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Sample records for domestic cat reaction

  1. Domestic cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffendorfer, James E.

    2017-01-01

    The familiar domestic cat is not native to southern California and is considered an invasive spe-cies by biologists and conservation organizations. When owners abandon their cats, wild or feral populations may arise, as they have in San Diego County. Cats’ pelage color, tail length, and hair thickness vary widely, given human fascination with breeding diverse phenotypes, but all have a typical felid body with upright ears, forward-looking eyes adapted for nocturnal foraging, protractible claws, and a sinuous, flexible body. Cats allowed outdoors and feral cats kill and eat a wide variety of vertebrates such as small mammals, birds, and reptiles

  2. Loudness Perception in the Domestic Cat: Reaction Time Estimates of Equal Loudness Contours and Recruitment Effects

    OpenAIRE

    May, Bradford J.; Little, Nicole; Saylor, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    The domestic cat is the primary physiological model of loudness coding and recruitment. At present, there are no published descriptions of loudness perception in this species. This study used a reaction time task to characterize loudness perception in six behaviorally trained cats. The psychophysical approach was based on the assumption that sounds of equal loudness elicit responses of equal latency. The resulting equal latency contours reproduced well-known features of human equal loudness c...

  3. Loudness perception in the domestic cat: reaction time estimates of equal loudness contours and recruitment effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Bradford J; Little, Nicole; Saylor, Stephanie

    2009-06-01

    The domestic cat is the primary physiological model of loudness coding and recruitment. At present, there are no published descriptions of loudness perception in this species. This study used a reaction time task to characterize loudness perception in six behaviorally trained cats. The psychophysical approach was based on the assumption that sounds of equal loudness elicit responses of equal latency. The resulting equal latency contours reproduced well-known features of human equal loudness contours. At the completion of normal baseline measures, the cats were exposed to intense sound to investigate the behavioral correlates of loudness recruitment, the abnormally rapid growth of loudness that is commonly associated with hearing loss. Observed recruitment effects were similar in magnitude to those that have been reported in hearing-impaired humans. Linear hearing aid amplification is known to improve speech intelligibility but also exacerbate recruitment in impaired listeners. The effects of speech spectra and amplification on recruitment were explored by measuring the growth of loudness for natural and amplified vowels before and after sound exposure. Vowels produced more recruitment than tones, and the effect was exacerbated by the selective amplification of formant structure. These findings support the adequacy of the domestic cat as a model system for future investigations of the auditory processes that underlie loudness perception, recruitment, and hearing aid design.

  4. Domestic cat allergen and allergic sensitisation in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Chih-Mei; Gehring, Ulrike; Wickman, Magnus; Hoek, Gerard; Giovannangelo, Mariella; Nordling, Emma; Wijga, Alet; de Jongste, Johan; Pershagen, Goeran; Almqvist, Catarina; Kerkhof, Marjan; Bellander, Tom; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Brunekreef, Bert; Heinrich, Joachim

    Studies have presented conflicting associations between cat allergen exposure and sensitisation and atopic disease. We therefore investigated the association between the observed domestic cat allergen level and cat sensitisation in young children in four study populations from three European

  5. Astaxanthin uptake in domestic dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimino Stefan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the uptake and transport of astaxanthin is lacking in most species. We studied the uptake of astaxanthin by plasma, lipoproteins and leukocytes in domestic dogs and cats. Methods Mature female Beagle dogs (18 to 19 mo old; 11 to 14 kg BW were dosed orally with 0, 0.1, 0.5, 2.5, 10 or 40 mg astaxanthin and blood taken at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 h post-administration (n = 8/treatment. Similarly, mature domestic short hair cats (12 mo old; 3 to 3.5 kg body weight were fed a single dose of 0, 0.02, 0.08, 0.4, 2, 5, or 10 mg astaxanthin and blood taken (n = 8/treatment at the same interval. Results Both dogs and cats showed similar biokinetic profiles. Maximal astaxanthin concentration in plasma was approximately 0.14 μmol/L in both species, and was observed at 6 h post-dosing. The plasma astaxanthin elimination half-life was 9 to 18 h. Astaxanthin was still detectable by 24 h in both species. In a subsequent study, dogs and cats were fed similar doses of astaxanthin daily for 15 to 16 d and astaxanthin uptake by plasma, lipoproteins, and leukocytes studied. In both species, plasma astaxanthin concentrations generally continued to increase through d 15 or 16 of supplementation. The astaxanthin was mainly associated with high density lipoprotein (HDL. In blood leukocytes, approximately half of the total astaxanthin was found in the mitochondria, with significant amounts also associated with the microsomes and nuclei. Conclusion Dogs and cats absorb astaxanthin from the diet. In the blood, the astaxanthin is mainly associated with HDL, and is taken up by blood leukocytes, where it is distributed to all subcellular organelles. Certain aspects of the biokinetic uptake of astaxanthin in dogs and cats are similar to that in humans.

  6. Earliest "Domestic" Cats in China Identified as Leopard Cat (Prionailurus bengalensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigne, Jean-Denis; Evin, Allowen; Cucchi, Thomas; Dai, Lingling; Yu, Chong; Hu, Songmei; Soulages, Nicolas; Wang, Weilin; Sun, Zhouyong; Gao, Jiangtao; Dobney, Keith; Yuan, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The ancestor of all modern domestic cats is the wildcat, Felis silvestris lybica, with archaeological evidence indicating it was domesticated as early as 10,000 years ago in South-West Asia. A recent study, however, claims that cat domestication also occurred in China some 5,000 years ago and involved the same wildcat ancestor (F. silvestris). The application of geometric morphometric analyses to ancient small felid bones from China dating between 5,500 to 4,900 BP, instead reveal these and other remains to be that of the leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis). These data clearly indicate that the origins of a human-cat 'domestic' relationship in Neolithic China began independently from South-West Asia and involved a different wild felid species altogether. The leopard cat's 'domestic' status, however, appears to have been short-lived--its apparent subsequent replacement shown by the fact that today all domestic cats in China are genetically related to F. silvestris.

  7. Bacteriology of the Anterior Genitalia of the Domestic House Cat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacteriology of the anterior genitalia of the domestic house cat was determined using vaginal swabs collected from sixty apparently healthy female domestic cats (20 kittens, 20 pregnant and 20 non-pregnant adults). The swabs were streaked on blood agar, Mac Conkey agar and eosin methylene blue agar plates ...

  8. Toxocara cati infections in domestic cats from two communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An epidemiological survey was undertaken to study the prevalence and intensity of infection with Toxocara cati in some selected domestic cats from two communities in south-western Nigeria. Faecal samples of 200 cats were collected through a direct rectal swab using a long forceps from households with cat from Ode Irele ...

  9. The behaviour and ecology of domestic cats (Felis catus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Panaman, Roger

    1984-01-01

    This thesis is a reconnaissance of the behavioural ecology of domestic cats. The principal subjects were two groups of farm cats. There was also a group of captive cats and a house cat. The study differs from all previous ones in that the cats were tame and therefore could be shadowed and observed for long periods at all hours. It deals with (1) activity patterns and activity budget, (2) use of space and social behaviour, (3) scent communication, (4) foraging and (5) population dynamics.

  10. Susceptibility of Domestic Cats to Chronic Wasting Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalls, Amy V.; Seelig, Davis M.; Kraft, Susan L.; Carnes, Kevin; Anderson, Kelly R.; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Hoover, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    Domestic and nondomestic cats have been shown to be susceptible to feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE), almost certainly caused by consumption of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-contaminated meat. Because domestic and free-ranging nondomestic felids scavenge cervid carcasses, including those in areas affected by chronic wasting disease (CWD), we evaluated the susceptibility of the domestic cat (Felis catus) to CWD infection experimentally. Cohorts of 5 cats each were inoculated intracerebrally (i.c.) or orally (p.o.) with CWD-infected deer brain. At 40 and 42 months postinoculation, two i.c.-inoculated cats developed signs consistent with prion disease, including a stilted gait, weight loss, anorexia, polydipsia, patterned motor behaviors, head and tail tremors, and ataxia, and the cats progressed to terminal disease within 5 months. Brains from these two cats were pooled and inoculated into cohorts of cats by the i.c., p.o., and intraperitoneal and subcutaneous (i.p./s.c.) routes. Upon subpassage, feline CWD was transmitted to all i.c.-inoculated cats with a decreased incubation period of 23 to 27 months. Feline-adapted CWD (FelCWD) was demonstrated in the brains of all of the affected cats by Western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed abnormalities in clinically ill cats, which included multifocal T2 fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) signal hyperintensities, ventricular size increases, prominent sulci, and white matter tract cavitation. Currently, 3 of 4 i.p./s.c.- and 2 of 4 p.o. secondary passage-inoculated cats have developed abnormal behavior patterns consistent with the early stage of feline CWD. These results demonstrate that CWD can be transmitted and adapted to the domestic cat, thus raising the issue of potential cervid-to-feline transmission in nature. PMID:23236066

  11. Felinine excretion in domestic cat breeds: a preliminary investigation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen - Plantinga, Esther; Hendriks, Wouter; Bosch, Guido

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible differences in felinine excretion between domesticated cat breeds. For this purpose, urine was collected from a total of 83 privately owned entire male cats from eight different breeds in the Netherlands during the period of November 2010 till November

  12. Using the Domestic Cat in the Teaching of Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnear, Judith F.

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on genetic concepts that form key components of transmission genetics and illustrates how the domestic cat can be used in the teaching of these concepts. Offers examples of how laboratory experiences with the cat can enhance student learning of genetics. (ML)

  13. Two Tales of Cytauxzoon felis Infections in Domestic Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Lei; Li, Ting-Ting; Liu, Guo-Hua; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Yao, Chaoqun

    2017-10-01

    Cytauxzoonosis is an emerging infectious disease that affects wild felids as well as the domestic cat; it is caused by the apicomplexan protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Cytauxzoon . Cytauxzoon felis is the species of major concern, whose transmission occurs via the bite of an infected tick. Cytauxzoonosis of the domestic cat has historically been considered uniformly fatal, with a short course of illness, and most domestic cats die within 9 to 15 days postinfection. However, increasing evidence of domestic cats surviving C. felis infection suggests the existence of different strains with various levels of pathogenicity. Although wild felids are considered natural reservoirs for this parasite, a number of studies suggest that domestic cats that have survived nonlethal infections may serve as an additional reservoir. The current article comprehensively reviews the parasite and its life cycle, geographic distribution, genetic variability, and pathogenesis, as well as host immunology and the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of infection in the domestic cat. This information should provide a basis for better understanding the parasite as well as the pathogenesis of the disease. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. Interspecies Transmission of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus from the Domestic Cat to the Tsushima Cat (Felis bengalensis euptilura) in the Wild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Yoshiaki; Goto, Yuko; Yoneda, Kumiko; Endo, Yasuyuki; Mizuno, Takuya; Hamachi, Masaharu; Maruyama, Hiroyuki; Kinoshita, Hirotoshi; Koga, Susumu; Komori, Mitsuru; Fushuku, Seigo; Ushinohama, Kanji; Akuzawa, Masao; Watari, Toshihiro; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    1999-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) was isolated from a wild-caught Tsushima cat (Felis bengalensis euptilura), an endangered Japanese nondomestic subspecies of leopard cat (F. bengalensis). Phylogenetic analysis of the env gene sequences indicated that the FIV from the Tsushima cat belonged to a cluster of subtype D FIVs from domestic cats. FIVs from both the Tsushima cat and the domestic cat showed similar levels of replication and cytopathicity in lymphoid cell lines derived from these two species. The results indicated the occurrence of interspecies transmission of FIV from the domestic cat to the Tsushima cat in the wild. PMID:10438892

  15. Environmental Aspects of Domestic Cat Care and Management: Implications for Cat Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Judith L.

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) are the most commonly kept companion animals in the US with large populations of owned (86 million), free-roaming (70 million), research (13,000), and shelter (2-3 million) cats. Vast numbers of cats are maintained in homes and other facilities each year and are reliant on humans for all of their care. Understanding cat behavior and providing the highest quality environments possible, including positive human-cat interactions, based on research could help improve the outcomes of biomedical research, shelter adoptions, and veterinary care, as well as overall cat welfare. Often, however, cats' needs are inadequately met in homes and some aspects may also not be well met in research colonies and shelters, despite the fact that similar problems are likely to be encountered in all of these environments. This paper provides a brief overview of common welfare challenges associated with indoor housing of domestic cats. Essential considerations for cage confinement are reviewed, along with implications of poor cat coping, such as weakening of the human-animal bond and relinquishment to shelters. The important role that environmental management plays in cat behavior and welfare outcomes is explored along with the need for additional research in key areas. PMID:27774506

  16. The presence of tick-borne diseases in domestic dogs and cats living on Iriomote-jima and Tsushima islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jikuya, Mao; Tateno, Morihiro; Takahashi, Masashi; Endo, Yasuyuki

    2017-06-29

    The Iriomote cat and Tsushima leopard cat are endangered wildcats in Japan and inhabit only Iriomote-jima and Tsushima islands, respectively. Domestic dogs and cats living on Iriomote-jima and Tsushima islands were surveyed to clarify the interrelationship between wildcats and domestic animals regarding tick-borne disease transmission. Pathogen-derived DNA in blood samples was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Babesia gibsoni was detected in dogs of Iriomote-jima, and Hepatozoon felis and hemoplasmas were detected in domestic cats of Tsushima. Because the H. felis detected in this study was closely related to that isolated from wildcats, we suspect that common H. felis is harbored and transmitted among wildcats and domestic cats via ticks in Tsushima.

