WorldWideScience

Sample records for domestic electricity supply

  1. Electric wiring domestic

    CERN Document Server

    Coker, A J

    1992-01-01

    Electric Wiring: Domestic, Tenth Edition, is a clear and reliable guide to the practical aspects of domestic electric wiring. Intended for electrical contractors, installation engineers, wiremen and students, its aim is to provide essential up to date information on modern methods and materials in a simple, clear, and concise manner. The main changes in this edition are those necessary to bring the work into line with the 16th Edition of the Regulations for Electrical Installations issued by the Institution of Electrical Engineers. The book begins by introducing the basic features of domestic

  2. Electricity supply contracts: Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, G.; Vezzoni, M.; Grassani, E. (Sistemi Integrati per il Risparmio Energetico, Pavia (Italy) Necchi Compressori, Pavia (Italy))

    1991-10-01

    This paper presents a computer program, ACEE (Electrical Energy Consumption Analysis), developed to assist industrial firms in Italy to determine their electrical power consumption, optimize it through production process interventions, and then utilize the results to draft up optimum electricity supply contracts with ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board). The program also allows the user to properly budget future allocations for electricity costs.

  3. Modelling and multi-scenario analysis for electric heat tracing system combined with low temperature district heating for domestic hot water supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    . In this study, electric heat tracing system was investigated as a solution to this dilemma. A model of electric heat tracing system for multi-storey buildings was built. Various pipe materials and insulation thicknesses as the parameters of the model were compared to make a comprehensive study. The performance......Low temperature district heating (LTDH) is a cost-efficient way of supplying space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) for buildings in urban areas. However, there is concern that the potential hygiene problems (Legionella) might occur if LTDH is implemented, especially for large buildings...... of the electric heating tracing system with LTDH was simulated by taking the user pattern into account. A smart control method based on thermostatic and real-time control was developed, and compared with normal control method. The impact of user pattern was tested by applying standard, stochastic, and real load...

  4. Draft of the law on Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply; Projet de loi relatif a la modernisation et au developpement du service public de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-15

    The draft of the law concerning the Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply issued by the 'Ministere de l'Economie, des Finances et de l'Industrie', Paris, France, contains 9 titles. They address the following subject matters: - Title I (5 articles), domestic electricity supply; - Title II (7 articles), electricity production; Title III (9 articles, 3 chapters), electricity transport and distribution and grid safety; Title IV (3 articles), access to public electricity grids; - Title V (3 articles), accounting dissociation and transparency; - Title VI (14 articles), regulation; - Title VII (1 article), object of Electricity of France (EDF); - Title VIII (2 articles), social provisions; - Title IX (8 articles), diverse and transitory provisions.

  5. Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply. Law draft adopted by the National Assembly; Projet de Loi relatif a la Modernisation et au Developpement du Service Public de l'Electricite adopte par l'Assemblee Nationale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Assembly [ed.] [Assemblee Nationale, Paris (France)

    1999-03-02

    This document presents the draft of the law regarding the revamping and expanding the domestic electricity supply, adopted by the French National Assembly. The first Title devoted to the definition of the domestic electricity supply contains 5 articles. The second Title deals with the production of electricity in the articles 6 through 12. Title three concerns the transport and electricity distribution issue exposed in articles 13 through 21 and three chapters titled: - Chap. 1, Transport of electricity; - Chap. 2, Distribution of electricity; - Chap.3, Safety and security of the grids. The Title four concerns with the access to domestic electricity grids exposed in the articles 22 to 24. The fifth Title settles in articles 25 to 27 the issue of the dissociation and transparency of accounting. The articles 28 through 41 treat under Title six the problems of Regulation. The Object of Electricity Authority of France is stipulated in the Title seven containing only the article 42. Social issues are stipulated in Title eight containing two articles, the first one being a completion to Chapter III of the Title seven in the Labour Law, titled 'Electricity and Gas Industries'. Finally, the Title nine comprising articles 45 to 52 deals with Diverse and Transient Provisions. The law draft was debated in public session in Paris on 2 March and signed by the President Laurent Fabius.

  6. Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply. Law draft modified by the Senate; Projet de Loi relatif a la Modernisation et au Developpement du Service Public de l'Electricite modifie par le senat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Assembly [ed.] [Assemblee Nationale, Paris (France)

    1999-10-07

    This document presents the draft of the law (TA no. 2) modified by the French Senate regarding the revamping and expanding the domestic electricity supply. The first Title, devoted to the definition of the domestic electricity supply, contains 5 articles. The second Title deals along articles 6 through 12 with the production of electricity. Title three concerns the transport and electricity distribution issue exposed in articles 13 through 21 and three chapters titled: - Chap. 1, Transport of electricity; - Chap. 2, Distribution of electricity; - Chap.3, Safety and security of the grids. The Title four is devoted to the access to domestic electricity grids exposed in the articles 22 through 24. The fifth Title settles in articles 25 through 27 the issue of the dissociation and transparency of accounting. The articles 28 through 41 treat under Title six the problems of Regulation. The Object of Electricity Authority of France is stipulated in the Title seven containing only the article 42. Social issues are stipulated in Title eight containing two articles, the first one being a completion to Chapter III of the Title seven in the Labour Law, titled 'Electricity and Gas Industries'. Finally, the Title nine comprising articles 45 to 52 deals with Diverse and Transitory Provisions. This law draft was debated in public seance in Paris on 7 October 1999 and signed by the President Christian Poncelet.

  7. Report on the draft of the law No. 1253 concerning the Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply. Volume I. General discussion and Examination of the articles; Rapport sur le projet de loi (no. 1253) relatif a la modernisation et au developpement du service public de l'electricite. Tome I. Discussion generale et Examen des articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataille, Christian [Assemblee Nationale, Paris (France)

    1999-02-11

    This report on the draft of the law No. 1253 concerning the Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply is composed of three parts. The first part contains the following three sections: I. The electricity, a commodity as others?; II. The stride towards liberalization; III. France and the opening of electricity market. In turn, the first section addresses the following two subjects: A. The 'classic' approach or recognizing the peculiarity of electricity; B. The European approach or the trend of trivializing the electricity. The second section addresses the subjects titled: A. A long and severe bargaining; B. Directive 96/92/CE of 19 December 1996, a new step in achieving a domestic market of electricity; C. The stage of implementation throughout the member states. The third section presents the current juridical framework and the main problems stipulated in the draft of the law concerning the Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply. The second part of this report is devoted to the debates in the Commission of Production and Exchanges and contains the following three sections: I. Auditions; II. General discussion; III. The examination of the articles of the law concerning the Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply.

  8. Domestic utility attitudes toward foreign uranium supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-01

    The current embargo on the enrichment of foreign-origin uranium for use in domestic utilization facilities is scheduled to be removed in 1984. The pending removal of this embargo, complicated by a depressed worldwide market for uranium, has prompted consideration of a new or extended embargo within the US Government. As part of its on-going data collection activities, Nuclear Resources International (NRI) has surveyed 50 domestic utility/utility holding companies (representing 60 lead operator-utilities) on their foreign uranium purchase strategies and intentions. The most recent survey was conducted in early May 1981. A number of qualitative observations were made during the course of the survey. The major observations are: domestic utility views toward foreign uranium purchase are dynamic; all but three utilities had some considered foreign purchase strategy; some utilities have problems with buying foreign uranium from particular countries; an inducement is often required by some utilities to buy foreign uranium; opinions varied among utilities concerning the viability of the domestic uranium industry; and many utilities could have foreign uranium fed through their domestic uranium contracts (indirect purchases). The above observations are expanded in the final section of the report. However, it should be noted that two of the observations are particularly important and should be seriously considered in formulation of foreign uranium import restrictions. These important observations are the dynamic nature of the subject matter and the potentially large and imbalanced effect the indirect purchases could have on utility foreign uranium procurement.

  9. Leaking electricity in domestic appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Alan; Rosen, Karen

    1999-05-01

    Many types of home electronic equipment draw electric power when switched off or not performing their principal functions. Standby power use (or ''leaking electricity'') for most appliances ranges from 1 - 20 watts. Even though standby use of each device is small, the combined standby power use of all appliances in a home can easily exceed 50 watts. Leaking electricity is already responsible for 5 to 10 percent of residential electricity use in the United States and over 10 percent in Japan. An increasing number of white goods also have standby power requirements. There is a growing international effort to limit standby power to around one watt per device. New and existing technologies are available to meet this target at little or no extra cost.

  10. Electrical part Temelin NPP - important electrical appliance power supply

    OpenAIRE

    Trnka, Radek

    2009-01-01

    Radek Trnka Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, University of South Bohemia Electrical part of Temelin Nuclear Power Station - Power supply of important electrical appliances The subject of this bachelor's work is an elaboration of problems of secured electric power supply for all important appliances in Temelin Nuclear Power Station (JE Temelin). There is an essential electrical conception of the nuclear power station described there, as well as possibilities of failure state emerge...

  11. ENERGY STAR Certified Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment that are...

  12. Environmental inventories for future electricity supply systems for Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dones, R.; Gantner, U.; Hirschberg, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Doka, G.; Knoepfel, I. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-02-01

    This report provides the analysis of environmental inventories for selected electricity supply systems considered as possible options to meet the expected electricity demand in Switzerland in year 2030. Two possible electricity demand level cases were postulated by VSE, both under the basic assumption of economic growth: a high-growth demand case corresponding to a yearly increase of 2% from year 1995 to year 2010 and 1% from year 2010 to year 2030, and a low-growth demand case corresponding to a yearly increase of 1% from year 1995 to year 2010 and 0.5% from year 2010 to year 2030. The base (i.e. secured) supply in year 2030 will be, according to VSE, totally dominated by hydro with rather minor contributions from combined heat-and-power plants, small gas turbines, incinerators and solar photovoltaic plants. Due to decommissioning of the currently operating nuclear power plants and expiration of long-term electricity import contracts there will eventually occur a gap between the postulated electricity demand and the base supply. VSE provided seven options to cover this gap, defined in terms of mixes with different contributions from gas, coal, nuclear and solar chains; in this context a distinction is also made with respect to shares of domestic and imported electricity. The systems considered represent advanced technologies, regarded as either typical or most suitable for the Swiss conditions. System-specific input to the present analysis has been partially generated based on direct contacts with the industry. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) was used to establish environmental inventories for the systems analysed. The analysis has been performed on three levels:(1) individually for each system considered, (2) comparison of systems, (3) comparison of supply options. Results are also provided for these three levels.

  13. A report on proposals of open-to-discussion dispositions relating to the draft of law on Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply; Rapport concernant un texte sur les dispositions restant en discussion du projet de loi relatif a la modernisation et au developpement du service public de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataille, Christian [ed.] [Assemblee Nationale, Paris (France); Revol, Henri [ed.] [Senat, Paris (France)

    1999-11-23

    The report presents, on behalf of the Joint Mediation Commission, the open-to-discussion dispositions relating to the draft of law on Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply. Several problems related to general access to the electricity power, the EDF policy, the implementation of the European Union Directive concerning the electricity market, the relations between the energy policy adopted by National Assemble and Senate, the Super-Phenix shutdown controversy are reviewed. Also, relating to the European energy market, issues concerning the relation with partners from Germany, Spain and Italy are mentioned. By taking into account the different positions exposed by the members of the Commission, Mr Andre Lajoinie, the president, has made some concluding remarks about the lack of success in the work of the Joint Mediation Commission.

  14. Improving Electrical Efficiency of Edm Power Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Emanoil; Simion, Carmen Mihaela

    2014-11-01

    This paper briefly presents the principal types of Pulse Generators for Electrical Discharge Machining and ways to improve electrical efficiency. A resonant converter with series-parallel LCC circuit, for EDM applications, was analyzed by PSpice simulation. The performances of EDM Power Supply were improved by adding an energy recovering - voltage limiter circuit. The shape of current pulse was changed by adding a supplementary MOSFET Switch in parallel with the gap. Two or more converters can be parallelized, in this way output current can be changed. A bloc-schema was conceived for EDM experimental set up

  15. Electricity Profile Study for Domestic and Commercial Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmarashid Ponniran

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As Malaysia move towards as a developed country, it is expected that the electricity consumption in domestic and commercial sectors will increase as well as more industrials and households need. This study is to investigate the electricity profile in domestic and commercial sectors by monitoring some appropriate appliances that contribute high electricity consumption. The characteristics for every major loads are examined and the potential energy saving is compared to an efficient electrical appliances in order to obtain the effective energy consumption. Questionnaires have been used to collect respondents, appliances and equipments information. For appliances and equipments measurement data, power quality equipment has been. Samples for domestic sector involved 150 respondents from three residential classes which are high, middle and rural. While for commercial sector, 100 respondents are involved which are restaurant, hotel, workshop, and store/office. It shows, in domestic sector, refrigerator appliance consumed high electricity meanwhile in commercial sector; compressor equipment contributed high consumption in electricity. It is also indicated that by using efficient electrical appliances it can reduce the amount of electricity consumption. However, instead of using high efficient appliances, human factor also contribute significant impact on reducing electricity consumption. By integrating between human factor, high efficient appliances/equipment and government policy, the electricity consumption can be used and managed wisely. Therefore the strategies to build energy efficient society have been proposed in order to achieve efficient electricity consumption.

  16. Report on the draft of the law No. 1253 concerning the Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply. Volume III. Appendices and Table of abbreviations; Rapport sur le projet de loi (no. 1253) relatif a la modernisation et au developpement du service public de l'electricite. Tome III. Annexes et Table des sigles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataille, Christian [Assemblee Nationale, Paris (France)

    1999-02-11

    The third volume of the Report on behalf of the Production and Exchange Commission on the draft of the law No. 1253 concerning the Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply contains Appendices. The appendix number 1 presents the directive 96/92 CE of the European Parliament and Council of 19 December 1996, concerning common rules referring to the electricity internal market. It contains the chapters titled: 1. Field of application and definitions; 2. General rules for sector organization; 3. Production; 4. Exploitation of the transport grid; 5. Exploitation of the distribution grid; 6. Accounting dissociation and transparency; 7. Organization of the grid access; 8. Final dispositions. The appendix number 2 gives the law no. 46 - 628 of 8 April, modified, on the nationalization of the electricity and gas. The third appendix reproduces Decree no. 55 - 662 of 20 May 1955 concerning relationships between the establishments aimed by the articles 2 and 23 of the law of 8 April 1946 and the autonomous producers of electric energy. The appendix number 4 contains the notification of State Council of 7 July 1994 regarding the diversification of EDF and GDF activities. The fifth appendix is a chronological list of the European negotiations concerning the opening of the electricity market (1987 -1997). Finally, a list of following abbreviations is given: ART, ATR, CNES, CRE, CTE, DNN, FACE, FPE, GRT, IEG, INB, PPI, RAG and SICAE.

  17. Electric Power Supply Chain Management Addressing Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao-Hui; Cong, Ronggang

    2012-01-01

    change. The study compared the difference between electric power supply chain management and traditional supply chain management. Furthermore, some possible research topics are addressed. The aim of this paper was to promote the application of supply chain management in the China electricity sector......Supply chain management played a critical role in the electric power industrial chain optimization. The purpose of this paper was to review a sample of the literature relating to supply chain management and its possible applications in electricity power system, especially in the context of climate...... optimizations and brought a change in the related government policy options....

  18. Propagation of Magnetic Fields from Electrical Domestic Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, K. N.; Gaidamak, M. A.; Borovikov, I. F.

    2016-08-01

    The article presents a research into propagation of magnetic fields from electrical domestic devices. A safe distance at which magnetic induction does not exceed the background level is determined for each type of devices. It is proved that there are two stages of increasing magnetic induction as the distance from the source increases. At the first stage magnetic induction rises and electromagnetic field is formed. At the second stage exponential decrease of magnetic field induction takes place. Mathematical regularities of propagation of magnetic field from electrical domestic devices are experimentally educed.

  19. Solar electric energy supply at high altitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knaupp, W.; Mundschau, E. [Zentrum fur Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung (ZSW), Ulm (Germany)

    2004-04-01

    Solar-hydrogen systems were analyzed regarding their usability as energy supply system for high altitude platforms. In a first step for an assessment of solar and photovoltaic resources near-ground spectral transmittances of atmosphere were extended with simplified height correction functions to achieve spectral irradiance descriptions versus atmospheric height up to 25 km. The influence of atmospheric height to different solar cell technologies regarding electrical performance was quantified at some examples for the aspect of spectral distribution with the help of the introduced spectral height factor. The main attention during analysis of the whole solar-hydrogen energy system was directed to characteristics of current or near term available technology. Specific power weight of photovoltaic system, electrolyzer, fuel cell and gas tanks and their dependence on operation mode and power range were assessed. A pre-design of a solar-hydrogen energy system was carried out for an airship (volume 580,000 m3) withstanding continuous wind speeds up to {approx} 130 km/h. The calculated coverage ratio of photovoltaic and load share of energy system mark the frame of usability. Depending on the airship size, shape and other external boundary conditions the total electrical energy demand could be covered by a solar-hydrogen energy system of current or near term technology for full year operation. However further investigations are necessary regarding e.g. further mass reductions. (author)

  20. Domestic Water Consumption under Intermittent and Continuous Modes of Water Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, L.; Liu, G.; Wang, F.; Ritsema, C.J.; Geissen, V.

    2014-01-01

    Although an extensive literature emphasizes the disadvantages of intermittent water supply, it remains prevalent in rural areas of developing countries. Understanding the effects of water supply time restrictions on domestic water use activities and patterns, especially for hygienic purposes, is imp

  1. Domestic Water Consumption under Intermittent and Continuous Modes of Water Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, L.; Liu, G.; Wang, F.; Ritsema, C.J.; Geissen, V.

    2014-01-01

    Although an extensive literature emphasizes the disadvantages of intermittent water supply, it remains prevalent in rural areas of developing countries. Understanding the effects of water supply time restrictions on domestic water use activities and patterns, especially for hygienic purposes, is imp

  2. Estonian electricity supply scenarios for 2020 and their environmental performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskela, Sirkka; Seppaelae, Jyri; Hiltunen, Marja-Riitta [Research Programme for Production and Consumption, Finnish Environment Institute, P.O. Box 140, 00251 Helsinki (Finland); Lipp, Ando; Pold, Evelin; Talve, Siret [CyclePlan Ltd, Akadeemia road 33, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia)

    2007-07-15

    Estonia is the only country in Europe with significant environmentally intensive oil shale-based energy production. However, the legal obligations of the EU will make substantial changes over the coming years to current electricity production technology. Increasing the use of alternative energy carriers for responding to future requirements has also been in focus. In this study, three different future electricity supply scenarios for Estonia in 2020 are considered and compared to the situation in 2002. They are based on domestic oil shale, imported natural gas, and imported nuclear power. According to the aims of the national energy policy, renewable energy sources were raised to 10% in all scenarios. Using the LCA methodology, the least damaging impact on the environment occurs in the 'nuclear scenario', with nuclear energy as the main energy source. The best scenario, however, depends on the weight or acceptance of accidental releases or other impacts not defined in this context. The 'Oil shale scenario' would be a slightly more damaging alternative than the 'Natural gas scenario' even if new technical solutions will remarkably improve the environmental performance of oil shale electricity production. Land use and waste disposal are crucial issues, particularly for oil shale and nuclear electricity production. However, the depletion of oil shale is not as critical an issue as the depletion of natural gas and uranium. According to the significance analysis of impact categories, climate change is the most significant impact on the environment in the scenarios. Future decisions on the development of the Estonian energy sector are most likely to be based on technological, economical and political aspects. Political aspects are likely to be the most significant. However, this type of study can give additional value to the discussion due to the increasing role of sustainability in energy issues. (author)

  3. Intelligent Vehicle Electrical Power Supply System with Central Coordinated Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Diange; KONG Weiwei; LI Bing; LIAN Xiaomin

    2016-01-01

    The current research of vehicle electrical power supply system mainly focuses on electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). The vehicle electrical power supply system used in traditional fuel vehicles is rather simple and imperfect;electrical/electronic devices (EEDs) applied in vehicles are usually directly connected with the vehicle’s battery. With increasing numbers of EEDs being applied in traditional fuel vehicles, vehicle electrical power supply systems should be optimized and improved so that they can work more safely and more effectively. In this paper, a new vehicle electrical power supply system for traditional fuel vehicles, which accounts for all electrical/electronic devices and complex work conditions, is proposed based on a smart electrical/electronic device (SEED) system. Working as an independent intelligent electrical power supply network, the proposed system is isolated from the electrical control module and communication network, and access to the vehicle system is made through a bus interface. This results in a clean controller power supply with no electromagnetic interference. A new practical battery state of charge (SoC) estimation method is also proposed to achieve more accurate SoC estimation for lead-acid batteries in traditional fuel vehicles so that the intelligent power system can monitor the status of the battery for an over-current state in each power channel. Optimized protection methods are also used to ensure power supply safety. Experiments and tests on a traditional fuel vehicle are performed, and the results reveal that the battery SoC is calculated quickly and sufficiently accurately for battery over-discharge protection. Over-current protection is achieved, and the entire vehicle’s power utilization is optimized. For traditional fuel vehicles, the proposed vehicle electrical power supply system is comprehensive and has a unified system architecture, enhancing system reliability and security.

  4. Intelligent vehicle electrical power supply system with central coordinated protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Diange; Kong, Weiwei; Li, Bing; Lian, Xiaomin

    2016-07-01

    The current research of vehicle electrical power supply system mainly focuses on electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). The vehicle electrical power supply system used in traditional fuel vehicles is rather simple and imperfect; electrical/electronic devices (EEDs) applied in vehicles are usually directly connected with the vehicle's battery. With increasing numbers of EEDs being applied in traditional fuel vehicles, vehicle electrical power supply systems should be optimized and improved so that they can work more safely and more effectively. In this paper, a new vehicle electrical power supply system for traditional fuel vehicles, which accounts for all electrical/electronic devices and complex work conditions, is proposed based on a smart electrical/electronic device (SEED) system. Working as an independent intelligent electrical power supply network, the proposed system is isolated from the electrical control module and communication network, and access to the vehicle system is made through a bus interface. This results in a clean controller power supply with no electromagnetic interference. A new practical battery state of charge (SoC) estimation method is also proposed to achieve more accurate SoC estimation for lead-acid batteries in traditional fuel vehicles so that the intelligent power system can monitor the status of the battery for an over-current state in each power channel. Optimized protection methods are also used to ensure power supply safety. Experiments and tests on a traditional fuel vehicle are performed, and the results reveal that the battery SoC is calculated quickly and sufficiently accurately for battery over-discharge protection. Over-current protection is achieved, and the entire vehicle's power utilization is optimized. For traditional fuel vehicles, the proposed vehicle electrical power supply system is comprehensive and has a unified system architecture, enhancing system reliability and security.

  5. Effects of the domestic market of the European Community for energy on regional energy supply. Auswirkungen des EG-Binnenmarktes fuer Energie auf die raeumliche Energieversorgung; Studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfaffenberger, W. (Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Volkswirtschaftslehre (VWL)); Scheele, U. (Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Volkswirtschaftslehre (VWL)); Stroebele, W. (Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Volkswirtschaftslehre (VWL)); Windelberg, J. (Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Volkswirtschaftslehre (VWL))

    1992-01-01

    In this investigation, the question is dealt with which effects the realization of the European domestic market for energy will have on the regional energy supply in the Federal Republic. The investigation is based on the total economic frame conditions of the energy market in the scope of a European integration. For the analysis of the effects on the regional energy supply, a view on the initial situation of energy supply in Europe is necessary. For this, the basis for ressources, the legal frame conditions and environmental impacts of energy supply are illustrated. Then, the domestic market for energy is put in the context of energy policy. Finally, the concepts for the organization of the domestic market for energy, Electricity and gas are presented in detail. In the second main part of the investigation, the effects on the regional energy supply are analyzed. Exemplary regions have been selected for this investigation in which the influence of the domestic market on the energy supply has been estimated be means of statistical analyses. As a conclusion, the effects expected are summarized and recommendations regarding regional policy are derived. (orig.)

  6. Identification of potential locations of electric vehicle supply equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, R. Paul; Qin, Nan

    2015-12-01

    Proper placement of electric vehicle supply equipment (charging stations) requires an understanding of vehicle usage patterns. Using data from the National Household Travel Survey on vehicle mileage and destination patterns, analyses were performed to determine electric vehicles' charging needs, as a function of battery size and state of charge. This paper compares electric vehicle charging needs with Department of Energy electric vehicle charging data from real-world charging infrastructure. By combining the electric vehicles charging needs with charging data from real-world applications, locations with high electric vehicle charging likelihood are identified.

  7. The formation of energy supplying companies’ electricity customers’ relationship value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.H. Pererva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is definition and scientifically justification values of the relationship between supply companies and their clients on the way of transition to a market model of bilateral agreements with the balancing market. The results of the analysis. Relations between power supply enterprises and consumers of electricity are considered as unique resources of the company, which, combined with capacity building is a source of potential advantages that allow electricity providers to provide better results. There are formed and justified monetary and nonmonetary indicators of value relationship for energy supply companies and their customers. Based on the analysis of the features of electricity consumption in the retail market of industrial and non-industrial sources consumers it was established sources of values for the relationship of the parties interact. Conclusions and directions of further researches. Developing ideas of predecessors, it was refined, systematized and adapted to the specifics of the national electricity market indicators of monetary and non-monetary create value relationship that allows self-assessment by power supply portfolio of relationships. The monetary aspect of relationship reflects the ability of capital to bring benefit to supply companies in the form of cost savings that occur as a result of timely and full repayment of the consumed energy and increased revenues as a result of customization market offer additional services to customers, increase consistency and coordination mode electricity consumption activities to reduce network losses and cost savings for electricity consumers by offering a package of services for power saving modes and increase energy efficiency. We have identified the main expectations of consumers, such as the required level of availability of supply, an acceptable level of reliability and quality of services available in standard electricity prices, a high

  8. Investigation af a solar heating system for space heating and domestic hot water supply with a high degree of coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1999-01-01

    A solar storage tank for space heating and domestic hot water supply was designed and testet in af laboratory test facility.......A solar storage tank for space heating and domestic hot water supply was designed and testet in af laboratory test facility....

  9. Revenue management for foodstuff production to secure domestic supply in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisyam, Ibnu

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes the application of revenue management in government services to ensure sufficient domestic supply of food in Indonesia. The use of this approach means that the government runs a specific effort to radically be able to solve the core problem. The resources for domestic food production are owned by more than 26 million families of farmers and more than 4 thousands agricultural companies. To achieve the expected quantity of foodstuff supplies, a special effort needs to take into account the profit for producers in allocating the resources at an appropriate level. With revenue management, the price of foodstuff to ensure adequate domestic supply to a certain level of productivity can be known. In this context, the price may be reduced if there is an increase in productivity. For this purpose, the supply curve and the demand-supply equilibrium of foodstuff have been modeled and specific government programs to increase productivity were formulated. One important finding here is that the macroeconomic policy of the government can be integrated to a microeconomic policy of foodstuff producers for one or more certain objectives.

  10. Reliability Evaluation for Optimizing Electricity Supply in a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ndubuka NWOHU

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The reliability standards for electricity supply in a developing country, like Nigeria, have to be determined on past engineering principles and practice. Because of the high demand of electrical power due to rapid development, industrialization and rural electrification; the economic, social and political climate in which the electric power supply industry now operates should be critically viewed to ensure that the production of electrical power should be augmented and remain uninterrupted. This paper presents an economic framework that can be used to optimize electric power system reliability. Finally the cost models are investigated to take into account the economic analysis of system reliability, which can be periodically updated to improve overall reliability of electric power system.

  11. Procurement Options for New Renewable Electricity Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreycik, C. E.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

    2011-12-01

    State renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies require utilities and load-serving entities (LSEs) to procure renewable energy generation. Utility procurement options may be a function of state policy and regulatory preferences, and in some cases, may be dictated by legislative authority. Utilities and LSEs commonly use competitive solicitations or bilateral contracting to procure renewable energy supply to meet RPS mandates. However, policymakers and regulators in several states are beginning to explore the use of alternatives, namely feed-in tariffs (FITs) and auctions to procure renewable energy supply. This report evaluates four procurement strategies (competitive solicitations, bilateral contracting, FITs, and auctions) against four main criteria: (1) pricing; (2) complexity and efficiency of the procurement process; (3) impacts on developers access to markets; and (4) ability to complement utility decision-making processes. These criteria were chosen because they take into account the perspective of each group of stakeholders: ratepayers, regulators, utilities, investors, and developers.

  12. Deploying Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment: Tiger Teams Offer Project Assistance for Federal Fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-01-02

    To assist federal agencies with the transition to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), FEMP offers technical guidance on electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installations and site-specific planning through partnerships with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s EVSE Tiger Teams.

  13. Effects of the drought on California electricity supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benenson, P.; Greene, B.; Kahn, E.; Krieg, B.; Lasater, I.; Ritschard, R.; Ruderman, H.; Sathaye, J.; Sextro, R.; Siri, W.; Vincent, L.

    1977-06-01

    At the end of the driest year on record, California faces water shortages whose impacts will be felt with progressive severity through the summer and fall of 1977. Electric power is not entirely exempt from these impacts and could, if severly affected, compound the direct distresses of the drought. Each of the major California electric utility companies has forecasted the short-term effects on electricity supply and demand in its service area. The study reported here undertook an independent analysis to provide a statewide assessment of impacts and remedial actions and to develop additional analytical tools and data for these purposes. The study examined various aspects of the drought as it relates to electricity supply and demand, reliability of supply to meet summer peak loads, the efficacy of conservation measures, and probable increases in power plant emissions and cost of generating electricity. The results of the study, based in part on the 1977 electricity supply and demand projections submitted by the four utilities to the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission (CERCDC), support the utilities' conclusions that the three southern California utilities have sufficient reserve capacity and fuel to meet their own needs and to assist PG and E in meeting its load demand with little loss of reliability. However, to achieve this the utilities in their submissions have had to assume: 1) full coordination among the utilities; and 2) no air pollution limitations on electricity generation in the South Coast Air Basin. 32 references.

  14. An LCA study of an electricity coal supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to provide methods to find the emission source and estimate the amount of waste gas emissions in the electricity coal supply chain, establish the model of the environmental impact (burden in the electricity coal supply chain, detect the critical factor which causes significant environmental impact, and then identify the key control direction and reduce amount of environmental pollution in the electricity coal supply chain. Design/methodology/approach: In this context, life cycle inventory and life cycle assessment of China’s electricity coal were established in three difference stages: coal mining, coal transportation, and coal burning. Then the outcomes were analyzed with the aim to reduce waste gases emissions’ environmental impact in the electricity coal supply chain from the perspective of sensitivity analysis. Findings: The results and conclusion are as follow: (1 In terms of total waste gas emissions in electricity coal supply chain, CO2 is emitted in the greatest quantity, accounting for 98-99 wt% of the total waste gas emissions. The vast majority of the CO2, greater than 93%, is emitted from the power plant when the coal is combusted. (2 Other than CO2, the main waste gas is CH4, SO2 and so on. CH4 is mainly emitted from Coal Bed Methane (CBM, so the option is to consider capturing some of the CH4 from underground mines for an alternative use. SO2 is mainly emitted from power plant when the coal is combusted. (3 The environmental burden of coal burning subsystem is greatest, followed by the coal mining subsystem, and finally the coal transportation subsystem. Improving the coal-burning efficiency of coal-fired power plant in electricity coal supply chain is the most effective way to reduce the environmental impact of waste gas emissions. (4 Of the three subsystems examined (coal mining, coal transportation, and coal burning, transportation requires the fewest resources and has the lowest waste gas

  15. Improvements in electric power supply in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minovskii, Yu.P.; Nabokov, Eh.P.; Savel' ev, G.P.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews measures taken by major coal producing countries to increase output levels. Discusses research carried out into advance design of equipment in FRG, UK, USA and France and proposes establishment of central automatic control of electric power supply system in Soviet mines, improvement in underground power supply equipment, increase in reliability, stabilization of standby capacity in low voltage circuits, maintenance-free electrical equipment, and efficient spare part storage in underground workings. States that introduction of the proposed system (details are given) will ensure that Soviet mines will eventually reach the development level of foreign mines. 2 refs.

  16. Modern Solutions for Automation of Electrical Traction Power Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mihaela Andreica

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents modern solutions for the automation of the electrical traction power supply system used in urban public transport (trams, trolleybuses and subway trains. The monitoring and control of this process uses SCADA distributed architectures, grouped around a central point (dispatcher who controls all field sensors, transmitters and actuators using programmable logical controllers. The presented applications refer to the Bucharest electrical transport infrastructure.

  17. Electricity, Gas and Water Supply. Industry Training Monograph No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's electricity, gas, and water supply industry employs only 0.8% of the nation's workers and employment in the industry has declined by nearly 39% in the last decade. This industry is substantially more dependent on the vocational education and training (VET) sector for skilled graduates than is the total Australian labor market. Despite…

  18. Energy system analysis of marginal electricity supply in consequential LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Christensen, Per

    2010-01-01

    Background, aim and scope This paper discusses the identification of the environmental consequences of marginal electricity supplies in consequential life cycle assessments (LCA). According to the methodology, environmental characteristics can be examined by identifying affected activities, i...... evaluation of the environmental consequences. Recommendations and perspectives This paper recommends a combination of LCA and ESA as a methodology for identifying a complex set of marginal technologies. The paper also establishes values for Danish marginal electricity production as a yearly average (YAM......) that can be used in future LCA studies involving Danish electricity....

  19. Intermittent Domestic Water Supply: A Critical Review and Analysis of Causal-Consequential Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Galaitsi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Communities in many parts of the world, especially in developing countries, face obstacles in supplying continuous water to household consumers. Authorities often cite water scarcity as the cause, but we demonstrate that environmental constraints constitute only one aspect of a multi-dimensional problem. By asking what causes intermittent domestic water supply, this literature review (129 articles identifies 47 conditions of intermittent systems and the causal-consequential pathways between them that can reinforce intermittency. These pathways span several disciplines including engineering, government administration and anthropology, and when viewed together they (1 emphasize the human drivers of intermittency; (2 suggest generalized interventions; and (3 reveal a gap in the literature in terms of meaningful categorizations of the reliability of intermittent supplies. Based on the reliability of consumers’ water access, we propose three categories of intermittency—predictable, irregular, and unreliable—to facilitate comparisons between case studies and transfers of solutions.

  20. Comparative life-cycle air emissions of coal, domestic natural gas, LNG, and SNG for electricity generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Paulina; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

    2007-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that in the coming decades the United States' natural gas (NG) demand for electricity generation will increase. Estimates also suggest that NG supply will increasingly come from imported liquefied natural gas (LNG). Additional supplies of NG could come domestically from the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) via coal gasification-methanation. The objective of this study is to compare greenhouse gas (GHG), SOx, and NOx life-cycle emissions of electricity generated with NG/LNG/SNG and coal. This life-cycle comparison of air emissions from different fuels can help us better understand the advantages and disadvantages of using coal versus globally sourced NG for electricity generation. Our estimates suggest that with the current fleet of power plants, a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have lower GHG emissions than coal. If advanced technologies with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) are used, however, coal and a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have very similar life-cycle GHG emissions. For SOx and NOx we find there are significant emissions in the upstream stages of the NG/ LNG life-cycles, which contribute to a larger range in SOx and NOx emissions for NG/LNG than for coal and SNG.

  1. Prevalence of Simkania negevensis in chlorinated water from spa swimming pools and domestic supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, M; Cremonini, E; Di Francesco, A; Dallolio, L; Biondi, R; Muthusamy, R; Leoni, E

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Simkania negevensis in the chlorinated water of spa swimming pools and domestic network systems. A total of 10 and 36 samples were collected from two domestic water supplies and four spa facilities, respectively. Simkania negevensis was isolated in Acanthamoeba castellanii monolayers and detected by Gimenez staining and immunofluorescence test. Simkania negevensis DNA, extracted from the positive samples, was confirmed by a nested PCR assay followed by sequencing. Simkania negevensis was detected in 41·3% of samples (domestic water: 50%; untreated spa supply water: 25%; chlorinated spa pool water: 42·9%) from all the examined water systems in successive samplings performed in 1 year. The presence of S. negevensis was not correlated with the counts of Heterotrophic Bacteria and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Unlike Legionella spp., which were never isolated from the swimming-pool water samples, S. negevensis was also detected in chlorinated spa water. This investigation shows that Simkania is widespread in natural and man-made aquatic environments, which may represent possible sources of infection: in the swimming pools, in particular, the aerosol generated by the water movement could increase the risk of inhalation of infected particles. This study represents the first evidence of the presence of S. negevensis in spa pool water. Sero-epidemiological surveys on spa users could help to clarify its transmission in this environment. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Design of a hybrid emissivity domestic electric oven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Ozgur; Onbasioglu, Seyhan Uygur

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the radiative properties of the surfaces of an electric oven were investigated. Using experimental data related to an oven-like enclosure, a novel combination of surface properties was developed. Three different surface emissivity combinations were analysed experimentally: low-emissivity, high emissivity (black-coated), and hybrid emissivity. The term "hybrid emissivity design" here corresponds to an enclosure with some high emissive and some low-emissive surfaces. The experiments were carried out according to the EN 50304 standard. When a brick (load) was placed in the enclosure, the view factors between its surfaces were calculated with the Monte Carlo method. These and the measured surface temperatures were then used to calculate the radiative heat fluxes on the surfaces of the load. The three different models were compared with respect to energy consumption and baking time. The hybrid model performed best, with the highest radiative heat transfer between the surfaces of the enclosure and the load and minimum heat loss from the cavity. Thus, it was the most efficient model with the lowest energy consumption and the shortest baking time. The recent European Union regulation regarding the energy labelling of domestic ovens was used.

  3. Planning Mechanisms for Regional Electric Power Supply System Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy Anatolyevich Malyshev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Key problems of the regional electric power supply systems are examined. These problems result from a lack of regulated interaction mechanisms for uniting the different entities’ resources aimed at the realization of investment activities. One of the main problems of the power supply industry is physical and moral aging of both generating and networking equipment. In the article, the necessity of management system formation to control the development of power sector has been proved. The deficiencies of the modern investment procedure in power companies are described. The absence of continuity between the regional and local strategic planning documents and investment planning of a power company has been found out. The possibility to develop a new mechanism for attracting investment has been proposed. The regulation of joint activities to implement the development program for the regional power supply industry has been proposed. The management system to develop the Russian power industry has been proposed. The comparative analysis of generating capacity development mechanisms has been carried out, such as capacity supply agreement (CSA, investment support mechanism (ISM, and long-term power market (LPM. The interaction procedure of the planning of the power supply infrastructure development has been described. The mechanism connecting the state sectoral and regional planning and corporate planning of power supply infrastructure development has been proposed. The regional aspects of industrial policy and its legislative support have been considered. To successfully implement the public-private-partnership (PPP projects, it is necessary to create the effective PPP model within the federal and regional legislation framework; to develop the financial model providing the recoverability of investments; to provide a mutually beneficial cooperation between executive bodies and private investors. The possibility to apply the PPP mechanism for regional

  4. The study of plate-type electrostatic precipitators electrical supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel N. Popa

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Stricter environmental legislation in many countries is producing standards governing the emission of fine particles to the atmosphere from all sources. The industrial separating particles from process streams have numerous methods with different principles. In electrostatic precipitators is used electrical charge of dust particles.There are many aspects of pollution control in both solid and liquid phase using electrostatic precipitators.The operation of plate-type electrostatic precipitators is closely related to its electrical energization, to obtain high collection efficiency with low electrical energization consumption. The paper analyze the traditional direct current energization, the intermittent energization, the pulse energization and the switched mode at high frequency power supplies of plate-type electrostatic precipitators sections.

  5. Aligning PEV Charging Times with Electricity Supply and Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, Cabell [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-05

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are a growing source of electricity consumption that could either exacerbate supply shortages or smooth electricity demand curves. Extensive research has explored how vehicle-grid integration (VGI) can be optimized by controlling PEV charging timing or providing vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services, such as storing energy in vehicle batteries and returning it to the grid at peak times. While much of this research has modeled charging, implementation in the real world requires a cost-effective solution that accounts for consumer behavior. To function across different contexts, several types of charging administrators and methods of control are necessary to minimize costs in the VGI context.

  6. Sustainable Federal Fleets: Deploying Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps federal agencies reduce petroleum consumption and increase alternative fuel use through its resources for Sustainable Federal Fleets. To assist agencies with the transition to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), FEMP offers technical guidance on electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installations and site-specific planning through partnerships with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) EVSE Tiger Teams.

  7. Optimization of electrical supply systems of oil production installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissenbaum, I.A.; Novoselov, Yu.B.; Tsekhnov, A.N.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of optimization of electrical system assumes determination of the method for constructing the system, the functioning of which would assure minimal values of the technical-economic criterion -- costs, which are the basic economic factor in construction and exploitation of the system. When designing electro-supply systems for oil production installations, in particular, the pump stations, three principal versions of the optimization problem are possible, which are determined by the different conditions of the system, the type of minimizing criteria and volume of optimizing parameters. The most difficult optimization of an electrical system is when it is characterized only by assumed values of active power flow, which are determined by the specific energy requirements of the planned technological processes and the type of equipment used. Second, the more common optimization problem is improvement of the existing electrical network, with established processes and equipment use. The third version is a developing system, in which as a result of introduction of new technological installations, or remodeling of old ones, and which may result in a sharp change or re-distribution of the active power supply. Determining operating regimen of the system and optimization of economic-technical criteria should be a result of large-scale calculation and simulation using a digital computer, and use of iteration and non-linear programming methods.

  8. Domestic rainwater harvesting to improve water supply in rural South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwenge Kahinda, Jean-marc; Taigbenu, Akpofure E.; Boroto, Jean R.

    Halving the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation, is one of the targets of the 7th Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In South Africa, with its mix of developed and developing regions, 9.7 million (20%) of the people do not have access to adequate water supply and 16 million (33%) lack proper sanitation services. Domestic Rainwater Harvesting (DRWH), which provides water directly to households enables a number of small-scale productive activities, has the potential to supply water even in rural and peri-urban areas that conventional technologies cannot supply. As part of the effort to achieve the MDGs, the South African government has committed itself to provide financial assistance to poor households for the capital cost of rainwater storage tanks and related works in the rural areas. Despite this financial assistance, the legal status of DRWH remains unclear and DRWH is in fact illegal by strict application of the water legislations. Beyond the cost of installation, maintenance and proper use of the DRWH system to ensure its sustainability, there is risk of waterborne diseases. This paper explores challenges to sustainable implementation of DRWH and proposes some interventions which the South African government could implement to overcome them.

  9. Development of Solar Electricity Supply System in India: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar electricity supply system has grown at very rapid pace in India during the last few years. A total of 1047.84 MW of grid connected photovoltaic projects and 160.8 MW of off-grid systems have been commissioned under different policy mechanisms between January 2010 and November 2012. It is observed that solar capacity development has achieved a greater height under state policies (689.81 MW than others. A study is made in this paper of various national and state level schemes, incentives, packages, instruments, and different mechanisms to promote solar photovoltaics and its effectiveness.

  10. Wind energy in a competitive electricity supply environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strbac, G.; Jenkins, N. [Manchester Centre for Electrical Energy, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    In the UK, there has been an increasing interest in the commercial aspects of the impact of wind energy on transmission and distribution networks. In a competitive electricity supply environment, mechanisms for pricing network services are considered to be the main vehicle for evaluating that impact. This article reviews the major pricing strategies based on embedded costs, short and long run marginal costing theory as well as time-of-use pricing, and comments on the influence of each particular strategy on the calculated value of wind energy. Also, prospective tools for evaluating savings in capital and operating network costs due to wind generation, are identified. (author)

  11. 100 years of public electricity supply in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gersdorff, B. von

    1984-05-08

    On May, 8sup(th), 1884, Emil Rathenau founded Germany's first power utility company, the Municipal Electricity Works, Berlin, the predecessor of today's Berlin Power and Light Co. (Bewag). Rathenau had recognised the significance of Thomas Alva Edison's light bulb for a broad application of electricity. Block power plants with machine outputs of 150 PS were at the beginning of their development in 1884. Today, in nuclear power plants with machine outputs of around 1300 MW, the technology of power supply has reached the ''large technology'' prophesied by Rathenau at the start of the century. With today's challenge of environment conservation the power utilities are confronted with new tasks for the future.

  12. Security of supply in electricity markets: Improving cost efficiency of supplying security and possible welfare gains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Grenaa Jensen, Stine

    2012-01-01

    by possible welfare gains. From a welfare perspective it is possible that security levels are too high and obtained with too high costs. Adjusting the effort so that marginal cost for securing supply is at similar levels in generation capacity and in network maintenance could increase welfare even without......In liberalised markets the ability to maintain security of electricity supply is questioned because security is characterised as a public good. We discuss if this property can be modified with changing technology. Furthermore, we examine if construction of markets for security can be justified...... the need to construct markets. Secondarily, a consumer defined average level of security might improve welfare. Finally, different willingness to pay among customers and construction of advanced markets might increase welfare further. We argue that several cost and welfare improvements can be achieved...

  13. Saving electricity in a hurry. Dealing with temporary shortfalls in electricity supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    2005-07-01

    Blackouts are normally the result of imbalances in electricity supply and demand. A brief blackout is mostly an inconvenience. But persistent shortfalls ? those lasting days, weeks, or months ? can cause economic disruption and danger to human life in our technology-rich societies. Saving Electricity in a Hurry describes some of the recent power shortfalls, from Norway to New Zealand, from Tokyo to Arizona and the policies these regions used to quickly reduce their power consumption. How did the whole country of Sweden cut its power consumption by 4% in only three days? How did California save 14% in only a few months? While the temporary shortfalls in electricity supplies described in this book are relatively rare events, they disproportionately shape future energy policies. Saving Electricity in a Hurry shows that countries can quickly reduce electricity consumption without harming the economy as much as blackouts or unplanned curtailments. The strategies are diverse, unique and often surprisingly cheap. They include mass media campaigns ? where a good joke can save a Megawatt ? improvements in equipment efficiency and quickly adjusting electricity prices. This book explains how California replaced a million traffic signals with energy-saving models, how millions of Tokyo residents raised their thermostat settings, and how New Zealanders took shorter showers, all quickly enough to help avoid imminent blackouts. Finally, it connects these policies to the traditional goal of ?saving electricity slowly?.

  14. Role of CCTs in the evolving domestic electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grahame, T.J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Coal and Power Systems

    1997-12-31

    The paper summarizes the key points and issues in the role of clean coal technologies in the domestic marketplace. Then suggested solutions to bringing precommercial CCTs to the market are presented. Finally, the outlook for possible actions by government and the private sector are briefly discussed.

  15. Potential for deserts to supply reliable renewable electric power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labordena, Mercè; Lilliestam, Johan

    2015-04-01

    To avoid dangerous climate change, the electricity systems must be decarbonized by mid-century. The world has sufficient renewable electricity resources for complete power sector decarbonization, but an expansion of renewables poses several challenges for the electricity systems. First, wind and solar PV power are intermittent and supply-controlled, making it difficult to securely integrate this fluctuating generation into the power systems. Consequently, power sources that are both renewable and dispatchable, such as biomass, hydro and concentrating solar power (CSP), are particularly important. Second, renewable power has a low power density and needs vast areas of land, which is problematic both due to cost reasons and due to land-use conflicts, in particular with agriculture. Renewable and dispatchable technologies that can be built in sparsely inhabited regions or on land with low competition with agriculture would therefore be especially valuable; this land-use competition greatly limits the potential for hydro and biomass electricity. Deserts, however, are precisely such low-competition land, and are at the same time the most suited places for CSP generation, but this option would necessitate long transmission lines from remote places in the deserts to the demand centers such as big cities. We therefore study the potential for fleets of CSP plants in the large deserts of the world to produce reliable and reasonable-cost renewable electricity for regions with high and/or rapidly increasing electricity demand and with a desert within or close to its borders. The regions in focus here are the European Union, North Africa and the Middle East, China and Australia. We conduct the analysis in three steps. First, we identify the best solar generation areas in the selected deserts using geographic information systems (GIS), and applying restrictions to minimize impact on biodiversity, soils, human heath, and land-use and land-cover change. Second, we identify

  16. Domestic wash water reclamation for reuse as commode water supply using filtration: Reverse-osmosis separation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A combined filtration-reverse-osmosis water recovery system has been evaluated to determine its capability to reclaim domestic wash water for reuse as a commode water supply. The system produced water that met all chemical and physical requirements established by the U.S. Public Health Service for drinking water with the exception of carbon chloroform extractables, methylene blue active substances, and phenols. It is thought that this water is of sufficient quality to be reused as commode supply water. The feasibility of using a combined filtration and reverse-osmosis technique for reclaiming domestic wash water has been established. The use of such a technique for wash-water recovery will require a maintenance filter to remove solid materials including those less than 1 micron in size from the wash water. The reverse-osmosis module, if sufficiently protected from plugging, is an attractive low-energy technique for removing contaminants from domestic wash water.

  17. Investigation of a low flow solar heating system for space heating and domestic hot water supply for Aidt Miljø A/S

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1997-01-01

    A low flow solar heating system for space heating and domestic hot water supply from Aidt Miljø A/Swas tested in a laboratory test facility.......A low flow solar heating system for space heating and domestic hot water supply from Aidt Miljø A/Swas tested in a laboratory test facility....

  18. Investigation of a solar heating system for space heating and domestic hot water supply for Sol&Træ A.m.b.a

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1999-01-01

    A solar heating system for space heating and domestic hot water supply from "Sol&Træ A.m.b.a." was tested in a laboratory test facility.......A solar heating system for space heating and domestic hot water supply from "Sol&Træ A.m.b.a." was tested in a laboratory test facility....

  19. Local planning of electricity supply systems; Lokal kraftsystemplanlegging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egeland, H.; Otnes, H.

    1995-01-25

    This publication discusses the planning of electricity supply systems in the Norwegian distribution networks and the legal basis and supply quality. It also describes the realization of the planning work and the design of the power system plan. The authorities expect that, prior to the construction of new distribution plants, the local concessionaire will perform an analysis of the needs and see this in connection with the other plants, with rehabilitations and alternative upgrades. To meet this objective an overview should be worked out of the transfer system in the region along with a plan for the coming network investments. Regional concessionaires who do not have such plans are therefore recommended to make them as soon as possible. Plans will be required as needed. The plan must be vertically coordinated with the main distribution network or regional network and horizontally with the neighbouring networks. A plan will be an important basis for the energy company`s strategic plans and a tool for efficient exploitation of its resources. 1 figure

  20. Overview of the Spanish electricity supply industry model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvez, J.B.; Collado, R.J. (ENDESA (Spain))

    1993-01-01

    The Spanish Electricity Supply Industry (ESI) is a fairly large, well diversified industry which has undergone substantial changes during the last decade, aimed at achieving three distinct objectives: maximum economic efficiency; maintenance of the ESI as a national energy policy tool; and flexibility vis-a-vis a changing environment. The changes have affected the three structural elements of the system: industrial and business structure, tending towards a greater horizontalization of the industry and consolidation of the companies involved; system management and operation, under the perspective of an integrated system with regard to key decisions both in the long-term (i.e. capacity planning) and short-term (i.e. energy dispatching system); and tariff and price regulation in the context of a country-wide single tariff, aimed at promoting system efficiency and 'yardstick' competition through the use of 'standard costs' for all cost items in all parts of the system. Beyond these initial changes, there are new elements under consideration and developed in a new Law for the Structuring of the Electric System, blocked at present by the impending elections. This new Law would maintain the perspective of the integrated system while allowing for competition in certain areas (i.e. new generation, 'energy sellers') and promoting greater transparency with the segregation of activities (Generation, Transmission, Distribution, and 'Energy Sales').

  1. Effects of regulatory reforms in the electricity supply industry on electricity prices in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagayama, Hiroaki [Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmachi, Kyoto (Japan). Graduate School of Energy Science, Department of Socio-Environmental Energy Science

    2007-06-15

    Electric power sector reforms in the electricity supply industry have had an impact on industrial and household prices in developing countries in Latin America, the former Soviet Union, and Eastern Europe. Using original panel data for 83 countries during the period from 1985 to 2002, we examine how each policy instrument of the reform measures influenced electricity prices for countries in the above regions. We found that variables such as entry of independent power producers (IPP), unbundling of generation and transmission, establishment of a regulatory agency, and the introduction of a wholesale spot market have had a variety of impacts on electricity prices, some of which were not always consistent with expected results. The research findings suggest that neither unbundling nor introduction of a wholesale pool market on their own necessarily reduces the electric power price. In fact, contrary to expectations, there was a tendency for the price to rise. However, coexistent with an independent regulator, unbundling may work to reduce electricity prices. Privatization and the introduction of foreign IPP and retail competition lower electricity prices in some regions, but not all. (author)

  2. Future conditions for integration of the Baltic Electricity Supply System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The economies of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania developed in close association with the north-west region of the former Soviet Union. This is especially true for energy supply systems and electricity generation and transmission; the Baltic States depend on Russia for much of their primary energy needs, and export power to Russia and Belarus. In restructuring their electricity industries, the Baltic States hope to establish closer relationships and trade with Western Europe. The initial focus has been on changes to the legislative framework, industry restructuring and the establishment of new regulatory institutions. Vertically integrated utilities are in the process of being broken up into a number of separate generation, transmission and distribution companies. This restructuring is a prelude to privatisation. The states aim to establish a common power market among themselves, and hope to integrate this market with neighbouring (Nordic and European) markets. Despite the target set by the Baltic authorities of a common market by 2001, there is little clarity, as yet, on the framework and guidelines for the structure and functioning of the market. This process is supported by other players in the region, and the EU has recently prioritised closer co-operation and harmonisation of power networks in the Baltic Sea region. The Swedish National Energy Administration has identified cooperation on energy and environmental issues in the Baltic Sea region as one of its priorities. Consequently, the Administration commissioned ECON to analyse the conditions for closer linkages between the Baltic and Nordic electricity systems. This report presents the findings of this analysis.

  3. [Mercury in ASGM and its impact on water resources used for domestic water supply].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Arriaga, Farith A

    2014-01-01

    In regions affected by artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM), the inhalation of mercury vapor and the ingestion of fish contaminated with this metal constitute the main sources of mercury contamination that affect human health. Nevertheless, according to the World Health Organization, another source of contamination is polluted water. Although mercury in freshwater is usually found in very low concentrations because it is swiftly consumed by aquatic microorganisms, evidence shows that under specific circumstances its concentration in water can reach high levels, even surpassing the 2.0 μg/L stipulated by Colombian legislation for use as a domestic water supply. Mercury concentrations above 3.0 μg/L have been found in some Colombian municipalities, and above 8.0 μg/L in other regions around the world. Even though mercury consumption via water is a minor concern, along with other alimentary sources this low mercury concentration contributes to the total burden that affects human health.

  4. Predicted pH at the domestic and public supply drinking water depths, Central Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosecrans, Celia Z.; Nolan, Bernard T.; Gronberg, Jo Ann M.

    2017-03-08

    This scientific investigations map is a product of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) project modeling and mapping team. The prediction grids depicted in this map are of continuous pH and are intended to provide an understanding of groundwater-quality conditions at the domestic and public supply drinking water zones in the groundwater of the Central Valley of California. The chemical quality of groundwater and the fate of many contaminants is often influenced by pH in all aquifers. These grids are of interest to water-resource managers, water-quality researchers, and groundwater modelers concerned with the occurrence of natural and anthropogenic contaminants related to pH. In this work, the median well depth categorized as domestic supply was 30 meters below land surface, and the median well depth categorized as public supply is 100 meters below land surface. Prediction grids were created using prediction modeling methods, specifically boosted regression trees (BRT) with a Gaussian error distribution within a statistical learning framework within the computing framework of R (http://www.r-project.org/). The statistical learning framework seeks to maximize the predictive performance of machine learning methods through model tuning by cross validation. The response variable was measured pH from 1,337 wells and was compiled from two sources: USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) database (all data are publicly available from the USGS: http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ca/nwis/nwis) and the California State Water Resources Control Board Division of Drinking Water (SWRCB-DDW) database (water quality data are publicly available from the SWRCB: http://www.waterboards.ca.gov/gama/geotracker_gama.shtml). Only wells with measured pH and well depth data were selected, and for wells with multiple records, only the most recent sample in the period 1993–2014 was used. A total of 1,003 wells (training dataset) were used to train the BRT

  5. Electric power supply and demand for the contiguous United States, 1980-1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    A limited review is presented of the outlook for the electric power supply and demand during the period 1980 to 1989. Only the adequacy and reliability aspects of bulk electric power supply in the contiguous US are considered. The economic, financial and environmental aspects of electric power system planning and the distribution of electricity (below the transmission level) are topics of prime importance, but they are outside the scope of this report.

