. Radioactive Waste Transport: Managing Risk Perception and Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, Ch.

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of a national transportation system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste that merits public trust and confidence will require the delivery of consistent, accurate and timely transportation messages; stakeholder and public understanding of the need for, and safety of, shipments; and effective two-way communication to address stakeholder concerns in its decision-making processes. Building the trust and consent of stakeholders and the public is complex and challenging. In order to accomplish this goal, it is imperative to understand how and why members of society develop various perceptions of risks and assessments of benefits with regard to the nuclear energy cycle. Understanding the basis and reasons for the public's beliefs concerning the nuclear energy cycle will allow OCRWM to more effectively address concerns regarding the national transportation program. This paper will examine how a person's gender, sources of information, world-view, culture, emotion, cognition, and other factors affect their beliefs and perceptions of risk. It will also explore the reasons why nuclear energy and nuclear waste are viewed with such a distinctly different attitude than other hazardous materials that pose a comparable or greater hazard. Drawing on research from prominent experts in risk perception and communication methods, this study will conduct a unique investigation into the perspectives of a diverse set of key stakeholders and experts involved in the transportation process. This paper will present several hypotheses on why there are unique challenges involved in communicating about transportation of spent nuclear fuel and other nuclear fuel cycle activities, and also present recommendations for remediating such challenges. (authors)

  12. Clinical Risk Scoring Models for Prediction of Acute Kidney Injury after Living Donor Liver Transplantation: A Retrospective Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Hye Park

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a frequent complication of liver transplantation and is associated with increased mortality. We identified the incidence and modifiable risk factors for AKI after living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT and constructed risk scoring models for AKI prediction. We retrospectively reviewed 538 cases of LDLT. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate risk factors for the prediction of AKI as defined by the RIFLE criteria (RIFLE = risk, injury, failure, loss, end stage. Three risk scoring models were developed in the retrospective cohort by including all variables that were significant in univariate analysis, or variables that were significant in multivariate analysis by backward or forward stepwise variable selection. The risk models were validated by way of cross-validation. The incidence of AKI was 27.3% (147/538 and 6.3% (34/538 required postoperative renal replacement therapy. Independent risk factors for AKI by multivariate analysis of forward stepwise variable selection included: body-mass index >27.5 kg/m2 [odds ratio (OR 2.46, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.32-4.55], serum albumin 20 (OR 2.01, 95%CI 1.17-3.44, operation time >600 min (OR 1.81, 95%CI 1.07-3.06, warm ischemic time >40 min (OR 2.61, 95%CI 1.55-4.38, postreperfusion syndrome (OR 2.96, 95%CI 1.55-4.38, mean blood glucose during the day of surgery >150 mg/dl (OR 1.66, 95%CI 1.01-2.70, cryoprecipitate > 6 units (OR 4.96, 95%CI 2.84-8.64, blood loss/body weight >60 ml/kg (OR 4.05, 95%CI 2.28-7.21, and calcineurin inhibitor use without combined mycophenolate mofetil (OR 1.87, 95%CI 1.14-3.06. Our risk models performed better than did a previously reported score by Utsumi et al. in our study cohort. Doses of calcineurin inhibitor should be reduced by combined use of mycophenolate mofetil to decrease postoperative AKI. Prospective randomized trials are required to address whether artificial modification of hypoalbuminemia, hyperglycemia

  13. Reputation, relationships, risk communication, and the role of trust in the prevention and control of communicable disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Georgina; de Andrade, Marisa; MacDonald, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Population-level compliance with health protective behavioral advice to prevent and control communicable disease is essential to optimal effectiveness. Multiple factors affect perceptions of trustworthiness, and trust in advice providers is a significant predeterminant of compliance. While competency in assessment and management of communicable disease risks is critical, communications competency may be equally important. Organizational reputation, quality of stakeholder relationships and risk information provision strategies are trust moderating factors, whose impact is strongly influenced by the content, timing and coordination of communications. This article synthesizes the findings of 2 literature reviews on trust moderating communications and communicable disease prevention and control. We find a substantial evidence base on risk communication, but limited research on other trust building communications. We note that awareness of good practice historically has been limited although interest and the availability of supporting resources is growing. Good practice and policy elements are identified: recognition that crisis and risk communications require different strategies; preemptive dialogue and planning; evidence-based approaches to media relations and messaging; and building credibility for information sources. Priority areas for future research include process and cost-effectiveness evaluation and the development of frameworks that integrate communication and biomedical disease control and prevention functions, conceptually and at scale.

  14. Marginal kidney donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Gopalakrishnan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for a medically eligible patient with end stage renal disease. The number of renal transplants has increased rapidly over the last two decades. However, the demand for organs has increased even more. This disparity between the availability of organs and waitlisted patients for transplants has forced many transplant centers across the world to use marginal kidneys and donors. We performed a Medline search to establish the current status of marginal kidney donors in the world. Transplant programs using marginal deceased renal grafts is well established. The focus is now on efforts to improve their results. Utilization of non-heart-beating donors is still in a plateau phase and comprises a minor percentage of deceased donations. The main concern is primary non-function of the renal graft apart from legal and ethical issues. Transplants with living donors outnumbered cadaveric transplants at many centers in the last decade. There has been an increased use of marginal living kidney donors with some acceptable medical risks. Our primary concern is the safety of the living donor. There is not enough scientific data available to quantify the risks involved for such donation. The definition of marginal living donor is still not clear and there are no uniform recommendations. The decision must be tailored to each donor who in turn should be actively involved at all levels of the decision-making process. In the current circumstances, our responsibility is very crucial in making decisions for either accepting or rejecting a marginal living donor.

  15. CMV Serostatus of Donor-Recipient Pairs Influences the Risk of CMV Infection/Reactivation in HSCT Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Jaskula

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available CMV donor/recipient serostatus was analyzed in 200 patients allografted in our institution from unrelated (122 patients donors and 78 sibling donors in the years 2002–2011 in relation to posttransplant complications. On a group basis independently of the CMV serostatus of donor-recipient pairs sibling transplantations and those from unrelated donors that matched 10/10 at allele level had a similar rate of CMV reactivation (17/78 versus 19/71, P=ns. The rate of CMV reactivation/infection was higher in patients grafted from donors accepted at the lower level of matching than 10/10 (18/38 versus 36/149, P=0.008. The incidence of aGvHD followed frequencies of CMV reactivation in the tested groups, being 40/156 and 25/44 in patients grafted from sibling or unrelated donors that 10/10 matched and in those grafted from donors taht HLA mismatched, respectively (P=0.001. Regarding the rate of reactivation in both groups seropositive patients receiving a transplant from seronegative donors had more frequently CMV reactivation as compared to those with another donor-recipient matching CMV serostatus constellation (22/43 versus 32/143, P=0<0.001. Multivariate analysis revealed that seropositivity of recipients with concomitant seronegativity of donors plays an independent role in the CMV reactivation/infection (OR=2.669, P=0.037; OR=5.322, P=0.078; OR=23.034, P=0.023 for optimally matched and mismatched patients and the whole group of patients, resp..

  16. Communicating and Visualizing Erosion-associated Risks to Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Caspar; Simpson, Carolyn; Wainwright, John

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion is a major problem worldwide, affecting agriculture, the natural environment and urban areas through its impact on flood risk, water quality, loss of nutrient-rich upper soil layers, eutrophication of water bodies, sedimentation of waterways and sediment-related damage to roads, buildings and infrastructure such as water, gas and electricity supply networks. This study focuses on risks to infrastructure associated with erosion and the interventions needed to reduce those risks. Deciding on what interventions to make means understanding better which parts of the landscape are most susceptible to erosion and which measures are most effective in reducing it. Effective ways of communicating mitigation strategies to stakeholders such as farmers, land managers and policy-makers are then essential if interventions are to be implemented. Drawing on the Decision-Support Matrix (DSM) approach which combines a set of hydrological principles with Participatory Action Research (PAR), a decision-support tool for Communicating and Visualizing Erosion-Associated Risks to Infrastructure (CAVERTI) was developed. The participatory component was developed with the Wear Rivers Trust, focusing on a case-study area in the North East of England. The CAVERTI tool brings together process understanding gained from modelling with knowledge and experience of a variety of stakeholders to address directly the problem of sediment transport. Development of the tool was a collaborative venture, ensuring that the problems and solutions presented are easily recognised by practitioners and decision-makers. This recognition, and ease of access via a web-based interface, in turn help to ensure that the tools get used. The web-based tool developed helps to assess, manage and improve understanding of risk from a multi-stakeholder perspective and proposes solutions to problems. We argue that visualization and communication tools co-developed by researchers and stakeholders are the best means

  17. Social media as a risk communication tool following Typhoon Haiyan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Tiffany Cool

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem: In the aftermath of Typhoon Haiyan, the World Health Organization (WHO Representative Office in the Philippines had no social media presence to share timely, relevant public health information. Context: Risk communication is essential to emergency management for public health message dissemination. As social media sites, such as Facebook, are popular in the Philippines, these were adopted for risk communication during the response to Haiyan. Action and outcome: The WHO Representative Office in the Philippines established Facebook, Twitter and Instagram accounts. Thirty days after these social medial channels were established, a gradual increase in followers was observed. Facebook saw the largest increase in followers which occurred as posted content gradually evolved from general public health information to more pro-active public health intervention and preparedness messaging. This included information on key health interventions encouraging followers to adopt protective behaviours to mitigate public health threats that frequently occur after a disaster. Lessons learnt: During the response to Haiyan, creating a social media presence, raising a follower base and developing meaningful messages and content was possible. This event underscored the importance of building a social media strategy in non-emergency times and supported the value of developing public health messages and content that both educates and interests the general public.

  18. Social media as a risk communication tool following Typhoon Haiyan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cool, Christine Tiffany; Claravall, Marie Chantal; Hall, Julie Lyn; Taketani, Keisuke; Zepeda, John Paul; Gehner, Monika; Lawe-Davies, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    In the aftermath of Typhoon Haiyan, the World Health Organization (WHO) Representative Office in the Philippines had no social media presence to share timely, relevant public health information. Risk communication is essential to emergency management for public health message dissemination. As social media sites, such as Facebook, are popular in the Philippines, these were adopted for risk communication during the response to Haiyan. The WHO Representative Office in the Philippines established Facebook, Twitter and Instagram accounts. Thirty days after these social medial channels were established, a gradual increase in followers was observed. Facebook saw the largest increase in followers which occurred as posted content gradually evolved from general public health information to more pro-active public health intervention and preparedness messaging. This included information on key health interventions encouraging followers to adopt protective behaviours to mitigate public health threats that frequently occur after a disaster. During the response to Haiyan, creating a social media presence, raising a follower base and developing meaningful messages and content was possible. This event underscored the importance of building a social media strategy in non-emergency times and supported the value of developing public health messages and content that both educates and interests the general public.

  19. The risk communication using the special website of the society of risk analysis for the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsubokawa, Hiroaki; Nagasaka, Toshinari; Sunaga, Yohei; Lee, Taiyoung; Taguchi, Hitoshi; Usuda, Yuichiro

    2011-01-01

    The Society for Risk Analysis Japan built the special website that reply to the people who are concerning the risk related to the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011. Although, there were many risk communication activities between the specialists of the risk research and citizens on the website, there are some significant problems for the risk communication using the website. This report summarizes the result of our activity. (author)

  20. Laboratory identification of donor-derived coxsackievirus b3 transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, I J; Papadakis, G; Kaye, M; Opdam, H; Hutton, H; Angus, P W; Johnson, P D R; Kanellis, J; Westall, G; Druce, J; Catton, M

    2015-02-01

    Unexpected donor-to-recipient infectious disease transmission is an important, albeit rare, complication of solid organ transplantation. Greater work and understanding about the epidemiology of these donor-derived transmissions is continually required to further mitigate this risk. Herein we present the first reported case of proven donor-derived transmission of coxsackievirus serogroup-3, an enterovirus, following solid organ transplant. Swift and effective communication between the organ donation agency, treating physicians, laboratory testing and notification ensured a coordinated approach. The resulting clinical syndromes in the organ recipients were mild. This case highlights the requirement for ongoing surveillance over a broad range of infecting pathogens that may present as a donor-derived infection. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  1. A risk communication case study: the Nevada risk assessment/management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hechanova, A.E.

    2000-01-01

    The Nevada Risk Assessment/Management Program (NRAMP) is part of a national effort by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop new sources of information and approaches to risk assessment, risk management, risk communication and public outreach as these objectives relate to the ecological and human health effects of radioactive and hazardous material management and site remediation activities. This paper reviews the innovation behind the NRAMP project and presents a synopsis of the NRAMP effort which occurred from 1995 to 2000. The primary goals of the DOE in awarding the cooperative agreement establishing NRAMP were to (I) use a risk-based approach to evaluate the consequences of alternative actions in DOE's Environmental Remediation Programs at sites in Nevada and (2) use a neutral and credible institution outside the DOE to perform the risk assessments and contribute to public education about environmental management issues at the Nevada Test Site. (author)

  2. Radiogenic health effects: communicating risks to the general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strzelczyk, Jadwiga

    1999-01-01

    Harmful effects of prolonged radiation exposures were recognized early on following the discovery of X-rays by W.C. Roentgen in 1895. The type and severity of radiogenic effects are functions of a number of factors, radiation quality and quantity, chemical toxicity, and radiosensitivity of irradiated tissues being the most significant ones. Currently, there are several human registries for radiogenic cancers. Atomic bomb and nuclear test survivors, and populations exposed to medical irradiation constitute the largest study cohorts. Two general types of radiogenic effects have emerged from these registries: prompt and delayed. While the effects of acute exposures are very well documented, investigations of the effects of low-level exposures require the use of mathematical models. Communicating the risks of lower-level chronic radiation exposures to the general public remains a challenging task. The most effective approaches include clear interpretation and placing radiation risks in perspective: risks versus benefits, and comparisons with risks carried by common activities in which we all engage. (author)

  3. NASA's Agency-Wide Strategy for Environmental Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scroggins, Sharon; Duda, Kristen

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of NASA's risk analysis communication programs associated with changing environmental policies. The topics include: 1) NASA Program Transition; 2) Principal Center for Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication (RRAC PC); and 3) Regulatory Tracking and Communication Process.

  4. Communicating Flood Risk with Street-Level Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, B. F.; Matthew, R.; Houston, D.; Cheung, W. H.; Karlin, B.; Schubert, J.; Gallien, T.; Luke, A.; Contreras, S.; Goodrich, K.; Feldman, D.; Basolo, V.; Serrano, K.; Reyes, A.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal communities around the world face significant and growing flood risks that require an accelerating adaptation response, and fine-resolution urban flood models could serve a pivotal role in enabling communities to meet this need. Such models depict impacts at the level of individual buildings and land parcels or "street level" - the same spatial scale at which individuals are best able to process flood risk information - constituting a powerful tool to help communities build better understandings of flood vulnerabilities and identify cost-effective interventions. To measure understanding of flood risk within a community and the potential impact of street-level models, we carried out a household survey of flood risk awareness in Newport Beach, California, a highly urbanized coastal lowland that presently experiences nuisance flooding from high tides, waves and rainfall and is expected to experience a significant increase in flood frequency and intensity with climate change. Interviews were completed with the aid of a wireless-enabled tablet device that respondents could use to identify areas they understood to be at risk of flooding and to view either a Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) flood map or a more detailed map prepared with a hydrodynamic urban coastal flood model (UCI map) built with grid cells as fine as 3 m resolution and validated with historical flood data. Results indicate differences in the effectiveness of the UCI and FEMA maps at communicating the spatial distribution of flood risk, gender differences in how the maps affect flood understanding, and spatial biases in the perception of flood vulnerabilities.

  5. The challenge of Risk Communication: an Australian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschatzky, Valentina; Haynes, Katharine; McAneney, John

    2013-04-01

    Last October, in a landmark case, six scientists and a government official associated with the Italian National Commission for the Forecast and Prevention of Major Risks were found guilty of multiple counts of manslaughter. The trial followed a magnitude 6.3 earthquake near the Italian city of L'Aquila that killed 309 people in April 2009. The alleged crime was not a failure to predict the earthquake, but rather one of inadequately communicating the level of risk, and, presumably in the view of the judge, deliberate obfuscation. Risk communication is about providing the public with information needed to minimise injury, loss of life and damage to property. Mostly, even when well executed, this is, at best, only partially successful. The usual outcome is a public who, despite warnings and for any number of reasons, do not undertake protective behaviour. Nevertheless, despite the difficulty of motivating behavioural change, the public deserve correct and objective information. The L'Aquila situation is not without precedent: on June 25, 1997, a major dome collapse of the Soufrière Hills Volcano on the Caribbean Island of Montserrat killed 19 people within a designated exclusion zone. At the inquest, the advice provided by the scientists involved with the monitoring and risk assessment of the volcano was closely scrutinised. In the end, however, the scientists were not implicated in the deaths and the advice they provided was not challenged. The scientists on Montserrat, like those of the Major Risk Commission in Italy, had come under great pressure to bend their science to the social and political needs of the island; unlike the scientists on trial in Italy, they resisted. Similar questions were posed of fire authorities and scientists after the 2009 bushfires (wildfires) in Victoria, Australia, and the death of 173 people. A longstanding Australian bushfire community safety strategy was the 'prepare, stay and defend [homes], or leave early policy'. It arose from

  6. Ethical Implications of Seismic Risk Communication in Istanbul - Insights from a Transdisciplinary, Film-based Science Communication Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickert, Johanna; Stewart, Iain S.

    2016-04-01

    For more than a decade, social science studies indicate that there is little or no correlation between the provision of scientific information about geohazards and risks and the adaptive changes in individual or community behaviour that would reduce risk. Bridging that gap to effectively convey hazard science 'the last mile' to those communities at risk raises a number of ethical issues about the role and responsibilities of geoscientists as communicators. Those issues emerge from a methodological shift away from the dominant interpretation of seismic risk communication as a transfer of scientific facts to "the public", towards more inclusive transdisciplinary communication strategies that incorporate peer-role models, adopt social network-based strategies and directly engage with communities in motivating preparedness actions. With this methodological shift comes ethical dilemmas. What are the target-groups that should be prioritised? What are the professional expectations and levels of personal engagement required of geo-communicators? How able and willing are geoscientists to include other forms of knowledge (e.g. from local communities or other disciplines)? What media formats can reconcile argumentative, informational "matters of fact" with sociocultural and psychological "matters of concern"? How should scientists react to political controversies related to risk mitigation and its communication? In the context of these ethical concerns, many geoscientist struggle to switch from conventional communication modes in which they are the technical 'experts' to more community-centered, participatory modes of public engagement. We examine this research question through a case study on seismic risk communication challenges in Istanbul, a megacity with one of the highest seismic vulnerabilities in the world. Currently, there are few formal mechanisms to facilitate interchange between academic geoscientists and the general public in Istanbul. In order to reduce the city

  7. From science to decision-making: taking the risk to communicate on risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroi, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Geoscientists and decision-makers have the same responsibility toward the society: reducing the damaging consequences induced by natural phenomena. They have to work together, geoscientists to improve the knowledge and decision-makers to take the "best" decision, both to design and implement balanced solutions, both to communicate. Feedback shows that if the collaboration between them has already improved, a lot has still to be done, especially in terms of communication; endless litany, geoscientists don't communicate in the right way! In a hyperspecialized technological and segmented society with sophisticated methods of communication, geoscientists don't use appropriate tools and terminology. It's true, and a lot of examples can be shown that highlight this! Risks is based on complex concepts, on notions that are poorly understood, even by scientists themselves, especially the concepts of probability and occurrence of phenomena. But the problem rest as well on the role and on the responsibility of the geoscientists. Risk management experts address geosciences and technology to identify problems and define protection, including prohibitive measures (such as not allowing building in hazardous areas). Policy makers and local planners want to know where to develop territories. On one hand the identification of problems, on the other hand the needs of solutions. Dialectic is not the same. When responsibility, money and image are the three main pillars of decision-making, long-term modeling and uncertainty, are the basic ones for geosciences. In our participative democracies people want to be actor of the development of their own territories; they want more freedom, more protection and less tax. Face to unrealistic political answers geoscientists have to explain and convince. It's not possible to gain on everything and some are going to loose. Shall geoscientists let decision-makers communicate on topics they hardly understand? No. Shall geoscientists communicate on

  8. Women, mercury and artisanal gold mining : Risk communication and mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, J. J.; Veiga, M. M.; Beinhoff, C.

    2003-05-01

    Artisanal miners employ rudimentary techniques for minéral extraction and often operate under hazardous, labour intensive, highly disorganized and illegal conditions. Gold is the main mineral extracted by artisanal miners, and the ecological and human health impacts resulting from mercury (Hg) use in gold extraction warrant special consideration. More than 30% of world's 13 million artisanal miners are women and, as they are often perceived to be less suited for labour intensive mining methods, the majority of women work in the processing aspect of artisanal mining, including amalgamation with Hg. As women are also predominantly responsible for food preparation, they are in an excellent position to respond to health risks associated with consumption of Hg-contaminated foods in impacted areas. In addition to their influence on consumption habits, women in artisanal mining communities may be in a position to effect positive change with respect to the technologies employed. Thus, gender sensitive approaches are necessary to reduce exposure risks to women and their families, promote clean technologies and support the development of stronger, healthier artisanal mining communities. This paper describes the roles of women in artisanal gold mining, highlights their importance in reducing the Hg exposure in these communities, and provides insight into how risks from Hg pollution can effectively be communicated and mitigated.