  17. Adverse food reactions in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaschen, Frédéric P; Merchant, Sandra R

    2011-03-01

    Adverse food reactions (AFR) are a common problem that may cause cutaneous and/or gastrointestinal signs in dogs and cats. They comprise food intolerance, food intoxication, and food allergy. Response to a dietary elimination trial and recurrence of signs during dietary provocation remain the centerpiece of diagnosis and management of dogs and cats with AFR. Response to an elimination trial is frequently observed in dogs and cats with chronic idiopathic enteropathies. However, only a fraction of them relapse after a dietary challenge. These animals may have mild to enteritis and/or colitis and benefit from various additional properties of the elimination diet. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Environmental Aspects of Domestic Cat Care and Management: Implications for Cat Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith L. Stella

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus are the most commonly kept companion animals in the US with large populations of owned (86 million, free-roaming (70 million, research (13,000, and shelter (2-3 million cats. Vast numbers of cats are maintained in homes and other facilities each year and are reliant on humans for all of their care. Understanding cat behavior and providing the highest quality environments possible, including positive human-cat interactions, based on research could help improve the outcomes of biomedical research, shelter adoptions, and veterinary care, as well as overall cat welfare. Often, however, cats’ needs are inadequately met in homes and some aspects may also not be well met in research colonies and shelters, despite the fact that similar problems are likely to be encountered in all of these environments. This paper provides a brief overview of common welfare challenges associated with indoor housing of domestic cats. Essential considerations for cage confinement are reviewed, along with implications of poor cat coping, such as weakening of the human-animal bond and relinquishment to shelters. The important role that environmental management plays in cat behavior and welfare outcomes is explored along with the need for additional research in key areas.

  19. Birds be safe: Can a novel cat collar reduce avian mortality by domestic cats (Felis catus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Willson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The domestic cat (Felis catus has been described as the largest anthropogenic threat to songbird populations in North America. We examined the effectiveness of a novel cat collar in reducing avian and small mammal mortality by cats. The 2-inch wide Birdsbesafe® collar cover (CC is worn over a nylon quick-release collar, and the bright colors and patterns of the CC are hypothesized to warn birds of approaching cats. We conducted two seasonal trials, each lasting 12 weeks, in autumn 2013 (n=54 cats and spring 2014 (n=19 cats. Cats were randomly assigned to two groups, and CCs with interior collars were removed or put on every two weeks, to control for weather fluctuations and seasonal change. Cats wearing Birdsbesafe® CCs killed 19 times fewer birds than uncollared cats in the spring trial, and 3.4 times fewer birds in the fall. Birdsbesafe® CCs were extremely effective at reducing predation on birds. Small mammal data were less clear, but did decrease predation by half in the fall. The Birdsbesafe® CC is a highly effective device for decreasing bird predation, especially in the spring season. We suggest that the CCs be used as a conservation tool for owned as well as feral cats.

  20. Three different Hepatozoon species in domestic cats from southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannelli, Alessio; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Hodžić, Adnan; Greco, Grazia; Attanasi, Anna; Annoscia, Giada; Otranto, Domenico; Baneth, Gad

    2017-08-01

    Three species of Hepatozoon, namely, Hepatozoon felis, Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon silvestris may affect domestic and/or wild felids. Although hepatozoonosis has been documented in a wide range of mammal species, data on cats are limited. To investigate the occurrence of these pathogens in cats, blood samples were collected from animals living in three provinces of southern Italy (Bari, Lecce, and Matera), and molecularly analysed by PCR amplification and sequencing of segments of the 18S rRNA gene. Out of 196 blood samples collected, Hepatozoon spp. DNA was amplified in ten cats (5.1%, CI: 3%-9%), with the majority of infected animals from Matera (8/34, 23.5%) and one each from the other two provinces. BLAST analysis revealed the highest nucleotide identity with sequences of H. canis, H. felis and H. silvestris deposited in GenBank. Results of this study indicate that these three species of Hepatozoon infect domestic cats in Italy. This is the first report of H. silvestris infection in a domestic cat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Ticks associated with domestic dogs and cats in Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voluntary collections of ticks from domestic dogs and cats by veterinary practitioners across Florida were conducted over a 10 month period. Of the 1,337 ticks submitted, five species of ixodid ticks were identified and included Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma americanum, A. maculatum, Dermacen...

  2. AIDS virus restriction factor transgenesis in the domestic cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsrikeao, Pimprapar; Saenz, Dyana; Rinkoski, Tommy; Otoi, Takeshige; Poeschla, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The domestic cat is a neurobehaviorally complex, accessible species with specific value in research situations where rodents are unsuited on the basis of disease susceptibility, size, or other factors. For example, studies in the cat have revealed much of our present knowledge of the organization of the mammalian brain, in particular the cerebral cortex, and humans and cats are each afflicted with pandemic AIDS lentiviruses that are susceptible to species-specific restriction factors. A capability for feline transgenesis is needed to realize the distinctive potential. Here we introduced a retroviral restriction factor, rhesus macaque TRIMCyp, and GFP, into the domestic cat germline. The method establishes transgenesis by direct gamete genetic modification for the first time in any carnivore. We produced uniformly transgenic outcomes and observed widespread expression, no mosaicism, and germline transmission without F1 silencing. TRIMCyp-transgenic cat lymphocytes resisted FIV replication. The approach yields a first capability to experimentally manipulate AIDS virus restriction factors at the systemic, whole animal level in a susceptible species. In addition to determining if a species can be made genetically immune to its AIDS virus, it can be used to test HIV-1 gene therapy potential, and to build feline models relevant to other diseases. PMID:21909101

  3. Fecal estradiol-17β and testosterone in prepubertal domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faya, M; Carranza, A; Miotti, R; Ponchón, T; Furlan, P; Gobello, C

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this article was to describe the time course of prepubertal sexual steroids in domestic cats. Fourteen newborn kittens were followed up until puberty (physical, behavioral, and hormonal changes). Fecal testosterone [T; males] and E estradiol 17-β [E2; females] concentrations were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA and two consecutive time windows (TWs) were used to compare changes in both male (postnatal weeks 1-4 vs. 5-14) and females (postnatal weeks 1-5 vs. 6-13). Puberty was achieved 14.3 ± 0.3 and 13.3 ± 0.4 weeks after birth in male and female cats, respectively. In both genders, during TW-1 fecal steroids concentrations were similar (males) or even higher (females) to that previously described for mature cats. Fecal T (P cats. It is concluded that in domestic cats there is a sexual steroid surge during the first 4 and 5 postnatal weeks in male and female animals, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. US Domestic Cats as Sentinels for Perfluoroalkyl Substances ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) , are persistent, globally distributed, anthropogenic compounds. The primary source(s) for human exposure are not well understood although within home exposure is likely important since many consumer products have been treated with different PFAS, and people spend much of their lives indoors. Herein, domestic cats were used as sentinels to investigate potential exposure and health linkages. PFAS in serum samples of 72 pet and feral cats, including 11 healthy and 61 with one or more primary disease diagnoses, were quantitated using high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. All but one sample had detectable PFAS, with PFOS and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) ranging from cats were very similar to contemporary NHANES reports of human sera in the U. S. POPULATION: The highest PFAS serum concentrations detected were in indoor cats due to disproportionately elevated PFHxS levels. Ranked by quartile, contingency testing indicated that total PFAS levels were positively associated with living indoors and with higher body weight and body condition scores. Individual PFAS quartile rankings suggested positive associations with respiratory effusion, thyroid, liver, and possibly chronic kidney disease . Domestic cats appear to be useful sentinels for assessing primary

  5. First Molecular Characterization of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus in Domestic Cats from Mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jilei; Wang, Liang; Li, Jing; Kelly, Patrick; Price, Stuart; Wang, Chengming

    2017-01-01

    The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a retrovirus of the Lentivirus genus that was initially isolated from a colony of domestic cats in California in 1986 and has now been recognized as a common feline pathogen worldwide. To date, there is only one recent serology-based report on FIV in mainland China which was published in 2016. We designed this study to investigate the molecular prevalence and diversity of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in domestic cats from mainland China. We studied the prevalence of FIV in whole blood samples of 615 domestic cats in five cities (Beijing, Guangzhou, Nanjing, Shanghai and Yangzhou) of mainland China and examined them using FRET-PCR (Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer-Polymerase Chain Reaction) and regular PCRs for the gag and env genes. Overall, 1.3% (8/615) of the cats were positive for provirus DNA with nucleotide analysis using PCRs for the gag and env sequences showing the cats were infected with FIV subtype A. This is the first molecular characterization of FIV in mainland China and the first description of subtype A in continental Asia.

  6. First Molecular Characterization of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus in Domestic Cats from Mainland China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilei Zhang

    Full Text Available The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV is a retrovirus of the Lentivirus genus that was initially isolated from a colony of domestic cats in California in 1986 and has now been recognized as a common feline pathogen worldwide. To date, there is only one recent serology-based report on FIV in mainland China which was published in 2016. We designed this study to investigate the molecular prevalence and diversity of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV in domestic cats from mainland China. We studied the prevalence of FIV in whole blood samples of 615 domestic cats in five cities (Beijing, Guangzhou, Nanjing, Shanghai and Yangzhou of mainland China and examined them using FRET-PCR (Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer-Polymerase Chain Reaction and regular PCRs for the gag and env genes. Overall, 1.3% (8/615 of the cats were positive for provirus DNA with nucleotide analysis using PCRs for the gag and env sequences showing the cats were infected with FIV subtype A. This is the first molecular characterization of FIV in mainland China and the first description of subtype A in continental Asia.

  7. Acoustic correlates of human responses to domestic cat (feliscatus) vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastro, Nicholas

    2002-05-01

    As part of ongoing research on coevolution of vocal communication between humans and domestic cats, perceptual data were collected on participants as they listened to recorded cat vocalizations. In experiment 1, human subjects were asked to rate the pleasantness of 100 meows along a 7-point scale, from most to least pleasant. In experiment 2, a different group of participants was asked to rate the urgency of the same meows along a 7-point scale, from most to least urgent. Linear regression analysis of the results showed a strong inverse correlation between pleasantness and urgency. Acoustic correlates of pleasantness included reduced frequency modulation, a downward shift in fundamental frequency, and fewer noisy segments. Correlates of urgency included increased duration, higher Wiener entropy, and acute spectral tilt. It is speculated that humans' affective responses to these acoustic qualities, in conjunction with contextual cues, may form the basis of the communication of more specific meanings by cats to humans.

  8. Angiostrongylus chabaudi Biocca, 1957: a new parasite for domestic cats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varcasia, Antonio; Tamponi, Claudia; Brianti, Emanuele; Cabras, Piera Angela; Boi, Roberta; Pipia, Anna Paola; Giannelli, Alessio; Otranto, Domenico; Scala, Antonio

    2014-12-17

    Natural infection with a species of Angiostrongylus has been reported only once in wildcats from central Italy by Biocca in 1957. The causative species of this infection was identified as Angiostrongylus chabaudi. Following this report, this parasite had never been found in either wild or domestic cats. The lungs and the pulmonary arteries of an adult female cat (Felis silvestris catus), road-killed in Sardinia, Italy, were macroscopically examined and dissected under a light microscope for the presence of parasites. A slender nematode was detected and its morphometrical features were consistent with those of A. chabaudi. Morphological data were supplemented by sequencing of the partial cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 (cox1) gene, as well as the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of the rDNA. Nucleotide sequences displayed 99% homology with the ITS2 sequence [GenBank KM216825.1] of a specimen of Angiostrongylus sp. recovered recently from the pulmonary artery of a wildcat in Germany and 91% with cox1 sequence [GenBank GU138118.1] of Angiostrongylus vasorum. The results of the present study indicate, for the first time, that A. chabaudi may also infect domestic cats, and thus should be considered in the diagnosis of metastrongyloid species infecting their cardio-pulmonary system.