  6. New European Electricity Market Regulations and their Impact on the Domestic Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Majchrzak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The process of building the European electricity market was initiated in the 1980s. Recently, however, significant acceleration of this process can be observed, resulting in many legal regulations determining the current and future market design. The paper discusses legal regulations shaping the energy market in Europe, both the existing ones and those still being drafted, as well as their impact on the domestic electricity market.

  7. Electric energy saving potential by substitution of domestic refrigerators in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroyo-Cabanas, F.G. [Posgrado en Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A. P. 20-364, Mexico, Distrito Federal, C.P. 05500 (Mexico); Programa de Energia, Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico, San Lorenzo 290, Col. Del Valle, Del. Benito Juarez, Mexico, Distrito Federal, C.P. 03100 (Mexico); Aguillon-Martinez, J.E. [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A. P. 20-364, Mexico, Distrito Federal, C.P. 05500 (Mexico); Ambriz-Garcia, J.J. [Ingenieria en Recursos Energeticos, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, C.P. 09340, Iztapalapa, Mexico, Distrito Federal (Mexico); Canizal, G. [Programa de Energia, Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico, San Lorenzo 290, Col. Del Valle, Del. Benito Juarez, Mexico, Distrito Federal, C.P. 03100 (Mexico)

    2009-11-15

    We evaluate the potential for electric power saving in Mexico that would follow the substitution of old, low efficiency domestic refrigerators with modern, high efficiency ones. Our results indicate that a total substitution of domestic refrigerators would save 4.7 TWh/year, which represents 33% of the annual total consumption of 14.1 TWh. Assuming an average daily use of 14 h for domestic refrigeration, 900 MW of electricity would be saved. An annual substitution of 20% over 5 years would save approximately 1 TWh a year and almost 180 MW would be released. It is recommended that this program of replacement should be supported by the Federal and State governments, beginning with the States (which have more direct influence), and with the oldest, least efficient refrigerators along the lines followed in programs that introduced fluorescent compact lamps. (author)

  8. Electricity supply, employment and real GDP in India: evidence from cointegration and Granger-causality tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Sajal [Management Development Institute (MDI), Gurgaon, Room No. C - 10, MDI, P.O. Box No. 60, Mehrauli Road, Sukhrali, Gurgaon 122001 (India)], E-mail: sajalg@yahoo.com

    2009-08-15

    This study probes nexus between electricity supply, employment and real GDP for India within a multivariate framework using autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration. Long-run equilibrium relationship has been established among these variables for the time span 1970-71 to 2005-06. The study further establishes long- and short-run Granger causality running from real GDP and electricity supply to employment without any feedback effect. Thus, growth in real GDP and electricity supply are responsible for the high level of employment in India. The absence of causality running from electricity supply to real GDP implies that electricity demand and supply side measures can be adopted to reduce the wastage of electricity, which would not affect future economic growth of India.

  9. Electricity supply, employment and real GDP in India. Evidence from cointegration and Granger-causality tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Sajal [Management Development Institute (MDI), Gurgaon, Room No. C - 10, MDI, P.O. Box No. 60, Mehrauli Road, Sukhrali, Gurgaon 122001 (India)

    2009-08-15

    This study probes nexus between electricity supply, employment and real GDP for India within a multivariate framework using autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration. Long-run equilibrium relationship has been established among these variables for the time span 1970-71 to 2005-06. The study further establishes long- and short-run Granger causality running from real GDP and electricity supply to employment without any feedback effect. Thus, growth in real GDP and electricity supply are responsible for the high level of employment in India. The absence of causality running from electricity supply to real GDP implies that electricity demand and supply side measures can be adopted to reduce the wastage of electricity, which would not affect future economic growth of India. (author)

  10. A Direct Heat Exchanger Unit used for Domestic Hot Water Supply in a Single-family House Supplied by Low Energy District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Marek; Thorsen, Jan Eric; Svendsen, Svend

    2010-01-01

    on the testing of the dynamic behaviour of an Instantaneous Heat Exchanger Unit(IHEU) designed for DHW heating and space heating in detached family houses supplied by LEDH ensuring an entry-to-substation temperature of 51 °C. We measured the time it takes for the IHEU to produce DHW with a temperature of 42 °C......The increasing number of new and renovated buildings with reduced heating requirements will soon make traditional District Heating (DH) systems uneconomic. To keep DH competitive in the future, the heat loss in DH networks needs to be reduced. One option is to reduce the supply temperature of DH...... as much as possible. This requires a review of the behaviour of the whole domestic hot water (DHW) supply system with focus on the user comfort and overall costs. This paper describes some practical approaches to the implementation of this Low Energy District Heating (LEDH) concept. It reports...

  11. The security of electricity supply as the determinant of sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Denona Bogović

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available It is defined the term security of energy supply and identified its segments in the article. The role of electricity in sustainable development is analyzed. The article emphasize the importance of a secure electricity supply that is a key prerequisite to well-functioning modern society.

  12. Optimization of double chamber microbial fuel cell for domestic wastewater treatment and electricity production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amr El-Hag Ali; Ola M Gomaa; Reham Fathey; Hussein Abd El Kareem; Mohamed Abou Zaid

    2015-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells ( MFCs) represent a new approach for treating waste water along with electricity production. The present study addressed electricity production from domestic wastewater using a mediator-less double chamber MFC. The electricity production was monitored under different operational conditions for both summer and winter samples. Optimization of the anodic and cathodic chambers resulted in a maximal current of 0. 784 and 0. 645 mA with the maximal power intensity of 209 and 117 mW/m2 in power duration of 24 h for the summer and winter samples, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the bacterial biofilm formation on the anode was denser for the summer sample than that when the winter sample was used, so was the total bacterial count. Therefore, samples taken during summer were considered better in electricity production and waste water treatment than those taken during winter basically because of the high microbial load during the hot season. In parallel, there was a decrease in both biological oxygen demand ( BOD5 ) and chemical oxygen demand ( COD) values which reached 71. 8% and 72. 85%, respectively at the end of the operation process for the summer sample, while there was no evident decrease for the winter sample. Optimizing the operating conditions not only increased the potential of using domestic waste water in microbial fuel cells to produce electricity, but also improved the quality of the domestic waste water.

  13. Impacts of Groundwater Constraints on Saudi Arabia's Low-Carbon Electricity Supply Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Simon C; Djilali, Ned; Krey, Volker; Fricko, Oliver; Johnson, Nils; Khan, Zarrar; Sedraoui, Khaled; Almasoud, Abdulrahman H

    2016-02-16

    Balancing groundwater depletion, socioeconomic development and food security in Saudi Arabia will require policy that promotes expansion of unconventional freshwater supply options, such as wastewater recycling and desalination. As these processes consume more electricity than conventional freshwater supply technologies, Saudi Arabia's electricity system is vulnerable to groundwater conservation policy. This paper examines strategies for adapting to long-term groundwater constraints in Saudi Arabia's freshwater and electricity supply sectors with an integrated modeling framework. The approach combines electricity and freshwater supply planning models across provinces to provide an improved representation of coupled infrastructure systems. The tool is applied to study the interaction between policy aimed at a complete phase-out of nonrenewable groundwater extraction and concurrent policy aimed at achieving deep reductions in electricity sector carbon emissions. We find that transitioning away from nonrenewable groundwater use by the year 2050 could increase electricity demand by more than 40% relative to 2010 conditions, and require investments similar to strategies aimed at transitioning away from fossil fuels in the electricity sector. Higher electricity demands under groundwater constraints reduce flexibility of supply side options in the electricity sector to limit carbon emissions, making it more expensive to fulfill climate sustainability objectives. The results of this analysis underscore the importance of integrated long-term planning approaches for Saudi Arabia's electricity and freshwater supply systems.

  14. Electric energy demand and supply prospects for California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, H. G. M.

    1978-01-01

    A recent history of electricity forecasting in California is given. Dealing with forecasts and regulatory uncertainty is discussed. Graphs are presented for: (1) Los Angeles Department of Water and Power and Pacific Gas and Electric present and projected reserve margins; (2) California electricity peak demand forecast; and (3) California electricity production.

  15. Novel Radio on Fiber Access Eliminating External Electric Power Supply at Base Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tetsuya; Miki; Katsuyasu; Kawano; Nobuo; Nakajima; Naoto; Kishi; Masaru; Miyamoto; Tetsu; Aoki

    2003-01-01

    A novel Radio On Fiber(ROF) access is proposed and demonstrated which enables the pico-cell Base Station (BS) for high-speed wireless communications to eliminate external electric power supply facilities. We demonstrated 2.4-GHz band radio signal transmission through the BS without external electric power supply. The electrical power used for BS circuit is feeded by optical power over optical fiber from central station.

  16. Efficient Use of Behavioral Tools to Reduce Electricity Demand of Domestic Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbaz Shimon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study investigated the main literature on the subject of methods and policies for reducing the electricity demand of domestic consumers, in order to identify the place of behavioral tools. Methodology: We used secondary sources, performing a literature review, together with analysis and synthesis. Findings: Policy makers prefer to use tools offered by neoclassical economics, such as various forms of taxation, fines and financial incentives in order to make domestic electricity consumers save electricity, on the assumption that consumers will make rational decisions while maximizing their personal benefit. However, studies conducted in recent years in the field of behavioral economics, which are based on the assumption that consumers’ decisions are not rational and are affected by cognitive biases, showed that the use of behavioral tools, such as detailed online information (feedback,social comparison information, information on varying rates (dynamic pricing and general information (advertising campaign, are tools that are not less appropriate than the ones the neoclassical economics offers, mainly because electricity is an invisible product and consumers are unable to assess it by normal cognitive measures. Using an interdisciplinary combination of behavioral tools that come from a variety of approaches taken from a wide variety of different academic fields, it is possible to receive efficient results in the endeavor of reducing electricity demand. Implications: Although the neoclassical economics still remains the fundamental theory used by policymakers, it is recommended to consider behavioral economics as a complementary approach to the neoclassical economics, and combine behavioral tools in the policymakers’ toolbox, especially when those tools do not require a significant financial investment, thus efficiently maximizing the reduction of electricity demand among domestic consumers. These theoretical results will be

  17. Development of a global electricity supply model and investigation of electricity supply by renewable energies with a focus on energy storage requirements for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troendle, Tobias Wolfgang

    2014-12-12

    Electricity supply at present requires about 38% of the global primary energy demand and it is likely to rise further in the coming decades. Facing major problems, such as limited resources of fuels and an ongoing anthropogenic climate change, a sustainable electricity supply based on renewable energies is absolutely vital. Wind and solar power will play an extensive role in future supplies but require energy storage capacities to meet electricity demand. To investigate the relationship of power plant mix and required energy storage capacity, a computer model based on global weather data has been developed to enable the simulation of electricity supply scenarios by up to ten different power plant types for various regions. The focus of the investigation has been on the energy storage requirements of an electricity supply for Europe by wind and solar power. The minimum required energy storage capacity for a totally weather dependent electricity supply occurs at a ratio of 30% wind and 70% photovoltaic (PV) power plant capacity installed. Thus, the required energy storage capacity rises from a transition of to-day's electricity supply to the afore-mentioned 100% renewable wind and PV scenario exponentially to about 150 TWh (3.8% of the annual electricity demand). The installation of additional excess wind and PV power plant capacity was seen to be an efficient way to reduce the required energy storage. Already 10% excess capacity lead to a reduction by 50% of the required storage capacity. To use different storage technologies in an optimised way in terms of storage capacity and efficiency, the storage tasks can be separated into a daily and a seasonal usage. While the seasonal storage capacity has to be about two orders of magnitude larger than the required capacity of the storage for the daily cycle, the sum of stored energy during one year is almost equal for the long and short time storage. In summary, an electricity supply by wind and PV power was shown to

  18. Factors affecting domestic water consumption in rural households upon access to improved water supply: insights from the Wei River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Liangxin; Liu, Guobin; Wang, Fei; Geissen, Violette; Ritsema, Coen J

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensively understanding water consumption behavior is necessary to design efficient and effective water use strategies. Despite global efforts to identify the factors that affect domestic water consumption, those related to domestic water use in rural regions have not been sufficiently studied, particularly in villages that have gained access to improved water supply. To address this gap, we investigated 247 households in eight villages in the Wei River Basin where three types of improved water supply systems are implemented. Results show that domestic water consumption in liters per capita per day was significantly correlated with water supply pattern and vegetable garden area, and significantly negatively correlated with family size and age of household head. Traditional hygiene habits, use of water appliances, and preference for vegetable gardening remain dominant behaviors in the villages with access to improved water supply. Future studies on rural domestic water consumption should pay more attention to user lifestyles (water appliance usage habits, outdoor water use) and cultural backgrounds (age, education).

  19. Sporadic Legionnaires' disease: the role of domestic electric hot-water tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, S F; Locas, M C; Duchesne, A; Restieri, C; Ismaïl, J; Lefebvre, B; Labbé, A C; Dion, R; Plante, M; Laverdière, M

    2012-01-01

    Sporadic community-acquired legionellosis (SCAL) can be acquired through contaminated aerosols from residential potable water. Electricity-dependent hot-water tanks are widely used in the province of Quebec (Canada) and have been shown to be frequently contaminated with Legionella spp. We prospectively investigated the homes of culture-proven SCAL patients from Quebec in order to establish the proportion of patients whose domestic potable hot-water system was contaminated with the same Legionella isolate that caused their pneumonia. Water samples were collected in each patient's home. Environmental and clinical isolates were compared using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Thirty-six patients were enrolled into the study. Legionella was recovered in 12/36 (33%) homes. The residential and clinical isolates were found to be microbiologically related in 5/36 (14%) patients. Contaminated electricity-heated domestic hot-water systems contribute to the acquisition of SCAL. The proportion is similar to previous reports, but may be underestimated.

  20. Investigating the Effectiveness of Ultraviolet (UV Water Purification as Replacement of Chlorine Disinfection in Domestic Water Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaoye

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Domestic water supply to residential buildings through hand-dug wells has been widely accepted as a reliable substitute to government owned municipal water supply system in Nigeria. This Paper investigates theeffectiveness of Ultraviolet (UV Water Sterilizers as a suitable replacement of chlorine disinfection in the removal of microbiological contaminants in domestic water supply. Water from an established contaminated well in Ogbomoso, Nigeria, were subjected, simultaneously and in parallel, to chlorine dosing and contact withUV light, over a period of seven (7 days without pre-filtration, and additional seven (7 days with pre-filtration. Pre-filtration was accomplished by the use of a calibrated pressure filter. Effluent water samples were taken daily for the two (2 scenarios to the laboratory for physical, chemical and biological analyses. The resultsindicated that UV water purification method was more effective only when pre-filtration of raw water was introduced. With monitored prefiltration prior to ultraviolet purification, the colony count, MPN Coliform Organisms and MPN E. Coli Organisms recorded seven day-average values of 1, 0 and 0, respectively. In both scenarios, it was confirmed that UV method produced no bi-products and did not alter the taste, pH or other properties of water, in contradistiction to chlorine disinfection method

  1. Dynamics of global supply chain and electric power networks: Models, pricing analysis, and computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsypura, Dmytro

    In this dissertation, I develop a new theoretical framework for the modeling, pricing analysis, and computation of solutions to electric power supply chains with power generators, suppliers, transmission service providers, and the inclusion of consumer demands. In particular, I advocate the application of finite-dimensional variational inequality theory, projected dynamical systems theory, game theory, network theory, and other tools that have been recently proposed for the modeling and analysis of supply chain networks (cf. Nagurney (2006)) to electric power markets. This dissertation contributes to the extant literature on the modeling, analysis, and solution of supply chain networks, including global supply chains, in general, and electric power supply chains, in particular, in the following ways. It develops a theoretical framework for modeling, pricing analysis, and computation of electric power flows/transactions in electric power systems using the rationale for supply chain analysis. The models developed include both static and dynamic ones. The dissertation also adds a new dimension to the methodology of the theory of projected dynamical systems by proving that, irrespective of the speeds of adjustment, the equilibrium of the system remains the same. Finally, I include alternative fuel suppliers, along with their behavior into the supply chain modeling and analysis framework. This dissertation has strong practical implications. In an era in which technology and globalization, coupled with increasing risk and uncertainty, complicate electricity demand and supply within and between nations, the successful management of electric power systems and pricing become increasingly pressing topics with relevance not only for economic prosperity but also national security. This dissertation addresses such related topics by providing models, pricing tools, and algorithms for decentralized electric power supply chains. This dissertation is based heavily on the following

  2. Groundwater quality from private domestic water-supply wells in the vicinity of petroleum production in southwestern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Martin R.; Silcox, Cheryl A.

    2016-06-02

    The U.S. Geological Survey provided technical support to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry for site selection and sample collection and analysis in a 2012 investigation of groundwater quality from 29 private domestic water-supply wells in the vicinity of petroleum production in southwestern Indiana. Petroleum hydrocarbons, oil and grease, aromatic volatile organic compounds, methane concentrations greater than 8,800 micrograms per liter, chloride concentrations greater than 250 milligrams per liter, and gross alpha radioactivity greater than 15 picocuries per liter were reported in the analysis of groundwater samples from 11 wells.

  3. Advanced simulation of windmills in electric power supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhmatov, Vladislav; Knudsen, Hans; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2000-01-01

    -connected windmills as a part of realistic electrical grid models. That means an arbitrary number of wind farms or single windmills within an arbitrary network configuration. The windmill model may be applied to study of electric power system stability and of power quality as well. It is found that a grid......-connected windmill operates as a low-pass filter, whereby two following observations are made: 1. interaction between the electrical grid and the mechanical systems of grid-connected windmills is given by a low frequency oscillation as the result of disturbances in the electric grid; 2. flicker, which is commonly......An advanced model of a grid-connected windmill is set up where the windmill is a complex electro-mechanical system. The windmill model is implemented as a standardised component in the dynamic simulation tool, PSS/E, which makes it possible to investigate dynamic behaviour of grid...

  4. Health improvement of domestic hot tap water supply Gusev, Kaliningrad Region, Russia. Make-up water tank project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard, Joergen

    1998-07-01

    This report describes the project `Health Improvement of Domestic Hot Tap Water Supply, Gusev, Kaliningrad, Russia`, which was carried out in the autumn of 1996 and financed by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, the Danish Energy Agency and Gusev Municipality. The project proposal and application outlined the following objectives: Erection of system so that hot tap water, which is tapped directly from the district heating system, obtains an acceptable quality in health terms; Complete training and education, so that the plant can be operated and maintained by the power station`s staff and rehabilitation projects within supply of domestic water and district heating can be promoted to the greatest possible extent; Systems for heat treatment of make-up water were implemented in less than three months; The project was carried out in close Danish-Russian co-operation from the beginning of engineering to the commissioning and resulted in transfer and demonstration of know-how and technology; Information was recorded on the existing domestic water and heat supply systems as well as on the treatment of sewage, and recommendations for rehabilitation projects were made. Previously, when the temperature in the district heating system was relatively high, a heat treatment apparently took place in the district heating system. However, due to the current poor economic situation there are no means with which to buy the fuel quantities necessary to maintain the previously normal district heating temperature. In the new concept the cold make-up water is heated to >80 deg. C as required by the health authorities before it is led to the district heating return system and subsequently heated to the actual supply temperature of 50-60 deg. C. The energy consumption in the two concepts is approximately the same. A 1,000 m{sup 3} tank with heating coils was erected between the make-up water system and the district heating system. The tank should equalise the daily capacity

  5. Secured electrical supply at least cost: Coal, gas, nuclear, hydro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavor, J. [ENA Ltd., Prague (Czechoslovakia); Stary, O.; Vasicek, J. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    Electric power sector in East Central European countries finds in a difficult period. In the situation of demand stagnation, enormous investments must be realized in a very short time. Today`s decisions in the development strategy will influence the long term future of the industry. The optimal structure of the sources is one of the most important problem to be solved. Paper describes the current structure of the sources in electric power sector in the Czech Republic. The importance of coal, oil and gas, nuclear and hydro in electric power generation is compared. Taking into account the different position in the load coverage, economy of individual sources is evaluated and basic results of discounted cash flow calculations are presented. Information on specific investment programs and projects are included and further trends are estimated.

  6. The Hardware Implementation of Demonstrator Air Independent Electric Supply System Based on Pem Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzeczka G.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the research project whose the main goal was to build a technology demonstrator of an electric supply system based on the PEM fuel cell. The electric supply system is dedicated to operation on a board of a submarine during emergency situations. The underwater conditions influence on a specific architecture of supply subsystems of the PEM fuel cell system. In this case the fuel cell stack is supplied by both clean hydrogen and clean oxygen stored in pressurized tanks. The hydrogen has to be delivered in a closed loop, while the oxygen can be delivered in a closed or an open loop. In the technology demonstrator, the supply of the fuel cell stack by the hydrogen in the closed loop and the oxygen in the open loop with a precise control of its flow were used.

  7. The Eastern European electricity market outlook: country profiles of supply, demand, regulation and infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    Europe's electricity markets are rapidly changing and opening up to liberalisation and new market entrants, this is particularly evident in the vibrant Eastern European markets. This report provides an in-depth analysis of 12 highly dynamic Eastern European electricity markets with comprehensive data on supply/demand balance and coverage of the implementation of the EU Electricity Directive. The country profiles also feature an overview of supply/demand, an examination of key governmental, legal and political influences on the sector and an analysis of international trading and infrastructure with forecasts to 2012. 75 figs., 16 tabs.

  8. Simulation of switching overvoltages in the mine electric power supply system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanchenko, D. I.; Novozhilov, N. G.

    2017-02-01

    Overvoltages occur in mine power supply systems during switching off consumers with high inductive load, such as transformers, reactors and electrical machines. Overvoltages lead to an increase of insulation degradation rate and may cause electric faults, power outage, fire and explosion of methane and coal dust. This paper is dedicated to simulation of vacuum circuit breaker switching overvoltages in a mine power supply system by means of Simulink MATLAB. The model of the vacuum circuit breaker implements simulation of transient recovery voltage, current chopping and an electric arc. Obtained results were compared to available experimental data.

  9. Electricity supply to rural areas of Argentina. Manuscript report No. 303e

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    This document contains reports of the first and second stages of the RETAIN (Rural Energy Technology Assessment and Innovation Network) project in the Misiones area in northern Argentina. The study analyzes the problems of meeting the electrical energy needs of the rural household sector in regions of the Third World to develop an analytical method that facilitates decision-making in projects of electrical supply to rural areas with a low level of development. The study describes the socio-economic and energy levels of the area; analyzes the present and future electric energy requirements and describes the energy resources; evaluates supply alternatives and costs; and describes the plans of the RETAIN project.

  10. Application of high-resolution domestic electricity load profiles in network modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Mendaza, Iker Diaz de Cerio; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2016-01-01

    % of buildings, the loading of the transformer and power lines is reduced in the summer time to 58% and 51%, respectively. However, the power lines are stress with bi-directional power flow. The results indicate that the business-as-usual approach to network modeling is not sufficient to capture......The ongoing development towards electrification of the energy consumption together with large deployment of renewable energy sources creates new challenges of variability and fluctuation of the electricity supply and increases complexity of the network operation. In order to capture all...... the particularities of electricity demand and on-site generation, e.g. the short-term spikes due use of high electricity consumption appliances such like electric kettle, and get a full picture of network performance, a high-resolution input data are needed. This paper compares the business-as-usual network modeling...

  11. Implications of integrating electricity supply dynamics into life cycle assessment: a case study of renewable distributed generation

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Electricity supply is frequently cited as a significant hot spot in life cycle assessment (LCA) results. Despite its importance, however, LCA research continues to overuse simplified methodologies regarding electricity supply modeling. This work aims to demonstrate the usefulness of electricity trade analysis (proposed model) for integrating the short-term dynamics of electricity supply and refining LCA results. Distributed generation using renewable energy is applied as a case study to demon...

  12. Eco-efficient Supply Chains for Electrical and Electronic Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Quariguasi Frota Neto (João)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractHundreds of millions of electrical and electronic appliances are manufactured every year. Furthermore, it is expected that this number will not substantially decrease in the near future. These equipments have a significant impact on the environment, and ceteris paribus, such

  13. Electric energy supply systems: description of available technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenhauer, J.L.; Rogers, E.A.; King, J.C.; Stegen, G.E.; Dowis, W.J.

    1985-02-01

    When comparing coal transportation with electric transmission as a means of delivering electric power, it is desirable to compare entire energy systems rather than just the transportation/transmission components because the requirements of each option may affect the requirements of other energy system components. PNL's assessment consists of two parts. The first part, which is the subject of this document, is a detailed description of the technical, cost, resource and environmental characteristics of each system component and technologies available for these components. The second part is a computer-based model that PNL has developed to simulate construction and operation of alternative system configurations and to compare the performance of these systems under a variety of economic and technical conditions. This document consists of six chapters and two appendices. A more thorough description of coal-based electric energy systems is presented in the Introduction and Chapter 1. Each of the subsequent chapters describes technologies for five system components: Western coal resources (Chapter 2), coal transportation (Chapter 3), coal gasification and gas transmission (Chapter 4), and electric power transmission (Chapter 6).

  14. Vulnerability of US and European electricity supply to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Yearsley, J.R.; Ludwig, F.; Kabat, P.

    2012-01-01

    In the United States and Europe, at present 91% and 78% (ref. 1) of the total electricity is produced by thermoelectric (nuclear and fossil-fuelled) power plants, which directly depend on the availability and temperature of water resources for cooling. During recent warm, dry summers several

  15. Eco-efficient Supply Chains for Electrical and Electronic Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Quariguasi Frota Neto (João)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractHundreds of millions of electrical and electronic appliances are manufactured every year. Furthermore, it is expected that this number will not substantially decrease in the near future. These equipments have a significant impact on the environment, and ceteris paribus, such environmenta

  16. Vulnerability of US and European electricity supply to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Yearsley, J.R.; Ludwig, F.; Kabat, P.

    2012-01-01

    In the United States and Europe, at present 91% and 78% (ref. 1) of the total electricity is produced by thermoelectric (nuclear and fossil-fuelled) power plants, which directly depend on the availability and temperature of water resources for cooling. During recent warm, dry summers several thermoe

  17. Analysis of residential, industrial and commercial sector responses to potential electricity supply constraints in the 1990s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Z.J.; Fang, J.M.; Lyke, A.J.; Krudener, J.R.

    1986-09-01

    There is considerable debate over the ability of electric generation capacity to meet the growing needs of the US economy in the 1990s. This study provides new perspective on that debate and examines the possibility of power outages resulting from electricity supply constraints. Previous studies have focused on electricity supply growth, demand growth, and on the linkages between electricity and economic growth. This study assumes the occurrence of electricity supply shortfalls in the 1990s and examines the steps that homeowners, businesses, manufacturers, and other electricity users might take in response to electricity outages.

  18. Transportation and dynamic networks: Models, theory, and applications to supply chains, electric power, and financial networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zugang

    Network systems, including transportation and logistic systems, electric power generation and distribution networks as well as financial networks, provide the critical infrastructure for the functioning of our societies and economies. The understanding of the dynamic behavior of such systems is also crucial to national security and prosperity. The identification of new connections between distinct network systems is the inspiration for the research in this dissertation. In particular, I answer two questions raised by Beckmann, McGuire, and Winsten (1956) and Copeland (1952) over half a century ago, which are, respectively, how are electric power flows related to transportation flows and does money flow like water or electricity? In addition, in this dissertation, I achieve the following: (1) I establish the relationships between transportation networks and three other classes of complex network systems: supply chain networks, electric power generation and transmission networks, and financial networks with intermediation. The establishment of such connections provides novel theoretical insights as well as new pricing mechanisms, and efficient computational methods. (2) I develop new modeling frameworks based on evolutionary variational inequality theory that capture the dynamics of such network systems in terms of the time-varying flows and incurred costs, prices, and, where applicable, profits. This dissertation studies the dynamics of such network systems by addressing both internal competition and/or cooperation, and external changes, such as varying costs and demands. (3) I focus, in depth, on electric power supply chains. By exploiting the relationships between transportation networks and electric power supply chains, I develop a large-scale network model that integrates electric power supply chains and fuel supply markets. The model captures both the economic transactions as well as the physical transmission constraints. The model is then applied to the New

  19. Priority pricing in electricity supply. An application for Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beenstock, Michael; Goldin, Ephraim [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Economics, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem (Israel)

    1997-06-01

    It is well known that in the event of a shortage in generation capacity, it is inefficient if the electricity utility cuts off customers randomly. It is preferable to set up a market in service priority in which customers who have a greater need pay more for the right not to be cut off. We use an econometric model of outage costs in Israel to calculate the menu of priority rates by season and time of day. Top priority rates range from zero, when the loss-of-load probability (LOLP) is zero, to 8 cents (US) per kWh when the LOLP is greatest

  20. Assessment of the contamination with domestic wastewater in supply wells over sandbank area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheli Rocha Cordeiro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the contamination of septic tanks in the supply wells of a population settled over a sandbank area, the Lagomar neighborhood, in the city of Macaé (RJ. The neighborhood is located in the macro areas of the northern border, adjacent and buffer zone of Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, with great ecological relevance and scenic beauty, and shelter for numerous coastal lagoons and endemic species. The studied area has low-income population, and no systems of wastewater treatment and public water supply, thus increasing the risk of diseases related to poor environmental sanitation. The presence of fecal coliforms in all samples, including a sample of treated water, indicates health risks to the local population, as well as risks of ecosystem change in the National Park and its surroundings.

  1. Supply and Demand Situation in Domestic Cobalt Industry May Come to a Turning Point

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Multiple factors overlapped to bring opportunity to the cobalt business unit:Three factors of"Shrinking Supply"+"Growing Demand"+"Price Bottom"overlap to change market’s future expectation for cobalt products.As a big power of cobalt refining and cobalt consumption,China received obvious impact,relevant enterprises mainly include Huayou Cobalt,China Molybdenum,and GEM.

  2. Contrasting Electricity Demand with Wind Power Supply: Case Study in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre M. Jánosi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We compare the demand of a large electricity consumer with supply given by wind farms installed at two distant geographic locations. Obviously such situation is rather unrealistic, however our main goal is a quantitative characterization of the intermittency of wind electricity. The consumption pattern consists of marked daily and weekly cycles interrupted by periods of holidays. In contrast, wind electricity production has neither short-time nor seasonal periodicities. We show that wind power integration over a restricted area cannot provide a stable baseload supply, independently of the excess capacity. Further essential result is that the statistics are almost identical for a weekly periodic pattern of consumption and a constant load of the same average value. The length of both adequate supply and shortfall intervals exhibits a scale-free (power-law frequency distribution, possible consequences are shortly discussed.

  3. Environmental performance evaluation of hot water supplying systems for domestic use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alexandre Kulay

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The consumption profile of Brazilian citizens is changing as alternatives are sought to reduce costs. A major focus of this change of attitude involves expenditures for electricity, particularly in relation to water heating systems. The manufacturers of these devices add value to their products beyond price. A usual strategy is the enhancement of the environmental performance of the product. This study compared four water heating systems: electric, gas, solar and hybrid, using an environmental perspective. The systems were operated under similar conditions. The analysis was conducted by using the Life Cycle Assessment technique, for the impact categories of Climate Change, Acidification Eutrophication and Water, Metal and Fossil Resource depletion. The results indicated that the electric and hybrid systems are less harmful to the environment for all the impact categories under analysis. On the other hand, the gas system provided the worst performance of the group. The solar heating system was penalized due to its dependence on electricity to operate under the conditions in which the study was conducted.

  4. Open access vs. common carriage in electricity supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunekreeft, Gert [Freiburg Univ. (Germany)

    1997-05-01

    This paper examines the question of whether the upstream infrastructure monopolist in electricity transmission should be allowed to participate on the downstream generation market. The central assumption is that the downstream market is characterized by a U-shaped AC curve. Under this assumption, it will be shown that the unregulated upstream monopolist has an incentive for partial forward integration. He or she will, however, not have an incentive to foreclose fully the downstream market. Furthermore, it will be shown that allowing the upstream monopolist to be active on the downstream market is superior to forbidding this. In other words, under the assumptions of the model, open access will be superior to common carriage. (Author)

  5. Wind hybrid electrical supply system: behaviour simulation and sizing optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notton, G.; Cristofari, C.; Poggi, P.; Muselli, M.

    2001-04-01

    Using a global approach, a wind hybrid system operation is simulated and the evolution of several parameters is analysed, such as the wasted energy, the fuel consumption and the role of the wind turbine subsystem in the global production. This analysis shows that all the energies which take part in the system operation are more dependent on the wind turbine size than on the battery storage capacity. A storage of 2 or 3 days is sufficient, because an increase in storage beyond these values does not have a notable impact on the performance of the wind hybrid system. Finally, a cost study is performed to determine the optimal configuration of the system conducive to the lowest cost of electricity production.

  6. Research on Double Price Regulations and Peak Shaving Reserve Mechanism in Coal-Electricity Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjun Peng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The game models were used to study the mechanism of coal-electricity price conflict under conditions of double price regulations of coal and electricity. Based on this, the peak shaving reserve mechanism was designed to probe into the countermeasures against the coal-electricity price conflicts. The study revealed that in the boom seasons of coal demand, the initiatives of the coal enterprises to supply thermal coal and the electricity enterprises to order thermal coal are reduced under conditions of double price regulations. However, under the circumstances of coal price marketization, in the boom seasons of coal demand the thermal coal price may go up obviously, the initiatives of the coal enterprises to supply thermal coal are increased, and meanwhile the initiatives of the power enterprises to order thermal coal are decreased dramatically. The transportation capacity constraint of coal supply leads to the evident decrease of the initiatives of coal enterprises for the thermal coal supply. The mechanism of peak shaving reserve of thermal coal may not only reduce the price of coal market but also increase the enthusiasm of the power enterprises to order more thermal coal and the initiatives of the coal enterprises to supply more thermal coal.

  7. ESB-Based Sensor Web Integration for the Prediction of Electric Power Supply System Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoimenov, Leonid; Bogdanovic, Milos; Bogdanovic-Dinic, Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Electric power supply companies increasingly rely on enterprise IT systems to provide them with a comprehensive view of the state of the distribution network. Within a utility-wide network, enterprise IT systems collect data from various metering devices. Such data can be effectively used for the prediction of power supply network vulnerability. The purpose of this paper is to present the Enterprise Service Bus (ESB)-based Sensor Web integration solution that we have developed with the purpose of enabling prediction of power supply network vulnerability, in terms of a prediction of defect probability for a particular network element. We will give an example of its usage and demonstrate our vulnerability prediction model on data collected from two different power supply companies. The proposed solution is an extension of the GinisSense Sensor Web-based architecture for collecting, processing, analyzing, decision making and alerting based on the data received from heterogeneous data sources. In this case, GinisSense has been upgraded to be capable of operating in an ESB environment and combine Sensor Web and GIS technologies to enable prediction of electric power supply system vulnerability. Aside from electrical values, the proposed solution gathers ambient values from additional sensors installed in the existing power supply network infrastructure. GinisSense aggregates gathered data according to an adapted Omnibus data fusion model and applies decision-making logic on the aggregated data. Detected vulnerabilities are visualized to end-users through means of a specialized Web GIS application. PMID:23955435

  8. ESB-Based Sensor Web Integration for the Prediction of Electric Power Supply System Vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milos Bogdanovic

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Electric power supply companies increasingly rely on enterprise IT systems to provide them with a comprehensive view of the state of the distribution network. Within a utility-wide network, enterprise IT systems collect data from various metering devices. Such data can be effectively used for the prediction of power supply network vulnerability. The purpose of this paper is to present the Enterprise Service Bus (ESB-based Sensor Web integration solution that we have developed with the purpose of enabling prediction of power supply network vulnerability, in terms of a prediction of defect probability for a particular network element. We will give an example of its usage and demonstrate our vulnerability prediction model on data collected from two different power supply companies. The proposed solution is an extension of the GinisSense Sensor Web-based architecture for collecting, processing, analyzing, decision making and alerting based on the data received from heterogeneous data sources. In this case, GinisSense has been upgraded to be capable of operating in an ESB environment and combine Sensor Web and GIS technologies to enable prediction of electric power supply system vulnerability. Aside from electrical values, the proposed solution gathers ambient values from additional sensors installed in the existing power supply network infrastructure. GinisSense aggregates gathered data according to an adapted Omnibus data fusion model and applies decision-making logic on the aggregated data. Detected vulnerabilities are visualized to end-users through means of a specialized Web GIS application.

  9. ESB-based Sensor Web integration for the prediction of electric power supply system vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoimenov, Leonid; Bogdanovic, Milos; Bogdanovic-Dinic, Sanja

    2013-08-15

    Electric power supply companies increasingly rely on enterprise IT systems to provide them with a comprehensive view of the state of the distribution network. Within a utility-wide network, enterprise IT systems collect data from various metering devices. Such data can be effectively used for the prediction of power supply network vulnerability. The purpose of this paper is to present the Enterprise Service Bus (ESB)-based Sensor Web integration solution that we have developed with the purpose of enabling prediction of power supply network vulnerability, in terms of a prediction of defect probability for a particular network element. We will give an example of its usage and demonstrate our vulnerability prediction model on data collected from two different power supply companies. The proposed solution is an extension of the GinisSense Sensor Web-based architecture for collecting, processing, analyzing, decision making and alerting based on the data received from heterogeneous data sources. In this case, GinisSense has been upgraded to be capable of operating in an ESB environment and combine Sensor Web and GIS technologies to enable prediction of electric power supply system vulnerability. Aside from electrical values, the proposed solution gathers ambient values from additional sensors installed in the existing power supply network infrastructure. GinisSense aggregates gathered data according to an adapted Omnibus data fusion model and applies decision-making logic on the aggregated data. Detected vulnerabilities are visualized to end-users through means of a specialized Web GIS application.

  10. INTERDEPENDENCE AND SECURITY OF ELECTRICITY SUPPLY OF A SMALL COUNTRY: THE CASE OF LITHUANIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juozaitis, R.; Bacauskas, A.

    2007-07-01

    In the report there are described the circumstances of operation of Lithuanian power system. A common plan of the Baltic power companies to build a new nuclear power plant is discussed. The report elaborates on the plans of necessary interconnections for integration of the Baltic power systems into the EU electricity market, ensuring security of supply in the Baltic region and availability to install efficient bigger capacity generation units in power stations. The experience of Lithuania demonstrates that interdependence in power sector is an advantage in maintaining security of electricity supply. (auth)

  11. Managed Aquifer Recharge Using Treated Wastewater: An Option to Manage a Coastal Aquifer In Oman For Better Domestic Water Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maktoumi, Ali; Zekri, Slim; ElRawy, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    Arid countries, such as the Sultanate of Oman, are facing challenges of water shortages threatening economic development and social stability. Most of those countries are vulnerable to the potential adverse impacts of climate change, the most significant of which are increased average temperatures, less and more erratic precipitation, sea level rise, and desertification. The combined effect of existing adverse conditions and likely impacts of future climate change will make water management even more difficult than what it is today. Tremendous efforts have been devoted to augment the water resources. Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is practiced widely to store water during periods of surpluses and withdraw during deficits from an aquifer. In Muscat, there will be a surplus of >100,000 m3/day of TWW during winter months in the coming few years. The aquifer along the northern coast of Oman (Al-Khawd Aquifer) is conducive for MAR. Data show that TWW volumes will increase from 7.6 Mm3 in 2003 to 70.9 Mm3 in 2035 in Muscat city only. This study assesses, using MODFLOW 2005 numerical code, the impact of MAR using TWW on better management of the Al-Khawd unconfined coastal aquifer for better urban water supply. Specifically, aiming to maximize withdrawals from the domestic wells with minimize adverse effect of seawater intrusion. The model operates under a number of constrains that minimize the loss to the sea and the injected TWW must not migrates upstream (due to developed mound) and reach the wellfields used for domestic supply. The hypothetical injection wells are located downstream the domestic wellfield zone. The results of different managerial scenarios show that MAR produces a hydraulic barrier that decelerates the seawater intrusion which allows higher abstraction of pristine water from the upstream part of the aquifer. MAR along with redistribution/relocation of public wells allows abstraction of 2 times the current abstraction rate (around 6 Mm3/year to 12 Mm3

  12. Computational Framework for Optimal Carbon Taxes Based on Electric Supply Chain Considering Transmission Constraints and Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chi Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A modeling and computational framework is presented for the determination of optimal carbon taxes that apply to electric power plants in the context of electric power supply chain with consideration of transmission constraints and losses. In order to achieve this goal, a generalized electric power supply chain network equilibrium model is used. Under deregulation, there are several players in electrical market: generation companies, power suppliers, transmission service providers, and consumers. Each player in this model tries to maximize its own profit and competes with others in a noncooperative manner. The Nash equilibrium conditions of these players in this model form a finite-dimensional variational inequality problem (VIP. By solving this VIP via an extragradient method based on an interior point algorithm, the optimal carbon taxes of power plants can be determined. Numerical examples are provided to analyze the results of the presented modeling.

  13. ASCERTAINMENT OF ELECTRIC-SUPPLY SCHEMES RELIABILITY FOR THE ATOMIC POWER PLANT AUXILIARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Starzhinskij

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper completes ascertainment of electrical-supply scheme reliability for the auxiliaries of a nuclear power plant. Thereat the author considers the system behavior during the block normal operation, carrying out current maintenance, and capital repairs in combination with initiating events. The initiating events for reactors include complete blackout, i.e. the loss of outside power supply (normal and reserve; emergency switching one of the working turbogenerators; momentary dumping the normal rating to the level of auxiliaries with seating the cutout valve of one turbo-generator. The combination of any initiating event with the repairing mode in case of one of the system elements failure should not lead to blackout occurrence of more than one system of the reliable power supply. This requirement rests content with the help of the reliable power supply system self-dependence (electrical and functional and the emergency power-supply operational autonomy (diesel generator and accumulator batteries.The reliability indicators of the power supply system for the nuclear power plant auxiliaries are the conditional probabilities of conjoined blackout of one, two, and three sections of the reliable power supply conditional upon an initiating event emerging and the blackout of one, two, and three reliable power-supply sections under the normal operational mode. Furthermore, they also are the blackout periodicity of one and conjointly two, three, and four sections of normal operation under the block normal operational mode. It is established that the blackout of one bus section of normal operation and one section of reliable power-supply system of the auxiliaries that does not lead to complete blackout of the plant auxiliaries may occur once in three years. The probability of simultaneous power failure of two or three normal-operation sections and of two reliable power-supply sections during the power plant service life is unlikely.

  14. Application of high-resolution domestic electricity load profiles in network modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Mendaza, Iker Diaz de Cerio; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing development towards electrification of the energy consumption together with large deployment of renewable energy sources creates new challenges of variability and fluctuation of the electricity supply and increases complexity of the network operation. In order to capture all the parti......The ongoing development towards electrification of the energy consumption together with large deployment of renewable energy sources creates new challenges of variability and fluctuation of the electricity supply and increases complexity of the network operation. In order to capture all......-minute resolution. The load profiles of the household appliances are created using a bottom-up model, which uses the 1-minute cycle power use characteristics of a single appliance as the main building block. The profiles of heavy electric appliances, such as heat pump, are not included in the above......-mentioned model, as they are closely related to the thermal properties of a building. Therefore, two type of single family houses equipped with heat pump are simulated in EnergyPlus with 1-minute time step. The PV generation profile is obtained from a model developed in Matlab environment. In the second part...

  15. Magnetic fields and leukaemia risks in UK electricity supply workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorahan, T

    2014-04-01

    To investigate whether leukaemia risks are related to occupational exposure to low-frequency magnetic fields. Leukaemia risks experienced by 73 051 employees of the former Central Electricity Generating Board of England and Wales were investigated for the period 1973-2010. All employees were hired in the period 1952-82 and were employed for at least 6 months with some employment in the period 1973-82. Detailed calculations had been performed by others to enable an assessment to be made of exposures to magnetic fields. Poisson regression was used to calculate relative risks (rate ratios) of developing leukaemia or leukaemia subtypes for categories of lifetime, distant (lagged) and recent (lugged) exposure. Findings for all leukaemias combined were unexceptional; risks were close to unity for all exposure categories and there was no suggestion of risks increasing with cumulative (or recent or distant) magnetic field exposures. There were no statistically significant dose-response effects shown for acute myeloid leukaemia, chronic myeloid leukaemia or chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. There was a significant positive trend for acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL), but this was based, in the main, on unusually low risks in the lowest exposure category. This study found no convincing evidence to support the hypothesis that exposure to magnetic fields is a risk factor for leukaemia, and the findings are consistent with the hypotheses that both distant and recent magnetic field exposures are not causally related to the generality of leukaemia. The limited positive findings for ALL may well be chance findings.

  16. Tajikistan’s Winter Energy Crisis : Electricity Supply and Demand Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Fields, Daryl; Kochnakyan, Artur; Stuggins, Gary; Besant-Jones, John

    2012-01-01

    Reliable power supply is critical for Tajikistan's economy and poverty reduction goals. Without reliable, affordable electricity throughout the year, Tajikistan's businesses cannot invest, operate and create jobs; hospitals and schools cannot function fully or safely with frequent power cuts during winter; citizens suffer indoor air pollution from burning wood for heating and cooking. Electricity also powers the country's two largest exports: aluminum and agricultural produce, which account f...

  17. Safety of electric energy supply; Seguranca no abastecimento de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christofari, Vilson Daniel [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo (CESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Various circumstances (lack of investments, rigorous drying, significant increasing of demand, etc) had caused crisis in the electric power supplying in various developing countries such as Argentine, Chile, India, South Africa, etc. The 'safety in the electric power' is a question presenting itself in a different way for each country. Depending of the need of energy use related to Gross National Product (GNP), the dependence related to the energetic imports, the availability of energetics, etc. (author)

  18. Reliability Analyses of Transmission and Substation Facilities and Electricity Supply to Urban Consumers in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Renabilities of transmission and substation facilities with voltaelevel of 220kV or above In 2007,there were totally 356 power supply enterprises,including 28 EHV transmission and substation enterprises,and 245 power generation enterprises submitting reliability performances of electric facilities at a voltage level of 220 kV or above to the Electric Power Reliability Management Center.The reliability indices of transmission and substation facilities in 2007 and 2006 are shown in Table 1.

  19. Design of a Percussion and Electric Primer Gun Firing Power Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    to drive a solenoid into a percussion primer or ignite the M52A3B1 electric primer. To reduce power requirements, it uses charged capacitor banks to...gun, percussion, electric primer, capacitor 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 30 19a. NAME...initial pull of the solenoid, which can be over 50 A. The old linear power supply has large filter capacitors on its output, which does provide the surge

  20. Water constraints on European power supply under climate change: Impacts on electricity prices

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle T.H. van Vliet; Vögele, Stefan; Rübbelke, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Recent warm, dry summers showed the vulnerability of the European power sector to low water availability and high river temperatures. Climate change is likely to impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availabilty for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power production. Here, we show the impacts of climate change and changes in water availability and water temperature on European electricity production and prices. Using simulations of daily river flo...

  1. The supply function equilibrium and its policy implications for wholesale electricity auctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Paer [Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Box 55665, Grevgatan 34, 10215 Stockholm (Sweden); Newbery, David [Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    The supply function equilibrium provides a game-theoretic model of strategic bidding in oligopolistic wholesale electricity auctions. This paper presents an intuitive account of current understanding and shows how welfare losses depend on the number of firms in the market and their asymmetry. Previous results and general recommendations for divisible-good/multi-unit auctions provides guidance on the design of the auction format, setting the reservation price, the rationing rule, and restrictions on the offer curves in wholesale electricity auctions. (author)

  2. Effect of voltage shape of electrical power supply on radiation and density of a cold atmospheric argon plasma jet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    F Sohbatzadeh; M Bagheri; S Motallebi

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we investigated generating argon cold plasma jet at atmospheric pressure based on dielectric barrier discharge configuration using three electrical power supplies of sinusoidal, pulsed...

  3. Sectoral electricity elasticities in South Africa: Before and after the supply crisis of 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Blignaut

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we estimate the price elasticity of electricity for various industrial sectors of the South African economy from 2002 to 2011. The data used include sectoral electricity consumption data and electricity tariff data, both courtesy of Eskom as well as output data based on national statistics. The most important contribution this paper makes is that it includes the period after the sharp rises in electricity tariffs in 2007/2008 following a period of load-shedding and insecurity in electricity supply. Previous studies have included data only until 2007 and, for the most part, have found statistically insignificant, positive elasticities. However, for the period post-2007, we found statistically significant and negative elasticities for 9 of the 11 sectors considered. Our results show that the majority of industrial sectors have become much more sensitive to changes in the price of electricity following 2007/2008, indicating to policymakers that tariff restructuring might influence consumer behaviour significantly.

  4. Sanitary evaluation of domestic water supply facilities with storage tanks and detection of Aeromonas, enteric and related bacteria in domestic water facilities in Okinawa Prefecture of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Kazufumi; Sano, Kouichi; Hirai, Itaru

    2017-08-01

    To provide for temporary restrictions of the public water supply system, storage tanks are commonly installed in the domestic water systems of houses and apartment buildings in Okinawa Prefecture of Japan. To learn more about the sanitary condition and management of these water supply facilities with storage tanks (hereafter called "storage tank water systems") and the extent of bacterial contamination of water from these facilities, we investigated their usage and the existence of Aeromonas, enteric and related bacteria. Verbal interviews concerning the use and management of the storage tank water systems were carried out in each randomly sampled household. A total of 54 water samples were collected for bacteriological and physicochemical examinations. Conventional methods were used for total viable count, fecal coliforms, identification of bacteria such as Aeromonas, Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermentative Gram-negative rods (NF-GNR), and measurement of residual chlorine. On Aeromonas species, tests for putative virulence factor and an identification using 16S rRNA and rpoB genes were also performed. Water from the water storage systems was reported to be consumed directly without boiling in 22 of the 54 houses (40.7%). 31 of the sampled houses had installed water storage tanks of more than 1 cubic meter (m(3)) per inhabitant, and in 21 of the sampled houses, the tank had never been cleaned. In all samples, the total viable count and fecal coliforms did not exceed quality levels prescribed by Japanese waterworks law. Although the quantity of bacteria detected was not high, 23 NF-GNR, 14 Enterobacteriaceae and 5 Aeromonas were isolated in 42.6%, 7.4% and 3.7% of samples respectively. One isolated A. hydrophila and four A. caviae possessed various putative virulence factors, especially A. hydrophila which had diverse putative pathogenic genes such as aer, hlyA, act, alt, ast, ser, and dam. Many bacteria were isolated when the concentration of residual chlorine

  5. Secure and Efficient Electricity Supply. During the Transition to Low Carbon Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    Electricity shortages can paralyse our modern economies. All governments fear rolling black-outs and their economic consequences, especially in economies increasingly based on digital technologies. Over the last two decades, the development of markets for power has produced cost reduction, technological innovation, increased cross border trade and assured a steady supply of electricity. Now, IEA countries face the challenge of maintaining security of electricity supply during the transition to low-carbon economies. Low-carbon policies are pushing electricity markets into novel territories at a time when most of the generation and network capacity will have to be replaced. Most notably, wind and solar generation, now an integral part of electricity markets, can present new operating and investment challenges for generation, networks and the regional integration of electricity markets. In addition, the resilience of power systems facing more frequent natural disasters is also of increasing concern. IEA Ministers mandated the Secretariat to work on the Electricity Security Action Plan (ESAP), expanding to electricity the energy security mission of the IEA. This paper outlines the key conclusions and policy recommendations to ''keep the lights on'' while reducing CO2 emissions and increasing the efficiency.

  6. Development of lead/acid batteries for domestic remote-area power supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, D. A. J.; Baldsing, W. G. A.

    In recent times, there has been a growing recognition of the need for more reliable RAPS systems, both in Australia and in other parts of the world. From the battery point of view, development has, in some instances, been encouraged by a "market push", and in others by a "technology pull". Some manufacturers are seeking to supply customers with batteries that are merely re-labelled motive-power types, others are offering new technologies. In either case, the suitability of the products is unclear because of the poor comprehension of the actual service requirements imposed on batteries in RAPS operations. In order to overcome this deficiency, CSIRO has set in motion a detailed schedule of laboratory and field studies aimed at gaining a greater understanding of battery performance under RAPS duties. It is hoped that the resulting information will lead to specific design criteria for such batteries.

  7. THERMOCHEMICAL ENERGY STORAGE FOR SEASONAL BALANCE OF SURPLUS ELECTRICITY AND HEAT DEMAND IN DOMESTIC BUILDINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Matthias; Linder, Marc Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Thermochemical storage systems are predestined to store thermal energy for a long time since the storage principle itself is free of losses and allows for very high energy densities. Therefore we developed a new approach where electricity, p. e. from private PV-panels in the summer, is used to charge a thermochemical reaction system. The reaction product then can be stored in an inexpensive tank at room temperature. If there is heat demand during the winter part of the material can be supplie...

  8. Factors affecting domestic water consumption in rural households upon access to improved water supply: insights from the Wei River Basin, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangxin Fan

    Full Text Available Comprehensively understanding water consumption behavior is necessary to design efficient and effective water use strategies. Despite global efforts to identify the factors that affect domestic water consumption, those related to domestic water use in rural regions have not been sufficiently studied, particularly in villages that have gained access to improved water supply. To address this gap, we investigated 247 households in eight villages in the Wei River Basin where three types of improved water supply systems are implemented. Results show that domestic water consumption in liters per capita per day was significantly correlated with water supply pattern and vegetable garden area, and significantly negatively correlated with family size and age of household head. Traditional hygiene habits, use of water appliances, and preference for vegetable gardening remain dominant behaviors in the villages with access to improved water supply. Future studies on rural domestic water consumption should pay more attention to user lifestyles (water appliance usage habits, outdoor water use and cultural backgrounds (age, education.

  9. 46 CFR 111.97-5 - Electric and hydraulic power supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... by one or more motor-driven hydraulic pumps that can operate from the final source of the emergency lighting and power system. (d) The motor-driven hydraulic pumps must automatically maintain the accumulator... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric and hydraulic power supply. 111.97-5...

  10. Water constraints on European power supply under climate change: impacts on electricity prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Vögele, S.; Rübbelke, D.

    2013-01-01

    Recent warm, dry summers showed the vulnerability of the European power sector to low water availability and high river temperatures. Climate change is likely to impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power

  11. Water constraints on European power supply under climate change: impacts on electricity prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Vögele, S.; Rübbelke, D.

    2013-01-01

    Recent warm, dry summers showed the vulnerability of the European power sector to low water availability and high river temperatures. Climate change is likely to impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power

  12. New energy directions : a low-cost, low-risk electricity supply strategy for Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    The power system in the province of Ontario is inflexible and vulnerable to system breakdowns. It is also out of step with the needs of customers and technological trends in the electricity sector. This is due to its reliance on a centralized and limited source electricity generation. Ontario is faced with the need to increase its power supplies, modernize the electricity grid, and reduce the environmental impacts of conventional generation sources. This paper proposes a single-track strategy for addressing these issues. The proposal involves the following 3 significant changes to the centralized approach currently in place in Ontario: (1) meet the energy requirements through a combination of energy efficiency programs, new low-impact renewable supplies, and high-efficiency natural gas cogeneration or combined heat and power. The supply sources should be linked together in a distributed supply system which locates power supplies in the vicinity of high demand centres, (2) diversify the pool of power producers by encouraging the entry of power co-ops and investor-owned power companies, and (3) mandate the Independent Market Operator or other agency to secure incremental supply via a competitive bidding process for long-term supply contracts. Seven recommendations were made whereby the Ontario government should: (1) implement policies, regulations, and programs strongly promoting energy conservation and efficiency, (2) adopt policies that encourage the development of sustainable sources of electricity, (3) adopt policies that encourage the development of high-efficiency power plants, (4) ensure that emissions performance of new power plants in Ontario meet or exceed that of new natural gas-fired power plant, (5) direct the Independent Market Operator (IMO) to implement nodal pricing, (6) enter into long-term contracts with power-co-ops, municipal utilities, district energy companies, shopping centres, hospitals, manufacturing companies, and investor-owned power

  13. Report on emergency electrical power supply systems for nuclear fuel cycle and reactor facilities security systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The report includes information that will be useful to those responsible for the planning, design and implementation of emergency electric power systems for physical security and special nuclear materials accountability systems. Basic considerations for establishing the system requirements for emergency electric power for security and accountability operations are presented. Methods of supplying emergency power that are available at present and methods predicted to be available in the future are discussed. The characteristics of capacity, cost, safety, reliability and environmental and physical facility considerations of emergency electric power techniques are presented. The report includes basic considerations for the development of a system concept and the preparation of a detailed system design.