  9. RISK MANAGEMENT AND RISK COMMUNICATION IN MOZAMBIQUE: THE CASE OF ARMS AND AMMUNITION DEPOTS OF MALHAZINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bussotti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Risk management and risk communication affect everybody’s daily life. Local authorities have the duty to manage public structures, to inform civilians of the risks coming from these structures, to implement prophylaxis procedures. Military storage sites are fully included in this category. This article presents – through a qualitative methodology based on risk analysis – how risk management and communication in weapons and ammunition warehouses is managed in a “partially free” country, using as a case-study, the Malhazine depot in Mozambique, which resulted in more than 100 deaths. In 2007, an extraordinary accident related to the management of obsolete conventional weapons occurred at the Malazhine warehouse. In this circumstance, the Mozambican Government adopted a policy of classifying the information “highly confidential”. This policy aimed at obscuring facts and responsibilities by hiding the causes of such a huge tragedy. This article concludes with the consideration that a high level of confidentiality in treating issues of public interest, such as the one kept in regard to Malhazine, does not help public authorities to effectively manage and prevent similar risks from occurring again, with resulting negative impacts on local populations.

  10. A Conceptual Framework for the Evaluation of Emergency Risk Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Leesa; Gamhewage, Gaya M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To articulate a conceptual framework in support of evaluation activities in emergency risk communications (ERC). Methods. The framework proposed is based on a systematic review of the scientific literature (2001–2016) combined with data derived from a series of semistructured interviews with experts and practitioners in ERC, and it is designed to support local, national, and international public health organizations in implementing evaluation studies in ERC. Results. We identified a list of ERC outcomes from the full-text review of 152 articles and categorized these into 3 groups, depending upon the level at which the outcome was measured: (1) information environment, (2) population, and (3) public health system. We analyzed interviewees’ data from 18 interviews to identify practices and processes related to the effectiveness of ERC and included these as key structural components and processes in the developed evaluation framework. Conclusions. Researchers and public health practitioners interested in the evaluation of ERC can use the conceptual framework described in this article to guide the development of evaluation studies and methods for assessing communication outcomes related to public health emergencies. PMID:28892436

  11. Communicating on risk and safety in terms of awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammar, L.; Andersson, Kjell

    1999-01-01

    'Safety awareness' is proposed as a possibly constructive concept for the purpose of promoting initiatives in nuclear safety work and gaining improved understanding when communicating on nuclear safety. Safety is thus conceived as resulting essentially from and actually constituting awareness of critical factors in regard of safety. The concept aims specifically at promoting the view of 'safety' as 'awareness of required conditions for being in control of risk'. It aims as well at making clearer sense in calling for constant improvement of safety, according to practice in a safety culture. This proposed view would be expected to lead to applying the usual types of safety criteria but offers the merit of attracting due attention to 'awareness goals' in process oriented safety management which are fundamental to maintaining and improving safety. Applications are discussed in regard of communicating on nuclear safety between decision-makers and the general public, developing and maintaining safety culture, integrating specialist expert contributions in over-all safety assessment, setting safety goals and using safety indicators

  12. Risk communication system for high level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugo, Akihide; Uda, Akinobu; Shimoda, Hirosi; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Ito, Kyoko; Wakabayashi, Yasunaga

    2005-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding and acceptance of the task of implementing high level radioactive waste disposal, a study on new communication system about social risk information has been initiated by noticing the rapid expansion of Internet in the society. First, text mining method was introduced to identify the core public interest, examining public comments on the technical report of high level radioactive waste disposal. Then we designed the dialog-mode contents based on the theory of norm activation by Schwartz. Finally, the discussion board was mounted on the web site. By constructing such web communication system which includes knowledge base contents, introspective contents, and interactive discussion board, we conducted the experiment for verifying the principles such as that the basic technical knowledge and trust, and social ethics are indispensable in this process to close the perception gap between nuclear specialists and the general public. The participants of the experiment increased their interest in the topics with which they were not familiar and actively posted their opinions on the BBS. The dialog-mode contents were significantly more effective than the knowledge-based contents in promoting introspection that brought people into a greater awareness of problems such as social dilemma. (author)

  13. A Conceptual Framework for the Evaluation of Emergency Risk Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoia, Elena; Lin, Leesa; Gamhewage, Gaya M

    2017-09-01

    To articulate a conceptual framework in support of evaluation activities in emergency risk communications (ERC). The framework proposed is based on a systematic review of the scientific literature (2001-2016) combined with data derived from a series of semistructured interviews with experts and practitioners in ERC, and it is designed to support local, national, and international public health organizations in implementing evaluation studies in ERC. We identified a list of ERC outcomes from the full-text review of 152 articles and categorized these into 3 groups, depending upon the level at which the outcome was measured: (1) information environment, (2) population, and (3) public health system. We analyzed interviewees' data from 18 interviews to identify practices and processes related to the effectiveness of ERC and included these as key structural components and processes in the developed evaluation framework. Researchers and public health practitioners interested in the evaluation of ERC can use the conceptual framework described in this article to guide the development of evaluation studies and methods for assessing communication outcomes related to public health emergencies.

  14. [Communication on health and safety risk control in contemporary society: an interdisciplinary approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-S, Maria Ligia

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses communication as a technology for risk control with health and safety protection and promotion, within the context of a "risk society". As a component of Risk Analysis, risk communication is a technology that appears in risk literature, with well defined objectives, principles and models. These aspects are described and the difficulties are stressed, taking into consideration the multiple rationales related to risks in the culture and the many different aspects of risk regulation and control in the so-called "late modernity". Consideration is also given to the complexity of the communications process, guided by theoretical and methodological discussions in the field. In order to understand the true value of the communications field for risk control with health and safety protection and promotion, this paper also offers an overview of communication theories that support discussions of this matter, proposing a critical approach to models that include the dimensions of power and culture in the context of a capitalist society.

  15. Communicating Geographical Risks in Crisis Management: The Need for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simon; Argyris, Nikolaos; Haywood, Stephanie M; Hort, Matthew C; Smith, Jim Q

    2017-10-23

    In any crisis, there is a great deal of uncertainty, often geographical uncertainty or, more precisely, spatiotemporal uncertainty. Examples include the spread of contamination from an industrial accident, drifting volcanic ash, and the path of a hurricane. Estimating spatiotemporal probabilities is usually a difficult task, but that is not our primary concern. Rather, we ask how analysts can communicate spatiotemporal uncertainty to those handling the crisis. We comment on the somewhat limited literature on the representation of spatial uncertainty on maps. We note that many cognitive issues arise and that the potential for confusion is high. We note that in the early stages of handling a crisis, the uncertainties involved may be deep, i.e., difficult or impossible to quantify in the time available. In such circumstance, we suggest the idea of presenting multiple scenarios. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  16. Communicating radon risk effectively: Radon testing in Maryland. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desvousges, W.H.; Smith, V.K.; Rink, H.H.

    1988-10-01

    Two sets of materials and corresponding delivery strategies for communicating radon risk were evaluated, compared with a 'no-special-treatment' strategy in a comparison community. One community received radio public-service announcements and utility bill inserts. The second received these plus posters, local government sponsorship of a radon awareness week, and local slide presentations. The most-intensive efforts (multiple channels, multiple hits) were more effective than the less intensive effort, which had little impact compared with no special treatment. From a marketing perspective, the effort was very successful, increasing the share of homeowners who tested for radon from 5% to 15%. This may not be viewed as sufficiently effective from a public-health perspective, however

  17. The future of risk communication and the role of the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sweta; Bouder, Frederic

    2013-02-01

    Risk communication is an interactive two-way process that various stakeholders (e.g., patients, regulators, industry) utilize to address prescription drug safety. This paper will specifically examine the pharmaceutical industry's engagement with risk communication as a tool for information exchange with patients and other stakeholders about the associated risks related to its medicines. Risk communications are not solely meant to inform; and rather effective two-way risk communications have the potential to change behavioral outcomes for the purpose of individual and societal benefit. Despite this indispensable role of risk communication for the pharmaceutical industry, more research is needed for the appropriate development and dissemination of risk communications. A crucial missing component for the crafting of pharmaceutical risk communications is the understanding of risk perceptions from the patient/consumer's perspective. This is necessary to see where any divergences in views may lie between the industry and its final consumer, which is crucial in tailoring communications to target a specific erroneous belief or to address what might be deemed as a needed behavioral shift. It is also necessary to develop communications in consideration of the levels of public trust in the industry as well as other perceived actors in the healthcare system. Even the most meticulously crafted and tested risk communications will fail to fulfill their purpose if the role of trust is not taken into consideration. These considerations can lead to the establishment of a "social contract" that effectively addresses what is required from both parties for continued and mutually beneficial interactions. Conducting risk perception research, addressing the role of trust, establishing a social contract, and having a realistic outlook on the impact of risk communications are necessary considerations as pharmaceutical risk communication evolves for the future.

  18. Mentoring At-Risk Middle School Students to Reduce Communication Apprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kevin T.; Procopio, Claire H.

    2017-01-01

    Research has demonstrated the efficacy of mentoring at-risk students in a number of fields from physical education to math and science. While separate research has found that many at-risk students lack effective communication skills, little research has explored the potential of communication mentoring in improving at-risk students' communication…

  19. Risk/Benefit Communication about Food—A Systematic Review of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Brennan, M.; Bánáti, D.; Lion, R.; Meertens, R.M.; Rowe, G.; Siegrist, M.; Verbeke, W.; Vereijken, C.M.J.L.

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review relevant to the following research questions was conducted (1) the extent to which different theoretical frameworks have been applied to food risk/benefit communication and (2) the impact such food risk/benefit communication interventions have had on related risk/benefit

  20. Risk and prevention of graft failure in patients with preexisting donor-specific HLA antibodies undergoing unmanipulated haploidentical SCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, S; Maruya, E; Taniguchi, K; Kaida, K; Kato, R; Inoue, T; Fujioka, T; Tamaki, H; Ikegame, K; Okada, M; Soma, T; Hayashi, K; Fujii, N; Onuma, T; Kusunoki, Y; Saji, H; Ogawa, H

    2012-04-01

    A role of donor-specific HLA antibodies (DSA) in graft failure after SCT has been suggested, but the relevance of DSA in unmanipulated haploidentical SCT (haplo-SCT) remains unknown. We prospectively examined HLA antibodies using the Luminex-based single Ag assay for 79 adult patients undergoing unmanipulated haplo-SCT. Among them, 16 (20.2%) were HLA Ab-positive, including five patients with antibodies not corresponding to donor HLA Ags and 11 DSA-positive patients. Of the 11 DSA-positive patients, five received treatments to decrease DSA levels, including two, who received plasma exchange and rituximab, two who received platelet transfusions from healthy-related donors having DSA-corresponding HLA Ags and one who received bortezomib. Platelet transfusion was the most simple and effective treatment option for class I DSA. The cumulative incidence of neutrophil recovery was significantly lower in pretransplant (post-treatment) DSA-positive patients than in DSA-negative patients (61.9 vs 94.4%, P=0.026). Notably, three of five patients with high levels of DSA had graft failure. Donors should be selected on the basis of an evaluation of HLA antibodies. If haplo-SCT from donors with HLA Ags that correspond to high levels of DSA must be performed, then recipients should be treated for DSA to improve the chances of successful donor engraftment.

  1. Strengths and Gaps in Physicians' Risk Communication: A Scenario Study of the Influence of Numeracy on Cancer Screening Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Dafina; Kostopoulou, Olga; Delaney, Brendan C; Cokely, Edward T; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio

    2018-04-01

    Many patients have low numeracy, which impedes their understanding of important information about health (e.g., benefits and harms of screening). We investigated whether physicians adapt their risk communication to accommodate the needs of patients with low numeracy, and how physicians' own numeracy influences their understanding and communication of screening statistics. UK family physicians ( N = 151) read a description of a patient seeking advice on cancer screening. We manipulated the level of numeracy of the patient (low v. high v. unspecified) and measured physicians' risk communication, recommendation to the patient, understanding of screening statistics, and numeracy. Consistent with best practices, family physicians generally preferred to use visual aids rather than numbers when communicating information to a patient with low (v. high) numeracy. A substantial proportion of physicians (44%) offered high quality (i.e., complete and meaningful) risk communication to the patient. This was more often the case for physicians with higher (v. lower) numeracy who were more likely to mention mortality rates, OR=1.43 [1.10, 1.86], and harms from overdiagnosis, OR=1.44 [1.05, 1.98]. Physicians with higher numeracy were also more likely to understand that increased detection or survival rates do not demonstrate screening effectiveness, OR=1.61 [1.26, 2.06]. Most physicians know how to appropriately tailor risk communication for patients with low numeracy (i.e., with visual aids). However, physicians who themselves have low numeracy are likely to misunderstand the risks and unintentionally mislead patients by communicating incomplete information. High-quality risk communication and shared decision making can depend critically on factors that improve the risk literacy of physicians.

  2. Risk communication and decision-making in the prevention of invasive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Ann H

    2017-08-01

    Risk communication surrounding the prevention of invasive breast cancer entails not only understanding of the disease, risks and opportunities for intervention. But it also requires understanding and implementation of optimal strategies for communication with patients who are making these decisions. In this article, available evidence for the issues surrounding risk communication and decision making in the prevention of invasive breast cancer are reviewed and strategies for improvement are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [The perils of risk communication and the role of the mass media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmann, C; Brosius, H-B

    2013-01-01

    Based on theories and empirical results from communication science, the present paper provides an overview of the role of mass media in risk communication. It is guided by the following questions: How do risk issues find their way into the media and how does the media depict them? How do mass-mediated risk messages affect people's perception of risks, knowledge, attitudes, and behavior? What potential does the media have in disseminating health risk information in campaigns? Hence, the present paper aims to provide a basis for the appropriate use of mass media in health risk communication so as to make use of the potential of mass media without neglecting its limits.

  4. The KnowRISK project: Tools and strategies for risk communication and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musacchio, Gemma; Amaral Ferreira, Mónica; Falsaperla, Susanna; Piangiamore, Giovanna Lucia; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Solarino, Stefano; Crescimbene, Massimo; Eva, Elena; Reitano, Danilo; Þorvaldsdottir, Solveig; Sousa Silva, Delta; Rupakhety, Rajesh; Sousa Oliveira, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Damage of non-structural elements of buildings (i.e. partitions, ceilings, cladding, electrical and mechanical systems and furniture) is known to cause injuries and human losses. Also it has a significant impact on earthquake resilience and is yet being worldwide underestimated. The project KnowRISK (Know your city, Reduce seISmic risK through non-structural elements) is financed by the European Commission to develop prevention measures that may reduce non-structural damage in urban areas. Pilot areas of the project are within the three European participating countries, namely Portugal, Iceland and Italy. They were chosen because they are prone to damage level 2 and 3 (EMS-98, European Macroseismic Scale) that typically affects non-structural elements. We will develop and test a risk communication strategy taking into account the needs of households and schools, putting into practice a portfolio of best practice to reduce the most common non-structural vulnerabilities. We will target our actions to different societal groups, considering their cultural background and social vulnerabilities, and implement a participatory approach that will promote engagement and interaction between the scientific community, practitioners and citizens to foster knowledge on everyone's own neighborhoods, resilience and vulnerability. A Practical Guide for citizens will highlight that low-cost actions can be implemented to increase safety of households, meant as being the places where the most vulnerable societal groups, including children and elderly people, spend much of their time. Since our actions towards communication will include education, we will define tools that allow a clear and direct understanding of elements exposed to risk. Schools will be one of our target societal groups and their central role played at the community level will ensure spreading and strengthening of the communication process. Schools are often located in old or re-adapted buildings, formerly used for

  5. Maternal HIV Serostatus, Mother–Daughter Sexual Risk Communication and Adolescent HIV Risk Beliefs and Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, M. Katherine; Duan, Lei; Jemmott, Loretta S.

    2012-01-01

    Daughters of HIV-positive women are often exposed to the same factors that placed their mothers at risk. This cross-sectional study (N = 176 dyads) examined HIV status, parent-teen sexual risk communication (PTSRC), and daughters’ abstinence and condom use beliefs and intentions. Maternal HIV status was not associated with PTSRC. Path analyses show that maternal depression was associated with PTSRC behavioral and normative beliefs; relationship satisfaction was associated with PTSRC normative and control beliefs. Control beliefs were solely predictive of maternal PTSRC intention. PTSRC was associated with adolescent behavioral and normative beliefs. Abstinence beliefs were associated with abstinence intentions; condom beliefs were associated with condom use intentions. Relationship satisfaction was associated with adolescent control beliefs about both abstinence and condom use. There is a need for interventions that help HIV-positive mothers recognize their daughter’s HIV risk and provide them with relationship building and parent process skills to help reduce these risks. PMID:22677973

  6. Maternal HIV serostatus, mother-daughter sexual risk communication and adolescent HIV risk beliefs and intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederbaum, Julie A; Hutchinson, M Katherine; Duan, Lei; Jemmott, Loretta S

    2013-09-01

    Daughters of HIV-positive women are often exposed to the same factors that placed their mothers at risk. This cross-sectional study (N = 176 dyads) examined HIV status, parent-teen sexual risk communication (PTSRC), and daughters' abstinence and condom use beliefs and intentions. Maternal HIV status was not associated with PTSRC. Path analyses show that maternal depression was associated with PTSRC behavioral and normative beliefs; relationship satisfaction was associated with PTSRC normative and control beliefs. Control beliefs were solely predictive of maternal PTSRC intention. PTSRC was associated with adolescent behavioral and normative beliefs. Abstinence beliefs were associated with abstinence intentions; condom beliefs were associated with condom use intentions. Relationship satisfaction was associated with adolescent control beliefs about both abstinence and condom use. There is a need for interventions that help HIV-positive mothers recognize their daughter's HIV risk and provide them with relationship building and parent process skills to help reduce these risks.

  7. Blood transfusion and iatrogenic risks in Mexico city: anti-Trypanosoma cruzi seroprevalence in 43,048 blood donors, evaluation of parasitemia, and electrocardiogram findings in seropositive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidia Hernández-Becerril

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Iatrogenous transmission of Trypanosoma cruziby blood transfusion was suggested as a potential risk by Pellegrino (1949. Seropositive blood donors in Mexico were first reported in 1978, however, limited information is available due to small sampling, the use of heterogeneous serologic assays, and geographically limited studies. A wide survey carried out in 18 out of the 32 states of Mexico, showed a national mean of 1.6% seropositive among 64,969 donors, ranging from 0.2 to 2.8%. In the present study, we have screened 43,048 voluntary blood donors in a period of five years at the Instituto Nacional de Cardiología I. Chávez, a concentration hospital located in Mexico city which serves mainly the metropolitan area and accepts from all over the country. Standardized ELISA and IIF were used to identify seropositive individuals in addition to hemoculture, PCR and standard 12 lead ECG tests that were applied to a group of seropositive patients (29/161. The result showed a seropositivity of 0.37% (161/43,048. From the group of seropositive individuals 40% (12/29 were potential carriers of T. cruzi at the donation time and 5/29 had subclinical ECG abnormalities. Parasitological tests performed in 70 erythrocyte and platelet fractions from seropositive units (70/161 showed negative results. Our findings strongly support T. cruzi screening in the transfusion medicine practice and identify subclinical heart disease among seropositive blood donors.

  8. Maternal verbal responses to communication of infants at low and heightened risk of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leezenbaum, Nina B; Campbell, Susan B; Butler, Derrecka; Iverson, Jana M

    2014-08-01

    This study investigates mothers' responses to infant communication among infants at heightened genetic risk (high risk) of autism spectrum disorder compared to infants with no such risk (low risk). A total of 26 infants, 12 of whom had an older sibling with autism spectrum disorder, were observed during naturalistic in-home interaction and semistructured play with their mothers at 13 and 18 months of age. Results indicate that overall, mothers of low-risk and high-risk infants were highly and similarly responsive to their infants' communicative behaviors. However, examination of infant vocal and gestural communication development together with maternal verbal responses and translations (i.e. verbally labeling a gesture referent) suggests that delays in early communication development observed among high-risk infants may alter the input that these infants receive; this in turn may have cascading effects on the subsequent development of communication and language. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. Assessment of predation risk through referential communication in incubating birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Toshitaka N.

    2015-05-01

    Parents of many bird species produce alarm calls when they approach and deter a nest predator in order to defend their offspring. Alarm calls have been shown to warn nestlings about predatory threats, but parents also face a similar risk of predation when incubating eggs in their nests. Here, I show that incubating female Japanese great tits, Parus minor, assess predation risk by conspecific alarm calls given outside the nest cavity. Tits produce acoustically discrete alarm calls for different nest predators: “jar” calls for snakes and “chicka” calls for other predators such as crows and martens. Playback experiments revealed that incubating females responded to “jar” calls by leaving their nest, whereas they responded to “chicka” calls by looking out of the nest entrance. Since snakes invade the nest cavity, escaping from the nest helps females avoid snake predation. In contrast, “chicka” calls are used for a variety of predator types, and therefore, looking out of the nest entrance helps females gather information about the type and location of approaching predators. These results show that incubating females derive information about predator type from different types of alarm calls, providing a novel example of functionally referential communication.

  10. Perception and communication of risk in decision making by persons with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Mabel; Savage, Beverley; Taylor, Brian J

    2017-01-01

    Communication of risks must involve people with dementia meaningfully to ensure informed and inclusive decision-making processes. This qualitative study explored concepts of risk from the perspective of persons with dementia and their experiences of communicating risk with family members and professionals. Data was analysed using grounded theory. Seventeen people in Northern Ireland with mild-moderate dementia who had recently made a decision about their daily life or care involving consideration of risks were interviewed between November 2015 and November 2016. A wide range of actual or feared risks were identified relating to: daily activities; hobbies and socialising; mental health and medicines; and risks to and from others. 'Risk' often held emotional rather than probability connotations. Constructive communications to address issues were presented. Problem-solving models of both active and passive decision-making about risks were evident. Effective risk communication in informed decision-making processes about health and social care is discussed.