  9. Meniscal ossicles in large non-domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Michael; Phalan, David; Jensen, James; Johnson, James; Drew, Mark; Samii, Valerie; Henry, George; McCauley, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    Radiographs of the stifles of 6 species of 34 large, non-domestic cats were reviewed foremost for the presence of meniscal ossicles and then for the presence of the other potential four sesamoids. The animals in the review included 12 lions, 7 tigers, 7 cougars, 3 leopards, 3 bobcats, and 2 jaguars. Fluoroscopy, arthrography, computed tomography, necropsy, and histology were also used to evaluate the stifles of one tiger after euthanasia. Ossicles were found in the region of the cranial horn of the medial meniscus in most of the lions, tigers, leopards, and jaguars. These ossicles were found in half of the cougars but in none of the bobcats. Among the large, non-domestic cats, meniscal ossicles had been reported previously only in Bengal tigers. The lions, tigers, and leopards having meniscal ossicles appeared to have a lateral but often not a medial fabella of the gastrocnemius muscle, an observation previously unreported. Popliteal sesamoids and patellas were present in all the skeletally mature cats.

  10. Clusters in social behaviour of female domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) living in confinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vandenBos, R; de Vries, Han

    1996-01-01

    Associations between different agonistic and affiliative behavioural patterns of female domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) were studied. In three groups of intact cats living in confinement frequencies of fourteen agonistic and affiliative behavioural patterns were recorded. The technique of

  11. Food selection by the domestic cat, an obligate carnivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, J W; Goodwin, D; Legrand-Defrétin, V; Nott, H M

    1996-07-01

    The domestic cat Felis silvestris catus is the most accessible member of the family Felidae for the study of the relationship between food selection and nutrition. In contrast to pack-living animals such as the dog, and opportunistic omnivores such as the rat, the cat is generally able to maintain its normal body weight even when allowed ad libitum access to palatable food by taking small meals and adjusting intake according to the energy density of the food(s) available. The most extreme adaptations to carnivory discovered to date lie in the taste buds of the facial nerve, which are highly responsive to amino acids and unresponsive to many mono- and disaccharides. Preferences for particular foods can be modified by their relative abundance, their novelty, and by aversive consequences such as emesis: the mechanisms whereby these are brought about appear to be similar to those used by omnivorous mammals.

  12. Development of MHC-Linked Microsatellite Markers in the Domestic Cat and Their Use to Evaluate MHC Diversity in Domestic Cats, Cheetahs, and Gir Lions

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Katrina M.; Kirby, Katherine; Beatty, Julia A.; Barrs, Vanessa R.; Cattley, Sonia; David, Victor; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Belov, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Diversity within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) reflects the immunological fitness of a population. MHC-linked microsatellite markers provide a simple and an inexpensive method for studying MHC diversity in large-scale studies. We have developed 6 MHC-linked microsatellite markers in the domestic cat and used these, in conjunction with 5 neutral microsatellites, to assess MHC diversity in domestic mixed breed (n = 129) and purebred Burmese (n = 61) cat populations in Australia. Th...

  13. Hypersensitivity reaction associated with subcutaneous glargine insulin therapy in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lisa A; Zuendt, Greg F; Nakamura, Reid K; Gambardella, Paul

    2016-01-01

    A 14-year-old, domestic shorthair cat was treated for transient diabetes mellitus for 3 months with glargine insulin, which was discontinued when the diabetes mellitus resolved. Approximately 36 months later the diabetes mellitus recurred and glargine insulin was restarted. Within 2-3 mins of the first injection the cat collapsed, developed profuse vomiting and diarrhea, as well as facial swelling and diffuse erythema. A hypersensitivity reaction was suspected and the cat was treated with antihistamines, aggressive fluid therapy and gastrointestinal support. The cat made a full recovery and was discharged 3 days later. Six months later the cat re-presented for relapse of its diabetes mellitus and an intradermal skin challenge with 1:20 diluted insulin was performed confirming a hypersensitivity to glargine. The cat continues to be well regulated on porcine zinc insulin without any hypersensitivity reactions noted. Hypersensitivity reactions to insulin administration are rarely described in human medicine. This is the first reported case of a hypersensitivity reaction secondary to glargine insulin in a cat. Clinicians should be aware of this potential complication, particularly in animals with a previous history of insulin administration and the potential to utilize intradermal testing with insulin.

  14. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic cats in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opsteegh, M.; Haveman, R.; Swart, A.; Mensink-Beerepoot, M.E.; Hofhuis, A.; Langelaar, M.F.M.; van der Giessen, J.W.B.

    2012-01-01

    Cats, as definitive hosts, play an important role in the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii. To determine the seroprevalence and risk factors for T. gondii infection in Dutch domestic cats, serum samples of 450 cats were tested for T. gondii antibodies by indirect ELISA. Binary mixture analysis was

  15. Diagnostic methods to cutaneous leishmaniasis detection in domestic dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Daliah Alves Coelho; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Demarchi, Izabel Galhardo

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by different species of Leishmania. In domestic animals such as dogs and cats, the diagnostic consists of clinical, epidemiological and serological tests, which changes among countries all around the world. Because of this diversity in the methods selected, we propose this systematic literature review to identify the methods of laboratory diagnosis used to detect cutaneous leishmaniasis in domestic dogs and cats in the Americas. Articles published in the last 5 years were searched in PubMed, ISI Web of Science, LILACS and Scielo, and we selected 10 papers about cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs and cats in the Americas. In Brazil, often the indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) have been applied. Other countries like United States and Mexico have been using antigenic fractions for antibodies detections by Western blot. ELISA and Western blot showed a higher sensitivity and efficacy in the detection of leishmaniasis. Analysis of sensibility and specificity of the methods was rarely used. Although confirmatory to leishmaniasis, direct methods for parasites detection and polymerase chain reaction showed low positivity in disease detection. We suggested that more than one method should be used for the detection of feline and canine leishmaniasis. Serological methods such as Western blot and enzyme immunoassay have a high efficacy in the diagnosis of this disease.

  16. Scapular osteomyelitis in an immature domestic shorthair cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivert Viskjer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 12-week-old, male, domestic shorthair cat was presented with severe left thoracic limb lameness. Investigation included physical examination, diagnostic imaging with radiography and CT, histopathology and microbiological culture. Physical examination revealed a large, firm mass on the left scapula. Radiography and CT showed a monostotic spherical expansile bone lesion in the infraspinatus fossa of the left scapula. The histopathological description was a central acute suppurative osteomyelitis with reactive fibrosis and new bone formation at the periphery. Aerobic and anaerobic cultures were negative and the underlying cause of the osteomyelitis could not be identified. The use of broad-spectrum antibiotics for 8 weeks proved effective with full clinical recovery and no signs of relapse during the follow-up time of 8 months. Relevance and novel information This report describes the management and outcome of a rare case of osteomyelitis with severe deformation of scapular bone morphology in an immature cat that was treated successfully with full recovery of limb function and restored integrity of the scapula.

  17. Prevalence Of Igg Antibodies To Encephalitozoon Cuniculi, Toxoplasma Gondii, And Sarcocystis Neurona In Domestic Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Hsing-Ho Vasha

    2010-01-01

    Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona are intracellular parasites that infect a wide range of mammalian host species including domestic cats. The prevalence of antibodies to these parasites in cats was examined using an indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay. E. cuniculi targets the kidneys of rabbits but the prevalence of disease in cats is unknown. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common cause of illness in cats. T. gondii is a widespread parasite of c...

  18. Nuclear transfer of synchronized African wild cat somatic cells into enucleated domestic cat oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, M.C.; Jenkins, J.A.; Giraldo, A.; Harris, R.F.; King, A.; Dresser, B.L.; Pope, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    The African wild cat is one of the smallest wild cats and its future is threatened by hybridization with domestic cats. Nuclear transfer, a valuable tool for retaining genetic variability, offers the possibility of species continuation rather than extinction. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of somatic cell nuclei of the African wild cat (AWC) to dedifferentiate within domestic cat (DSH) cytoplasts and to support early development after nuclear transplantation. In experiment 1, distributions of AWC and DSH fibroblasts in each cell-cycle phase were assessed by flow cytometry using cells cultured to confluency and disaggregated with pronase, trypsin, or mechanical separation. Trypsin (89.0%) and pronase (93.0%) yielded higher proportions of AWC nuclei in the G0/G1 phase than mechanical separation (82.0%). In contrast, mechanical separation yielded higher percentages of DSH nuclei in the G0/G1 phase (86.6%) than pronase (79.7%) or trypsin (74.2%) treatments. In both species, pronase induced less DNA damage than trypsin. In experiment 2, the effects of serum starvation, culture to confluency, and exposure to roscovitine on the distribution of AWC and DSH fibroblasts in various phases of the cell cycle were determined. Flow cytometry analyses revealed that the dynamics of the cell cycle varied as culture conditions were modified. Specifically, a higher percentage of AWC and DSH nuclei were in the G0/G1 phase after cells were serum starved (83% vs. 96%) than were present in cycling cells (50% vs. 64%), after contact inhibition (61% vs. 88%), or after roscovitine (56% vs. 84%) treatment, respectively. In experiment 3, we evaluated the effects of cell synchronization and oocyte maturation (in vivo vs. in vitro) on the reconstruction and development of AWC-DSH- and DSH-DSH-cloned embryos. The method of cell synchronization did not affect the fusion and cleavage rate because only a slightly higher percentage of fused couplets cleaved when donor nuclei

  19. Modelling the population control of the domestic cat: an example from an island in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ICM Lessa

    Full Text Available The domestic cat is an invasive species that often causes great impacts where introduced due to its high predatory and reproductive potential, especially on islands. In this study, carried out on Ilha Grande (RJ, Brazil, we aimed to: i estimate the population density of domestic cats, ii calculate the number of animals preyed upon annually by domestic cats, and iii evaluate the efficiency of methods to control the cat population. We used the Vortex program to project the population growth of domestic cats in fifty years, and simulated different scenarios of population control (without control, castration, spay and harvest. Population density of owned cats was 662 cats/km². The annual predation rate was 1.97 prey animals/cat which is an average of 1497.96 prey/year. The population would only be reduced if 70% of females were spayed or removed annually. Measures to control the domestic cat population must be undertaken urgently, since uncontrolled growth of this predator has the potential to seriously impact the biodiversity of Ilha Grande.

  20. Domestic Cat (Felis silvestris catus) Urine Odour as a Potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cat urine odour extract on rodent pest species to reduce crop losses. Cat urine from the captured cats was drawn using cat catcher. Urinary catheter was inserted into the urethra up to the urinary bladder and a syringe attached to the urinary catheter was used to draw ...

  1. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic cats in central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Zhou, Yonghua; Niu, Jingyuan; Xie, Qing; Xiao, Tingwei; Chen, Yunchao; Li, Han; Ma, Chenchen; Zhang, Haizhu; Liu, Shiguo; Zhang, Zhenchao

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic cats in central China, 843 serum samples were collected in Henan province between March 2015 and May 2016 and tested for IgG antibodies against T. gondii using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii was 21% (178/843). No significant difference was observed based on the sex of cats (p > 0.05). Significantly higher seroprevalence (p cats (24%) compared to purebred cats (17%). Seroprevalence in rural cats (29%) was significantly higher (p cats (16%), and increased significantly (p domestic cats in Henan province, central China, which might have important implications for public health. © S. Wang et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  2. COMPANION ANIMALS SYMPOSIUM: Sustainable Ecosystems: Domestic cats and their effect on wildlife populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitts-Morgan, S E

    2015-03-01

    Domestic cats are estimated to kill billions of small mammals and birds each year. In certain areas of the world, it is not uncommon for either feral or free-ranging cats to have high population densities, creating concern regarding their level of hunting. Many cats are considered to be subsidized predators, as they receive care and food from humans. Arguments abound regarding the presence of cats in the habitats of native small mammals and birds and whether or not local ecosystems can sustain this predator-prey relationship. The effects of cats on native wildlife can depend on several factors, including cat classification (feral vs. free ranging vs. indoor-outdoor), geographical location (islands vs. mainland), and type of habitat (rural vs. suburban vs. urban). Feral and free-ranging cats may have a greater impact on native species on islands because habitat is severely limited. Continued urbanization and development of rural areas also creates fragmented habitats, and native species may struggle to survive with the added pressure of hunting by domestic cats. Additionally, cats in rural areas are frequently fed by humans, which can support high population densities and intensify pressure on native species. Species targeted by cats may also vary based on prey availability in different areas, but small mammals are generally preferred over birds, reptiles, or invertebrates. Domestic cats certainly have the potential to roam and hunt in very large areas inhabited by native species and loss of biodiversity is a major concern. Therefore, it is possible that ecosystems may not be able to sustain hunting by domestic cats. Because this predator-prey relationship is probably not sustainable, it is necessary to responsibly manage outdoor domestic cats.