  14. Bayesian Algorithms for Calculating Symbolic Rates of the Unreliability and Reliability of the Electric Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzimierz Korniluk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The report presents the use of Bayesian networks in the calculation of symbolic indicators of reliability and unreliability of the electric power supplying load point. The calculation of indicators of reliability is determined by the analytical dependencies. These dependencies are used to estimate: probability of up or down state of power system components supplying the load point; total probability distribution; conditional probabilities of the state power or lack of power appearance; the intensity of current interruptions and the average time of their duration; contributions of individual power system components in the service reliability. This report describes how to obtain these analytical dependencies, using the ultimate application for symbolic computations Mathematica (ver. 8. In this paper we will discuss the results of the symbolic computations for selected supply power system and methods for reducing the duration of symbolic computations of indicators for multiple-compound electrical power systems.

  15. Preliminary Examination of the Supply and Demand Balance for Renewable Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swezey, B.; Aabakken, J.; Bird, L.

    2007-10-01

    In recent years, the demand for renewable electricity has accelerated as a consequence of state and federal policies and the growth of voluntary green power purchase markets, along with the generally improving economics of renewable energy development. This paper reports on a preliminary examination of the supply and demand balance for renewable electricity in the United States, with a focus on renewable energy projects that meet the generally accepted definition of "new" for voluntary market purposes, i.e., projects installed on or after January 1, 1997. After estimating current supply and demand, this paper presents projections of the supply and demand balance out to 2010 and describe a number of key market uncertainties.

  16. Matching agricultural freshwater supply and demand: using industrial and domestic treated wastewater for sub-irrigation purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomeus, Ruud; van den Eertwegh, Gé; Worm, Bas; Cirkel, Gijsbert; van Loon, Arnaut; Raat, Klaasjan

    2017-04-01

    Agricultural crop yields depend largely on soil moisture conditions in the root zone. Climate change leads to more prolonged drought periods that alternate with more intensive rainfall events. With unaltered water management practices, reduced crop yield due to drought stress will increase. Therefore, both farmers and water management authorities search for opportunities to manage risks of decreasing crop yields. Available groundwater sources for irrigation purposes are increasingly under pressure due to the regional coexistence of land use functions that are critical to groundwater levels or compete for available water. At the same time, treated wastewater from industries and domestic wastewater treatment plants are quickly discharged via surface waters towards sea. Exploitation of these freshwater sources may be an effective strategy to balance regional water supply and agricultural water demand. We present results of two pilot studies in drought sensitive regions in the Netherlands, concerning agricultural water supply through reuse of industrial and domestic treated wastewater. In these pilots, excess wastewater is delivered to the plant root zone through sub-irrigation by drainage systems. Sub-irrigation is a subsurface irrigation method that can be more efficient than classical, aboveground irrigation methods using sprinkler installations. Domestic wastewater treatment plants in the Netherlands produce annually 40-50mm freshwater. A pilot project has been setup in the eastern part of the Netherlands, in which treated wastewater is applied to a corn field by sub-irrigation during the growing seasons of 2015 and 2016, using a climate adaptive drainage system. The chemical composition of treated domestic wastewater is different from infiltrating excess rainfall water and natural groundwater. In the pilot project, the bromide-chloride ratio and traces of pharmaceuticals in the treated wastewater are used as a tracer to describe water and solute transport in the

  17. Energy saving to guarantee the electricity supply in Surinam; De elektriciteitsvoorziening van Suriname is goed af met besparing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moerdijk, M.C.W. [Eco-Energy Engineering, Velp (Netherlands)

    1995-10-01

    A brief overview is given of the problems in Surinam regarding the electric power supply. By realizing short-term energy conservation options the electric power supply can be guaranteed, without large investments, up to the year 2004. The power generating capacity after 2004 can be increased by means of a large-scale hydro power plant. 1 fig., 1 ills., 1 tab.

  18. Energy evaluation process of electric domestic refrigerators; Proceso de evaluacion energetica de refrigeradores electrodomesticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malacara Toral, Manuel; Ruiz Neblina, Joaquin [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    A description is made of an energy evaluation study on electric domestic refrigerators carried out by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), in its strategy for diminishing the energy consumption through the design enhancement, the manufacture, the operation and the standardization of the electric appliances. In order to initiate the evaluation-standardization process, the Mexican (NOM), the American (ANSI/AHAM) and the Canadian (CAN/CSA) standards were taken as a base to harmonize the procedures and the parameters of the tests. The energy assessment demonstrated that there are significant differences among the standards encompassed by the study, therefore, recommendations were made for the harmonization of the standards. [Espanol] Se describe un estudio de evaluacion energetica sobre refrigeradores electrodomesticos realizado en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) dentro de la estrategia para disminuir los consumos de energia a traves de mejoras en el diseno, la manufactura, la operacion y la normalizacion de equipos electricos. Se tomo como base las normas mexicanas (NOM), americana (ANSI/AHAM) y canadiense (CAN/CSA) para iniciar el proceso de evaluacion-normalizacion a fin de armonizar los procedimientos y parametros de las pruebas. La evaluacion energetica demostro que existen diferencias significativas entre las normas que abarco el estudio por lo que se presentan recomendaciones para la armonizacion de las normas.

  19. Estimated winter 1980-1981 electric demand and supply, contiguous United States. Staff report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-01

    This report summarizes the most recent data available concerning projected electrical peak demands and available power resouces for the 1980-1981 winter peak period, as reported by electric utilities in the contiguous United States. The data, grouped by Regional Reliability Council areas and by Electrical Regions within the Council areas, was obtained from the Form 12E-2 reports filed by utilities with the Department of Energy on October 15, 1980 (data as of September 30). In some instances the data were revised or verified by telephone. Considerations affecting reliability, arising from Nuclear Regulatory Commission actions based on lessons learned from the forced outage of Three Mile Island Nuclear Unit No. 2, were factored into the report. No widespread large-scale reliability problems are foreseen for electric power supply this winter, on the basis of the supply and demand projections furnished by the electric utilities. Reserve margins could drop in some electric regions to levels considered inadequate for reliable service, if historical forced-outage magnitudes recur.

  20. Technoeconomic assumptions adopted for the development of a long-term electricity supply model for Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliotis, Constantinos; Taibi, Emanuele; Howells, Mark; Rogner, Holger; Bazilian, Morgan; Welsch, Manuel

    2017-10-01

    The generation mix of Cyprus has been dominated by oil products for decades. In order to conform with European Union and international legislation, a transformation of the supply system is called for. Energy system models can facilitate energy planning into the future, but a large volume of data is required to populate such models. The present data article provides information on key modelling assumptions and input data adopted with the aim of representing the electricity supply system of Cyprus in a separate research article. Data in regards to renewable energy technoeconomic characteristics and investment cost projections, fossil fuel price projections, storage technology characteristics and system operation assumptions are described in this article.

  1. Decentralized electricity supply in the built environment. Evaluation of transitions based on system options; Decentrale elektriciteitsvoorziening in de gebouwde omgeving. Evaluatie van transities op basis van systeemopties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, A.; Ros, J.P.M.

    2009-04-15

    Local sustainable electricity production technologies as well as technologies with high domestic electricity demand are generally expected to develop in the long run and largely affect the local electricity networks. Distributed sustainable electricity systems are a realistic option to ensure a sustainable, affordable and secure energy supply, but systemic, technical and institutional adaptations are required for their further development. Moreover, distributed production systems do not necessarily offset the opportunities that can be met with central production options. Developing a distributed electricity network, with high levels of local electricity production as well as demand, could lead to significant reductions in environmental pressure, but high investments are required, while security of supply remains a function of reliability of electricity production and network control. Domestic electricity demand becomes generally higher, largely due to electric cars and heat pumps. Depending on car loading patterns, the daily demand profiles may become more pronounced. These developments may be accommodated by improved interlinkages between production and consumption, thus elaborating a distributed electricity network. Such interlinkages require the articulation of consumers in a role of co-producers, while network balancing shifts from top-down control to a bottom-up balancing activity. [Dutch] Er zijn vele technische mogelijkheden om op lokale schaal - op gebouwen, in woningen en wijken - efficienter en schoner elektriciteit te produceren. Zonnepanelen, windmolens en brandstofcellen zijn hiervan voorbeelden. Het aanbod van elektriciteit uit deze systemen vertoont echter grote fluctuaties. Bovendien kan de elektriciteitsvraag in huishoudens in de toekomst sterk toenemen voor het opladen van elektrische auto's of de toepassing van warmtepompen. Het vraagt daarom nogal wat aanpassingen in vormgeving en aansturing van het systeem om vraag en aanbod in balans te

  2. Continuous electricity generation from domestic wastewater and organic substrates in a flat plate microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Booki; Logan, Bruce E

    2004-11-01

    A microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a device that converts organic matter to electricity using microorganisms as the biocatalyst. Most MFCs contain two electrodes separated into one or two chambers that are operated as a completely mixed reactor. In this study, a flat plate MFC (FPMFC) was designed to operate as a plug flow reactor (no mixing) using a combined electrode/proton exchange membrane (PEM) system. The reactor consisted of a single channel formed between two nonconductive plates that were separated into two halves by the electrode/PEM assembly. Each electrode was placed on an opposite side of the PEM, with the anode facing the chamber containing the liquid phase and the cathode facing a chamber containing only air. Electricity generation using the FPMFC was examined by continuously feeding a solution containing wastewater, or a specific substrate, into the anode chamber. The system was initially acclimated for 1 month using domestic wastewater orwastewater enriched with a specific substrate such as acetate. Average power density using only domestic wastewater was 72+/-1 mW/m2 at a liquid flow rate of 0.39 mL/min [42% COD (chemical oxygen demand) removal, 1.1 h HRT (hydraulic retention time)]. At a longer HRT = 4.0 h, there was 79% COD removal and an average power density of 43+/-1 mW/m2. Power output was found to be a function of wastewater strength according to a Monod-type relationship, with a half-saturation constant of Ks = 461 or 719 mg COD/L. Power generation was sustained at high rates with several organic substrates (all at approximately 1000 mg COD/L), including glucose (212+/-2 mW/ m2), acetate (286+/-3 mW/m2), butyrate (220+/-1 mW/ m2), dextran (150+/-1 mW/m2), and starch (242+/-3 mW/ m2). These results demonstrate the versatility of power generation in a MFC with a variety of organic substrates and show that power can be generated at a high rate in a continuous flow reactor system.

  3. Environmental Strategies for Electrical and Electronic Equipment Supply Chains: Which to Choose?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patroklos Georgiadis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Waste electrical and electronic equipment is one of the major world-wide waste streams triggering the emergence of environmental strategies. Environmental regulations, closed-loop supply chain (CLSC activities and design-for-environment (DfE practices are environmental friendly strategies being implemented by governments and industry. In this paper, we apply a System Dynamics model to a CLSC of electrical and electronic equipment in Greece. Extensive numerical investigation provides insights regarding the impact of different legislative measures, CLSC activities and DfE practices on the environmental (availability of natural resources and landfills and economic sustainability.

  4. A proposal of electrical power supply to Brazilian Amazon remote communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Ana Rosa; Bezerra, Ubiratan Holanda; de Lima Tostes, Maria Emilia; Duarte, Andre Montenegro [Institute of Technology, Federal University of Para (UFPA), Av. Augusto Correa, n.01, Campus Universitario do Guama, Belem-PA (Brazil); da Rocha Filho, Geraldo Narciso [Exact and Natural Sciences Institute, Federal University of Para (UFPA), Av. Augusto Correa, n.01, Campus Universitario do Guama, Belem-PA (Brazil)

    2010-09-15

    This paper focuses on supplying electrical power for remote communities of the Brazilian Amazon using regional biomass, specifically palm oil biomass, as a primary energy source. The use of Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) as fuel, is indicated for isolated communities, where the hydro plants or the installation of transmissions line are impracticable. The use of vegetable oils produced in the communities, is a solution when an adequate infrastructure to extracting the oil is available. Brazil is able to use an enormous diversity of vegetable oils, due to a great variety of plants, and the favorable climatic conditions. Technical, economic, environmental and social aspects are analyzed in order to provide a basis for electrical power supply viability in these communities. A case study is presented focused on a typical Brazilian Amazon community located in the State of Para in order to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed viability strategy. (author)

  5. The damping of power swings in electrical energy supply systems. Daempfung von Leistungspendelungen in elektrischen Energieversorgungssystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlfarth, H.

    1987-10-12

    The author examines the method of operation and usefulness of power system stabilisers (PSS), which are used for damping power swings in electrical energy supply systems. Various model components, such as generators, voltage regulation, turbine regulation etc., are first considered. The damping of magnet wheel swings by power system stabilisers is then dealt with. Investigations of PSS individual components in the time range are introduced and the multi-machine problem is discussed. (HAG).

  6. Vehicle to Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Smart Grid Communications Interface Research and Testing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Morrow; Dimitri Hochard; Jeff Wishart

    2011-09-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and extended range electric vehicles, are under evaluation by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) and other various stakeholders to better understand their capability and potential petroleum reduction benefits. PEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard hybrid electric vehicles, and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design, PEVs may have the ability to eliminate petroleum consumption entirely for daily vehicle trips. The AVTA is working jointly with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) to assist in the further development of standards necessary for the advancement of PEVs. This report analyzes different methods and available hardware for advanced communications between the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and the PEV; particularly Power Line Devices and their physical layer. Results of this study are not conclusive, but add to the collective knowledge base in this area to help define further testing that will be necessary for the development of the final recommended SAE communications standard. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Applications conduct the AVTA for the United States Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program.

  7. Integrating renewable energy technologies in the electric supply industry: A risk management approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, T.E. [Pacific Energy Group, Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Regulatory and technical forces are causing electric utilities to move from a natural monopoly to a more competitive environment. Associated with this movement is an increasing concern about how to manage the risks associated with the electric supply business. One approach to managing risks is to purchase financial instruments such as options and futures contracts. Another approach is to own physical assets that have low risk attributes or characteristics. This research evaluates how investments in renewable energy technologies can mitigate risks in the electric supply industry. It identifies risks that are known to be of concern to utilities and other power producers. These risks include uncertainty in fuel prices, demand, environmental regulations, capital cost, supply, and market structure. The research then determines how investments in renewables can mitigate these risks. Methods are developed to calculate the value of renewables in terms of their attributes of fuel costs, environmental costs, lead-time, modularity, availability, initial capital costs, and investment reversibility. Examples illustrate how to apply the methods.

  8. MOSES – A modelling tool for the analysis of scenarios of the European electricity supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agert C.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that a transition of the current power supply system in Europe to a system almost entirely based on fluctuating Renewable Energy Sources (RES by mid-century is possible. However, most of these scenarios require a significant amount of back-up power capacities to ensure the security of electricity supply. This would imply high additional investments and operating costs. Hence, alternative options should be investigated first. Here we present a first outlook of our simulation model MOSES which will be able to analyse different target states of the European electricity system in 2050. In this model long-term meteorological data series are used to optimise the capacity mix of RES in Europe. One of the main elements of our tool is a simplified electricity network. In addition, alternative options for reduction of additional back-up power like the expansion of the transmission grid, the use of demand-side management and/or the installation of over-capacities will be implemented. The results will be used to provide scientifically proven recommendations to policy makers for a reliable energy supply system in Europe based on Renewable Energy Sources.

  9. A New System to Estimate and Reduce Electrical Energy Consumption of Domestic Hot Water in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Gutierrez-Escolar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption rose about 28% over the 2001 to 2011 period in the Spanish residential sector. In this environment, domestic hot water (DHW represents the second highest energy demand. There are several methodologies to estimate DHW consumption, but each methodology uses different inputs and some of them are based on obsolete data. DHW energy consumption estimation is a key tool to plan modifications that could enhance this consumption and we decided to update the methodologies. We studied DHW consumption with data from 10 apartments in the same building during 18 months. As a result of the study, we updated one chosen methodology, adapting it to the current situation. One of the challenges to improve efficiency of DHW use is that most of people are not aware of how it is consumed in their homes. To help this information to reach consumers, we developed a website to allow users to estimate the final electrical energy needed for DHW. The site uses three estimation methodologies and chooses the best fit based on information given by the users. Finally, the application provides users with recommendations and tips to reduce their DHW consumption while still maintaining the desired comfort level.

  10. Behaviors of intercellular materials and nutrients in biological nutrient removal process supplied with domestic wastewater and food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, So-Ryong; Jeong, Hyeong-Seok; Lim, Jae-Lim; Kang, Seok-Tae; Shin, Hang-Sik; Paik, Byeong-Cheon; Youn, Jong-Ho

    2004-01-01

    A four-stage biological nutrient removal (BNR) process was operated to investigate the effect of anaerobically fermented leachate of food waste (AFLFW) as an external carbon source on nutrient removal from domestic wastewater having a low carbon-to-nitrogen ratio. The BNR system that was supplemented with AFLFW showed a good performance at a sludge retention time (SRT) of 30 days, despite low temperature. With this wastewater, average removal efficiencies of soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (T-N), and total phosphorus (T-P) were 88 to 93%, 70 to 74%, and 63 to 68%, respectively. In this study, several kinds of poly-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) were observed in cells. These included 24% poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), 41% poly-3-hydroxyvalerate (PHV), 18% poly-3-hydroxyhexanoate (PHH), 10% poly-3-hydroxyoctanoate (PHO), 5% poly-3-hydroxydecanoate (PHD). and 2% poly-3-hydroxydodecanoate (PHDD), indicating that microorganisms could store various PHAs through the different metabolic pathways. However, breakdown of the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) mechanism was observed when SRT increased from 30 to 50 days for the enhancement of nitrification. To study the effect of SRT on EBPR, a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system that was supplied with glucose was operated at various SRTs of 5, 10, and 15 days. Nitrification and denitrification efficiencies increased as SRT increased. However, the content of intracellular materials such as PHAs, glycogen. and poly-P in cells decreased. From these results, it was concluded that SRT should be carefully controlled to increase nitrification activity and to maintain biological phosphorus removal activity in the BNR process.

  11. Results from the Operational Testing of the General Electric Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Barney Carlson; Don Scoffield; Brion Bennett

    2013-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory conducted testing and analysis of the General Electric (GE) smart grid capable electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), which was a deliverable from GE for the U.S. Department of Energy FOA-554. The Idaho National Laboratory has extensive knowledge and experience in testing advanced conductive and wireless charging systems though INL’s support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. This document details the findings from the EVSE operational testing conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory on the GE smart grid capable EVSE. The testing conducted on the EVSE included energy efficiency testing, SAE J1772 functionality testing, abnormal conditions testing, and charging of a plug-in vehicle.

  12. Waste biomass toward hydrogen fuel supply chain management for electricity: Malaysia perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Izatul Husna; Ibrahim, Jafni Azhan; Othman, Abdul Aziz

    2016-08-01

    Green energy is becoming an important aspect of every country in the world toward energy security by reducing dependence on fossil fuel import and enhancing better life quality by living in the healthy environment. This conceptual paper is an approach toward determining physical flow's characteristic of waste wood biomass in high scale plantation toward producing gas fuel for electricity using gasification technique. The scope of this study is supply chain management of syngas fuel from wood waste biomass using direct gasification conversion technology. Literature review on energy security, Malaysia's energy mix, Biomass SCM and technology. This paper uses the theoretical framework of a model of transportation (Lumsden, 2006) and the function of the terminal (Hulten, 1997) for research purpose. To incorporate biomass unique properties, Biomass Element Life Cycle Analysis (BELCA) which is a novel technique develop to understand the behaviour of biomass supply. Theoretical framework used to answer the research questions are Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) framework and Sustainable strategy development in supply chain management framework

  13. Hybrid renewable energy system application for electricity and heat supply of a residential building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakomčić-Smaragdakis Branka B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable and distributed energy systems could provide a solution to the burning issue of reliable and clean supply of energy, having in mind current state and future predictions for population growth and fossil fuel scarcity. Hybrid renewable energy systems are novelty in Serbia and warrant further detailed research. The aim of this paper is to analyze the application of renewable energy sources(RES for electricity and heat supply of a typical household in Serbia, as well as the cost-effectiveness of the proposed system. The influence of feed-in tariff change on the value of the investment is analyzed. Small, grid-connected hybrid system (for energy supply of a standard household, consisting of geothermal heat pump for heating/cooling, solar photovoltaic panels and small wind turbine for power supply is analyzed as a case study. System analysis was conducted with the help of RETScreen software. Results of techno-economics analysis have shown that investing in geothermal heat pump and photovoltaic panels is cost-effective, while that is not the case with small wind turbine.

  14. Stability of electric characteristics of solar cells for continuous power supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Nebojša M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the output characteristics of photovoltaic solar cells working in hostile working conditions. Examined cells, produced by different innovative procedures, are available in the market. The goal was to investigate stability of electric characteristics of solar cells, which are used today in photovoltaic solar modules for charging rechargeable batteries which, coupled with batteries, supply various electronic systems such as radio repeaters on mountains tops, airplanes, mobile communication stations and other remote facilities. Charging of rechargeable batteries requires up to 25 % higher voltage compared to nominal output voltage of the battery. This paper presents results of research of solar cells, which also apply to cases in which continuous power supply is required. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 171007

  15. Analysing green supply chain management practices in Brazil's electrical/electronics industry using interpretive structural modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Kannan, Devika; Mathiyazhagan, K.

    2013-01-01

    Industries need to adopt the environmental management concepts in the traditional supply chain management. The green supply chain management (GSCM) is an established concept to ensure environment-friendly activities in industry. This paper identifies the relationship of driving and dependence...... that exists between GSCM practices with regard to their adoption within Brazilian electrical/electronic industry with the help of interpretive structural modelling (ISM). From the results, we infer that cooperation with customers for eco-design practice is driving other practices, and this practice acts...... as a vital role among other practices. Commitment to GSCM from senior managers and cooperation with customers for cleaner production occupy the highest level. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis....

  16. The Green Stamp in Power Supply Contracts - A proposal for the Brazilian Electricity Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrocio, Joao Paulo

    2010-09-15

    The insertion of a certification mechanism for discriminatory energy supply contracts aiming to make it possible to contract exclusively clean and renewable energy is presented. With the increasing interest for sustainability and carbon emissions reduction, there's a growing demand for clean energy reflected in people's choices for cleaner products. Electricity in a power grid, however, is result of a set of sources or plants, and its operation or dispatch. A proposal for clean energy contracts is presented, providing the market and the clients with the ability to choose to buy exclusively renewable energy through the grid.

  17. Optimizing the power of transformer substations in electric supply to the oil fields of Western Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissenbaum, I.A.; Kudryashov, R.A.; Novoselov, Yu.B.; Sud, I.N.

    1983-01-01

    The problems which come up in designing substations for electricity supply grids for the oil fields in Western Siberia in determining their capacity are examined. A technique is proposed for technical and economic selection of the capacity of substations with consideration of the specifications for design documentation. The issues of rating loads on transformer substations and their prediction are examined. A technique for considering the overloading capability of transformers and their wear at the design load is presented. An example of power drop of an oil field, 35/6 kilovolt voltage substation is cited.

  18. 1/3rd of all electrical power is imported. [Report of the annual conference of the Association of Danish Electrical Supply Undertakings (Danska Elverksfoereningen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, B.

    1982-10-01

    The author describes the content of speeches at the annual conference of the Association of Danish Electrical Supply Undertakings held on the 18th May at Copenhagen. He describes the debate concerning wind powered generators and nuclear power, and the new by laws of the association, coal imports versus nuclear power, and a survey of Danish electrical power consumption made by Henry Madsen.

  19. Natural graphite demand and supply - Implications for electric vehicle battery requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Donald W.; Virta, Robert L.; Mahdavi, Mahbood; Sangine, Elizabeth S.; Fortier, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Electric vehicles have been promoted to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and lessen U.S. dependence on petroleum for transportation. Growth in U.S. sales of electric vehicles has been hindered by technical difficulties and the high cost of the lithium-ion batteries used to power many electric vehicles (more than 50% of the vehicle cost). Groundbreaking has begun for a lithium-ion battery factory in Nevada that, at capacity, could manufacture enough batteries to power 500,000 electric vehicles of various types and provide economies of scale to reduce the cost of batteries. Currently, primary synthetic graphite derived from petroleum coke is used in the anode of most lithium-ion batteries. An alternate may be the use of natural flake graphite, which would result in estimated graphite cost reductions of more than US$400 per vehicle at 2013 prices. Most natural flake graphite is sourced from China, the world's leading graphite producer. Sourcing natural flake graphite from deposits in North America could reduce raw material transportation costs and, given China's growing internal demand for flake graphite for its industries and ongoing environmental, labor, and mining issues, may ensure a more reliable and environmentally conscious supply of graphite. North America has flake graphite resources, and Canada is currently a producer, but most new mining projects in the United States require more than 10 yr to reach production, and demand could exceed supplies of flake graphite. Natural flake graphite may serve only to supplement synthetic graphite, at least for the short-term outlook.

  20. Social Corporate Responsibility regarding Household Consumer Satisfaction with the Electric Power Supply Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Ana Georgescu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the practical manifestation of corporate social responsibility towards consumers is highly important to the socio-economic reality in Romania. The present paper is the result of an investigation carried out in this field and it is distinguished by two aspects. The first aspect is its target audience used for research - household consumers of electricity, who can be called "vulnerable", captive consumers. The second aspect is the specificity of the electricity market. The aim of the research was to study the relationship between corporate social responsibility, instantiated by the quality of services provided by S.C. Electrica S.A. – Electrica Distribution and Supply South Transylvania and the consumers' loyalty towards the company, in case other electricity suppliers emerge. A subsidiary aspect was the generation of a database having an impact on customer retention. We have carried out some quantitative research, based on the survey method, having a sample of 521 household consumers from the Mures County. The study we carried out proves that consumer satisfaction, their degree of satisfaction under different aspects, is a way of gaining their trust on this particular market. Those consumers with a higher degree of trust in the company are more loyal. This will result in reducing migration to another electricity supplier, in the future, when all household consumers become eligible.

  1. Assessment of DoD electric power supply options, strategies, and costs under retail open access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This report, prepared under Contract No. SP0600-97-M-5726, provides an estimate of the level of savings that the DOD would realize over the 15-year analysis period (1997 through 2011) from the restructuring of the electric utility industry under current expectations regarding future policies likely to be adopted by the states. The report also addresses issues related to the future acquisition of power by the DOD in a competitive retail electric power market, including the degree to which competitive solicitations for electric power should reflect the aggregated loads of multiple DOD installations, the degree to which the competitive power supply procurement function should be centralized, and the cost implications associated with the use of federal hydropower currently purchased by certain DOD installations from the Western Area Power Administration (Western) and the Southwestern Power Administration. Other topics addressed in this report include a description of current electric power markets, the expected changes that will affect the future structure of these markets, the status of state and federal legislation related to industry restructuring, and several other issues potentially affected by restructuring, such as efforts being undertaken by the DOD to privatize on-base utility systems and DOD`s efforts to implement energy conservation and demand-side management projects.

  2. ANN-based wavelet analysis for predicting electrical signal from photovoltaic power supply system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellit, A. [Medea Univ., Medea (Algeria). Inst. of Science Engineering, Dept. of Electronics

    2007-07-01

    This study was conducted to predict different electrical signals from a photovoltaic power supply system (PVPS) using an artificial neural networks (ANN) with wavelet analysis. It involved the creation of a database of electrical signals (PV-generator current, voltage, battery current voltage, regulator current and voltage) obtained from an experimental PVPS system installed in the south of Algeria. The potential applications were for sizing and analyzing the performance of PVPS systems; control of maximum power point tracker (MPPT) in order to deliver the maximum energy from the PV-array; prediction of the optimal configuration (PV-array and battery sizing) of PVPS systems; expert configuration of PV-systems; faults diagnosis; supervision; and, control and monitoring. First, based on the wavelet analysis each electrical signal was mapped in several time frequency domains. The PV-system was then divided into 3-subsystems corresponding to ANN-PV generator model, ANN-battery model, and ANN-regulator model. An example of day-by-day prediction for each electrical signal was presented. The results of the proposed approach were in good agreement with experimental results. In addition, the accuracy of the proposed approach was more satisfactory when only ANN was used. It was concluded that this methodology offers the possibility of developing a new expert configuration of PVPS by implementing the soft computing ANN-wavelet program with a digital signal processing (DSP) circuit. 26 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  3. A hybrid PV-battery/diesel electricity supply on Peucang island: an economic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Günther

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy technologies are currently under a dynamic cost development. This case holds especially for solar technology that has reached price levels that were unimaginable until a short time ago. It also holds for battery technologies the application of which is related to the increasing usage of photovoltaic energy converters and the growing interest in electric vehicles. With the decreasing prices more and more possible application cases of renewable energy technologies become economically viable. A case study was done for a location on a small island located on the west tip of Java. The levelized electricity cost of a hybrid electricity supply system composed of a solar generator and battery in combination with the existing diesel generators was compared to the electricity generation cost of the existing system. Two different battery options were taken into account, lead-acid batteries and lithium-ion batteries. The results of this study can give a rough orientation also for other locations with similar characteristics.

  4. Impacts of recent drought and warm years on water resources and electricity supply worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Sheffield, Justin; Wiberg, David; Wood, Eric F.

    2016-12-01

    Recent droughts and heatwaves showed the vulnerability of the electricity sector to surface water constraints with reduced potentials for thermoelectric power and hydropower generation in different regions. Here we use a global hydrological-electricity modelling framework to quantify the impacts of recent drought and warm years on hydropower and thermoelectric power usable capacity worldwide. Our coupled modelling framework consists of a hydrological model, stream temperature model, hydropower and thermoelectric power models, and was applied with data of a large selection of hydropower and thermoelectric power plants worldwide. Our results show that hydropower utilisation rates were on average reduced by 5.2% and thermoelectric power by 3.8% during the drought years compared to the long-term average for 1981-2010. Statistically significant (p < 0.01) impacts on both hydropower and thermoelectric power usable capacity were found during major drought years, e.g. 2003 in Europe (-6.6% in hydropower and -4.7% in thermoelectric power) and 2007 in Eastern North America (-6.1% in hydropower and -9.0% in thermoelectric power). Our hydrological-electricity modelling framework has potential for studying the linkages between water and electricity supply under climate variability and change, contributing to the quantification of the ‘water-energy nexus’.

  5. Climate Change Impacts on Electricity Demand and Supply in the United States: A Multi-Model Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper compares the climate change impacts on U.S. electricity demand and supply from three models: the Integrated Planning Model (IPM), the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, and GCAM. Rising temperatures cause an appreciable net increase in electricity demand....

  6. Un-interrupted DH supply in the event of an electric power failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederiksen, Svend; Wollerstrand, Janusz; Ljunggren, Patrick. e-mail: svend.frederiksen@energy.lth.se

    2008-09-15

    State-of-the-art district heating technology possesses a potential for being capable of continuing to supply building heating in the event of an electric power failure of long duration, a potential that has hitherto largely been overlooked or ignored. In the case of direct connection of hydronic building radiator space heating systems to district heating networks, water circulation within the building can rather easily be maintained, as long as there is a circulation within the district heating network. But with indirect connection, providing hydraulic separation by means of a heat exchanger, the situation becomes more difficult, since circulation within the building will often depend upon an individual circulation pump driven by an electric motor. Nevertheless, as is demonstrated in the paper, in many cases a substantial natural circulation effect of the classical type, depending upon a water density differential, can be established. A further approach presented is a novel type of device comprising a small water turbine arranged to be driven by the district heating pressure differential across a substation. The turbine can deliver, by direct shaft connection or otherwise, enough energy to run the circulation pump. The two approaches can even be combined, such that probably a large share of all customers connected to a district heating grid could be supplied with full or almost full heating capacity, even at harsh weather conditions

  7. The economic value of transportation energy contingency planning: An objective model for analyzing the economics of domestic renewable energy for supply augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaten, Richard Jay

    1998-12-01

    Petroleum provides 90% of transportation energy needs. Domestic production is decreasing and global demand is increasing. Risk of escalating prices and supply interruptions are compounded by environmental and military externalities and lost opportunities from the failure to develop alternative domestic resources. Within the context of "energy contingency planning" municipalities should evaluate crisis mitigation strategies. Supply augmentation using domestic renewable fuels is proposed to avert future financial liabilities. A method for calculating the economic value of this strategy is demonstrated. An objective function and associated constraints represent the cost of preparing for each of three possible scenarios: status quo, inflationary and crisis. Constraints ensure that municipal fuel needs are met. Environmental costs may be included. Optimal solutions determine the fuel supply mix for each scenario. A 3 x 3 matrix presents the range of actual costs resulting from preparing for each scenario and subsequent three possible outcomes. The distribution of probabilities of the outcomes is applied to the cost matrix and an "expected value" of preparing for each scenario is calculated. An unanticipated crisis outcome results in. The expected value of the cost of preparing for a crisis is cast as an insurance premium against potential economic liability. Policy makers accept the crisis preparation fuel mix if: (a) they agree with the calculated penalty cost, or (b) they accept the burden of the insurance premium. Green Bay Wisconsin was chosen as a sample municipality. Results show that a perceived 10% chance of crisis requires an annual tax of 4.00 per household to avert economic impacts of 50 million. At a perceived 50% chance of crisis preparing for the crisis would begin to save the municipality money.

  8. Investigation of a heat storage for a solar heating system for combined space heating and domestic hot water supply for homeowner´s association "Bakken"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1998-01-01

    A heat storage for a solar heating system for combined space heating and domestic hot water supply was tested in a laboratory test facility.The heat storage consist of a mantle tank with water for the heating system and of a hot water tank, which by means of thermosyphoning is heated by the water...... in the heating system. The heat storage was tested in a heat storage test facility. The most important characteristics of the heat storage were determined by means of the tests and recommendations for the design of the heat storage were given....

  9. Economic Analysis in Restructured Electricity Supply Industry (ESI for Malaysian Market Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Before 1980s, the generation, transmission and distribution vertically related sectors have typically been tied together within a utility. It has been either, investor owned and state-regulated or owned by the local municipality. Each sector was thought of as a natural monopoly. During that era, there were two main reasons accelerated for restructuring needs. The first one was to widen up the choices of electricity for customers. And the second one was due to rapid expansion capacity needs in generation, transmission and distribution. In Malaysia, the Malaysian Electricity Supply Industry (MESI has aimed to restructure its current model to become a wholesale market model. In 1992, by introducing the Independent Power Producers (IPPs in the loop, MESI applies Single Buyer model. Single Buyer model is one of the existing models available under the restructuring apart from Pool and Bilateral. This paper evaluates the economic benefits for Malaysia with the current structure from the side of electricity provider. A case study with load variation for three different maximum demands is considered in this paper. The mathematical equation developed by zero Loss of Load Probability is applied to evaluate the economic benefits.

  10. Minimizing costs is easier than minimizing peaks when supplying the heat demand of a group of houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, Jiří; Hurink, Johann L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies planning problems for a group of heating systems which supply the hot water demand for domestic use in houses. These systems (e.g. gas or electric boilers, heat pumps or microCHPs) use an external energy source to heat up water and store this hot water for supplying the domestic d

  11. Improvement of quality and reliability of electric power supply using the supply transformer with under load tap change device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabko, Volodymyr V.; Balzan, Igor V.; Smolarz, Andrzej; Asambay, Azat

    2015-12-01

    On the base of the analysis of laws on voltage regulation by the supply transformers with the under load tap change device, the paper presents the modified regulation law, the use of which, unlike the known ones, allows to limit the number of tap changing of the supply transformer, which results in improvement of voltage quality of the consumers and the reliability of the under voltage tap change device operation.

  12. A Model for Optimizing the Combination of Solar Electricity Generation, Supply Curtailment, Transmission and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Marc J. R.

    With extraordinary recent growth of the solar photovoltaic industry, it is paramount to address the biggest barrier to its high-penetration across global electrical grids: the inherent variability of the solar resource. This resource variability arises from largely unpredictable meteorological phenomena and from the predictable rotation of the earth around the sun and about its own axis. To achieve very high photovoltaic penetration, the imbalance between the variable supply of sunlight and demand must be alleviated. The research detailed herein consists of the development of a computational model which seeks to optimize the combination of 3 supply-side solutions to solar variability that minimizes the aggregate cost of electricity generated therefrom: Storage (where excess solar generation is stored when it exceeds demand for utilization when it does not meet demand), interconnection (where solar generation is spread across a large geographic area and electrically interconnected to smooth overall regional output) and smart curtailment (where solar capacity is oversized and excess generation is curtailed at key times to minimize the need for storage.). This model leverages a database created in the context of this doctoral work of satellite-derived photovoltaic output spanning 10 years at a daily interval for 64,000 unique geographic points across the globe. Underpinning the model's design and results, the database was used to further the understanding of solar resource variability at timescales greater than 1-day. It is shown that--as at shorter timescales--cloud/weather-induced solar variability decreases with geographic extent and that the geographic extent at which variability is mitigated increases with timescale and is modulated by the prevailing speed of clouds/weather systems. Unpredictable solar variability up to the timescale of 30 days is shown to be mitigated across a geographic extent of only 1500km if that geographic extent is oriented in a north

  13. Optimal Willingness to Supply Wholesale Electricity Under Asymmetric Linearized Marginal Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hudgins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This analysis derives the profit-maximizing willingness to supply functions for single-plant and multi-plant wholesale electricity suppliers that all incur linear marginal costs. The optimal strategy must result in linear residual demand functions in the absence of capacity constraints. This necessarily leads to a linear pricing rule structure that can be used by firm managers to construct their offer curves and to serve as a benchmark to evaluate firm profit-maximizing behavior. The procedure derives the cost functions and the residual demand curves for merged or multi-plant generators, and uses these to construct the individual generator plant offer curves for a multi-plant firm.

  14. Results from the Operational Testing of the Eaton Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Brion [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory conducted testing and analysis of the Eaton smart grid capable electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), which was a deliverable from Eaton for the U.S. Department of Energy FOA-554. The Idaho National Laboratory has extensive knowledge and experience in testing advanced conductive and wireless charging systems though INL’s support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. This document details the findings from the EVSE operational testing conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Eaton smart grid capable EVSE. The testing conducted on the EVSE included energy efficiency testing, SAE J1772 functionality testing, abnormal conditions testing, and charging of a plug-in vehicle.

  15. Issues in the future supply of electricity to the Northeast. [1985 and 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, P.M.; McCoy, T.H.; Rahman, S.

    1976-06-01

    This assessment of the problems of the electric sector is part of the BNL study on the Energy Future of the Northeast. Topics covered by the issue papers include the potential supply of energy to the Northeast from coal, oil, natural gas, liquefied natural gas, nuclear power, municipal waste, solar energy, and wind power, and the demand for energy in the Northeast from the industrial, transportation, and residential and commercial sectors. This paper compares energy demand projections derived in other parts of the Northeast Energy Perspectives Study to current utility projections; discusses major technical issues in capacity forecasting, including system load factors, outage rates, scale economies, unit sizes, and generation mix planning; discusses major siting constraints faced by each type of generation in the Northeast; and prepares preliminary forecasts of the number and type of new generation facilities necessary by 1985 and 2000, and an analysis of the implications for regional siting policy. (MCW)

  16. The electricity; market, investments and security of supply; La electricidad: Mercado, inversiones y garantia de suministro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabra, N.

    2007-07-01

    In this paper we discuss some of the special features of electricity that should be taken into account when assessing investment incentives, giving special emphasis to the role played by firms strategic behaviour. Furthermore, we assess the potential for some regulatory instruments to induce firms to undertake the efficient investments in the marketplace. In particular, some of the questions that this paper discusses are the following: Is the market alone the best mechanism to induce the right investment levels? How does the public good nature of security of supply interact with the provision of generation capacity? Are there regulatory measures to improve investment choices, reducing both the risk of blackouts as well as inefficient over investment?. (Author). 12 refs.

  17. Issues in the future supply of electricity to the Northeast. [1985 and 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, P.M.; McCoy, T.H.; Rahman, S.

    1976-06-01

    This assessment of the problems of the electric sector is part of the BNL study on the Energy Future of the Northeast. Topics covered by the issue papers include the potential supply of energy to the Northeast from coal, oil, natural gas, liquefied natural gas, nuclear power, municipal waste, solar energy, and wind power, and the demand for energy in the Northeast from the industrial, transportation, and residential and commercial sectors. This paper compares energy demand projections derived in other parts of the Northeast Energy Perspectives Study to current utility projections; discusses major technical issues in capacity forecasting, including system load factors, outage rates, scale economies, unit sizes, and generation mix planning; discusses major siting constraints faced by each type of generation in the Northeast; and prepares preliminary forecasts of the number and type of new generation facilities necessary by 1985 and 2000, and an analysis of the implications for regional siting policy. (MCW)

  18. Results from Operational Testing of the Siemens Smart Grid-Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Brion [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory conducted testing and analysis of the Siemens smart grid capable electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), which was a deliverable from Siemens for the U.S. Department of Energy FOA-554. The Idaho National Laboratory has extensive knowledge and experience in testing advanced conductive and wireless charging systems though INL’s support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. This document details the findings from the EVSE operational testing conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Siemens smart grid capable EVSE. The testing conducted on the EVSE included energy efficiency testing, SAE J1772 functionality testing, abnormal conditions testing, and charging of a plug-in vehicle.

  19. Supply of domestic hot Water at comfortable temperatures by low-temperature district heating without risk of Legionella

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaochen

    the potential of saving 13% heat loss compared to the decentralized substation system with bypass. The other form is to redirect the bypass flow to the bathroom heating during the non-heating season. With well insulated supply pipe, the bathroom heating flow can substitute for the bypass function......In Denmark, about 25% of the primary energy is consumed for covering the heat demand in the buildings. To achieve a complete renewable energy system by 2050, which is the goal set by the Danish government, methods that are more efficient and economical for heat supply are urgently needed....... Considering the overall energy efficiency and environment effect, the district heating (DH) is a cost-effective way of supplying heat to high heat density area. Currently, the DH system in most countries are still with supply and return temperature at 80/40 °C. The efficiency of the DH system can be improved...

  20. Estimating Domestic Self-Supply Water Use for the Delaware River Basin, 2010 U.S. Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — According to the U.S. Geological Survey, an estimated 258 million people nationwide, or 86% of the U.S. population, relied on public water supplies for their...

  1. Estimating Domestic Self-Supply Water Use for the Delaware River Basin, 1990 U.S. Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — According to the U.S. Geological Survey, an estimated 258 million people nationwide, or 86% of the U.S. population, relied on public water supplies for their...

  2. Estimating Domestic Self-Supply Water Use for the Delaware River Basin, 2000 U.S. Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — According to the U.S. Geological Survey, an estimated 258 million people nationwide, or 86% of the U.S. population, relied on public water supplies for their...

  3. Estimating Domestic Self-Supply Water Use for the Delaware River Basin, 1990 U.S. Census Blocks

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — According to the U.S. Geological Survey, an estimated 258 million people nationwide, or 86% of the U.S. population, relied on public water supplies for their...

  4. Estimating Domestic Self-Supply Water Use for the Delaware River Basin, 2000 U.S. Census Blocks

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — According to the U.S. Geological Survey, an estimated 258 million people nationwide, or 86% of the U.S. population, relied on public water supplies for their...

  5. Supply of domestic hot Water at comfortable temperatures by low-temperature district heating without risk of Legionella

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xiaochen; Svendsen, Svend; Li, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    In Denmark, about 25% of the primary energy is consumed for covering the heat demand in the buildings. To achieve a complete renewable energy system by 2050, which is the goal set by the Danish government, methods that are more efficient and economical for heat supply are urgently needed. Considering the overall energy efficiency and environment effect, the district heating (DH) is a cost-effective way of supplying heat to high heat density area. Currently, the DH system in most countries are...

  6. Winter electricity supply and seasonal storage deficit in the Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, Pedro; Monay, Blaise; Dujardin, Jérôme; Schaefli, Bettina; Schleiss, Anton

    2017-04-01

    Switzerland. In some cases additional storage would allow mitigating negative impacts of climate change. In one of the tested cases the decrease in inflows is such that the reservoir will not fill up in the future; this reservoir will become a priority location for pumping capacity increase, for short-term or seasonal storage of excess solar/wind energy. Considering that the present average rate of glacier mass loss at the country scale is equivalent to the Grande Dixence reservoir per year (the largest Swiss reservoir, approx. 380 hm3), increasing artificial water storage might become mandatory to maintain the same level of security electricity supply in the future.

  7. Reliability Indicators of Urban Electric Network Schemes for Supply of Second and Third Category Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Korotkevich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers two schemes of the urban distributive electric network for supply of the second and third category consumers for whom indicators of reliability have been determined.As for a network scheme of the 2nd category it has been determined that while installing low-oil and vacuum switches at a distributive point the most remote transformer substation has the highest non-availability  factor which is higher of the corresponding non-availability  factor of the nearest transformer substation by 1,21–1,23 fold  accordingly.As for a network scheme of the 3rd category consumers it has been obtained the data that reliability of consumers receiving supply from bus-bars of transformer substations with 0,38 kW voltage changes  significantly (by 1,2–1,9-fold while changing a breakpoint of the network with 10 kW voltage.

  8. A Study of ensuring security in electricity supply under a newly restructured market system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, N.Y. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-11-01

    The Korean electric power industry has launched a competitive system in April 2001 with the generating part separated into 6 companies. There is a concern that under the new market arrangements there is no guarantee that enough capacity investment is induced to meet demand. This is a question of whether there is an adequate incentive for generators to secure a sufficient capacity margin over expected demand. Under the new system, four major sources of insecurity in power supply would be categorized : more unpredictable reserve margin, the uncertainty to timely completion of the pre-scheduled power plants, increasing risk in generation business, and unfavorably changing circumstances. In this report, several institutional or policy measures to alleviate insecurity in power supply and facilitate capacity investment are considered. The measures include : (1) the introduction of the capacity credit market system currently used in PJM area, (2) giving a boost to self-generating business so as to diversify power sources, (3) permission to engaging both in generation and delivery business, now prohibited by law, (4) appropriate utilization of a long-term, low-interest loan funded from sales of generation subsidiaries, and (5) activating contract markets such as CfD and vesting contracts. (author). 25 refs., 13 figs., 27 tabs.

  9. Electric vehicle (EV) storage supply chain risk and the energy market: A micro and macroeconomic risk management approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Susanna D.

    As a cost effective storage technology for renewable energy sources, Electric Vehicles can be integrated into energy grids. Integration must be optimized to ascertain that renewable energy is available through storage when demand exists so that cost of electricity is minimized. Optimization models can address economic risks associated with the EV supply chain- particularly the volatility in availability and cost of critical materials used in the manufacturing of EV motors and batteries. Supply chain risk can reflect itself in a shortage of storage, which can increase the price of electricity. We propose a micro-and macroeconomic framework for managing supply chain risk through utilization of a cost optimization model in combination with risk management strategies at the microeconomic and macroeconomic level. The study demonstrates how risk from the EVs vehicle critical material supply chain affects manufacturers, smart grid performance, and energy markets qualitatively and quantitatively. Our results illustrate how risk in the EV supply chain affects EV availability and the cost of ancillary services, and how EV critical material supply chain risk can be mitigated through managerial strategies and policy.

  10. Transient Processes in Electric Power Supply System for Oil Terminal with Own Gas-Turbine Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Hаshimov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains results of the investigations concerning influence of symmetrical and non-symmetrical short circuits at main power network on electric power supply system of a huge oil terminal which is powered by own gas-turbine power station. Calculations have been made in accordance with the IEC and IEEЕ requirements. Estimations for voltage level and distribution of short circuit current in the electric power supply system of the Sangachal oil terminal being operated in parallel with the AzerEnerji grid are presented in the paper

  11. Tools and concepts to integrate German offshore wind potential into electrical energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrig, K.; Hoppe-Kilpper, M. [Institut fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (ISET), Kassel (Germany); Sassnick, Y. [Vattenfall Europe Transmission GmbH (Germany); Fischer, F.; Hartge, S. [ENERCON GmbH, Aurich (Germany); Winter, W.; Hofmann, L. [E.ON-Netz GmbH, Lehrte (Germany); Heier, S.; Valov, B. [Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany); Biermann, K. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The paper describes the technical status and presents new concepts, models and approaches for the technical assistance of large scale wind power integration into the electrical energy supply system in Germany. It shows the technical and economic problems with the integration of high penetration of wind power plant in the network and the total electrical system. After an analysis of the effects of increased wind power generation on system planning and grid operation, we discuss innovative operational control concepts for large (offshore) wind farms. These concepts will provide a multitude of new possibilities to enable simple, flexible and undisturbed reaction to the demands of participants (wind farm operators, grid operators). These operational control strategies are mainly based on ISETs successful employed wind power prediction tools, operated by E.ON Netz (ENE), Vattenfall Europe Transmission (VE-T), RWE Transportnetz Strom (RWE) and will enable energy and power control, as well as the provision of reactive power, in order to achieve comparable properties to conventional power plant types. (orig.)

  12. Usage of Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Along the Corridors between the EV Project Major Cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mindy Kirkpatrick

    2012-05-01

    The report explains how the EVSE are being used along the corridors between the EV Project cities. The EV Project consists of a nationwide collaboration between Idaho National Laboratory (INL), ECOtality North America, Nissan, General Motors, and more than 40 other city, regional and state governments, and electric utilities. The purpose of the EV Project is to demonstrate the deployment and use of approximately 14,000 Level II (208-240V) electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and 300 fast chargers in 16 major cities. This research investigates the usage of all currently installed EV Project commercial EVSE along major interstate corridors. ESRI ArcMap software products are utilized to create geographic EVSE data layers for analysis and visualization of commercial EVSE usage. This research locates the crucial interstate corridors lacking sufficient commercial EVSE and targets locations for future commercial EVSE placement. The results and methods introduced in this research will be used by INL for the duration of the EV Project.

  13. We Need to Talk... Developing Communicating Power Supplies to Monitor & Control Miscellaneous Electric Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Andrew; Lanzisera, Steven; Liao, Anna; Meier, Alan

    2014-08-11

    Plug loads represent 30percent of total electricity use in residential buildings. Significant energy savings would result from an accurate understanding of which miscellaneous electric devices are using energy, at what time, and in what quantity. Commercially available plug load monitoring and control solutions replace or limit the attached device's native controls - forcing the user to adapt to a separate set of controls associated with the monitoring and control hardware. A better solution is integration of these capabilities at the power supply level. In this paper, we demonstrate a method achieving this integration. Our solution allows unobtrusive power monitoring and control while retaining native device control features. Further, our prototype enables intelligent behaviors by allowing devices to respond to the state of one another automatically. The CPS enables energy savings while demonstrating an added level of functionality to the user. If CPS technology became widespread in devices, a combination of automated and human interactive solutions would enable high levels of energy savings in buildings.

  14. Preliminary Possibility of Utilising Renewable Energy for Domestic Electricity Generation in Rural and Regional Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Yasser Maklad

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the applicability of domestic/home power generation technologies utilizing sustainable/renewable energies in rural and regional Australia. Applicability will cover several aspects such as sustainability and viability. The question is why renewable/sustainable energy? Energy is the keystone of nature and society. Human civilization was spawned eventually by building machines that could use energy stored in fossil fuels. Since the Industrial Revolution the population, econom...

  15. Occurrence and status of volatile organic compounds in ground water from rural, untreated, self-supplied domestic wells in the United States, 1986-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael J.; Lapham, Wayne W.; Rowe, Barbara L.; Zogorski, John S.

    2002-01-01

    Samples of untreated ground water from 1,926 rural, self-supplied domestic wells were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during 1986-99. This information was used to characterize the occurrence and status of VOCs in domestic well water. The samples were either collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program occurrence-assessment studies or were compiled by NAWQA from existing ambient ground-water or source-water-quality monitoring programs conducted by local, State, and other Federal agencies. Water samples were collected at the wellhead prior to treatment or storage. In most samples, 55 target VOCs were analyzed, and occurrence and status information generally was computed at an assessment level of 0.2 mg/L (microgram per liter). At least one VOC was detected in 12 percent of samples (232 samples) at an assessment level of 0.2 mg/L. This detection frequency is relatively low compared to the 26 percent detection frequency of at least one VOC in public sup-ply wells sampled by NAWQA, and the difference may be due, in part, to the higher pumping rates, pumping stress factors, and larger contributing areas of public supply wells. Samples with detections of at least one VOC were collected from wells located in 31 of 39 States. Solvents were the most frequently detected VOC group with detections in 4.6 percent of samples (89 samples) at an assessment level of 0.2 mg/L. The geographic distribution of detections of some VOC groups, such as fumigants and oxygenates, relates to the use pattern of com-pounds in that group. With the exception of com-pounds used in organic synthesis, detection frequencies of VOCs by group are proportional to the average half-life of compounds in the group. When the organic synthesis group is excluded from the analysis, a good correlation exists between the detection frequency of VOCs by group and average half-life of compounds in the group. Individually, VOCs were not commonly

  16. Effect of voltage shape of electrical power supply on radiation and density of a cold atmospheric argon plasma jet

    OpenAIRE

    F. Sohbatzadeh; Bagheri, M; S. Motallebi

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we investigated generating argon cold plasma jet at atmospheric pressure based on dielectric barrier discharge configuration using three electrical power supplies of sinusoidal, pulsed and saw tooth high voltage shapes at 8 KHZ. At first; we describe the electronic circuit features for generating high voltage (HV) wave forms including saw tooth, sinusoidal and pulsed forms. Then, we consider the effect of voltage shape on the electrical breakdown. Relative concentrations of chem...

  17. Electric power supply in the 21st century. Proceedings. 2. rev. ed.; Stromversorgung des 21. Jahrhunderts. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The proceedings include contributions to the following topics: The role of energy in the future society; efficiency enhancement by electric power; electromobility and power industry - future prospects of energy suppliers; better place - marketing model for electromobility; electric heating systems - techniques, efficiency and potentials; energy saving by smart metering; development of the electricity demand in Germany until 2050; energy supply concepts in the frame of IEKP; future of fossil duels in electricity generation; future of nuclear power in Europe; power-heat cogeneration for local heat and long-distance heat; micro CHP and virtual power plants; renewable energy - new challenges for transport and storage; possible development of the power generation system until 2050; electricity and electricity industry - how to improve the image? energy and climate policy consulting - experiences and expectations.

  18. An Analysis of the Co-integration and Causality Relationship between Electricity Consumption and Gross Domestic Product (GDP in the Developing Countries: An Empirical Study of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Kapusuzoglu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, long term relationship and causality relationship between electricity consumption and gross domestic product in Turkey for the period 1975-2006 were investigated. As a result of the co-integration analysis made firstly in this study, the long term relationship between the electricity consumption and gross domestic product was found. According to the result of Granger causality analysis made in accordance with vector error correction model, it was determined that there was unidirectional causality relationship between electricity consumption and gross domestic product. According to the findings, it can be said that in the process of economic growth in Turkey, gross domestic product amount was an important variable which affected the electricity consumption positively in the long term and therefore it can be said that it is important to provide the primary energy sources used in electricity energy production and electricity energy in the long term and in time without any interaction for preventing the failures which may arise during the process of economic growth and for the stability of the economic production and consumption process

  19. Future US energy demands based upon traditional consumption patterns lead to requirements which significantly exceed domestic supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Energy consumption in the United States has risen in response to both increasing population and to increasing levels of affluence. Depletion of domestic energy reserves requires consumption modulation, production of fossil fuels, more efficient conversion techniques, and large scale transitions to non-fossile fuel energy sources. Widening disparity between the wealthy and poor nations of the world contributes to trends that increase the likelihood of group action by the lesser developed countries to achieve political and economic goals. The formation of anticartel cartels is envisioned.

  20. Designing a domestic water supply system—The engineer’s perspective and considerations as a challenge to consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntengwe, F. W.

    Water is an essential pre-requisite for survival and development. It supports life of all forms including job and wealth creation in water sector, tourism, recreation and fisheries. It is extracted from rivers, lakes, processed and delivered to households. When population increases, the demand, water use and consumption increases and this puts pressure on the water utilities. This can create scarcity as not all areas may be met by the supply. One possible solution to this problem is to expand the capacity of the utility but the most tangible solution is the installation of borehole and an adequate water supply system that can meet minimal installation and operating costs. A water supply system that uses borehole and tank system can become insufficient in water supply when the population increases. This may require redesigning the system so that it can meet the new demand for water. The design developed for grouped residential with a population of 91 people living in 17 flats was found to accommodate an overhead load tank of 5.7 m 3 at 13.5 m level, a submersible pump with a power rating of 1.2 kW and two centrifugal pumps with the same power rating. The increasing capital, fixed, operating costs was a challenge to the consumer as most of them were not able to install such systems in their households. The paper concludes with a summary of recommendations that the consumers could exploit in order to face the challenges of water provision in their households.