  11. Zero risk tolerance costs lives: loss of transplantable organs due to human immunodeficiency virus nucleic acid testing of potential donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Teresa J; Schkade, David; Schkade, Lawrence; Geier, Steven S; Orlowski, Jeffrey P; Klintmalm, Goran

    2011-09-01

    Patients' deaths due to the organ donor shortage make it imperative that every suitable organ be transplanted. False-positive results of tests for infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) result in lost organs. A survey of US organ procurement organizations collected the numbers of donors and ruled-out potential donors who had a positive result on an HIV test from January 1,2006, to October 31, 2008. Sixty-two percent of US organ procurement organizations participated. Of the 12397 donor/nondonor cases, 56 (0.45%) had an initial positive result on an HIV antibody or HIV nucleic acid test, and only 8 (14.3%) of those were confirmed positive. Of the false-positive results, 50% were from HIV antibody tests and 50% were from HIV nucleic acid tests. Organs are a scarce, finite, and perishable resource. Use of HIV antibody testing has produced a remarkably safe track record of avoiding HIV transmission, with 22 years of nonoccurrence between transmissions. Because false positives occur with any test, including the HIV Ab test, adding nucleic acid testing to the standard donor testing panel doubles the number of false-positive HIV test results and thus the number of medically suitable donors lost. The required HIV antibody test is 99.99% effective in preventing transmission of the HIV virus. Adding the HIV nucleic acid test to routine organ donor screening could result in as many as 761 to 1551 unnecessary deaths of patients between HIV transmission events because medically suitable organs are wasted.

  12. Are drowned donors marginal donors? A single pediatric center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumm, Kayla R; Galván, N Thao N; Koohmaraie, Sarah; Rana, Abbas; Kueht, Michael; Baugh, Katherine; Hao, Liu; Yoeli, Dor; Cotton, Ronald; O'Mahony, Christine A; Goss, John A

    2017-09-01

    Drowning, a common cause of death in the pediatric population, is a potentially large donor pool for OLT. Anecdotally, transplant centers have deemed these organs high risk over concerns for infection and graft dysfunction. We theorized drowned donor liver allografts do not portend worse outcomes and therefore should not be excluded from the donation pool. We reviewed our single-center experience of pediatric OLTs between 1988 and 2015 and identified 33 drowned donor recipients. These OLTs were matched 1:2 to head trauma donor OLTs from our center. A chart review assessed postoperative peak AST and ALT, incidence of HAT, graft and recipient survival. Recipient survival at one year between patients with drowned donor vs head trauma donor allografts was not statistically significant (94% vs 97%, P=.63). HAT incidence was 6.1% in the drowned donor group vs 7.6% in the control group (P=.78). Mean postoperative peak AST and ALT was 683 U/L and 450 U/L for drowned donors vs 1119 U/L and 828 U/L in the matched cohort. These results suggest drowned donor liver allografts do not portend worse outcomes in comparison with those procured from head trauma donors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Risk perception and communication strategies for the disposal of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taghizadegan, R.; Tschurlovits, M.

    2005-01-01

    The public perception of the risk due to disposal of nuclear material depends less on risk as a quantifiable measure, but rather on particular patterns of societal communication. Only an understanding of these patterns and the underlying motives permits effective risk communication in the form of a risk dialogue. Risk becomes a social code word and risk communication a social process, which is determined by ''rituals'' like stigmas and taboos on one hand, and on the other hand competing world views. The latter are analyzed by means of ''Cultural Theory'' and thus diverging perceptions of risks are explained. Finally, some communication strategies on the risks and uncertainties of the disposal of nuclear material are presented. (orig.)

  14. Parent-child communication processes: preventing children's health-risk behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesch, Susan K; Anderson, Lori S; Krueger, Heather A

    2006-01-01

    Review individual, family, and environmental factors that predict health-risk behavior among children and to propose parent-child communication processes as a mechanism to mediate them. Improving parent-child communication processes may: reduce individual risk factors, such as poor academic achievement or self-esteem; modify parenting practices such as providing regulation and structure and acting as models of health behavior; and facilitate discussion about factors that lead to involvement in health-risk behaviors. Assessment strategies to identify youth at risk for health-risk behavior are recommended and community-based strategies to improve communication among parents and children need development.

  15. Scientific risk communication about controversial issues influences public perceptions of scientists' political orientations and credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vraga, Emily; Myers, Teresa; Kotcher, John; Beall, Lindsey; Maibach, Ed

    2018-02-01

    Many scientists communicate with the public about risks associated with scientific issues, but such communication may have unintended consequences for how the public views the political orientations and the credibility of the communicating scientist. We explore this possibility using an experiment with a nationally representative sample of Americans in the fall of 2015. We find that risk communication on controversial scientific issues sometimes influences perceptions of the political orientations and credibility of the communicating scientist when the scientist addresses the risks of issues associated with conservative or liberal groups. This relationship is moderated by participant political ideology, with liberals adjusting their perceptions of the scientists' political beliefs more substantially when the scientist addressed the risks of marijuana use when compared with other issues. Conservatives' political perceptions were less impacted by the issue context of the scientific risk communication but indirectly influenced credibility perceptions. Our results support a contextual model of audience interpretation of scientific risk communication. Scientists should be cognizant that audience members may make inferences about the communicating scientist's political orientations and credibility when they engage in risk communication efforts about controversial issues.

  16. Threshold Evaluation of Emergency Risk Communication for Health Risks Related to Hazardous Ambient Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Hoppe, Brenda O; Convertino, Matteo

    2018-04-10

    Emergency risk communication (ERC) programs that activate when the ambient temperature is expected to cross certain extreme thresholds are widely used to manage relevant public health risks. In practice, however, the effectiveness of these thresholds has rarely been examined. The goal of this study is to test if the activation criteria based on extreme temperature thresholds, both cold and heat, capture elevated health risks for all-cause and cause-specific mortality and morbidity in the Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. A distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) combined with a quasi-Poisson generalized linear model is used to derive the exposure-response functions between daily maximum heat index and mortality (1998-2014) and morbidity (emergency department visits; 2007-2014). Specific causes considered include cardiovascular, respiratory, renal diseases, and diabetes. Six extreme temperature thresholds, corresponding to 1st-3rd and 97th-99th percentiles of local exposure history, are examined. All six extreme temperature thresholds capture significantly increased relative risks for all-cause mortality and morbidity. However, the cause-specific analyses reveal heterogeneity. Extreme cold thresholds capture increased mortality and morbidity risks for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and extreme heat thresholds for renal disease. Percentile-based extreme temperature thresholds are appropriate for initiating ERC targeting the general population. Tailoring ERC by specific causes may protect some but not all individuals with health conditions exacerbated by hazardous ambient temperature exposure. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Influencing feelings of cancer risk: direct and moderator effects of affectively laden phrases in risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Eva; van Osch, Liesbeth; Lechner, Lilian; de Vries, Hein

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating for the importance of feelings of risk in explaining cancer preventive behaviors, but best practices for influencing these feelings are limited. This study investigated the direct and moderational influence of affectively laden phrases in cancer risk messages. Two experimental studies were conducted in relation to different cancer-related behaviors--sunbed use (n = 112) and red meat consumption (n = 447)--among student and nonstudent samples. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: (a) a cognitive message using cognitively laden phrases or (b) an affective message using affectively laden phrases. The results revealed that affective phrases did not directly influence feelings of risk in both studies. Evidence for a moderational influence was found in Study 2, suggesting that affective information strengthened the relation between feelings of risk and intention (i.e., participants relied more on their feelings in the decision-making process after exposure to affective information). These findings suggest that solely using affective phrases in risk communication may not be sufficient to directly influence feelings of risk and other methods need to be explored in future research. Moreover, research is needed to replicate our preliminary indications for a moderational influence of affective phrases to advance theory and practice.

  18. Can risk communication provide assistance in nuclear energy disputes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadd, Ellen

    2001-01-01

    The continued use of nuclear technology in Canada appears to he limited by a lack of public acceptance of fuel waste disposal strategies. The outcome of the recent environmental assessment process conducted on the deep geological disposal concept bears-out this point. A brief review of transcripts from the he public hearing portion of this process indicates that public sentiment on the issue includes anti-nuclear attitudes and concern over equity, safety, and trust. This paper discusses Canadian sentiment on the issue and suggests that it is in line with public views on similar issues in other nations. The field of risk communication has played a significant role in understanding the root causes of public opposition. This paper suggests that the field is well-placed to play an expanded role in resolving the issues underlying public concerns, (e.g., lack of trust, public disenfranchisement with the decision making process); however, this is a supportive role. It is suggested that broad-based involvement, commitment, and collaboration among all stake holders in this dispute are necessary if improvement is to be achieved. (author)

  19. Temporal stability of the psychological determinants of trust: Implications for communication about food risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Miles, S.

    2003-01-01

    There has been much debate about the role of trust in information sources in risk communication. Recent food scares have highlighted the need for both the development of effective risk communication strategies and investigation into whether trust differs between different information sources. In the

  20. Communicating Risk with Parents: Exploring the Methods and Beliefs of Outdoor Education Coordinators in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallat, Clare

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the risk communication strategies currently being employed by seven outdoor education co-ordinators in Government schools in Victoria, Australia. Of particular interest are the beliefs and assumptions held by these co-ordinators in relation to communicating risk with parents. Current policy stipulates that parents must be…

  1. Communicating with parents of high-risk infants in neonatal intensive care

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, Wendy; Ross, Sue

    2006-01-01

    Good communication between parents and staff about the likely outcome of high-risk infants is essential to ensure parents’ full involvement in decision-making. The present paper discusses the literature on this topic to explore the best practices for professionals communicating with parents of high-risk infants.

  2. Communicating with parents of high-risk infants in neonatal intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wendy; Ross, Sue

    2006-05-01

    Good communication between parents and staff about the likely outcome of high-risk infants is essential to ensure parents' full involvement in decision-making. The present paper discusses the literature on this topic to explore the best practices for professionals communicating with parents of high-risk infants.

  3. Risk communication policy design: Cyprus compared to France and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tourenq, Sophie; Boustras, George; Gutteling, Jan M.

    2017-01-01

    This study aims at analyzing differences between risk communication policies in Cyprus, compared to the Netherlands, and France. It analyzes risk communication policies indirectly through a qualitative analysis of the information provided by official websites, which are considered to be proxies of

  4. Social media as a useful tool in food risk and benefit communication? A strategic orientation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutsaert, P.; Pieniak, Z.; Regan, A.; McConnon, A.; Kuttschreuter, M.; Lores, M.; Lozano, N.; Guzzon, A.; Santare, D; Verbeke, W.

    2014-01-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in understanding the determinants of risk perception and in identifying the necessary components of effective food risk and benefit communication, this has not been matched with the development of efficient and appropriate communication tools. Little work

  5. Disaster Managers’ Perception of Effective Visual Risk Communication for General Public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charriere, M.K.M.; Bogaard, T.A.; Mostert, E.

    2012-01-01

    Risk communication is one of the measures that should be implemented to increase the awareness and preparedness of the general public in order to attain disaster risk reduction. Among the various forms that can be used in communication campaigns, visualizations are appropriate to disseminate

  6. Risk/Benefit Communication about Food-A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewer, L J; Fischer, A R H; Brennan, M; Bánáti, D; Lion, R; Meertens, R M; Rowe, G; Siegrist, M; Verbeke, W; Vereijken, C M J L

    2016-07-26

    A systematic review relevant to the following research questions was conducted (1) the extent to which different theoretical frameworks have been applied to food risk/benefit communication and (2) the impact such food risk/benefit communication interventions have had on related risk/benefit attitudes and behaviors. Fifty four papers were identified. The analysis revealed that (primarily European or US) research interest has been relatively recent. Certain food issues were of greater interest to researchers than others, perhaps reflecting the occurrence of a crisis, or policy concern. Three broad themes relevant to the development of best practice in risk (benefit) communication were identified: the characteristics of the target population; the contents of the information; and the characteristics of the information sources. Within these themes, independent and dependent variables differed considerably. Overall, acute risk (benefit) communication will require advances in communication process whereas chronic communication needs to identify audience requirements. Both citizen's risk/benefit perceptions and (if relevant) related behaviors need to be taken into account, and recommendations for behavioral change need to be concrete and actionable. The application of theoretical frameworks to the study of risk (benefit) communication was infrequent, and developing predictive models of effective risk (benefit) communication may be contingent on improved theoretical perspectives.

  7. Donor Diabetes and Prolonged Cold Ischemia Time Synergistically Increase the Risk of Graft Failure After Liver Transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brüggenwirth, Isabel M A; Dolgin, Natasha H; Porte, Robert J; Bozorgzadeh, Adel; Martins, Paulo N A

    BACKGROUND: Both prolonged cold ischemia time (CIT) and donor history of diabetes mellitus (DM) are associated with reduced graft survival after liver transplantation. However, it is unknown whether the adverse effect of prolonged CIT on posttransplant graft survival is more pronounced after

  8. How Do Obstetric and Neonatology Teams Communicate Prior to High-Risk Deliveries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundgren, Nathan C; Suresh, Gautham K

    2018-01-01

     Improving communication in healthcare improves the quality of care and patient outcomes, but communication between obstetric and neonatal teams before and during a high-risk delivery is poorly studied.  We developed a survey to study communication between obstetric and neonatal teams around the time of a high-risk delivery. We surveyed neonatologists from North America and asked them to answer questions about their institutions' communication practices.  The survey answers revealed variations in communication practices between responders. Most institutions relied on nursing to communicate obstetric information to the neonatal team. Although a minority of institutions used a standardized communication process to summon neonatology team or to communicate in the delivery room, these reported higher rates of information sharing and greater satisfaction with communication between services.  Standardized communication procedures are an underutilized method of communication and have the potential to improve communication around high-risk deliveries. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Risk Communication: A Key for Fostering a More Resilient Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, M.

    2016-01-01

    It is widely agreed that the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant was not only triggered by natural events combined with technical failures, but was a human induced disaster. From the bitter lessons, we have learned that human and organizational factors associated with emergency planning, response and decision-making for nuclear safety need to be more carefully reviewed and enhanced. Elements of social sciences, especially, risk management and risk communication here play a key role. Risk communication is an established concept within risk analysis frameworks. It is a vital tool to convey the meaning of scientific assessment and risk management, share safety related information, and exchange views and values amongst varying stakeholder groups. Risk communication aims at building trust through this process and human interactions. However, it would not be an overstatement that the essence of risk communication is not fully understood. As a result, it is either partially integrated into risk management practice or remains unconducive. The marginalisation of risk communication is observed in a variety of risk communication practices, or more evidently, in perception gaps between lays and experts about risks.

  10. THE EMOTIONAL PROSODY OF U.S. FATAL AIR-ACCIDENT DOCKETS ONLINE: RISKING RISK COMMUNICATION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Кармен Санчо Гинда

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available Risk communication is grounded in both rationality and emotion (Fischhoff & Kadvany 2011, Bo-holm & Corvellec 2014. Recent investigations have proved that emotions do affect risk and danger percep-tions by functioning as ‘mediators’ (Xie et al. 2011 and become important in decision-making. My study explores how emotion is induced by the National Transportation Safety Board of the United States of America (NTSB for short to influence the mentalities and behaviours of its broad mixed audience and thus increase risk prevention. With that research purpose in mind, I examine an electronic corpus of over 500 online samples of fatal aviation dockets issued yearly online by the NTSB between the time span 2010-2015 and contained in its website databases. The emotional engagement deployed to mediate the perceptions of risk and danger by the general public constitutes a unique genre among all other world transportation agencies, since through informative vividness it pursues to activate the processes of memory, inference (i.e. judgement and decision-making. I take Stubbs’ (2001 concept of ‘discursive prosody’ as point of departure and resort to a blended theoretical framework that combines Narratology, Corpus Linguistics, Critical Discourse Analysis, and Proximisation (Cap 2013 and Positioning (Harré & van Langenhove 1999 Theories. I will show that the NTSB’s emotional prosody is more rhetorical than lexical and that the narrative strategies of focalisation and speech representation play a salient role. To conclude I will reflect on some of the possible consequences of over-exploiting emotional engagement in risk communication.

  11. Donating blood for research: a potential method for enhancing customer satisfaction of permanently deferred blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Daniel; Thijsen, Amanda; Garradd, Allira; Hayman, Jane; Smith, Geoff

    2017-01-01

    Each year, a large number of individuals in Australia are deferred from donating blood. A deferral may have a negative impact on donor satisfaction and subsequent word-of-mouth communication. The Australian Red Cross Blood Service (the Blood Service) is, therefore, investigating options for managing service interactions with deferred donors to maintain positive relationships. While public research institutes in Australia have established independent research donor registries, other countries provide programmes allowing deferred donors to donate blood for research via blood collection agencies. This study examined attitudes towards donating blood for research use in a sample of permanently deferred Australian donors. Donors permanently deferred because of a risk of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (n=449) completed a postal survey that examined attitudes towards research donation. The majority of participants were interested in donating blood for research (96%), and joining a registry of research donors (93%). Participants preferred to donate for transfusion or clinical research, and were willing to travel large distances. Results indicated that positive attitudes towards the Blood Service would be extended if the opportunity to donate blood was provided. These findings indicate a desire for continued engagement with the Blood Service despite deferral. Donating blood for research is a potential way of maintaining positive relationships with permanently deferred donors which also benefits the health research community. Through maintaining positive relationships with deferred donors, positive word-of-mouth activity can be stimulated. Further work is needed to determine the feasibility of implementing research donation through the Blood Service in Australia.

  12. Vaccine Hesitancy: In Search of the Risk Communication Comfort Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Joshua; Dubé, Eve; Driedger, Michelle

    2017-03-03

    This paper reports the findings of a national online survey to parents of children aged 5 and younger. The objectives of the study were to assess parental understanding of childhood immunizations, identify sources of information that they trust for vaccine-related content, assess where parents with young children stand on the key issues in the public debate about vaccination, and identify which risk communication messages are most effective for influencing the behaviours of vaccine hesitant parents. A total of 1,000 surveys (closed and open-ended questions) were administered in November 2015 using the Angus Reid Forum Panel, a key consumer panel consisting of approximately 150,000 Canadian adults aged 18 and older, spread across all geographic regions of Canada. Approximately 92% of the Canadian parents surveyed consider vaccines safe and effective, and trust doctors and public health officials to provide timely and credible vaccine-related information. However, a concerning number of them either believe or are uncertain whether there is a link between vaccines and autism (28%), worry that vaccines might seriously harm their children (27%), or believe the pharmaceutical industry is behind the push for mandatory immunization (33%). Moreover, despite the common assumption that social media are becoming the go-to source of health news and information, most parents still rely on traditional media and official government websites for timely and credible information about vaccines and vaccine preventable diseases, particularly during community-based disease outbreaks. Finally, parents reported high levels of support for pro-vaccine messaging that has been demonstrated in previous research to have little to no positive impact on behaviour change, and may even be counterproductive. The study's results are highly relevant in a context where public health officials are expending significant resources to increase rates of childhood immunization and combat vaccine

  13. Evolution of human cytomegalovirus-seronegative donor/-seropositive recipient high-risk combination frequency in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantations at Institute of Hematology and Blood Transfusion during 1995-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeckova, S; Sroller, V; Stastna-Markova, M

    2016-04-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) establishes lifelong latent infection that can result in severe life-threatening disease in immunosuppressed patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). An HCMV-seropositive transplant recipient who receives a graft from a seronegative donor (R+/D-) is at high risk of recurrent HCMV reactivation. To assess the incidence of R+/D- combination, we retrospectively evaluated HCMV-seronegative donors for 746 allogeneic HSCT treatments carried out at our center during 1995-2014. In our cohort, 20% HCMV-seronegative HSCT recipients, 21% HCMV-seronegative related graft donors, and 52% HCMV-seronegative unrelated graft donors were included. Analyses of the HCMV serostatus of hematopoietic stem cell donors during 2 consecutive calendar periods (1995-2005 and 2006-2014) showed a significant increase in the proportion of seronegative donors (odds ratio [OR] = 1.947). In addition, the number of HSCT treatments using an unrelated donor increased (OR = 2.376). Finally, the use of grafts from countries with a very low HCMV prevalence increased. This increase in HCMV seronegativity in unrelated donors and the increased proportion of unrelated donors were responsible for the increased occurrence of the high-risk combination R+/D- (OR = 1.680). If the reduction in the rate of HCMV-seropositive graft donors continues, an increased frequency of HCMV reactivation events in our transplant recipients can be expected, because of the increasing occurrence of the high-risk R+/D- combination. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The TALKS study to improve communication, logistical, and financial barriers to live donor kidney transplantation in African Americans: protocol of a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strigo, Tara S; Ephraim, Patti L; Pounds, Iris; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Darrell, Linda; Ellis, Matthew; Sudan, Debra; Rabb, Hamid; Segev, Dorry; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Kaiser, Mary; Falkovic, Margaret; Lebov, Jill F; Boulware, L Ebony

    2015-10-09

    Live donor kidney transplantation (LDKT), an optimal therapy for many patients with end-stage kidney disease, is underutilized, particularly by African Americans. Potential recipient difficulties initiating and sustaining conversations about LDKT, identifying willing and medically eligible donors, and potential donors' logistical and financial hurdles have been cited as potential contributors to race disparities in LDKT. Few interventions specifically targeting these factors have been tested. We report the protocol of the Talking about Living Kidney Donation Support (TALKS) study, a study designed to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioral, educational and financial assistance interventions to improve access to LDKT among African Americans on the deceased donor kidney transplant recipient waiting list. We adapted a previously tested educational and social worker intervention shown to improve consideration and pursuit of LDKT among patients and their family members for its use among patients on the kidney transplant waiting list. We also developed a financial assistance intervention to help potential donors overcome logistical and financial challenges they might face during the pursuit of live kidney donation. We will evaluate the effectiveness of these interventions by conducting a randomized controlled trial in which patients on the deceased donor waiting list receive 1) usual care while on the transplant waiting list, 2) the educational and social worker intervention, or 3) the educational and social worker intervention plus the option of participating in the financial assistance program. The primary outcome of the randomized controlled trial will measure potential recipients' live kidney donor activation (a composite rate of live donor inquiries, completed new live donor evaluations, or live kidney donation) at 1 year. The TALKS study will rigorously assess the effectiveness of promising interventions to reduce race disparities in LDKT. NCT02369354.