  3. Molecular detection of Hepatozoon spp. and Cytauxzoon sp. in domestic and stray cats from Madrid, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Regañón, David; Villaescusa, Alejandra; Ayllón, Tania; Rodríguez-Franco, Fernando; Baneth, Gad; Calleja-Bueno, Lydia; García-Sancho, Mercedes; Agulla, Beatriz; Sainz, Ángel

    2017-03-13

    Different species of apicomplexan protozoans of the genera Hepatozoon and Cytauxzoon can infect domestic cats, but their epidemiology and clinical relevance are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to assess the molecular prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. and Cytauxzoon spp. and to identify associated risk factors and clinical and laboratory abnormalities in a population of cats from Madrid, Spain. Six hundred and forty-four client-owned and stray cats from Madrid, Spain, were included in this study. DNA samples were analyzed by two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests to detect a partial sequence of the 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. and Cytauxzoon spp. In order to evaluate possible associations between infection by these protozoans and epidemiological or clinical parameters, data were collected related to: the season of sample collection, age, gender, spayed/neutered status, breed, living area, lifestyle, outdoor access, contact with other animals, prey on wild animals, history of tick or flea infestation, travel history, ectoparasiticide treatment, previous blood transfusion, previous tetracycline administration in the last 60 days, Feline Leukemia virus (FeLV) and Feline Immunodeficiency virus (FIV) status, positivity to other vector-borne diseases, the presence or absence of clinical signs and hematological or biochemical alterations. DNA of Hepatozoon spp. and Cytauxzoon sp. was amplified from the blood of 10 (1.6%) and 8 (1.2%) cats, respectively. Previous treatment with tetracyclines in the last 60 days, previous administration of blood transfusion, a decrease in haematocrit and an increase in creatinine were associated with Hepatozoon spp. infection. Cytauxzoon sp. infection was more frequent in samples collected during the winter months and in cats living in rural areas. This infection was associated with a FIV-positive status. Some of the cats that were positive for Hepatozoon spp. or Cytauxzoon sp. had been exposed to other vector

  4. Man's other best friend: domestic cats (F. silvestris catus) and their discrimination of human emotion cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Moriah; Vonk, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The ability of domestic dogs (C. lupus famaliaris) to follow and attend to human emotion expressions is well documented. It is unknown whether domestic cats (F. silvestris catus) possess similar abilities. Because cats belong to the same order (Carnivora), but did not evolve to live in complex social groups, research with them enables us to tease apart the influence of social structure versus domestication processes on the capacity to recognize human communicative cues, such as emotions. Two experiments were conducted to determine the extent to which domestic cats discriminate between human emotion cues. The first experiment presented cats with facial and postural cues of happiness and anger from both an unfamiliar experimenter and their familiar owner in the absence of vocal cues. The second experiment presented cats with vocal cues of human emotion through a positively or negatively charged conversation between an experimenter and owner. Domestic cats were only modestly sensitive to emotion, particularly when displayed by their owner, suggesting that a history of human interaction alone may not be sufficient to shape such abilities in domestic cats.

  5. Development of MHC-Linked Microsatellite Markers in the Domestic Cat and Their Use to Evaluate MHC Diversity in Domestic Cats, Cheetahs, and Gir Lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Katrina M; Kirby, Katherine; Beatty, Julia A; Barrs, Vanessa R; Cattley, Sonia; David, Victor; O'Brien, Stephen J; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Belov, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Diversity within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) reflects the immunological fitness of a population. MHC-linked microsatellite markers provide a simple and an inexpensive method for studying MHC diversity in large-scale studies. We have developed 6 MHC-linked microsatellite markers in the domestic cat and used these, in conjunction with 5 neutral microsatellites, to assess MHC diversity in domestic mixed breed (n = 129) and purebred Burmese (n = 61) cat populations in Australia. The MHC of outbred Australian cats is polymorphic (average allelic richness = 8.52), whereas the Burmese population has significantly lower MHC diversity (average allelic richness = 6.81; P lions (n = 13). Our MHC-linked microsatellite markers have potential future use in diversity and disease studies in other populations and breeds of cats as well as in wild felid species. © The American Genetic Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Ectoparasites of free-roaming domestic cats in the central United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer E; Staubus, Lesa; Goolsby, Jaime L; Reichard, Mason V

    2016-09-15

    Free-roaming domestic cat (Felis catus) populations serve as a valuable resource for studying ectoparasite prevalence. While they share a similar environment as owned cats, free-roaming cats do not receive routine veterinary care or ectoparasiticide application, giving insight into parasite risks for owned animals. We examined up to 673 infested cats presented to a trap-neuter-return (TNR) clinic in the central United States. Ectoparasite prevalences on cats were as follows: fleas (71.6%), ticks (18.7%), Felicola subrostratus (1.0%), Cheyletiella blakei (0.9%), and Otodectes cynotis (19.3%). Fleas, ticks, and O. cynotis were found in all months sampled. A total of 1117 fleas were recovered from 322 infested cats. The predominate flea recovered from cats was Ctenocephalides felis (97.2%) followed by Pulex spp. (2.8%), Cediopsylla simplex (0.6%), and Nosopsyllus fasciatus (0.6%). A total of 373 ticks were recovered from 126 infested cats. The predominate tick species was Amblyomma americanum (65.9%) followed by Ixodes scapularis (32.5%), Dermacentor variabilis (10.3%), and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.8%). Immature tick stages accounted for 54.7% of all ticks found, highlighting an under-appreciated source of tick burden on domestic cats. The results of this study emphasize the importance of year-round use of ectoparasiticides with both insecticidal and acaricidal activity on domestic cats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Three pathogens in sympatric populations of pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats: implications for infectious disease transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevins, Sarah N; Carver, Scott; Boydston, Erin E; Lyren, Lisa M; Alldredge, Mat; Logan, Kenneth A; Riley, Seth P D; Fisher, Robert N; Vickers, T Winston; Boyce, Walter; Salman, Mo; Lappin, Michael R; Crooks, Kevin R; VandeWoude, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape change can lead to increased opportunities for pathogen transmission between domestic and non-domestic animals. Pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats are sympatric in many areas of North America and share many of the same pathogens, some of which are zoonotic. We analyzed bobcat, puma, and feral domestic cat samples collected from targeted geographic areas. We examined exposure to three pathogens that are taxonomically diverse (bacterial, protozoal, viral), that incorporate multiple transmission strategies (vector-borne, environmental exposure/ingestion, and direct contact), and that vary in species-specificity. Bartonella spp., Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Toxoplasma gondii IgG were detected in all three species with mean respective prevalence as follows: puma 16%, 41% and 75%; bobcat 31%, 22% and 43%; domestic cat 45%, 10% and 1%. Bartonella spp. were highly prevalent among domestic cats in Southern California compared to other cohort groups. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus exposure was primarily associated with species and age, and was not influenced by geographic location. Pumas were more likely to be infected with FIV than bobcats, with domestic cats having the lowest infection rate. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was high in both pumas and bobcats across all sites; in contrast, few domestic cats were seropositive, despite the fact that feral, free ranging domestic cats were targeted in this study. Interestingly, a directly transmitted species-specific disease (FIV) was not associated with geographic location, while exposure to indirectly transmitted diseases--vector-borne for Bartonella spp. and ingestion of oocysts via infected prey or environmental exposure for T. gondii--varied significantly by site. Pathogens transmitted by direct contact may be more dependent upon individual behaviors and intra-specific encounters. Future studies will integrate host density, as well as landscape features, to better understand the

  8. Three pathogens in sympatric populations of pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats: implications for infectious disease transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah N Bevins

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic landscape change can lead to increased opportunities for pathogen transmission between domestic and non-domestic animals. Pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats are sympatric in many areas of North America and share many of the same pathogens, some of which are zoonotic. We analyzed bobcat, puma, and feral domestic cat samples collected from targeted geographic areas. We examined exposure to three pathogens that are taxonomically diverse (bacterial, protozoal, viral, that incorporate multiple transmission strategies (vector-borne, environmental exposure/ingestion, and direct contact, and that vary in species-specificity. Bartonella spp., Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV, and Toxoplasma gondii IgG were detected in all three species with mean respective prevalence as follows: puma 16%, 41% and 75%; bobcat 31%, 22% and 43%; domestic cat 45%, 10% and 1%. Bartonella spp. were highly prevalent among domestic cats in Southern California compared to other cohort groups. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus exposure was primarily associated with species and age, and was not influenced by geographic location. Pumas were more likely to be infected with FIV than bobcats, with domestic cats having the lowest infection rate. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was high in both pumas and bobcats across all sites; in contrast, few domestic cats were seropositive, despite the fact that feral, free ranging domestic cats were targeted in this study. Interestingly, a directly transmitted species-specific disease (FIV was not associated with geographic location, while exposure to indirectly transmitted diseases--vector-borne for Bartonella spp. and ingestion of oocysts via infected prey or environmental exposure for T. gondii--varied significantly by site. Pathogens transmitted by direct contact may be more dependent upon individual behaviors and intra-specific encounters. Future studies will integrate host density, as well as landscape features, to better

  9. Three pathogens in sympatric populations of pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats: Implications for infections disease transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevins, Sarah N.; Carver, Scott; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Alldredge, Mat; Logan, Kenneth A.; Riley, Seth P.D.; Fisher, Robert N.; Vickers, T. Winston; Boyce, Walter; Salman, Mo; Lappin, Michael R.; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape change can lead to increased opportunities for pathogen transmission between domestic and non-domestic animals. Pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats are sympatric in many areas of North America and share many of the same pathogens, some of which are zoonotic. We analyzed bobcat, puma, and feral domestic cat samples collected from targeted geographic areas. We examined exposure to three pathogens that are taxonomically diverse (bacterial, protozoal, viral), that incorporate multiple transmission strategies (vector-borne, environmental exposure/ingestion, and direct contact), and that vary in species-specificity. Bartonella spp., Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Toxoplasma gondii IgG were detected in all three species with mean respective prevalence as follows: puma 16%, 41% and 75%; bobcat 31%, 22% and 43%; domestic cat 45%, 10% and 1%. Bartonella spp. were highly prevalent among domestic cats in Southern California compared to other cohort groups. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus exposure was primarily associated with species and age, and was not influenced by geographic location. Pumas were more likely to be infected with FIV than bobcats, with domestic cats having the lowest infection rate. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was high in both pumas and bobcats across all sites; in contrast, few domestic cats were seropositive, despite the fact that feral, free ranging domestic cats were targeted in this study. Interestingly, a directly transmitted species-specific disease (FIV) was not associated with geographic location, while exposure to indirectly transmitted diseases – vector-borne for Bartonella spp. and ingestion of oocysts via infected prey or environmental exposure for T. gondii – varied significantly by site. Pathogens transmitted by direct contact may be more dependent upon individual behaviors and intra-specific encounters. Future studies will integrate host density, as well as landscape features, to better

  10. Epidemiological and pathological study of feline morbillivirus infection in domestic cats in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Sil; Suzuki, Michio; Kimura, Masanobu; Mizutani, Hiroshi; Saito, Ryuichi; Kubota, Nami; Hasuike, Youko; Okajima, Jungo; Kasai, Hidemi; Sato, Yuko; Nakajima, Noriko; Maruyama, Keiji; Imaoka, Koichi; Morikawa, Shigeru

    2016-10-11

    Feline morbillivirus (FmoPV) is a novel paramyxovirus found to infect domestic cats. FmoPV has been isolated in several countries in Asia and Europe and is considered to have genetic diversity. Also, it is suspected to be associated with feline renal diseases including tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN), which affects domestic cats with a high incidence rate. To clarify the state of FmoPV infection among domestic cats in Japan, an epidemiological survey was conducted. Twenty-one out of 100 cats were found to have serum antibodies (Ab) against FmoPV-N protein by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IF) using FmoPV-N protein-expressing HeLa cells. Twenty-two of the cats were positive for FmoPV RNA in the urine and/or renal tissues. In total, 29 cats were positive for Ab and/or viral RNA. These FmoPV-infected cats were classified into three different phases of infection: RNA+/Ab + (14 cats), RNA+/Ab- (8 cats) and RNA-/Ab + (7 cats). In immunohistochemistry (IHC), 19 out of 29 cats were positive for FmoPV-N protein in kidney tissues; however, the FmoPV-N protein was located in the inflammatory lesions with severe grade in only four out of the 19 cats. Since 15 out of 29 infected cats were positive for viral RNA and Ab, approximately half of the infected cats were persistently infected with FmoPV. A statistically significant difference was observed between infection of FmoPV and the presence of inflammatory changes in renal lesions, indicating a relationship between FmoPV infection and feline renal diseases. However, we could not obtain histopathological evidence of a relationship between FmoPV infection and TIN.

  11. Periods and stages of the prenatal development of the domestic cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knospe, C

    2002-02-01

    Twenty-two stages of the prenatal development of the domestic cat are described for intraspecies comparison in embryological studies. These are assigned to the 15 embryonal periods based on the Nomina Embryologica Veterinaria to make the interspecies comparison possible.