  1. Development and Evaluation of Control System for Microgrid Supplying Heat and Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Yasuhiro; Koshio, Masanobu; Nakamura, Shizuka

    Photovoltaic (PV) and Wind Turbine (WT) generation systems are expected to offer solutions to reduce green house gases and become more widely used in the future. However, the chief technical drawback of using these kinds of weather-dependent generators is the difficulty of forecasting their output, which can have negative impacts on commercial grids if a large number of them are introduced. Thus, this problem may hinder the wider application of PV and WT generation systems. The Regional Power Grid with Renewable Energy Resources Project was launched to seek a solution to this problem. The scope of the project is to develop, operate, and evaluate a Dispersed Renewable Energy Supply System with the ability to adapt the total energy output in response to changes in weather and demand. Such a system would reduce the impact that PV and WT generation systems have on commercial grids and allow the interconnection of more Dispersed Energy Resources (DER). In other words, the main objective of this project is to demonstrate an integrated energy management system, or a type of microgrid [1], as a new way of introducing DERs. The system has been in operation since October 2005 and will continue operation until March 2008. Through the project period, the data on power quality, system efficiency, operation cost, and environmental burden will be gathered and a cost-benefit analysis of the system will be undertaken. In this paper, firstly we introduce the concept of microgrid for reducing negative impact of natural energy, and secondly illustrate the structure of electric and thermal supply control system for Microgrid, especially for the Hachinohe demonstration project. The control system consists of four stages; weekly operation planning, economic dispatching control, tie-line control and local frequency control. And finally demonstration results and evaluation results are shown.

  2. Evaluation of the sterilization efficacy of domestic electric drills used in orthopaedic surgeries

    OpenAIRE

    Vania Regina Goveia; Flavia Morais Gomes Pinto; Irene Alexeevna Machoshvili; Thereza Christina Vessoni Penna; Kazuko Uchikawa Graziano

    2009-01-01

    It is estimated that electric drills (ED) have been used in orthopaedic surgeries for bone drilling for more than 50 years in Brazilian hospitals. It is an electric, thermosensitive equipment, not indicated for surgical use, which has not been previously evaluated regarding the sterilization efficacy, being suspect of infection risk. This study evaluated the efficacy of sterilization by ethylene oxide (EtO) of new drills that were intentionally contaminated with Bacillus atrophaeus spores. An...

  3. A Hazus-Based Method for Assessing Robustness of Electricity Supply to Critical Smart Grid Consumers during Flood Events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasenev, Alexandr; Montoya, Lorena; Ceccarelli, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Ensuring an external electricity supply to critical city components during flood events requires adequate urban grid planning. The proliferation of smart grid technologies means that such planning needs to assess how smart grids might function during floods. This paper proposes a method to qualitati

  4. Electrical Power Supply to Offshore Oil Installations by High Voltage Direct Current Transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myhre, Joergen Chr.

    2001-07-01

    This study was initiated to investigate if it could be feasible to supply offshore oil installations in the North Sea with electrical power from land. A prestudy of alternative converter topologies indicated that the most promising solution would be to investigate a conventional system with reduced synchronous compensator rating. The study starts with a summary of the state of power supply to offshore installations today, and a short review of classical HVDC transmission. It goes on to analyse how a passive network without sources influences the inverter. The transmission, with its current controlled rectifier and large inductance, is simulated as a current source. Under these circumstances the analysis shows that the network frequency has to adapt in order to keep the active and reactive power balance until the controllers are able to react. The concept of firing angle for a thyristor is limited in a system with variable frequency, the actual control parameter is the firing delay time. Sensitivity analysis showed some astonishing consequences. The frequency rises both by an increase in the active and in the reactive load. The voltage falls by an increase in the active load, but rises by an increase in the inductive load. Two different control principles for the system of inverter, synchronous compensator and load are defined. The first takes the reference for the firing delay time from the fundamental voltage at the point of common coupling. The second takes the reference for the firing delay time from the simulated EMF of the synchronous compensator. Of these, the second is the more stable and should be chosen as the basis for a possible control system. Two simulation tools are applied. The first is a quasi-phasor model running on Matlab with Simulink. The other is a time domain model in KREAN. The time domain model is primarily used for the verification of the quasi-phasor model, and shows that quasi-phasors is still a valuable tool for making a quick analysis

  5. Renewable generation technology choice and policies in a competitive electricity supply industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Ashok

    Renewable energy generation technologies have lower externality costs but higher private costs than fossil fuel-based generation. As a result, the choice of renewables in the future generation mix could be affected by the industry's future market-oriented structure because market objectives based on private value judgments may conflict with social policy objectives toward better environmental quality. This research assesses how renewable energy generation choices would be affected in a restructured electricity generation market. A multi-period linear programming-based model (Resource Planning Model) is used to characterize today's electricity supply market in the United States. The model simulates long-range (2000-2020) generation capacity planning and operation decisions under alternative market paradigms. Price-sensitive demand is used to simulate customer preferences in the market. Dynamically changing costs for renewables and a two-step load duration curve are used. A Reference Case represents the benchmark for a socially-optimal diffusion of renewables and a basis for comparing outcomes under alternative market structures. It internalizes externality costs associated with emissions of sulfur dioxide (SOsb2), nitrous oxides (NOsbx), and carbon dioxide (COsb2). A Competitive Case represents a market with many generation suppliers and decision-making based on private costs. Finally, a Market Power Case models the extreme case of market power: monopoly. The results suggest that the share of renewables would decrease (and emissions would increase) considerably in both the Competitive and the Market Power Cases with respect to the Reference Case. The reduction is greater in the Market Power Case due to pricing decisions under existing supply capability. The research evaluates the following environmental policy options that could overcome market failures in achieving an appropriate level of renewable generation: COsb2 emissions tax, SOsb2 emissions cap, renewable

  6. Competitiveness Level of Photovoltaic Solar Systems in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso: Study Based on the Domestic Electric Meters Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konan Lambert Amani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mean cost price of electricity in Burkina Faso at the end of the last quarter of 2012 was 158 FCFA/kWh for a country where more than 46% of the population lives below the national poverty threshold. To look for solution to that problem, the resort to photovoltaic solar energy is justified for that country. The purpose of this study is to promote the integration of both technical and economical surveys in solar energy preliminary projects in Ouagadougou. To reach that, investigations were carried out in some households and attention was paid from the calibration of the domestic electric meters. Energy demands collected within each household allow us to design a corresponding solar kit through optimization rules. An estimate was edited and financial viability study for each household was also carried out thereafter. In this study, only households using the national electricity network calibration meter on their disadvantage favorably answered to all financial indicators and appear as the only one that could profit from such project. This work is helpful to note that photovoltaic solar energy still stays at a primitive level of competitiveness compared to conventional energy resources for small systems in Ouagadougou.

  7. Domestic energy supply and demand in southwest Asia and northern Africa: Pt. 3. Alternative energies and research priorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasdemiroglu, E. (Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (TR). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the alternative energies and research priorities in developing countries, with particular emphasis on Egypt and Sudan in northern Africa, and Bangladesh, Indonesia, Jordan, Pakistan, Syrian A.R. and Yemen A.R. in southwest Asia. In discussing alternative energy sources and technologies, the importance of the utilization of improved stoves is indicated and factors, which have prevented their diffusion, are identified. The role of reforestation programs together with other forestry solutions for regular fuel wood supply are studied in detail. Solar, biogas and wind energy technologies are discussed, and R and D activities in these are reviewed for the countries under review. The paper concludes with a discussion of research issues and priorities for the energy sector. Analysis of energy supply and demand patterns, surveys of indigenous energy sources, sectoral analysis of conservation and efficiency improvements, and development of a selected number of renewable energy technologies are listed among the priorities. (author).

  8. Outages of electric power supply resulting from cable failures Boston Edison Company system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    Factual data are provided regarding 5 electric power supply interruptions that occurred in the Boston Metropolitan area during April to June, 1979. Common to all of these outages was the failure of an underground cable as the initiating event, followed by multiple equipment failures. There was significant variation in the voltage ratings and types of cables which failed. The investigation was unable to delineate a single specific Boston Edison design operating or maintenance practice that could be cited as the cause of the outages. After reviewing the investigative report the following actions were recommended: the development and implementation of a plan to eliminate the direct current cable network; develop a network outage restoration plan; regroup primary feeder cables wherever possible to minimize the number of circuits in manholes, and to separate feeders to high load density areas; develop a program to detect incipient cable faults; evaluate the separation of the north and south sections of Back Bay network into separate networks; and, as a minimum, install the necessary facilities to make it possible to re-energize one section without interfering with the other; and re-evaluate the cathodic protection scheme where necessary. (LCL)

  9. Ascii grids of predicted pH in depth zones used by domestic and public drinking water supply depths, Central Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Celia; Nolan, Bernard T.; Gronberg, JoAnn M.

    2017-01-01

    The ascii grids associated with this data release are predicted distributions of continuous pH at the drinking water depth zones in the groundwater of Central Valley, California. The two prediction grids produced in this work represent predicted pH at the domestic supply and public supply drinking water depths, respectively and are bound by the alluvial boundary that defines the Central Valley. A depth of 46 m was used to stratify wells into the shallow and deep aquifer and were derived from depth percentiles associated with domestic and public supply in previous work by Burow et al. (2013). In this work, the median well depth categorized as domestic supply was 30 meters below land surface and the median well depth categorized as public supply is 100 meters below land surface. Prediction grids were created using prediction modeling methods, specifically Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) with a gaussian error distribution within a statistical learning framework within R's computing framework (http://www.r-project.org/). The statistical learning framework seeks to maximize the predictive performance of machine learning methods through model tuning by cross validation. The response variable was measured pH from 1337 wells, and was compiled from two sources: US Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Information System (NWIS) Database (all data are publicly available from the USGS: http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ca/nwis/nwis) and the California State Water Resources Control Board Division of Drinking Water (SWRCB-DDW) database (water quality data are publicly available from the SWRCB: http://www.waterboards.ca.gov/gama/geotracker_gama.shtml). Only wells with measured pH and well depth data were selected, and for wells with multiple records, only the most recent sample in the period 1993-2014 was used. A total of 1003 wells (training dataset) were used to train the BRT model and 334 wells (hold-out dataset) were used to validate the prediction model. The training r-squared was

  10. A novel domestic electric water heater model for a multi-objective demand side management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paull, Liam; Li, Howard; Chang, Liuchen [University of New Brunswick, Department of Electrical Engineering, Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    This paper presents a novel domestic hot water heater model to be used in a multi-objective demand side management program. The model incorporates both the thermal losses and the water usage to determine the temperature of the water in the tank. Water heater loads are extracted from household load data and then used to determine the household water usage patterns. The benefits of the model are: (1) the on/off state of the water heater and temperature of the water in the tank can be accurately predicted, and (2) it enables the development of water usage profiles so that users can be classified based on usage behaviour. As a result, the amount of ancillary services and peak shaving that can be achieved are accurately predictable and can be maximized without adversely affecting users. (author)

  11. PENGARUH GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT, INFLASI, SUKU BUNGA, MONEY SUPPLY, CURRENT ACCOUNT DAN CAPITAL ACCOUNT TERHADAP NILAI KURS RUPIAH INDONESIA – DOLLAR AMERIKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunika Murdayanti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Since free-floating exchange rate system has been applied in Indonesia on August 1998, the accumulation of depreciation of rupiah against the US dollar has been about 48,7% until December 2001. This condition brings many argumentation about the reasons behind the exchange rate instability faced by Indonesia among many experts whether it is caused by economic factors or by non-economic factors. By recognizing the causes, it will be easier for the experts and government of Indonesia to formulate the solution. This research is intended to analyze the influence of economic variables, i.e. Gross Domestic Product, money supply, interest rate, inflation rate, Current Account & Capital Account in both Indonesia and The United State of America, as well as the position of the balance of international payment of Indonesia to the exchange rate movement in order to give contributions to solve the problem. Based on the result money supply becomes the only variable which has a multicollinearity and excluded from the regression linear. Also only current account is not significant influence on the exchange rate movement, instead of the other variables. Coefficient of determination of the research model is 84.4 %, means that other factors, not accommodated in this research, give 15.6 % influence to the exchange rate movement. These other factors can be categorized as other economic factors or non-economic factors.

  12. The effect of vegetation and soil texture on the nature of organics in runoff from a catchment supplying water for domestic consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awad, John [Centre for Water Management and Reuse, School of Natural and Built Environments, University of South Australia, South Australia 5095 (Australia); Leeuwen, John van, E-mail: John.VanLeeuwen@unisa.edu.au [Centre for Water Management and Reuse, School of Natural and Built Environments, University of South Australia, South Australia 5095 (Australia); State Key Laboratory for Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, CAS, Beijing (China); Barbara Hardy Institute, University of South Australia, South Australia 5095 (Australia); Abate, Dawit [Centre for Water Management and Reuse, School of Natural and Built Environments, University of South Australia, South Australia 5095 (Australia); Pichler, Markus; Bestland, Erick [School of the Environment, Flinders University, Bedford Park, South Australia 5042 (Australia); Chittleborough, David J. [School of Physical Sciences, University of Adelaide, North Terrace, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Fleming, Nigel [South Australian Research and Development Institute, P.O. Box 397, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia); Cohen, Jonathan; Liffner, Joel [Centre for Water Management and Reuse, School of Natural and Built Environments, University of South Australia, South Australia 5095 (Australia); Drikas, Mary [Centre for Water Management and Reuse, School of Natural and Built Environments, University of South Australia, South Australia 5095 (Australia); Australian Water Quality Centre, SA Water Corporation, 250 Victoria Square, Adelaide, South Australia 5000 (Australia); State Key Laboratory for Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, CAS, Beijing (China)

    2015-10-01

    The influence of vegetation and soil texture on the concentration and character of dissolved organic matter (DOM) present in runoff from the surface and sub-surface of zero order catchments of the Myponga Reservoir-catchment (South Australia) was investigated to determine the impacts of catchment characteristics and land management practices on the quality of waters used for domestic supply. Catchments selected have distinct vegetative cover (grass, native vegetation or pine) and contrasting texture of the surface soil horizon (sand or clay loam/clay). Water samples were collected from three slope positions (upper, middle, and lower) at soil depths of ~ 30 cm and ~ 60 cm in addition to overland flows. Filtered (0.45 μm) water samples were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and UV–visible absorbance and by F-EEM and HPSEC with UV and fluorescence detection to characterize the DOM. Surface and sub-surface runoff from catchments with clay soils and native vegetation or grass had lower DOC concentrations and lower relative abundances of aromatic, humic-like and high molecular weight organics than runoff from sandy soils with these vegetative types. Sub-surface flows from two catchments with Pinus radiata had similar DOC concentrations and DOM character, regardless of marked variation in surface soil texture. Runoff from catchments under native vegetation and grass on clay soils resulted in lower DOC concentrations and hence would be expected to have lower coagulant demand in conventional treatment for potable water supply than runoff from corresponding sandy soil catchments. However, organics in runoff from clay catchments would be more difficult to remove by coagulation. Surface waters from the native vegetation and grass catchments were generally found to have higher relative abundance of organic compounds amenable to removal by coagulation compared with sub-surface waters. Biophysical and land management practices combine to have a marked influence on

  13. Supply-side-demand-side optimization and cost-environment trade offs for China`s coal and electricity system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Zhijun; Kuby, M. [Boston University, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Geography, Center for Energy and Environmental Studies

    1997-02-01

    The authors simultaneously optimize supply-side and demand-size investments for satisfying China`s coal and electricity needs over a 15 year time horizon. The results are compared to equivalent results from a supply-side only optimization assuming a business-as-usual demand scenario. It is estimated that, by shifting investment from energy production and transportation to energy efficiency improvement, China could meet the same energy service demand in 2000 for 7% less cost and 120 million tons (mt) less coal. Alternatively, for greater environmental protection, China could satisfy the same demands at the same cost using 275 mt coal. 27 refs., 6 figs.

  14. The role of clean coal technologies in the evolving domestic electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, K. [National Economic Research Associates, Tampa, FL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The paper discusses the following: What will the future electric industry look like; The industry as it has been until recently; The critical factors of price and cost; The movement to allow customer choice in the states; The role of the federal government; Elements of the process, rationales, implications and new requirements. The paper then describes what the restructured market will look like and the transition process to that end.

  15. The UK-DALE dataset, domestic appliance-level electricity demand and whole-house demand from five UK homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jack; Knottenbelt, William

    2015-01-01

    Many countries are rolling out smart electricity meters. These measure a home's total power demand. However, research into consumer behaviour suggests that consumers are best able to improve their energy efficiency when provided with itemised, appliance-by-appliance consumption information. Energy disaggregation is a computational technique for estimating appliance-by-appliance energy consumption from a whole-house meter signal. To conduct research on disaggregation algorithms, researchers require data describing not just the aggregate demand per building but also the 'ground truth' demand of individual appliances. In this context, we present UK-DALE: an open-access dataset from the UK recording Domestic Appliance-Level Electricity at a sample rate of 16 kHz for the whole-house and at 1/6 Hz for individual appliances. This is the first open access UK dataset at this temporal resolution. We recorded from five houses, one of which was recorded for 655 days, the longest duration we are aware of for any energy dataset at this sample rate. We also describe the low-cost, open-source, wireless system we built for collecting our dataset.

  16. National potential of saving of electricity in domestic refrigeration; Potencial nacional de ahorro de electricidad en refrigeracion domestica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroyo C, Fernando [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Ambriz G, Juan Jose; Romero P, Hernando [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In the present paper the evaluation of the potential of saving of electrical energy in Mexico is presented, by means of the substitution of old refrigerators of low efficiency by modern high efficiency ones. This potential is very ample, since the replacement of the old models by new follows a very slow curve, if the economic difficulties of the Mexican families are considered and that, on the other hand, the technology of the domestic refrigerators is so reliable that they have a very long life and they are not easily rejected. In field work have been found refrigerators operating with ages of more than 30 years and still 40. In Mexico, it is estimated that the refrigeration is responsible for around 29% of the of electricity consumption in homes settled in tempered climate and of 14 % in those of warm climate in which air conditioning is used. The proposal of this work is the organization of a governmental program of accelerated substitution of refrigerators that helps to acquire an efficient refrigerator and to reject the old ones. The results indicate that if a total renovation of the park of domestic refrigerators is made, the saving of electrical energy would reach the 5.2 TWh/a which represents the 44.5% of the total consumption of 11.7 TWh in a year. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se presenta la evaluacion del potencial de ahorro de energia electrica en Mexico, mediante la substitucion de refrigeradores antiguos de baja eficiencia por modernos de alta eficiencia. Este potencial es muy amplio, ya que el reemplazo de los modelos viejos por nuevos sigue una curva muy lenta, si se consideran las dificultades economicas de las familias mexicanas y que, por otro lado, la tecnologia de los refrigeradores domesticos es tan confiable que tienen una vida muy larga y no se desechan facilmente. En trabajos de campo se han encontrado refrigeradores operando con edades de mas de 30 anos y aun 40. En Mexico, se estima que la refrigeracion es responsable de alrededor del

  17. The political economy of institutional change in the electricity supply industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufin, Carlos Ramon

    2000-09-01

    In the first part, a positive political economy model of the behavior of public enterprise, consumer electoral preferences, electoral platform choices of political parties, and side payments by production factors ("suppliers") to political parties, is used to analyze the political economy of choices among three alternative institutional arrangements: competition among private firms, private monopoly, or public enterprise monopoly. The analysis shows that political choices will be biased in favor of public enterprise, because consumers and suppliers benefit from its behavior. Voter and politician ideologies can temper or exacerbate this logic. Competition for economic rents increases the likelihood of public enterprise. Lastly, a weak judiciary can also make public enterprise likelier, but it creates uncertainty about parties' future actions and therefore it lowers the effectiveness of supplier side payments. In Part 2, the model's conclusions are tested for the electricity supply industry (ESI) across a cross-section of more than 80 countries. Coding is used to compute scores for observed outcomes with regard to reliance on competition versus monopoly and on private versus public ownership. Multiple indicators for the hypothesized explanatory variables are aggregated using factor analysis. OLS regressions show that ideology plays an important role in both competition and property outcomes, and to a lesser extent, distributional conflict, while judicial independence does not in general have a clear effect. In the last part, the validity of the same hypotheses is tested by means of a comparison of the process of restructuring of the ESI in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, and Chile. The case studies show that ideology plays a major role in shaping the outcomes of the institutional change process; distributional conflict, or the conflict over the economic rents that can be extracted from the electricity industry, also has a significant influence on institutional change

  18. Large-scale integration of optimal combinations of PV, wind and wave power into the electricity supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the results of analyses of large-scale integration of wind power, photo voltaic (PV) and wave power into a Danish reference energy system. The possibility of integrating Renewable Energy Sources (RES) into the electricity supply is expressed in terms of the ability to avoid...... the total input is above 80% of demand, PV should cover 20% and wave power 30%. Meanwhile the combination of different sources is alone far from a solution to large-scale integration of fluctuating resources. This measure is to be seen in combination with other measures such as investment in flexible energy...... excess electricity production. The different sources are analysed in the range of an electricity production from 0 to 100% of the electricity demand. The excess production is found from detailed energy system analyses on the computer model EnergyPLAN. The analyses have taken into account that certain...

  19. 生活热水和空调系统综合设计的技术经济分析%Technical and economic analysis of integrated design of domestic hot water supply and air-condition system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄璞洁; 王峰; 李艳霞; 何耀炳; 许伊那

    2011-01-01

    Through consideration of the need from the domestic hot water supply and air-condition system in the design, this paper simulated the operation energy consumption of domestic hot water supply and air-condition system, calculated the condensation heat recovery unit and heat storage water tank volume, carried out the technical and economic comparison with the traditional domestic hot water supply and air-condition system, and explored the application of air-condition condensation heat recovery technique on domestic hot water supply system design.%在设计时综合考虑生活热水和空调系统的需求,模拟分析生活热水和空调系统的运行能耗,计算确定冷凝热回收机组和蓄热水箱的容量,并与传统的生活热水和空调系统进行技术经济比较,探讨空调冷凝热回收技术在生活热水系统中的设计应用.

  20. Life-cycle implications and supply chain logistics of electric vehicle battery recycling in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Thomas P.; Kavvada, Olga; Shah, Nihar; Sathre, Roger; Scown, Corinne D.

    2015-01-01

    Plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) use in the United States (US) has doubled in recent years and is projected to continue increasing rapidly. This is especially true in California, which makes up nearly one-third of the current US PEV market. Planning and constructing the necessary infrastructure to support this projected increase requires insight into the optimal strategies for PEV battery recycling. Utilizing life-cycle perspectives in evaluating these supply chain networks is essential in fully understanding the environmental consequences of this infrastructure expansion. This study combined life-cycle assessment and geographic information systems (GIS) to analyze the energy, greenhouse gas (GHG), water use, and criteria air pollutant implications of end-of-life infrastructure networks for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in California. Multiple end-of-life scenarios were assessed, including hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical recycling processes. Using economic and environmental criteria, GIS modeling revealed optimal locations for battery dismantling and recycling facilities for in-state and out-of-state recycling scenarios. Results show that economic return on investment is likely to diminish if more than two in-state dismantling facilities are constructed. Using rail as well as truck transportation can substantially reduce transportation-related GHG emissions (23-45%) for both in-state and out-of-state recycling scenarios. The results revealed that material recovery from pyrometallurgy can offset environmental burdens associated with LIB production, namely a 6-56% reduction in primary energy demand and 23% reduction in GHG emissions, when compared to virgin production. Incorporating human health damages from air emissions into the model indicated that Los Angeles and Kern Counties are most at risk in the infrastructure scale-up for in-state recycling due to their population density and proximity to the optimal location.

  1. A preliminary study on the changes in the Italian automotive supply chain for the introduction of electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossini, M.; Ciarapica, F.; Matt, D.; Spena, P.R.

    2016-07-01

    A survey has been carried out among Italian car makers, suppliers, and customers to identify the potential changes that the traditional Italian automotive supply chain would need for the introduction of electric vehicles. In addition, this study investigates the degree of importance that enterprises attribute to the electric vehicle market and their perceptions about the development of this market, also evaluating which types of electric vehicles and body styles are receiving the most relevant investment. An empirical investigation has been carried out to examine the above-mentioned aspects. Data have been collected through an on-line survey and analysed by a descriptive statistical analysisconfirmatory factors analysis, and cluster analyses. Market penetration of electric vehicles is mainly influenced by technological choices of car makers and battery manufacturers and by the ability to organize and manage the integrated actions of stakeholders, also including component suppliers, and manufacturers of vehicle management systems. Stakeholders have to exploit economies of scale, to make use and expand long-time competencies in electric engineering with automotive know-how, and to build up cooperation with experts in the new value chain to facilitate the required transfer of know-how. Alliances and joint ventures can provide manufacturers access to the know-how, technology, and production capacity of battery suppliers. Outsourcing, especially as regards research and development, will occur even more frequently in the near future. An agile supply chain should be adopted to manage a fluctuating market demand. This preliminary study contributes to provide an outlook of some of the most important changes that traditional Italian automotive supply chain would need to promote the introduction of electric vehicles and their critical components with an emphasis on production aspects. (Author)

  2. A preliminary study on the changes in the Italian automotive supply chain for the introduction of electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Rossini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A survey has been carried out among Italian car makers, suppliers, and customers to identify the potential changes that the traditional Italian automotive supply chain would need for the introduction of electric vehicles. In addition, this study investigates the degree of importance that enterprises attribute to the electric vehicle market and their perceptions about the development of this market, also evaluating which types of electric vehicles and body styles are receiving the most relevant investment. Design/methodology/approach: An empirical investigation has been carried out to examine the above-mentioned aspects. Data have been collected through an on-line survey and analysed by a descriptive statistical analysis, confirmatory factors analysis, and cluster analyses. Findings: Market penetration of electric vehicles is mainly influenced by technological choices of car makers and battery manufacturers and by the ability to organize and manage the integrated actions of stakeholders, also including component suppliers, and manufacturers of vehicle management systems. Stakeholders have to exploit economies of scale, to make use and expand long-time competencies in electric engineering with automotive know-how, and to build up cooperation with experts in the new value chain to facilitate the required transfer of know-how. Alliances and joint ventures can provide manufacturers access to the know-how, technology, and production capacity of battery suppliers. Outsourcing, especially as regards research and development, will occur even more frequently in the near future. An agile supply chain should be adopted to manage a fluctuating market demand. Originality/value: This preliminary study contributes to provide an outlook of some of the most important changes that traditional Italian automotive supply chain would need to promote the introduction of electric vehicles and their critical components with an emphasis on production aspects.

  3. Study of an electrical heating system with ductless air supply and shape-stabilized PCM for thermal storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Kunping; Zhang, Yinping; Di, Hongfa [Department of Building Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yang, Rui [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2007-07-15

    A kind of electrical floor heating system with a shape-stabilized phase change material (PCM) which has been studied at Tsinghua University in our previous studies, can provide space heating during the whole day and can be controlled conventionally. However, this is not suitable for office buildings where no space heating is needed at night. The effective control is very important for the heating system in such buildings. In this paper, we studied a kind of new electrical floor heating system with ductless air supply and shape-stabilized PCM for thermal storage in order to overcome the shortcomings of the passive under-floor electric heating system with thermal storage. In this paper, we investigated its thermal performance by experiments and simulation, calculated the effects of various factors and discussed the application feasibility in different climate regions. The results show that the total electrical energy consumption was shifted from the peak period to the off-peak period, which would provide significant economic benefits because of the different day and night electricity tariffs. The system can be designed by choosing PCM with proper melting temperature and be controlled by varying velocity of air supply in different conditions. (author)

  4. A proposed national wind power R and D program. [offshore wind power system for electric energy supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heronemus, W.

    1973-01-01

    An offshore wind power system is described that consists of wind driven electrical dc generators mounted on floating towers in offshore waters. The output from the generators supplies underwater electrolyzer stations in which water is converted into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen is piped to shore for conversion to electricity in fuel cell stations. It is estimated that this system can produce 159 x 10 to the ninth power kilowatt-hours per year. It is concluded that solar energy - and that includes wind energy - is the only way out of the US energy dilemma in the not too distant future.

  5. Variability in the chemistry of private drinking water supplies and the impact of domestic treatment systems on water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ander, E L; Watts, M J; Smedley, P L; Hamilton, E M; Close, R; Crabbe, H; Fletcher, T; Rimell, A; Studden, M; Leonardi, G

    2016-12-01

    Tap water from 497 properties using private water supplies, in an area of metalliferous and arsenic mineralisation (Cornwall, UK), was measured to assess the extent of compliance with chemical drinking water quality standards, and how this is influenced by householder water treatment decisions. The proportion of analyses exceeding water quality standards were high, with 65 % of tap water samples exceeding one or more chemical standards. The highest exceedances for health-based standards were nitrate (11 %) and arsenic (5 %). Arsenic had a maximum observed concentration of 440 µg/L. Exceedances were also high for pH (47 %), manganese (12 %) and aluminium (7 %), for which standards are set primarily on aesthetic grounds. However, the highest observed concentrations of manganese and aluminium also exceeded relevant health-based guidelines. Significant reductions in concentrations of aluminium, cadmium, copper, lead and/or nickel were found in tap waters where households were successfully treating low-pH groundwaters, and similar adventitious results were found for arsenic and nickel where treatment was installed for iron and/or manganese removal, and successful treatment specifically to decrease tap water arsenic concentrations was observed at two properties where it was installed. However, 31 % of samples where pH treatment was reported had pH drinking water regulations), suggesting widespread problems with system maintenance. Other examples of ineffectual treatment are seen in failed responses post-treatment, including for nitrate. This demonstrates that even where the tap waters are considered to be treated, they may still fail one or more drinking water quality standards. We find that the degree of drinking water standard exceedances warrant further work to understand environmental controls and the location of high concentrations. We also found that residents were more willing to accept drinking water with high metal (iron and manganese) concentrations

  6. Numerical simulation of the solar thermal energy storage system for domestic hot water supply located in south Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tores Ledesma Juan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, due to increase in energy consumption, a great deal of fossil fuels is being used. This latter is a consequence of the present environmental problems, such as global warming, acid rain, etc. In order to decrease these problems, the use of renewable energy sources is being promoted. But the renewable energy sources, particularly solar energy, present the drawback that there is a mismatch between the energy demand and supply. To cover this mismatch, the use of phase change thermal energy storage systems is required. In this work, the behavior of a packed bed latent heat thermal energy storage system cooperating with solar collector located in south Spain was analyzed by using a numerical method which based on Finite Volume discretization and Enthalpy Method. The model was validated by comparing obtained results with experimental data reported in the literature. The packed bed was composed of spherical capsules filled with phase change materials usable for a solar water heating system. The system was designed according to the conditions in the south Spain and by using commercial components available on the market. A series of numerical simulations were conducted applying meteorological data for several months in south Spain, particularly in Málaga.

  7. A Three-Step Methodology to Improve Domestic Energy Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molderink, Albert; Bakker, Vincent; Bosman, M.G.C.; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2010-01-01

    Increasing energy prices and the greenhouse effect lead to more awareness of energy efficiency of electricity supply. During the last years, a lot of technologies have been developed to improve this efficiency. Next to large scale technologies such as windturbine parks, domestic technologies are dev

  8. Indicators for Sustainable Energy Development for Austria (ISED-AT). Residential Buildings and Electricity and Heat Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Kettner, Claudia; Kletzan-Slamanig, Daniela; Köppl, Angela

    2015-01-01

    A transformation of prevailing energy systems requires adequate measurement systems. In this paper we propose an energy-service based indicator set and a composite index for monitoring sustainable energy development in the residential sector and electricity and heat supply in Austria. The system of Indicators for Sustainable Energy Development for Austria (ISED-AT) and the composite index focus on energy services instead of energy flows and are hence effective tools for monitoring and guiding...

  9. Urban exposure to ELF magnetic field due to high-, medium- and low-voltage electricity supply networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottura, V; Cappio Borlino, M; Carta, N; Cerise, L; Imperial, E

    2009-12-01

    The regional environment protection agency (ARPA) of the Aosta Valley region in north Italy performed a survey of magnetic field triggered by the power supply network in high, medium and low voltages on the entire area of Aosta town. The electrical distribution system for houses was not however taken into account. The aim of the survey was to evaluate the global population exposure and not simply the assessment of the legal exposure limit compliance.

  10. Award of electricity and gas supply contracts under scrutiny - on the 2010 Guide; Vergabe von Strom- und Gaskonzessionen auf dem Pruefstand. Zum Leitfaden 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gessner, Janko [Kanzlei Dombert Rechtsanwaelte, Potsdam (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    The award of electricity and gas supply contracts is currently a very topical issue for many energy supply companies and municipalities. It revolves around questions of local rights of way, i.e. the right to operate a local electricity or gas distribution network. Most of the 20,000 or so electricity or gas supply contracts now in force throughout Germany are due to expire within the next few years. This makes the award of new electricity and supply contracts a highly charged issue, with controversies over many legal detail questions still unresolved. The existing regulations of Article 46 of the German Energy Economy Law on the award of supply contracts are regarded as incomplete even by practitioners of the branch. A guide published by the German Federal Cartel Office and the Federal Network Agency in late 2010 is to offer orientation to municipalities and enterprises in this matter.

  11. Modeling Future Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Environmental Impacts of Electricity Supplies in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Brazil’s status as a rapidly developing country is visible in its need for more energy, including electricity. While the current electricity generation mix is primarily hydropower based, high-quality dam sites are diminishing and diversification to other sources is likely. We combined life-cycle data for electricity production with scenarios developed using the IAEA’s MESSAGE model to examine environmental impacts of future electricity generation under a baseline case and four side cases, usi...

  12. Electric generation situation through hybrid systems in Para state and perspectives in face of the global supply of electric power; Situacao da geracao eletrica atraves de sistemas hibridos no estado do Para e perspectivas frente a universalizacao da energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Claudomiro Fabio de Oliveira; Pinho, Joao Tavares; Pereira, Edinaldo Jose da Silva; Galhardo, Marcos Andre Barros; Vale, Silvio Bispo do; Maranhao, Wilson Monteiro de Albuquerque [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Grupo de Estudos e Desenvolvimento de Alternativas Energeticas], e-mail: gedae@ufpa.br

    2004-07-01

    This work presents an analysis of the hybrid systems for electricity generation installed in the State of Para, emphasizing the profile of the supplied localities, the conversion technologies in the several configurations used for electric power generation, the social, economic and environmental impacts caused by such systems, the management and sustainability of the systems, and their perspectives in face of the global supply of electric power in Brazil. (author)

  13. Factors affecting domestic water consumption in rural households upon access to improved water supply: insights from the Wei River Basin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, L.; Liu, G.; Wang, F.; Geissen, V.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensively understanding water consumption behavior is necessary to design efficient and effective water use strategies. Despite global efforts to identify the factors that affect domestic water consumption, those related to domestic water use in rural regions have not been sufficiently

  14. Effect of voltage shape of electrical power supply on radiation and density of a cold atmospheric argon plasma jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Sohbatzadeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we investigated generating argon cold plasma jet at atmospheric pressure based on dielectric barrier discharge configuration using three electrical power supplies of sinusoidal, pulsed and saw tooth high voltage shapes at 8 KHZ. At first; we describe the electronic circuit features for generating high voltage (HV wave forms including saw tooth, sinusoidal and pulsed forms. Then, we consider the effect of voltage shape on the electrical breakdown. Relative concentrations of chemical reactive species such as Oxygen, atomic Nitrogen and OH were measured using optical emission spectroscopy. Using a simple numerical model, we showed a HV with less rise time increases electron density, therefore a cold plasma jet can be produced with a minimal consumption electrical power

  15. Estimates of U.S. Commercial Building Electricity Intensity Trends: Issues Related to End-Use and Supply Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, David B.

    2004-09-04

    This report examines measurement issues related to the amount of electricity used by the commercial sector in the U.S. and the implications for historical trends of commercial building electricity intensity (kWh/sq. ft. of floor space). The report compares two (Energy Information Administration) sources of data related to commercial buildings: the Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) and the reporting by utilities of sales to commercial customers (survey Form-861). Over past two decades these sources suggest significantly different trend rates of growth of electricity intensity, with the supply (utility)-based estimate growing much faster than that based only upon the CBECS. The report undertakes various data adjustments in an attempt to rationalize the differences between these two sources. These adjustments deal with: 1) periodic reclassifications of industrial vs. commercial electricity usage at the state level and 2) the amount of electricity used by non-enclosed equipment (non-building use) that is classified as commercial electricity sales. In part, after applying these adjustments, there is a good correspondence between the two sources over the the past four CBECS (beginning with 1992). However, as yet, there is no satisfactory explanation of the differences between the two sources for longer periods that include the 1980s.

  16. Framework for Assessing the Rainwater Harvesting Potential of Residential Buildings at a National Level as an Alternative Water Resource for Domestic Water Supply in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Hsien Liaw

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Domestic rainwater harvesting (DRWH is widely recognized as an alternative source of water in Taiwan because of water shortages. This suggests that rainwater potential should be maximized and quantified. In this article, we assess the potential of DRWH at a national level. To consider the climatic, building characteristic, economic, and ecological aspects of DRWH, we propose three categories: (1 theoretical; (2 available; and (3 environmental bearable rainwater potential. Four main steps were followed to develop the proposed framework: (1 Fifteen rainfall zones across Taiwan were generated through cluster analysis based on the average annual 10-day rainfall distributions of rainfall stations and administrative districts; (2 The roof area in each rainfall zone was estimated using a geographic information system (GIS and land use classification database; (3 The weighted percentage of rainwater use in each rainfall zone was determined by the optimal point on the storage capacity and rainwater supply reliability curve for an equivalent building from each building type; (4 The percentage of the total roof area used to harvest rainwater in each region depends on the downstream impact of the stream flow. The procedures developed in this study constitute an effective tool for preliminarily estimation of the national DRWH potential.

  17. Opening up to the private sector for electric power supply; Uma reabertura a iniciativa privada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alqueres, Jose Luiz [ELETROBRAS, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    A summary of the electric power policy adopted by the Brazilian government in the last sixty years is presented. Due to this policy all the electric power producers became state-owned and the tariff levels applied were below the average levels in the developed countries. A new legislation recently voted will permit the participation of private enterprises in the sector and the necessary growth in electricity production 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. Electric traction motion power and energy supply : basics and practical experience

    CERN Document Server

    Steimel, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This book has evolved from the lecture series ""Elektrische Bahnen" (""Electric railways") which has been held at Ruhr-Universität Bochum since 1996. Its primary audience are students of electrical energy technologies, control engineering and mechanical engineering as well as young engineers of electrical engineering, especially in the fields of power electronics, in railway industry and in railway-operating companies. The book intends to convey mechanical fundamentals of electric railway propulsion, which includes rail-bound guidance, transmission of traction effort from wheel to rail under t

  19. Impacts of recent drought and warm years on water resources and electricity supply worldwide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Sheffield, Justin; Wiberg, David; Wood, Eric F.

    2016-01-01

    Recent droughts and heatwaves showed the vulnerability of the electricity sector to surface water constraints with reduced potentials for thermoelectric power and hydropower generation in different regions. Here we use a global hydrological-electricity modelling framework to quantify the impacts of

  20. Becoming a First Mover in Green Electricity Supply: Corporate Change Driven by Liberalisation and Climate Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, Peter S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a study of a trend-setting company in the electricity sector in the Netherlands and its innovative response to the combined influence of liberalisation and climate change. The company became a first mover through its invention of the concept of green electricity and the developme

  1. Design and Application of a Power Unit to Use Plug-In Electric Vehicles as an Uninterruptible Power Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorkem Sen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Grid-enabled vehicles (GEVs such as plug-in electric vehicles present environmental and energy sustainability advantages compared to conventional vehicles. GEV runs solely on power generated by its own battery group, which supplies power to its electric motor. This battery group can be charged from external electric sources. Nowadays, the interaction of GEV with the power grid is unidirectional by the charging process. However, GEV can be operated bi-directionally by modifying its power unit. In such operating conditions, GEV can operate as an uninterruptible power supply (UPS and satisfy a portion or the total energy demand of the consumption center independent from utility grid, which is known as vehicle-to-home (V2H. In this paper, a power unit is developed for GEVs in the laboratory to conduct simulation and experimental studies to test the performance of GEVs as a UPS unit in V2H mode at the time of need. The activation and deactivation of the power unit and islanding protection unit are examined when energy is interrupted.

  2. Network modelling of palm biodiesel plants to supply the isolated electric power systems of Pará state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thassyo Jorge Gonçalves Pereira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the great advance brought by the National Interconnected System (NIS, which is able to provide clean hydroelectric power to almost all Brazilian customers, there are still cities supplied by power generated from fossil fuel, which are subsidized by taxes, they are called Isolated Electric Power Systems (IEPS. Pará State, that has 34 cities with IEPS, also has potential to crop raw material (palm and sugar cane to produce biodiesel for power generation. Our study analyzes the supply and distribution network of biodiesel under some scenarios of waterways availability, considering that they are also source of power to the NIS by the construction of hydroelectric dams. We develop specific demand and facility location models and apply them to the scenarios. Our results point to the efficiency of the generated models, the importance of three cities for the network, and to the little impact of some waterways in the total transportation costs.

  3. Spatio-temporal modelling of electrical supply systems to optimize the site planning process for the "power to mobility" technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Florian; Zink, Roland

    2016-04-01

    The transformation of the energy sector towards decentralized renewable energies (RE) requires also storage systems to ensure security of supply. The new "Power to Mobility" (PtM) technology is one potential solution to use electrical overproduction to produce methane for i.e. gas vehicles. Motivated by these fact, the paper presents a methodology for a GIS-based temporal modelling of the power grid, to optimize the site planning process for the new PtM-technology. The modelling approach is based on a combination of the software QuantumGIS for the geographical and topological energy supply structure and OpenDSS for the net modelling. For a case study (work in progress) of the city of Straubing (Lower Bavaria) the parameters of the model are quantified. The presentation will discuss the methodology as well as the first results with a view to the application on a regional scale.

  4. Alternative electric power supply in the interior parts of Surinam. Alternatieve elektriciteitsvoorziening in het binnenland van Suriname

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Castro, J.F.M. (Castro Consulting Engineer CCE, Amersfoort (Netherlands)); Jansen, J.C. (Unit ECN Policy Studies, Netherlands Energy Research Foundation, Petten (Netherlands))

    1993-03-01

    This report presents mission findings on the possibilities for introduction of cost-effective renewable sources of energy for power supply at remote locations in Surinam. As renewable energy options micro hydro, photovoltaic, and wind power generation were considered. Case studies have been made of six locations with marked differences among each other as regards the energy situation. Wind power turned out not to be feasible in Surinam, while the economic potential for micro hydro power is marginal at best. On the other hand, PV denotes a cost-effective option for electricity supply at several remote locations. This conclusion is corroborated, when environmental impacts are properly taken into account. The presentation of a blueprint for implementation of power in the interior of Surinam concludes the report. 5 figs., 4 tabs., 3 apps., 23 refs.

  5. Proposal for an extension of the contract for the supply of an electrical network supervisor for the CERN electrical distribution network

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    This document concerns the extension of a contract for the purchase of 18 remote terminal units (RTUs) to complete the control system for the CERN electrical distribution network. Following a call for tenders (IT-2388) and Finance Committee approval on 23 September 1998 (CERN/FC/4086 dated 19 September 1998), contract B1115/ST was concluded with the firm EFACEC SISTEMAS DE ELECTRONICA (PT). The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of an extension of the contract with EFACEC SISTEMAS DE ELECTRONICA (PT) for the purchase of 18 RTUs to complete the control and supervision system for the electrical distribution network, and to increase the previously authorised amount from 3 012 269 Swiss francs to 5 000 000 Swiss francs. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the supply covered by this adjudication proposal: PT-99%; CH-1%.

  6. Supply Chain Cooperation between Coal Enterprise and Electric Power Enterprise in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on the two-stage Stackelberg game method, value creation of supply chain cooperation between coal enterprise and power utilities is studied by formulating profit functions of coal and power enterprises and calculating the maximum profit. According to the analysis, it is found that the profit from supply chain cooperation between coal and power enterprises is more than that of non-cooperation. The cooperation is validated to be beneficial for both units; however, the profit is mainly taken by the power enterprise. Thus, it is necessary to set up the incentive mechanism to distribute cooperation value between coal and power enterprises to promote their continual cooperation.

  7. 集中空调冷凝热回收技术在生活热水供应系统中的应用%Application of central air conditioning condense heat recovery technology to domestic hot water supply system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄璞洁; 李艳霞; 何耀炳; 许伊那

    2011-01-01

    介绍\t了空调冷凝热回收技术的工作原理,计算确定了冷凝热回收机组和蓄热水箱的容量,并与传统的空调和生活热水供应系统进行比较.探讨了空调冷凝热回收技术在生活热水供应系统中的设计应用.%Based on the working principle, calculates the capacity of the condense heat recovery unit and heat storage water tank, and compares with the traditional air conditioning and domestic hot water supply system. Discusses the application of air conditioning condense heat recovery technology to the design of domestic hot water supply system.

  8. Technical and economic assessment of different modes of operation of miniature CHPsystems in domestic power supply; Technisch-wirtschaftliche Bewertung verschiedener Betriebsweisen von Mini-BHKW in der Hausenergieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pielke, Magnus; Kurrat, Michael [TU Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Hochspannungstechnik und Elektrische Energieanlagen; Wissing, Carsten [OFFIS Institut fuer Informatik, Oldenburg (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    After several years of low acceptance, miniature CHP systems are rapidly gaining ground in domestic power supply. Apart from the established technology of gas-fuelled CHP systems, there are also new incentives from legal regulations, e.g. the Reimbursement Act, the Act on Combined Heat and Power Generation of 2009, and the Act on Renewable Energy Sources. The contribution analyses the various modes of operation of miniature CHP systems in a low-voltage grid in an attempt to show the effects of enhanced decentral power generation on the public power supply grids. (orig.)

  9. Sustentabilidade e cadeia de suprimentos: uma perspectiva comparada de publicações nacionais e internacionais Sustainability in supply chains: a comparative perspective in domestic and international journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylmara Lopes Francelino Gonçalves Dias

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo é apresentar um quadro de referência de conceitos da Gestão da Sustentabilidade na Cadeia de Suprimentos (GSCS para auxiliar pesquisas futuras na tentativa de integração intra e interorganizacional fundamentada em aspectos da sustentabilidade. Trata-se de um artigo teórico, cujo procedimento metodológico adotado foi o desk research em periódicos da área de gestão e operações, realizado em duas etapas. Na primeira, buscou-se visualizar os estudos da temática em seis importantes periódicos internacionais da área, totalizando 53 artigos entre 1954 e 2009. Esta etapa gerou uma evolução da temática, contribuindo para apontar tendências. Na segunda, foram revisados seis periódicos nacionais da área de administração. Selecionaram-se 11 artigos, publicados entre 1961 e 2009, resultando em um panorama da temática no contexto acadêmico brasileiro. O conceito de GSCS apareceu apenas em 2007, o que mostra a atualidade do tema, embora este seja a junção de temáticas anteriormente estudadas.This article provides a reference frame of concepts in Supply Chain Sustainability Management (SCSM, helping future research in the attempt to integrate intra and interorganizational choices based on the aspects of sustainability in supply chains. It is a theoretical study and the methodological procedure adopted was the desk research, organized in two steps. Firstly, the theme study was analyzed in six international journals, totaling 53 articles between 1954 and 2009. This step generated an evolution of the area, helping to pinpoint trends. Secondly, six domestic journals were reviewed and 11 articles were selected between 1961 and 2009, resulting in an overview of the theme in the Brazilian academic context. The concept of GSCS appeared only in 2007, which shows the relevance of the topic; although this is a gathering of topics previously studied separately.

  10. Intersex and alterations in reproductive development of a cichlid, Tilapia guineensis, from a municipal domestic water supply lake (Eleyele) in Southwestern Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeogun, Aina O.; Ibor, Oju R.; Adeduntan, Sherifat D. [Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria); Arukwe, Augustine, E-mail: arukwe@bio.ntnu.no [Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Høgskoleringen 5, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2016-01-15

    The objectives of this study were to develop and validate biomarker techniques for aquatic environmental monitoring of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in Nigeria aquatic ecosystems, using the Eleyele Lake, which is a major source of domestic water supply to Ibadan and its surrounding towns, as a model aquatic environment and Tilapia guineensis, as a model organism. A total of 55 male and 28 female fish were used for this study. No significant difference in condition factor was observed between the sexes. Evaluation of gross gonadal morphology of the sampled fish showed 33% intersex prevalence in the sampled population, of which respective 71 and 29% were males and females, with visible testis and ovary developing alongside phenotypic females and males. Plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and 17β-estradiol (E2) were performed, showing that male fish had significantly higher plasma LH and E2 concentrations, compared to females. Vitellogenin (Vtg) and zona radiata proteins (Zrp) mRNA levels were significantly higher in males, compared to female fish. Contaminant analysis revealed that PCB 81, 123, 138 and 196 were the only PCB congeners detected in sediment and fish muscle (PCB153 in sediment), while dieldrin was the only organochlorine compound (OC) detected in Eleyele sediment. These responses were used in a multivariate analysis, showing that two principal components were extracted and accounted for 74% of total variation in the dataset. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that male fish variables were positively correlated with PCB congeners 18 and 123, while female fish showed positive correlations with congener 81, 138, 189, 196, indicating sex-specific pattern of association between PCBs concentrations and biomarker expression. In addition, strong positive correlation between male fish and LH, E2, FSH and Vtg was observed, while female fish positively correlated with

  11. Study of Electrical and Thermal Behaviour of Li-ion Polymer Cells for Auxiliary Power Supply in Underwater Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V.S.L. Satyavani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Lithium  ion  polymer (Li-Po battery technology is the latest technology for portable use and the most promising technology for exercise torpedoes. These batteries are technologically evolved from Lithium ion batteries. In this paper, extensive experimental studies on Li-Po cells which include studies on electrical characteristics during charge-discharge cycles, discharge at different C rates, self discharge throughout  charge stand, temperature profiles at the cathode and anode during the discharges, etc. are reported and discussed. The extensive electrical characterisation done on these cells indicates the capability of these cells for use as auxiliary power supply in underwater weapon applications.Defence Science Journal, 2012, 62(2, pp.127-131, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.62.995

  12. Intersex and alterations in reproductive development of a cichlid, Tilapia guineensis, from a municipal domestic water supply lake (Eleyele) in Southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeogun, Aina O; Ibor, Oju R; Adeduntan, Sherifat D; Arukwe, Augustine

    2016-01-15

    The objectives of this study were to develop and validate biomarker techniques for aquatic environmental monitoring of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in Nigeria aquatic ecosystems, using the Eleyele Lake, which is a major source of domestic water supply to Ibadan and its surrounding towns, as a model aquatic environment and Tilapia guineensis, as a model organism. A total of 55 male and 28 female fish were used for this study. No significant difference in condition factor was observed between the sexes. Evaluation of gross gonadal morphology of the sampled fish showed 33% intersex prevalence in the sampled population, of which respective 71 and 29% were males and females, with visible testis and ovary developing alongside phenotypic females and males. Plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and 17β-estradiol (E2) were performed, showing that male fish had significantly higher plasma LH and E2 concentrations, compared to females. Vitellogenin (Vtg) and zona radiata proteins (Zrp) mRNA levels were significantly higher in males, compared to female fish. Contaminant analysis revealed that PCB 81, 123, 138 and 196 were the only PCB congeners detected in sediment and fish muscle (PCB153 in sediment), while dieldrin was the only organochlorine compound (OC) detected in Eleyele sediment. These responses were used in a multivariate analysis, showing that two principal components were extracted and accounted for 74% of total variation in the dataset. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that male fish variables were positively correlated with PCB congeners 18 and 123, while female fish showed positive correlations with congener 81, 138, 189, 196, indicating sex-specific pattern of association between PCBs concentrations and biomarker expression. In addition, strong positive correlation between male fish and LH, E2, FSH and Vtg was observed, while female fish positively correlated with

  13. Modeling Future Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Environmental Impacts of Electricity Supplies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. Bilec

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Brazil’s status as a rapidly developing country is visible in its need for more energy, including electricity. While the current electricity generation mix is primarily hydropower based, high-quality dam sites are diminishing and diversification to other sources is likely. We combined life-cycle data for electricity production with scenarios developed using the IAEA’s MESSAGE model to examine environmental impacts of future electricity generation under a baseline case and four side cases, using a Monte-Carlo approach to incorporate uncertainty in power plant performance and LCA impacts. Our results show that, under the cost-optimal base case scenario, Brazil’s GHGs from electricity (excluding hydroelectric reservoir emissions rise 370% by 2040 relative to 2010, with the carbon intensity per MWh rising 100%. This rise would make Brazil’s carbon emissions targets difficult to meet without demand-side programs. Our results show a future electricity mix dominated by environmental tradeoffs in the use of large-scale renewables, questioning the use tropical hydropower and highlighting the need for additional work to assess and include ecosystem and social impacts, where information is currently sparse.

  14. Regulating the Electricity Supply Industry in Nigeria. An Assessment of Consumer's Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawale Ibrahim Olateju

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The power sector is critical to the development of any country and Nigeria is no exception, incessant power outrage has been the bane of economic development in the country. For the past three decades, the power sector of the country has been plagued by a lot of problems ranging from low power generation and distribution, decaying facilities most of which were commissioned before and shortly after the country’s independence. The interaction of the electric power industry with climate is manifested both in the effect that severe weather has on the power system and through the contribution of electric power to the production of greenhouse gas (GHG and other pollutants.The paper examines and provides answers to (i the nature of consumers’ attitudes towards power consumption and (ii suggest ways of informing the consumers on the need to conserve power when not in use. This study was carried out in Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State, south-west Nigeria. The findings show that 61 percent of electricity consumers’ agreed that rationing of electricity consumption would stabilized the electricity distribution, whereas 39 percent were not in agreement. The study also shows that about 90 percent of the consumers were not satisfied with the services being offered by the Government owned company, while the remaining 10 percent were satisfied. We suggest the authority take to prepaid method of electricity consumption and also intensify efforts to enlighten the public on the need to conserve power.

  15. Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwich, Edgar G; Gibon, Thomas; Bouman, Evert A; Arvesen, Anders; Suh, Sangwon; Heath, Garvin A; Bergesen, Joseph D; Ramirez, Andrea; Vega, Mabel I; Shi, Lei

    2015-05-19

    Decarbonization of electricity generation can support climate-change mitigation and presents an opportunity to address pollution resulting from fossil-fuel combustion. Generally, renewable technologies require higher initial investments in infrastructure than fossil-based power systems. To assess the tradeoffs of increased up-front emissions and reduced operational emissions, we present, to our knowledge, the first global, integrated life-cycle assessment (LCA) of long-term, wide-scale implementation of electricity generation from renewable sources (i.e., photovoltaic and solar thermal, wind, and hydropower) and of carbon dioxide capture and storage for fossil power generation. We compare emissions causing particulate matter exposure, freshwater ecotoxicity, freshwater eutrophication, and climate change for the climate-change-mitigation (BLUE Map) and business-as-usual (Baseline) scenarios of the International Energy Agency up to 2050. We use a vintage stock model to conduct an LCA of newly installed capacity year-by-year for each region, thus accounting for changes in the energy mix used to manufacture future power plants. Under the Baseline scenario, emissions of air and water pollutants more than double whereas the low-carbon technologies introduced in the BLUE Map scenario allow a doubling of electricity supply while stabilizing or even reducing pollution. Material requirements per unit generation for low-carbon technologies can be higher than for conventional fossil generation: 11-40 times more copper for photovoltaic systems and 6-14 times more iron for wind power plants. However, only two years of current global copper and one year of iron production will suffice to build a low-carbon energy system capable of supplying the world's electricity needs in 2050.

  16. Contribution of wind power and photovoltaic plants to a secure electricity supply; Beitrag von Wind- und Photovoltaik-Anlagen zu einer gesicherten Stromversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyllong, Yvonne [DEBRIV e.V., Koeln (Germany); Maassen, Uwe [Statistik der Kohlenwirtschaft e.V., Koeln (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    The reorganisation of the German electricity supply is scheduled to run over a period of almost four decades, and there are many intermediate steps to accomplish on the way. One major issue is how fluctuating electricity infeeds, especially from wind power and photovoltaic plants, are to be integrated into the German and European power supply systems. A point of great interest related to this is how wind power and photovoltaics will contribute to security of supply. This is examined in the following article on the basis of real data from the year 2013.