  15. Suicidal hanging donors for lung transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananiadou, Olga; Schmack, Bastian; Zych, Bartlomiej; Sabashnikov, Anton; Garcia-Saez, Diana; Mohite, Prashant; Weymann, Alexander; Mansur, Ashham; Zeriouh, Mohamed; Marczin, Nandor; De Robertis, Fabio; Simon, Andre Rüdiger; Popov, Aron-Frederik

    2018-01-01

    Abstract In the context of limited donor pool in cardiothoracic transplantation, utilization of organs from high risk donors, such as suicidal hanging donors, while ensuring safety, is under consideration. We sought to evaluate the outcomes of lung transplantations (LTx) that use organs from this group. Between January 2011 and December 2015, 265 LTx were performed at our center. Twenty-two recipients received lungs from donors after suicidal hanging (group 1). The remaining 243 transplantations were used as a control (group 2). Analysis of recipient and donor characteristics as well as outcomes was performed. No statistically significant difference was found in the donor characteristics between analyzed groups, except for higher incidence of cardiac arrest, younger age and smoking history of hanging donors (P donor cause of death is not associated with poor mid-term survival or chronic lung allograft dysfunction following transplantation. These results encourage assessment of lungs from hanging donors, and their consideration for transplantation. PMID:29620623

  16. Is knowledge important? Empirical research on nuclear risk communication in two countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perko, Tanja; Zeleznik, Nadja; Turcanu, Catrinel; Thijssen, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Increasing audience knowledge is often set as a primary objective of risk communication efforts. But is it worthwhile focusing risk communication strategies solely on enhancing specific knowledge? The main research questions tackled in this paper were: (1) if prior audience knowledge related to specific radiation risks is influential for the perception of these risks and the acceptance of communicated messages and (2) if gender, attitudes, risk perception of other radiation risks, confidence in authorities, and living in the vicinity of nuclear/radiological installations may also play an important role in this matter. The goal of this study was to test empirically the mentioned predictors in two independent case studies in different countries. The first case study was an information campaign for iodine pre-distribution in Belgium (N = 1035). The second was the information campaign on long-term radioactive waste disposal in Slovenia (N = 1,200). In both cases, recurrent and intensive communication campaigns were carried out by the authorities aiming, among other things, at increasing specific audience knowledge. Results show that higher prior audience knowledge leads to more willingness to accept communicated messages, but it does not affect people’s perception of the specific risk communicated. In addition, the influence of prior audience knowledge on the acceptance of communicated messages is shown to be no stronger than that of general radiation risk perception. The results in both case studies suggest that effective risk communication has to focus not only on knowledge but also on other more heuristic predictors, such as risk perception or attitudes toward communicated risks.

  17. Exploring risk communication - results of a research project focussed on effectiveness evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrière, Marie; Bogaard, Thom; Junier, Sandra; Mostert, Erik

    2016-04-01

    The need for effective science communication and outreach efforts is widely acknowledged in the academic community. In the field of Disaster Risk Reduction, the importance of communication is clearly stressed, e.g. in the newly adopted Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (under the 1st priority of action: understanding disaster risk). Consequently, we see increasing risk communication activities. However, the effectiveness of these activities is rarely evaluated. To address this gap, several research activities were conducted in the context of the Marie Curie Initial Training Network "Changes", the results of which we will present and discuss. First, results of a literature review show, among others, that research on effectiveness is mainly focussed on the assessment of users' needs and their ability to understand the content, rather than on the final impact of the risk communication efforts. Moreover, lab-environment research is more often undertaken than assessment of real communication efforts. Second, a comparison between perceptions of risk managers and the general public of risk communication in a French Alps Valley highlighted a gap between the two groups in terms of amount of information needed (who wants more), the important topics to address (what) and the media to use (how). Third, interviews with developers of smartphone applications for disseminating avalanche risk information showed a variety of current practices and the absence of measurements of real their effectiveness. However, our analysis allowed identifying good practices that can be an inspiration for risk communication related to other hazards. Fourth, an exhibition has been set up following a collaborative approached based on stakeholder engagement. Using a pre/post-test design, the immediate impact of the exhibition, which aimed at increasing the risk awareness of the population (Ubaye Valley, France), was measured. The data obtained suggests that visiting the exhibition

  18. Risk perspective on final disposal of nuclear waste. Individuals, society and communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblad, Inga-Britt

    2007-01-01

    This report tries to evaluate the importance of the risk perspective in connection with final storage of nuclear waste. The concept 'risk' has different importance for experts and general public, within different research directions and among stakeholders in the nuclear waste issue. The report has been published in order to give an interdisciplinary scientific perspective on the risk concept. The authors have their background in different disciplines: radiation physics, psychology, media- and communications-science. The report treats four different themes: The first theme concerns perspectives on the risk concept and describes various principles for how risks can be handled in the society. The next theme is about comparing various risks. This section shows that risk comparisons can to be done within the framework of a scientific attitude and during certain given conditions. The third theme elucidates results from research about subjective risk, and shows that a large number of factors influence how risks are considered by individuals, and can influence his risk behavior and also how the individual means that the society will make decisions in risk-related questions. The fourth and last theme is about risk communication. Since the risk concept contains many different aspects it is clear that risk should not only be informed about, but also communicated. If a purely mathematical definition of risk was the only valid form, such information, from experts to the citizens, would possibly be sufficient. But since there are other relevant factors to take into consideration (t.ex the individual's own values), a communicative process must take place, i.e. the citizens should have influence on how risks are compared and managed. In the final theme, the authors have chosen to reflect around the themes above, i.e. different perspectives on the risk concept, risk comparisons, subjective risk view and risk communication are discussed

  19. Citizen perceptions of information flow around a nuclear facility: A study in risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, M.O.

    1997-01-01

    Responses of focus group members from the region around a Nuclear Facility provide the data for this qualitative study concerning citizen perceptions of available site information. Analyses of three of the focus group discussion questions and the answers they elicited showed a dominant perception among participants of insufficient easily available information about the site. These respondents also indicated that most of them obtain site information through mass media and hearsay, that many lack trust in the information they have and would trust only an independent entity to provide accurate information. A new area in communication studies, variously called environmental risk communication, risk communication and health risk communication, continues to evolve among those working in various allied disciplines, some far removed from communication. As science attempts to solve environmental problems caused by technological advances, this field acquires numerous practitioners. Some of these risk communication experts may however, be overlooking basic and necessary components of effective communication, because their expertise is in another discipline. One result of this can be communication breakdown in which those involved, assume that meaning is shared, when in fact the opposite is true. This paper seeks to clarify a necessary ingredient of effective interpersonal risk communication, using data obtained from citizens living around one of the nation's nuclear facilities as an example

  20. Benefits, challenges, and best practices for involving audiences in the development of interactive coastal risk communication tools: Professional communicators' experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, S. H.; DeLorme, D.

    2017-12-01

    To make scientific information useful and usable to audiences, communicators must understand audience needs, expectations, and future applications. This presentation synthesizes benefits, challenges, and best practices resulting from a qualitative social science interview study of nine professionals on their experiences developing interactive visualization tools for communicating about coastal environmental risks. Online interactive risk visualization tools, such as flooding maps, are used to provide scientific information about the impacts of coastal hazards. These tools have a wide range of audiences and purposes, including time-sensitive emergency communication, infrastructure and natural resource planning, and simply starting a community conversation about risks. Thus, the science, purposes, and audiences of these tools require a multifaceted communication strategy. In order to make these tools useable and accepted by their audiences, many professional development teams solicit target end-user input or incorporate formal user-centered design into the development process. This presentation will share results of seven interviews with developers of U.S. interactive coastal risk communication tools, ranging from state-level to international in scope. Specific techniques and procedures for audience input that were used in these projects will be discussed, including ad-hoc conversations with users, iterative usability testing with project stakeholder groups, and other participatory mechanisms. The presentation will then focus on benefits, challenges, and recommendations for best practice that the interviewees disclosed about including audiences in their development projects. Presentation attendees will gain an understanding of different procedures and techniques that professionals employ to involve end-users in risk tool development projects, as well as important considerations and recommendations for effectively involving audiences in science communication design.

  1. Outcome of Transplantation Using Organs From Donors Infected or Colonized With Carbapenem-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mularoni, A; Bertani, A; Vizzini, G; Gona, F; Campanella, M; Spada, M; Gruttadauria, S; Vitulo, P; Conaldi, P; Luca, A; Gridelli, B; Grossi, P

    2015-10-01

    Donor-derived infections due to multidrug-resistant bacteria are a growing problem in solid organ transplantation, and optimal management options are not clear. In a 2-year period, 30/214 (14%) recipients received an organ from 18/170 (10.5%) deceased donors with infection or colonization caused by a carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria that was unknown at the time of transplantation. Among them, 14/30 recipients (47%) received a transplant from a donor with bacteremia or with infection/colonization of the transplanted organ and were considered at high risk of donor-derived infection transmission. The remaining 16/30 (53%) recipients received an organ from a nonbacteremic donor with colonization of a nontransplanted organ and were considered at low risk of infection transmission. Proven transmission occurred in 4 of the 14 high-risk recipients because donor infection was either not recognized, underestimated, or not communicated. These recipients received late, short or inappropriate posttransplant antibiotic therapy. Transmission did not occur in high-risk recipients who received appropriate and prompt antibiotic therapy for at least 7 days. The safe use of organs from donors with multidrug-resistant bacteria requires intra- and inter-institutional communication to allow appropriate management and prompt treatment of recipients in order to avoid transmission of infection. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  2. Communicating about the Risks of Terrorism (or Anything Else)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischhoff, Baruch

    2011-01-01

    Communication is essential to preventing terrorists from achieving their objectives. Effective communication can reduce terrorists' chances of mounting successful operations, creating threats that disrupt everyday life, and undermining the legitimacy of the societies that they attack. Psychological research has essential roles to play in that…

  3. Downsizing Technical Communication Staff: The Risk to Corporate Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smudde, Peter M.

    1993-01-01

    Notes that companies responding to the struggling economy are downsizing staff, including technical communicators. Maintains that such cutbacks affect not only employee confidence and productivity but also product quality, customer satisfaction, and future sales. States that technical communicators' critical knowledge is an asset that companies…

  4. Social media as a useful tool in food risk and benefit communication? A strategic orientation approach

    OpenAIRE

    Verbeke, W.; Santare, D.; Guzzon, A.; Lozano, N.; Lores, M.; Kuttschreuter, M.; McConnon, Á.; Regan, Á.; Pieniak, Z.; Rutsaert, P.

    2014-01-01

    10.1016/j.foodpol.2014.02.003 Although considerable progress has been made in understanding the determinants of risk perception and in identifying the necessary components of effective food risk and benefit communication, this has not been matched with the development of efficient and appropriate communication tools. Little work has been done examining the implications of the explosion of new media and web technologies, which may offer potential for improving food risk and benefit communi...

  5. The experiment of affective web risk communication on HLW geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugo, Akihide; Yoshikawa, Eiwa; Wakabayashi, Yasunaga; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Uda, Akinobu; Ito, Kyoko

    2006-01-01

    Dialog mode web contents regarding the HLW risk is effective to altruism. To make it more effectively, we introduced affective elements such as facial expression of character agents and sympathetic response on the BBS by experts, which brought us smooth risk communication. This paper describes the result of preliminary experiments surrounding the affective ways to communicate on the risk of HLW geological disposal, leading to enhance the social cooperation, and the public open experiment for one month on the Web. (author)

  6. Multi-dimensional perspectives of flood risk - using a participatory framework to develop new approaches to flood risk communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollason, Edward; Bracken, Louise; Hardy, Richard; Large, Andy

    2017-04-01

    Flooding is a major hazard across Europe which, since, 1998 has caused over €52 million in damages and displaced over half a million people. Climate change is predicted to increase the risks posed by flooding in the future. The 2007 EU Flood Directive cemented the use of flood risk maps as a central tool in understanding and communicating flood risk. Following recent flooding in England, an urgent need to integrate people living at risk from flooding into flood management approaches, encouraging flood resilience and the up-take of resilient activities has been acknowledged. The effective communication of flood risk information plays a major role in allowing those at risk to make effective decisions about flood risk and increase their resilience, however, there are emerging concerns over the effectiveness of current approaches. The research presented explores current approaches to flood risk communication in England and the effectiveness of these methods in encouraging resilient actions before and during flooding events. The research also investigates how flood risk communications could be undertaken more effectively, using a novel participatory framework to integrate the perspectives of those living at risk. The research uses co-production between local communities and researchers in the environmental sciences, using a participatory framework to bring together local knowledge of flood risk and flood communications. Using a local competency group, the research explores what those living at risk from flooding want from flood communications in order to develop new approaches to help those at risk understand and respond to floods. Suggestions for practice are refined by the communities to co-produce recommendations. The research finds that current approaches to real-time flood risk communication fail to forecast the significance of predicted floods, whilst flood maps lack detailed information about how floods occur, or use scientific terminology which people at risk

  7. Donor-derived infections in solid organ transplant patients: toward a holistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benamu, Esther; Wolfe, Cameron R; Montoya, José G

    2017-08-01

    Solid organ demand far exceeds organ supply. Strategies to increase the donor pool include the liberalization of selection criteria without increasing the risk of unexpected donor-derived infection (DDI), a rare complication of transplantation carrying high morbidity and mortality. We review the challenging aspects in the prevention of DDI, focusing on the complexities of data sharing and efficient communication and the role infectious diseases specialists play in the process. Advances in donor screening, transmission recognition and reporting allow for a better estimation of the risk of DDI. However, there is great variability in the frequency and methods with which organ procurement organizations report transmission events.Moreover, the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients provides limited donor and recipient outcome infectious diseases related data. Infectious disease contribution to the allocation process has been found to improve organ donation efficiency and communication between involved parties. Although communication gaps are strongly associated with infection transmission (relative risk 2.36%, confidence interval 1.48-3.78), effective communication minimizes or prevents infection in transplant recipients (X(1) 13.13, P = 0.0003). Prospective research is still required to define optimal screening protocols and further prevent transmission of infection. A holistic approach is likely to result in enhanced transplantation safety. Toward this goal, development of standards of investigation; improvement in reporting and data sharing; and strategies ensuring coordinated and rapid communication among parties involved in the allocation process need to be pursued.

  8. The distinction between risk and hazard: understanding and use in stakeholder communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Dirk; Benighaus, Christina; Benighaus, Ludger; Renn, Ortwin; Gold, Stefan; Röder, Bettina; Böl, Gaby-Fleur

    2014-07-01

    A major issue in all risk communication efforts is the distinction between the terms "risk" and "hazard." The potential to harm a target such as human health or the environment is normally defined as a hazard, whereas risk also encompasses the probability of exposure and the extent of damage. What can be observed again and again in risk communication processes are misunderstandings and communication gaps related to these crucial terms. We asked a sample of 53 experts from public authorities, business and industry, and environmental and consumer organizations in Germany to outline their understanding and use of these terms using both the methods of expert interviews and focus groups. The empirical study made clear that the terms risk and hazard are perceived and used very differently in risk communication depending on the perspective of the stakeholders. Several factors can be identified, such as responsibility for hazard avoidance, economic interest, or a watchdog role. Thus, communication gaps can be reduced to a four-fold problem matrix comprising a semantic, conceptual, strategic, and control problem. The empirical study made clear that risks and hazards are perceived very differently depending on the stakeholders' perspective. Their own worldviews played a major role in their specific use of the two terms hazards and risks in communication. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Risk Perception and Risk Communication for Training Women Apprentice Welders: A Challenge for Public Health Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Alves Bonow

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research has aimed to identify the perceptions of women apprentice welders about physical, chemical, biological, and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed and evaluate the identification of health disorders self-reported for women apprentice welders before and after implementation of a nursing socioenvironmental intervention. A quantitative study was performed with 27 women apprentice welders (first phase and before and after an intervention with 18 women (second phase in Southern Brazil in 2011. The data were analysed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: physical (96.2%, chemical (96.2%, physiological (88.8%, and biological (62.9%. The results show a significant difference of the pre- and posttest averages for the musculoskeletal system and a posttest average increase for the integumentary, respiratory, and auditory system. A correlation of the women apprentices’ ages and the identification of health disorders were made. It was understood that the perception of women apprentices regarding a particular set of occupational risks is essential for public health nursing to develop an effective risk communication as a positive tool for teaching and learning.

  10. Risk Perception and Risk Communication for Training Women Apprentice Welders: A Challenge for Public Health Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonow, Clarice Alves; Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; de Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; Borges, Anelise Miritz; Piexak, Diéssica Roggia; Vaz, Joana Cezar

    2013-01-01

    This research has aimed to identify the perceptions of women apprentice welders about physical, chemical, biological, and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed and evaluate the identification of health disorders self-reported for women apprentice welders before and after implementation of a nursing socioenvironmental intervention. A quantitative study was performed with 27 women apprentice welders (first phase) and before and after an intervention with 18 women (second phase) in Southern Brazil in 2011. The data were analysed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: physical (96.2%), chemical (96.2%), physiological (88.8%), and biological (62.9%). The results show a significant difference of the pre- and posttest averages for the musculoskeletal system and a posttest average increase for the integumentary, respiratory, and auditory system. A correlation of the women apprentices' ages and the identification of health disorders were made. It was understood that the perception of women apprentices regarding a particular set of occupational risks is essential for public health nursing to develop an effective risk communication as a positive tool for teaching and learning. PMID:24288604

  11. Effective doses and standardised risk factors from paediatric diagnostic medical radiation exposures: Information for radiation risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibbo, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    In the paediatric medical radiation setting, there is no consistency on the radiation risk information conveyed to the consumer (patient/carer). Each communicator may convey different information about the level of risk for the same radiation procedure, leaving the consumer confused and frustrated. There is a need to standardise risks resulting from medical radiation exposures. In this study, paediatric radiographic, fluoroscopic, CT and nuclear medicine examination data have been analysed to provide (i) effective doses and radiation induced cancer risk factors from common radiological and nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures in standardised formats, (II) awareness of the difficulties that may be encountered in communicating risks to the layperson, and (iii) an overview of the deleterious effects of ionising radiation so that the risk communicator can convey with confidence the risks resulting from medical radiation exposures. Paediatric patient dose data from general radiographic, computed tomography, fluoroscopic and nuclear medicine databases have been analysed in age groups 0 to <5 years, 5 to <10 years, 10 to <15 years and 15 to <18 years to determine standardised risk factors. Mean, minimum and maximum effective doses and the corresponding mean lifetime risks for general radiographic, fluoroscopic, CT and nuclear medicine examinations for different age groups have been calculated. For all examinations, the mean lifetime cancer induction risk is provided in three formats: statistical, fraction and category. Standardised risk factors for different radiological and nuclear medicine examinations and an overview of the deleterious effects of ionising radiation and the difficulties encountered in communicating the risks should facilitate risk communication to the patient/carer.

  12. 21 CFR 1271.75 - How do I screen a donor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., including: (i) Human immunodeficiency virus; (ii) Hepatitis B virus; (iii) Hepatitis C virus; (iv) Human... diseases, including Human T-lymphotropic virus. (c) Donors of reproductive cells or tissue. In addition to... this section; or (2) Any communicable disease risk associated with xenotransplantation. (e) Abbreviated...

  13. Risk Communication Strategies: Lessons Learned from Previous Disasters with a Focus on the Fukushima Radiation Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Erik R; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Tsuda, Toshihide; Guimaraes, Jean Remy Davee; Tondel, Martin

    2016-12-01

    It has been difficult to both mitigate the health consequences and effectively provide health risk information to the public affected by the Fukushima radiological disaster. Often, there are contrasting public health ethics within these activities which complicate risk communication. Although no risk communication strategy is perfect in such disasters, the ethical principles of risk communication provide good practical guidance. These discussions will be made in the context of similar lessons learned after radiation exposures in Goiania, Brazil, in 1987; the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, Ukraine, in 1986; and the attack at the World Trade Center, New York, USA, in 2001. Neither of the two strategies is perfect nor fatally flawed. Yet, this discussion and lessons from prior events should assist decision makers with navigating difficult risk communication strategies in similar environmental health disasters.

  14. Effect of science communication with the public on inference of risk perception of science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosugi, Motoko

    2006-01-01

    Our previous study showed a big difference between expert's own risk perception and experts' inference of the public risk perception about technologies. So, this study tried to clarify the effect of the perceived distance in risk perception between the public and experts themselves on forwardness in science communication to the public. The questionnaire survey results reaffirmed that experts were inclined to feel larger difference in risk perception between the public and themselves on the subject of their own specialty than of non-specialty. The result also suggested the tendency that the bigger experts recognized difference in risk perception from the public, the less they actually had experiences of science communication including communication with the public. Moreover, the result showed that experiences of science communication had positive effects on belief of the public's scientific literacy. (author)

  15. Glacial hazards: communicating the science and managing the risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    these scientific applications. Communicating the science to students and trying to excite them to the fun of applying these scientific disciplines in the field are important as part of science outreach. It is also important to communicate the science to those in government (local and national) within those countries affected by such hazards and to international funding agencies. There are two issues here: (a) using the media to a positive effect without alarming vulnerable and sensitive communities, and (b) providing the appropriate authorities with the necessary technical information about the hazards, their potential effects if catastrophe strikes, and how to manage the risk in an effective and timely fashion. For (a) where this is not handled correctly, the media are still ever too keen to headline potential catastrophes and unwittingly cause alarm among local communities. The so-called Palcacocha fiasco in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, in April 2003 and the Imja Tsho media flurry of May 2008 in Nepal are but two recent examples. For (b) there needs to be a programme of interaction through workshops between the scientific community and key stakeholders in affected countries. Where these have been undertaken, such as in Bhutan, Nepal and Peru, the outcomes have been extremely productive and beneficial. However, much remains to be done in ensuring that authorities and funding agencies, for example, are aware of existing international guidelines on the assessment of glacial hazards that use objective methodologies, such as those funded by the British Government and published in 2003 (see www.geologyuk.com/mountain_ hazards_group/dfid.htm from which the guidelines can be downloaded in PDF format). Similar workshops, for example, are also being developed separately in Austria by the Glacier and Permafrost Hazard (GAPHAZ) Working Group and in Bhutan by the UNDP.