  12. Detection of Vaccinia Virus in Urban Domestic Cats, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Galileu Barbosa; Miranda, Júlia Bahia; Almeida, Gregório Guilherme; Silva de Oliveira, Jaqueline; Pinheiro, Mariana Siqueira; Gonçalves, Stefanne Aparecida; Pimenta Dos Reis, Jenner Karlisson; Gonçalves, Ricardo; Ferreira, Paulo César Peregrino; Bonjardim, Cláudio Antônio; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Trindade, Giliane de Souza

    2017-02-01

    We investigated possible vaccinia virus (VACV) in urban house cats in Brazil. Serum samples from 6 cats were positive for VACV by PCR, indicating likely VACV circulation among house cats in urban areas of Brazil. This finding highlights the importance of epidemiologic surveillance to avoid outbreaks among urban human populations.

  13. Teaching A-level Genetics: The Coat Colours of the Domestic Cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, D. J.; Talbot, C. D.

    1992-01-01

    The authors provide an introduction to the inheritance of coat colors in cats and suggest strategies designed to integrate the domestic cat (Felis domesticus or catus) into the teaching of genetics. Provides examples to illustrate dominance, recessiveness, epistasis, multiple allelism, environmental effect of phenotype, incomplete dominance,…

  14. Evolutionary dynamics of endogenous feline leukemia virus proliferation among species of the domestic cat lineage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polani, Sagi; Roca, Alfred L.; Rosensteel, Bryan B.; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila

    2010-01-01

    Endogenous feline leukemia viruses (enFeLVs) occur in the germ lines of the domestic cat and related wild species (genus Felis). We sequenced the long terminal repeats and part of the env region of enFeLVs in domestic cats and five wild species. A total of 305 enFeLV sequences were generated across 17 individuals, demonstrating considerable diversity within two major clades. Distinct proliferations of enFeLVs occurred before and after the black-footed cat diverged from the other species. Diversity of enFeLVs was limited for the sand cat and jungle cat suggesting that proliferation of enFeLVs occurred within these species after they diverged. Relationships among enFeLVs were congruent with host species relationships except for the jungle cat, which carried only enFeLVs from a lineage that recently invaded the germline (enFeLV-AGTT). Comparison of wildcat and domestic cat enFeLVs indicated that a distinctive germ line invasion of enFeLVs has not occurred since the cat was domesticated.

  15. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLVIII. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting domestic cats and wild felids in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, Ivan G; Heyne, Heloise; Donkin, Edward F

    2010-11-24

    Ticks collected from domestic cats (Felis catus), cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus),caracals (Caracal caracal), African wild cats (Felis lybica), black-footed cats (Felis nigripes), a serval (Leptailurus serval), lions(Panthera leo), and leopards (Panthera pardus) were identified and counted. Thirteen species of ixodid ticks and one argasid tick were identified from domestic cats and 17 species of ixodid ticks from wild felids. The domestic cats and wild felids harboured 11 ixodid species in common. The adults of Haemaphysalis elliptica, the most abundant tick species infesting cats and wild felids, were most numerous on a domestic cat in late winter and in mid-summer, during 2 consecutive years. The recorded geographic distribution of the recently described Haemaphysalis colesbergensis, a parasite of cats and caracals, was extended by 2 new locality records in the Northern Cape Province, South Africa.

  16. Uveal cysts in domestic cats: a retrospective evaluation of thirty-six cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacklock, Benjamin T; Grundon, Rachael A; Meehan, Melissa; Tetas Pont, Roser; Hartley, Claudia

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate uveal cysts in domestic cats by identifying prevalence, predispositions, location, presumed etiologies, and sequelae. The clinical databases of two referral hospitals (The Animal Health Trust in the UK and Animal Eye Care in Australia) were searched to identify cats that had been diagnosed with uveal cysts, either as an incidental finding or as the reason for referral. Thirty-six cases were found. The signalment of the patients was recorded, along with any relevant previous clinical history, treatment, follow-up, and sequela. The data were compared with the unaffected feline populations examined by ophthalmologists in the two hospitals over the same 10-year time period. Thirty-six cats were affected, from a total examined population of 5017 (prevalence 0.72%). Twenty-one of the 36 cats were Burmese. The two centers examined 516 Burmese cats in the same time period, giving an incidence in Burmese cats of 4.1%. The mean age of affected cats at presentation was 10.25 years (SD = 4.12 years), and female cats accounted for 23 of 36 of the cases. Only 2 of 36 cats had concurrent intraocular disease. Uveal cysts in domestic cats are rare ophthalmic findings, and in most cases, they do not cause any clinical problems The Burmese breed is overrepresented in the data, with a relatively high prevalence of uveal cysts. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  17. Occurrence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior in domestic cats in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakou, Anastasia; Di Cesare, Angela; Barros, Luciano A; Morelli, Simone; Halos, Lenaig; Beugnet, Frederic; Traversa, Donato

    2015-11-14

    Despite the evidence that Mediterranean Europe offers suitable conditions for the biology of felid respiratory metastrongyloids, no updated data on the presence of felid lungworms are available for Greece. Although the cat lungworm Aelurostrongylus abstrusus is considered as enzootic in domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) living in some areas of continental Greece, conversely, Troglostrongylus brevior, has only been reported in the island of Crete. The present study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior in domestic cats from four different Greek locations including islands where European wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris), believed to be the natural reservoir of T. brevior, are considered absent. Faeces were collected from 125 stray cats in the city of Athens, and in Crete, Mykonos and Skopelos Islands, and examined by copromicroscopic techniques for the presence of lungworm larvae. When present, larvae were morphologically and molecularly identified. The occurrence of A. abstrusus and T. brevior was confirmed in 10 (8 %) and 7 (5.6 %) of the samples, respectively. In particular, T. brevior was detected in domestic cats in the city of Athens, and in Mykonos and Skopelos Islands, where wildcats are not present. This information illustrates that T. brevior may infect domestic cats regardless of the presence of the natural host. Considering the relevant clinical impact of this nematode especially in young animals, it is advisable to include troglostrongylosis in the differential diagnosis of cat respiratory diseases also where this parasite is unexpected.

  18. Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania spp. in domestic cats from Luanda, Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania spp. are zoonotic agents of importance to public health, with domestic cats as potential reservoirs for both protozoal infections. The present study aimed at assessing for the first time the seroprevalence of these zoonotic parasites in a domestic feline population l...

  19. Prevalence of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in domesticated and feral cats in eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jacqueline M; Bell, Erin T; Hales, Louise; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L; White, Joanna D; Wigney, Denise I; Baral, Randolph M; Malik, Richard

    2007-08-01

    Serum samples from 340 pet cats presented to three inner city clinics in Sydney Australia, 68 feral cats from two separate colonies in Sydney, and 329 cattery-confined pedigree and domestic cats in eastern Australia, were collected over a 2-year period and tested for antibodies directed against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) using immunomigration (Agen FIV Rapid Immunomigration test) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods (Snap Combo feline leukaemia virus antigen/FIV antibody test kit, IDEXX Laboratories). Western blot analysis was performed on samples in which there was discrepancy between the results. Information regarding breed, age, gender, housing arrangement and health status were recorded for all pet and cattery-confined cats, while the estimated age and current physical condition were recorded for feral cats. The FIV prevalence in the two feral cat populations was 21% and 25%. The majority of FIV-positive cats were male (60-80%). The FIV prevalence in cattery-confined cats was nil. The prevalence of FIV in the pet cat sample population was 8% (27/340) with almost equal prevalence in 'healthy' (13/170) and 'systemically unwell' (14/170) cats. The age of FIV-positive pet cats ranged from 3 to 19 years; all FIV-positive cats were domestic shorthairs with outside access. The median age of FIV-positive pet cats (11 years) was significantly greater than the median age of FIV-negative pet cats (7.5 years: P<0.05). The prevalence of FIV infection in male pet cats (21/172; 12%) was three times that in female pet cats (6/168; 4%; P<0.05). With over 80% of this pet cat population given outside access and continued FIV infection present in the feral population, this study highlights the need to develop rapid, accurate and cost-effective diagnostic methods that are not subject to false positives created by concurrent vaccination against FIV. This is especially important in re-homing stray cats within animal shelters and monitoring the efficacy of the new

  20. Effectiveness of the Domestic Cat (Felis silvestris catus) Urine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stored cat urine was then thawed and mixed with maize starch to form a thick dough and then granulated and dried at room temperature before being packed in a hermetically closed jar. Initially, rodent foot marks on tracking soot coat tiles were used to estimate the rat population before the cat urine extracts application.

  1. Pancreatic function in domestic cats with pancreatic fluke infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J N; Mosley, J G; Vogler, G A; Austin, J L; Reber, H A

    1981-01-01

    Thirty-one of 290 cats (10.7%) from the area around St Louis, Mo, were infected with Eurytrema procyonis. In some cats, the pancreas was severely affected, with almost complete atrophy and fibrous replacement of the gland. Both bicarbonate and protein secretions were impaired, although clinically evident pancreatic insufficiency was not seen.

  2. A high-resolution 15,000Rad radiation hybrid panel for the domestic cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Leslie H.; Gandolfi, Barbara; Grahn, Jennifer C.; Millon, Lee V.; Kent, Michael S.; Narfstrom, Kristina; Cole, Shelley A.; Mullikin, James C.; Grahn, Robert A.; Lyons, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The current genetic and recombination maps of the cat have less than 3,000 markers and a resolution limit greater than 1 Mb. To complement the first generation domestic cat maps, support higher resolution mapping studies, and aid genome assembly in specific areas as well as in the whole genome, a 15,000Rad radiation hybrid (RH) panel for the domestic cat was generated. Fibroblasts from the female Abyssinian cat that was used to generate the cat genomic sequence were fused to a Chinese hamster cell line (A23), producing 150 hybrid lines. The clones were initially characterized using 39 STR and 1536 SNP markers. The utility of whole genome amplification (WGA) in preserving and extending RH panel DNA was also tested using ten STR markers; no significant difference in retention was observed. The resolution of the 15,000Rad RH panel was established by constructing framework maps across ten different 1 Mb regions on different feline chromosomes. In these regions, two-point analysis was used to estimate RH distances, which compared favorably with the estimation of physical distances. The study demonstrates that the 15,000Rad RH panel constitutes a powerful tool for constructing high-resolution maps, having an average resolution of 40.1 kb per marker across the ten 1 Mb regions. In addition, the RH panel will complement existing genomic resources for the domestic cat, aid in the accurate reassemblies of the forthcoming cat genomic sequence, and support cross-species genomic comparisons. PMID:22777158

  3. Domestic dogs and cats as sources of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in rural northwestern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürtler, R E; Cecere, M C; Lauricella, M A; Cardinal, M V; Kitron, U; Cohen, J E

    2007-01-01

    The reservoir capacity of domestic cats and dogs for Trypanosoma cruzi infection and the host-feeding patterns of domestic Triatoma infestans were assessed longitudinally in 2 infested rural villages in north-western Argentina. A total of 86 dogs and 38 cats was repeatedly examined for T. cruzi infection by serology and/or xenodiagnosis. The composite prevalence of infection in dogs (60%), but not in cats, increased significantly with age and with the domiciliary density of infected T. infestans. Dogs and cats had similarly high forces of infection, prevalence of infectious hosts (41-42%), and infectiousness to bugs at a wide range of infected bug densities. The infectiousness to bugs of seropositive dogs declined significantly with increasing dog age and was highly aggregated. Individual dog infectiousness to bugs was significantly autocorrelated over time. Domestic T. infestans fed on dogs showed higher infection prevalence (49%) than those fed on cats (39%), humans (38%) or chickens (29%) among 1085 bugs examined. The basic reproduction number of T. cruzi in dogs was at least 8.2. Both cats and dogs are epidemiologically important sources of infection for bugs and householders, dogs nearly 3 times more than cats.