  17. The renewable energy targets of the Maghreb countries: Impact on electricity supply and conventional power markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, Bernhard, E-mail: brandb@uni-koeln.de [Institute of Energy Economics at the University of Cologne, Vogelsanger Strasse 321, 50827 Cologne (Germany); Zingerle, Jonas [Institute of Energy Economics at the University of Cologne, Vogelsanger Strasse 321, 50827 Cologne (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia, the three countries of the North African Maghreb region, are showing increased efforts to integrate renewable electricity into their power markets. Like many other countries, they have pronounced renewable energy targets, defining future shares of 'green' electricity in their national generation mixes. The individual national targets are relatively varied, reflecting the different availability of renewable resources in each country, but also the different political ambitions for renewable electricity in the Maghreb states. Open questions remain regarding the targets' economic impact on the power markets. Our article addresses this issue by applying a linear electricity market optimization model to the North African countries. Assuming a competitive, regional electricity market in the Maghreb, the model minimizes dispatch and investment costs and simulates the impact of the renewable energy targets on the conventional generation system until 2025. Special emphasis is put on investment decisions and overall system costs. - Research Highlights: >Market simulation shows impact of RES-E penetration on the conventional power system of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. >Noticeable effects on dispatch and investments in fossil power plants. >Reduced utilization of base-load plants - stronger investments in flexible capacities. >Overall system costs can be decreased by optimizing the RES-E goals.

  18. Supply structures for electrical energy and heat from fuel cells; Versorgungsstrukturen fuer elektrische Energie und Waerme mit Brennstoffzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asmuth, P.C.

    2007-07-01

    This dissertation was dedicated to the study of profit-optimised planning of supply structures for electrical energy and heat from fuel cells giving due consideration to conditions as are relevant to the planning of electricity networks. Various supply structures were drafted making use of all degrees of freedom, and the influence of the stand-alone operation of sub-networks powered by fuel cells on reliability of supply was analysed and its impact on network structure planning determined. In doing so a particular focus was placed on electricity networks. In terms of output the dissertation provides a set of planning principles for supply structures based on predominantly decentralised energy production from fuel cells. These principles are relevant to the development of new housing estates as well as for the development of target structures in fundamental planning. [German] Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurden Untersuchungen zur wirtschaftlich optimalen Planung von Versorgungsstrukturen fuer elektrische Energie und Waerme mit Brennstoffzellen unter Beruecksichtigung der fuer die Planung elektrischer Netze relevanten Randbedingungen durchgefuehrt. Zusaetzlich zu den Brennstoffzellen werden Speicher fuer elektrische Energie, fuer Waerme und fuer Gas, Umwandlungsanlagen zur H2-Gewinnung sowie Strukturen im elektrischen Netz, im Waermenetz sowie im Erdgas- und H2-Netz analysiert. Mit besonderem Fokus auf die elektrischen Netze werden erstmalig Kriterien zur Einhaltung einer Mindestversorgungszuverlaessigkeit als technische Randbedingung bei der Planung der MS- und NS-Netze mit Brennstoffzellen beruecksichtigt. Dafuer werden moegliche Inselnetzkonfigurationen des elektrischen Netzes mit Brennstoffzellen in Abhaengigkeit von verschiedenen Netzausfaellen konzipiert und der Ausfall der Gasversorgung ueber den Ausfall der Brennstoffzellen abgebildet. Darauf basierend wird der Einfluss des Inselbetriebes dieser Teilnetze mit Brennstoffzellen auf die Versorgungszuverlaessigkeit

  19. Willingness to pay for public services and quality of supply in the electricity area; Zahlungsbereitschaft fuer Service public und Versorgungsqualitaet im Strombereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leukert, K.; Telser, H.; Vaterlaus, S.; Mahler, P.

    2008-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the results of a study made on the willingness to pay for public services and quality of supply in the electricity area. First, the starting point of the study and definitions of quality of supply and security of supply are noted. The methods used in the study are presented and macro-economic aspects are reviewed. The costs of black-outs are examined and the carrying out of surveys in the electricity market is discussed. The results of surveys made in households and commercial enterprises concerning the willingness to pay for security of supply and the costs incurred when supplies fail are presented and discussed. The report is completed with a comprehensive list of references and an appendix containing the results of the various tests and surveys made.

  20. Security Vulnerability Trends Related to Electric Power Supplied at Military Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    becoming increasingly worried about the possible negative effects due to solar flares from the sun. A severe solar flare has the possibility to not...as the power system will be continuously tested by hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes , and various weather events; additionally, scientists are also...different components necessary to supply coal to power plants and analyzed how an earthquake can have far-reaching effects. In fact, this study

  1. Integration of electromobiles into the electricity network and its impact on the energy supply; Netzintegration von Elektrofahrzeugen und deren Auswirkungen auf die Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linssen, Jochen [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung (IEF), Systemforschung und Technologische Entwicklung (IEF-STE); Danzer, Michael [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Ulm (Germany). Fachgebiet Elektrochemische Akkumulatoren; Marker, Stefanie [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachgebiet Kraftfahrzeuge (KFZ); Maas, Heiko [Ford Forschungszentrum Aachen GmbH (FFA), Aachen (Germany); Strunz, Kai [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachgebiet Sustainable Electric Networks and Sources of Energy (SENSE); Weinmann, Oliver [Vattenfall Europe Innovation GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    Electrically powered vehicles are currently seen as a promising option in sparing resources, improving security of supply, gaining local freedom from emissions, increasing energy efficiency and reducing greenhouse gas emissions from road traffic. Due to the energy turnaround this trend is now paralleled by an increase in the share of renewable energy in the electricity supply and hence in fluctuations in energy production. This has led to greater demands being placed on the design of electricity networks as well as on power plant deployment planning. New concepts for the integration of energy from fluctuating sources, including the use of storage facilities, are also becoming attractive as a result.

  2. A critical assessment of the different approaches aimed to secure electricity generation supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batlle, C.; Rodilla, P. [Technological Research Institute, Pontifical University of Comillas, Sta. Cruz de Marcenado 26, 28015 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    Since the very beginning of the power systems reform process, one of the key questions posed has been whether the market, of its own accord, is able to provide satisfactory security of supply at the power generation level or if some additional regulatory mechanism needs to be introduced, and in the latter case, which is the most suitable approach to tackle the problem. This matter is undoubtedly gaining importance and it has taken a key role in the energy regulators' agendas. In this paper, we critically review and categorize the different approaches regulators can opt for to deal with the problem of guaranteeing (or at least enhancing) security of supply in a market-oriented environment. We analyze the most relevant regulatory design elements throughout an updated assessment of the broad range of international experiences, highlighting the lessons we have learned so far in a variety of contexts. Based on the analysis, we conclude by providing a set of principles and criteria that should be considered by the regulator when designing a security of supply mechanism. (author)

  3. Modeling of Flexibility in Electricity Demand and Supply for Renewables Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoosel, J.P.C.; Rumph, F.J.; Konsman, M.

    2011-01-01

    The use of renewable energy sources is increasing due to national and international regulations. Such energy sources are less predictable than most of the classical energy production systems, like coal and nuclear power plants. This causes a challenge for balancing the electricity system. A possibil

  4. A framework to evaluate security of supply in the electricity sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Reimer

    2017-01-01

    jurisdiction, taking into the account the specificities of electricity. This framework has two aims: (i) provide a snapshot of the situation to understand current weaknesses and determine what actions are required; (ii) capture the evolution over time to evaluate progress and identify potential problems before...

  5. Technical and commercial aspects of the connection of wind turbines to electricity supply networks in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, P. [Garrad Hassan & Partners Ltd., Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    This paper reviews some technical and commercial issues now topical for wind energy developments in Europe. The technical issues are important because of the weak nature of the existing electricity systems in rural or upland areas. Several commercial issues are considered which may improve the economics of wind energy as market incentives are gradually withdrawn. 9 refs.

  6. Analysing green supply chain management practices in Brazil's electrical/electronics industry using interpretive structural modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Kannan, Devika; Mathiyazhagan, K.

    2013-01-01

    that exists between GSCM practices with regard to their adoption within Brazilian electrical/electronic industry with the help of interpretive structural modelling (ISM). From the results, we infer that cooperation with customers for eco-design practice is driving other practices, and this practice acts...

  7. Information management in retail market design in the electricity supply industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, Elizabeth Florence

    The retail electricity market is no different from any other market in the need to know how much of a good is bought and by whom and when. However what sets the electricity market apart is the time definition of the "when" and therein lies the problem. It is not enough to know how much a customer uses; it is when that use takes place that is important. In an ideal world all customers would have their consumption measured accurately and in real time. Costs however are a problem in the real world and other less costly approaches are needed. Market designers then have to decide which measurement approach to apply to which group of customers. Affordability has been the main criterion used. If the costs of measurement are a small percentage annual outlay on electricity (usually based on a fixed rate) then that measurement approach is deemed appropriate. This dissertation presents a method for determining a solution that is optimal for customer and retailer. Retailers are assumed to maximize profit in providing a fixed rate and a market-based pricing option. The latter has a measurement cost attached. Customers choose the pricing option that minimizes their costs and reflects their ability to respond to market prices. The threshold level determined from this optimization depends not only on the cost of measurement but also on the level and variability of electricity prices, but most importantly it depends on the ability of an individual customer to change the pattern of electricity use across the day. The optimization method does more than replace affordability in the determination of appropriate threshold levels between measurement options. The method: (1) underscores the need to look at threshold levels not on a consumption basis but on an individual customer's ability to modify usage patterns in response to market prices, in other words ability to substitute across time periods; (2) highlights the need for a flexible approach to measurement; there must be a choice of

  8. Visualisation of CRM Reports and Indicators in the Electric Power Supply Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Petkovič

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the efficiency of CRM concept implementation and its integration with other systems in the organization that are mutually functionally associated. Activity of a power supply enterprise with complex requirements in the process of consumer relationship management (CRM is chosen for analysis. Attention is focused on the advantages of the visualization of CRM reports and indicators for this kind of specific activity. The role of software tools is specially studied as very important, because it provides support in realizing analytical and visual techniques used in CRM data processing.

  9. Assessment of DOD electric power supply options, strategies, and costs under retail open access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, P.J.; Catlin, T.S.; Estomin, S.L.; Galligan, R.A.; Kahal, M.I.

    1997-09-15

    Over the last several years, there has been increasing recognition that electric power rates in many parts of the country are above competitive market levels. The reason for the difference between regulated and competitive rates rests in dramatic changes to the generation segment of the industry. Numerous factors have combined to drive up the generation costs that are recovered under regulation. At the same time, significant changes in generation technology and reductions in fuel prices have reduced the cost of power from new generating facilities, driving down competitive prices for generation. Similar changes have not affected the transmission and distribution sides of the business; therefore, the generation market is the focus of competitively spurred reductions in electricity prices.

  10. Environmental sustainability of electricity supply in the world between 1980 and 2011: Lessons learnt and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Espinosa Martinez, Nieves

    2014-01-01

    for energy planning? To address these questions, we collected annual data on electricity generation for 199 countries and territories for the period 1980-2011, differentiated per types of energy sources. These data were combined with region-specific life cycle inventories of pollutant emissions and resource...... consumptions to assess ten environmental impact categories, e.g. climate change, water use or chemical pollution. The results show that, for several regions, the majority of these impacts have increased between 1980 and 2011. Asia and the Middle East – and to a lesser degree, Africa and Latin America – thus...... show steep increase, up to more than one order of magnitude, in nearly all indicators when compared to their 1980- baseline values. To estimate the “environmental cleanness” of the grid mixes over time, the impact scores were normalized by the electricity generated yearly within each country...

  11. Vulnerability of European and U.S. Electricity Supply to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, M. T.; Yearsley, J. R.; Ludwig, F.; Vögele, S.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Kabat, P.

    2012-12-01

    Thermoelectric (nuclear and fossil fueled) power plants currently produce 78% of all electricity in the Europe and 91% in the United States. These power plants directly depend on the availability and temperature of water resources for cooling. During recent warm, dry summers several thermoelectric power plants in Europe and the southeastern U.S. were forced to reduce production due to cooling water scarcity and environmental restrictions on thermal discharges. Due to climate change, periods with low flows in combination with high water temperatures could increase causing significant reductions in cooling water availability during summer. Here we show that thermoelectric power in Europe and the U.S. is vulnerable to climate change due to the combined impacts of lower summer flows and higher water temperatures. We used a physically-based hydrological and water temperature modeling framework (VIC - RBM) in combination with an electricity production model. Our modeling framework was forced with different climate change scenarios to quantify how climate change will affect daily river flow, water temperature, and subsequently electricity production potential over the next 20-50 years. A total number of 96 existing nuclear and fossil fueled power plants (with different cooling systems) in Europe and the southeastern U.S. were included in our analyses. The results show a summer average decrease in capacity of power plants of 6.3-19% in Europe and 4.4-16% in the U.S. depending on cooling system type and climate scenario for 2031-2060. In addition, probabilities of extreme reductions in thermoelectric power production are projected to increase substantially. Considering the projected decreases in cooling water availability during summer in combination with the long design life of power plant infrastructure, adaptation options should be included in today's planning and strategies to meet the growing electricity demand in the 21st century.

  12. Neurodegenerative disease and magnetic field exposure in UK electricity supply workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorahan, T; Mohammed, N

    2014-09-01

    Previous research has suggested a possible link between neurodegenerative disease and exposure to extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields. To investigate whether risks of Alzheimer's, motor neurone or Parkinson's disease are related to occupational exposure to magnetic fields. The mortality experienced by a cohort of 73051 employees of the former Central Electricity Generating Board of England and Wales was investigated for the period 1973-2010. All employees were hired in the period 1952-82, were employed for at least 6 months and had some employment after 1 January 1973. Detailed calculations had been performed by others to enable an assessment to be made of exposures to magnetic fields. Poisson regression was used to calculate relative risks (rate ratios) of developing any of the three diseases under investigation for categories of lifetime, distant (lagged) and recent (lugged) exposure. No statistically significant trends were shown for risks of any of these diseases to increase with estimates of lifetime, recent or distant exposure to magnetic fields. There is no convincing evidence that UK electricity generation and transmission workers have suffered elevated risks from neurodegenerative diseases as a consequence of exposure to magnetic fields. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Examining global electricity supply vulnerability to climate change using a high-fidelity hydropower dam model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sean W D; Ng, Jia Yi; Galelli, Stefano

    2017-07-15

    An important and plausible impact of a changing global climate is altered power generation from hydroelectric dams. Here we project 21st century global hydropower production by forcing a coupled, global hydrological and dam model with three General Circulation Model (GCM) projections run under two emissions scenarios. Dams are simulated using a detailed model that accounts for plant specifications, storage dynamics, reservoir bathymetry and realistic, optimized operations. We show that the inclusion of these features can have a non-trivial effect on the simulated response of hydropower production to changes in climate. Simulation results highlight substantial uncertainty in the direction of change in globally aggregated hydropower production (~-5 to +5% change in mean global production by the 2080s under a high emissions scenario, depending on GCM). Several clearly impacted hotspots are identified, the most prominent of which encompasses the Mediterranean countries in southern Europe, northern Africa and the Middle East. In this region, hydropower production is projected to be reduced by approximately 40% on average by the end of the century under a high emissions scenario. After accounting for each country's dependence on hydropower for meeting its current electricity demands, the Balkans countries emerge as the most vulnerable (~5-20% loss in total national electricity generation depending on country). On the flipside, a handful of countries in Scandinavia and central Asia are projected to reap a significant increase in total electrical production (~5-15%) without investing in new power generation facilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Atoms to electricity. [Booklet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-11-01

    This booklet explains the basic technology of nuclear fission power reactors, the nuclear fuel cycle and the role of nuclear energy as one of the domestic energy resources being developed to help meet our national energy demand. Nuclear power accounted for over 16 percent of the US electric energy supply in 1986 and was second only to coal as a source of our electric power. In the 1990s, nuclear energy is expected to provide almost 20 percent of the Nation's electricity. 38 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. VersiCharge-SG - Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) for Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Dong [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Haas, Harry [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Terricciano, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-30

    In his 2011 State of the Union address, President Obama called for one million electric vehicles on the road by 2015 [1]. With large-scale Electric Vehicle (EV) or Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV or EV for short) or Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) penetration into the US market, there will be drastic reduction in fossil fuel consumption, thus significantly reducing our dependency on foreign oil [2-6]. There will also be significant reduction on Green House Gas (GHG) emissions and smog in the major US cities [3, 7, 8]. Similar studies have also been done other industrial counties [9]. For the fuel cost, with the home electricity rate around $0.13 per kWh, it would cost about $0.05 per mile for DC operation and $0.03 cents per mile for AC operation. But, assuming 25 miles per gallon for a typical vehicle and $4 per gallon, fossil fuel will cost $0.16 per mile [10]. The overall lifecycle cost of PEVs will be several folds lower than the existing fossil fueled vehicles. Despite the above advantages of the EVs, the current cost of EVSE is not affordable for the average consumer. Presently, the cost of installing state-of-the-art residential EVSE ranges from $1500 to $2500 [11]. Low priced EVSE technology, which is easy to install, and affordable to operate and maintain by an average consumer, is essential for the large-scale market penetration of EVs. In addition, the long-term success of this technology is contingent on the PEVs having minimal excessive load and shift impact on the grid, especially at peak times. In a report [2] published by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the exiting electric power generation infrastructure, if used at its full capacity 24 hours a day, would support up to 84% of the nation’s cars, pickup trucks and SUVs for an average daily drive of 33 miles. This mileage estimate is certainly much below what an average driver would drive his/her vehicle per day. Another report [3] by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

  16. VersiCharge-SG - Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) for Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Dong [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Haas, Harry [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Terricciano, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-30

    In his 2011 State of the Union address, President Obama called for one million electric vehicles on the road by 2015 [1]. With large-scale Electric Vehicle (EV) or Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV or EV for short) or Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) penetration into the US market, there will be drastic reduction in fossil fuel consumption, thus significantly reducing our dependency on foreign oil [2-6]. There will also be significant reduction on Green House Gas (GHG) emissions and smog in the major US cities [3, 7, 8]. Similar studies have also been done other industrial counties [9]. For the fuel cost, with the home electricity rate around $0.13 per kWh, it would cost about $0.05 per mile for DC operation and $0.03 cents per mile for AC operation. But, assuming 25 miles per gallon for a typical vehicle and $4 per gallon, fossil fuel will cost $0.16 per mile [10]. The overall lifecycle cost of PEVs will be several folds lower than the existing fossil fueled vehicles. Despite the above advantages of the EVs, the current cost of EVSE is not affordable for the average consumer. Presently, the cost of installing state-of-the-art residential EVSE ranges from $1500 to $2500 [11]. Low priced EVSE technology, which is easy to install, and affordable to operate and maintain by an average consumer, is essential for the large-scale market penetration of EVs. In addition, the long-term success of this technology is contingent on the PEVs having minimal excessive load and shift impact on the grid, especially at peak times. In a report [2] published by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the exiting electric power generation infrastructure, if used at its full capacity 24 hours a day, would support up to 84% of the nation’s cars, pickup trucks and SUVs for an average daily drive of 33 miles. This mileage estimate is certainly much below what an average driver would drive his/her vehicle per day. Another report [3] by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

  17. Comparative study in supplying electrical energy to small remote loads in Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousa, M.A. [Center of Solar Energy Studies, Tripoli (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya); Saleh Ibrahim, I.M.; Molokhia, I.M. [Al-Fateh University, Tripoli (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya)

    1998-05-01

    The main sources of energy that might be available in remote low populated areas of Libya are either diesel generating units or wind mills for water pumping. Several problems in the working performance of these two types of energy production may arise due to environmental conditions. Direct conversion of solar energy can replace other ways of energy delivery or production, especially in this country where the solar radiation all year is relatively high. Direct conversion of solar energy is relatively expensive, however the cost of erecting long feeders and supervising them may be much more expensive than the usage of solar systems. This paper investigates the economics associated with either solutions of energy production. A case study is given in detail to supply one of the remote areas with a population of about 250. (author)

  18. Wind-powered asynchronous AC/DC/AC converter system. [for electric power supply regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitan, D. K.

    1973-01-01

    Two asynchronous ac/dc/ac systems are modelled that utilize wind power to drive a variable or constant hertz alternator. The first system employs a high power 60-hertz inverter tie to the large backup supply of the power company to either supplement them from wind energy, storage, or from a combination of both at a preset desired current; rectifier and inverter are identical and operate in either mode depending on the silicon control rectifier firing angle. The second system employs the same rectification but from a 60-hertz alternator arrangement; it provides mainly dc output, some sinusoidal 60-hertz from the wind bus and some high harmonic content 60-hertz from an 800-watt inverter.

  19. Electricity supply between acceptance, acceptability and social compatibility; Energieversorgung zwischen Akzeptanz, Akzeptabilitaet und Sozialvertraeglichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, Katharina; Koch, Marco K. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl Energiesysteme und Energiewirtschaft (LEE)

    2012-11-01

    Acceptance promotion is supposed to be an indispensable premise for a successful realization of an energy concept. The contribution identifies deficiencies of the energy policy, including intransparency, complexity of decision procedures, for instance in case of the so called energy transmission line extension acceleration law, that has caused irritation and anger in the public. The justification of acceptance promotion is questioned in connection with the German nuclear policy reversal following the Fukushima accident. A research program ''public acceptance of large-scale power plants for electricity generation'' is presented. The issues criteria and limits of acceptability are of main importance for this discussion.

  20. Geothermal energy in the western United States and Hawaii: Resources and projected electricity generation supplies. [Contains glossary and address list of geothermal project developers and owners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Geothermal energy comes from the internal heat of the Earth, and has been continuously exploited for the production of electricity in the United States since 1960. Currently, geothermal power is one of the ready-to-use baseload electricity generating technologies that is competing in the western United States with fossil fuel, nuclear and hydroelectric generation technologies to provide utilities and their customers with a reliable and economic source of electric power. Furthermore, the development of domestic geothermal resources, as an alternative to fossil fuel combustion technologies, has a number of associated environmental benefits. This report serves two functions. First, it provides a description of geothermal technology and a progress report on the commercial status of geothermal electric power generation. Second, it addresses the question of how much electricity might be competitively produced from the geothermal resource base. 19 figs., 15 tabs.

  1. Reliability and safety of the electrical power supply complex of the Hanford production reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, F.D.

    1960-09-15

    Safety has been and must continue to be the inviolable modulus by which the operation of a nuclear reactor must be judged. A malfunction in any reactor may well result in a release of fission products which may dissipate over a wide geographical area. Such dissipation may place the health, happiness and even the lives of the people in the region in serious jeopardy. As a result, the property damage and liability cost may reach astronomical values in the order of magnitude of billions of dollars. Reliability of the electrical network is an indispensable factor in attaining a high order of safety assurance. Progress in the peaceful use of atomic energy may take the form of electrical power generation using the nuclear reactor as a source of thermal energy. In view of these factors it seems appropriate and profitable that a critical engineering study be made of the safety and reliability of the Hanford reactors without regard to cost economics. This individual and independent technical engineering analysis was made without regard to Hanford traditional engineering and administration assignments. The main objective has been to focus attention on areas which seem to merit further detailed study on conditions which seem to need adjustment but most of all on those changes which will improve reactor safety. This report is the result of such a study.

  2. The destabilization of the French electricity supply industry nascent competition in an open environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finon, D

    2001-06-01

    In February 2000 France, compelled by the 1996 European Directive 96/92, undertook a minimal reform of the organisation of its electricity industry, while preserving the boundaries of the incumbent company. The aim of this paper is to analyse the conditions of destabilization of the industrial organisation of the French ESI, by identifying the economic factors of endogenous and exogenous erosion. Firstly, after setting out the main elements of the French reform, which is aimed at making the electricity market contestable, the effectiveness of the ''contestability'' of the French power market is discussed. Secondly in order to test the stability of the new institutional arrangements, an institutional prospect is developed, on the basis of economic factors of instability and resistance, to produce two contrasting scenarios: one in which the particularly French model is retained (limited contestability market scenario); another in which there is movement towards a de-integrated competitive model (contamination by competition scenario). Thirdly the author concludes on the basis of recent elements, that the future would be a mix of these two trajectories which will come within in the progressive integration of the national markets in continental Europe. (A.L.B.)

  3. An Intelligent Approach to Strengthening of the Rural Electrical Power Supply Using Renewable Energy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, F. C.; Sisodia, G. S.; Gopalan, S.

    2017-08-01

    The healthy growth of economy lies in the balance between rural and urban development. Several developing countries have achieved a successful growth of urban areas, yet rural infrastructure has been neglected until recently. The rural electrical grids are weak with heavy losses and low capacity. Renewable energy represents an efficient way to generate electricity locally. However, the renewable energy generation may be limited by the low grid capacity. The current solutions focus on grid reinforcement only. This article presents a model for improving renewable energy integration in rural grids with the intelligent combination of three strategies: 1) grid reinforcement, 2) use of storage and 3) renewable energy curtailments. Such approach provides a solution to integrate a maximum of renewable energy generation on low capacity grids while minimising project cost and increasing the percentage of utilisation of assets. The test cases show that a grid connection agreement and a main inverter sized at 60 kW (resp. 80 kW) can accommodate a 100 kWp solar park (resp. 100 kW wind turbine) with minimal storage.

  4. The German electricity market. Does the present market design provide security of supply?; Strommarkt in Deutschland. Gewaehrleistet das derzeitige Marktdesign Versorgungssicherheit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, Matthias; Peichert, Patrick; Perner, Jens; Riechmann, Christoph [Frontier Economics, Koeln (Germany); Niedrig, Thomas [Formaet Services GmbH, Rheinbach (Germany)

    2014-09-15

    A heated discussion is being waged in Germany and large parts of Europe over the introduction of what are referred to as capacity mechanisms, whose purpose is to provide security of supply in the electricity sector. In this context two consulting firms have undertaken a both qualitative and quantitative study of the fitness of the present market design, which is based on the ''Energy-Only Market'' (EOM), to provide security of supply in the German electricity market. The authors come to the conclusion that, if suitably framed, the EOM can continue to provide a secure electricity supply in accordance with consumer preferences and at the lowest possible cost.

  5. Development of a Simulation Framework for Analyzing Security of Supply in Integrated Gas and Electric Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwabena Addo Pambour

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas and power networks are tightly coupled and interact with each other due to physically interconnected facilities. In an integrated gas and power network, a contingency observed in one system may cause iterative cascading failures, resulting in network wide disruptions. Therefore, understanding the impacts of the interactions in both systems is crucial for governments, system operators, regulators and operational planners, particularly, to ensure security of supply for the overall energy system. Although simulation has been widely used in the assessment of gas systems as well as power systems, there is a significant gap in simulation models that are able to address the coupling of both systems. In this paper, a simulation framework that models and simulates the gas and power network in an integrated manner is proposed. The framework consists of a transient model for the gas system and a steady state model for the power system based on AC-Optimal Power Flow. The gas and power system model are coupled through an interface which uses the coupling equations to establish the data exchange and coordination between the individual models. The bidirectional interlink between both systems considered in this studies are the fuel gas offtake of gas fired power plants for power generation and the power supply to liquefied natural gas (LNG terminals and electric drivers installed in gas compressor stations and underground gas storage facilities. The simulation framework is implemented into an innovative simulation tool named SAInt (Scenario Analysis Interface for Energy Systems and the capabilities of the tool are demonstrated by performing a contingency analysis for a real world example. Results indicate how a disruption triggered in one system propagates to the other system and affects the operation of critical facilities. In addition, the studies show the importance of using transient gas models for security of supply studies instead of successions of

  6. Wind power systems for individual applications. [electric power supplies for homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clews, H. M.

    1973-01-01

    A small windpower system is described which is suitable for electrifying a house. The self-contained unit consists of a two kilowatt wind driven generator, a set of 19 storage batteries, a small dc to ac inverter, and a gasoline generator for use as an emergency backup system in case of prolonged calm periods. Cost effectiveness of the electricity generated by this windmill system comes out to about 15 cents per kilowatt hour - assuming a 10 year life for the batteries and a 20 year life for the other components. Some other small windpower systems are also described, and it is shown that a windpowered generator in the 15- to 25-kilowatt output range coupled to a direct heated water storage system is able to heat a typical New England home.

  7. Customer loyalty in the liberalized electricity supply industry; Kundenbindung im liberalisierten Stromversorgungsmarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skerst, B. von [sample QM Gesellschaft fuer Qualitaetsmanagement mbH, Moelln (Germany)

    1999-03-22

    Especially smaller energy suppliers are not yet sufficiently prepared for the competition in the liberalized German electricity market. Aside a remarkable improvement of their cost position they have to better adjust to the wishes and needs of their customers. The reliable assessment and satisfaction of these customer needs requires systematic customer loyalty management - and that not only for large business customers. (orig.) [Deutsch] Vor allem kleinere Energieversorger sind auf den Wettbewerb im liberalisierten deutschen Strommarkt bisher nicht ausreichend vorbereitet. Neben einer deutlichen Verbesserung ihrer Kostenposition muessen sie sich mehr auf die Wuensche und Beduerfnisse ihrer Kunden einstellen. Die zuverlaessige Ermittlung und Befriedigung dieser Kundenbeduerfnisse erfordert systematisches Kundenbindungsmanagement - und das nicht nur bei grossen Geschaeftskunden. (orig.)

  8. External conditions and structure development in the Norwegian electricity supply; Rammebetingelser og strukturutvikling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thommessen; Krefting; Greve; Lund

    1997-12-31

    In Norway, an act of 1996 implied a total reform of the taxation system for electricity suppliers. Publicly owned utilities are also subject to this act. The problem discussed in this report is whether energy political goals about fewer and larger units are weakened or strengthened because of today`s taxation rules. The taxation rules are considered only in relation to any structural changes. The external conditions that can affect the structural development are: (1) duties and licences, (2) concessionary rules, (3) regulation of network tariffs, (4) judicial problems of competition, (5) judicial problems of company. They are discussed in detail. The general conclusion is that the design and practice of public regulations strongly interfere with and affect the incentives and possibility for a restructuring of the power sector. 1 table

  9. Long life communication satellites: Electric power supply during the eclipse period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, S.

    1983-01-01

    The electric batteries, essentially nickel-cadmium for French satellites such as D1 A, D1 C, D1 D, D2 B, D5 A, D5 B, etc. and the batteries for such satellites as Symphonie, ANS, INTASAT, ESRO 4, and COS-B are discussed. The experience obtained led to the development of long lifetime batteries for communication satellites. Real simulation tests showed a lifetime of four years and accelerated lifetime tests of twelve years. These batteries will be applied in OTS, METEOSAT, and Marots. At the same time, new batteries are being developed, based on nickel-hydrogen or on silver-hydrogen, which should provide longer lifetime and better reliability.

  10. Linear magnetic motor/generator. [to generate electric energy using magnetic flux for spacecraft power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, P. A. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A linear magnetic motor/generator is disclosed which uses magnetic flux to provide mechanical motion or electrical energy. The linear magnetic motor/generator includes an axially movable actuator mechanism. A permament magnet mechanism defines a first magnetic flux path which passes through a first end portion of the actuator mechanism. Another permament magnet mechanism defines a second magnetic flux path which passes through a second end portion of the actuator mechanism. A drive coil defines a third magnetic flux path passing through a third central portion of the actuator mechanism. A drive coil selectively adds magnetic flux to and subtracts magnetic flux from magnetic flux flowing in the first and second magnetic flux path.

  11. Mounting and performance measurements of a PV array addition to an existing small wind-power installation for greenhouse electric supply in Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Oliva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A small wind-power system intended for electric supply of a research greenhouse at the local University facilities in San Julian region incorporates a photovoltaic (PV array and regulator, which is described in this report together with its data-acquisition system. The main application is control and lighting. The Alternative Energy Group at the University seeks through this project to acquire knowledge and practical experience in the combination of renewable energy sources for optimal electrical supply of isolated systems, their associated measurements and processing of resulting data

  12. Reflections of ANEEL criteria for quality in the supply of electrical energy; Reflexoes sobre criterios da Aneel para a qualidade no fornecimento da energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Maria Olivia de Souza [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)], email: molivia@unifacs.br; Mello, Sergio Souto Maia Malbouisson de [Companhia de Eletricidade do Estado da Bahia (COELBA), BA (Brazil)], email: smello@coelba.com.br

    2010-07-01

    This article presents an analysis of the changes implemented by the Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Agency - ANEEL (Agencia Nacional de Energia Eletrica) to monitor and control the indices related to the continuity of electric power supply. It also presents the evolution of the amount of fines, in case of failure of attending the quality indicators, both the collective and the individual ones. Finally, it presents some issues which need further analysis regarding to the limits of time established to the restoration of the energy supply after a power failure. (author)

  13. 我国电煤供应链的特点与优化策略探析%Study on the Characteristics and Optimization Strategy of Domestic Power Coal Supply Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜阳光

    2012-01-01

    Optimization strategy of the power coal supply chain is important to reduce high logistics costs and solve the problem of severe power shortage. Based on the characteristics of domestic power coal supply chain and problems such as long shipment distance, high logistics costs, bad mlti-risk ability, etc, combined with the ideas of supply chain management, this paper provides reference optimization strategy for power coal supply chain from supply optimization, distribution optimization and links optimization.%电煤供应链优化对于降低电煤供应链过高的物流费用、解决电荒频频发生等问题具有重要意义。文章在分析我国电煤供应链特点的基础上,针对其存在的运输距离长、物流成本高、抗风险能力差、可靠性不佳等问题,结合供应链管理的主要思想,从煤炭供应优化、运输配送环节供应链优化、电煤供应链上各个环节有机连接这三个方面提出了电煤供应链优化的策略。

  14. Examination of the Regional Supply and Demand Balance for Renewable Electricity in the United States through 2015: Projecting from 2009 through 2015 (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Hurlbut, D.; Donohoo, P.; Cory, K.; Kreycik, C.

    2010-06-01

    This report examines the balance between the demand and supply of new renewable electricity in the United States on a regional basis through 2015. It expands on a 2007 NREL study that assessed the supply and demand balance on a national basis. As with the earlier study, this analysis relies on estimates of renewable energy supplies compared to demand for renewable energy generation needed to meet existing state renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies in 28 states, as well as demand by consumers who voluntarily purchase renewable energy. However, it does not address demand by utilities that may procure cost-effective renewables through an integrated resource planning process or otherwise.

  15. Implications of end-user behaviour in response to deficiencies in water supply for electricity consumption - A case study of Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Ruchira; Kansal, Arun; Aghi, Sakshi

    2016-05-01

    Over the past two decades, urban lifestyles have changed phenomenally. One aspect of this change is the increasing use of household appliances, which, in turn, influences water and electricity consumption in urban households. It is therefore necessary to revisit water supply norms in view of these behavioural changes. Increasing use of water-related appliances by the surveyed households in Delhi, India has lowered their water consumption but increased their electricity consumption (10-16 kW h a month). Also, longer working hours away from homes have shifted water demand from homes to commercial establishments and institutions. The per-capita water requirement to meet the basic needs for health and hygiene is approximately 76-78 L a day, of which bathing claims the largest share (32%). Nearly 70% of electricity consumption of a household is spent in coping with deficiencies in water supply. Strategies adopted by end users to save water were negatively correlated with those to save electricity. Household incomes have no influence on water consumption except in the case of those living in slums, who are forced to curtail their use of water even at the cost of health and hygiene; for the rest, coping with poor water supply amounts to spending nearly 50% more on electricity, defeating the purpose of subsidised water supply.

  16. Evolution in energy technology. Development of electricity supplies for the railway in Germany; Energietechnik im Wandel. Entwicklung der Bahnstromversorgung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raithmayr, Werner [DB Energie GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Anlagenmangement/Energieversorgung

    2011-07-15

    The history of the early years of electricity supplies to the railway is characterised by the rapid advances in electrical engineering, making electricity into the dominant energy system of the 21st century. The real milestones on the way to the current situation have been the landmark developments in transformer technology from rotating shafts, to controllable rectifiers, to thyristor systems and then on to today's energy transformation requiring no rotating masses at all. The future of energy systems lies with power electronics, and within DB Energie's railway grid a massive effort is being put into forging ahead with making reality out of a ''zero mass'' energy network. That it is also possible to supply electricity without rotating masses has already been successfully demonstrated in the real railway operation. (orig.)

  17. Magnetic fields and brain tumour risks in UK electricity supply workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorahan, T

    2014-04-01

    To investigate whether brain tumour risks are related to occupational exposure to low-frequency magnetic fields. Brain tumour risks experienced by 73 051 employees of the former Central Electricity Generating Board of England and Wales were investigated for the period 1973-2010. All employees were hired in the period 1952-82 and were employed for at least 6 months with some employment in the period 1973-82. Detailed calculations had been performed by others to enable an assessment to be made of exposures to magnetic fields. Poisson regression was used to calculate relative risks (rate ratios) of developing a brain tumour (or glioma or meningioma) for categories of lifetime, distant (lagged) and recent (lugged) exposure. Findings for glioma and for the generality of all brain tumours were unexceptional; risks were close to (or below) unity for all exposure categories and there was no suggestion of risks increasing with cumulative (or recent or distant) magnetic field exposures. There were no statistically significant dose-response effects shown for meningioma, but there was some evidence of elevated risks in the three highest exposure categories for exposures received >10 years ago. This study found no evidence to support the hypothesis that exposure to magnetic fields is a risk factor for gliomas, and the findings are consistent with the hypotheses that both distant and recent magnetic field exposures are not causally related to gliomas. The limited positive findings for meningioma may be chance findings; national comparisons argue against a causal interpretation.

  18. REDUCTION IN ELECTRICITY SUPPLIES DURING 'LIMITED POWER' PERIODS IN WINTER 1999-2000

    CERN Document Server

    Mario Batz/TCR

    1999-01-01

    As in previous years, CERN signed contracts with EDF (Electricité de France) and with EOS (Energie Ouest Suisse), by which it undertakes, in return for special prices, to reduce its electricity consumption when the grids are at peak demand during the tariff period 'Effacement Jour de Pointe' (EJP).The contractual period for compulsory load shedding begins 1st November and ends 31st March. During these five months CERN will have to reduce its power consumption from210 MW to 40 MW during twenty-two 18-hour periods, each beginning at 7 a.m. and ending at 1 a.m. the following day. Notice will be given by EDF to the Technical Control Room (TCR) at 5 p.m. the previous day. The notice period may be reduced to two hours for days following weekends and public holidays, or omitted entirely for technical reasons.For the month of March 2000, the limit of power consumption will be increased from 40 MW to 50 MW to guarantee an easier start-up of the accelerators.During these periods, the PS complex, the SPS and ...

  19. Improving the electromagnetic compatibility of track circuits with electric rolling stock of double power supply with induction traction motors and electrictraction network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Visin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article the research results of many authors on the effect of current interference from the existing electric rolling stock with induction traction motors (ITM on the track circuits and the possibility of exceeding the train traffic safety standards are used. The new promising scheme of power circuit for electric locomotive of double power supply with an ITM applying the intermediary high-frequency transformer for reducing significantly the interference effects to SCB and communication devices is developed.

  20. Guideline for the tendering of the Europe-wide procurement of the electricity supply. 2. rev. ed.; Arbeitshilfe zur Durchfuehrung einer europaweiten Ausschreibung der Stromlieferung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmueller, Christian [Schnutenhaus und Kollegen, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-05-02

    In order to describe the practical fundamentals for the procurement of electricity, the authors of this contribution present a guideline for the implementation of a Europe-wide tendering of the electricity supply. The main aspects of this contribution are the procedure and time schedule of the procurement procedure, preparation of the procurement procedure, design of the procurement procedure concerning to the contents as well as the implementation of the procurement procedure.

  1. Estimation of the Unregistered Inflow of Electrical and Electronic Equipment to a Domestic Market: A Case Study on Televisions in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ha Phuong; Wang, Feng; Dewulf, Jo; Huynh, Trung-Hai; Schaubroeck, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) constitutes one of the most problematic waste streams worldwide, and accurately estimating the scale of WEEE can assist in tackling its associated issues. However, obtaining an accurate estimation of WEEE remains a challenge because a share of the waste is difficult to calculate. This share stems from the administratively unregistered (so-called "invisible") inflow of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) into the domestic market. As a first attempt to qualitatively and quantitatively investigate this invisible inflow, this study discusses the nature of this flow in detail and proposes a calculation pathway for quantifying its magnitude. The size of the invisible inflow to a domestic market (assumed equal to invisible sales) is calculated by subtracting the registered, also called "visible", sales from the total sales. The total sales are modeled, whereas the visible sales are derived from statistical data. The method is illustrated by a case study on televisions (TVs) in Vietnam. The results show that from 2002 to 2013, the invisible TV inflow contributed, on average, 15% to the total TV sales (coefficient of variation: 0.21). This average share would increase by approximately 1.0% when the maximum number of TVs used per household increased by 1.0%. However, it would decrease by 1.7% when the visible sales increased by 1.0%. Additionally, the average share of the invisible TV inflow would change from 15% to 27% when an unadjusted constant instead of an adjusted time-varying lifespan is employed. This first estimation of the invisible EEE inflow to the domestic market can be improved with additional knowledge and data in the future.

  2. Energy, economy and exergy evaluations of the solutions for supplying domestic hot water from low-temperature district heating in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    . Evaluation models were built to investigate the energy, economy and exergy performances of the proposed domestic hot water systems in various configurations. The configurations of the devised domestic hot water substations were optimised to fit well with both low and ultra-low-temperature district heating...... and to reduce the return temperature to district heating. The benefits of lower return temperatures were also analysed compared with the current district heating situation. The evaluation results show that the decentralized substation system with instantaneous heat exchanger unit performed better under the 65...

  3. Dioxins, dioxin-like compounds, and PBDEs in the U.S. domestic meat supply: trends and levels 2003 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the mid-1990s, 2002-2003, 2007-2008, and again in 2012-2013 the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) conducted statistical surveys for dioxin and dioxin-like compound (PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs) residues in domestic meat and poultry. The surveys were conducted to determine background levels of diox...

  4. Guarantee of supply in the Spanish electricity industry has improved substantially; La seguridad de suministro en el sector electrico espanol ha mejorado sustancialmente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayo, I. F.

    2009-07-01

    The president of the National Energy Commission talks about the Spanish electricity and gas management system, its weaknesses and the need to progress towards a European single energy market model allowing supplies to be guaranteed in all the countries of the European Union. (Author)

  5. Transformation of the electric power supply chain in competitive markets; Transformacoes da cadeia de suprimentos de energia eletrica em mercados competitivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Paulo Sergio Franco [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil]. E-mail: franco@fec.unicamp.br; Leal, Lydiane Abdon [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: lyable@bol.com.br

    2002-07-01

    This work presents an analysis of the transformation occurred in the electric power supply chain arising out from the privatization of the electric power sector in Brazil. The analysis includes change aspects concerning to the flux of electric power, information, financial and risk fluxes following the productive and commercialization chain. The work also analyses the british experience for identification of efficiency losses and gains in the management of some pos privatization processes, highlighting companies which experienced evolution in the corporative strategies, obtained from the large period of commercial operation not submitted to non regulated environment.

  6. Experimental evaluation of the consumption of electrical energy of domestic refrigerators in Mexico; Evaluacion experimental del consumo de energia electrica de refrigeradores domesticos en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroyo Cabanas, Fernando Gabriel [Programa de Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ambriz Garcia, Juan Jose; Paredes Rubio, Hernando Romero [Area de Ingenieria en Recursos Energeticos, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    In this work the experimental methodology developed to carry out tests of the electrical energy of refrigerators consumption as norm NOM-015-ENER-2002 is described. The tests were made in the Laboratory of Controlled Environment of the Iztapalapa Unit of the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana to a sample of old domestic refrigerators in operation. The results found show that the consumption of electrical energy of refrigerators of more than 10 years of age can be higher than 60% of what a modern refrigerator of high efficiency would consume, or 30% higher if the refrigerator was made between 1997 and 2002. With these results it is sustained, in a more complete way, the evaluation of the saving potential of the national electrical energy by the substitution of old domestic refrigerators by modern, as reported in a previous work. [Spanish] En este trabajo se describe la metodologia experimental desarrollada para efectuar pruebas del consumo de energia electrica a refrigeradores conforme la norma NOM-015-ENER-2002. Las pruebas se realizaron en el Laboratorio de Ambiente Controlado de la Unidad Iztapalapa de la Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana a una muestra de refrigeradores domesticos antiguos en operacion. Los resultados encontrados muestran que el consumo de energia electrica de refrigeradores de mas de 10 anos de antig�edad puede superior al 60% de lo que consumiria un refrigerador moderno de alta eficiencia, o superior en un 30% si el refrigerador fue fabricado entre 1997 y 2002. Con estos resultados se sustenta de manera mas completa la evaluacion del potencial de ahorro de energia electrica nacional por substitucion de refrigeradores domesticos antiguos por modernos reportado en un trabajo anterior.

  7. Prioritizing Demand Response: How Federal Legislation and Technological Innovation Changed the Electricity Supply Market and the Need to Revitalize FERC Order 745

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J. McAllister

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional barriers to entry in the electricity supply marketplace are crumbling due to recent federal legislation and new technology. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC's Order 745 prioritizes the use of demand response via a uniform pricing mechanism. Through it, demand response is able to provide the same benefit as traditional electricity generation - at a reduced cost - and improve service, reliability, and market development. Consequently, the increased use of demand response reduces prices for regional grid operators, as well as commercial, institutional, and residential consumers. This Note discusses the legal, economic, and policy reasons for upholding Order 745 in the face of transformative change in the electricity supply market and evaluates the history of smart grid legislation leading up to the issuance of Order 745 in 2011. Next, it analyzes how energy intelligence hardware and software allow new entrants into the wholesale electricity supply market in hopes of capitalizing on inefficiencies in regional power distribution and the revolutionary opportunities for residential consumers through new technologies. Most importantly, this Note argues for a reversal of the D.C. Circuit’s decision to vacate Order 745 in the case EPSA v. FERC, decided in May 2014. Such a reversal is necessary because Order 745 falls within FERC’s authority under the Federal Power Act and the loss of a uniform pricing mechanism for demand response resources sold at capacity auctions will harm electricity markets.

  8. Electricity and heat supply of a settlement at different standards of energy efficiency; Strom- und Waermeversorgung einer Siedlung bei unterschiedlichen Energieeffizienz-Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuberth, Jens; Tschetschorke, Katja

    2013-07-15

    The underlying study analyses the ecologic impact and the economic efficiency of several conventional and innovative heat supply systems to provide a quarter heat for space and water heating and electricity for residential and commercial application and for street lighting. Retrofits of buildings change the ratio of demands for electricity and heat. The demand for heat decreases more than the demand for electricity, and the share of distribution losses in heat grids rises. The question is if it is still economically efficient to build or extend local and long-distance district heating networks. Demands for final and primary energy, greenhouse gas emissions and costs (for operation, energy consumption and investments) of the different systems are compared and rated both in charts and tables. A sensitivity analysis includes increasing energy purchasing costs and assesses the possible economic efficiency of the supply systems in future. Another sensitivity analysis estimates how the climate impact of the supply systems for heat and electricity changes if electricity generation becomes less harmful for climate. Additionally, costs for environmental damage - so-called external costs - are internalised in the analysis of economic efficiency. In an overall rating ecologic and economically efficient systems are recommended.

  9. 供电企业电力营销业务质量评价的探讨%Power supply enterprises quality evaluation of electric power marketing business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱碧莹

    2015-01-01

    随着电力市场的不断扩大、政府部门对供电监管力度的逐步加强、用电客户对供电服务要求的提高,电网运营重点从发电侧逐渐向售电侧转变,电力营销的重要性日益明显,能否为电力客户提供优质的营销服务已成为供电企业提高自身竞争力的重要手段.因此,对供电企业的营销服务质量进行评价显得尤为重要,本文对供电企业电力营销业务质量评价提出探讨并举例进行实证分析,希冀对同行带来一些参考及借鉴.%With theexpansion of the power market,the government departments of power supply supervision gradually strengthen, customers on the improvement of power supply service requirements,and electricity grid operating focus shift from power generation side to sell electricity side,the importance of electric power marketing is becoming more and more apparent,whether for electricity customers to provide quality marketing services has become an important means of power supply enterprises improve their competitiveness. Therefore,to evaluate the quality of power supply enterprise marketing services is particularly important, in this paper,the power supply quality of electric power marketing business evaluation is proposed to explore and carries on the empirical analysis, for example,hopes to bring some reference and reference.

  10. 100% renewable electricity supply by 2050. Preprint; Energieziel 2050. 100% Strom aus erneuerbaren Quellen. Vorabdruck fuer die Bundespressekonferenz am 7. Juli 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaus, Thomas; Vollmer, Carla; Werner, Kathrin; Lehmann, Harry; Mueschen, Klaus

    2010-07-15

    In order to achieve an 80 - 90% reduction in Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions by 2050 we will first have to transform our electricity supply system. The energy sector holds a key function regarding GHG emissions by currently causing more than 80 % of the emissions in Germany. Within this sector the electricity supply is responsible for about 40% of energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions. The potential for reducing emissions in the electricity sector is very high. Provided a highly efficient use of electricity and energy conversion, as well as an energy supply system that is completely based on renewable energies, it will be possible to reach a level of nearly zero GHG emissions. For Germany, the technological change towards an electricity supply system completely based on renewable energies by 2050 is possible. By doing so, Germany's status as a highly industrialised country can be maintained, as can its subsequent ways of living, patterns of consumption and behaviour. This is shown in our simulation of the scenario ''region's network scenario'' as well as in several studies of other institutions like the German Advisory Council on the Environment (SRU), the German Enquete-Commission on sustainable energy supply or Greenpeace. Our results should be regarded as one part of a level playing field needed to create a 100 % renewable electricity supply system by 2050. Aside from the regional scenario, we also sketch two other scenarios: International large scale application of technology and Local Energy Autarky. For these two scenarios we intend to go more into depth within further studies as we expect them to provide further momentum towards achieving the level playing field. A switch to an electricity supply system based on renewable energies will also be economically beneficial. The costs of such a change in the energy supply are significantly lower than those of adapting to an unmitigated climate change we and future generations would have to

  11. Domestic Violence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙犁

    2014-01-01

    <正>Most of the attention on domestic violence is on the violence perpetrated by the husband towards the wife.It seems that little attention is paid on the infliction of domestic violence on children.Domestic violence on children should not be neglected.Domestic violence on children is everywhere.A survey

  12. 100% renewable electricity supply by 2050. Preprint; Energieziel 2050. 100% Strom aus erneuerbaren Quellen. Vorabdruck fuer die Bundespressekonferenz am 7. Juli 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaus, Thomas; Vollmer, Carla; Werner, Kathrin; Lehmann, Harry; Mueschen, Klaus

    2010-07-15

    In order to achieve an 80 - 90% reduction in Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions by 2050 we will first have to transform our electricity supply system. The energy sector holds a key function regarding GHG emissions by currently causing more than 80 % of the emissions in Germany. Within this sector the electricity supply is responsible for about 40% of energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions. The potential for reducing emissions in the electricity sector is very high. Provided a highly efficient use of electricity and energy conversion, as well as an energy supply system that is completely based on renewable energies, it will be possible to reach a level of nearly zero GHG emissions. For Germany, the technological change towards an electricity supply system completely based on renewable energies by 2050 is possible. By doing so, Germany's status as a highly industrialised country can be maintained, as can its subsequent ways of living, patterns of consumption and behaviour. This is shown in our simulation of the scenario ''region's network scenario'' as well as in several studies of other institutions like the German Advisory Council on the Environment (SRU), the German Enquete-Commission on sustainable energy supply or Greenpeace. Our results should be regarded as one part of a level playing field needed to create a 100 % renewable electricity supply system by 2050. Aside from the regional scenario, we also sketch two other scenarios: International large scale application of technology and Local Energy Autarky. For these two scenarios we intend to go more into depth within further studies as we expect them to provide further momentum towards achieving the level playing field. A switch to an electricity supply system based on renewable energies will also be economically beneficial. The costs of such a change in the energy supply are significantly lower than those of adapting to an unmitigated climate change we and future generations would have to

  13. Experimental study and modelling of overheating of electrical catenary-pantograph interface for trains supplied with power in station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausseron, Thomas; Baucour, Philippe; Glises, Raynal; Verschelde, Sylvain; Chamagne, Didier

    2015-06-01

    For railroads and trains, there have been many incidents involving catenary overheating at the contact with the pantograph when a train is supplied with power while standing still. The overheating of the catenary-pantograph interface can sometimes cause the contact wire to break. In order to anticipate the occurrence of such costly problems, the FEMTO-ST Institute has carried out theoretical and experimental studies in collaboration with the French National Railway Company (SNCF) to better understand this phenomenon. First, a 2D transient electrical model was developed for the contact wire. This allows the current distribution in the wire to be estimated to obtain an accurate measure of the internal heat generation. The heat produced by the interface was considered and split between the catenary and pantograph with an analytical model. Finally, the heat transfer equation for the wire under particular boundary conditions was solved for the entire finite difference network based on Euler's implicit method. The transient modelling results of the wire heating were compared with earlier experimental values, and a parametric study was performed.

  14. Transmission grid extensions during the build-up of a fully renewable pan-European electricity supply

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Sarah; Andresen, Gorm B; Schramm, Stefan; Greiner, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Spatio-temporal generation patterns for wind and solar photovoltaic power in Europe are used to investigate the future rise in transmission needs with an increasing penetration of these variable renewable energy sources (VRES) on the pan-European electricity system. VRES growth predictions according to the official National Renewable Energy Action Plans of the EU countries are used and extrapolated logistically up to a fully VRES-supplied power system. We find that keeping today's international net transfer capacities (NTCs) fixed over the next forty years reduces the final need for backup energy by 13% when compared to the situation with no NTCs. An overall doubling of today's NTCs will lead to a 26% reduction, and an overall quadrupling to a 33% reduction. The remaining need for backup energy is due to correlations in the generation patterns, and cannot be further reduced by transmission. The main investments in transmission lines are due during the ramp-up of VRES from 15% (as planned for 2020) to 80%. Add...

  15. 国内外电气防火检测规范比较及分析%Comparison and Analysis of Domestic and Overseas Electrical Fireproofing Inspection Code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任长宁

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes and compares the provisions on electrical fireproofing inspect items, test methods, protective devices and construction technology in domestic and overseas standards and codes, and explains thin conductor connecting method, on-site inspection of circuit voltage drop, the use of arc fault circuit interrupter, etc.%分析对比国内外标准规范中涉及的电气防火检测项目、检测方法、保护电器、施工工艺等的规定。并针对细导线接续方法、现场检测线路压降、电弧故障断路器的使用等问题进行了说明。

  16. A Robust Fuzzy Sliding Mode Controller Synthesis Applied on Boost DC-DC Converter Power Supply for Electric Vehicle Propulsion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boumediène Allaoua

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of electric vehicles power electronics system control comprising of DC-AC inverters and DC-DC converters takes a great interest of researchers in the modern industry. A DC-AC inverter supplies the high power electric vehicle motors torques of the propulsion system and utility loads, whereas a DC-DC converter supplies conventional low-power, low-voltage loads. However, the need for high power bidirectional DC-DC converters in future electric vehicles has led to the development of many new topologies of DC-DC converters. Nonlinear control of power converters is an active area of research in the fields of power electronics. This paper focuses on a fuzzy sliding mode strategy (FSMS as a control strategy for boost DC-DC converter power supply for electric vehicle. The proposed fuzzy controller specifies changes in the control signal based on the surface and the surface change knowledge to satisfy the sliding mode stability and attraction conditions. The performances of the proposed fuzzy sliding controller are compared to those obtained by a classical sliding mode controller. The satisfactory simulation results show the efficiency of the proposed control law which reduces the chattering phenomenon. Moreover, the obtained results prove the robustness of the proposed control law against variation of the load resistance and the input voltage of the studied converter.

  17. The Security Policy of Domestic Food Supply Chain based on “Internet of Things”%基于物联网的我国食品供应链安全策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦欣

    2012-01-01

    针对事关社会稳定和公众健康的食品安全问题,结合食品供应链的内涵和特性介绍了食品供应链,分析了我国食品供应链存在的安全问题,并进一步分析了物联网对于食品供应链各环节的影响.最后,以物联网为基础,提出了提升食品供应链安全的对策.%Food safety is beneficial to the social and public health. Based on the connotation and characteristics of food supply chain, some problems of the domestic food supply chain are analyzed. This paper discussed how the food supply chain would be influenced by the development of "internet of things" and searched for effective methods and solutions to solve the food safety problems.