  16. Media coverage of Fukushima accident in the Russian press. Lessons for radiation emergency risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melikhova, E.; Arutyunyan, R.

    2014-01-01

    The paper reviews recent results of content analysis of the Russian press and data of all-Russia public opinion polls on the subject of the Fukushima accident and discusses them in the wider context of challenges in communication of 'no risk' messages to the public in the case of a nuclear accident. Radiation risk regulation base in the low dose range is proposed to be one of the main obstacles for the communication and a new approach to emergency risk communication is proposed. (author)

  17. Heart transplantation from older donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Poptsov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current situation of the shortage of suitable donor organs, heart transplantation from older donors is one of the ways to increase the performance of more heart transplants, particularly, in patients with urgent need of transplantation. While planning a heart transplantation from older donor one should consider increased risk of early cardiac allograft dysfunction, preexisting coronary artery disease, accelerated transplant vasculopathy which may adversely affect early and long-term survival of recipients. Subject to careful selection of donor–recipient pairs, effective prevention and treatment of early cardiac allograft dysfunction, pre-existing atherosclerosis and transplant vasculopathy the early and long-term survival of heart transplant recipients from older donors is comparable to heart transplantation from young donors.

  18. Risk-communication capability for public health emergencies varies by community diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswanath Kasisomayajula

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health emergencies heighten several challenges in risk-communication: providing trustworthy sources of information, reaching marginalized populations, and minimizing fear and public confusion. In emergencies, however, information may not diffuse equally among all social groups, and gaps in knowledge may increase. Such knowledge gaps vary by social structure and the size, socioeconomic status, and diversity of the population. This study explores the relationship between risk-communication capabilities, as perceived by public officials participating in emergency tabletop exercises, and community size and diversity. Findings For each of the three communication functions tested, risk-communication capabilities are perceived to be greater in communities with fewer then 10% of the population speaking a language other than English at home, decreasing as the percentage grows to 20% (ANOVA P ≤ 0.02. With respect to community size, however, we found an N-shaped relationship between perceived risk communication capabilities and population size. Capabilities are perceived highest in the largest communities and lowest in the smallest, but lower in communities with 20,000–49,999 inhabitants compared to those with 2,500–19,999. Conclusion The results of this study suggest the need to factor population diversity into risk communication plans and the need for improved state or regional risk-communication capabilities, especially for communities with limited local capacity.

  19. When "Safe" Means "Dangerous": A Corpus Investigation of Risk Communication in the Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chris; Rundblad, Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    The mass media has an important role in informing the general public about emerging health risks. Content-based studies of risk communication in the media have revealed a tendency to exaggerate risks or simplify science, but linguistic studies in this area are still scarce. This paper outlines a corpus based investigation of media reporting on the…

  20. Facilitation of risk communication during the anthrax attacks of 2001: the organizational backstory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chess, Caron; Clarke, Lee

    2007-09-01

    The anthrax attacks of 2001 created risk communication problems that cannot be fully understood without appreciating the dynamics among organizations. Case studies of communication in New Jersey, consisting of interviews with a range of participants, found that existing organizational and professional networks facilitated trust among decisionmakers. This interpersonal trust improved communication among agencies and thereby risk communication with the public. For example, "white powder scares" were a problem even in places without contamination. Professionals' trust in each other was vital for responding productively. Conversely, organizational challenges, including conflict among agencies, hindered communication with key audiences. Although centralization and increased control are often seen as the remedy for communicative confusion, they also can quash the improvisational responses needed during crises.

  1. New trends in communicating risk and cultivating resilience: a multi-disciplinary approach to global environmental risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, Y. Y.; Eichelberger, J. C.; Rupp, S. T.; Taylor, K.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing extent and vulnerability of technologically advanced society together with aspects of global climate change intensifies the frequency and severity of natural disasters. Every year, communities around the world face the devastating consequences of hazardous events, including loss of life, property and infrastructure damage, and environmental decline. In this session, we will introduce a new book, entitled New Trends in Communicating Risk and Cultivating Resilience, which is dedicated to those who have directly or indirectly suffered the effects of climate change extreme events with the hope that the advance of knowledge, implementation of sound science and appropriate policies, and use of effective communication will help in reducing their vulnerability while also improving resilience in the face of often devastating natural hazards. This book comprises manuscripts from those whose research, advocacy, work, teaching, or service in the natural or social sciences deals with risk communication and/or management surrounding natural disasters, with a particular focus on climate change-related phenomena. This book is arranged into five sections: The Role of Communication in Fostering Resilient Communities (Reframing the conversation about natural hazards and climate change with a new focus on resilience)Before the Disaster: Prediction, Preparation, and Crisis Communication (The role of communication in predicting and preparing for the unpredictable regarding natural disasters)Mitigating Circumstances: Living Through Change, Uncertainty, and Disaster (Mitigation and the role of communication in minimizing the damage during natural disasters and during an era of climate change)After the Disaster: Response and Recovery Communication (The role of communication after natural disasters)Looking Back and Learning Forward: Best and Worst Practices Exposed (Considering risk and resilience communication of natural disasters with one eye on best practices and one eye

  2. Preliminary survey for communicating risk in medical exposure. Perception of risk among nurses working in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Reiko; Tsuji, Satsuki; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2008-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was conducted on radiation risk and medical exposure, particularly in applications involving children. The survey was targeted at nurses (170 females) engaged in important roles in communicating risk regarding medical exposure. The questionnaire survey yielded the following findings. A significant number of respondents associated the word radiation' with 'cancer treatment,' 'exposure,' and 'X-ray pictures.' Perceptions about 'food exposure' differed between respondents with children and those without. Among the potential health problems posed by radiation, effects on children,' 'cancer and leukemia,' and 'genetic effects' were perceived as the most worrisome. Significant differences in perception were noted regarding infertility between respondents with children and those without. Concerning the effects of medical exposure on fetuses/children, only 10 percent of all respondents replied that they were not anxious about negative effects in either case. Among the respondents who felt uneasy about these aspects, most tended to assess exposed parts, doses, damage potentially suffered, timing of occurrence, and uncertainty, based on their professional experience and knowledge, to rationally distinguish acceptable risks from unacceptable ones and to limit concern to the unacceptable aspects. (author)

  3. Relative risk perception for terrorism: implications for preparedness and risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponecchia, Carlo

    2012-09-01

    Terrorism presents a significant risk that is often approached at public policy, infrastructure, or emergency management level. Public perceptions of the likelihood of terrorist events, and how this may relate to individual preparedness, are not always extensively examined. The tendency to think that negative events are less likely to happen to oneself than to the average person is known as optimism bias. Optimism bias is relevant to perceptions of terrorism, because it is thought to be related to a reduction in precaution use. Using an online survey of 164 participants, this study aimed to determine whether Sydney residents thought they had a lower likelihood of experiencing terrorist events than other Australians. Significant optimism bias was observed for witnessing terrorist events, but not for personally experiencing terrorist events. In addition, Sydney residents tended to think that terrorist attacks were more likely to occur in Sydney than another major Australian city in the next five years. At the same time, household and workplace preparedness for terrorism was quite low, as was awareness of emergency strategies in the central business district. Perceptions of high likelihood of terrorism happening in one's own city, yet low preparedness present a challenge for risk communication and emergency management strategies. The diversity of possible terrorist targets, and the simple plans that can moderate the effects of a disaster may need to be emphasized in future anti-terrorism initiatives. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Communicating genetic risk information for common disorders in the era of genomic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenbach, Denise M; Christensen, Kurt D; Sparks, Jeffrey A; Green, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    Communicating genetic risk information in ways that maximize understanding and promote health is increasingly important given the rapidly expanding availability and capabilities of genomic technologies. A well-developed literature on risk communication in general provides guidance for best practices, including presentation of information in multiple formats, attention to framing effects, use of graphics, sensitivity to the way numbers are presented, parsimony of information, attentiveness to emotions, and interactivity as part of the communication process. Challenges to communicating genetic risk information include deciding how best to tailor it, streamlining the process, deciding what information to disclose, accepting that communications may have limited influence, and understanding the impact of context. Meeting these challenges has great potential for empowering individuals to adopt healthier lifestyles and improve public health, but will require multidisciplinary approaches and collaboration.

  5. Communicating with the public about the risks of naturally occurring asbestos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Hooker

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To explore the application of evidence based risk communication to community messaging about naturally occurring asbestos (NOA. Type of program or service: Risk communication education about NOA. Methods: We apply principles and determinants of risk communication to the topic of NOA. Results: We emphasise the importance of erring on the side of transparency and trust, even when officials may be concerned about inadvertently heightening needless public concern. We offer a range of practical suggestions for how to lower public concern and outrage relating to the issue of NOA when it arises in local contexts. Lessons learnt: Public concern and outrage can be reduced by favouring early and frequent communication, awareness and use of the ‘rule of threes’ in media communication, open acknowledgement of uncertainty, prioritising response to community concern above narrow myth-busting strategies, and supporting community action.

  6. Donor selection criteria and procurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agcaoili, N.R.

    1999-01-01

    Donor selection is one of the most important aspects of tissue banking practice. Without a good donor selection criteria, the results of any effort of trying to preserve tissues will have disastrous outcome for the recipient of these tissues. While with a very good and strict donor selection the Tissue Bank can guarantee safe and effective tissue allografts. There are significant aspects in the history and physical examination of the donor that must be emphasized. A donor exclusion criteria has also been formulated together with a list of all the needed laboratory examinations to eliminate possible diseases that may be transferred from the donor. The methods of procurement of tissue allografts from living and cadaver donors will be described. The limitations and advantages of each will be taken.There are also special restrictions that are important in the practice of removing the tissues from the donors. All the necessary equipment should be ready and the potential risk on the personnel should be known to all doing Tissue Banking

  7. Toward understanding the active SETI debate: Insights from risk communication and perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbitz, Adam

    2014-12-01

    Insights from the robust field of risk communication and perception have to date been almost totally absent from the policy debate regarding the relative risks and merits of Active SETI or Messaging to Extraterrestrial Intelligence (METI). For many years, the practice (or proposed practice) of Active SETI has generated a vigorous and sometimes heated policy debate within the scientific community. There have also been some negative reactions in the media toward the activities of those engaged in Active SETI. Risk communication is a scientific approach to communication regarding situations involving potentially sensitive or controversial situations in which there may be high public concern and low public trust. The discipline has found wide acceptance and utility in fields such as public health, industrial regulation and environmental protection. Insights from the scientific field of risk communication (such as omission bias, loss aversion, the availability heuristic, probability neglect, and the general human preference for voluntary over involuntary risks) may help those who have participated in either side of the debate over Active SETI to better understand why the debate has taken on this posture. Principles of risk communication and risk perception may also help those engaged in Active SETI to communicate more effectively with other scientists, the public, with the media, and with policy makers regarding their activities and to better understand and respond to concerns expressed regarding the activity.

  8. Teenage partners' communication about sexual risk and condom use: the importance of parent-teenager discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, D J; Miller, K S; May, D C; Levin, M L

    1999-01-01

    Teenagers' communication with their partners about sex and their use of condoms may be influenced by the discussions teenagers have with their parents about sex. However, little is known about the process of parent-teenager communication on this topic. Understanding both what parents discuss with their children and how they discuss it may lead to a greater understanding of teenagers' sexual behavior. Interviews were conducted with 372 sexually active black and Hispanic youth aged 14-17 from Alabama, New York and Puerto Rico. Regression analyses were used to examine parent-teenager discussions about sexuality and about sexual risk, and parental communication skills as predictors of teenagers' discussions about sexual risk with a partner and teenagers' condom use. Parent-teenager discussions about sexuality and sexual risk were associated with an increased likelihood of teenager-partner discussions about sexual risk and of teenagers' condom use, but only if parents were open, skilled and comfortable in having those discussions. Teenagers' communication with their partner about sexual risk also was associated with greater condom use, but the relationship between parent-teenager communication and teenagers' condom use was independent of this association. The influence on teenagers of parent-teenager discussions about sexuality and sexual risk depends on both what parents say and how they say it. Programs that foster parent-teenager communication about sexuality and sexual risk must emphasize both of these aspects.

  9. Risk and Outbreak Communication: Lessons from Taiwan's Experiences in the Post-SARS Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Chen; Chen, Yu-Ling; Wei, Han-Ning; Yang, Yu-Wen; Chen, Ying-Hwei

    In addition to the impact of a disease itself, public reaction could be considered another outbreak to be controlled during an epidemic. Taiwan's experience with SARS in 2003 highlighted the critical role played by the media during crisis communication. After the SARS outbreak, Taiwan's Centers for Disease Control (Taiwan CDC) followed the WHO outbreak communication guidelines on trust, early announcements, transparency, informing the public, and planning, in order to reform its risk communication systems. This article describes the risk communication framework in Taiwan, which has been used to respond to the 2009-2016 influenza epidemics, Ebola in West Africa (2014-16), and MERS-CoV in South Korea (2015) during the post-SARS era. Many communication strategies, ranging from traditional media to social and new media, have been implemented to improve transparency in public communication and promote civic engagement. Taiwan CDC will continue to maintain the strengths of its risk communication systems and resolve challenges as they emerge through active evaluation and monitoring of public opinion to advance Taiwan's capacity in outbreak communication and control. Moreover, Taiwan CDC will continue to implement the IHR (2005) and to promote a global community working together to fight shared risks and to reach the goal of "One World, One Health."

  10. Risks for communication delays and disorders in infants in an urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... factors associated with communication disorders in South Africa is limited. Objective. To identify and describe risk factors for communication delays in infants 0 - 12 months of age at Daspoort Polyclinic in Gauteng. Methods. A structured interview schedule was utilised to conduct an interview with the caregiver participants.

  11. Parental Expertise, Trustworthiness, and Accessibility: Parent-Adolescent Communication and Adolescent Risk Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Jaccard, James; Dittus, Patricia; Bouris, Alida, M.

    2006-01-01

    A communication framework of persuasion and attitude change was utilized to analyze parent-adolescent communication about adolescent risk behavior. Three parent dimensions were deemed important: (a) perceived expertise, (b) perceived trustworthiness, and (c) perceived accessibility. Data were collected in surveys from 668 mother-adolescent dyads…

  12. Risk managements' communicative effects influencing IT project success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bakker, Karel; Boonstra, Albert; Wortmann, Hans

    The central question of this research is if, and how, risk management contributes to the success of IS/IT projects. Risk management is used regularly in IT projects, despite indications in literature that risk management only occasionally contributes to IT project success. Drawing on Habermas we

  13. Communicating Risks and Benefits in Informed Consent for Research: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusbaum, Lika; Douglas, Brenda; Damus, Karla; Paasche-Orlow, Michael; Estrella-Luna, Neenah

    2017-01-01

    Multiple studies have documented major limitations in the informed consent process for the recruitment of clinical research participants. One challenging aspect of this process is successful communication of risks and benefits to potential research participants. This study explored the opinions and attitudes of informed consent experts about conveying risks and benefits to inform the development of a survey about the perspectives of research nurses who are responsible for obtaining informed consent for clinical trials. The major themes identified were strategies for risks and benefits communication, ensuring comprehension, and preparation for the role of the consent administrator. From the experts’ perspective, inadequate education and training of the research staff responsible for informed consent process contribute to deficiencies in the informed consent process and risks and benefits communication. Inconsistencies in experts’ opinions and critique of certain widely used communication practices require further consideration and additional research. PMID:28975139

  14. The Unspoken Consequence of Command, Control Communications Technology: Enhanced Micromanagement by Risk-Averse Commanders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carozza, John

    2004-01-01

    .... However, along with its benefits, this command, control and communications (C3) network includes the dangerous consequence of eroding the autonomy of tactical command through enhanced micromanagement by risk-averse operational commanders...

  15. The third experiment of operation and evaluation of online risk communication assistant tool, 'ORCAT'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsumura, Soichiro; Kimura, Hiroshi; Furuta, Kazuo; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Risk communication about the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal is necessary for public acceptance of HLW disposal program. Online Risk Communication Assistant Tool (ORCAT) system is developed in order to support risk communication for HLW disposal on World Wide Web. We have been evaluating ORCAT system. After two test operations, we carried out the third test operation from Aug. 29 to Dec. 12, 2005. In the third test operation, 100 participants answered the questionnaires about the attitude change and knowledge. We classified the participants into two groups by the analysis on the number of login a week, and analyzed the change of the amount of subjective and objective knowledge. In the result of analysis on knowledge, the increase of amount of subjective knowledge doesn't always carried the increase of amount of objective knowledge. On the whole we found that the ORCAT system is evaluated useful to the risk communication about the HLW disposal. (author)

  16. The Importance of Health Risk Communication in the Creation of the Anthrax Vaccine Immunization Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freeman, Bradley

    2001-01-01

    ... press. This paper suggests that a more proactive educational program with a greater utilization of health risk communication techniques would have reduced much of the negative reaction to the anthrax vaccine...

  17. Equity and adequacy of international donor assistance for global malaria control: an analysis of populations at risk and external funding commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Robert W; Okiro, Emelda A; Gething, Peter W; Atun, Rifat; Hay, Simon I

    2010-10-23

    Financing for malaria control has increased as part of international commitments to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). We aimed to identify the unmet financial needs that would be biologically and economically equitable and would increase the chances of reaching worldwide malaria-control ambitions. Populations at risk of stable Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax transmission were calculated for 2007 and 2009 for 93 malaria-endemic countries to measure biological need. National per-person gross domestic product (GDP) was used to define economic need. An analysis of external donor assistance for malaria control was done for the period 2002-09 to compute overall and annualised per-person at-risk-funding commitments. Annualised malaria donor assistance was compared with independent predictions of funding needed to reach international targets of 80% coverage of best practices in case-management and effective disease prevention. Countries were ranked in relation to biological, economic, and unmet needs to examine equity and adequacy of support by 2010. International financing for malaria control has increased by 166% (from $0·73 billion to $1·94 billion) since 2007 and is broadly consistent with biological needs. African countries have become major recipients of external assistance; however, countries where P vivax continues to pose threats to control ambitions are not as well funded. 21 countries have reached adequate assistance to provide a comprehensive suite of interventions by 2009, including 12 countries in Africa. However, this assistance was inadequate for 50 countries representing 61% of the worldwide population at risk of malaria-including ten countries in Africa and five in Asia that coincidentally are some of the poorest countries. Approval of donor funding for malaria control does not correlate with GDP. Funding for malaria control worldwide is 60% lower than the US$4·9 billion needed for comprehensive control in 2010; this includes

  18. Advancing Flood Risk Communication and Management through Collaboration and Public Participation

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Wing

    2017-01-01

    Flooding has been a pressing problem for communities around the world. The problem is expected to worsen due to climate change and sea level rise. Despite decades of research on risk communication and management, the toll of flooding continues to mount. In order to advance flood management to minimize future damages, there is a need to foster collaboration among research communities, promote the genuine engagement of local stakeholders, and co-develop targeted risk communication and mitigatio...

  19. The impact of parent involvement in an effective adolescent risk reduction intervention on sexual risk communication and adolescent outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Deveaux, Lynette; Li, Xiaoming; Koci, Veronica; Lunn, Sonja

    2014-12-01

    Parent involvement in prevention efforts targeting adolescents increases the impact of such programs. However, the majority of risk-reduction intervention programs that are implemented through schools do not include parents, in part because most existing parental interventions require significant time commitment by parents. We designed a brief parent-adolescent sexual risk communication intervention to be delivered with an effective HIV prevention intervention as part of a randomized, controlled trial among 2,564 grade 10 students and their parents in the Bahamas. Mixed effects modeling analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of the brief parent-adolescent communication intervention using four waves of longitudinal data. Results indicate that a brief parent-adolescent communication intervention is effective in improving parent-adolescent communication on sex-related issues and perceived parental monitoring as well as the youth's condom use skills and self-efficacy. There is a marginal effect on consistent condom use. In addition, there is an apparent dose effect of the brief parent intervention on perceived parent-adolescent sexual risk communication and adolescent outcomes. These findings suggest that adolescent risk reduction interventions should include a brief parent-adolescent communication intervention that should be reinforced by periodic boosters in order to enhance the impact of adolescent HIV prevention programs.

  20. Study on communicating risk information obtained from PSA within nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunogane, Nobuaki; Onoue, Akira; Kojima, Shigeo

    2000-01-01

    In this study, the communication of PSA information in nuclear power plants (NPPs), namely, how the risk information obtained from the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) should be presented and communicated to plant personnel, was examined assuming that the safety management system based on the risk information was introduced to NPPs. This is called PSA communication. First, when risk-informed safety management is to be introduced into NPPs, plant personnel should have sufficient related knowledge. In order to provide such knowledge to the personnel through training, risk information is classified into three types: basic information, detailed information and task information. A hierarchical risk information summary for reporting, coordinating and communicating tasks is proposed. In this summary, the concerns of those who have received the information are placed at the top and the related risk information positioned below. At the same time, and by way of a trial, the risk information relating to on-line maintenance (OLM) is prepared. In order to enhance the safety-consciousness and the safety of the entire plant, specific plans such as 'risk tags' which indicate the safety significance of equipment is proposed. Finally, a guideline providing examination procedures for developing detailed PSA communication plans is introduced. (author)

  1. A practical approach to communicating benefit-risk decisions of medicines to stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James eLeong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPurposeThe importance of a framework for a systematic structured assessment of the benefits and risks has been established, but in addition, it is necessary that the benefit-risk decisions and the processes to derive those decisions are documented and communicated to various stakeholders for accountability. Hence there is now a need to find appropriate tools to enhance communication in a manner that would uphold transparency, consistency and standards. MethodsA retrospective, non-comparative study was conducted to determine the applicability and practicality of a summary template in documenting benefit-risk assessment and communicating benefit-risk balance and conclusions for reviewers to other stakeholders. The benefit-risk (BR Summary Template and its User Manual was evaluated by 12 reviewers within a regulatory agency in Singapore, the Health Sciences Authority (HSA. ResultsThe BR Summary Template was found to be adequate in documenting benefits, risks, relevant summaries and conclusions, while the User Manual was useful in guiding the reviewer in completing the template. The BR Summary Template was also considered a useful tool for communicating benefit-risk decisions to a variety of stakeholders.ConclusionsThe use of a template may be of value for the communicating benefit-risk assessment of medicines to stakeholders.