  4. Detecção do provírus da Imunodeficiência Felina em gatos domésticos pela técnica de Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Detection of feline immunodeficiency provirus in domestic cats by polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Ferrary Caldas

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available A infecção de gatos domésticos pelo Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina (FIV é um dos modelos mais promissores para o estudo da infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV que causa a Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida (AIDS. O FIV causa, em gatos, uma enfermidade similar àquela observada em pacientes com AIDS, sobretudo no que diz respeito ao aumento da susceptibilidade a infecções oportunistas. No presente estudo, utilizou-se a Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR, com o objetivo de detectar o provírus do FIV em gatos com sinais clínicos de imunodeficiência. O fragmento de DNA escolhido como alvo para amplificação situa-se no gene gag do lentivírus felino, o qual é conservado entre as diferentes amostras do vírus. O DNA utilizado foi extraído a partir de amostras de sangue e de tecidos de animais com suspeita clínica de imunodeficiência. Das 40 amostras analisadas, 15 foram positivas, das quais 4 foram submetidas à hibridização, confirmando a especificidade dos fragmentos amplificados. Esses resultados demonstram a presença do FIV na população de gatos domésticos do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV infection of domestic cats is one of the most promising animal models for the infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV which causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. Infected cats may develop a disease similar to that observed in AIDS patients, with increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. In this study we used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR to detect proviral DNA of feline immunodeficiency virus on the blood and tissue samples from cats with a clinical diagnosis of immunodeficiency. The PCR primers were used to amplify the gag gene, which is conserved among different isolates. From 40 samples analyzed, 15 were positive and 4 of them were submitted to hybridization to confirm the specificity of the amplified fragments. These results confirm the

  5. Ultrasonographic anatomy of the healthy southern tigrina ( Leopardus guttulus) abdomen: comparison with domestic cat references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thiago R; Marcelino, Raquel S; de Souza, Livia P; Teixeira, Carlos R; Mamprim, Maria J

    2017-02-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to describe the normal abdominal echoanatomy of the tigrina and to compare it with the abdominal echoanatomy of the domestic cat. Reference intervals for the normal abdominal ultrasonographic anatomy of individual species are important for accurate diagnoses and interpretation of routine health examinations. The hypothesis was that the echoanatomy of the tigrina was similar to that of the domestic cat. Methods Eighteen clinically healthy tigrina were selected for abdominal ultrasound examination, in order to obtain normal parameters of the bladder, spleen, adrenal gland, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, liver and gall bladder, and Doppler parameters of liver and kidney vessels. Results The splenic parenchyma was consistently hyperechoic to the kidneys and liver. The liver, kidneys and spleen had similar echotexture, shape and dimensions when compared with the domestic cat. The gall bladder was lobulated and surrounded by a clearly visualized thin, smooth, regular echogenic wall. The adrenal glands had a bilobulated shape. The urinary bladder had a thin echogenic wall. The Doppler parameters of the portal vein and renal artery were similar to the domestic cat. Conclusions and relevance The results support the hypothesis that the ultrasonographic parameters of the abdominal viscera of the southern tigrina are similar to those of the domestic cat.

  6. Assessment of domestic cat personality, as perceived by 416 owners, suggests six dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Pauleen C; Rutter, Nicholas J; Woodhead, Jessica K; Howell, Tiffani J

    2017-08-01

    Understanding individual behavioral differences in domestic cats could lead to improved selection when potential cat owners choose a pet with whom to share their lives, along with consequent improvements in cat welfare. Yet very few attempts have been made to elicit cat personality dimensions using the trait-based exploratory approaches applied previously, with some success, to humans and dogs. In this study, a list of over 200 adjectives used to describe cat personality was assembled. This list was refined by two focus groups. A sample of 416 adult cat owners then rated a cat they knew well on each of 118 retained words. An iterative analytical approach was used to identify 29 words which formed six personality dimensions: Playfulness, Nervousness, Amiability, Dominance, Demandingness, and Gullibility. Chronbach's alpha scores for these dimensions ranged from 0.63 to 0.8 and, together, they explained 56.08% of the total variance. Very few significant correlations were found between participant scores on the personality dimensions and descriptive variables such as owner age, cat age and owner cat-owning experience, and these were all weak to barely moderate in strength (r≤0.30). There was also only one significant group difference based on cat sex. Importantly, however, several cat personality scores were moderately (r=0.3-0.49) or strongly (r≥0.5) correlated with simple measures of satisfaction with the cat, attachment, bond quality, and the extent to which the cat was perceived to be troublesome. The results suggest that, with further validation, this scale could be used to provide a simple, tick-box, assessment of an owner's perceptions regarding a cat's personality. This may be of value in both applied and research settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. CANINE DISTEMPER VIRUS ANTIBODY TITERS IN DOMESTIC CATS AFTER DELIVERY OF A LIVE ATTENUATED VIRUS VACCINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Edward; Sadler, Ryan; Rush, Robert; Seimon, Tracie; Tomaszewicz, Ania; Fleetwood, Ellen A; McAloose, Denise; Wilkes, Rebecca P

    2016-06-01

    Three methods for delivering a live attenuated canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccine to domestic cats ( Felis catus ) were investigated, as models for developing vaccination protocols for tigers (Panthera tigris). Twenty domestic cats were randomly divided into four treatment groups: saline injection (negative controls); and oral, intranasal, and subcutaneous vaccinates. Cats were injected with saline or a CDV vaccine (Nobivac DP, Merck) at wk 0 and 4. Blood and nasal swabs were collected at wk 0 (prior to the initial vaccination) and weekly thereafter for 9 wk. Urine samples were collected on wk 1 to 9 after initial vaccination. Forty-nine weeks following the initial vaccination series, three cats from the subcutaneous group and three cats from the intranasal group were revaccinated. Blood was collected immediately prior, and 7 and 21 days subsequent to revaccination. Nasal swabs and urine samples were collected from each cat prior to wk 49 revaccination and daily for 7 days thereafter. Nasal swabs and urine were analyzed by quantitative PCR for vaccine virus presence. Sera were tested for CDV antibodies by virus neutralization. All cats were sero-negative for CDV antibodies at the beginning of the study, and saline-injected cats remained sero-negative throughout the study. A dramatic anamnestic response was seen following wk 4 subcutaneous vaccinations, with titers peaking at wk 6 (geometric mean = 2,435.5). Following wk 49 revaccination, subcutaneous vaccinates again mounted impressive titers (wk 52 geometric mean = 2,048). Revaccination of the intranasal group cats at wk 49 produced a small increase in titers (wk 52 geometric mean = 203). CDV viral RNA was detected in six nasal swabs but no urine samples, demonstrating low viral shedding postvaccination. The strong antibody response to subcutaneous vaccination and the lack of adverse effects suggest this vaccine is safe and potentially protective against CDV infection in domestic cats.

  8. Successful medical management of a domestic longhair cat with subdural intracranial empyema and multifocal pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardy, Thomas J A; Lam, Richard; Peters, Laureen M; McLaren, Philippa J; Matas Riera, Màrian; De Decker, Steven

    2017-03-01

    To describe a case of successful medical management of subdural intracranial empyema and multifocal pneumonia in a domestic longhaired cat. A 7-year-and-8-month-old male neutered domestic longhair cat presented with tachypnea, respiratory compromise, vestibular ataxia, obtundation, left-sided head tilt, and multiple cranial nerve deficits. Neuroanatomical localization was multifocal with central vestibular involvement. Magnetic resonance imaging of the head indicated diffuse subdural empyema, mainly affecting the middle cranial fossa and the right cerebrum. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid revealed degenerate neutrophils with a mixed population of intracellular bacilli. Computed tomography (CT) of the thorax was suggestive for multifocal pneumonia. Aggressive medical management with IV fluids, oxygen supplementation, mannitol boluses, dexamethasone, and broad-spectrum antimicrobials was initiated. The cat demonstrated gradual improvement within 24 hours following initiation of treatment. General physical and neurological examinations, 9 weeks after initiating treatment, did not reveal any abnormalities. A CT examination performed at this time revealed resolution of the cat's pulmonary lesions. The cat was still free of clinical signs, 9 months after treatment was started. Subdural empyema is infrequently reported in cats and has high mortality rates even following surgical treatment. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of successful medical management of a cat with subdural empyema and suggests that aggressive medical management should be attempted in cats that are not considered surgical candidates. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  9. Human-Related Factors Regulate the Spatial Ecology of Domestic Cats in Sensitive Areas for Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Joaquim P.; Leitão, Inês; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Revilla, Eloy

    2011-01-01

    Background Domestic cats ranging freely in natural areas are a conservation concern due to competition, predation, disease transmission or hybridization with wildcats. In order to improve our ability to design effective control policies, we investigate the factors affecting their numbers and space use in natural areas of continental Europe. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe the patterns of cat presence, abundance and space use and analyse the associated environmental and human constraints in a well-preserved Mediterranean natural area with small scattered local farms. We failed in detecting cats in areas away from human settlements (trapping effort above 4000 trap-nights), while we captured 30 individuals near inhabited farms. We identified 130 cats, all of them in farms still in use by people (30% of 128 farms). All cats were free-ranging and very wary of people. The main factor explaining the presence of cats was the presence of people, while the number of cats per farm was mostly affected by the occasional food provisioning with human refuse and the presence of people. The home ranges of eight radio tagged cats were centred at inhabited farms. Males went furthest away from the farms during the mating season (3.8 km on average, maximum 6.3 km), using inhabited farms as stepping-stones in their mating displacements (2.2 km of maximum inter-farm distance moved). In their daily movements, cats notably avoided entering in areas with high fox density. Conclusions The presence, abundance and space use of cats were heavily dependent on human settlements. Any strategy aiming at reducing their impact in areas of conservation concern should aim at the presence of settlements and their spatial spread and avoid any access to human refuse. The movements of domestic cats would be limited in areas with large patches of natural vegetation providing good conditions for other carnivore mammals such as red foxes. PMID:22043298

  10. Increased erythrocytic osmotic fragility in anemic domestic shorthair and purebred cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritschler, Claudia; Mizukami, Keijiro; Raj, Karthik; Giger, Urs

    2016-06-01

    Increased erythrocytic osmotic fragility and splenomegaly have been reported in anemic Abyssinian and Somali cats. Here we report on this condition in anemic domestic shorthair cats and two other breeds, and describe common features of the clinicopathological profiles, management and outcomes. Anemic cats, other than Abyssinians and Somalis, were included. The erythrocytic osmotic fragility test was performed, known causes of anemia were excluded, the illness was followed and medical records were reviewed. Twelve neutered cats were first found to be anemic between 0.5 and 9.0 years of age. Pallor, lethargy, inappetence, pica, weight loss and splenomegaly were commonly observed. A moderate-to-severe macrocytic and hypochromic anemia with variable regeneration was noted. Infectious disease screening, direct Coombs' and pyruvate kinase DNA mutation test results were negative. Freshly drawn blood did not appear hemolysed but became progressively lysed during storage at 4°C. The sigmoid osmotic fragility curves were moderately to severely right shifted, indicating erythrocytic fragility at 20°C. Cross-correction studies indicated an intrinsic red cell effect rather than plasma effect. Most cats were treated with immunosuppressive doses of prednisolone and doxycycline, with variable responses. Five cats with recurrent or persistent anemia responded well to splenectomy. However, two had occasional recurrence of severe anemia: one was found to be Bartonella vinsonii-positive during one episode and responded to azithromycin and prednisolone, while the other cat had two episodes of severe anemia of unknown cause. Finally, six cats were euthanized within 1 month and 7 years after initial presentation. Histopathology of six spleens revealed mainly congestion and extramedullary hematopoiesis. Similarly to Abyssinian and Somali cats, domestic shorthair and cats of other breeds can also develop severe erythrocytic osmotic fragility with anemia and splenomegaly, which should be

  11. Human-related factors regulate the spatial ecology of domestic cats in sensitive areas for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Joaquim P; Leitão, Inês; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Revilla, Eloy

    2011-01-01

    Domestic cats ranging freely in natural areas are a conservation concern due to competition, predation, disease transmission or hybridization with wildcats. In order to improve our ability to design effective control policies, we investigate the factors affecting their numbers and space use in natural areas of continental Europe. We describe the patterns of cat presence, abundance and space use and analyse the associated environmental and human constraints in a well-preserved Mediterranean natural area with small scattered local farms. We failed in detecting cats in areas away from human settlements (trapping effort above 4000 trap-nights), while we captured 30 individuals near inhabited farms. We identified 130 cats, all of them in farms still in use by people (30% of 128 farms). All cats were free-ranging and very wary of people. The main factor explaining the presence of cats was the presence of people, while the number of cats per farm was mostly affected by the occasional food provisioning with human refuse and the presence of people. The home ranges of eight radio tagged cats were centred at inhabited farms. Males went furthest away from the farms during the mating season (3.8 km on average, maximum 6.3 km), using inhabited farms as stepping-stones in their mating displacements (2.2 km of maximum inter-farm distance moved). In their daily movements, cats notably avoided entering in areas with high fox density. The presence, abundance and space use of cats were heavily dependent on human settlements. Any strategy aiming at reducing their impact in areas of conservation concern should aim at the presence of settlements and their spatial spread and avoid any access to human refuse. The movements of domestic cats would be limited in areas with large patches of natural vegetation providing good conditions for other carnivore mammals such as red foxes.