  18. QUANTIFICATION AND COSTING OF DOMESTIC ELECTRICITY GENERATION FOR ARMIDALE, NEW SOUTH WALES, AUSTRALIA UTILISING MICRO WIND TURBINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Maklad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a general overview of energy and renewable energy sources available in Australia was introduced, household’s electricity situation in Australia was presented, and focus wind energy was conducted. A theoretical methodology for quantification and costing of selected micro wind turbines was introduced. This methodology was applied to Armidale city, New South Wales (NSW, Australia as a case study. The methodology involved utilisation of spread sheet application and HOMER software. Such methodology dealt with hourly household electric load in Armidale and hourly wind speed in Armidale as inputs and provided hourly power outputs from selected micro wind turbine as an output. As well, a sample of payback period calculations for the said selected wind turbines is calculated versus various wind speeds. This methodology can be applied to any other cities or towns. Undoubtedly, the ability of quantifying micro electricity generation resultant from micro wind turbines for a specific city or town and evaluating the share of households’ electric consumption at that city or town associated with the relevant payback periods opens the gate for further studies of feasibility and visibility of micro wind turbines.

  19. Control of the electrical operating point of an electric discharge by mean of its power supply; Controle du point de fonctionnement des decharges electriques par l'intermediaire de leur alimentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salanne, J.Ph.

    2005-11-15

    The operating points obtained by the coupling of the power supply with the electric discharge system can be unstable because of the dynamical behaviour of the discharge or because of a change in its length. In this work, the different possible couplings existing between the discharge and the characteristics of its power supply are analyzed in order to optimize the design and control of the power supply and to control the operating point. Analytical and numerical modeling of the system are proposed which allow to simulate the couplings between the power supply and the discharge. This approach is completed by experimental investigations allowing to consider the cases of peak/peak discharges, dielectric barrier discharges (DBD), and gliding arcs. (J.S.)

  20. Legal aspects of electric power supply. Grid operator obligations between entrepreneurial responsibility and state control; Das Recht der Elektrizitaetsversorgungsnetze. Netzbetreiberpflichten zwischen unternehmerischer Eigenverantwortung und staatlicher Steuerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maetzig, Karoline

    2012-07-01

    The publication provides a systematic outline of the legal boundary conditions governing the operation of electric power supply grids. It goes beyond mere regulatory aspects, covering also the projecting and construction of grids, the acquisition or leasing of land for power transmission line construction, operating licenses and utility certification, the organisational structure and purpose of electric utilities, as well as the operating, servicing and enhancement of electricity grids including calculation of electricity rates. In addition to this systematic outline of legal aspects, it is investigated how the balance between entrepreneurial responsibility and state control was defined in the EnWG 2011, and it is discussed if the law provides sufficient room for entrepreneurial decisions.

  1. Use of small reactors as an alternative to supply electricity to Baja California Sur; Uso de reactores pequenos como alternativa de suministro de electricidad para Baja California Sur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, G.; Portes, E.; Ramirez, J. R. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ortega, G., E-mail: gustavo.alonso@inin.gob.mx [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Rio Rodano No. 14, 06500 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    The state of Baja California Sur (Mexico) does not form part of the national interconnected electrical system of the country, reason why is local its electrical power supply; one of the alternatives to cover future demands is the use of gas-based combined cycles, which presents the additional problem of including a high price for gas transportation in its costs. In order to reduce total costs, including investment, fuels and operation and maintenance in the operation of the Baja California Sur state electricity system in the coming years, mainly due to the estimated natural gas cost order of $11.50 dollars per million BTU, a proposal is presented to reduce the costs of the electrical system by replacing the necessary combined cycles with the new Small Modular Reactor type nuclear reactors, this alternative is economically competitive. (Author)

  2. A system dynamics analysis of the Nordic electricity market: The transition from fossil fuelled toward a renewable supply within a liberalized electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogstad, Klaus-Ole

    2005-07-01

    A system dynamic model to analyze long-term versus short-term implications of various energy policies within the context of the Nordic electricity market has been developed. The model itself provides a theory of the development of the Nordic electricity market in response to various energy policies, both in the long and the short term. The model includes generation scheduling, demand, price formation, investment decisions, resource availability and to some extent technology progress as endogenous. Thus, explanations of the model behaviour can be found from within the model. As examples of use, the model/modelling concept addresses two important questions on the energy policy agenda. First the marginal C02-emission controversy has been study, whether building gas power in Norway increase or reduce Nordic C02-emissions. The results were that in the short run, some emission reductions can be obtained due to substitution of existing coal units by operations of the market, but this effect was found to be modest. Existing gas power is also substituted, plus some bio. In the long run, there are also some investment substitutions of renewables. These effects do not appear to be significant in the short run, but in the long run, the investment rate of renewables is reduced as a consequence of reduced prices from gas. The reduced investments in renewables results in increased emissions. Some increase in demand is also to be expected from adding gas power, due to price-elasticity of demand. The net result is that gas power is likely to increase C02-emissions, which contradicts the current belief as well as results from other electricity market models that omit the long-term mechanisms such as investment decisions and technology progress. The second study analyzed the current Swedish TGC market at the time of the introduction. The purpose was to assist market design. It was found that the current Swedish TGC market design is likely to crash, due to the slow adjustment of the

  3. Optimization of Electric Power Systems for Off-Grid Domestic Applications: An Argument for Wind/Photovoltaic Hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, W.; Green, J.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the optimal configuration of home power systems relevant to different regions in the United States. The hypothesis was that, regardless of region, the optimal system would be a hybrid incorporating wind technology, versus a photovoltaic hybrid system without the use of wind technology. The method used in this research was HOMER, the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables. HOMER is a computer program that optimizes electrical configurations under user-defined circumstances. According to HOMER, the optimal system for the four regions studied (Kansas, Massachusetts, Oregon, and Arizona) was a hybrid incorporating wind technology. The cost differences between these regions, however, were dependent upon regional renewable resources. Future studies will be necessary, as it is difficult to estimate meteorological impacts for other regions.

  4. Optimization of Electric Power Systems for Off-Grid Domestic Applications: An Argument for Wind/Photovoltaic Hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, W.; Green, J.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the optimal configuration of home power systems relevant to different regions in the United States. The hypothesis was that, regardless of region, the optimal system would be a hybrid incorporating wind technology, versus a photovoltaic hybrid system without the use of wind technology. The method used in this research was HOMER, the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables. HOMER is a computer program that optimizes electrical configurations under user-defined circumstances. According to HOMER, the optimal system for the four regions studied (Kansas, Massachusetts, Oregon, and Arizona) was a hybrid incorporating wind technology. The cost differences between these regions, however, were dependent upon regional renewable resources. Future studies will be necessary, as it is difficult to estimate meteorological impacts for other regions.

  5. Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also be ... child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...

  6. QUANTIFICATION AND COSTING OF DOMESTIC ELECTRICITY GENERATION FOR ARMIDALE, NEW SOUTH WALES, AUSTRALIA UTILISING MICRO WIND TURBINES

    OpenAIRE

    Yasser Maklad

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a general overview of energy and renewable energy sources available in Australia was introduced, household’s electricity situation in Australia was presented, and focus wind energy was conducted. A theoretical methodology for quantification and costing of selected micro wind turbines was introduced. This methodology was applied to Armidale city, New South Wales (NSW), Australia as a case study. The methodology involved utilisation of spread sheet application and HOMER software....

  7. Admissibility of take-or-pay clauses in gas and electricity supply contracts; Zulaessigkeit von Take-or-Pay-Klauseln im Rahmen von Gas- und Stromliefervertraegen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronemeyer, Achim [Clifford Chance, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Electricity and gas supply contracts often contain so-called take-or-pay (ToP) clauses. Such clauses compel the customer to assume an unconditional payment obligation for the contractually agreed minimum quantity, regardless of actual consumption. The quantity risk thus lies with the consumer. ToP clauses can in particular give rise to questions relating to the content review of electricity and gas supply contracts pursuant to the regulations governing general terms and conditions as laid down in paragraph paragraph 305 ff. of the German Civil Code. As regards cartel law the Federal Cartel Office has recently brought about an administrative ruling on the problems associated with ToP clauses in terms of cartel law.

  8. To Problem of Electric Supply Reliability for Consumers of Agro-Industrial Complex with Development of Market Relations in Electric Power Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. Kutsenko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a number of problems concerning relations between power-supply organizations and agro-industrial complex enterprises in respect of reliability of power supply to electro-receivers. Some concrete measures that are supposed to improve these relations under modem conditions are offered in the paper/

  9. 国内燃料油供需现状分析与思考%The Analysis of Domestic Fuel Oil Supply-Demand Status and Some Considerations about It

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海波

    2015-01-01

    Fuel oil is a petroleum product variety with relatively high market-oriented degree in China at present. China formally opened fuel oil price at 2001 for the first time, then published the adjustment of import-export quota and excise rate as well as other policy measures several times. Domestic fuel oil market basically integrates with international market, the internationalization of products have been further enhanced. Following the development of local refining enterprises, the application of fuel oil extends from traditional power generation, heating and transportation to processing use. The article analyzes the supply-demand status of domestic fuel oil as well as the situation facing it and puts forward some considerations about domestic fuel oil market development.%燃料油是目前我国市场化程度较高的石油产品品种。我国最早于2001年正式放开了燃料油的价格,之后又数次发布进出口配额、消费税率调整等政策措施,国内燃料油市场与国际市场基本接轨,产品的国际化程度进一步提高。随着地方炼油企业的发展,燃料油的用途从传统的发电、供热、运输等领域又扩展到了加工使用。本文分析了国内燃料油供需现状及其面临的形势,提出了关于国内燃料油市场开发的若干思考。

  10. Application of evaporative condensation air conditioning system of cooling combined heating and domestic hot water supply%供冷供暖供生活热水蒸发式冷凝空调系统的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭海阳; 屈国伦; 黄伟; 江慧妍; 陈少玲

    2012-01-01

    Considering supplied domestic hot water temperature lower than the required 60 'C and lower system energy efficiency of the existed system, presents the new system as solution to the above situation. Performing the heat recovering according to cascad principle of energy use, recovers partial 1 latent heat and total sensible heat while the condensing temperature is not risen. Presents the working modes of heat charging, discharging and standby of heat recovering system. With an actual project, presents the detailed parameters of the unit and design calculation of the heat recovering system. Operation analysis of cooling period shows that the heat recovering quantity is always more than heat demand of domestic water, namely, the free domestic hot water can be obtained in whole cooling period.%针对目前供冷供暖供生活热水系统的热水温度达不到60℃,且系统能效较低的现状,提出了该空调系统作为解决方案,根据能源梯级利用原则,在不提高冷凝温度的同时回收了部分潜热及全部显热.介绍了热回收系统蓄热阶段、用热阶段和不用热阶段的工作模式.结合某工程实例,介绍了机组的详细参数以及热回收热水系统的设计计算,供冷期的运行分析结果表明,在不同负荷率工况下,热回收量均大于生活热水用热量,即在供冷期,可以免费提供生活热水.

  11. Historic of electric rail power supply in the Swiss Bernese Oberland; Geschichte der elektrischen Bahnenergieversorgung im schweizerischen Berner Oberland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jampen, U. [BKW FMB Energie AG, Bern (Switzerland)

    2006-07-01

    With beginning of the railway electrification in the Bernese Oberland hundred years ago the first water power and converter stations were built for the railway power supply. At first separately operated the stations were integrated in an connected network later. Today these stations are a part of the whole railway power supply in Switzerland. (orig.)

  12. The green electricity market model. Proposal for an optional, cost-neutral direct marketing model for supplying electricity customers; Das Gruenstrommarktmodell. Vorschlag fuer ein optionales und kostenneutrales Direktvermarktungsmodell zur Versorgung von Stromkunden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, Ronald [NATURSTROM AG, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    One of the main goals of the Renewable Energy Law (EEG) is the market integration of renewable energy resources. For this purpose it has introduced compulsory direct marketing on the basis of a moving market premium. At the same time the green electricity privilege, a regulation which made it possible for customers to be supplied with electricity from EEG plants, has been abolished without substitution with effect from 1 August 2014. This means that, aside from other direct marketing channels, which will not be economically viable save for in a few exceptional cases, it will no longer be possible in future to sell electricity from EEG plants to electricity customers under the designation ''electricity from renewable energy''. The reason for this is that electricity sold under the market premium model can no longer justifiably be said to originate from renewable energy. As a consequence, almost all green electricity products sold in Germany carry a foreign green electricity certificate.

  13. Domestic Heating and Cooling and Hot Water Supply System Based on Heat Pumps and Solar Energy%基于热泵和太阳能的住宅供暖供冷供生活热水三联供系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏海翔; 梁镇杰; 梁海珍; 刘翠华

    2014-01-01

    Residential heating and cooling water supply system for combined based on heat pumps and solar is a line with the social sustainable development, energy saving and environmental protection technical measures, it is a major breakthrough in air heat pump and solar energy industries. The system DC inverter air heat pump as the core,combined with solar energy,electricity and other energy to residential heating, cooling and domestic hot water provided, focus on solving the DC inverter air heat pump to residential and efficient heating, cooling, hot for life water, and solar and other alternative energy linkage, for residential heating cooling and domestic hot water systems integration and technology and other key technology issues.%基于热泵和太阳能的住宅供暖供冷供生活热水三联供系统是一项符合社会可持续发展的,节能环保的技术措施。该系统以直流变频空气能热泵为核心,结合太阳能、电能及其他能源,向住宅供暖、供冷及提供生活热水,着重解决了直流变频空气能热泵向住宅高效供暖、供冷、供生活热水,和太阳能及其他备用能源的联动,面向住宅供暖冷及生活热水的系统集成关键技术及工艺等问题。

  14. Generation of domestic waste electrical and electronic equipment on Fernando de Noronha Island: qualitative and quantitative aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Dhiego Raphael Rodrigues; de Oliveira, José Diego; Selva, Vanice Fragoso; Silva, Maisa Mendonça; Santos, Simone Machado

    2017-07-06

    The accelerated growth trajectory of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is a matter of concern for governments worldwide. In developing countries, the problem is more complex because municipal waste management is still a challenge for municipalities. Fernando de Noronha Island, an environmentally protected area, has a transfer station for solid waste before it is sent to the final destination abroad, which is different waste management model to most urban areas. In order to check the specifics of management of WEEE, this study aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the generation of this type of waste on the main island of Fernando de Noronha, taking into consideration aspects related to consumption habits and handling of waste. During the in situ research, a questionnaire was applied to a sample of 83 households. The results provide a picture of the generation of WEEE for a period of 1 year, when a production of 1.3 tons of WEEE was estimated. Relationships between education level and monthly income and between education level and number of plasma/LCD TVs and washing machines were confirmed. Another important result is that only two socioeconomic variables (monthly income and education level) are related to two recycling behavior variables. In addition, the population and government treat WEEE as ordinary waste, ignoring its contaminant potential. Despite the existence of relevant legislation concerning the treatment and disposal of WEEE, additional efforts will be required by the government in order to properly manage this type of waste on the island.

  15. Heat supply to low energy dwellings in district heating areas. Analyses of CO{sub 2} emissions and electricity supply security; Varmeforsyning til lavenergiboliger i omraader med fjernvarmekonsesjon. Analyser av CO{sub 2}-utslipp og forsyningssikkerhet for elektrisitet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thyholt, Marit

    2006-07-01

    Building low energy dwellings in large development projects is a new situation in Norway. The municipalities have to a little extent analyzed the consequences of this new housing standard with respect to the energy supply to such areas, and how this standard may change the plans for new or extended district heat production. In the provision about the mandatory connection to district heating plants, and the appendant provision related to a heating system that can utilize district heat, the district heat supply and the heat demand are not seen in connection. The objective of this dissertation is to provide the municipalities with a basis for decision making in the processing of applications concerning dispensation from the mandatory connection or the heating system requirement for dwellings with low heat demand. This basis for decision making is based on the national aim of reducing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions and of improving the electricity supply security. This summary provides an abstract from the discussion of the legislation as an incentive or barrier for building low energy dwellings. An abstract from a survey among construction firms concerning the motivation for building low energy dwellings is also included. In addition, the summary provides a comprehensive abstract of the results from the CO{sub 2} emission calculations, and the basis for these calculations. Introductorily a brief background of the national focus on energy savings and increased use of hydronic heating, including district heat, is given.

  16. PENGELOLAAN MATA AIR UNTUK PENYEDIAAN AIR RUMAHTANGGA BERKELANJUTAN DI LERENG SELATAN GUNUNGAPI MERAPI (Springs Management for Sustainability Domestic Water Supply in the South West of Merapi Volcano Slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarmadji Sudarmadji

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Mata air merupakan pemunculan air tanah ke permukaan tanah. Pemanfaatan mata air sangat beragam, antara lain penggunaan untuk keperluan air minum, irigasi, perikanan, untuk obyek wisata. Mata air mempunyai debit terbatas, namun kualitasnya baik, penggunaannya beragam, hal tersebut sering terjadi konflik pemanfaatan. Di saat musim kemarau, beberapa mata air merupakan sumber air satu-satunya di suatu tempat, sehingga pengelolaannya harus dilakukan secara baik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari pengelolaan mata air berbasis teknologi tepat guna dalam penyediaan air rumahtangga di lereng selatan Gunungapi Merapi. Penelitian dilakukan dengan survei dan observasi di lapangan terhadap mata air yang digunakan untuk penyediaan air rumahtangga. Sejumlah responden pengguna mata air dan tokoh masyarakat setempat diwawancarai secara bebas dan terstruktur untuk memperoleh data pengelolaan mata air. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kondisi lingkungan dan karakteristik mata air, pengetahuan masyarakat dan budaya lokal yang beragam akan berpengaruh terhadap pengelolaanmata air. Perkembangan teknologi tidak dapat diabaikan dalam pengelolaan sumberdaya air. Hal ini dapat dipadukan dengan budaya masyarakat setempat dalam pengelolaan mata air, sehingga dapat diperoleh manfaat yang optimal dan kesinambungan fungsi dan manfaat mata air tersebut.   ABSTRACT Spring is the groundwater which comes out on ground surface. The use of water from springs is very diverse, varying from water for drinking, irrigation, fisheries, even for tourism. The springs usually have a limited discharge but the water quality from springs is good, therefore they are often facing some conflicts in utilization. In the dry season, in fact the springs are the only source of water supply; therefore the management of the spring should be done properly. This research aims to study the spring management based on appropriate technology in relation to household water supply in the

  17. The power vacuum: the effect of the electricity power crisis on GDP in South Africa in the context of an uncertain coal supply.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, P. [Freyaafdrammen (South Africa)

    2011-07-01

    In 1988 the South African government released a white paper advocating an increased electricity supply to meet social obligations. Large sectors of the rural population in South Africa were not electrified. The National Electrification Program (NEP) was launched in 1994 to wipe out the electrification backlog by 2012. The target of the first phase of NEP was achieved. By 2003, a basic 50kWh electricity per month was supplied free of charge, due to the poverty of the population. In 1996, the GEAR (Growth, Employment and Redistribution) strategy was introduced to generate 6% GDP growth, create 400,000 new jobs each year and increase foreign investment. But the race for GDP growth could result in high electricity consumption and frequent interruptions, particularly in energy-intensive industries which had been introduced in South Africa. The national coal production rate has been reached and surpassed its peak, leading to the end of the cheap coal era in South Africa but more expensive coal could slow down industrial development.

  18. Techno-Economic Feasibility of Energy Supply of Remote Dump Site in Jordan Badia by Photovoltaic Systems, Diesel Generators and Electrical Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Smairan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the development of energy sources in remote regions in Jordan at the brink of the 21st century, it is necessary to view the use of solar energy in all applications as one of the most promising new and renewable energy sources. As a contribution to the development program of remote areas in Jordan Badia, this paper presents three energy supply alternatives (photovoltaic system, diesel generator and electric grid for a dump site for providing the electrical loads to the dump site according to their energy requirements. The result of this study shows that remote dump site in Jordan Badia will require about 5.32 kWh/day or 1940 kWh/yr to meet their basic power requirements for such loads as lighting and electronic appliances-radios and fans. Four dynamic indicators were used to compare the economic-effectiveness of these energy systems. It is found that providing electricity to a dump site in a remote zone using photovoltaic systems is very beneficial and competitive with the other types of conventional energy sources, especially considering the decreasing prices of these systems and their increasing efficiencies and reliability. They have also the advantage of maintaining a clean environment. It is recommended that solar photovoltaic-based dump site electrification application should be encouraged by the government, especially for those rural sites without access to a grid supply.

  19. Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at Kansas City, Fire Stations, Kansas City, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar system was designed to provide 47 percent of the space heating, 8,800 square feet area and 75 percent of the domestic hot water (DHW) load. The solar system consists of 2,808 square feet of Solaron, model 2001, air, flat plate collector subsystem, a concrete box storage subsystem which contains 1,428 cubic feet of 0.5 inch diameter pebbles weighing 71.5 tons, a DHW preheat tank, blowers, pumps, heat exchangers, air ducting, controls and associated plumbing. Two 120 gallon electric DHW heaters supply domestic hot water which is preheated by the solar system. Auxiliary space heating is provided by three electric heat pumps with electric resistance heaters and four 30 kilowatt electric unit heaters. There are six modes of system operation.

  20. Germany without renewables? Electricity costs and security of supply without the supply of renewable energy in 2011-2013. Discussion paper; Deutschland ohne Erneuerbare Energien? Stromkosten und Versorgungssicherheit ohne die Einspeisung Erneuerbarer Energien in den Jahren 2011-2013. Diskussionspapier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillig, Marius; Karl, Juergen

    2014-12-15

    In the years 2010 to 2013, the share of electricity produced from renewable energy of approximately 17 rose to 24%. For this share compared to conventional production results significantly increased electricity costs, which are allocated on the EEG surcharge to the final consumer. In public discussion of these costs, however, often is ignored that the rapid rise of the share of renewable energy lead to an oversupply of power and therefore decreasing electricity costs in total resulted. By the oversupply the trend of a strong increase in the 2000 to 2008 of Electricity prices on the European electricity markets was broken. The aim of this discussion paper is to reconstruct based on historical price data on the spot market of the Leipzig electricity exchange which prices would be set on the electricity market in the years 2011 to 2013 without the power supply from wind and photovoltaic. The analysis shows that electricity prices have increased without wind and sun, for example, for 2013, due to the significantly lower power supply by an average of 5.29 ct / kWh in the ''day-ahead'' trade on the spot market. The cost of the EEG surcharge of approximately EUR 20.4 billion are thus in 2013 savings of conventional electricity of approximately 31.6 billion euros. This saved a total of approximately 11.2 billion euros in 2013 for the German final consumers. About 269 hours of the year, the demand could not be satisfied with the offered maximal power of 2013. This does not automatically mean that in these situations, major faults (''blackouts'') would have been incurred because the consideration Reserve power plants for system services (''control reserve'') are not taken into account and possible additional import electricity. A stable network operation was reliably ensured only by the supply of renewable energy in these situations, however. Due to the massive development of renewable energy is therefore reduced to

  1. Smart solar tanks for small solar domestic hot water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa; Knudsen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of small SDHW systems based on smart solar tanks are presented. The domestic water in a smart solar tank can be heated both by solar collectors and by means of an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system – in this study electric heating elements – heats up...... systems, based on differently designed smart solar tanks and a traditional SDHW system were investigated by means of laboratory experiments and theoretical calculations. The investigations showed that the yearly thermal performance of SDHW systems with smart solar tanks is 5-35% higher than the thermal...... performance of traditional SDHW systems. Estimates indicate that the performance/cost ratio can be improved by up to 25% by using a smart solar tank instead of a traditional tank when the backup energy system is electric heating elements. Further, smart solar tanks are suitable for unknown, variable, large...

  2. Techno-economic feasibility of energy supply of remote villages in Palestine by PV-systems, diesel generators and electric grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, Marwan M.; Ibrik, Imad H. [Energy Research Centre, An-Najah National University, Nablus, P.O. Box 721, West Bank (Palestine)

    2006-04-01

    As a contribution to the development program of rural areas in Palestine, this paper presents three energy supply alternatives for a remote village represented in PV system, diesel generator and electric grid. Design of these systems and the associated costs of their utilization are illustrated. A computer-aided dynamic economic evaluation method with five indicators is used to compare the economic-effectiveness of these energy systems. The results show that, utilizing of PV systems for rural electrification in Palestine is economically more feasible than using diesel generators or extension of the high voltage electric grid. The obtained results represents also a helpful reference for energy planers in Palestine and justify the consideration of PV systems more seriously. (author)

  3. Techno-economic feasibility of energy supply of remote villages in Palestine by PV-systems, diesel generators and electric grid (Case studies: Emnazeil and Atouf villages)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrik, Imad [An-Najah National Univ., Nablus (PS). Energy Research Centre; Lecumberri, Marta

    2010-07-01

    The energy situation in Palestine is somewhat unique when compared to other countries in the Middle East. There are virtually no available natural resources, and due to the ongoing political situation, the Palestinians rely (or have to rely) almost totally on Israel for their energy needs. This paper presents three energy supply alternatives for a remote village represented in PV system, diesel generator and electric grid. Design of these systems and the associated costs of their utilization are illustrated. Economic evaluation methods are used to compare the economic-effectiveness of these energy systems. The results show that, utilizing of PV systems for rural electrification in Palestine is economically more useful than using diesel generators or extension of the high voltage electric grid. The obtained results represents also a helpful reference for energy planers in Palestine and justify the consideration of PV systems more seriously. (orig.)

  4. System for the reliability analysis of the electric energy supply; Sistema para el analisis de confiabilidad del suministro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perales, Favio; Martinez, Javier; Huesca, Francisco; Garcia, Norma; Nieva, Rolando [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    A computer tool, developed for the reliability evaluation of the electric energy supply, considering the faults in the generation and transmission systems, is presented. The application of the tool in planning the expansion and operation of the electric systems, the methodology of the solution employed and the various functions it accounts for, are described. At the end some illustrative examples of its applications by means of the studies with a model of representative characteristics of the interconnected national system. [Espanol] Se presenta una herramienta computacional desarrollada para evaluar la confiabilidad del suministro de energia electrica, considerando las fallas en los sistemas de generacion y transmision. Se describen las aplicaciones de la herramienta en la planeacion de la expansion y de la operacion de sistemas electricos, la metodologia de solucion empleada y las diversas funciones con que cuenta. Al final se presentan algunos ejemplos ilustrativos de sus aplicaciones mediante estudios con un modelo de caracteristicas representativas del sistema interconectado nacional.

  5. Design and evaluation metrology for electric power supply in motor vehicles; Auslegungs- und Bewertungsmetrik fuer die elektrische Energieversorgung von Kraftfahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cierullies, J.

    2006-07-01

    Electric power systems in motor vehicles are subject to increasingly complex requirements. On the one hand, electricity consumption increases with the new comfort and safety systems which involve complex control algorithms. On the other hand, there is the problem of weight which prevents design of power generation and storage systems for maximum load. The publication attempts to estimate the required component size and assess the overall system of electronic components and intelligent algorithms. (orig.)

  6. Small hydro power stations, a way to secure electricity supply in Colombia. A policy evaluation using a system dynamics model

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, Vanessa Margarita

    2013-01-01

    After its deregulation in 1994, the Colombian Electricity Market (CEM) has developed satisfactorily in some sectors, especially in terms of generation and sales to large costumers and to household sector. However, around 70 % of its production capacity is based on hydroelectric power stations that are built using one or more dams. The available water in the dam (considered potential electricity) is from time to time affected by severe weather conditions which might reduce the water inflow by...

  7. Controlling in power supply companies that use structured electricity procurement; Controlling in EVU bei einer strukturierten Beschaffung von Strom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutz, Andreas [prevero AG, Muenchen (Germany); Bernklau, Nadine [TU Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Wirtschaftsethik

    2011-01-15

    The liberalisation of the electricity market continues to offer innovative avenues for trading, especially in procurement. This leads to higher levels of complexity and responsibility in the tasks of a power supplier's purchasing department. What is needed ultimately is a well-developed procurement controlling system. A recent study shows how such a system should be designed in the case of electricity.

  8. Wireless Power Supply via Coupled Magnetic Resonance for on-line Monitoring Wireless Sensor of High-voltage Electrical Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xingkui, Mao; Qisheng, Huang; Yudi, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    , in this paper, the wireless power supply via coupled magnetic resonance (MR-WPS) is proposed for powering the wireless sensor and the associated wireless sensor solution is also proposed. The key specifications of the MR-WPS working in switchgear cabinet with a harsh operation environment are analyzed...

  9. Electric Power Supply of Meat Processing Enterprise through Utilization Heat of Compressor Station Secondary Energy Sources in Main Gasline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nesenchuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a structure of power consumption by a meat processing enterprise with indication of specific power consumption norms in accordance with product nomenclature. Schemes for supply of the enterprise with heat and cold through utilization of compressor station secondary energy sources in main gasline have been presented in the paper.

  10. An ex ante welfare analysis of the unbundling of the distribution and supply companies in the Dutch electricity sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nooij, M.; Baarsma, B.

    2008-01-01

    The Dutch Minister of Economic Affairs intends (i) to unbundle the distribution companies from the commercial companies which are currently in the same holding (supply and generation) and (ii) to allow the Transmission System Operator to manage all the 110 kV grids (currently it manages the 220 kV l

  11. Treatment of synthetic arsenate wastewater with iron-air fuel cell electrocoagulation to supply drinking water and electricity in remote areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Hwan; Maitlo, Hubdar Ali; Park, Joo Yang

    2017-05-15

    Electrocoagulation with an iron-air fuel cell is an innovative arsenate removal system that can operate without an external electricity supply. Thus, this technology is advantageous for treating wastewater in remote regions where it is difficult to supply electricity. In this study, the possibility of real applications of this system for arsenate treatment with electricity production was verified through electrolyte effect investigations using a small-scale fuel cell and performance testing of a liter-scale fuel cell stack. The electrolyte species studied were NaCl, Na2SO4, and NaHCO3. NaCl was overall the most effective electrolyte for arsenate treatment, although Na2SO4 produced the greatest electrical current and power density. In addition, although the current density and power density were proportional to the concentrations of NaCl and Na2SO4, the use of concentrations above 20 mM of NaCl and Na2SO4 inhibited arsenate treatment due to competition effects between anions and arsenate in adsorption onto the iron hydroxide. The dominant iron hydroxide produced at the iron anode was found to be lepidocrocite by means of Raman spectroscopy. A liter-scale four-stack iron-air fuel cell with 10 mM NaCl electrolyte was found to be able to treat about 300 L of 1 ppm arsenate solution to below 10 ppb during 1 day, based on its 60-min treatment capacity, as well as produce the maximum power density of 250 mW/m(2).

  12. "Domestic violence".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidhizar, Ruth; Giger, Joy Newman

    2002-01-01

    Domestic violence is no respector of persons but may involve spouses or cohabiting adults across all socioeconomic, ethnic, and religious groups. It is no respect or of community. The abuse can be physical, sexual, or emotional/psychological. It can be economic and be demonstrated by neglect. Nursing care for the problem of domestic abuse needs to be directed at primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Care for victims and victimizers of domestic violence involves a collaborative relationship with other professionals as well as interagency cross referrals that involve health, welfare, refuge, and judicial protective services.

  13. The domestic natural gas shortage in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ting

    This thesis analyzes the domestic shortage in the Chinese natural gas market. Both the domestic supply and demand of natural gas are growing fast in China. However, the supply cannot catch up with the demand. Under the present pricing mechanism, the Chinese natural gas market cannot get the equilibrium by itself. Expensive imports are inadequate to fill the increasing gap between the domestic demand and supply. Therefore, the shortage problem occurs. Since the energy gap can result in the arrested development of economics, the shortage problem need to be solved. This thesis gives three suggestions to solve the problem: the use of Unconventional Gas, Natural Gas Storage and Pricing Reform.

  14. Establishing the Recycled Supply Chain Network of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment%废旧电器回收再循环体系的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马辉; 郭汉丁

    2012-01-01

    Based on the study of successful experiment of some countries of Europe, this paper analyzes the status of recycled supply chain network of waste electrical and electronic equipment of China. Combining the situation of our county, it establishes the recycled supply chain network of waste electrical and electronic equipment according the situation, and advances the countermeasure to guarantee the network working effectively.%在研究发达国家废旧电器回收再生利用成功经验的基础上,分析了中国废旧电器回收处理的现状与问题,结合中国生产企业的具体情况,建立了符合中国国情的废旧电器回收再循环体系,并制定了保障回收体系健康运转的对策,旨在对中国废旧电器回收再循环工作起到一定的指导作用,促进该领域的不断健全与发展.

  15. PARAMЕTЕRS OF RЕLIABILITY OF ELECTRICAL POWЕR SUPPLY SYSTЕMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Aleksandr A. Skripilev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the theoretical basis of reliability of power supply system. It also provides qualitative and quantitative indicators of reliability, concepts and definitions, specific to the objects. The authors evaluate the impact of the interruption of еlеctricity supply on damage to consumers of еlеctricity. It is shown that the еffеctivеnеss of the country's еlеctricity depends on the reliability of power supply systems. The authors determine causes of unreliability of main and auxiliary еquipmеnt of centralized and autonomous power sources, which include aging and wear-prone components, difficulties of technological nature. The research shows ways to improve and enhance the reliability of еlеctricity in modern conditions. The authors identify the principles and means to ensure the reliability, rеprеsеnt universal methods of analysis and mеasurеmеnt of rеliability during the life cycle of еlеctrical systems based on reliability indicators, durability, reparability and pеrsistеncе of unit, taking into account their structuring.

  16. Electric power engineering. Fundamentals, energy supply, drives and power electronics; Elektrische Energietechnik. Grundlagen, Energieversorgung, Antriebe und Leistungselektronik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuttas, Christian [Technische Univ. Kaiserslautern (Germany). FB Elektro- und Informationstechnik; Marenbach, Richard; Nelles, Dieter

    2013-08-01

    The electric power engineering is one of the major branches of the electrical engineering. It is a separate field of study in higher education and is presented by three to five chairs. The book under consideration covers the entire subject area made in one piece and is suitable as a companion for the study and as a refresher for practitioners. The high social relevance of energy technology in the public results to emotionally charged discussions. Some key points of this book are: nuclear power plants, CO{sub 2} emissions and energy policy. The book explains the relevant connections to these topics in general terms without ideological determinations.

  17. Federal Cartel Office interferes with the issuing of concessions for electricity and gas supply; Bundeskartellamt greift Strom- und Gaskonzessionsvergaben an

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasper, Ute; Biemann, Jens [Heuking Kuehn Lueer Wojtek, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2012-03-08

    Direct awarding of electricity or gas concessions to utility-owned companies or communal subsidiaries without competition is not permissible, according to current rulings of the BKartA. The BKartA assumes misuse of the market-dominating position of a community if it violates the specifications of Sect. 46 EnWG for the issuing of concessions. The trend towards recommunalisation is stopped at least in those cases where both an electricity concession and a gas concession are to be transferred simultaneously to a new community-owned utility.

  18. Advising and Optimizing the Deployment of Sustainability-Oriented Technologies in the Integrated Electricity, Light-Duty Transportation, and Water Supply System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarroja, Brian

    The convergence of increasing populations, decreasing primary resource availability, and uncertain climates have drawn attention to the challenge of shifting the operations of key resource sectors towards a sustainable paradigm. This is prevalent in California, which has set sustainability-oriented policies such as the Renewable Portfolio Standards and Zero-Emission Vehicle mandates. To meet these goals, many options have been identified to potentially carry out these shifts. The electricity sector is focusing on accommodating renewable power generation, the transportation sector on alternative fuel drivetrains and infrastructure, and the water supply sector on conservation, reuse, and unconventional supplies. Historical performance evaluations of these options, however, have not adequately taken into account the impacts on and constraints of co-dependent infrastructures that must accommodate them and their interactions with other simultaneously deployed options. These aspects are critical for optimally choosing options to meet sustainability goals, since the combined system of all resource sectors must satisfy them. Certain operations should not be made sustainable at the expense of rendering others as unsustainable, and certain resource sectors should not meet their individual goals in a way that hinders the ability of the entire system to do so. Therefore, this work develops and utilizes an integrated platform of the electricity, transportation, and water supply sectors to characterize the performance of emerging technology and management options while taking into account their impacts on co-dependent infrastructures and identify synergistic or detrimental interactions between the deployment of different options. This is carried out by first evaluating the performance of each option in the context of individual resource sectors to determine infrastructure impacts, then again in the context of paired resource sectors (electricity-transportation, electricity

  19. The nationalization of electricity supply and construction of large hydropower in Para State, Brazil; A estatizacao da oferta de energia eletrica e a construcao de grandes hidreletricas no estado do Para

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcos Vinicius Miranda da [Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq), Belem, PA (Brazil)], email: marcos.silva@pq.cnpq.br; Beltrao, Norma Ely Santos; Ferreira Filho, Helio; Oliveira, Renata Melo e Silva de; Penna, Heriberto Amanajas [Universidade Estadual do Para (UEPA), Belem, PA (Brazil)], emails: normaelybeltrao@gmail.com, hlio.ferreira@gmail.com, renata_ep@yahoo.com.br, heripena@yahoo.com.br

    2010-07-01

    The state of Para has the largest hydropower potential in Brazil, making it one of the main targets of electricity supply expansion policy. It is not only the existence of this potential that has created a favorable context for building of large hydroelectric dams in Para state, other factors also play important role. In this article will be analyzed one of these factors - the statization process of electricity supply in the country - and its influence on decision to build large hydroelectric dams in Para. It is observed that the state presence is an indispensable support to Brazilian electric system expansion policy that prioritizes the building of large hydropower to meet the energy demand in the country. This means that unless there is a change in the control of electric power supply, other large hydroelectric dams will be built in Para state, even taking into account the strong opposition on those generation plants. (author)

  20. Contribution of domestic heating systems to smart grid control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahersima, Fatemeh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Meybodi, Soroush Afkhami

    2011-01-01

    How and to what extent, domestic heating systems can be helpful in regaining power balance in a smart grid, is the question to be answered in this paper. Our case study is an under-floor heating system supplied with a geothermal heat pump which is driven by electrical power from the grid. The idea...... is to deviate power consumption of the heat pump from its optimal value, in order to compensate power imbalances in the grid. Heating systems could be forced to consume energy, i.e. storing it in heat buffers when there is a power surplus in the grid; and be prevented from using power, in case of power shortage...

  1. Use of the NII to study impacts of new technologies and policies on supply and demand of electric power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munro, J.K. Jr. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Instrumentation and Controls Div.

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes a proposal to use an implementation of client-server technology on the Internet for simulating a number of aspects of electric power production, distribution, and consumption within a wholly new regulatory, financing, operating, and control environment. This approach would use a large number of people to generate strategies and decisions, in a real-time context, needed to drive the simulation. A World Wide Web server would provide background information about the simulation for those who chose to participate as actors in one of supported roles. Roles would be based on activities associated with different business areas and would include utility manager, independent power producer (entrepreneur), electric power futures trader, electric power futures investor, electric power wheeler, industrial customer, commercial customer, and residential customer. The simulation program would run on a system of high-performance computers (parallel computer system) that communicate between each other on a high speed communications bus. These computers would also be the server systems for the client programs used by the actors. People who want to be actors would be required to register before being given a client program, as a way to have some control over the simulation results. Each role will have its corresponding client program with graphical user interface. Each client program will support a common view of the simulation results and a role specific view.

  2. METHODS OF IMPROVING THE RELIABILITY OF THE CONTROL SYSTEM TRACTION POWER SUPPLY OF ELECTRIC TRANSPORT BASED ON AN EXPERT INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Matusevych

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The author proposed the numerous methods of solving the multi-criterion task – increasing of reliability of control system on the basis of expert information. The information, which allows choosing thoughtfully the method of reliability increasing for a control system of electric transport, is considered.

  3. Application of multi-criteria methods to compare different solutions of supplying buildings in electricity from photovoltaic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendecka Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the technologies of electricity generation in distributed systems are usually associated with Renewable Energy Sources (RES. The choice of the construction site depends mainly on the availability of the power system. However, energy planning, especially in case of RES, is a complex process involving multiple and often conflicting objectives. The complexity of the selection of the electricity system is typically addressed with the use of multi-criteria tools, involving all of the considered criteria and also different methods of their aggregation. The result is a final ranking of the available alternatives. This paper describes the application of a multi-criteria decision tool for the comparative analysis of the use of alternative options of the PV technology for electricity production. Four decision variants are considered, including the different construction of solar farms (static and movable structure and different types of configuration of individual installation (off and on-grid. The construction of each new sources of electricity generation, including PV, is the multi-threaded and multi-dimensional decision problem. The criteria used in the analysis combine economic, environmental and social issues. The first of the considered criterion is the Net Present Value (NPV which determines the economic viability of the project. The second criterion, thermo-ecological cost (TEC, connecting energy and environmental issues. Finally, the Land Use (LU is considered as a social criterion. As aggregation function, the Weighted Sum Method (WSM is used. The sensitivity analysis of the criteria weights was performed with the use of a novel method involving Monte Carlo simulation and a method of data reconciliation.

  4. Multi area and multistage expansion-planning of electricity supply with sustainable energy development criteria: a multi objective model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unsihuay-Vila, Clodomiro; Marangon-Lima, J.W.; Souza, A.C Zambroni de [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)], emails: clodomirounsihuayvila @gmail.com, marangon@unifei.edu.br, zambroni@unifei.edu.br; Perez-Arriaga, I.J. [Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Madrid (Spain)], email: ipa@mit.edu

    2010-07-01

    A novel multi objective, multi area and multistage model to long-term expansion-planning of integrated generation and transmission corridors incorporating sustainable energy developing is presented in this paper. The proposed MESEDES model is a multi-regional multi-objective and 'bottom-up' energy model which considers the electricity generation/transmission value-chain, i.e., power generation alternatives including renewable, nuclear and traditional thermal generation along with transmission corridors. The model decides the optimal location and timing of the electricity generation/transmission abroad the multistage planning horizon. The MESEDES model considers three objectives belonging to sustainable energy development criteria such as: a) the minimization of investments and operation costs of : power generation, transmission corridors, energy efficiency (demand side management (DSM) programs) considering CO2 capture technologies; b) minimization of Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions (LC GHG); c) maximization of the diversification of electricity generation mix. The proposed model consider aspects of the carbon abatement policy under the CDM - Clean Development Mechanism or European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme. A case study is used to illustrate the proposed framework. (author)

  5. Tactical planning of domestic supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Guillermo García-Cáceres

    2011-01-01

    de escala, acuerdos entre agentes, demanda, inventario, en un ambiente doméstico de decisión. Finalmente, presenta un procedimiento de solución del NLMIP que proporciona soluciones óptimas en tiempos razonables. El modelo fue validado por medio de un experimento computacional.

  6. Optimal mix of renewable power generation in the MENA region as a basis for an efficient electricity supply to europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhamwi Alaa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable Energy sources are gaining importance in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region. The purpose of this study is to quantify the optimal mix of renewable power generation in the MENA region, taking Morocco as a case study. Based on hourly meteorological data and load data, a 100% solar-plus-wind only scenario for Morocco is investigated. For the optimal mix analyses, a mismatch energy modelling approach is adopted with the objective to minimise the required storage capacities. For a hypothetical Moroccan energy supply system which is entirely based on renewable energy sources, our results show that the minimum storage capacity is achieved at a share of 63% solar and 37% wind power generations.

  7. Drinking Water Temperature Modelling in Domestic Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerman, A.; Blokker, M.; Vreeburg, J.; Van der Hoek, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Domestic water supply systems are the final stage of the transport process to deliver potable water to the customers’ tap. Under the influence of temperature, residence time and pipe materials the drinking water quality can change while the water passes the domestic drinking water system. According

  8. Dossier Energy Storage. Electricity supply when the wind does not blow; Dossier Energieopslag. Stroom op voorraad als het niet waait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Velzen, T.

    2010-10-01

    Wind turbines do not operate on command, which makes the integration into the electricity network problematic. At the moment coal- and gas-fired power plants serve as a backup in case there is no or little wind. Large-scale energy storage systems should eventually replace conventional reserves. However, the commercial feasibility of large buffers is doubtful. [Dutch] Windturbines draaien niet op commando, wat de integratie in het elektriciteitssysteem bemoeilijkt. Nu fungeren kolen- en vooral gascentrales in geval van windstilte als back-up. Grootschalige opslagsystemen moeten de conventionele reserves op den duur vervangen. De commerciele haalbaarheid van omvangrijke buffers is echter twijfelachtig.

  9. Studies of breakeven prices and electricity supply potentials of nuclear fusion by a long-term world energy and environment model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokimatsu, K.; Asaoka, Y.; Konishi, S.; Fujino, J.; Ogawa, Y.; Okano, K.; Nishio, S.; Yoshida, T.; Hiwatari, R.; Yamaji, K.

    2002-11-01

    In response to social demand, this paper investigates the breakeven price (BP) and potential electricity supply of nuclear fusion energy in the 21st century by means of a world energy and environment model. We set the following objectives in this paper: (i) to reveal the economics of the introduction conditions of nuclear fusion; (ii) to know when tokamak-type nuclear fusion reactors are expected to be introduced cost-effectively into future energy systems; (iii) to estimate the share in 2100 of electricity produced by the presently designed reactors that could be economically selected in the year. The model can give in detail the energy and environment technologies and price-induced energy saving, and can illustrate optimal energy supply structures by minimizing the costs of total discounted energy systems at a discount rate of 5%. The following parameters of nuclear fusion were considered: cost of electricity (COE) in the nuclear fusion introduction year, annual COE reduction rates, regional introduction year, and regional nuclear fusion capacity projection. The investigations are carried out for three nuclear fusion projections one of which includes tritium breeding constraints, four future CO2 concentration constraints, and technological assumptions on fossil fuels, nuclear fission, CO2 sequestration, and anonymous innovative technologies. It is concluded that: (1) the BPs are from 65 to 125 mill kW-1 h-1 depending on the introduction year of nuclear fusion under the 550 ppmv CO2 concentration constraints; those of a business-as-usual (BAU) case are from 51 to 68 mill kW-1h-1. Uncertainties resulting from the CO2 concentration constraints and the technological options influenced the BPs by plus/minus some 10 30 mill kW-1h-1, (2) tokamak-type nuclear fusion reactors (as presently designed, with a COE range around 70 130 mill kW-1h-1) would be favourably introduced into energy systems after 2060 based on the economic criteria under the 450 and 550 ppmv CO2

  10. Domestic Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    T.J. Pempel

    2013-01-01

    In the wake of major domestic and international changes, most especially the end of the Cold War and 9/11 for all, but additionally the collapse of the asset bubble in Japan and the transition from military authoritarianism to democratization in the ROK and Taiwan, all of the countries in question saw sharply divided domestic coalitions pressing for often diametrically opposed courses in national security and foreign policy. This brief begins by noting the limits of classical realist inte...

  11. Electrical grid requirements to be met by superconducting components of energy supply systems; Elektrische Netzanforderungen an supraleitende Komponenten der Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelter, D.W.; Radtke, U.

    1995-05-01

    Suoerconducting components will reduce the effective losses of electrical equipment to practically zero. The new technology will bring about novel components with completely new or modified properties and capacities, and thus a number of economic advantages for grid operation. The novel components opened up by superconductivity technology are of particular interest to maximum and high-voltage applications. Components such as generators and transformers will be enhanced in their electrical performance, and effects of synergism are expected to be achieved in multi-functional applications of SMES and through specific combination of the components current limiter and cable, and transformer. (orig./MM) [Deutsch] Supraleitende Betriebsmittel reduzieren die Wirkverluste elektrischer Betriebsmittel praktisch auf null. Daraus resultieren Betriebsmittel mit neuen bzw. veraenderten elektrischen Eigenschaften, die fuer das Netz eine Reihe von Verbesserungen mit sich bringen koennen. Mit Supraleitung werden neuartige Betriebsmittel moeglich und fuer die Hoechst- und Hochspannungsebene wirtschaftlich attraktiv. Andere supraleitende Betriebsmittel wie Generator und Transformator erhalten verbesserte elektrische Eigenschaften. Synergieeffekte sind beim multi-funktionalen Einsatz des SMES und bei Kombination der Betriebsmittel Strombegrenzer und Kabel sowie Transformator zu erwarten. (orig./MM)

  12. The conversion of biomass to ethanol using geothermal energy derived from hot dry rock to supply both the thermal and electrical power requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.W.

    1997-10-01

    The potential synergism between a hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal energy source and the power requirements for the conversion of biomass to fuel ethanol is considerable. In addition, combining these two renewable energy resources to produce transportation fuel has very positive environmental implications. One of the distinct advantages of wedding an HDR geothermal power source to a biomass conversion process is flexibility, both in plant location and in operating process is flexibility, both in plant location and in operating conditions. The latter obtains since an HDR system is an injection conditions of flow rate, pressure, temperature, and water chemistry are under the control of the operator. The former obtains since, unlike a naturally occurring geothermal resource, the HDR resource is very widespread, particularly in the western US, and can be developed near transportation and plentiful supplies of biomass. Conceptually, the pressurized geofluid from the HDR reservoir would be produced at a temperature in the range of 200{degrees} to 220{degrees}c. The higher enthalpy portion of the geofluid thermal energy would be used to produce a lower-temperature steam supply in a countercurrent feedwater-heater/boiler. The steam, following a superheating stage fueled by the noncellulosic waste fraction of the biomass, would be expanded through a turbine to produce electrical power. Depending on the lignin fraction of the biomass, there would probably be excess electrical power generated over and above plant requirements (for slurry pumping, stirring, solids separation, etc.) which would be available for sale to the local power grid. In fact, if the hybrid HDR/biomass system were creatively configured, the power plant could be designed to produce daytime peaking power as well as a lower level of baseload power during off-peak hours.

  13. The impact of domestic load profiles on the grid-interaction of building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems in extremely low-energy dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baetens, R.; De Coninck, R.; Helsen, L.; Saelens, D.

    2010-07-01

    Full text: A BIPV system may produce the same amount of electricity as consumed in the building on a yearly base, however the simultaneity of production and consumption needs to be evaluated. The present paper aims at quantifying the impact of domestic load profiles on the integration of building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) electricity generation in a Belgian climate. In this work, a multi-zone TRNSYS model for a dwelling with compression heat pump for both space heating and domestic hot water (DHW), domestic consumers and on-site photovoltaic generation is set-up. As a consequence of the dynamics of the electricity demand and supply, it is necessary to use small time-steps. The model is used to assess the influence of the user behaviour, the influence of the dimensioning of the heating installation and grid interactions on the auto-consumption of BIPV systems. Furthermore, bottle-necks for possible large-scale implementation of on-site photovoltaic generation are illustrated. The electricity consumption of a dwelling typically peaks when the habitants wake up and arrive back home, whereas the BIPV system shows a profile depending on the local weather and system characteristics. By putting the results of the requested and delivered power within the same model, it is shown that the domestic load profiles due to human behaviour do not coincide with the output of photovoltaic systems. A dwelling with a classic gas-fired heating system is compared by a dwelling equipped with a electricity-driven heat pump for space heating and DHW. Herefore, the cover factor is defined, i.e. the ratio of domestic demand that is covered by the BIPV, for a BIPV installation with a yearly electricity production that equals the yearly domestic demand. If no attempt is made to bring the electricity demand and supply into balance on instant basis, a cover factor of 0.42 is found if a classic heating system is installed, denoting that more than half of the produced electricity will be

  14. Domestic Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapierre, Simon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1960s, there has been growing awareness regarding the issue of domestic violence as a form of violence against women, which has been largely influenced by the work of feminist activist and scholars in North America and Europe (Dobash and Dobash 1992. Other terms have been used to describe the same phenomenon, including domestic abuse, spousal abuse, wife battering, marital violence, intimate partner violence. Though there is no doubt that this problem has existed for much more than five decades, the tendency to label it as ‘private matters’ or ‘marital disagreements’ has obscured the reality of women living with abuse in their home. At a general level, domestic violence can be defined as the means used by a man in order to assert his control and domination over his intimate partner, whether they are married or not (Mullender 1996. It can involve incidents of physical and sexual violence, as well as verbal, psychological and financial abuse. Though some of its manifestations may be associated with particular cultural or religious groups – e.g. forced marriage and honour killing in South-Asian communities – domestic violence affects women from all classes and backgrounds.

  15. Research on Key Point of the Design of Plateau Power Supply Car Electrical Control Sector%高原电源车电气控制部分设计要点研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱逸天; 孙默圆; 陈熙霖

    2015-01-01

    高原环境由于其特殊性,使装备电气控制部分的电气特性受到了影响,本文针对这个问题结合有关资料总结了高原电源车的电气设计要点。%Because of the particularity of plateau environment, the electrical control sector of plateau power supply car is under the influence. To address this problem, this paper summarize the key point of the design of plateau power supply car electrical control sector combine with related material.

  16. BACKGROUNDS OF EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY OF TRACTION ASYNCHRONOUS ELECTRIC DRIVES IN THE STRUCTURE OF DC TRACTION POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU. S. Bondarenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Application of physical modeling as a tool for research of any events or systems is becoming more widespread, including the field of railway transport. At the same time the adequacy of results that can be obtained, depends largely on the similarity degree of the physical model to real system. From the standpoint of the traction asynchronous electric drive (TAED research together with the traction power supply system research, the similarity can not be determined by the direct proportion of the parameters, because the processes nature accompanying the operation of these systems is non-linear. These features should be taken into account in the experimental setup, the basis for constructing of which is establishing of the system similarity that defines the purpose of this paper. Methodology. At the heart of the experimental setup creation laid reproduction of processes of energy transformation in the system of the DC traction power supply. Determination of the similarity degree of the proposed facility to the real system was carried out using the basic theorems of the similarity theory, their additional provisions on the complexity and nonlinear systems, as well as elements of mathematical analysis. Findings. According to the results of work: 1 The block diagram, the energy conversion mechanism of which is similar to the real system was received. This scheme is the basis of experimental setup, built in the future for the study of electromagnetic compatibility of TAED in the structure of DC traction electric power supply system. 2 Similarity of obtained structural scheme with the real system with the mechanism definition of calculating the scaling relations was established. Originality. In the process of establishing the similarity a simplified method for determining the scaling relations for nonlinear systems was suggested. They are identical in their structure components, but have different capacities. Practical value. Experimental

  17. L E E guide on electric power supply in high rise buildings. tot. rev. ed.; L E E. Leitfaden Elektrische Energie im Hochbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennings, D.; Hinz, E.; Steinmueller, B.; Grossklos, M.

    2000-07-01

    Energy policy aiming at sustainability must take account of the noxious effects of fossil fuels. This guide will help to solve this problem. It is an easy to handle tool for integral planning and optimisation of electric power supply in administrative and office buildings, with a standard projecting procedure, a method for improving electric systems in buildings on the basis of characteristic values, and hints for planning and optimisation. It addresses builder owners and investors as well as architects, planners, engineers and energy consultants all of whom may be concerned in the planning of a building and its technical facilities. [German] Eine am Ziel der Nachhaltigkeit orientierte Energiepolitik muss Konsequenzen draus ziehen, dass der Einsatz der fossilen Energietraeger, auf denen unsere Energieversorgung bisher basiert, mit schaedlichen Umweltauswirkungen verbunden ist. Kohlendioxid und andere klimarelevante Spurengase heizen die Erdatmosphaere auf und drohen zur Klimakatastrophe zu fuehren; Stickoxid und Schwefeldioxid belasten mit dem sauren Regen Boden, Gewaesser und ganze Oekosysteme. Der vorliegende Leitfaden 'Elektrische Energie im Hochbau' will hier Abhilfe schaffen. Er stellt ein gut zu handhabendes Werkzeug dar, mit dessen Hilfe eine integrale Planung und Optimierung des rationellen Einsatzes elektrischer Energie in Dienstleistungsgebaeuden moeglich ist. Inhalte des Leitfadens sind die Darstellung des Planungsablaufs, ein Kennwertverfahren zur Verwertung und Verbesserung von elektrischen Anwendungen im Gebaeudebereich als Massnahme zur Investitions- und Betriebskostenreduzierung sowie Hinweise fuer Planung und Optimierung. Der Leitfaden richtet sich sowohl an die Bauherren bzw. Investoren als auch die an der Gebaeude- und Technikplanung Beteiligten, also die Architekten, Planer, Ingenieure und Energieberater. (orig.)

  18. 供电企业电费抄核收的创新措施%A power supply enterprise electricity copying HeShou innovation measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴月红

    2013-01-01

    本文针对我国供电企业电费抄核收面临的现状和问题,提出创新措施,从制度完善、管理理念的更新、服务体系优质灵活化、充分利用信息平台、电费“抄核”之环节的操作规范化等方面,以提高相关工作人员的工作效率,统一管理,特殊配合,做客户满意的企业的同时又能增强竞争力和提高企业效益。%This article in view of the our country present situation and problems of the power supply enterprise electricity copying HeShou face,innovation measures are put forward,from the system consummation,update management idea,high quality flexible service system,make full use of the information platform,electricity "nuclear" copy link operation standardization,etc.,in order to improve the relevant work personnel's work efficiency and unified management,special coordination,making customer satisfaction enterprises at the same time can enhance competitiveness and improve the efficiency of the enterprise.