  2. A practical approach to communicating benefit-risk decisions of medicines to stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, James; Walker, Stuart; Salek, Sam

    2015-01-01

    The importance of a framework for a systematic structured assessment of the benefits and risks has been established, but in addition, it is necessary that the benefit-risk decisions and the processes to derive those decisions are documented and communicated to various stakeholders for accountability. Hence there is now a need to find appropriate tools to enhance communication between regulators and other stakeholders, in a manner that would uphold transparency, consistency and standards. A retrospective, non-comparative study was conducted to determine the applicability and practicality of a summary template in documenting benefit-risk assessment and communicating benefit-risk balance and conclusions for reviewers to other stakeholders. The benefit-risk (BR) Summary Template and its User Manual was evaluated by 12 reviewers within a regulatory agency in Singapore, the Health Sciences Authority (HSA). The BR Summary Template was found to be adequate in documenting benefits, risks, relevant summaries and conclusions, while the User Manual was useful in guiding the reviewer in completing the template. The BR Summary Template was also considered a useful tool for communicating benefit-risk decisions to a variety of stakeholders. The use of a template may be of value for the communicating benefit-risk assessment of medicines to stakeholders.

  3. Design of risk communication strategies based on risk perception among farmers exposed to pesticides in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Frederico; Rodrigues, Karla Meneses; da Silva Peixoto Belo, Mariana Soares; Moreira, Josino Costa; Claudio, Luz

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to assess pesticide exposure risk perception among farmers from three rural areas of Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 66 adults and participatory workshops with 27 teenagers and analyzed through content analysis techniques. Systematized results were discussed at local meetings, and two risk communication initiatives were devised. Study results demonstrated the use of defensive strategies by men and a diminished risk perception among women. Teenagers relied on parents to develop their own work practices. These findings supported the importance of cultural and social determinants of farmers' understandings of risk and of the relevance of different pesticide exposure pathways. Risk perceptions and work practices are strongly influenced by local cultural patterns and, therefore, must be taken into account when developing effective intervention strategies, including risk communication initiatives. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Significance and basic patterns of risk communication; Bedeutung und Grundzuege der Risikokommunikation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obermeier, O.P. [Gerling Akademie fuer Risikoforschung AG, Muenchen (Germany)]|[Gerling Akademie fuer Risikoforschung AG, Zurich (Switzerland)]|[Augsburg Univ. (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    The philosophically coloured paper on the aspects of risk communication patterns in society shows that debates about risks are governed by a number of stereotype characters representing the individualist and manager type, bureaucracy and law-and-order type, ego-centered embarrassment activist, and fundamentalist. Every risk-relevant group in the study tries to push forward its own interests. Risk communication is understood as a process of social dealing. (HP) [Deutsch] Die nahezu philosophischen Ueberlegungen zum Thema Risiko belegen, dass alle Risikodiskussionen von den Besitzindividualisten, Buerokraten, Betroffenheitsaktivisten und Fundamentalisten dominiert werden. Jede risikorelevante Gruppierung versucht ihre Gruppenegoismen durchzusetzen. Risikokommunikation wird als Prozess des sozialen Aushandelns aufgefasst. (HP)

  5. The importance of news media in pharmaceutical risk communication: proceedings of a workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebane, Felicia E

    2005-05-01

    In response to mass media's role in the national and global system of pharmaceutical risk communication, the Centers for Education and Research on Therapeutics (CERTs) convened a 'think tank' session on the 'Importance of Media in Pharmaceutical Risk Communication'. Prominent journalists and experts from the pharmaceutical industry, academia, medical practice and government were invited to consider the benefits and challenges of improving the way we communicate the benefits and risks of therapeutics via mass media, especially news media. Workshop discussions revealed a paucity of systematic research directed towards understanding how and why news media report on therapeutic risk, the impact of this coverage and how coverage can be improved. Consequently, participants produced a research agenda capturing the key aspects of the flow of information around this topic, including the meaning of risk, how news audiences process and use therapeutic risk information in the news, how and why news organizations report on therapeutic risk, and the role and impact of the pharmaceutical industry, government officials and academic researchers as sources of therapeutic risk information. The workshop ended with a discussion on action items addressing what news professionals, representatives of regulatory agencies and the medical products industry, and academic researchers can and should do to enable news media to effectively report therapeutic risk information. In sum, this proceedings report provides an outline for developing mass media risk communication research, influencing the practices of journalists and expert sources and ultimately, improving the quality of the public's life. Copyright (c) 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Reducing dietary related risks associated with non-communicable ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A collaboration with the University of Manitoba and the Centre for Natural Resource Studies, this project will contribute to an improved understanding of the current epidemiological transition to non-communicable diseases in Bangladesh, where no cohesive baseline data currently exists. It will generate new knowledge on ...

  7. Research on risk communication after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiguchi, Itsuko

    2013-01-01

    This report is about the risk communication cases that the author participated in after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. The research aims to clarify the content of information that should be provided in risk communication and to develop a risk communication tool specifically designed for this purpose. The risk communication cases were explanatory meetings intended for the residents in Fukushima Prefecture and the advisory council on radiation health effects sponsored by Tochigi Prefecture. To clarify the kinds of information necessary to provide at such meetings, we conducted a questionnaire survey of 31 food sanitation inspectors using the Delphi method. A gaming simulation was used for the development of the communication tool. We used public disclosure materials at the meetings and the survey was conducted only among those whom we obtained written informed consent. The content regarding the radioactive substances in food which was found to be the most important for the consumers to learn was ''zero risk is impossible'' (84 points), followed by ''radioactive substances and other risks (e.g. smoking and excessive alcohol intake)'' (70 points). To develop the communication tool, we used ''Quartetto (card game)'' and the contents were such as ''daily life'', ''radioactive substances'', and ''measurement''. Considering the questions raised from the residents at the meetings, an information portal such as homepages did not provide clear information on how to evaluate risks by themselves. The results from the questionnaire survey shows that it is difficult to solve this matter unless the public learns to think about the risks of various matters on their own. The lack of experts will make it necessary for the local government officials to provide more information, and therefore training on risk communication is essential. We need to evaluate the Quartetto game and revise the content considering the audience. (author)

  8. Results of the Working Group 'Risk Communications for Emergencies and Disasters'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorensen, J.H.; Dombrowsky, W.R.

    1988-01-01

    Enhancing crisis communication is important to industry, government and the public. The public is becoming increasingly concerned about technological failures as our reliance on technology increases. Better preparedness and more public awareness can increase public acceptance of and confidence in ability to manage high consequence technologies including ability to manage its failures. Failed communications in emergencies has increased the loss of life and property and public scepticism. Effective communication can a) engender confidence and trust in authorities; b) give rise of acceptance of risks and risk management and c) reduce the consequences of disasters. (orig./HSCH)

  9. On the state of the art: risk communication to decision-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bier, V.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art on risk communication to decision-makers, with an emphasis on issues involved in communicating technical results. In particular, the paper discusses the treatment of uncertainty, variability, and dependence. It also reviews suggestions from the literature regarding the appropriate format of risk communication messages to decision-makers. Due to the lack of detailed empirical investigations and definitive results about this topic, the paper is not intended to be a comprehensive review, but rather as an exploration of key issues in this area

  10. NKS/SOS-1 Seminar, 2000-09-25. Risk communication in Oskarshamn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, K.

    2001-04-01

    The report describes presentations and discussions at a seminar held in Oskarshamn on September 25, 2000. The title of the seminar was 'Risk communication in Oskarshamn.' It dealt with issues of importance for the communication about nuclear say within the OKG power company, within the local safety council, between the two organizations and outwards to the public and media. The local safety council consists of elected representatives in the municipal board. The main components in the seminar were 1) results from focus group discussions and questionnaire responses by Britt-Marie Drottz Sjoeberg, 2) elements in communication by Bjoern Wahlstroem, and 3) the journalistic perspective by Katarina Ek. The seminar gave the participants a deeper understanding about local problems in risk communication, generic elements in a communication process and the working conditions for journalists. (au)

  11. Community in Panic: Perceptions, impacts and lessons at risk communication on Pangasinan Mysterious Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Lawrence Carvajal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Communicating information about possible life threatening concerns can be very delicately difficult, and if it is not done well, the communicator can put the affected public at greater risk by creating misunderstanding or possibly inciting unwarranted panic. On February 24, 2014, a late night news program reported that a “mysterious flesh-eating illness is slowly” spreading in Pangasinan, a province in the Philippines with a population of more than three million.The news report connected two case studies from the towns of Villasis and Santa Barbara, Pangasinan to a prophecy by a self-titled prophet who forewarns of a flesh-eating disease in the said province. Just hours after the report came out that night, the hashtag #PrayForPangasinan trended on Twitter, and link of the video have been boundlessly shared on Facebook and other online social media. Anchored on the mental noise and risk perception theories, the study delves into the perceptions of risk of the affected public and determines the risk communication impacts and lessons of the Pangasinan Mysterious Disease. The findings of the study on the perceptions of risk by the affected public, the risk communication impacts and lessons on the news report is significant as the fundamental goal of risk communication is to provide meaningful, relevant and accurate information, in clear and understandable terms targeted to the concerned and affected publicand spur all concerned to a higher degree of consensus and support for a beneficial action.

  12. Reducing disaster risk in rural Arctic communities through effective communication strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, Y. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Communication is the process of exchanging and relaying vital information that has bearing on the effectiveness of all phases of emergency management: mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery, making it one of the most important activities in disasters. Lack of communication between emergency managers, policy makers, and communities at risk may result in an inability to accurately identify disaster risk, and failure to determine priorities during a hazard event. Specific goals of communication change during the four phases of emergency management. Consequently, the communication strategy changes as well. Communication strategy also depends on a variety of attitudinal and motivational characteristics of the population at risk, as well as socioeconomic, cultural, and geographical features of the disaster-prone region. In May 2013, insufficient communication patterns between federal, state, tribal agencies, and affected communities significantly contributed to delays in the flood response and recovery in several rural villages along the Yukon River in central Alaska. This case study finds that long term dialogue is critical for managing disaster risk and increasing disaster resilience in rural Northern communities. It introduces new ideas and highlights best practices in disaster communication.

  13. Aqueduct: a methodology to measure and communicate global water risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassert, Francis; Reig, Paul

    2013-04-01

    The Aqueduct Water Risk Atlas (Aqueduct) is a publicly available, global database and interactive tool that maps indicators of water related risks for decision makers worldwide. Aqueduct makes use of the latest geo-statistical modeling techniques to compute a composite index and translate the most recently available hydrological data into practical information on water related risks for companies, investors, and governments alike. Twelve global indicators are grouped into a Water Risk Framework designed in response to the growing concerns from private sector actors around water scarcity, water quality, climate change, and increasing demand for freshwater. The Aqueduct framework organizes indicators into three categories of risk that bring together multiple dimensions of water related risk into comprehensive aggregated scores and includes indicators of water stress, variability in supply, storage, flood, drought, groundwater, water quality and social conflict, addressing both spatial and temporal variation in water hazards. Indicators are selected based on relevance to water users, availability and robustness of global data sources, and expert consultation, and are collected from existing datasets or derived from a Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) based integrated water balance model. Indicators are normalized using a threshold approach, and composite scores are computed using a linear aggregation scheme that allows for dynamic weighting to capture users' unique exposure to water hazards. By providing consistent scores across the globe, the Aqueduct Water Risk Atlas enables rapid comparison across diverse aspects of water risk. Companies can use this information to prioritize actions, investors to leverage financial interest to improve water management, and governments to engage with the private sector to seek solutions for more equitable and sustainable water governance. The Aqueduct Water Risk Atlas enables practical applications of scientific data

  14. Communicating Coastal Risk Analysis in an Age of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    extratropical storm systems); the geometry and geomorphology of the area (regional and local bathymetry and topography, including rivers, marshes, and...at risk from coastal hazards including storm surge inundation, precipitation driven flooding, waves, and coastal erosion. This population segment...will likely be exposed to increased risk as impacts of a changing climate are felt through elevated sea levels and potentially increased storm

  15. Communicating risks and benefits of medical exposures to patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, B.F.

    2001-01-01

    An information leaflet for concerned patients is in preparation, which attempts to explain the risks and benefits of diagnostic medical exposures in terms suitable for the layman. In view of the wide variability in patient doses for the same examination and the considerable uncertainties in radiation risk coefficients, x-ray examinations have been divided into just four broad categories each spanning a factor of 10 in risk. The doses are put into perspective by comparison with those from natural background radiation. Sufficient quantitative information on the approximate level of the risks for some common diagnostic procedures is provided to allow patients to make an informed decision on whether the benefits, as described by the referring clinician, outweigh the radiation risks. (author)

  16. Risk-vs.-benefit communication for the example of nuclear power a proposed concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, M.; Schupfner, M.; Susanek, A.; Waldthausen, D. von; Wilderer, M.

    2002-01-01

    The need to communicate risks and benefits in the field of nuclear power is widely underestimated. In the light of new requirements and stricter framework conditions, this will continue to play an important role. In this connection, the international expansion of the activities of power utilities increasingly requires characteristics specific to certain countries to be taken into account. At the same time, the internationalization of perception causes interdependences of the activities of companies in various countries, which should also be made part of a communication strategy. Risk-vs.-benefit communication, by its very nature and as a result of its history, is fraught with many difficulties. However, most of the problems result from the failure to pay attention to fundamental rules of communication, such as addressee-orientedness, bilaterality, and purposefulness. The main objective of risk-vs.-benefit communication as argued in this paper is to create trust, credibility, and acceptance through an active design of communication. For this purpose, companies need a communication concept integrated into their systems of objectives, incorporating aspects of long-term strategy, and taking into account any weak points identified. The main features of the concept developed in this contribution are the systematic approach, the inclusion of interdependences, and the explicit analysis of the different levels of communication. This is to contribute to successful risk-vs.-benefit communication and, in this way, improve the position of the brand and the perceived integrity of the company. In particular, it allows aspects of long-term strategy to be included in the definition of communication measures as well as a deliberate support of internationalization. (orig.) [de

  17. Identification of risks stemming from new communication technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lessis, Vasileios; Taylor, J.R.; Kozin, Igor

    Advanced distributed communication technologies play an important role today in the control and maintenance of safety -critical systems. However, the excessively optimistic reliance on the new technology without ecognizing the threats against its successful functioning, being able to maintain...... proved to be effective tools in developing more reliable and robust systems. As technology is developing fast though, a new need for an effective hazard identification methodology has emerged. To enhance the predictive performance of hazard identification in advanced distributed communication systems, we...... have envisioned and currently developing a multilevel-multidimensional HAZOP methodology. The methodology introduces a new creative thinking stimulation model to substitute the conventional guideword-based approaches that is based on a multiple level and dimension exploration of the system under...

  18. Correlation between parent-adolescent communication and adolescents' premarital sex risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyatuti; Hafilah Shabrina, Citra; Yuni Nursasi, Astuti

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies have indicated the parent-adolescent relationship has a correlation to adolescents' premarital sex behavior risk. Therefore, the aim of this study was to discover the influence of parent-adolescent communication on adolescents' risk of sexual issues. This was a quantitative study with a cross-sectional design. The population of this study consisted of students from a high school in Jakarta. A purposive sampling technique was used, which resulted in the selection of 253 students as samples. A PACS (Parent-Adolescent Communication Scale) questionnaire was applied. The results showed that 59.3% of the adolescents studied were at risk for engaging in premarital sex, while the risk for adolescents with positive communication with their parents was 56.5%. Bivariate analysis also showed a significant correlation between gender and parent-adolescent communication and the risk of adolescent premarital sex behavior (α adolescents. Communication must align with adolescents' developmental tasks. Nurses can also create a promotion program on the topic of communication for parents and adolescents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Governing risks and benefits: Mobile communication technologies in British universities

    OpenAIRE

    Howarth, Anita; Fernández, Gemma Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Mobile communication technologies (MCTs) pose new opportunities and challenges to university governance. Not only are the devices widespread, they have particular capabilities and constantly changing uses which makes any governing of them difficult. Furthermore most devices are individually owned. Thus universities are unable to directly control how they are used but do have a duty of care towards those learning and teaching within their spaces. This article outlines preliminary findings on h...

  20. Exploring local risk managers' use of flood hazard maps for risk communication purposes in Baden-Württemberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kjellgren

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In response to the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC, flood hazard maps are currently produced all over Europe, reflecting a wider shift in focus from "flood protection" to "risk management", for which not only public authorities but also populations at risk are seen as responsible. By providing a visual image of the foreseen consequences of flooding, flood hazard maps can enhance people's knowledge about flood risk, making them more capable of an adequate response. Current literature, however, questions the maps' awareness raising capacity, arguing that their content and design are rarely adjusted to laypeople's needs. This paper wants to complement this perspective with a focus on risk communication by studying how these tools are disseminated and marketed to the public in the first place. Judging from communication theory, simply making hazard maps publicly available is unlikely to lead to attitudinal or behavioral effects, since this typically requires two-way communication and material or symbolic incentives. Consequently, it is relevant to investigate whether and how local risk managers, who are well positioned to interact with the local population, make use of flood hazard maps for risk communication purposes. A qualitative case study of this issue in the German state of Baden-Württemberg suggests that many municipalities lack a clear strategy for using this new information tool for hazard and risk communication. Four barriers in this regard are identified: perceived disinterest/sufficient awareness on behalf of the population at risk; unwillingness to cause worry or distress; lack of skills and resources; and insufficient support. These barriers are important to address – in research as well as in practice – since it is only if flood hazard maps are used to enhance local knowledge resources that they can be expected to contribute to social capacity building.

  1. Exploring local risk managers' use of flood hazard maps for risk communication purposes in Baden-Württemberg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellgren, S.

    2013-07-01

    In response to the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC), flood hazard maps are currently produced all over Europe, reflecting a wider shift in focus from "flood protection" to "risk management", for which not only public authorities but also populations at risk are seen as responsible. By providing a visual image of the foreseen consequences of flooding, flood hazard maps can enhance people's knowledge about flood risk, making them more capable of an adequate response. Current literature, however, questions the maps' awareness raising capacity, arguing that their content and design are rarely adjusted to laypeople's needs. This paper wants to complement this perspective with a focus on risk communication by studying how these tools are disseminated and marketed to the public in the first place. Judging from communication theory, simply making hazard maps publicly available is unlikely to lead to attitudinal or behavioral effects, since this typically requires two-way communication and material or symbolic incentives. Consequently, it is relevant to investigate whether and how local risk managers, who are well positioned to interact with the local population, make use of flood hazard maps for risk communication purposes. A qualitative case study of this issue in the German state of Baden-Württemberg suggests that many municipalities lack a clear strategy for using this new information tool for hazard and risk communication. Four barriers in this regard are identified: perceived disinterest/sufficient awareness on behalf of the population at risk; unwillingness to cause worry or distress; lack of skills and resources; and insufficient support. These barriers are important to address - in research as well as in practice - since it is only if flood hazard maps are used to enhance local knowledge resources that they can be expected to contribute to social capacity building.

  2. Volcanic risk: the responsibility of science in communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccione, Caterina

    2013-04-01

    The knowledge of the places where we live comes both from the experience handed down from one generation to the other and from scientific knowledge. In some cases, natural risks are "invisible", such as earthquakes, in some other cases, natural risks are seemingly "invisible", such as a wall in danger of collapse or a valley in a flood zone. And besides all this, there is volcanic risk, where the power of the forces of nature appears in all its beauty and majesty. The possibility to see volcanoes, to perceive their changes, to observe them closely and the need to live with them, makes it very important for the population living in these areas to have an adequate knowledge of the risk, a knowledge that should be based on scientific research. In Italy the experience of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia in the Vesuvio area, in the Aeolian Islands and around Etna shows how vital it is to make people aware of volcanic risk. Thanks to the support of the scientific community, the population can develop the best possible coexistence with volcanoes and with the risk they represent. These are extreme situations, but they are the starting point for educational and informative activities continuing to evolve and upgrade in parallel to the availability of new technologies and media and the progress of research that INGV has been conducting for years through specific projects. The scientific community and individual researchers have the ethical duty to share with the community the knowledge on risk, a responsibility that becomes especially important in those areas affected by volcanic risk. It is from this educational action that depends on the awareness of the populations with regard to the risk they are exposed to, that results in a responsible behavior in case of emergency, and that becomes the main variable for the safety of communities coexisting with active volcanoes.

  3. Renal Transplantation from Elderly Living Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob A. Akoh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acceptance of elderly living kidney donors remains controversial due to the higher incidence of comorbidity and greater risk of postoperative complications. This is a review of publications in the English language between 2000 and 2013 about renal transplantation from elderly living donors to determine trends and effects of donation, and the outcomes of such transplantation. The last decade witnessed a 50% increase in living kidney donor transplants, with a disproportionate increase in donors >60 years. There is no accelerated loss of kidney function following donation, and the incidence of established renal failure (ERF and hypertension among donors is similar to that of the general population. The overall incidence of ERF in living donors is about 0.134 per 1000 years. Elderly donors require rigorous assessment and should have a predicted glomerular filtration rate of at least 37.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 at the age of 80. Though elderly donors had lower glomerular filtration rate before donation, proportionate decline after donation was similar in both young and elderly groups. The risks of delayed graft function, acute rejection, and graft failure in transplants from living donors >65 years are significantly higher than transplants from younger donors. A multicentred, long-term, and prospective database addressing the outcomes of kidneys from elderly living donors is recommended.