  12. Human-related factors regulate the spatial ecology of domestic cats in sensitive areas for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim P Ferreira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Domestic cats ranging freely in natural areas are a conservation concern due to competition, predation, disease transmission or hybridization with wildcats. In order to improve our ability to design effective control policies, we investigate the factors affecting their numbers and space use in natural areas of continental Europe. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe the patterns of cat presence, abundance and space use and analyse the associated environmental and human constraints in a well-preserved Mediterranean natural area with small scattered local farms. We failed in detecting cats in areas away from human settlements (trapping effort above 4000 trap-nights, while we captured 30 individuals near inhabited farms. We identified 130 cats, all of them in farms still in use by people (30% of 128 farms. All cats were free-ranging and very wary of people. The main factor explaining the presence of cats was the presence of people, while the number of cats per farm was mostly affected by the occasional food provisioning with human refuse and the presence of people. The home ranges of eight radio tagged cats were centred at inhabited farms. Males went furthest away from the farms during the mating season (3.8 km on average, maximum 6.3 km, using inhabited farms as stepping-stones in their mating displacements (2.2 km of maximum inter-farm distance moved. In their daily movements, cats notably avoided entering in areas with high fox density. CONCLUSIONS: The presence, abundance and space use of cats were heavily dependent on human settlements. Any strategy aiming at reducing their impact in areas of conservation concern should aim at the presence of settlements and their spatial spread and avoid any access to human refuse. The movements of domestic cats would be limited in areas with large patches of natural vegetation providing good conditions for other carnivore mammals such as red foxes.

  13. Light whole genome sequence for SNP discovery across domestic cat breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Driscoll Carlos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The domestic cat has offered enormous genomic potential in the veterinary description of over 250 hereditary disease models as well as the occurrence of several deadly feline viruses (feline leukemia virus -- FeLV, feline coronavirus -- FECV, feline immunodeficiency virus - FIV that are homologues to human scourges (cancer, SARS, and AIDS respectively. However, to realize this bio-medical potential, a high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP map is required in order to accomplish disease and phenotype association discovery. Description To remedy this, we generated 3,178,297 paired fosmid-end Sanger sequence reads from seven cats, and combined these data with the publicly available 2X cat whole genome sequence. All sequence reads were assembled together to form a 3X whole genome assembly allowing the discovery of over three million SNPs. To reduce potential false positive SNPs due to the low coverage assembly, a low upper-limit was placed on sequence coverage and a high lower-limit on the quality of the discrepant bases at a potential variant site. In all domestic cats of different breeds: female Abyssinian, female American shorthair, male Cornish Rex, female European Burmese, female Persian, female Siamese, a male Ragdoll and a female African wildcat were sequenced lightly. We report a total of 964 k common SNPs suitable for a domestic cat SNP genotyping array and an additional 900 k SNPs detected between African wildcat and domestic cats breeds. An empirical sampling of 94 discovered SNPs were tested in the sequenced cats resulting in a SNP validation rate of 99%. Conclusions These data provide a large collection of mapped feline SNPs across the cat genome that will allow for the development of SNP genotyping platforms for mapping feline diseases.

  14. Characterization of cauxin in the urine of domestic and big cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Lynn; Hurst, Jane L; Gaskell, Christopher J; Lewis, John C M; Beynon, Robert J

    2007-10-01

    Cauxin is an abundant protein in feline urine. We have used proteomics strategies to characterize cauxin from the urine of domestic cats and a number of big cat species. Proteins were resolved by gel-based electrophoretic purification and subjected to in-gel digestion with trypsin. The resultant tryptic peptides were mass-measured by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. Peptides were also resolved by liquid chromatography and analyzed by electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometry to generate fragment ion data to infer the amino acid sequence. We identified cauxin polymorphisms and corrected a sequencing artifact in cauxin from the domestic cat. The proteomics data also provided positive evidence for the presence of a cauxin homolog in the urine of big cats (Pantherinae), including the Sumatran tiger, Asiatic lion, clouded leopard, Persian leopard, and jaguar. The levels of cauxin in the urine of all big cats were substantially lower than that in the urine of intact male domestic cats.

  15. Bovine herpesvirus 4 DNA is not detected in free-ranging domestic cats from California, Colorado or Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Elliott; Troyer, Ryan M; Lappin, Michael R; VandeWoude, Sue

    2017-02-01

    Objectives Several studies have reported that domestic cats can be naturally infected with bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV4). Cats experimentally inoculated with BHV4 developed clinical signs involving the urinary tract, leading to the hypothesis that natural infection with BHV4 may be associated with feline lower urinary tract diseases. However, the question of whether BHV4 infection is common in cats remains equivocal. In this study, we sought to determine whether BHV4 is a common natural infection of domestic cats in the USA. Methods We used a sensitive nested PCR protocol specific to the BHV4 thymidine kinase gene to screen free-ranging domestic cat blood DNA samples (n = 101) collected from California, Colorado and Florida. Results Cats within this cohort were positive for seven other common pathogens of domestic cats, demonstrating the relatively high exposure of this population to endemic feline infections. In contrast, all domestic cat blood samples were negative for BHV4, while BHV4-containing tissue culture extracts were strongly positive. Conclusions and relevance BHV4 has been detected in tissues of latently infected cattle, though viral DNA is typically also detected in peripheral blood cells throughout infection. Our results suggest that persistent presence of BHV4 DNA in the blood of domestic cats is either rare or non-existent. We thus conclude that BHV4 is unlikely to be a major pathogen of cats.

  16. Osteitis fibrosa cystica in a domestic young cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo V Leite-Filho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 4-month-old cat had bilateral swellings of the mandible, maxilla, humerus and femur, and angular deviations in the axial and appendicular skeleton. The biochemical profile indicated hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia and increased parathyroid hormone levels. Because of the poor prognosis, the cat was euthanized. At necropsy, malleable and fragile bones, associated with numerous cystic areas containing yellowish and translucent liquid, were observed. Histologically, the bones showed marked diffuse proliferation of fibrous connective tissue, and large numbers of osteoclasts surrounding numerous cystic structures were also observed within fibrotic areas at the periphery of the trabecular bone. In addition, enlargement of the parathyroid glands, which was associated with increased serum concentrations of calcium, phosphorus and parathyroid hormone, was detected. Relevance and novel information The changes observed in this cat are consistent with hyperparathyroidism-associated osteitis fibrosa cystica, which is an unusual presentation in the cat. Hyperparathyroidism, either primary (neoplastic or secondary (nutritional or renal, is the primary cause of this condition.

  17. Behavior and Welfare of Domestic Cats Housed in Cages Larger than U.S. Norm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Judith L; Croney, Candace C; Buffington, C Tony

    2017-01-01

    The effect of providing additional floor space on cat behavior and welfare is not well documented. This study involved replication of an investigation of cats' responses to enhanced cage and room environments using cages of 0.56 m 2 with the same methodology but an increased space allowance of 1.1 m 2 . Singly housed adult cats (n = 59) were randomly assigned to a treatment group that was a combination of a managed or unmanaged room and an enriched or unenriched cage environment. Cats were observed for 2 days for maintenance, affiliative, and avoidant behaviors using scan sampling and 5-min, continuous focal sampling. At the end of Day 2, cats' reactions to the approach of an unfamiliar person were assessed. Cats housed in enriched/managed environments exhibited more maintenance and affiliative behaviors and fewer avoidant behaviors than cats in unmanaged/unenriched environments, suggesting that macro and micro environments may be equally relevant to the cat. Increased space did not enhance the cats' welfare outcomes, suggesting that the provision of additional cage space may not be as important to the cat as a managed housing environment.

  18. Mammary Tumor Reconstruction in a Domestic Short Haired Cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Shafiuzama

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A 9 years old female cat was presented with the history of large tumor mass in the caudal abdominal, inguinal mammary gland region which was irregular, measuring 4 cm × 4 cm, non-ulcerated, freely movable and firm in consistency. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of the tumor mass and inguinal lymph node revealed mammary adenocarcinoma. Bilateral caudal radical mastectomy was done to excise the tumor mass along with inguinal lymph nodes with wide margins. As there was metastatic spread of tumor mass to the rectus fascia and muscle, partial ventral abdominal wall was resected and reconstructed with polypropylene mesh. A bilateral flank fold flap was elevated, mobilised and transposed to close the ventral skin deficit. The cat recovered uneventfully without much complications.

  19. Microsatellite Polymorphisms Adjacent to the Oxytocin Receptor Gene in Domestic Cats: Association with Personality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minori Arahori

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies have explored the oxytocin system in humans and non-human animals, and some have found important genetic polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR associated with the bonding system, social behaviors, and personality in several species. Although single nucleotide polymorphisms in OXTR have been well-examined in various species, microsatellites (or short tandem repeats adjacent to OXTR have rarely been studied, despite some suggestions that microsatellite polymorphisms near genes might play a role in genetic transcription and translation. In this study, we surveyed microsatellites in the upstream, intron, and downstream regions of OXTR in domestic cats (Felis catus. We succeeded in amplifying 5 out of 10 regions, and recognized these five regions as polymorphic. We compared allele frequencies in these five regions between mongrel cats in Japan (n = 100 and cats of 10 pure breeds (n = 40. There were significant differences in allele frequencies between the two populations in all microsatellite regions. Additionally, the owners of mongrel cats answered a comprehensive personality questionnaire, and factor analysis extracted four factors (Openness, Friendliness, Roughness, and Neuroticism. We examined the association between the microsatellite genotypes, age, sex, neutering status, and personality scores. Compared to their counterparts, younger cats tended to score higher on Openness, male cats scored higher on Friendliness, and female and neutered cats scored higher on Roughness. When we divided the sample into three groups depending on the length of alleles, we found a marginally significant association between Friendliness and MS3. Additionally, we found a sex-mediated effect of genotypes in MS4 on Friendliness, resulting in different effects on females and males. Our findings that mongrel cats had longer alleles in MS3 and MS4 than purebred cats, and that those cats tended to score higher on Friendliness

  20. Multistate matrix population model to assess the contributions and impacts on population abundance of domestic cats in urban areas including owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in shelters.

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    Flockhart, D T Tyler; Coe, Jason B

    2018-01-01

    Concerns over cat homelessness, over-taxed animal shelters, public health risks, and environmental impacts has raised attention on urban-cat populations. To truly understand cat population dynamics, the collective population of owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in the shelter system must be considered simultaneously because each subpopulation contributes differently to the overall population of cats in a community (e.g., differences in neuter rates, differences in impacts on wildlife) and cats move among categories through human interventions (e.g., adoption, abandonment). To assess this complex socio-ecological system, we developed a multistate matrix model of cats in urban areas that include owned cats, unowned cats (free-roaming and feral), and cats that move through the shelter system. Our model requires three inputs-location, number of human dwellings, and urban area-to provide testable predictions of cat abundance for any city in North America. Model-predicted population size of unowned cats in seven Canadian cities were not significantly different than published estimates (p = 0.23). Model-predicted proportions of sterile feral cats did not match observed sterile cat proportions for six USA cities (p = 0.001). Using a case study from Guelph, Ontario, Canada, we compared model-predicted to empirical estimates of cat abundance in each subpopulation and used perturbation analysis to calculate relative sensitivity of vital rates to cat abundance to demonstrate how management or mismanagement in one portion of the population could have repercussions across all portions of the network. Our study provides a general framework to consider cat population abundance in urban areas and, with refinement that includes city-specific parameter estimates and modeling, could provide a better understanding of population dynamics of cats in our communities.

  1. The impact of free-ranging domestic cats on wildlife of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, Scott R; Will, Tom; Marra, Peter P

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic threats, such as collisions with man-made structures, vehicles, poisoning and predation by domestic pets, combine to kill billions of wildlife annually. Free-ranging domestic cats have been introduced globally and have contributed to multiple wildlife extinctions on islands. The magnitude of mortality they cause in mainland areas remains speculative, with large-scale estimates based on non-systematic analyses and little consideration of scientific data. Here we conduct a systematic review and quantitatively estimate mortality caused by cats in the United States. We estimate that free-ranging domestic cats kill 1.4-3.7 billion birds and 6.9-20.7 billion mammals annually. Un-owned cats, as opposed to owned pets, cause the majority of this mortality. Our findings suggest that free-ranging cats cause substantially greater wildlife mortality than previously thought and are likely the single greatest source of anthropogenic mortality for US birds and mammals. Scientifically sound conservation and policy intervention is needed to reduce this impact.

  2. Domestic cats and dogs create a landscape of fear for pest rodents around rural homesteads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlaba, Themb'alilahlwa A M; Monadjem, Ara; McCleery, Robert; Belmain, Steven R

    2017-01-01

    Using domestic predators such as cats to control rodent pest problems around farms and homesteads is common across the world. However, practical scientific evidence on the impact of such biological control in agricultural settings is often lacking. We tested whether the presence of domestic cats and/or dogs in rural homesteads would affect the foraging behaviour of pest rodents. We estimated giving up densities (GUDs) from established feeding patches and estimated relative rodent activity using tracking tiles at 40 homesteads across four agricultural communities. We found that the presence of cats and dogs at the same homestead significantly reduced activity and increased GUDs (i.e. increased perception of foraging cost) of pest rodent species. However, if only cats or dogs alone were present at the homestead there was no observed difference in rodent foraging activity in comparison to homesteads with no cats or dogs. Our results suggest that pest rodent activity can be discouraged through the presence of domestic predators. When different types of predator are present together they likely create a heightened landscape of fear for foraging rodents.