  19. Paths to bioenergy villages. A guideline for a independent supply of heat and electricity based on biomass in rural area. 3. ed.; Wege zum Bioenergiedorf. Leitfaden fuer eine eigenstaendige Waerme- und Stromversrogung auf Basis von Biomasse im laendlichen Raum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppert, Hans; Eigner-Thiel, Swantje; Girschner, Walter; Karpenstein-Machan, Marianne; Roland, Folker; Ruwisch, Volker; Sauer, Benedikt; Schmuck, Peter

    2010-12-15

    Bioenergy villages are one component for the sustainable energy supply in rural areas. The guideline under consideration is intended to encourage people in villages to switch their heat supply and electricity supply on the bases of biomass. The focus of this process-oriented guideline is on: (1) A presentation of the social feasibility, especially the involvement, motivation and encouragement of the population; (2) The presentation of concepts for a nature-friendly cultivation of the required biomass; (3) The treatment of economic and legal issues from the perspective of the people involved.

  20. Climate Action Benefits: Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides background on the relationship between electricity and climate change and describes what the CIRA Electricity analyses cover. It provides links to the subsectors Electricity Demand and Electricity Supply.

  1. Multi-criteria assessment of technologies for electricity and heat supply; Multikriterielle Bewertung von Technologien zur Bereitstellung von Strom und Waerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberschmidt, Julia

    2010-08-26

    The present thesis deals with how decisions concerning the future energy supply can be effectively, transparently and comprehensibly supported, against the backdrop of sometimes conflicting objectives. The relevance of the question is first of all explained in the context of important framework conditions for decisions in the energy sector. Subsequently, the most significant technology paths which already contribute to today''s energy supply or represent potential future options are shown. However, none of these options alone can meet the demands for a cost-effective, environmentally friendly and reliable energy supply. Rather, their strengths and weaknesses should be carefully weighed against each other in the light of the specific framework conditions. This gives rise to the need for a multi-criteria decision-making support tool, in order to be able to evaluate energy technologies while simultaneously comparing and considering several objectives. An in-depth analysis of known applications of multi-attribute methods in the energy sector shows that methods for multi-attribute decision aiding are already established in the energy industry and energy policy. Weaknesses of known applications lie primarily in the fact that in many cases technological change has not yet been adequately addressed. Therefore, in the present thesis a multi-criteria method is developed which allows established and innovative technologies to be systematically compared, together with the consideration of criteria weighting depending on different technology cycle phases. The proposed method is implemented in a decision support system (DSS), which is validated using two case studies. In the first case study, alternative energy supply concepts for a bio-energy village are compared. In the second case study, technologies for stationary electricity storage are compared. The results show that criteria weightings depending on varying technology cyclephases produce different results than

  2. 25th anniversary article: organic photovoltaic modules and biopolymer supercapacitors for supply of renewable electricity: a perspective from Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inganäs, Olle; Admassie, Shimelis

    2014-02-12

    The role of materials in civilization is well demonstrated over the centuries and millennia, as materials have come to serve as the classifier of stages of civilization. With the advent of materials science, this relation has become even more pronounced. The pivotal role of advanced materials in industrial economies has not yet been matched by the influence of advanced materials during the transition from agricultural to modern societies. The role of advanced materials in poverty eradication can be very large, in particular if new trajectories of social and economic development become possible. This is the topic of this essay, different in format from the traditional scientific review, as we try to encompass not only two infant technologies of solar energy conversion and storage by means of organic materials, but also the social conditions for introduction of the technologies. The development of organic-based photovoltaic energy conversion has been rapid, and promises to deliver new alternatives to well-established silicon photovoltaics. Our recent development of organic biopolymer composite electrodes opens avenues towards the use of renewable materials in the construction of wooden batteries or supercapacitors for charge storage. Combining these new elements may give different conditions for introduction of energy technology in areas now lacking electrical grids, but having sufficient solar energy inputs. These areas are found close to the equator, and include some of the poorest regions on earth. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Review Programme Portfolio. Sustainable Electricity Supply. Innovation Force and Programming; Review Programmaportfolio Duurzame Elektriciteitsvoorziening. Innovatiekracht en Programmering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elings, C.; Bos, S.; Terwel, L.; Idema, R. [Royal Haskoning Strategie en Management Consultants SMC, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-07-15

    The title relates to the innovation review of the programs Wind, Solar PV, Bio-electricity, Smart Grids and Cogeneration of the NL Agency (formerly SenterNovem). The review assesses the innovation based on a survey of the activities from, among others, the EOS (Energy Research Strategy), DEN (Sustainable Energy Netherlands) and SDE (Stimulating Renewable Energy) programmes. The evaluation is performed using the seven functions of the innovation system method, ranging from knowledge development to market introduction. [Dutch] De titel review betreft de innovatiekracht van de programma's Windenergie, Zon-PV, Bio-elektriciteit, Slimme netten en Warmte-kracht koppeling van het Agentschap NL (voorheen SenterNovem). De review beoordeelt de innovatiekracht aan de hand van een inventarisatie van de activiteiten vanuit ondermeer EOS (Energie Onderzoek Strategie), DEN (Duurzame Energie Nederland) en SDE (Stimulering Duurzame Energie) in de afzonderlijke programma-velden. De beoordeling vindt plaats aan de hand van de zeven functies uit de innovatie-systeem-benadering, die varieren van kennisontwikkeling tot marktintroductie.

  4. New structure of the boundary conditions of energy law and communalisation of electricity supply; Neuordnung der energierechtlichen Rahmenbedingungen und Kommunalisierung der Elektrizitaetsversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, G.

    1993-06-01

    Points relating to economic policy in the German energy policy are shaped not only by national and supranational legislative powers, but also to a large extent by the local authorities. The areas under local authority are set out at a country level, illustrating a further development of the ``Germany law governing local authorities`` in 1935. Many areas have not hesitated to use their powers in establishing their own supply utilities. The communalisation of the energy supply brings it once again to the forefront of discussions; it represents strengthened founding opportunities as well as the decentralisation of the power plant structure. This study aims to illustrate and provide an economic interpretation of the fourth and fifth regulations on hindrances to competition against the background of the present intervention system and current market structure of the energy sector (chapter 2 and 3). Further to that, the improvements of local authority`s opportunities to construct their own electricity production capacity in the new framework are explored, and the likely economic consequences (chapter 4). A summary and evaluation of the results is given in chapter 5. (UA) [Deutsch] Wirtschaftspolitische Weichenstellungen in der Energiepolitik werden in der BRD nicht nur von den nationalen und supranationalen Gesetzgebungsinstanzen, sonder in sehr hohem Ausmass auch von den Kommunen gepraegt. Der ordnungspolitische Handlungsspielraum der Kommunen wird dabei von den Gemeindeordnungen der jeweiligen Bundeslaender festgelegt, die eine Fortentwicklung der ``Deutschen Gemeindeordnung`` von 1935 darstellen. Viele Gemeinden haben nicht gezoegert, diese Handlungsmoeglichkeiten insbesondere durch die Gruendung von eigenen Versorgungsunternehmen auszunuetzen. Die Kommunalisierung der Energieversorgung steht jetzt wieder im Mittelpunkt vieler Diskussionen, wobei nicht nur eine verstaerkte Gruendungsaktivitaet als solche, sondern darueber hinaus eine Dezentralisierung der

  5. Study on Framework of Integrated Risk Management of Flexible Coal and Electricity Supply Chain%弹性煤电供应链一体化风险管理框架研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓鹏; 杨里

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we studied the integrated risk management model aimed at the overall improvement of theflexibility of the coal and electricity supply chain, whose contents included the overall analysis of the characteristics of the member units of the coal and electricity supply chain (including coal enterprise, electricity enterprise, railway transportation enterprise and ports, ete.),recognition of the internal and external risk factors of the supply chain, and establishment of complete integrated risk management framework model of coal and electricity supply chain.%主要研究以全面提升煤电供应链弹性为目标的一体化风险管理框架.研究内容主要包括全面分析煤电供应链各成员单位(包括煤炭企业、电力企业、铁路运输、港口等)的特性,识别煤电供应链内外部的风险因素,建立完整的煤电供应链一体化风险管理框架模型.

  6. Large fluidized bed combustion power plant unit for the supply of electricity and heat for Berlin. Pt. 1. Groesster Wirbelschicht-Kraftwerksblock zur Strom- und Fernwaermeversorgung fuer Berlin. T. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abroell, G. (ABB Kraftwerke AG, Mannheim (Germany)); Bade, H. (Berliner Kraft- und Licht (BEWAG)-AG, Berlin (Germany)); Bietz, K.H. (Lurgi GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)); Jahn, P. (EAB Energie-Anlagen Berlin GmbH (Germany))

    1991-11-01

    The Berlin Power and Light Company (Bewag) has decided to install, on the inner city site of Moabit, for the supply of electricity and district heating, a new unit with circulation atmospheric fluidized bed combustion. The plant will be designed for a thermal capacity of 240 MW. The basis for this decision, and also the technical implementation, will be made public. (orig.).

  7. Large fluidized bed combustion power plant unit for the supply of electricity and heat for Berlin. Pt. 2. Groesster Wirbelschicht-Kraftwerksblock zur Strom- und Fernwaermeversorgung fuer Berlin. T. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abroell, G. (ABB Kraftwerke AG, Mannheim (Germany)); Bade, H. (Berliner Kraft- und Licht (BEWAG)-AG, Berlin (Germany)); Bietz, K.H. (Lurgi GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)); Jahn, P. (EAB Energie-Anlagen Berlin GmbH (Germany))

    1991-12-01

    The Berlin Power and Light Company (Bewag) has decided to install, on the inner city site of Moabit, for the supply of electricity and district heating, a new unit with circulation atmospheric fluidized bed combustion. The plant will be designed for a thermal capacity of 240 MW. The bases for this decision, and also the technical implementation, will be made public. (orig.).

  8. To Explore The Method of Reducing The Failure Rate of County Electric Power Supply Company%探究降低县级供电公司农网故障率的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王顺刚

    2015-01-01

    本文简要叙述县级供电公司农网故障及原因,提出农网故障的检测方法及有效降低县级供电公司农网故障率的方法。%With the rapid development of national economy, the construction and development of county-level power supply company website speed also appear gradually accelerated condition, this paper analyzes the reasons of the failure of the county-level power supply company's web site, in a timely and properly handle the rural power failures, can effectively reduce the rate of contribution to the company website at the county level, improve the rural power supply reliability, stability and security. Due to the particularity of county electric power supply company public network cable, cable buried underground, most of the rural power failures can't directly find the fault point, and then use the instrument test site failure. This paper briefly describes the failure and the reason of county-level power supply company website, rural electricity fault detection method is proposed, puts forward the effective method to reduce the failure rate at the county level power supply company.

  9. SOFC solid oxide fuel cell power plants for the decentralised electric energy supply; SOFC-Brennstoffzellen-Kraftwerke fuer die dezentrale elektrische Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogang Tchonla, Etienne

    2012-07-01

    To use the fuel cell economically, the efficiency of the system must still be raised so that it can be set up in the market. Within the scope of analysis on this topic, a 120-kW-SOFC-demonstration power plant was to be considered. Since not enough information about the demonstration power plant from the operator was available for the investigation, we had to calculate with the help of the known technical data of similar power plants. After that a model was build and simulated by means of MATLAB/Simulink. Before that the single power plant components were being described. Two of them (the boost converter as well as the inverter) were looked at more thoroughly. As a result of the analysis, it was found that a standard inverter which had been conceived for other applications, for example, Photovoltaic or Wind Power can also be used for fuel cells. Unfortunately, this was not the case for the added boost converter. It had to be precisely conceived for the used fuel cell type. After this discovery information was won for the realization of a 1-MW-Fuel Cell Power Plant. The topology of the 1-MW-power plant was fixed on the basis of the 120-kW-system. A parallel connection of eight 120-kW SOFC-fuel cell aggregates is intended, as well as a connection at the outlet side 120-kW boost converters. A standard inverter with 1 MW electrical power as well as a 1-MVA-transformer could be used for the realization of the 1-MW-power plant. The binding of the power plant in the three-phase current network was examined in view of the norms, laws and connection conditions. Beside the distinction of the operating forms of the power plant (parallel or isolated operation) the security of the plant was emphasized with regard to quick fault recognition, safe supply line isolation in the fault case as well as a compliance of the prescribed regulations. To verify the calculated results as well as the provided models, a 10-kW-labor sample was built and examined in the lab. This experimental

  10. Study on Partner Selection of the Supply Chain for Gome Electrical Appliances%国美电器供应链合作伙伴选择研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙安伟; 叶金福; 蔡建峰

    2012-01-01

    Gome, one of the home appliance chain retail enterprise with the strongest influence power in China, is a national chain enterprise which runs the retail of the electrical appliances and the consumption electronic products, and its main businesses are the retail of the electrical appliances and the consumption electronic products. Although Gome maintains a close, friendly and mutual strategic partnership with world-renowned home appliance manufacturers, there are still certain problems in its partner selection process. This article focuses on the analysis of the partner selection of the supply chain for Gome by means of SWOT, points out its existing problem in the partner selection and puts forward improvement strategy in the partner selection.%国美电器是一家以经营电器及消费电子产品零售为主的全国性连锁企业,主营业务是电器及消费类电子产品零售,目前是中国最具影响力的家电连锁零售企业之一.国美电器与全球知名家电制造企业保持着紧密、友好、互助的战略合作伙伴关系,但在其合作伙伴选择过程中仍存在一定的问题.文章主要对国美电器的供应链合作伙伴选择现状运用SWOT进行分析,指出其在合作伙伴选择中存在的问题,并提出改善国美电器供应链合作伙伴选择的策略.

  11. Aid Supplies Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel

    The recent financial crisis has rekindled interest in the foreign aid supply behaviour of bilateral donors. Using the latest data covering the period 1960-2009, this paper examines how such behaviour is related to domestic factors. Based on a simple empirical model, a distinction is made between ...... substantial heterogeneity between countries. There is also good evidence that donor behaviour continues to evolve over time. As such, past trends in aid supplies are unlikely to provide a good guide to those of the future....

  12. Electric energy supply to isolated residences from the network through low power fuel cells; Fronecimento de energia eletrica a residencias isoladas da rede atraves de celulas a combustivel de baixa potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, Eduardo Torres; Furtado, Jose Geraldo de Melo [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: etserra@cepel.br, e-mail: furtado@cepel.br

    2008-07-01

    This paper discusses the technical and socio economical aspects of the utilization of fuel cells for supplying electric power to isolated residences under an analysis on the global and brazilian energy scenarios, focusing the ascertaining of the high inequality of electric energy consumption among the various regions and countries in the world and the electric power access viability for the population lesser favoured. The paper performs an energetic analysis allowing an estimate of daily average consumption of electric energy of a low income family, and also discusses an attendance alternative of this demand by using small generation unities consisting of polymeric membranes fuel cells and reformers of primary fuel. Also, the paper analyses the possibilities of using various fuels for the hydrogen production to be used in fuel cell and estimates the cost of electric energy generated as function the main parameters which characterizes the enterprise.

  13. Discussion on financial management of county's electric level power supply enterprise%县级供电企业财务管理探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏岚

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposed that county electric power supply enterprise must set up enterprise management to put management as the center, management in financial management as the core concept , and from promoting financial personnel service quality, strengthening the basis of accounting standard, implement the overall budget management system, financial informatization construction, establishing financial management index system, executing significant financial transaction report system and other aspects to strengthen financial management, and by these measures to reduce financial risk.%县级供电企业必须树立企业管理以经营管理为中心,经营管理以财务管理为核心的理念,从财务人员业务素质的提升、会计基础规范的加强、全面预算管理制度的贯彻、财务信息化建设、财务管理指标体系的建立、重大财务事项报告制度执行等多方面加强财务管理工作,降低财务风险。

  14. Research document no. 30. Introducing competition in the French electricity supply industry: the destabilization of a public hierarchy in an open institutional environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finon, D

    2002-07-01

    The introduction of market rules in a electricity supply industry characterized by a vertically integrated monopoly and public ownership is not inherently doomed to failure if characteristics of the reform or other elements of industrial structures give room for enforcing market-rules. The organisation of the French ESI in a public monopoly was deeply rooted in French institutional peculiarities. The paper analyses how the governmental goal of preserving the national champion EDF have had two paradoxical effects in favour of competition development and the building of safeguards for the entrants: the creation of a credible regulatory governance structure with effective power of control on the network access, and which promoted market-rules and the creation of a power exchange for balancing the incumbent dominant position; and the enforcement of the credibility of the regulatory framework by the self control of the incumbent on the use of its dominant position and on the capture of the regulator. This two effects results from the influence of the European institutional environment which is superposed to the national one, in particular under the intensive scrutiny of the European Commission, on a model far behind the competitive model. The paper concludes to the originality of such an institutional model: a permanent regulatory threat on the incumbent for balancing the effects of public property and integration of industrial structures. (author)

  15. Autonomous electricity supply with photo-voltaics: Photo-voltaics for rural electrification - reality and vision; Autonome Stromversorgung mit Photovoltaik: Photovoltaik fuer die laendliche Elektrifizierung - Realitaet und Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabler, H. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    1998-12-01

    Since the first demonstrations of solar technology in the 1970`s, two decades have passed until stable markets in high growth rates for a certain technical solution to rural electrification (the Solar Home System) could develop in various places. Indonesia, Mexico, Kenya, China and India are outstanding examples for building up such markets. We can now estimate that between 100,000 and 200,000 Solar Home System units were sold in 1997. One can estimate the total available user potential at 10 to 100 million units. The text is concentrated on the successful Solar Home system and the much discussed larger hybrid plants for electricity supply. [Deutsch] Seit den ersten Demonstrationen solarer Technik in den siebziger Jahren sind dann alledings noch zwei Jahrzehnte vergangen bis sich an verschiedenen Orten der Welt stabile Maerkte mit hohen Zuwachsraten fuer eine bestimmte technische Loesung zur laendlichen Elektrifizierung - das Solar Home System - entwickeln konnten. Indonesien, Mexiko, Kenia, China und Indien sind herausragende Beispiele fuer den Aufbau derartiger Maerkte. Wir koennen heute abschaetzen, dass 1997 zwischen 100.000 und 200.000 Solar Home System Einheiten abgesetzt wurden. Das insgesamt erschliessbare Nutzerpotential kann auf 10 bis 100 Millionen Einheiten veranschlagt werden. Der Text konzentriert sich auf die erfolgreichen Solar Home Systeme und die derzeit viel diskutierten groesseren Hybridanlagen zur Stromversorgung. (orig./RHM)

  16. Measurement of electrical energy and typification of end uses in the domestic sector; Medicion de energia electrica y tipificacion de usos finales en el sector domestico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Juarez, Francisco; Maqueda Zamora, Martin Roberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In this work the advantages in using modern measuring equipment that allows the segregation of load curves of the domestic users using a single measuring equipment are presented, some samples of the measurements that have been obtained during measurements made to diverse domestic users are presented. Also, some other complementary technologies of recent development are mentioned that help in the application of power efficiency measures in the diverse sectors, the use of these equipment serves as a support for measuring the effectiveness of the programs of of energy saving and of the demand management that are desired to implement. The objective of this article is to demonstrate the use of the modern measuring equipment for the typification and measurement of the end uses in the domestic sector, and to present the advantages of using these equipment in the power efficiency studies. [Spanish] En este trabajo se exponen las ventajas de usar equipos de medicion modernos que permiten la desagregacion de curvas de carga de los usuarios domesticos utilizando un solo equipo de medicion, se presentan algunas muestras de las mediciones que se han obtenido durante mediciones realizadas a diversos usuarios domesticos. Tambien, se mencionan algunas otras tecnologias complementarias de reciente desarrollo que ayudan en la aplicacion de medidas de eficiencia energetica en los diversos sectores, el uso de estos equipos sirve de soporte para medir la efectividad de los programas de ahorro de energia y de administracion de la demanda que se desean implementar. El objetivo de este articulo es demostrar el uso de los equipos de medicion modernos para la tipificacion y medicion de usos finales en el sector domestico, y presentar las ventajas de usar estos equipos en los estudios de eficiencia energetica.

  17. Sustainable electricity supply of the future. Costs and benefits of a transformation to 100% renewable energies; Nachhaltige Stromversorgung der Zukunft. Kosten und Nutzen einer Transformation hin zu 100% erneuerbaren Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Andreas; Luenenbuerger, Benjamin; Osiek, Dirk

    2012-08-15

    In the brochure under conideration, the Federal Environment Agency (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on a sustainable electricity supply in the future. The costs and benefits of the transformation to 100% renewable energy sources are considered. The Federal Environment Agency concludes: A sustainable power supply requires the transition to a fully renewable energy supply. A full supply of electricity from renewable sources by 2050 is feasible technically. Thereby electricity from wind power and solar energy may play a central role in any ambitious expansion scenarios. The cost of power generation from renewable energy already are sunk. This trend will continue. Since the conventional power generation is more expensive in the future, renewable energy pays off more and more. Environmentally harmful subsidies and the lack of consideration of the social costs caused by the fossil and nuclear power generation massively distort the competition at the expense of renewable energy. The transformation of the energy system is worthwhile macroeconomically. The promotion of renewable energies avoids social follow-up costs caused by environmental damages and health related harms. Jobs are created. The regional value added is increased. It also improves the competitiveness of the fast-growing world markets for renewable energy technologies.

  18. Analysis of Power Supply Contracts (Electricity Tariff)Dispute Processing%浅析供用电合同(电费电价)的纠纷处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高莉; 马宏斌

    2014-01-01

    The power supply contract is not only basic information for the management of power supply,but also is most important basis for the electricity dispute processing.In the power supply contract dispute,electricity tariff dispute resides in the dispute first place.This article elaborated the dispute reasons of electricity prices,proposed the obj ective fea-sible processing methods,to protect the legitimate rights and interests between the parties,urging the power supply enter-prise healthy development.%供用电合同既是供用电管理的基础资料,又是处理供用电纠纷最重要的依据。在供用电合同纠纷中,电费电价纠纷居于纠纷首位。文中阐述了电价产生纠纷的原因,提出了客观可行的处理方法,以保护供用电双方合法权益为目的,促使供电企业健康发展。

  19. Environmental impact on the bacteriological quality of domestic water supplies in Lagos, Nigeria Impacto ambiental sobre a qualidade bacteriológica do abastecimento domiciliar de água em Lagos, Nigéria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Egwari

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of town planning, infrastructure, sanitation and rainfall on the bacteriological quality of domestic water supplies. METHODS: Water samples obtained from deep and shallow wells, boreholes and public taps were cultured to determine the most probable number of Escherichia coli and total coliform using the multiple tube technique. Presence of enteric pathogens was detected using selective and differential media. Samples were collected during both periods of heavy and low rainfall and from municipalities that are unique with respect to infrastructure planning, town planning and sanitation. RESULTS: Contamination of treated and pipe distributed water was related with distance of the collection point from a utility station. Faults in pipelines increased the rate of contamination (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar o impacto do planejamento urbano, da infra-estrutura, do saneamento e dos índices pluviométricos sobre a qualidade bacteriológica do abastecimento domiciliar de água. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada cultura de amostras de água obtida de poços superficiais e profundos, fossos e água corrente de bicas públicas para determinar o número mais provável de Escherichia coli e coliformes totais por meio da técnica de múltiplos tubos. Patógenos entéricos foram detectados pelo uso de meios diferenciais e seletivos. Amostras foram coletadas durante os períodos de seca e de chuvas intensas em municípios com características singulares de infra-estrutura, planejamento urbano e saneamento. RESULTADOS: A contaminação de água tratada ou encanada esteve relacionada à distância do ponto de coleta com relação à estação de tratamento. Defeitos na canalização aumentaram o índice de contaminação (p<0,5, principalmente em áreas densamente povoadas com infra-estrutura arruinada. Os despejos de bueiros representaram a principal fonte de contaminação da água encanada. Houve maior contaminação em poços superficiais do que

  20. Promotion of direct marketing and supply on demand of electric power from renewable energy sources. Final report; Foerderung der Direktvermarktung und der bedarfsgerechten Einspeisung von Strom aus Erneuerbaren Energien. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-06-23

    The study investigates the promotion of direct marketing and supply on demand of electric power from renewable energy sources in Germany. the study shows that renewable energy sources are a good option for facing the challenges of the future. However, the potential is often left unused because of a lack of incentives in the current pricing system. To solve this problem, the Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety authorized two studies that are to enable or improve the utilization of the integration potentials of the renewable energy sources. Two model proposals based on these studies are presented here. The model proposing a bonus for combined-cycle power plants is to ensure supply on demand of electric power from renewables with the aid of integrated power storage systems. However, it is found that this model will not generate significant effects for power supply on demand. The second model proposes financial incentives; it will work well for renewable power supply systems that can be controlled, e.g. bioenergy, run-of-river power plants with power storage, and biogas plants. On the other hand, supply-dependent technologies like wind power, photovoltaic power, run-of-river power plants without power storage, and geothermal power plants with very low variable cost, the goal is not fully reached. In contrast to the first model, the market incentives model will enhance the integration of renewable energy sources in the competitive market by largely eliminating market risks. (orig./RHM)

  1. Research on the Course Reform of Electrical Power Supply System of Aeronautics and Astronautics%“航空航天供电系统”的课程改革研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨善水; 王莉; 张卓然

    2012-01-01

    航空航天供电系统是航空类电气工程与自动化本科专业的特色专业课程。航空供电系统包括发电、电能变换和配电等多个重要环节,该课程最突出特点是系统性强。在实际的教学中,应从系统基本功能需求分析和可靠性要求等方面突出系统性的概念,而不局限于部件的性能分析;应联系实际科研情况,阐明未来的发展方向。%Electrical Power Supply System of Aeronautics and Astronautics is a special course for the students majo- ring in electrical engineering and automation specialty. The electrical power supply system is composed by some parts such as power generation, converting, and distribution, etc. In the course, the systematization of system should be emphasized from some aspects such as the fundamental function requirements, reliability requirements, rather than be restricted in the analysis of some parts of the system. The research work of the teacher and the develop- ment of the electrical power supply system should be integrated into the education

  2. Domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiurski Jasmina

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article author examines a definition of a family, the role of a family as a social and legal institution as well as state reaction in a situation of mal function of a family. Special attention is given to a definition of a family, its protective function and criminal law in modern legal systems. Author also analyzes recent reform of our legislation firstly new criminal offence (Article 118a of the Criminal Code of Republic of Serbia - Domestic Violence - and its relation to other similar criminal offences. Finally, author gives an overview of up-to-now practice from District and Municipal Prosecutors Offices in Belgrade and suggestions for solving observed problems in implementation of this criminal offence.

  3. 商业银行发展供应链电票融资的现实意义%Realistic Significance of Commercial Banks' Developing the Supply Chain Electric Ticket Financing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解静; 田奇慧

    2015-01-01

    At present, with the rapid development of Internet, the traditional offline bill financing service mode has been challenged, while the supply chain electric ticket financing business has gradually attached the attention of commercial banks for the characteristic of effectively controlling the risks. The article explains the meaning and gives out the specific model of supply chain electric ticket financing, analyzes the significance of promoting supply chain electric ticket financ⁃ing on commercial banks, puts forward the supervision requirements for the investigation of the authenticity of innovative trade background, and suggestions like speeding up the construction of small and medium-sized banks' electrical ticket system, establishing the legal status of electronic bill as soon as possible and etc. to promote practically the development of commercial banks' supply chain electric ticket financing business.%当前,互联网飞速发展,传统的线下票据融资服务模式受到挑战,供应链电票融资业务以其可以有效控制风险的特点逐步受到商业银行的重视。文章具体解释了供应链电票融资的含义及具体模式;剖析了推进供应链电票融资对商业银行的重大意义;提出了创新贸易背景真实性审查的监管要求、中小银行加快电票系统建设、尽快确立电子票据的法律地位等切实推动商业银行供应链电票融资业务开展的建议。

  4. Strategic Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    March 7, 2003. [29] Velis, Lil. “ Publishing Industry : Supply Chain Strategy in Action,” briefing presented to ICAF Strategic Supply Seminar, May 6...Lambert and Stock, page 48. [32] Velis, Lil. “ Publishing Industry : Supply Chain Strategy in Action,” briefing presented to ICAF Strategic Supply

  5. Aid Supplies Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel

    The recent financial crisis has rekindled interest in the foreign aid supply behaviour of bilateral donors. Using the latest data covering the period 1960-2009, this paper examines how such behaviour is related to domestic factors. Based on a simple empirical model, a distinction is made between ...... substantial heterogeneity between countries. There is also good evidence that donor behaviour continues to evolve over time. As such, past trends in aid supplies are unlikely to provide a good guide to those of the future.......The recent financial crisis has rekindled interest in the foreign aid supply behaviour of bilateral donors. Using the latest data covering the period 1960-2009, this paper examines how such behaviour is related to domestic factors. Based on a simple empirical model, a distinction is made between...... long-run supply trends and short-run dynamics, which motivates use of error correction methods. Panel econometric techniques are employed that are consistent in the presence of parameter heterogeneity and cross-section dependence. Results support the error correction framework, but point to very...

  6. Indonesia’s Electricity Demand Dynamic Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistio, J.; Wirabhuana, A.; Wiratama, M. G.

    2017-06-01

    Electricity Systems modelling is one of the emerging area in the Global Energy policy studies recently. System Dynamics approach and Computer Simulation has become one the common methods used in energy systems planning and evaluation in many conditions. On the other hand, Indonesia experiencing several major issues in Electricity system such as fossil fuel domination, demand - supply imbalances, distribution inefficiency, and bio-devastation. This paper aims to explain the development of System Dynamics modelling approaches and computer simulation techniques in representing and predicting electricity demand in Indonesia. In addition, this paper also described the typical characteristics and relationship of commercial business sector, industrial sector, and family / domestic sector as electricity subsystems in Indonesia. Moreover, it will be also present direct structure, behavioural, and statistical test as model validation approach and ended by conclusions.

  7. Computation of the start-up period of large synchronous electric motors on a computer in the design of power supply networks for the oil fields of Western Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissenbaum, I.A.; Gorbacheva, N.Y.

    1980-01-01

    Currently used methods of computing the start-up period of large synchronous electric motors do not give us reliable information about the mode of the electrical system of the oil field when the motor is started up. The reason for this is that the response of the oil field electrical transducers to voltage drops is not taken into account in these methods. A new program is proposed, called the Computation of the Start-up Period of Large Synchronous Electric Motors, written and compiled in PL/1 for Unified System computers. The program makes it possible to undertake automated computations of a residual voltage table at the nodes of the designed power supply network and the operating modes of the most powerful oil field transducers.

  8. 江苏油田钻机网电拖动技术改造%Model Alternation for Drilling Rig of Electricity-driven by Network Power Supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    税理中

    2011-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of the power system of Jiangsu Oilfield and the specific requirements for implementation of the grid power drilling, the program of grid power drilling for Jiangsu Oil Field is practical, useful and specific.Through field testing and use, the diesel power generators and the main power diesel replaced by industry power,supply the electricity to winch,wheel,mud pump and other MCC,is proved not only to save money,increase fuel efficient, reduce the cost of drilling, and reduce noise, emissions and oil pollution, ease the contradiction between the workers and peasants.It will be a saving, safe, clean and efficient production way in the future.%根据江苏油田电网自身特点,围绕钻机实施网电拖动技术改造的具体要求,对钻机网电拖动方案进行探讨,形成了一套符合江苏油田电网实际,切实可行的并具有江苏油田特色的钻机网电改造方案.通过现场试验和使用,采用工业电网取代柴油发电机组或柴油机给绞车、转盘、泥浆泵及MCC等提供电力,不仅省钱、省油,节约钻井成本,还可减少现场的噪声、废气排放和油污污染,缓解工农矛盾,可实现节约、安全、清洁和高效生产.

  9. The principal rare earth elements deposits of the United States-A summary of domestic deposits and a global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Keith R.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Foley, Nora K.; Cordier, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are fifteen elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum to lutetium ('lanthanides'), plus yttrium (39), which is chemically similar to the lanthanide elements and thus typically included with the rare earth elements. Although industrial demand for these elements is relatively small in tonnage terms, they are essential for a diverse and expanding array of high-technology applications. REE-containing magnets, metal alloys for batteries and light-weight structures, and phosphors are essential for many current and emerging alternative energy technologies, such as electric vehicles, energy-efficient lighting, and wind power. REE are also critical for a number of key defense systems and other advanced materials. Section 843 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010, Public Law 111-84, directs the Comptroller General to complete a report on REE materials in the defense supply chain. The Office of Industrial Policy, in collaboration with other U.S. Government agencies, has initiated (in addition to this report) a detailed study of REE. This latter study will assess the Department of Defense's use of REE, as well as the status and security of domestic and global supply chains. That study will also address vulnerabilities in the supply chain and recommend ways to mitigate any potential risks of supply disruption. To help conduct this study, the Office of Industrial Policy asked the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to report on domestic REE reserves and resources in a global context. To this end, the enclosed report is the initial USGS contribution to assessing and summarizing the domestic REE resources in a global perspective. In 2009, the Mineral Resources Program of the USGS organized a new project under the title Minerals at Risk and For Emerging Technologies in order to evaluate mineral resource and supply issues of rare metals that are of increasing importance to the national economy. Leaders and members of

  10. Small nuclear power reactor emergency electric power supply system reliability comparative analysis; Analise da confiabilidade do sistema de suprimento de energia eletrica de emergencia de um reator nuclear de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfietti, Gerson

    2003-07-01

    This work presents an analysis of the reliability of the emergency power supply system, of a small size nuclear power reactor. Three different configurations are investigated and their reliability analyzed. The fault tree method is used as the main tool of analysis. The work includes a bibliographic review of emergency diesel generator reliability and a discussion of the design requirements applicable to emergency electrical systems. The influence of common cause failure influences is considered using the beta factor model. The operator action is considered using human failure probabilities. A parametric analysis shows the strong dependence between the reactor safety and the loss of offsite electric power supply. It is also shown that common cause failures can be a major contributor to the system reliability. (author)

  11. Electric power saving potential due to domestic refrigerators replacement; Potencial de ahorro de energia electrica por el reemplazo de refrigeradores domesticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta Solorio, Jose Luis [Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (Mexico)]. E-mail: jose.peralta@cfe.gob.mx

    2006-04-15

    In Mexico the second most used electrical appliance is: refrigerator. Owing to its use, it would be a promising option for electric power saving. In Guadalajara, Reynosa and Tampico it was performed a study with the aim of launching a project to replace the old refrigerators with new ones which are more effective and less expensive. Since the refrigerators cost and the electrical invoicing saving, the electric appliance change is profitable. To expect with this replacement more than eight million of refrigerators manufactured before 1997 will be changed. [Spanish] El refrigerador es el segundo electrodomestico mas utilizado a nivel nacional, esto permite que debido a su uso sea una opcion prometedora para el ahorro de energia electrica. Se hizo un estudio en Guadalajara, Reynosa y Tampico con el fin de lanzar un proyecto para sustituir los refrigeradores viejos por unos nuevos que sean mas eficaces y menos costosos. Por el costo de los refrigeradores y el ahorro en la facturacion electrica, el cambio de electrodomestico es rentable, de esta manera se espera que los mas de ocho millones de refrigeradores fabricados antes de 1997 que existen en el pais sean cambiados.

  12. Electricity reform and sustainable development in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James H.; Kahrl, Fredrich

    2008-10-01

    Reducing the environmental impact of supplying electricity is a key to China's sustainable development, and a focus of both domestic and international concerns with greenhouse gas emissions. The environmental performance of the electricity sector is strongly affected by its institutional arrangements: regulatory frameworks, wholesale markets, pricing mechanisms, planning and coordination, and enforcement and incentive mechanisms. These arrangements are set to change as electricity reforms inaugurated in 2002, but sidetracked by several years of supply shortages, are being resumed. In this paper we examine the impact of electricity reform on environmental sustainability by analyzing case studies of four environmental initiatives in the electricity sector: retirement of inefficient generators, installation of pollution control equipment, renewable energy development, and efforts to promote energy efficiency. We find that implementation of these policies falls short of objectives for two main underlying reasons: conflicting priorities between central and provincial governments, and ineffective regulation. Sustainability will be best served not by redoubling short-term supply-oriented, market-based reforms, but by better aligning central and provincial government incentives, and by developing competent, independent regulation at the provincial level. China's central government and sub-national governments in industrialized countries can both contribute to the latter goal.

  13. Electricity reform and sustainable development in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, James H [Energy and Environmental Economics, Suite 1600, 101 Montgomery Street, San Francisco, CA 94104 (United States); Kahrl, Fredrich [Energy and Resources Group, 310 Barrows Hall, U.C. Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)], E-mail: jim.williams@miis.edu

    2008-10-15

    Reducing the environmental impact of supplying electricity is a key to China's sustainable development, and a focus of both domestic and international concerns with greenhouse gas emissions. The environmental performance of the electricity sector is strongly affected by its institutional arrangements: regulatory frameworks, wholesale markets, pricing mechanisms, planning and coordination, and enforcement and incentive mechanisms. These arrangements are set to change as electricity reforms inaugurated in 2002, but sidetracked by several years of supply shortages, are being resumed. In this paper we examine the impact of electricity reform on environmental sustainability by analyzing case studies of four environmental initiatives in the electricity sector: retirement of inefficient generators, installation of pollution control equipment, renewable energy development, and efforts to promote energy efficiency. We find that implementation of these policies falls short of objectives for two main underlying reasons: conflicting priorities between central and provincial governments, and ineffective regulation. Sustainability will be best served not by redoubling short-term supply-oriented, market-based reforms, but by better aligning central and provincial government incentives, and by developing competent, independent regulation at the provincial level. China's central government and sub-national governments in industrialized countries can both contribute to the latter goal.

  14. Understanding the supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Slobodan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain management represents new business philosophy and includes strategically positioned and much wider scope of activity in comparison with its "older brother" - management of logistics. Philosophy of the concept of supply chain is directed to more coordination of key business functions of every link in distribution chain in the process of organization of the flow of both goods and information, while logistic managing instruments are focused on internal optimum of flows of goods and information within one company. Applying the concept of integrated supply chain among several companies makes the importance of operative logistics activity even greater on the level of one company, thus advancing processes of optimum and coordination within and between different companies and confirms the importance of logistics performances for the company’s profitability. Besides the fact that the borders between companies are being deleted, this concept of supply chain in one distribution channel influences increasing of importance of functional, i.e. traditional business managing approaches but instead it points out the importance of process managing approaches. Although the author is aware that "there is nothing harder, more dangerous and with uncertain success, but to find a way for introducing some novelties (Machiavelli, it would be even his additional stimulation for trying to bring closer the concept and goals of supply chain implementation that are identified in key, relevant, modern, theoretical and consulting approaches in order to achieve better understanding of the subject and faster implementation of the concept of supply chain management by domestic companies.

  15. Analysis and Comparison for the Development of Smart Electricity Consumption in Domestic and Foreign%国内外智能用电发展分析比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯庆东; 何战勇

    2012-01-01

    This paper has analyzed the background, basis and starting points of the development of Smart Electricity Consumption in the United States, Europe, and Asia. By analyzing the features of Smart Electricity Consumption of the United States, Europe and Asia, the driving force and drawbacks of China's Smart Electricity Consumption have been pointed out. It is proposed that in the future we should fully integrate the conditions of the power grid and China's national conditions, establish the goals suiting the development of China's Smart Electricity Consumption services, build the architecture and development path of Smart Electricity Consumption services system and grasp the speed of moving in accordance with our regulations, policies, institutional mechanisms and progress of the Smart Grid construction.%分析了美国、欧洲、亚洲智能用电发展的背景、发展基础及各自发展智能用电的出发点.通过分析美国、欧洲和亚洲智能用电的特点,指出了中国发展智能用电的驱动力以及不足的地方.提出了在未来应充分结合我国国情、电网情况,树立适合我国智能用电服务的发展目标,建立智能用电服务体系架构以及发展路线,并根据我国法规政策、体制机制和智能电网建设进展情况适当把握推进速度.

  16. Shallow Discussion of a High-rise Building Electrical and Water Supply and Drainage Installation%浅议某高层建筑电气与给排水安装工程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麻君丽; 郑民

    2012-01-01

      The construction of electrical instal ation enginee-ring and water supply and drainage engineering is the city's infrastructure. With the development of society, science and technology progress, the construction of electrical and water supply and drainage instal ation fast development. At the same time, high-rise building electrical and water supply and drain-age design, construction and instal ation engineering quality management requires higher and higher. In order to make the network to realize high quality, high efficiency operation purp-ose, in addition to the reasonable design, the construction of electrical and water supply and drainage instal ation engine-eering system instal ation quality fit and unfit quality wil sig-nificantly affect to use.%  建筑电气安装工程与给水和排水工程是城市的基础设施。随着时代的发展,科学和技术不断进步,建筑电气与给排水安装工程快速发展。同时,高层建筑电气与给排水设计,施工和安装工程的质量管理要求越来越高。为了使管网实现高品质,高效率运行的目的,除了合理的设计,建筑电气与给排水安装工程系统安装质量的优劣将对使用显著影响。

  17. An analysis of Water Supply Heat Pump's Capability of Energy Storage and Energy Saving Using Electricity%水源热泵系统蓄能节能的可行性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴薇; 张小松

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the characteristic of water supply heat pump (WLHP) is introduced. The thermal performanceand effect of energy saving that can be used to heating and cooling at the same time (the distinctive working mode) is em-phasized. A new idea of heat input using wave trough electricity instead of boilers is brought up, the effect and significance ofthis new method is discussed.

  18. A hybrid approach based on ANP, ELECTRE and SIMANP metaheuristic method for outsourcing manufacturing procedures according to supply chain risks - Case study: A medical equipment manufacturer company in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiwa Farughi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays enterprises should consider seeking to reduce the supply chain risks as a crucial part of their activities in order to improve their competitiveness in the international context. Choosing the suitable strategy in connection with assigning some parts of the production process to outside the organization is a complex multi-criteria decision making problem and it gets more complicated when supply chain risk factors as the factors to select the strategy as well as dependence and the close ties between these criteria also be considered. In this paper, after the identification of risks in the supply chain of a medical equipment manufacturer company, dependence and ties between criteria in line with choosing the best strategy among existing alternatives has been examined in the form of a combined ANP-ELECTRE method. This combined model is of high performance to give a solution to the problem considered in this paper. But given the complex and time consuming nature of the AHP and ELECTRE, in this study a meta-heuristic algorithm is developed called SIMANP that despite the simplicity of computing and high-speed, is good in the terms of precision and efficiency. The results of comparing SIMANP algorithm and the proposed ANP - ELECTRE method are presented at the end.

  19. Power supply company's purchaserisk analysis under the electricity market environment%电力市场环境下供电公司的购电风险分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖耀

    2016-01-01

    在打破传统垄断式供电模式,加快向市场化转型的背景形势下,电力市场改革和市场化运作体制的逐渐形成使得供电公司迎来了新的电力市场环境,增加了新的风险类型.为了加强供电公司风险管控能力,保障电力市场稳定有序运作,本文结合电力市场环境,对供电公司购电风险类型及强化风险管控的对策进行了深入探究.%In traditional monopoly power supply mode,background to the market to accelerate the reform of the electricity market,and the market operation system gradually formed the power supply company ushered in the new electricity market environment,increase the risk of new type.In order to strengthen the power supply company risk control ability,guarantee the stability of power market orderly operation,combined with the environment of power market,the power company electricity purchase risk countermeasures and strengthen risk management in-depth inquiry.

  20. Super Network Model and Equilibrium Analysis of Electric Power Supply Chain%电力供应链的超网络模型与均衡分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宣金钊; 张纪会; 张海滨

    2011-01-01

    在完全竞争假设下,分析了电力供应链的基本特征,建立了电力供应链的超网络模型,给出了电力供应链的均衡条件.根据变分不等式的基本理论,讨论了电力供应链均衡点的存在性,以及基于修正投影算法的均衡点的求解方法,并以一个实例来验证该方法的正确性及合理性.%The basic features of electric power supply chains are analyzed, and a supernetwork model for electric power supply chains is established. The equilibrium conditions of the model under the assumption of perfect competition are given. According to the fundamental theory of variational inequalities, we discussed the existence of equilibrium of electric power supply chains and the solution techniques of equilibrium based on a modified projection algorithm. An example is provided to verify the correctness and the rationality of the model.

  1. Experience in Electrical Design for Urban Domestic Sewage Treatment Plant%城市生活污水处理厂电气设计体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何孜章

    2012-01-01

    The designs for power supply and distribution system and motor control of sewage treatment plants in city, and the application of intelligent low-voltage motor protection controller in motor control are introduced.%介绍某城市生活污水处理厂的供配电系统设计及电机控制设计.以及智能低压电机保护控制器在电机控制中的应用。

  2. 中国煤电能源供应链风险关系及风险评价测度研究%Research on Risk Sources Transitive Relation of Coal -Electricity Supply Chain and Risk Evaluation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭忠富; 刘平阔

    2015-01-01

    煤电能源供应链的风险管理问题是保障中国能源安全的重要基石。本文针对中国煤电能源供应链的绩效和风险管理,研究了煤电能源供应链风险管理的风险评价测度问题。基于供应链部门关系的界定,利用价值驱动树方法对风险源传递关系进行梳理,构建中国煤电能源供应链指标体系(C -ES-CRMIS)。通过社会问卷调查的方式收集样本,进行主成分分析,建立结构方程模型(SEM );为测量指标权重,对风险因子载荷分析、二级因子路径系数进行计算;基于指标相关性的指标权重确定方法(CRIT-IC ),得到煤炭供应链风险评价测度模型(C-ESCRE )。结果表明:现阶段,中国煤电能源供应链的主要风险源为政策风险、意外灾害和市场需求风险。节点企业可根据测度模型,对其供应链风险进行评价分析。最后进行了案例分析,以期为政府宏观调控、供应链协同管理以及企业内部控制提供参考。%Risk management of Coal -Electricity supply chain is an important cornerstone for China's energy security . With respect to the performance and risk management of Coal -Electricity supply chain risk management in China , this article is focused on the issues of Coal-Electricity supply chain risk evaluation . Based on defining the relationships among the supply chain sectors , using Value Driver Tree to sort out the risk sources , Coal-Electricity Supply Chain Risk Management Index System is built . Social questionnaires samples are collected to introduce a principal component analysis , and Structural Equation Modeling is employed . With respect to the weight of index , the factor loading and the path coefficient of risks are discussed at the same time . According to the Criteria Importance Through Intercriteria Correlation method , a model of Coal -Electricity supply chain risk evaluation is built . The results show that :currently

  3. New purchase conditions by EDF, of the electrical power produced by the energy valorization installations of domestic wastes and assimilated; Nouvelles conditions d'achat par EDF de l'electricite produite par les installations de valorisation energetique des dechets managers et assimiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    The State Secretary for the Industry, C. Pierret, approved the new purchase conditions by EDF, concerning the electric power, produced by the installations of domestic wastes energy valorization. This action is in agreement with the energy policy. The purchase conditions are presented and commented. (A.L.B.)

  4. Electromagnetic Compatibility Predesign for Satellite Secondary Electrical Power Supply%星载二次电源的电磁兼容预设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明敏; 谢树果; 苏东林; 孙宏涛

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an electromagnetic compatibility predesign method to deal with the radiation emission of a satellite's secondary electrical power supply.The method analyzes the causes of electromagnetic interference.By using a SPICE simulator, this paper establishes an equivalent circuit model of conducted interference, with which circuit parameters are optimized and conducted interference sources are simulated.Radiated interference is approximately computed with an amendatory mongline model.According to the approximate computation, the number and position of the equivalent dipoles are optimized by genetic algorithm for the equivalent field model.Basing on the field-circuit combination method, the conducted interference results obtained from simulation become the excitation source of the equivalent field model for the calculation of radiated interference.In order to achieve predesign optimization for the circuit and the printed circuit board, measures are proposed according to the simulation results.Simulation results and experimental data show good agreement.The radiated emission standard test is passed successfully with the application of this method.%针对星载二次电源电磁兼容试验中辐射发射的超标问题,提出了电磁兼容预设计方法.分析二次电源电磁干扰产生的机理,利用SPICE仿真器建立传导干扰的电路等效模型,优化电路设计得到传导干扰源;应用修正的单线模型近似计算辐射干扰,根据计算结果,利用遗传算法优化等效偶极子的数目和分布位置建立场等效模型;基于场路结合的方法,以传导干扰谐波源为新的激励源导入场等效模型仿真辐射干扰.根据近似计算和仿真分析,提出从原理电路和电路板版图改进的措施,从而实现电源研制初期的预设计.对比仿真结果和实测数据,二者趋势基本一致.该方法的应用使得辐射发射标准测试一次顺利通过.

  5. Demand curves of electric energy in domestic sector in two regions of Mexico; Curvas de demanda de energia electrica en sector domestico de dos regiones de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maqueda Zamora, Martin Roberto; Sanchez Viveros, Luis Agustin [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    In this work, is presented the analysis of residential consumption, regarding the temperature of two areas and types of electrical appliances. A shape characteristic of the load of the electrical energy is obtained for two geographical areas in Mexico. The consumption information was obtained from measurements in residential consumers and from the Mexican Utility. It is also shown the demand profile of the main residential appliances, obtained from smart metering equipment to separate the residential users' load profiles. It is shown the effect of the different variables analyzed on the electrical power consumption, mainly the type of equipment, the geographical localization, the weather (temperature, humidity and vegetation type). With the results attained, the definition of effective energy-saving programs and its effectiveness can be obtained. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta el analisis del consumo residencial considerando la temperatura de las dos areas y tipos de aparatos electricos. Se obtiene una forma caracteristica de la carga de energia electrica de dos areas geograficas de Mexico. La informacion sobre el consumo se obtuvo de mediciones en consumidores residenciales y de una empresa electrica mexicana. Tambien se muestra el perfil de demanda de los principales aparatos residenciales, derivado de equipos de medicion inteligentes para separar los perfiles de carga de usuarios residenciales. Se muestra el efecto de diferentes variables analizadas en el consumo de energia electrica, principalmente el tipo de equipo, la localizacion geografica, el clima (temperatura, humedad y tipo de vegetacion). Con los resultados alcanzados pueden definirse programas de ahorro de energia efectivos y lograr implantarlos.

  6. From crop domestication to super-domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, D A; Balázs, E; Heslop-Harrison, J S

    2007-11-01

    Research related to crop domestication has been transformed by technologies and discoveries in the genome sciences as well as information-related sciences that are providing new tools for bioinformatics and systems' biology. Rapid progress in archaeobotany and ethnobotany are also contributing new knowledge to understanding crop domestication. This sense of rapid progress is encapsulated in this Special Issue, which contains 18 papers by scientists in botanical, crop sciences and related disciplines on the topic of crop domestication. One paper focuses on current themes in the genetics of crop domestication across crops, whereas other papers have a crop or geographic focus. One feature of progress in the sciences related to crop domestication is the availability of well-characterized germplasm resources in the global network of genetic resources centres (genebanks). Germplasm in genebanks is providing research materials for understanding domestication as well as for plant breeding. In this review, we highlight current genetic themes related to crop domestication. Impressive progress in this field in recent years is transforming plant breeding into crop engineering to meet the human need for increased crop yield with the minimum environmental impact - we consider this to be 'super-domestication'. While the time scale of domestication of 10 000 years or less is a very short evolutionary time span, the details emerging of what has happened and what is happening provide a window to see where domestication might - and can - advance in the future.

  7. Development of HV power transmission technology. Electric power supply until first world war; Entwicklung der Hochspannungsuebertragungstechnik. Die Elektroenergieversorgung bis zum Ersten Weltkrieg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittmann, Frank [Deutsches Museum, Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-11-02

    Story of power supply from 1880 to 1935 in Germany starting first with light centers, first public plants for power utilization followed by steam power plants and erection of overhead power lines. (GL)

  8. Heat Losses Evaluation for Domestic Hot Water Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor Mateescu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In sanitary systems assembly, domestic hot water distribution supply networks represent an important weight for energetically balance.par This paper presents, in an analytical and graphical manner, the computational tools needed for domestic hot water piping system behavior characterization in different functional and structural assumptions.

  9. Domestic Water Sourcing and the Risk of Diarrhoea: a Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Domestic Water Sourcing and the Risk of Diarrhoea: a Cross-Sectional survey of a ... of Primary Health Care (PHC) necessitating the World Health Organization to ... seen to source domestic water from the municipal pipe-borne water supply, ...

  10. Energy supply security in Europe: principles and measures; La securite des approvisionnements energetiques en Europe: principes et mesures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keppler, J.H.

    2007-07-01

    After having recalled a dozen of reasons for some worries about energy supply security in Europe during the past months (oil price increase, intentional interruption of gas and oil deliveries by Russia respectively to Ukraine and Belarus, creation of a new CO{sub 2} trading scheme, tensions on the European electricity markets, and so on), the author distinguishes and discusses those which are actually a threat to energy supply and those which are not. Then, he proposes a classification of these threats in relationship with the reasons for delivery interruption, production capacity limitation, or price increase. These reasons can be political situations and decisions, technical problems, commercial reasons. Then, the author examines what European policy makers can do to manage these risks and ensure energy supply security. This needs economic as well as political responses, coherence between domestic energy policies and energy supply security, and an efficient foreign policy based on a multilateral approach

  11. Evaluation of NEB energy markets and supply monitoring function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-01

    Canada's National Energy Board regulates the exports of oil, natural gas, natural gas liquids and electricity. It also regulates the construction, operation and tolls of international and interprovincial pipelines and power lines. It also monitors energy supply and market developments in Canada. The Board commissioned an evaluation of the monitoring function to ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of the monitoring activities, to identify gaps in these activities and to propose recommendations. The objectives of the monitoring mandate are to provide Canadians with information regarding Canadian energy markets, energy supply and demand, and to ensure that exports of natural gas, oil, natural gas liquids and electricity do not occur at the detriment of Canadian energy users. The Board ensures that Canadians have access to domestically produced energy on terms that are as favourable as those available to export buyers. The following recommendations were proposed to improve the monitoring of energy markets and supply: (1) increase focus and analysis on the functioning of gas (first priority) and other commodity markets, (2) increase emphasis on forward-looking market analysis and issue identification, (3) demonstrate continued leadership by encouraging public dialogue on a wide range of energy market issues, (4) improve communication and increase visibility of the NEB within the stakeholder community, (5) build on knowledge management and organizational learning capabilities, (6) improve communication and sharing of information between the Applications and Commodities Business Units, and (7) enhance organizational effectiveness of the Commodities Business Unit. figs.

  12. Electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

  13. Analysis on Domestic and Foreign WTO/TBT notification of Energy efficiency of Electrical and Electronic Equipment%国内外有关电子电器产品能效WTO/TBT通报分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万茸茸; 曾延光

    2011-01-01

    提高产品能效水平成为全球应对能源危机和达到各国节能减排目标的重要手段.文章从发布数量、成员组成结构和产品类别等方面分析了2007~2010年国内外有关电子电器产品能效的WTO/TBT通报状况,研究此类通报的特点和趋势,为企业应对待机能效壁垒提供技术参考.%Improving energy efficiency is becoming one of effective approaches to address the energy crisis and global emission reduction. This paper analyzes Domestic and Foreign WTO/TBT notification of Energy efficiency of electrical and electronic Equipment from 2007 to 2010 in the aspects of issuance amount, structure of members and product categories. In order to provide a good reference for the export enterprises to overcome the technical barriers, this paper also analyzes status of these notifications and investigated characteristics and tendency.