  4. Risk Communication and Climate Justice Planning: A Case of Michigan’s Huron River Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chingwen Cheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Communicating climate risks is crucial when engaging the public to support climate action planning and addressing climate justice. How does evidence-based communication influence local residents’ risk perception and potential behavior change in support of climate planning? Built upon our previous study of Climate Justice maps illustrating high scores of both social and ecological vulnerability in Michigan’s Huron River watershed, USA, a quasi-experiment was conducted to examine the effects of Climate Justice mapping intervention on residents’ perceptions and preparedness for climate change associated hazards in Michigan. Two groups were compared: residents in Climate Justice areas with high social and ecological vulnerability scores in the watershed (n=76 and residents in comparison areas in Michigan (n=69. Measurements for risk perception include perceived exposure, sensitivity, and adaptability to hazards. Results indicate that risk information has a significant effect on perceived sensitivity and level of preparedness for future climate extremes among participants living in Climate Justice areas. Findings highlight the value of integrating scientific risk assessment information in risk communication to align calculated and perceived risks. This study suggests effective risk communication can influence local support of climate action plans and implementation of strategies that address climate justice and achieve social sustainability in local communities.

  5. Development and evaluation of a risk communication curriculum for medical students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, P.K.; Joekes, K.; Elwyn, G.; Mazor, K.M.; Thomson, R.; Sedgwick, P.; Ibison, J.; Wong, J.B.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop, pilot, and evaluate a curriculum for teaching clinical risk communication skills to medical students. METHODS: A new experience-based curriculum, "Risk Talk," was developed and piloted over a 1-year period among students at Tufts University School of Medicine. An experimental

  6. 76 FR 57767 - Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0204] Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... FR 54507), that requested public comment on Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011- XX: Seismic Risk...

  7. Risk assessment, management, communication: a guide to selected sources. Update. Information guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    This is the first update to the March 1987 publication entitled Risk Assessment, Management, Communication: A Guide to Selected Sources. The risk update series is divided into three major sections: Assessment, Management, and Communication. This update also includes subsections on hazardous waste, radiation, and a number of specific chemicals. Due to the expanding literature on risk, other subsections may be added to updates in the future. Each Table of Contents contains a complete list of the subsections. Updates are produced on a quarterly basis

  8. IAEA experience in communicating radiation risks through the RPOP web site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehani, M.M.; Holmberg, O.

    2015-01-01

    The authors report here their successful experience of communicating information to health professionals, patients and the public on benefits and risks of ionising radiation in medical applications. The approaches used have been based on giving importance to clinical benefits against risks, as well as safety in use against risk of use. Communicating brief messages against catchy questions with positive and pragmatic approach resulted in making web site on radiation protection of patients (RPOP) as the top web site of the world in this area. Credibility of information has been maintained. The results show immense outreach in 213 countries/territories. (authors)

  9. Educational project on risk communication and reduction of the radon exposure in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrady, J.; Guhr, A.; Uhlig, R.

    2009-01-01

    The radon exposure in buildings is supposed to be the most important risk factor of lung cancer. In Saxony about 800 000 persons live in apartments with high radon exposure. The study discusses the effects of an educational project to communicate the facts on radon exposure in buildings and to develop risk awareness and individual initiatives to reduce the radon concentration. The project includes support and encouragement with respect of preventive and protective measures to improve the individual situation. Further items cover requirements for control and quantification of intervention impacts, development and optimization of specific strategies for a permanent risk communication in schools. Results of the pilot study are summarized.

  10. Role of scientific experts and communication experts at the inhabitants briefing session for the risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Kazumi

    2012-01-01

    After the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, enormous amount of waste contaminated by radioactive cesium has been produced. Burned ash that contained radiocesium ( 137 Cs) more than 8,000 Bq/kg will be stored at the not-yet-located final deposit. Until the final deposit is finally constructed, however, the radioactive ash should be stored safely at temporal deposits. Inhabitants briefing sessions for locating the temporal deposits are held at many places in the east Japan. But, they met difficulty in establishing smooth communication between citizens and the administrations. In this paper, I classify the questions arose from citizens at the inhabitants briefing session at Tokatsu area, Chiba prefecture, and discuss what role could scientists and science communicators play at this session. In addition, I classified the voices of inhabitants reported in the newspapers and discuss the media bias. (author)

  11. How young people communicate risks of snowmobiling in northern Norway: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehus, Grete; Germeten, Sidsel; Henriksen, Nils

    2011-04-01

    This study aims to understand how the risks of snowmobiling are communicated among northern Norwegian youths. Study design. A qualitative design with focus group interviews was chosen. Interviews centred on safety precautions and estimation of risks related to snowmobiling and driving patterns. Eighty-one students (31 girls and 50 boys) aged between 16 and 23 years from 8 high schools were interviewed in 17 focus groups that were segregated by gender. Interview data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Boys and girls communicated differently about risks. Peer-group conformity appeared stronger among boys than girls. Boys did not spontaneously relate risks to their snowmobile activities, while girls did. Boys focused upon training, coping and balance between control and lack of control while driving. Girls talked about risks, were aware of risks and sought to avoid risky situations, in contrast to boys. Boys' risk communication in groups was about how to manage challenging situations. Their focus overall was on trying to maintain control while simultaneously testing their limits. Three risk categories emerged: those who drive as they ought to (mostly girls), those who occasionally take some risks (boys and girls) and those who are extreme risk-takers (a smaller number of boys). Perceptions of and communication about risk are related to gender, peer group and familiarity with risk-taking when snowmobiling. Northern Norwegian boys' driving behaviour highlights a specific need for risk reduction, but this must also draw upon factors such as acceptance of social and cultural codes and common sense related to snowmobiling.

  12. An experimental interactive risk communication on the effect of radioactive substance on health through food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niiyama, Yoko; Kito, Yayoi; Kudo, Haruyo

    2011-01-01

    Risk communication, an interactive process of exchange of information and opinion on risk among stakeholders is the important element in Risk Analysis. However, we haven't effective model yet. We have tried experimental Interactive risk communication on the effect of radioactive substance on health through food related the accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The model is consist of some process for making scientific information and discussion among consumer groups on the information; making and providing first step scientific information by scientists and communicator for consumers, first step group discussions on the information by consumers, making second step scientific information based critical questions in the first step group discussions, and second step group discussions on the second step information by consumers. We had organized 8 discussion groups, 50 subjects in Tokyo and Kyoto. (author)

  13. Donor genotype in the Interleukin-7 receptor α-chain predicts risk of graft-versus-host disease and cytomegalovirus infection after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielsen, Katrine; Enevold, Christian; Heilmann, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    The efficacy of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is challenged by acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD and cGVHD) and viral infections due to long-lasting immunodeficiency. Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a cytokine essential for de novo T cell generation in thymus.......1-3.8, P = 0.034) and with significantly increased risk of extensive cGVHD (HR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.1-3.6, P = 0.025) after adjustment for potential risk factors. In addition, the TT genotype was associated with a higher risk of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection post-transplant (HR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.2-4.3, P.......7, 95% CI = 1.2-2.3, P = 0.0027) and increased treatment-related mortality (HR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.3-4.0, P = 0.0047), but was not associated with the risk of relapse (P = 0.35). In conclusion, the IL-7Rα rs6897932 genotype of the donor is predictive of aGVHD and cGVHD, CMV infection, and mortality...

  14. Renal transplantation across the donor-specific antibody barrier: Graft outcome and cancer risk after desensitization therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yao Yang

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: When compared to renal transplantation without DSA, desensitization therapy for DSA resulted in equivalent renal transplant outcome but potentially increased risk of urothelial carcinoma after transplantation.

  15. Donor-Cell Origin High-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome Synchronous with an Intracranial Meningioma-Like Tumor, 8 Years after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Brás

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary neoplasias are well known consequences of radiotherapy or chemotherapy for a primary cancer. In this report, we describe two rare secondary neoplasias occurring in the same patient: a meningioma-like intracranial tumor and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS of donor-cells origin, both diagnosed simultaneously, 8 years after an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL. Due to an engraftment failure during the first allo-HSCT of a matched related donor for CLL treatment, the salvage treatment was a second allo-HSCT. At the moment of meningioma-like tumor diagnosis, the patient was pancytopenic due to high-risk MDS, so it was decided to postpone a surgical intervention until hematological improvement. For the high-risk MDS of donor-cells origin the chosen treatment was induction with intensive chemotherapy. Due to refractory disease, the patient was treated with 5-azacitidine and donor-lymphocytes infusion with no response and, finally, a third allo-HSCT of a matched unrelated donor was performed. The patient died 6 months after the third allo-HSCT, in cytogenetic remission but without hematological recovery, due to an intracranial hemorrhage with origin in the meningioma-like tumor.

  16. Conducting research in risk communication that is both beneficial for stakeholders and scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrière, Marie; Bogaard, Thom; Junier, Sandra; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Mostert, Erik

    2015-04-01

    One of the key tasks for disaster risk reduction is raising awareness. On way to increase it is through risk communication, including visual risk communication. Previous research showed that visual risk communication linked to natural hazards is mostly evaluated in terms of user's requirements, ability to understand the content, or satisfaction with the diverse components of the tool(s): Its impact on risk awareness is not researched. Most of the risk communication evaluations are performed in a lab-type environments and thus their conclusions might not be fully valid in real life settings. Our approach differs in the sense that we decided to test a real communication effort. However, we did not use an existing one but designed our own. This process was conducted according to collaborative research principles, meaning that we created the communication effort in collaboration with the local stakeholders in order to respect the social environment of the case study. Moreover, our research activity should be beneficial and significant for the community in which we work as well as for science. This contribution will present the process that allowed us to design an exhibition in the Ubaye Valley (France) and the methodology that was developed to measure changes in risk awareness. During a 2-years project, we collaborated with local and regional stakeholders (politicians and technicians). Informal meetings with local stakeholders were organized to determine what they perceived as the needs in term of risk communication and to investigate the potential to develop activities that would benefit both them and us. We were offered the opportunity to design an exhibition for the local public library. We proposed the content and this was adjusted in interaction with the stakeholders. Later local technicians and inhabitants contributed to the content of the exhibition and regional stakeholders helped with the funding of the exhibition. Finally, employees of the public library took

  17. Clustering of Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases among Adolescents from Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Heloyse Elaine Gimenes; Gon?alves, Eliane Cristina de Andrade; Vieira, J?ssika Aparecida Jesus; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the simultaneous presence of risk factors for non-communicable diseases and the association of these risk factors with demographic and economic factors among adolescents from southern Brazil. Methods The study included 916 students (14?19 years old) enrolled in the 2014 school year at state schools in S?o Jos?, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Risk factors related to lifestyle (i.e., physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, sede...

  18. L-Band Digital Aeronautical Communications System Engineering - Initial Safety and Security Risk Assessment and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelkin, Natalie; Henriksen, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This document is being provided as part of ITT's NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: "New ATM Requirements--Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development." ITT has completed a safety hazard analysis providing a preliminary safety assessment for the proposed L-band (960 to 1164 MHz) terrestrial en route communications system. The assessment was performed following the guidelines outlined in the Federal Aviation Administration Safety Risk Management Guidance for System Acquisitions document. The safety analysis did not identify any hazards with an unacceptable risk, though a number of hazards with a medium risk were documented. This effort represents a preliminary safety hazard analysis and notes the triggers for risk reassessment. A detailed safety hazards analysis is recommended as a follow-on activity to assess particular components of the L-band communication system after the technology is chosen and system rollout timing is determined. The security risk analysis resulted in identifying main security threats to the proposed system as well as noting additional threats recommended for a future security analysis conducted at a later stage in the system development process. The document discusses various security controls, including those suggested in the COCR Version 2.0.

  19. Short communication Prevalence and risk factors of bovine mastitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    risk factors of mastitis in dairy cows from November, 2012 to July, 2013 in Ambo town of West Shewa ... was made on all lactating cows for evidence of signs of clinical mastitis followed ... In Ethiopia, even if it is not well established, several studies in various parts of ..... Mastitis and genetic evaluation for somatic cell count. In ...

  20. Recognizing Risk-of-Failure in Communication Design Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Joyce; Lievesley, Matthew; Taylor, Louise

    2009-01-01

    The pace of commercial graphic design practice presents very few opportunities to conduct user research after a project's launch. This makes the design team's ability to anticipate and address risks during the design development phase even more important, recognized in the astute observation from Tim Brown, CEO of leading international design…

  1. Study on Communication System of Social Risk Information on Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidekazu Yoshikawa; Toshio Sugiman; Yasunaga Wakabayashi; Hiroshi Shimoda; Mika Terado; Mariko Akimoto; Yoshihiko Nagasato

    2004-01-01

    As a new risk communication method for the construction of effective knowledge bases about 'safety and non-anxiety for nuclear energy', a study on new communication method of social risk information by means of electronic communication has been started, by noticing rapid expansion of internet usage in the society. The purpose of this research is to enhance the public acceptance to nuclear power in Japan by the following two aspects. The first is to develop the mutual communication system among the working persons involved in both the operation and maintenance activities for nuclear power plant, by which they will exchange their daily experiences to improve the safety conscious activities to foster 'safety culture' attitude. The other is the development of an effective risk communication system between nuclear society and the general publics about the hot issues of 'what are the concerned involved in the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste?' and 'what should we do to have social consensus to deal with this issue in future'. The authors' research plan for the above purpose is summarized as shown in Table 1. As the first step of the authors' three year research project which started from August 2003, social investigation by questionnaires by internet and postal mail, have been just recently conducted on their risk perception for the nuclear power for the people engaged in nuclear business and women in the metropolitan area, respectively, in order to obtain the relevant information on how and what should be considered for constructing effective risk communication methods of social risk information between the people within nuclear industries and the general public in society. Although there need to be discussed, the contrasting risk images as shown in Fig.1, can be depicted between the nuclear people and general public these days in Japan, from the results of the social investigation. As the conclusion of the authors' study thus far conducted, the

  2. The dark side of risk and crisis communication: legal conflicts and responsibility allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolobig, A.

    2015-04-01

    Inadequate, misinterpreted or missing risk and crisis communication may be a reason for practitioners, and sometimes even science advisors, to become subjects of criminal charges. This work discusses the legal consequences of communication. After presenting some cases, the discussion focuses on three critical issues: the development of effective communication protocols; the role, tasks and responsibilities of science advisors; and the collateral effects of practitioners' defensive behaviours. For example, if the avoidance of personal liability becomes a primary objective for practitioners, it may clash with other objectives, such as the protection of vulnerable communities or the transparency of decision-making. The conclusion presents some ideas for future research on the legal aspects of risk communication.

  3. Improving the Way State and Federal Co-Regulators Communicate about Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easton, E.; Janairo, L.R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores risk communications concepts that could be used by Federal and state governments to help the public understand how government officials rely on risk analysis and management to ensure that shipments of spent fuel and other radioactive wastes take place in a safe, secure manner that merits public confidence. A key focus in the communication concepts put forward in the paper is the relationship between understanding and validating the public's concerns and explaining how those concerns are being addressed by current safety requirements and practices. The authors will recommend best practices to state and Federal officials that have the responsibility for communicating with the public about radioactive waste transportation. The paper will also suggest ways to bring these state and federal co-regulators together to communicate more effectively and to speak with one voice on the issue of shipment safety. (authors)

  4. Study on risk communication support system of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, Natsuko; Yoshizawa, Yuji; Takeuchi, Mitsuo; Kitayama, Kazumi; Kobayashi, Yoko

    2008-01-01

    In order to smoothly implement the selection of a final site for disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW), it is necessary to ensure effective communication with various stakeholders and to gain public confidence. Text mining technology can extract useful information from texts such as symposium dialogs or questionnaires after a lecture. The problem and its solution are extracted by structuring and visualizing the topics and it is possible to obtain feedback information for the next symposium or lecture and/or posterity. We applied text mining to analyze a facilitation of panel discussion and to understand future researchers. The development of such an analysis technique will contribute to mutual confidence and agreement among all the stakeholders in a HLW disposal project. (author)

  5. Lessons from the pandemic: the need for new tools for risk and outbreak communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Thomas

    2011-10-17

    The influenza pandemic of 2009 revealed shortcomings in the existing guidelines for risk and outbreak communication. Concepts such as building trust proved hard to achieve in practice, whereas other issues such as communicating through the internet and coping with the political fallout of disease outbreaks are not dealt with in existing guidelines. This article surveys the current guidelines and makes recommendations for additional tools and guidelines to be developed in four areas: integrating long-term behavior change models with outbreak communications; research to develop a better understanding of communicating through the internet; research to understand how to use communications to build trust; and developing guidelines and principles to understand the political nature of disease outbreaks.

  6. PROACT: Iterative Design of a Patient-Centered Visualization for Effective Prostate Cancer Health Risk Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakone, Anzu; Harrison, Lane; Ottley, Alvitta; Winters, Nathan; Gutheil, Caitlin; Han, Paul K J; Chang, Remco

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in the US, and yet most cases represent localized cancer for which the optimal treatment is unclear. Accumulating evidence suggests that the available treatment options, including surgery and conservative treatment, result in a similar prognosis for most men with localized prostate cancer. However, approximately 90% of patients choose surgery over conservative treatment, despite the risk of severe side effects like erectile dysfunction and incontinence. Recent medical research suggests that a key reason is the lack of patient-centered tools that can effectively communicate personalized risk information and enable them to make better health decisions. In this paper, we report the iterative design process and results of developing the PROgnosis Assessment for Conservative Treatment (PROACT) tool, a personalized health risk communication tool for localized prostate cancer patients. PROACT utilizes two published clinical prediction models to communicate the patients' personalized risk estimates and compare treatment options. In collaboration with the Maine Medical Center, we conducted two rounds of evaluations with prostate cancer survivors and urologists to identify the design elements and narrative structure that effectively facilitate patient comprehension under emotional distress. Our results indicate that visualization can be an effective means to communicate complex risk information to patients with low numeracy and visual literacy. However, the visualizations need to be carefully chosen to balance readability with ease of comprehension. In addition, due to patients' charged emotional state, an intuitive narrative structure that considers the patients' information need is critical to aid the patients' comprehension of their risk information.

  7. Smartphone applications for communicating avalanche risk information - a review of existing practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrière, M. K. M.; Bogaard, T. A.

    2015-11-01

    Every year, in all mountainous regions, people are victims of avalanches. One way to decrease those losses is believed to be informing about danger levels. The paper presents a study on current practices in the development of smartphones applications that are dedicated to avalanche risk communication. The analysis based on semi-structured interviews with developers of smartphone apps highlights the context of their development, how choices of content and visualization were made as well as how their effectiveness is evaluated. It appears that although the communicators agree on the message to disseminate, its representation triggers debate. Moreover, only simple evaluation processes are conducted but there is a clear awareness that further scientific efforts are needed to analyze the effectiveness of the smartphone apps. Finally, the current or planned possibility for non-experts users to report feedback on the snow and avalanches conditions open the doors to a transition of these apps from one-way communication tools to two-ways communication platforms. This paper also indicates the remaining challenges that avalanche risk communication is facing, although it is disputably the most advanced and standardized practice compared to other natural hazards. Therefore, this research is of interest for the entire field of natural hazards related risk communication.

  8. Cornerstones of the Austrian radon risk communication strategy; Eckpfeiler der oesterreichischen Radonrisikokommunikationsstrategie (OeRRKS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunte, A.; Ringer, W. [AGES, Linz (Austria). Oesterreichische Fachstelle fuer Radon

    2015-07-01

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW), the National Radon Centre of Austria developed the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy. The superior goal is the reduction of the radon exposure of Austrian citizens as well as the reduction of radon-related lung cancer deaths. Austria, like many other countries, follows the approach to raise awareness and to inform the public to achieve this goal. The presented strategy deals with the question of how radon protection issues can be communicated to the public, existing fears can be reduced and affected people can be motivated to take action (perform a radon test, if necessary, mitigate or install preventive measures in new buildings). The cornerstones of the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy can be summarized as follows: - Definition of communication goals - Identification and categorization of target groups - Development of specific key messages for each of the target groups - Determination of communication channels and assessment of their efficiency - Integration of the radon issue in education and training - Cooperation with relevant organizations and platforms. The communication objectives, target groups and communication paths (and their evaluation) will be discussed during the presentation in detail.

  9. Why is risk communication hardly applied in Japan? Psychological problem of scientific experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosugi, Motoko; Tsuchiya, Tomoko; Taniguchi, Taketoshi

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the problems that impair to communicate about technological risks with the public in Japan, especially focusing on views of experts as a supplier of risk information. In this study, we also clarified through the questionnaire surveys that there were significant differences of risk perception and of information environment about science and technology between the public and scientific experts, as many previous studies showed. And most important fact is that experts perceive the difference in risk perception between the public and experts larger than the public does. We conclude that this experts' cognition impedes to take a first step toward communicating with the public about technological risks. (author)

  10. An integrated risk communication system for the transport of hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minor, J.W. IV; Abkowitz, M.D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development and implementation of the prototype of an an internet-based, risk communication system prototype for the transport of hazardous materials. The system was designed with the objectives of: (1) incorporating functionality and features that are useful for meeting a variety of risk communication needs, and (2) demonstrating a high degree of interaction among system components, enabling customisation to meet the specific transport risk communication needs requirements of the host organisation. To demonstrate 'proof of concept', the system is applied to two scenarios: 1) building knowledge and awareness, focusing on how information can be entered, organised and disseminated to the public and other transport stakeholders, and 2) emergency management, utilising the system for securely managing information in responding to a transport incident involving hazardous materials transport incident. The effectiveness of the system in these applications is subsequently discussed. (author)

  11. Can Communicating Personalised Disease Risk Promote Healthy Behaviour Change? A Systematic Review of Systematic Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, David P; Cameron, Elaine; Benton, Jack S; Deaton, Christi; Harvie, Michelle

    2017-10-01

    The assessment and communication of disease risk that is personalised to the individual is widespread in healthcare contexts. Despite several systematic reviews of RCTs, it is unclear under what circumstances that personalised risk estimates promotes change in four key health-related behaviours: smoking, physical activity, diet and alcohol consumption. The present research aims to systematically identify, evaluate and synthesise the findings of existing systematic reviews. This systematic review of systematic reviews followed published guidance. A search of four databases and two-stage screening procedure with good reliability identified nine eligible systematic reviews. The nine reviews each included between three and 15 primary studies, containing 36 unique studies. Methods of personalising risk feedback included imaging/visual feedback, genetic testing, and numerical estimation from risk algorithms. The reviews were generally high quality. For a broad range of methods of estimating and communicating risk, the reviews found no evidence that risk information had strong or consistent effects on health-related behaviours. The most promising effects came from interventions using visual or imaging techniques and with smoking cessation and dietary behaviour as outcomes, but with inconsistent results. Few interventions explicitly used theory, few targeted self-efficacy or response efficacy, and a limited range of Behaviour Change Techniques were used. Presenting risk information on its own, even when highly personalised, does not produce strong effects on health-related behaviours or changes which are sustained. Future research in this area should build on the existing knowledge base about increasing the effects of risk communication on behaviour.

  12. ITEM Project: Risk Communication on Exposure to Electromagnetic Radiation from Mobile Communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Carla; Carpinteiro, Goncalo; Correia, Luis M.; Fernandes, Carlos A.; Serralha, Afonso; Marques, Nuno

    2004-01-01

    The ITEM Project is a pioneer project in Portugal, providing public information on exposure to electromagnetic radiation, essentially due to mobile communication systems. The motivation, the main goals and the Project description are presented in this paper, as well as the website that provides the public dissemination of results and further significant information (www.lx.it.pt/item). This site provides information on different issues related to exposure to radiation, namely results of measurement campaigns conducted by a team on several locations in Portugal, and results of continuous measurements performed by autonomous stations located in public places in collaboration with municipal authorities. The global overview of the results from the measurement campaigns carried out up to present shows that all the analysed locations are in compliance with the radiation thresholds, i.e., all the electric field measured values are below the most restrictive threshold established at European level. (author)

  13. NCRP Program Area Committee 7: Radiation Education, Risk Communication, Outreach, and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, S M; Locke, P A

    2016-02-01

    Recognizing the central importance of effective communication, education, and policy across all of the domains of radiation safety and radiation protection, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) established a new committee in 2013. Program Area Committee 7 (PAC 7) was created to develop projects and provide guidance on "Radiation Education, Risk Communication, Outreach, and Policy." After identifying individuals with relevant expertise who were willing to serve, the Committee held its inaugural meeting in 2014. In 2015, the Committee increased its membership and began carrying out an expanded program of activities. One area of activity has involved providing input and feedback on risk communication issues to NCRP and other agencies. Another area of work has involved liaising with other NCRP committees (e.g., Council Committee 1 and PAC 3) to help incorporate psychosocial and risk communication issues into projects. Future efforts of NCRP's newest PAC are expected to include the development of authoritative reports and commentaries dealing with critical issues and challenges in radiation risk communication, education, and policy.

  14. Resolving public conflict in site selection process - a risk communication approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaka, Kaoru; Tanaka, Masaru

    2003-01-01

    In Japan, conflicts regarding the siting of waste disposal facilities occur frequently. In particular, siting of incinerators and landfills has become increasingly difficult because the public is highly concerned about the dioxin issues. Inefficient siting of waste disposal facilities causes several social problems, such as the shortage of waste treatment and disposal facilities, the rising of waste management costs and an increase in the consumption of resources. While dealing with a similar situation, the Chemical Society of Japan adopted a risk communication technique successfully. Hence, the pragmatic use of a risk communication technique is proposed to avoid conflicts and for a smooth information exchange to seek cooperation in waste management. In order to achieve this, a study was conducted to resolve conflicts between residents and the municipality for the selection of site for a solid waste treatment and disposal facility. This study aims to discuss the subject of risk communication for the waste disposal system in Japan. This study is performed through personal interviews and a questionnaire covering opposing parties in the town. As a result of the survey, a risk communication approach for a waste treatment and disposal system is presented in the paper addressing issues such as building of social trust, pragmatic use of the communication process, installation of credible information sources, and environmental education and awareness

  15. The @RISK Study: Risk communication for patients with type 2 diabetes: design of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welschen, Laura M C; Bot, Sandra D M; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Timmermans, Daniëlle R M; van der Weijden, Trudy; Nijpels, Giel

    2010-08-05

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have an increased risk to develop severe diabetes related complications, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD). The risk to develop CVD can be estimated by means of risk formulas. However, patients have difficulties to understand the outcomes of these formulas. As a result, they may not recognize the importance of changing lifestyle and taking medication in time. Therefore, it is important to develop risk communication methods, that will improve the patients' understanding of risks associated with having diabetes, which enables them to make informed choices about their diabetes care.The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of an intervention focussed on the communication of the absolute 10-year risk to develop CVD on risk perception, attitude and intention to change lifestyle behaviour in patients with T2DM. The conceptual framework of the intervention is based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the Self-regulation Theory. A randomised controlled trial will be performed in the Diabetes Care System West-Friesland (DCS), a managed care system. Newly referred T2DM patients of the DCS, younger than 75 years will be eligible for the study. The intervention group will be exposed to risk communication on CVD, on top of standard managed care of the DCS. This intervention consists of a simple explanation on the causes and consequences of CVD, and possibilities for prevention. The probabilities of CVD in 10 year will be explained in natural frequencies and visualised by a population diagram. The control group will receive standard managed care. The primary outcome is appropriateness of risk perception. Secondary outcomes are attitude and intention to change lifestyle behaviour and illness perception. Differences between baseline and follow-up (2 and 12 weeks) between groups will be analysed according to the intention-to-treat principle. The study was powered on 120 patients in each group. This innovative risk

  16. Risk communication, geoethics and decision science issues in Japan's disaster management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, M.

    2014-12-01

    Issues in Japan's disaster management system were revealed by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami, and by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station accident. Many important decisions were based on scientific data, but appear not to have sufficiently considered the uncertainties of the data and the societal aspects of the problems. The issues that arose show the need for scientists to appropriately deal with risk communication and geoethics and issues. This paper discusses necessity of education for risk communication, geoethics and decisions science in school before students become sicentific decision makers in future.

  17. Retrospective Basic Parent-Child Communication Difficulties and Risk of Depression in Deaf Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushalnagar, Poorna; Bruce, Sheila; Sutton, Tina; Leigh, Irene W

    2017-02-01

    This paper describes the relationship between retrospective communication difficulties and current depressive symptomatology. A total of 143 deaf/hard-of-hearing late adolescents and adults (64 % White; 55 % female) completed questionnaires related to parent communication, language history and current psychological functioning. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the likelihood of having depression that is associated with understanding parents' communication after controlling for gender, hearing level, and language history. Significant odds ratio indicated that the difficulties in understanding basic communication with parents increased the odds of depression symptomatology. The odds ratio indicates that when holding all other variables constant, the odds of reporting depression were at least 8 times higher for those who reported being able to understand some to none of what the same-sex parent said. For the different-gender parent, only the mother's communication with the male individual was associated with depression. Although our study findings suggest that DHH men and women with history of communication difficulties at home are at risk for depression in adulthood, they do not provide information on the causal mechanisms linking communication difficulties early in life and depression later in life. Greater attention should be given to promoting healthy communication between DHH girls and their mothers as well as DHH boys and their fathers, which might reduce the impact on later emergence of depression in the DHH individual.

  18. Risk communication concerning welding fumes for the primary preventive care of welding apprentices in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; Vaz, Joana Cezar

    2015-01-19

    This study's aim was to assess the perceptions of welding apprentices concerning welding fumes being associated with respiratory and cardiovascular disorders and assess the implementation of risk communication as a primary prevention tool in the welding training process. This quasi-experimental, non-randomized study with before-and-after design was conducted with 84 welding apprentices in Southern Brazil. Poisson Regression analysis was used. Relative Risk was the measure used with a 95% confidence interval and 5% (p ≤ 0.05) significance level. Significant association was found between perceptions of worsened symptoms of respiratory disorders caused by welding fumes and educational level (p = 0.049), the use of goggles to protect against ultraviolet rays (p = 0.023), and access to services in private health facilities without insurance coverage (p = 0.001). Apprentices younger than 25 years old were 4.9 times more likely to perceive worsened cardiovascular symptoms caused by welding fumes after risk communication (RR = 4.91; CI 95%: 1.09 to 22.2). The conclusion is that risk communication as a primary preventive measure in continuing education processes implemented among apprentices, who are future welders, was efficacious. Thus, this study confirms that risk communication can be implemented as a primary prevention tool in welding apprenticeships.

  19. Communication strategies to address geohydrological risks: the POLARIS web initiative in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, Paola; Pernice, Umberto; Bianchi, Cinzia; Marchesini, Ivan; Fiorucci, Federica; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2016-06-01

    Floods and landslides are common phenomena that cause serious damage and pose a severe threat to the population of Italy. The social and economic impact of floods and landslides in Italy is severe, and strategies to target the mitigation of the effects of these phenomena are needed. In the last few years, the scientific community has started to use web technology to communicate information on geohydrological hazards and the associated risks. However, the communication is often targeted at technical experts. In the attempt to communicate relevant information on geohydrological hazards with potential human consequences to a broader audience, we designed the POpoLazione A RISchio (POLARIS) website. POLARIS publishes accurate information on geohydrological risk to the population of Italy, including periodic reports on landslide and flood risk, analyses of specific damaging events and blog posts on landslide and flood events. By monitoring the access to POLARIS in the 21-month period between January 2014 and October 2015, we found that access increased during particularly damaging geohydrological events and immediately after the website was advertised by press releases. POLARIS demonstrates that the scientific community can implement suitable communication strategies that address different societal audiences, exploiting the role of mass media and social media. The strategies can help multiple audiences understand how risks can be reduced through appropriate measures and behaviours, contributing to increasing the resilience of the population to geohydrological risk.

  20. Incorporating risk communication into highly pathogenic avian influenza preparedness and response efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Shauna J; Malladi, Sasidhar; Sampedro, Fernando; Snider, Tim; Goldsmith, Timothy; Hueston, William D; Lauer, Dale C; Halvorson, David A

    2012-12-01

    A highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak in the United States will initiate a federal emergency response effort that will consist of disease control and eradication efforts, including quarantine and movement control measures. These movement control measures will not only apply to live animals but also to animal products. However, with current egg industry "just-in-time" production practices, limited storage is available to hold eggs. As a result, stop movement orders can have significant unintended negative consequences, including severe disruptions to the food supply chain. Because stakeholders' perceptions of risk vary, waiting to initiate communication efforts until an HPAI event occurs can hinder disease control efforts, including the willingness of producers to comply with the response, and also can affect consumers' demand for the product. A public-private-academic partnership was formed to assess actual risks involved in the movement of egg industry products during an HPAI event through product specific, proactive risk assessments. The risk analysis process engaged a broad representation of stakeholders and promoted effective risk management and communication strategies before an HPAI outbreak event. This multidisciplinary team used the risk assessments in the development of the United States Department of Agriculture, Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Secure Egg Supply Plan, a comprehensive response plan that strives to maintain continuity of business. The collaborative approach that was used demonstrates how a proactive risk communication strategy that involves many different stakeholders can be valuable in the development of a foreign animal disease response plan and build working relationships, trust, and understanding.

  1. Nyretransplantation med levende donor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Løkkegaard, H; Rasmussen, F

    2000-01-01

    In recent years transplantation from living donors has accounted for 25-30% of all kidney transplants in Denmark corresponding to 40-45 per year. Most of these living donors are parents or siblings, although internationally an increasing number are unrelated donors. Donor nephrectomy is associate...... in cadaver transplantation. The ethical and psychological aspects related to transplantation from a living donor are complex and need to be carefully evaluated when this treatment is offered to the patients....

  2. Performance Models and Risk Management in Communications Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Peter; Rüstem, Berç

    2011-01-01

    This volume covers recent developments in the design, operation, and management of telecommunication and computer network systems in performance engineering and addresses issues of uncertainty, robustness, and risk. Uncertainty regarding loading and system parameters leads to challenging optimization and robustness issues. Stochastic modeling combined with optimization theory ensures the optimum end-to-end performance of telecommunication or computer network systems. In view of the diverse design options possible, supporting models have many adjustable parameters and choosing the best set for a particular performance objective is delicate and time-consuming. An optimization based approach determines the optimal possible allocation for these parameters. Researchers and graduate students working at the interface of telecommunications and operations research will benefit from this book. Due to the practical approach, this book will also serve as a reference tool for scientists and engineers in telecommunication ...

  3. Risk communication considerations to facilitate the screening of mass populations for potential contamination with radioactive material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, R J; Sprau, D D; Morecook, R C

    2008-11-01

    Experience gained during a field training exercise with a Medical Reserve Corps unit on the screening of large groups of individuals for possible contamination with radioactive material revealed that while exercise participants were generally attentive to the proper use of protective equipment and detectors, they tended to overlook important basic risk communications aspects. For example, drill participants did not actively communicate with the persons waiting in line for screening, a step which would provide re-assurance, possibly minimize apprehension, and would clarify expectations. When questioned on this issue of risk communication, drill participants were often able to craft ad hoc messages, but the messages were inconsistent and likely would not have significantly helped diminish anxiety and maintain crowd control. Similar difficulties were encountered regarding messaging for persons determined to be contaminated, those departing the screening center, and those to be delivered to the media. Based on these experiences, the need for a suggested list of risk communication points was identified. To address this need, a set of risk communication templates were developed that focused on the issues likely to be encountered in a mass screening event. The points include issues such as the importance of remaining calm, steps for minimizing possible intake or uptake, considerations for those exhibiting acute injuries, expected screening wait times, the process to be followed and the information to be collected, the process to be undertaken for those exhibiting contamination, and symptoms to watch for after departure. Drill participants indicated in follow-up discussions that such pre-established risk communication templates would serve to enhance their ability to assist in times of emergency and noted the potential broader applicably of the approach for use in responses for other disasters types as well.

  4. Frequency format diagram and probability chart for breast cancer risk communication: a prospective, randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahner-Roedler Dietlind

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer risk education enables women make informed decisions regarding their options for screening and risk reduction. We aimed to determine whether patient education regarding breast cancer risk using a bar graph, with or without a frequency format diagram, improved the accuracy of risk perception. Methods We conducted a prospective, randomized trial among women at increased risk for breast cancer. The main outcome measurement was patients' estimation of their breast cancer risk before and after education with a bar graph (BG group or bar graph plus a frequency format diagram (BG+FF group, which was assessed by previsit and postvisit questionnaires. Results Of 150 women in the study, 74 were assigned to the BG group and 76 to the BG+FF group. Overall, 72% of women overestimated their risk of breast cancer. The improvement in accuracy of risk perception from the previsit to the postvisit questionnaire (BG group, 19% to 61%; BG+FF group, 13% to 67% was not significantly different between the 2 groups (P = .10. Among women who inaccurately perceived very high risk (≥ 50% risk, inaccurate risk perception decreased significantly in the BG+FF group (22% to 3% compared with the BG group (28% to 19% (P = .004. Conclusion Breast cancer risk communication using a bar graph plus a frequency format diagram can improve the short-term accuracy of risk perception among women perceiving inaccurately high risk.

  5. Alerting the apathetic and reassuring the alarmed: communicating about radon risk in three communities. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chess, C.; Hance, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    Public reaction to the risk from radon varied widely in three communities chosen for qualitative analysis. In Boyertown, PA, some residents were very alarmed, but most were apathetic toward this newly identified environmental risk. In Clinton, NJ, residents were concerned and worked with the mayor and the state to determine whether they were at risk and to disseminate information about mitigation of high indoor radon levels. Residents in Vernon, New Jersey were very alarmed and actively opposed the state's decision to site low-level radium wastes there. The qualitative study examines why reactions differed among the three communities, and extracts lessons for communicating about the risk from radon. These lessons should apply to communicating about other environmental hazards to individuals and communities

  6. On the adequacy of the format proposed to communicate risk and uncertainty. Deliverable D17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolado, R.

    2009-12-01

    A template was developed in the first part of the ARGONA project to communicate the risk associated to a SNF/HLW repository. As a result of two sets of meetings, the format has evolved into two different formats. The first format has been designed to address an audience composed of people with a good education level (good background in mathematics), while the second one addresses a generic audience containing lay stakeholders. Both formats are implemented as verbal presentations supported by a PowerPoint file containing graphic supporting material and include the following sections: - the concept of risk and its steering role to assess repository safety, - what is a repository and how it works (small differences between formats 1 and 2 in the level of detail), - regulatory limits, - uncertainty sources and the way to tackle them, and - key results from a Safety Case/Safety Assessment to communicate (two different levels of communication of results, which make the most important difference between formats 1 and 2). The preferred output variable to communicate risk is the peak total dose and the preferred graphic representation is the boxplot. The selection of this output variable is a conservative option that reports the worst situation in each Monte Carlo simulation which, additionally, avoids the introduction of time in the results to communicate. The boxplot has been selected because of its easy interpretation and its suitability to facilitate the comparison of results from different scenarios

  7. Communicating risks from the environmental management program of the United States Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, M.E.; Stenner, R.; Picel, K.; McGinn, W.

    2000-01-01

    With the inception of the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) program, the need for better communication of the Department's environmental risks was highlighted. A number of database systems were used to describe the EM program's risk with limited success. Then in December 1997, the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management charged the DOE operations and field offices and the Center for Risk Excellence (CRE) to work together to create 'Risk Profiles' or 'Risk Stories.' The purpose of the Profiles is to increase effective communication of risks at a national level for DOE sites by creating a common sense approach to describing risks. This paper describes the progress to date and looks at the plans for future activities. Abbreviations. BGRR: Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor; CERCLA: Comprehensive Response, Compensation and Liability Act; CRE: Center for Risk Excellence; DOE: U.S. Department of Energy; EM: environmental management; ORNL: Oak Ridge National Laboratory; PBSs: Project Baseline Summaries; PtC: Paths to Closure; RDSs: Risk Data Sheets; RH: relative hazard; SRS CAB: Savannah River Site Citizens Advisory Board; VOCs: volatile organic compounds

  8. A novel tool for the communication of ecological risk assessment information in an urbanized watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zandbergen, P.

    1995-01-01

    A tool was developed for the communication of ecological risk assessment information on various types of point and nonpoint source pollution in the Brunette River watershed, an urbanized watershed in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia. The communication of ecological risks is a complex task, since the outcomes of quantitative ecological risk assessments are often not well understood by interested parties, and the results of the scientific analysis are generally quite different from the public perception of risk. Scientists should try to assist in the effective communication of their analysis by presenting it in a form more accessible to a variety of stakeholders, exposing the assessment process itself and the uncertainties in the analysis. This was attempted in developing a tool for the effective communication of ecological risk assessment information and management alternatives to the community in the watershed. Longstanding concerns over various forms of point and non-point sources of pollution in the watershed have resulted in a major effort to document the releases of pollutants, the exposure pathways, and the consequences for aquatic life. Extensive monitoring of ecosystem parameters, data-integration by means of a Geographic Information System, and the use of numerous databases and sub-models have resulted in the ecological risk assessment of four types of pollution in the watershed: petroleum fuels, metals, pesticides and basic industrial chemicals. Results will be presented of the attempts to integrate this information into a communication tool, which will demonstrate the principles, values and assumptions underlying the scientific analysis, as well as the quantitative end results and inherent uncertainties. The tool has been developed in close cooperation with several scientists who did most of the original data collection and with the feedback from some of the stakeholders in the community

  9. Is basiliximab induction, a novel risk factor for new onset diabetes after transplantation for living donor renal allograft recipients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narayan; Gurjer, Desraj; Bhadauria, Dharmender; Gupta, Amit; Srivastava, Aneesh; Kaul, Anupama; Jaiswal, Akhilesh; Yadav, Brijesh; Yadav, Subhash; Sharma, Raj K

    2014-04-01

    It was found that, by affecting populations of T lymphocytes and regulatory T cells, basiliximab also indirectly affects pancreatic β-cell function and glucose homeostasis. In this prospective observational study, we included all renal transplant recipients from 1 July 2007 to 31 July 2011. The overall incidence of hyperglycaemia (transient hyperglycaemia, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and new onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT)) was compared between patients with and without basiliximab induction. Of the 439 eligible study patients, 105 patients received basiliximab induction and 334 patients did not. Overall hyperglycaemia (transient hyperglycaemia, IFG, IGT and NODAT) was detected in 102/334 (30.5%) patients without induction and 44/105 (41.9%) patients with induction (P = 0.03). Of the 102 patients with hyperglycaemia in patients without basiliximab, 46 (45.1%) patients improved, while only 10 (22.7%) of the 44 patients with basiliximab improved (P = 0.016) at the end of 3 months. Finally, NODAT was observed in 56/334 (16.7%) patients without induction and 102/334 (30.5%) patients with induction. Relative risk of NODAT with basiliximab was 2.3 (95% CI 1.4-3.9) compared to that of patients without induction. Basiliximab and hepatitis C virus infection were independent risk factors for NODAT. Risk of NODAT remained high with basiliximab despite adjusting the acute rejections episodes. Basiliximab induction prevents acute rejection; however, it is associated with increased risk of NODAT. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  10. Pediatric Predispositional Genetic Risk Communication: Potential Utility for Prevention and Control of Melanoma Risk as an Exemplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yelena P; Mays, Darren; Kohlmann, Wendy; Tercyak, Kenneth P

    2017-10-01

    Predispositional genetic testing among minor children is intensely debated due to the potential benefits and harms of providing this type of genetic information to children and their families. Existing guidelines on pediatric genetic testing state that predispositional testing could be appropriate for minors if preventive services exist that mitigate children's risk for or severity of the health condition in question. We use the example of hereditary melanoma to illustrate the rationale for and potential application of genetic risk communication for an adult-onset cancer to a pediatric population where childhood behaviors may reduce risk of disease later in life. We draw from the adult melanoma genetic risk communication and pediatric health behavior change literatures to suggest ways in which genetic test reporting and complementary education could be delivered to children who carry a hereditary risk for melanoma a