  14. Weather impact on the electric energy consumption of domestic users; Impacto del clima en el consumo de energia electrica en los usuarios domesticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Niembro, Gaudencio; Fiscal Escalante, Raul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    It is said that when an energy saving and efficient use of energy program is implemented it must be a business for three: the user, the society and the electric utility. In respect to the user, his decision making is quite simple: is it cheaper or more expensive for me?. Unfortunately in many cases we want a very short return time or the money needed for the initial investment is not available. For instance, and incandescent bulb is several times less expensive than a compact fluorescent lamp, but if we make the calculation on the life-time and on the power consumption reduction of the compact fluorescent lamp, we can conclude that this one is more economic. The benefit for the society can be seen under many different aspects, being the most important the natural resources conservation and the environment. From the stand point of the utility the heavier possible factors are the postponement of the investments and the system reliability. When some of the programs of the Demand Side Management (DSM) are applied, the utilities support or promote non financially profitable but improve their image before the user, on creating a consciousness in the saving and in the efficient use of energy: a short term investment is made and a long term revenue is obtained. For this reason for an optimum selection and implementation the saving and the efficient use of electric energy measures a detailed knowledge of the consumption way is required. In this paper the importance of monitoring the way the different type of users employ the energy in order to make up decisions on DSM programs in many different scenarios: cities, type of users, income level, etc. is shown. [Espanol] Se dice que cuando se implementa un programa de ahorro y uso eficiente de la energia electrica, debe ser negocio para tres: el usuario, la sociedad y la empresa electrica. En lo que respecta al usuario, su toma de decision es muy simple: me resulta mas barato o mas caro. Desafortunadamente en muchos de los casos

  15. Starting Phenomena and Temperature-rise under vvvf Supply of Three-Phase Squirrel-Cage ac Traction Motor of Electric Locomotive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, R. N.; Arya, L. D.; Verma, H. K.

    2012-09-01

    In three-phase squirrel-cage ac traction motor, temperature-rise calculation during variable-voltage and variable-frequency starting is of vital importance and has to be predicted and critically examined. Under voltage source inverter supply with PWM, the generation of harmonics by inverter supply reduces the output during starting due to higher harmonic losses, thereby reducing the starting tractive effort in kN on locomotive wheel. Stator and rotor temperature-rises during starting have been determined for average acceleration torque in segmental zone (calculated from variable acceleration) which have been presented in the paper with both copper and aluminium alloy rotor bars.

  16. Rational use of electric energy in public water supply systems - a case study in Macapa - Brazil; Uso racional de energia eletrica em sistemas publicos de abastecimento de agua, um estudo de caso em Macapa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Cynthia S.; Correia, Paulo de Barros [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia

    1998-12-31

    The rational use of energy is becoming a matter of great importance and interest on every sectors of society. Optimization techniques are efficient tools to get rational operations of energy. This paper presents an optimization model applied to a part of the CAESA public system water supply in Macapa, considering a daily programming horizon. CAESA is the company of water and drain of Amapa. The results achieve show a reduction potential up to 25% in actual electrical energy use of the studied system. (author) 7 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.; e-mail: cynthia e correia at fem.unicamp.br

  17. Energy management in multi-municipal water supply systems. Identifying energy cost savings from readily available time-series electricity consumption and water production data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, V.; Castanheira, L. [ENERGAIA, Energy Management Agency of Gaia (Portugal); Fleming, P. [Institute of Energy and Sustainable Development, De Montfort University, (United Kingdom); Gouveia, J. Borges [Department of Engineering and Industrial Management, Aveiro University (Portugal)

    2002-07-01

    This paper analyses data from 21 water pumping stations to identify electricity saving opportunities. The specific energy consumption of the different pumping stations are calculated. Using a combination of bivariate correlation analysis and CUSUM analysis, the water pumping related energy consumption and the non pumping of electricity consumption have been identified. This time-series energy analysis techniques provided much more information than the traditional energy consumption technique. Data is presented for one pumping station that identifies potential electricity savings through modifications to the current pumping regime. Bivariate analysis, followed by CUSUM technique can help improve the cost effectiveness of the energy audit by analysing the data for the pumping stations prior to the audit. Such an analysis can then help the energy auditor identify a major electricity saving opportunities in a shorter time and so make the whole approach more cost effective.

  18. Residential Rooftop Solar and the Utilities Death Spiral. A system dynamics analysis of the effects of rooftop solar diffusion on the electricity rates and CO2 emissions of the U.S. electricity supply sector

    OpenAIRE

    Meehan, Conor

    2015-01-01

    U.S. electric utilities are concerned by the recent exponential growth in rooftop solar installations among their customers. They fear that if their customers continue to adopt such self generation technologies and buy less electricity from the utility, then the utility will no longer make enough sales to achieve cost recovery' from these customers. Utilities argue that, in order to compensate for this, they will have to increase their electricity rates, and that these rate rises will in turn...

  19. 电动卡车运输双电源技术在露天煤矿中的可行性分析%Feasibility Analysis of Electric Truck with Dual Power Supply in Open-pit Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚娜

    2014-01-01

    分析中煤集团某露天矿燃油消耗及电动卡车的使用特点,阐明其双电源电动卡车在露天开采中的可行性,为煤炭行业“节能降耗,降本增效”提供新思路。%The paper analyzed fuel consumption and electric truck features in an open-pit mine in China Coal Group and presented the feasibility of the electric truck with dual power supply, which could contribute to Energy Saving and Consumption Reduction, Cost Cutting and Benefit Increasing in coal enterprises.

  20. A more effective use of clean energy. Decentralized power supply: EEG promotes the personal use of electricity; Saubere Energie effektiver nutzen. Dezentrale Stromversorgung: EEG foerdert die Eigenstromnutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-05-15

    Despite cutbacks in the feed-in tariff in the most cases PV systems remain viable in the future. However, the system operator has to deal with the achievement and securing a maximum revenue more intensively. It is recommendable not to feed electricity to 100% but to use as much energy as possible. Since the Renewable Energy Law promotes the personal use of electricity in particular, and thus increases the profitability of the plant.

  1. 我国科技保险供需不足的经济分析与对策%The Economic Analysis on Lack of Supply and Demand on Domestic Technological Insurance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵俊英

    2012-01-01

    After almost three years' development, technological insurance perfects insurance service for high lech enterpri-ses and supports enterprises to strengthen the capacity of independent innovation. But still some problems are existing dur-ing the process of development among which lack of demand and supply is the most serious. The reason of lack of demand and supply is analyzed by utility function from the aspects of insurance company and technology company respectively, which includes insurance company' s high operation cost, enterprise's limited funds, high premium rate and so on. What' s more, the externality of technological insurance causes the improper allocation of resources. Based on this, suggestions are put forward including eliminating the externality of technological insurance, innovating technological insurance, and strengthening publicity to increase the effective demand and supply of technological insurance.%经过近3年的试点,科技保险加强和改善了对高新技术企业的保险服务,支持了企业增强自主创新能力.然而在发展中也面临很多问题,比较突出的是供需不足.利用效用函数分别从保险公司、科技企业角度分析供需不足的原因在于保险公司过高的经营成本,企业的资金有限,高费率等.而科技保险产品本身的外部性导致资源配置不当.由此提出利用多种方式解决科技保险外部性问题,不断创新科技保险,加大宣传力度,以增加科技保险的有效供给和需求.

  2. Capacity study for solid biomass facilities - scenarios for supply and demand of solid biomass for electricity and heat generation in north west Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagels, E.T.A.; Junginger, H.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    Background: The growing awareness for climate change and security of supply leads to a increasing share of renewable energy in which biomass plays an important role. Especially in the European Union (EU-27), where member states have agreed on a binding target of a 20% renewable energy share of

  3. Capacity study for solid biomass facilities - scenarios for supply and demand of solid biomass for electricity and heat generation in north west Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagels, E.T.A.; Junginger, H.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The growing awareness for climate change and security of supply leads to a increasing share of renewable energy in which biomass plays an important role. Especially in the European Union (EU-27), where member states have agreed on a binding target of a 20% renewable energy share of tota

  4. Electrical Supply System for the Experimental Zero-Energy Building (of 300 m2 Based on Renewable and Alternative Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basok, B.I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of the development and implementation of the power supply system of the experimental zero-energy building based on renewable and alternative energy sources are presented. CDF-model to determine the optimal conditions for the deployment of wind energy installations within the building limits is developed.

  5. Electrónica de potencia para el calentamiento por inducción doméstico: revisión del estado del arte Power Electronics for Domestic Induction Heating: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N Hincapié

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta la revisión de la literatura que relaciona los desarrollos de los sistemas de calentamiento por inducción. Inicialmente, se presenta una contextualización de la forma general de funcionamiento y se concentra en las características particulares para uso doméstico y de manera más específica en la electrónica de potencia. Se presentan los principios de operación, las topologías de inversores resonantes más usadas (serie, paralelo, híbrida, cuasi-resonante y de un solo interruptor, las estrategias de modulación, estrategias de control usando modulación de frecuencia, por ancho de pulso y por densidad de pulso y las metodologías de conmutación (suave y forzada. Finalmente, se hace un pequeño análisis sobre las áreas donde aún es necesaria la investigación tales como sistemas de calefacción por inducción con múltiples salidas, topologías de inversores de un solo interruptor y los inversores cuasi-resonantes.This work presents a technical review about the development of the domestic induction heating systems. Initially, this paper presents basic concepts and general principles of induction heating and it focuses in the particular characteristics for domestic appliances and specifically in the power electronics. It shows the operation principles, the topologies of resonant inverter most used (serial, parallel, hybrid, quasi-resonant, and single-switch, the switching strategies, the control strategies using frequency modulation, width modulation, and pulse density, and the switching methodologies (soft and hard. Finally, it is done a brief analysis on the areas where further research is still needed such as multiple-outputs induction heating systems, single switch inverter topologies, and quasiresonant inverters.

  6. The Cost-profit Analysis of Increasing Domestic Oil Supply--Based on Reducing Oil Import Dependent Effect%我国石油供给扩张的成本-收益分析--基于降低石油进口依赖效应视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕; 林仲豪

    2014-01-01

    石油进口依赖给我国经济带来了巨大成本支出和经济风险,提高我国国内石油供给量是降低石油进口依赖路径之一。基于降低石油进口依赖效应,从我国国内石油供给的财富转移收益、潜在 GDP 收益和宏观经济调整收益三个角度以及从直接生产成本、环境成本和使用者成本三项成本来对提高我国国内石油供给的经济可行性进行论证,结论显示整体趋势上,提高国内石油供给的总收益大于其总成本,并且其净收益呈现上升态势,是有利可图的,这种优势在国际油价高企的时候表现得更为突出,但是收益-成本弹性却呈现下降态势,即整体上成本的相对增长幅度要快于收益的增长幅度。%Oil import dependence has brought tremendous costs and economic risk for China. Increasing China's oil supply is one way of reducing oil import dependence. Based on the reducing the oil import dependence effect, the article analyses the economic viability of increasing domestic oil supply from three points of view, that is, profits of wealth transfer, potential GDP profits and macroeconomic adjustment profits, and from another three consideration of costs, namely, direct production costs, environmental costs and user costs. The result shows that the profits of increasing our domestic oil supply are more than the costs from the overall trend, and the net profit is increasing, especially as the high oil price. But, the elasticity of profit-cost is falling, which shows the relatively growth rate of overall costs is faster than growth rate of profits.

  7. Nursing Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Nursing Supplies Page Content Article Body Throughout most of ... budget. (Nursing equipment also makes wonderful baby gifts.) Nursing Bras A well-made nursing bra that comfortably ...

  8. 46 CFR 169.688 - Power supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power supply. 169.688 Section 169.688 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations on Vessels of 100 Gross Tons and Over § 169.688 Power supply. (a)...

  9. Impact of a PV system interconnected to the electric network of a High Consumption Domestic user's demand in BCS; Impacto de un sistema fotovoltaico interconectado a red en la demanda electrica de un usuario DAC en BCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Grajales, H. R.; Agredano Diaz, Jaime; Gonzalez Galarza, R.; Munguia del Rio, G. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    In Mexico, the incident solar radiation is high enough, that encourage its use both to produce process heat or electricity trough solar cells in autonomous configurations or grid. In European countries with substantially lower irradiation levels such as Germany or Spain. PV Grid Connected Systems (PVGCS) are a mature technology that is widely used in these countries, mainly due to tax incentives and preferential feed in tariffs schemes. Of the benefits that electricity production modality provides both the user and to the electricity grid and also the technical benefits for the utilities for incorporating distributed generation at its distribution system. In Mexico, more and more people are motivated to invest in this type of technology. This article analyzes the particular case of a user that is classified as High Consumption Domestic Customer (HCDC) in the city of La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico, who owns a single phase of 6 kWp PVGCS installed on the roof of her house. The reported results in this paper come from data analyzed by the Electrical Research Institute (IIE) for a three year monitoring period. The paper includes meteorological information, energy and power balances, maximum power, standard production, system losses, efficiency of the photovoltaic generator and inverters, among other performance information. The document highlights the impact that the PV system on electricity consumption user billing from the utility, and some recommendations are provided on what must be done in order get out from the HCDC classification and the economic benefits of it. [Spanish] En Mexico se tienen niveles de irradiacion solar suficientemente altos que desde un punto de vista puramente energetico alientan a su aprovechamiento en la produccion de electricidad, ello mediante sistemas fotovoltaicos directamente conectados a la red electrica convencional (SFVI). En paises europeos con niveles de irradiacion sustancialmente inferiores - i.e. Espana o Alemania- esta

  10. 供电企业社会责任管理体系建立与实施%Establishment and Implementation of Social Responsibility Management System of Electric Power Supply Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玺娟

    2013-01-01

    供电企业在新形势下如何发挥“责任央企”的榜样力量,是展现在我们面前的一个新课题。本文从供电企业建立和实施“全员参与、全过程覆盖、全方位融合”的全面社会责任管理目标模式入手,探索和总结具有实际操作性的经验和方法。%How to play the good example power of "enterprises directly controlled by the central authorities with responsibility" is a new topic for the electric power supply enterprise in the new situation. This article starts from establishing and implementing the comprehensive social responsibility management target mode of "full participation, covering the entire process, full integration" in electric power supply enterprises, explores and summarizes the practical and operational experience and methods.

  11. Secondary electrical design of station service power supply system for Lunzua Power Station in Zambia%赞比亚Lunzua水电站厂用电系统二次设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁艳艳; 黄卫平

    2015-01-01

    介绍了赞比亚Lunzua水电站厂用电系统二次设计思路,针对国外工程的特殊要求,将建筑电气常用的自动转换开关的自动化功能应用于水电站厂用电的自动化设计中,并研究了一套自动转换开关和柴油机自动投退相配合的厂用电自动化方案,实现了母线电源的自动切换和恢复,柴油发电机的自动启动、投入和停止。工程投运后,运行正常。%An introduction was made on the secondary electrical design ideas of station service power supply system of Lunzua Power Station in Zambia. In view of the special requirements of overseas projects, automatic transfer switch frequently used in architectural electric system was adopted in the station service power supply system of power station. Cooperation between automatic transfer switch and diesel generator under automatic on/off control permits automatic transfer and recovery of bus power, automatic start, operating or shutdown of diesel generator.The project has been operating normally since it was put into operation.

  12. Electricity supply of single-family homes. Is energy self-sufficiency also economically efficient?; Stromversorgung im Einfamilienhaus. Ist Autarkie wirtschaftlich?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staudacher, Thomas; Eller, Sebastian [Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft (FfE) e.V., Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Currently available photovoltaic (PV) battery systems make it possible to increase the proportion of self-consumed as well as of self-produced electricity, in other words: to raise the degree of energy self-sufficiency. The next step towards greater private electricity autarky, surpassing the high rates of private consumption and self-production already achievable today, could come from PV hybrid systems. However this still presupposes the presence of a base-load capable generator for covering the residual load. But is electricity self-sufficiency economically desirable at all? This article undertakes a simulation-based analysis of the economic efficiency of a PV hybrid system consisting of a PV plant, a battery and a diesel generator.

  13. Overview on Coordinative Management of Supply Chains from Domestic to Abroad%国内外供应链关系协调管理研究述评及展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈原

    2007-01-01

    供应链基于"竞争-合作-协调"机制,协调是供应链成功运行的关键,供应链协调(Supply Chain Coordination)是供应链关系管理的重要内容.本文主要从战略层面及战术和运作层面两个方面对供应链关系协调管理的研究文献进行综述,希望对我国在供应链协调管理方面的研究和实践上起到一定的指导作用.

  14. Construction and Management of Power Supply System in Electrical Engineering%初探电气工程中供电系统的施工管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何乙

    2014-01-01

    Power supply system, as an important part of el- ectric power engineering, has difficulties with construction te- chnique and high risk of construction. Therefore, we must ca- rry on the management to the power supply system instalation by using scientific, effective means to ensure the instalation quality of construction power supply system. This paper main- ly explores the effective methods of improving the instalation and construction management of power system.%供电系统作为电力工程重要的一部分,均有施工技术难度大、危险程度高更特点。所以,一定要采用科学、有效的手段对供电系统安装施工进行管理,以保证供电系统安装施工质量。本文主要探究了提升供电系统安装施工管理力度的有效方法。

  15. Multilevel Flow Modeling of Domestic Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Lind, Morten; You, Shi

    2012-01-01

    of complementing this reasoning methodology. Domestic heating systems, as the main resource to meet the thermal requirements of end-users, have different implementations in Europe in order to achieve various degrees of controllability and heating efficiencies. As all the heating systems serve the same basic needs...... i.e. supplying and transferring thermal energy, it is off interest to use MFM to investigate similarities and differences between different implementations. In this paper, three typical domestic European heating systems, which differ from each other in the number of temperature sensors and auxiliary...

  16. Assessment of electricity demand-supply in health facilities in resource-constrained settings : optimization and evaluation of energy systems for a case in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palacios, S.G.

    2015-01-01

    In health facilities in resource-constrained settings, a lack of access to sustainable and reliable electricity can result on a sub-optimal delivery of healthcare services, as they do not have lighting for medical procedures and power to run essential equipment and devices to treat their patients. C

  17. 20% Wind Energy by 2030: Increasing Wind Energy's Contribution to U.S. Electricity Supply; Executive Summary (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-12-01

    This document is a 21-page summary of the 200+ page analysis that explores one clearly defined scenario for providing 20% of our nation's electricity demand with wind energy by 2030 and contrasts it to a scenario of no new U.S. wind power capacity.

  18. Assessment of electricity demand-supply in health facilities in resource-constrained settings : optimization and evaluation of energy systems for a case in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palacios, S.G.

    2015-01-01

    In health facilities in resource-constrained settings, a lack of access to sustainable and reliable electricity can result on a sub-optimal delivery of healthcare services, as they do not have lighting for medical procedures and power to run essential equipment and devices to treat their patients.

  19. Integration of space heating and hot water supply in low temperature district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    electric heating and three heat pump solutions applying R134a and R744. The results show that conventional solutions at lowest possible temperature have the highest exergetic efficiency of 28% and lowest annual cost of € 690 for a 159 m2 house. The best low temperature system is an R134a heat pump with hot......District heating may supply many consumers efficiently, but the heat loss from the pipes to the ground is a challenge. The heat loss may be lowered by decreasing the network temperatures for which reason low temperature networks are proposed for future district heating. The heating demand...... of the consumers involves both domestic hot water and space heating. Space heating may be provided at low temperature in low energy buildings. Domestic hot water, however, needs sufficient temperatures to avoid growth of legionella. If the network temperature is below the demand temperature, supplementary heating...

  20. A model-based analysis for the improvement of electrical energy supply of future offshore windparks by means of biogas technology; Modellbasierte Analyse zur Verbesserung der elektrischen Energiebereitstellung zukuenftiger Offshore-Windparks mittels Biogastechnologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tigges, Martin

    2010-09-06

    Since the beginning of industrial revolution energy supply in Germany was based on fossil fuels. Climatic change, the greenhouse effect, the growth of population on the one hand and shortage on fossil fuels on the other hand and the will to be independent from importing resources from political instable countries are calling for serious changes. The primary modernisation of the current energy supply needs to target a sustainable, generation comprehensive solution. The use of renewable fuels is necessary. Wind energy usage is one of the most promising alternatives within the short-term to middle-term planning of environmental policy. As in Germany nearly all potential habitats on mainland already are tapped, significant development potential is seen at offshore habitats in North as well as Baltic Sea. Germany aims for the allotment of up to 25 GW of offshore wind energy in the North and Baltic Sea till 2025. Electricity generation by wind energy plants subjects to the conditions the volatile characteristics of the wind. Within the planned big offshore wind energy farms comprising more than 80 plants changes in wind velocity as well as directions will lead to fluctuations in energy supply. Up to now the plant resource scheduling needed to react on the users demand. The further development of wind energy and the differences between forecasted and actual wind energy feeds do and will hinder this resource scheduling. New approaches need to be found to be able to ensure the security of energy supplies in Germany. These approaches should be sustainable and therefore be based on the usage of renewable fuels. Within this dissertation possible solutions as well as constraints of the usage of biogas as a nearly CO2 neutral fuel in combination with micro gas turbines adapted to the usage with biogas plants to be able to align the differences between forecasted and actual wind energy supply for a future offshore wind energy plant park are analysed. This combination allows an

  1. The supply expansion of electricity in Brazilian urban centers through connected photovoltaic systems' network; A expansao da oferta de energia eletrica nos centros urbanos brasileiros por meio de sistemas fotovoltaicos conectados a rede

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedito, Ricardo da Silva; Zilles, Roberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Lab. de Sistemas Fotovoltaicos

    2010-07-01

    This paper aims to outline perspectives on the electricity production through Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems (GCPS), in Brazil, and its insertion on a large scale in the energy matrix, as a supplementary power generation source. The GCPS bring several benefits to the Electrical Sector and the environment by producing energy cleanly and quietly in the places of consumption, avoiding the construction of large power plants and avoiding additional costs with transmission and distribution. In general, these systems can be integrated into the buildings architecture, taking advantage of the rooftop of pre-existing buildings. But, although it has high solar potential, Brazil had been installed a capacity of only 161.32 kWp GCPS until December 2009, a value considered negligible compared, for instance, with 4.5 GWp installed in Europe alone in 2008. This study shows that the cost of generation from a GCPS is still high, reaching to 2.4 times higher than the average residential tariff practiced in Brazil, which turns the technology impracticable commercially. But it shows a trend of equalization between these two values in the next decade for various locations, which will certainly make the GCPS to be considered as an alternative for expanding the energy supply. But for the lack of appropriate technical criteria do not affect the spread of this technology in the future, it is necessary a correct regulation of this activity by the staff of the Electrical Sector. (author)

  2. Opening of energy markets: consequences on the missions of public utility and of security of supplies in the domain of electric power and gas; Ouverture des marches energetiques: consequences sur les missions de service public et de securite d'approvisionnement pour l'electricite et le gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This conference was jointly organized by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the French ministry of economy, finances, and industry (general direction of energy and raw materials, DGEMP). It was organized in 6 sessions dealing with: 1 - the public utility in the domain of energy: definition of the public utility missions, experience feedback about liberalized markets, public utility obligation and pricing regulation; 2 - the new US energy policy and the lessons learnt from the California crisis; 3 - the security of electric power supplies: concepts of security of supplies, opinion of operators, security of power supplies versus liberalization and investments; 4 - security of gas supplies: markets liberalization and investments, long-term contracts and security of supplies; 5 - debate: how to integrate the objectives of public utility and of security of supplies in a competing market; 6 - conclusions. This document brings together the available talks and transparencies presented at the conference. (J.S.)

  3. De-domestication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Gemmen, Bart; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou;

    2010-01-01

    De-domestication is the deliberate establishment of a population of domesticated animals or plants in the wild. In time, the population should be able to reproduce, becoming self-sustainable and incorporating 'wild' animals. Often de-domestication is part of a larger nature restoration scheme......, aimed at creating landscapes anew, or re-creating former habitats. De-domestication is taken up in this paper because it both engages and raises questions about the major norms governing animals and nature. The debate here concerns whether animals undergoing de-domestication should be looked upon...... as wild or non-wild and the effect this has on questions about how they should be treated. It also concerns the value of nature, and the kind and degree of nature management considered appropriate. The paper first describes actual de-domestication practices and considers the character of human duties...

  4. GENERATION OF RATES FOR ELECTRIC POWER IN REGIONAL POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS OF RUSSIA: PROBLEMS OF CHOICE REGARDING AN OPTIMUM MODEL OF RATE-MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Botkin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available At present contradictions are being intensified and difficulties arise due to insufficiently profound scientific study of the major issues concerned with economic development of Russia. First of all, this is referred to the issues of conceptual and methodological approaches to formation of economic relations in regional power systems in order to stabilize the parameters of the energy market, to reduce risks, to increase efficiency and competitive ability of power-producing companies in the context of the transformational economy. The authors note the fact that a challenging situation has occurred in the regional power systems of Russia in terms of generation of optimal electricity rates. A number of possible solutions to the problem of electric energy loss, optimization of fuel and energy balance throughout the processing line «producers-transmitters-energy consumers» and building up a system of rate-making in the regional energy sector on this basis has been offered.

  5. Domestic violence against children

    OpenAIRE

    Mihić Biljana D.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the author is analysing definitions and basic notions related to domestic violence against children, as one of the most serious forms of violence. The special chapter deals with effects of violence against children and causes of domestic violence against them. Also, the author is analysing different forms of social reaction and considering the problem of legal regulation of mandatory reporting domestic violence against children.

  6. 地方公共品供给、人口迁移与户籍制度--Tiebout 理论体系的地方性经验解释%Supply of Local Public Goods, Domestic Migration and Household Registration System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗青林

    2013-01-01

      Tiebout 模型是地方财政学的经典理论,后世从自利动机、财政外部性和公共品资本化等角度对其进行的拓展和修正,极大丰富了该理论的内涵,形成了一个对现实具有强解释力的理论体系。中国经济的发展,使国内地方公共品供给、人口迁移等问题越来越接近这一理论体系所勾勒的情形。本文利用其对江西的地方性经验进行解释,揭示了国内居民跨城市落户的投资移民性质,以及城市户籍管理和人口极差化流动的制度诱因。%Tiebout model is a classic model in local public finance, the multiple discussions of this model, which focus on self-interest motivation, externality of local public finance and the capitalization of local public goods, expanded and deep-ened this very theory, enriched the contents of it, and structured a cluster of theories which has strong explanation. The de-velopment of economy makes China's local public goods supply and domestic migration of population approaching the situation described by that cluster. This paper tries to explain the empirical facts of Jiangxi province with that cluster of theories, and uncovers the domestic trans-regional settling down of people as investment immigration, analyses the inducements of the ad-mittances of household registration system and finds the theoretical explanations on how differential domestic migration of pop-ulation leads to the downfall of suburban area in developing region.

  7. The bright side of snow cover effects on PV production - How to lower the seasonal mismatch between electricity supply and demand in a fully renewable Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Annelen; Dujardin, Jérôme; Dupuis, Sonia; Lehning, Michael

    2017-04-01

    One of the major problems with solar PV in the context of a fully renewable electricity production at mid-latitudes is the trend of higher production in summer and lower production in winter. This trend is most often exactly opposite to demand patterns, causing a seasonal mismatch that requires extensive balancing power from other production sources or large storage capacities. Which possibilities do we have to bring PV production into closer correlation with demand? This question motivated our research and in response we investigated the effects of placing PV panels at different tilt angles in regions with extensive snow cover to increase winter production from ground reflected short wave radiation. The aim of this project is therefore to quantify the effect of varying snow cover duration (SCD) and of panel tilt angle on the annual total production and on production during winter months when electricity is most needed. We chose Switzerland as ideal test site, because it has a wide range of snow cover conditions and a high potential for renewable electricity production. But methods can be applied to other regions of comparable conditions for snow cover and irradiance. Our analysis can be separated into two steps: 1. A systematic, GIS and satellite-based analysis for all of Switzerland: We use time series of satellite-derived irradiance, and snow cover characteristics together with land surface cover types and elevation information to quantify the environmental conditions and to estimate potential production and ideal tilt angles. 2. A scenario-based analysis that contrasts the production patterns of different placement scenarios for PV panels in urban, rural and mountainous areas. We invoke a model of a fully renewable electricity system (including Switzerland's large hydropower system) at national level to compute the electricity import and storage capacity that will be required to balance the remaining mismatch between production and demand to further illuminate

  8. De-domestication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Gemmen, Bart; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou

    2010-01-01

    as wild or non-wild and the effect this has on questions about how they should be treated. It also concerns the value of nature, and the kind and degree of nature management considered appropriate. The paper first describes actual de-domestication practices and considers the character of human duties...... to animals in process of de-domestication. Secondly, the paper explores the implications of de-domestication for nature management, focusing on notions of naturalness and wildness. Finally, because the current division of ethical topics, with its dependence upon whether animals and nature are domesticated...

  9. Simulation and analysis of electric vehicle regenerative braking system with multiplex power supply%复合电源电动车再生制动系统的仿真与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚思良; 盘朝奉; 陈昆山; 陈龙; 马跃超

    2013-01-01

    针对以蓄电池为单一车载电源的纯电动汽车存在着功率密度低、能量密度低、使用寿命短等缺点,将超级电容引入到纯电动汽车的储能系统中,组成了超级电容—蓄电池的复合电源结构.在MATLAB/SIMULINK环境下建立复合电源储能系统和驱动系统的仿真模型.基于搭建的实验平台参数,以可能多地利用电机再生制动力、最大程度实现制动能量的回收为目的制定制动力分配控制策略,根据标准市区循环工况进行再生制动仿真实验.结果表明,此再生制动系统回收了24%的制动能量,可以很好地弥补了蓄电池的低功率密度和低能量密度等缺陷,提高车载能量的利用率和车辆的动力性能,延长电动车的续驶里程.%Because storage battery used for driving the electric vehicle only has low power density, low energy density and other disadvantages, supercapacitor was applied to the energy storage system in battery electric vehicle to form a multiple energy supply system with battery. The multiple energy supply system model and driving system model were established via simulation environment of MATLAB/SIMULINK. In order to use more motor regenerative braking force and maximize braking energy recovery module, the braking force distribution control strategy was developed based on experiment platform parameter. The regenerative simulation test was conducted according to the power demands under standard urban driving cycle. The result shows that the regenerative braking system can recycled 24% braking energy. The multiple energy supply system can make up for the low power density, low energy density and other defects of car battery very well. It can improve the energy utilization ratio and the dynamic performance of the vehicle, and extend the driving range of electric cars.

  10. A Multi-Period Electricity Purchasing Model for Power Supply Company%基于时变Copula的供电公司多期购电组合优化模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宗益; 亢娅丽; 郭兴磊

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the power supply company's electricity purchasing problems in an open market ( e. g. medium and long-term contract market and spot market) where power can be freely traded. Owing to the high volatility of electricity price, the power supply company must purchase electricity from different markets to spread price risk based on financial investment portfolio theory. Most of previous literatures mainly research ona power supply company's single-phase decision-making process. However, the decision-making process is a typical multi-phase problem. As the decision made in one stage may influence the decision and profit in the next stage, we need to consider the multi-phase circumstance in order to optimize the risk of accumulated return. It is important to estimate and simulate the loss distribution function of asset portfolio when measuring the risk of accumulated return since the relationships among multiple variables are characterized by their joint distribution. Therefore, we need to carefully analyze the correlation between electric assets before considering the power market's portfolio strategy. Most of the previous literatures assert that price sequence follows a normal distribution and measures the correlation between electric power assets using linear correlation coefficient. Other studies show that thick tail and heteroscedasticity are typical phenomena in the price return series data. This strong nonlinear characteristic between power assets makes it difficult to use linear correlation coefficient to properly describe their relationships. Fortunately, Copula function can be used to describe the non-linear correlation structure between assets. Based on the above analysis, we establish amulti-phase power purchasing model which takes the maximum expected accumulated return and the minimum risk measured by dynamic coherent risk function as objectives. We adopt the time-variation SJC Copula -(GARCH-T, GARCH-GED) model to fit and simulate a series

  11. A novel concept of electrical drives based on two five-phases PMSM connected in parallel and supplied by a single inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tounsi, K.; Djahbar, A.; Zegaoui, A.; Boutoubat, M.; Bokhtache, A. Aissa; Allouache, H.; Aillerie, M.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the vector control of a parallel-connected two five-phase permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs) drive supplied by a single current-controlled voltage source inverter is presented. This system consists of a two five-phase PMSMs; the stators windings of both machines are connected in parallel in appropriate manner by using of the phase transposition property, which allows a decoupled control of the two machines. Based on the mathematical model of the multi-machine drive system, the decoupled dynamic of each machine from the group is obtained using the vector control algorithm. The independent control is ensured by controlling the stator currents and the speed of each machine under vector control consideration. Selected simulation results are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control method under various dynamic operating conditions.

  12. 供电企业客户信息管理模型研究%Study on the Customer Information Management Model in Electric Power Supply Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹熙; 李平; 康蕾蕾

    2013-01-01

    Customer information management is the foundation of building customer service. The power supply enterprises want need to do well the planning, acquisition, management and application of customer information. This article takes effective ways to improve the customer information base and establish comprehensive customer information file based on its actual situation and characteristics.%客户信息管理是客户服务建设的基础,供电企业需要做好客户信息的规划、采集、管理和应用工作.本文的针对电力企业客户服务工作的实际情况和特点,提出行之有效的管理方法去完善客户基础信息,建立完备的客户信息档案.

  13. Sectionalizing Transformation of the Electricity Supply System for Friction Power Tracks of Coking Ovens%焦炉摩电道供电系统分段改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜颖

    2015-01-01

    对焦炉的四大车即推焦车、装煤车、拦焦车、息焦车的摩电道进行改造,并对摩电道的供电电源进行改造,以提高焦炉四大车摩电道检修时的分段灵活性,从而消除安全隐患,提高焦炉的生产效率。%The friction power-delivery tracks for the four coking oven servicing ma-chines, namely the coke pusher car, charger car, guider car and quenching car, were trans-formed. At the same time the power supply source of the tracks was also upgraded. As a re-sult the maintenance of the friction power tracks was more flexibly sectionalized, which has e-liminated safety dangers and improved coking productivity.

  14. Impact of continuous and intermittent supply of electric assistance on high-strength 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) degradation in electro-microbial system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhanping; Zhang, Minghui; Zhang, Jingli; Zhang, Hongwei

    2016-07-01

    The high-strength 2,4-DCP, which exists in two states: dissolved and colloidal, was studied by a continuously electro-microbial system (CEMS) and an intermittently electro-microbial system (IEMS). The hydrolysis rate of colloidal 2,4-DCP in the IEMS without electric assistance was much higher than that in the CEMS. However, the degradation rate of the dissolved 2,4-DCP and the dissolved intermediates (2-chlorophenol and 4-chlorophenol) in the IEMS without electric assistance were much lower than that in the CEMS. By adjusting the intermittent operation mode, the degradation time of 2,4-DCP was shortened greatly. Microbial characteristics in the CEMS and the IEMS were different. The correlation analysis for the main factors affecting the hydrolysis was performed by SPSS, and it was found that the correlation coefficient (rp) was -0.912 for extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) content, 0.823 for zeta potential and 0.632 for relative hydrophobicity, respectively.

  15. The South African coal mining industry: A need for a more efficient and collaborative supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pooe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that about two-thirds of global coal is used for power generation and that, in the next 20 years, over 70% of the demand for coal will come from China and India. Coal accounts for approximately 41% of the world's electricity generation. Demand for thermal coal is influenced by factors that include availability, prices of competing products such as oil, gas and nuclear power, and the demand for electricity. The aim of this article is to provide an exposition of supply chain dynamics within the South African coal mining industry and to argue for a more efficient and collaborative supply chain. The authors attempt to investigate at local and global level, the current trends pertaining to the level of reserves, production and consumption of coal. The article further demonstrates the shortcomings of current logistics in meeting the demand for coal in both domestic and export markets. The article draws from secondary data sourced from academic papers, government and agency documents in the exposition of the coal mining supply chain. The paper concludes by recommending the need for a scientific study on supply chain constraints facing the coal mining industry in South Africa.

  16. Domestic violence against men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Christopher F

    This article reviews the literature relating to domestic violence against men and examines some of the reasons why men are reluctant to report violent episodes. The article focuses on men as the victims and women as the perpetrators of domestic violence and identifies gaps in service provision. The role of the nurse in supporting male victims is also discussed.

  17. Demand Response on domestic thermostatically controlled loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam

    . In general, the electricity consumers are classified as industrial, commercial and domestic. In this dissertation, only the thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) in the domestic segment are considered for the demand response study. The study is funded by Danish Council for Strategic Research (DCSR......, with respect to different power reduction levels, are analysed. Finally, the impact of demand response activation on the TCLs aggregated power is studied in terms of error in power limit, ramping rates and peak overshoot in different control scenarios. Lastly, the advantage and disadvantage of the different...

  18. 面向电力设备生产企业的供应链融资方案与风险%Financing Solution and Risk of Supply Chain for Electrical Equipment Manufacturers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖福利; 丛厚阳

    2012-01-01

    According to the management theory of Supply Chain Finance, two financing solutions, Accounts Receivable and Stock Mortgage, are designed for electrical equipment manufacturing enterprises to resolve the financing problems. The feasibility and risk of the solutions are also introduced and discussed. Besides the two financial solutions, commercial banks can develop other financial solutions, including Order Financing, Chattel Financing and Factoring etc. Financial pressure can effectively be alleviated through financing with Supply Chain Finance Solutions.%针对现阶段面临的电力设备生产企业的融资问题,根据供应链金融管理理论,设计了电力设备生产企业“应收账款”和“存货抵押”两种融资方案,并对两种方案的可行性与风险,分别做了介绍和探讨。除了上述两种金融方案外,商业银行针对电力设备生产企业还可以开展订单融资、动产融资、保理等多种供应链金融方案。通过供应链金融方案进行融资,可以有效缓解企业的资金压力。

  19. 1992 Conversion Resources Supply Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    In recent years conservation of electric power has become an integral part of utility planning. The 1980 Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Northwest Power Act) requires that the region consider conservation potential in planning acquisitions of resources to meet load growth. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) developed its first estimates of conservation potential in 1982. Since that time BPA has updated its conservation supply analyses as a part of its Resource Program and other planning efforts. Major updates were published in 1985 and in January 1990. This 1992 document presents updated supply curves, which are estimates of the savings potential over time (cumulative savings) at different cost levels of energy conservation measures (ECMs). ECMs are devices, pieces of equipment, or actions that increase the efficiency of electricity use and reduce the amount of electricity used by end-use equipment.

  20. Well supplied for the whole year; Gut versorgt fuers ganze Jahr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seltmann, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    While photovoltaics generate electricity primarily in the summer months, combined heat and power units supply electricity and heat predominantly in the winter. The combination of both results in a stable energy supply with electricity. Thus, the cost of the electricity supply is minimized effectively.

  1. The electricity industry perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orchison, K. [Electricity Supply Association of Australia Ltd., Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    A revolution has been sweeping through the electricity supply business in Australia in the past decade and especially in the past five years. Electricity suppliers were early adherents to the pursuit of economic reform, beginning a drive towards greater efficiency in the mid-1980s and accelerating the process as government, pushed in turn by industry and commerce, took up pursuit of competitive energy markets, including radical restructuring of the State-owned utility organizations. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the electricity supply business. It include an outline of the major challenges confronting the electricity supply business in Australia, particularly as a result of the introduction of competitive markets in electricity and natural gas. Deregulation will see the providers of electricity and gas reposition themselves as organizations able to supply the total energy needs of customers. A de-regulated electricity market also offers cogeneration plants new opportunities to sell surplus electricity to generators, distribution businesses or directly to customers. The major frontiers facing the electricity supply business in Australia is seen to be that of productively channelling change. How this is handled has substantial implications for those who purchase electricity, suppliers of fuel to electricity generators or rivals in the marketplace. (author).

  2. 供电企业电力营销风险及管控探讨%Electricity Supply Enterprise Marketing Risk and Control Discussion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾惠

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, China’s power industry has been to develop, power technology has also been a revolutionary innovation, power companies marketing efforts also receive more attention, the risk assessment for the marketing power industry has become very important. Only make a correct assessment of the power supply enterprise marketing risk, and the use of reasonable way to eliminate the risk of marketing power projects in order to effectively protect the legitimate rights and interests of users.%近年来,我国电力业得到大力发展,电力技术也得到革命性创新,电力企业的营销工作也受到更多的重视,对于电力业的营销风险评估也变得十分重要。只有对供电企业的电力营销风险做出正确评估,并且运用合理的办法消除电力项目营销的风险,才能有效保护使用者的合法权益。

  3. Optimal Configuration of Microgrid Power Supply Considering Plug-in Electric Vehicles%计及可入网电动汽车的微电网电源优化配置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶晨晖; 周玲; 张木银; 管志成

    2016-01-01

    计及可入网电动汽车( plug-in electric vehicle,PEV)、微电网中多种分布式电源( distributed generation,DG)输出功率的不确定性,综合考虑了DG投资、运维等成本,以及微电网带来的节能、降损、减少用户停电损失收益等因素,进行微电网电源的优化配置。 PEV接入微电网后,可以根据微电网的实际运行情况作为储能装置补充原有储能元件,从而减少储能元件容量,提高微电网的经济性。从PEV参与微电网运行调度出发,建立计及PEV的微电网电源优化配置模型。算例结果表明,该模型最优解可以确保投资的最佳经济性,获得较大社会经济收益,为含PEV的微电网电源优化配置提供理论依据。%With comprehensively considering plug-in electric vehicle (PEV), the output power uncertainty of various distributed generations ( DGs) in microgrid, the DG investment and operation cost, and the benefits of energy saving, loss reduction and outage loss decrease brought by microgrid, this paper optimizes the configuration of microgrid power supply. After the PEV is connected to the microgrid, it can be used as the energy storage device to supplement the original energy storage element according to the actual operation of microgrid, which can reduce the capacity of the energy storage element and improve the economic performance of the microgrid. From the aspect of PEV participating in the operation of microgrid, this paper establishes the optimal configuration model of microgrid power supply based on PEV. The results show that the optimal solution of the model can ensure the best economy of investment and obtain a larger social economic benefit, which provides theoretical basis for the optimal configuration of microgrid power supply with PEV.

  4. Analysis of government policies to support sustainable domestic defense industries

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Armed forces all over the world need military equipment to support their security missions. Having a domestic defense industry is one approach that countries use to supply their armed forces’ requirements. The successful development of a domestic defense industry depends on many factors, but perhaps the most significant variable is the government. Because governments are both buyers and suppliers of national security, government polici...

  5. Optimal design of automobile power supply based on electrical generation by waste heat and solar energy%基于余热与太阳能发电对汽车电源的优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邝家凯

    2012-01-01

    通过采用汽车尾气的余热和太阳能的热量进行发电,将温差发电机、太阳能发电机合成,对汽车的电源进行优化设计,为汽车提供电源,借以减少汽车的油耗和废气的排放.通过与传统汽车油耗对比,确实达到节能减排的目的.%This paper studies the electricity generation by using the waste heat from automobile exhaust and solar energy. The optimal design of automobile power supply is done by integrating thermo-electric generator and solar generator to decrease fuel consumption and exhaust emission. By comparing the fuel consumption with that of the traditional vehicle, it achieves the purpose of energy saving and emission reduction.

  6. Supply Deficit of m-Aminophenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zaijun

    2007-01-01

    @@ Supply deficit in the domestic market China's capacity to produce maminophenol was 2.3 thousand t/a and the actual output was around 1.8 thousand tons in 2006. Most producers use the nitrobenzene sulfonation alkali-fusion process developed by Shenyang Research Institute of Chemical Industry.

  7. Towards future organization of French electricity sector; Vers la future organisation electrique francaise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss-Kahn, Dominique; Pierret, Christian [Ministere de l' Economie, des Finances et de l' Industrie, Paris (France)

    2000-02-07

    This document displays information and questions concerning the future organization of the French electric sector. The directive on the domestic electricity market was adopted in 1996 by the Council of the Ministers of European Union and Parliament. The member states were due to transpose the directive within their national legislation up to 19 February 1999. The directive establishes principles but provides large reaches of maneuver to the member states which can choose the organizational means according to their own expectations. These task is considered as feasible by the authors. It must reinforce the public service by giving added strength to the security of supply and ensuring everybody's access to a well marketed and high quality electric supply. By introduction of certain well controlled elements of competition this evolution should also contribute to cost lowering, boost of the national competitiveness and support of employment. The document contains seven chapters which expose the following items: 1. The objectives of reorganization; 2. The directive and its reach; 3. Strengthening the public service; 4. Revamping the electric service to promote the growth; 5. Preserving the grids for the general benefit; 6. Defining the place of EDF within the new organizational scheme; 7. Developing an efficient regulation. Finally, an appendix is given containing the Directive 96/92/CE of the European Parliament and Council of 19 October 1996, concerning the common rules for domestic electricity market.

  8. Russian electricity reform. Emerging challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The Russian Government is pursuing a strategy of very high economic growth, with the objective of doubling gross domestic product in ten years. It recognises the central role the electricity sector has to play to achieve this target and has embarked on a highly ambitious program of electricity reform. If it is to succeed, the reform program will have to create market structures, market rules and a regulatory framework that will foster competitive wholesale and retail electricity markets. At the same time, it will have to deal with sensitive social issues related to tariff rebalancing and the removal of cross subsidies. Only competitive markets based on transparent prices that reflect costs can deliver the efficient, reliable and internationally competitive performance needed to meet the government's economic targets. Such markets are essential to attract new investment that will be required to ensure security of electricity supply after 2010. This book focuses on key aspects of the proposed reform that could have an important bearing on its success. It also raises concerns as to the pace of reform in related areas, such as the need for complementary reforms in the Russian natural gas sector. The IEA commends the Russian Government on its efforts to embrace this electricity reform - a key element critical to meeting the challenges ahead in terms of its economic growth and energy security. 17 figs., 10 tabs., 3 maps.

  9. Polygeneration smart grids. A solution for the supply of electricity, potable water and hydrogen as fuel for transportation in remote areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyriakarakos, George; Mohamed, Essam S.; Papadakis, George [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece). Dept. of Natural Resources and Agricultural Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the concept of polygeneration smart grids along with experimental results taken during winter 2009-2010 of a pilot polygeneration smart grid focusing on the evolution of the control strategy. In this smart grid the energy of the sun and the wind is harvested by photovoltaic panels and a wind turbine. The system products are electrical energy, potable water through desalination and hydrogen as both medium term energy storage and transportation fuel. Potable water is also used as seasonal energy storage. The components of the system include PV, a wind turbine, batteries, a PEM fuel cell, a PEM electrolyzer, metal hydride tank, hydrogen vehicle refueling subsystem, reverse osmosis desalination unit, data logging system and a control system. Two different controllers have been developed and tested for this smart grid; an ON/OFF controller which operates the electrolyzer, fuel cell and desalination unit at preset points and a fuzzy logic controller which allows for part load operation. The system is installed at the Agricultural University of Athens and the experimental process is ongoing. (orig.)

  10. Assessment of duration of the drive operation in the mode of kinetic energy recovery under power supply voltage sags in electrical grids of mechanical engineering enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonin, O. B.; Novozhilov, N. G.

    2017-02-01

    Voltage sags in electric grids of mechanical engineering enterprises may lead to disconnection of important power consumers with variable frequency drives from the power grid and further interruption of the production process. The paper considers a sensorless V/f control system of еру induction motor drive under normal conditions and under voltage sags on the basis of a computer model of the drive and derivation of a formula for assessment of possible duration of the drive operation in the mode of controlled recovery of kinetic energy accumulated in rotating mass of the drive. Results of simulations have been used to validate results of calculations of the rotor velocity deceleration made in a closed form obtained from the equation reflecting the balance of torques. It is shown that results of calculations practically coincide with results of simulations in the range up to 5% of the velocity initial value. The proposed formula may be useful for estimation of the duration of the drive operation in the mode of recovery of kinetic energy depending on parameters of the motor and driven mechanisms.

  11. Procurement of green electricity. Guideline for a Europe-wide tender of the supply of green electricity in an open procedure; Beschaffung von Oekostrom. Arbeitshilfe fuer eine europaweite Ausschreibung der Lieferung von Oekostrom im offenen Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmueller, Christian; Schnutenhaus, Joern [Schnutenhaus und Kollegen, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-05-02

    The power generation from fossil fuels causes high emissions of greenhouse gases. The reduction of the power consumption and the purchase of green power pertain to the politically effective climate protection measures. These emissions can be reduced immediately by means of the purchase of green power. The brochure under consideration details the procurement law and technical foundations of this concept for the procurement of green electricity. Part I of this brochure presents the procurement legal framework and the key points of the concept. In part II concrete assistance for the purchase of green power is given. In Part III, further links are compiled.

  12. Integration of space heating and hot water supply in low temperature district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    is required by the consumer. We study conventional district heating at different temperatures and compare the energy and exergetic efficiency and annual heating cost to solutions that utilize electricity for supplementary heating of domestic hot water in low temperature district heating. This includes direct...... electric heating and three heat pump solutions applying R134a and R744. The results show that conventional solutions at lowest possible temperature have the highest exergetic efficiency of 28% and lowest annual cost of € 690 for a 159 m2 house. The best low temperature system is an R134a heat pump with hot......District heating may supply many consumers efficiently, but the heat loss from the pipes to the ground is a challenge. The heat loss may be lowered by decreasing the network temperatures for which reason low temperature networks are proposed for future district heating. The heating demand...

  13. Possibilities for reuse of treated domestic wastewater in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietveld, L C; Norton-Brandão, D; Shang, R; van Agtmaal, J; van Lier, J B

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of wastewater reuse is becoming an increasingly important means of supplementing water supply needs and/or reducing costs. The present paper provides examples of possible uses of treated domestic effluent for the three sectors, i.e. public water supply, industrial and agricultural uses with the aim to address the feasibility of these applications. It is concluded that, although The Netherlands as a whole is considered to be a low water stressed country, regional fresh water scarcity and costs can result in the need for applications of domestic wastewater reuse.

  14. Domestic Demand Will Work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China can invigorate its economy by expanding domestic demand and boosting consumption chinese bankers are preparing to set up finance companies that provide consumer loans in major cities like Beijing and Shanghai.

  15. Domestic Communication Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Andrew

    1974-01-01

    A discussion of the Federal Communications Commission's new policy on domestic satellites in light of our 1) military and economic history; 2) corporate interests; 3) citizen surveillance; and 4) media control. (HB)

  16. More efficient policy of energy and regional electricity supply by the directive 96/92/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 10 december 1996 concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity; Effizientere Energiepolitik und regionale Elektrizitaetsversorgung durch die EU-Elektrizitaetsrichtlinie 1996. Politikfeldanalyse der europaeischen, deutschen und bayerischen Energiepolitik und Elektrizitaetswirtschaft im Zusammenhang mit der Entstehung und Umsetzung der EU-Richtlinie 96 sowie der Veraenderung der Effizienz in der traditionellen Elektrizitaetsversorgung unter supranationalem EU-Einfluss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtner, Franz

    2006-07-01

    The German energy policy and its main addressees, the regional electricity companies (EVU), are going through a critical phase at the beginning of the 21st century. The increasing complexity and inconsistency of energy issues have, in Germany and in other countries, led to decisions which again have produced extensive, but not yet foreseeable developments, as, for example, the liberalisation of the electricity and gas market within the European Union. The first objective of this paper is an empirical analysis of the regional electricity supply industry in Germany and particularly in Bavaria in so far as it is relevant for energy politics, as well as an introduction to the German energy policy up to approximately the time when the Directive 96/92/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 19 December 1996 concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity, was passed. Moreover, findings for the definition of energy efficiency in electricity supply and of the policy analysis are outlined. The second objective of this paper is the analysis and evaluation of the European Union energy policy, in particular of the Directive 96/92/EC, its formation and how it has been put into action by the German and Bavarian electricity supply industry. Energy efficiency of the electricity supply serves as a yardstick, the research method employed is the policy analysis. The main part of this paper, by comparing objectives to effects and by evaluating interviews with energy experts, examines the questions if, in what ways and to what extent the Directive 96/92/EC has led to an increase of energy efficiency in the narrow as well as in the boarder sense, within the EU, Germany and Bavaria. Additionally, three hypotheses are tested: firstly the significance of energy efficiency (in the narrow sense), secondly the alignment of European energy supply, and thirdly the importance of supranational control through EU politics. The results are presented in tabular form, and the

  17. Power Supply Path Searching Algorithm for an Electricity Losing Island Based on Distance Vector%基于距离向量的失电孤岛供电路径搜索算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超杰; 任建文; 徐伟男; 李越佳

    2016-01-01

    For the load power loss due to power grid failure or equipment maintenance,it has now become an essential function of looking for a power supply path for the power lost load in a lot of power grid analysis software.The grid can be divided into several electric islands through the topological analysis program.The traditional searching algorithm for island restoration of power supply path based on the tree search method is inadequate in path searching.Inspired by the Internet routing protocol algorithm,all kinds of electric islands are regarded as routers while a kind of search algorithm based on distance vector is put forward.Through the formation of initial routing tables and routing table update processing,the entire network routing table of each island is eventually obtained,through which all the possible power supply paths of power losing electric islands in conformity with dispatching schedules can be obtained.By using the optimal power flow of the interior point method,the feasibility of power solutions is verified as is the algorithm effectiveness on an IEEE 14-bus standard test system.%由于电网故障或设备检修造成负荷失电,为失电负荷寻找供电路径成为目前许多电网分析软件的必备功能。通过拓扑分析程序将电网划分为若干电气岛,传统的根据树搜索法的孤岛恢复供电路径搜索算法,在路径的搜索上存在不足。文中受因特网路由选择协议算法的启发,将各类电气岛看成路由器,提出一种基于距离向量的搜索算法,通过对各电气岛初始路由表的形成和对路由表的更新处理,最终获得电气岛的全网路由表,通过该路由表可以得到所有可能并且符合调度规程的失电孤岛供电路径。利用内点法最优潮流对搜索得到的供电方案进行可行性验证。以 IEEE 14节点标准测试系统为例,验证了该算法的可行性。

  18. Agent和供给函数均衡模型在电力市场竞价中的应用及对比分析%Application and Comparison of Agent and Supply Function Equilibrium Models in Electricity Market Auction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾鸣; 王玉萍; 王蕾; 薛松; 何彦英

    2014-01-01

    在考虑期货市场和日常市场极值的基础上构建 agent模型和供给函数均衡( supply function equilibrium ,SFE)模型,并针对模型的预测准确程度进行对比分析。以某城市电网中的4个典型工作日为例进行算例分析,结果表明在非用电高峰时段,agent模型对于价格水平和波动性的预测能力较强,而SFE模型可以更准确地预测非高峰时段的电价。%The advancement in power system reform promotes an increasingly competitive electricity mar-ket .Under such an environment , based on competitors and personal situation ,power generation companies have developed reasonable and effective bidding strategies to maximize profits .By considering extreme val-ue of the future market and the daily market , an agent model and supply function equilibrium ( SFE) mod-el are built .Then, the prediction accuracy obtained by the models is compared .With a numerical example of four typical days in a regional grid of some cities , it is shown that , in the non-peak hours , the agent model has a strong forecasting ability of the price level and volatility , while the SFE model can more accu-rately predict off-peak price level .

  19. 基于电力供应链收益的可再生能源政策比较%Comparison of Renewable Energy Policy Based on Electricity Supply Chain Benefit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文建; 任玉珑; 史乐峰

    2013-01-01

    可再生能源电力政策直接影响各相关主体的收益,造成不同的主体选择行为.已有研究较少考虑可再生能源政策对电力供应链相关主体收益及其分配的影响.将可再生能源政策按照价格和数量的管制程度划分为四种,借助博弈理论和两级供应链理论,分析各方利益主体在不同政策下的收益分配函数,并对推导结果进行对比、延伸.研究后发现:政府对可再生能源电力价格或数量的政府管制政策,有利于提高供应链双方收益,但无法保障收益能够被合理地分配,这主要取决于制定的电价或数量能否量化可再生能源电力的额外成本;而配额制通过控制配额保证可再生能源发展目标的实现,借助市场机制调节供应链双方收益分配,是可再生能源政策的改革方向.%Renewable electricity policy directly influences the benefit of relevant parts, which leads to the different behavior choices. Research on renewable energy policy has less consideration on benefit distribution among the power supply chain parts. The renewable energy policy is divided into four kinds by the intervention on price and quantity. Based on the stack berg game theory and two supply chain theory, the paper analyzes the benefit distribution function between grids and power generation companies with the different intervention policies, and deduces the results. It is found that the policy about controlling over the price or the quantities would contribute to the benefit improvement, rather than the rational benefit distribution, compared to market automatic adjustment. In addition, the quota should be the main direction for renewable energy policies, which could ensure the widespread use of the renewable electricity by controlling the quota quantities, and could better protect both parts benefit through the internalized additional costs by price relaxes.

  20. Rainwater Harvesting Potential for Domestic Water Supply in Edo State

    OpenAIRE

    S. I. Oni; Emmanuel Ege

    2008-01-01

    In the face of increasing scarcity of water resources, there is a need for communities to undertake audits of their current rainwater harvesting potential as a practical and promising alternative solution for water shortage. Despite the importance of rainwater harvest in socio-economic development of communities, very little information exists in the literature concerning it. This paper is an attempt to bridge this gap by examining the techniques and materials used for rainwater harvest with ...