  3. Domestic cats and dogs create a landscape of fear for pest rodents around rural homesteads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Themb'alilahlwa A M Mahlaba

    Full Text Available Using domestic predators such as cats to control rodent pest problems around farms and homesteads is common across the world. However, practical scientific evidence on the impact of such biological control in agricultural settings is often lacking. We tested whether the presence of domestic cats and/or dogs in rural homesteads would affect the foraging behaviour of pest rodents. We estimated giving up densities (GUDs from established feeding patches and estimated relative rodent activity using tracking tiles at 40 homesteads across four agricultural communities. We found that the presence of cats and dogs at the same homestead significantly reduced activity and increased GUDs (i.e. increased perception of foraging cost of pest rodent species. However, if only cats or dogs alone were present at the homestead there was no observed difference in rodent foraging activity in comparison to homesteads with no cats or dogs. Our results suggest that pest rodent activity can be discouraged through the presence of domestic predators. When different types of predator are present together they likely create a heightened landscape of fear for foraging rodents.

  4. Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania spp. in domestic cats from Luanda, Angola

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Granada, Sara; Rodrigues, Filipa T.; Papadopoulos, Elias; Schallig, Henk; Dubey, Jitender P.; Cardoso, Luís

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania spp. are zoonotic protozoa of importance to animal and public health. The present study aimed to assess for the first time the seroprevalence of these zoonotic parasites in a domestic feline population living in Luanda, Angola. One hundred and two cats were sampled

  5. A fatal infection in a Bengal tiger resembling cytauxzoonosis in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, W; Wesemeier, H H

    1996-05-01

    A young Bengal tiger born and kept in a German zoo had died of an unknown protozoal infection in 1984. Retrospective histological and electron microscopical examination of the organs showed the changes to be identical with those of cytauxzoonosis in domestic cats. This is the first report of fatal cytauxzoonosis in a tiger.

  6. GENE EXPRESSION IN THE TESTES OF NORMOSPERMIC VERSUS TERATOSPERMIC DOMESTIC CATS USING HUMAN CDNA MICROARRAY ANALYSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    GENE EXPRESSION IN THE TESTES OF NORMOSPERMIC VERSUS TERATOSPERMIC DOMESTIC CATS USING HUMAN cDNA MICROARRAY ANALYSESB.S. Pukazhenthi1, J. C. Rockett2, M. Ouyang3, D.J. Dix2, J.G. Howard1, P. Georgopoulos4, W.J. J. Welsh3 and D. E. Wildt11Department of Reproductiv...

  7. Usefulness of an injectable anaesthetic protocol for semen collection through urethral catheterisation in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisu, Maria Carmela; Ponzio, Patrizia; Rovella, Chiara; Baravalle, Michela; Veronesi, Maria Cristina

    2017-10-01

    Objectives Although less often requested in comparison with dogs, the collection of semen in cats can be necessary for artificial insemination, for semen evaluation in tom cats used for breeding and for semen storage. Urethral catheterisation after pharmacological induction with medetomidine has proved to be useful for the collection of semen in domestic cats. However, most of the previously used protocols require the administration of high doses of medetomidine that can increase the risk of side effects, especially on the cardiovascular system. In routine clinical practice, one safe and useful injectable anaesthetic protocol for short-term clinical investigations or surgery in cats involves premedication with low intramuscular doses of dexmedetomidine with methadone, followed by intravenous propofol bolus injection. We aimed to assess the usefulness of this injectable anaesthetic protocol for semen collection, via urethral catheterisation, in domestic cats. Methods The study was performed on 38 purebred, adult cats, during the breeding season, and semen was collected via urethral catheterisation using an injectable anaesthesia protocol with methadone (0.2 mg/kg) and dexmedetomidine (5 µg/kg) premedication, followed by induction with propofol. Results The anaesthetic protocol used in the present study allowed the collection of large-volume semen samples, characterised by good parameters and without side effects. Conclusions and relevance The results from the present study suggest that the injectable anaesthetic protocol using methadone and dexmedetomidine premedication, followed by induction with propofol, could be suitable and safe for the collection of a good-quality semen sample, via urethral catheterisation, in domestic cats. It can therefore be used as an alternative to previous medetomidine-based sedation protocols.

  8. Application of a mitochondrial DNA control region frequency database for UK domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottolini, Barbara; Lall, Gurdeep Matharu; Sacchini, Federico; Jobling, Mark A; Wetton, Jon H

    2017-03-01

    DNA variation in 402bp of the mitochondrial control region flanked by repeat sequences RS2 and RS3 was evaluated by Sanger sequencing in 152 English domestic cats, in order to determine the significance of matching DNA sequences between hairs found with a victim's body and the suspect's pet cat. Whilst 95% of English cats possessed one of the twelve globally widespread mitotypes, four new variants were observed, the most common of which (2% frequency) was shared with the evidential samples. No significant difference in mitotype frequency was seen between 32 individuals from the locality of the crime and 120 additional cats from the rest of England, suggesting a lack of local population structure. However, significant differences were observed in comparison with frequencies in other countries, including the closely neighbouring Netherlands, highlighting the importance of appropriate genetic databases when determining the evidential significance of mitochondrial DNA evidence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of Cytauxzoon felis infection in domestic cats from southern Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeill, Amy L; Barger, Anne M; Skowronski, Melissa C; Lanka, Saraswathi; Maddox, Carol W

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to document Cytauxzoon felis infection in domestic cats from southern Illinois. Diagnosis of cytauxzoonosis was based upon clinical signs of illness and detection of piroplasms within erythrocytes on peripheral blood smears or schizonts in internal organs consistent with Cytauxzoon infection. Additionally, genomic DNA was extracted from histologic sections of splenic tissue from two cats. The internal transcribed spacer region-1 (ITS-1) and ITS-2 of the C felis genome were successfully sequenced, confirming infection with the organism. Sequence analysis of C felis DNA isolated from histologic lesions in two domestic cats from southern Illinois show either mixed infection or possible heterozygosity (cytosine and thymine) in ITS-2 at the position equivalent to nucleotide 76 (thymine) in the most commonly isolated C felis ITS-2 sequence. Identification of C felis infection in domestic cats from southern Illinois is a critical finding that raises awareness of this often fatal disease process in an area of the USA where, previously, the disease was only anecdotally reported. © ISFM and AAFP 2015.

  10. Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1; a widely endemic potential pathogen of domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Julia A; Troyer, Ryan M; Carver, Scott; Barrs, Vanessa R; Espinasse, Fanny; Conradi, Oliver; Stutzman-Rodriguez, Kathryn; Chan, Cathy C; Tasker, Séverine; Lappin, Michael R; VandeWoude, Sue

    2014-07-01

    Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 (FcaGHV1), recently discovered in the USA, was detected in domestic cats in Australia (11.4%, 95% confidence interval 5.9-19.1, n=110) and Singapore (9.6%, 95% confidence interval 5.9-14.6, n=176) using qPCR. FcaGHV1 qPCR positive cats were 2.8 times more likely to be sick than healthy. Risk factors for FcaGHV1 detection included being male, increasing age and coinfection with pathogenic retroviruses, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) or feline leukaemia virus. FcaGHV1 DNA was detected in multiple tissues from infected cats with consistently high virus loads in the small intestine. FcaGHV1 viral load was significantly higher in FIV-infected cats compared with matched controls, mimicking increased Epstein-Barr virus loads in human immunodeficiency virus-infected humans. FcaGHV1 is endemic in distant geographic regions and is associated with being sick and with coinfections. Horizontal transmission of FcaGHV1 is supported, with biting being a plausible route. A pathogenic role for FcaGHV1 in domestic cats is supported. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular characterisation of parvoviruses from domestic cats reveals emergence of newer variants in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Hirak K; Nookala, Mangadevi; Thangamani, Nobal Rk; Sivaprakasam, Amsaveni; Antony, Prabhakar X; Thanislass, Jacob; Srinivas, Mouttou V; Pillai, Raghavan M

    2017-08-01

    Objectives The present study was undertaken to characterise the viral polypeptide 2 (VP2) gene of parvovirus from domestic cats in India. Methods The faecal samples from diarrhoeic/healthy domestic cats were collected from different geographical regions of India for screening by PCR assay followed by sequence analysis of the VP2 gene. Results Canine parvovirus (CPV)/feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) infections were found in 12 (11.3%) of 106 faecal samples tested. Two new CPV-2a (297Ala and Asn426) and three FPV strains were identified by VP2 gene analysis. Several unique and existing amino acid mutations were found, suggesting continuous evolution and emergence of newer variants. The phylogenetic analysis of the CPV sequences revealed that the two new CPV-2a strains from Mumbai (MC8) and Puducherry (P15) were clustered together in a single clade but had evolved independently and were ancestrally related to Chinese CPV-2a isolates. The FPV sequences (T-C-6 and T-C-1) from Thrissur, Kerala, formed a different clade (FPV clade) and were closely related to each other and had an ancestral relationship with an FPV isolate from the USA. Another FPV isolate from Goa (GC1) was positioned in the same clade but had evolved independently. Conclusions and relevance Detection of CPV in both diarrhoeic/healthy cats and the occurrence of FPV infection in a vaccinated cat provide new insights into parvovirus infections in cats in India.

  12. Novel gammaherpesviruses in North American domestic cats, bobcats, and pumas: identification, prevalence, and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Ryan M; Beatty, Julia A; Stutzman-Rodriguez, Kathryn R; Carver, Scott; Lozano, Caitlin C; Lee, Justin S; Lappin, Michael R; Riley, Seth P D; Serieys, Laurel E K; Logan, Kenneth A; Sweanor, Linda L; Boyce, Walter M; Vickers, T Winston; McBride, Roy; Crooks, Kevin R; Lewis, Jesse S; Cunningham, Mark W; Rovnak, Joel; Quackenbush, Sandra L; VandeWoude, Sue

    2014-04-01

    Gammaherpesviruses (GHVs) are a diverse and rapidly expanding group of viruses associated with a variety of disease conditions in humans and animals. To identify felid GHVs, we screened domestic cat (Felis catus), bobcat (Lynx rufus), and puma (Puma concolor) blood cell DNA samples from California, Colorado, and Florida using a degenerate pan-GHV PCR. Additional pan-GHV and long-distance PCRs were used to sequence a contiguous 3.4-kb region of each putative virus species, including partial glycoprotein B and DNA polymerase genes. We identified three novel GHVs, each present predominantly in one felid species: Felis catus GHV 1 (FcaGHV1) in domestic cats, Lynx rufus GHV 1 (LruGHV1) in bobcats, and Puma concolor GHV 1 (PcoGHV1) in pumas. To estimate infection prevalence, we developed real-time quantitative PCR assays for each virus and screened additional DNA samples from all three species (n = 282). FcaGHV1 was detected in 16% of domestic cats across all study sites. LruGHV1 was detected in 47% of bobcats and 13% of pumas across all study sites, suggesting relatively common interspecific transmission. PcoGHV1 was detected in 6% of pumas, all from a specific region of Southern California. The risk of infection for each host varied with geographic location. Age was a positive risk factor for bobcat LruGHV1 infection, and age and being male were risk factors for domestic cat FcaGHV1 infection. Further characterization of these viruses may have significant health implications for domestic cats and may aid studies of free-ranging felid ecology. Gammaherpesviruses (GHVs) establish lifelong infection in many animal species and can cause cancer and other diseases in humans and animals. In this study, we identified the DNA sequences of three GHVs present in the blood of domestic cats (Felis catus), bobcats (Lynx rufus), and pumas (Puma concolor; also known as mountain lions, cougars, and panthers). We found that these viruses were closely related to, but distinct from, other

  13. Clinical study of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in domestic cats in São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archivaldo Reche Jr.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the magnitude of distribution of feline leukemia virus (FLV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV among domestic cats in São Paulo, 401 animals from both sexes, different ages and breeds, were tested for antibodies (FIV and viral soluble antigens (FLV by means of ELISA (feline leukemia virus antigen / feline immunodeficiency virus antibody - CITE ® - Agrytech Sistems Inc.. Among these animals, 123 were healthy cats and 278 were patients at the Department of Medical Clinics / Veterinary Hospital of Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo due to various diseases eight (6,5% FIV positive cats and two (1,6% FLV positive cats were found among healthy animals in opposition to 39 (14% and 30 (10,8% sick cats regents to FIV and FLV antigens and antibodies, respectively. All animals but one presented single infection. FIV infection was four times more frequent among males when compared to females; nevertheless, no difference was found related to FVL infection. Opportunistic infections as those caused by Hemobartonella felis were the most common baseline disease found among FIV or FLV infected cats. When tumors, were considered the mediastinal lymphoma was the most frequent type found among FVL infected cats. A variety of other diseases was observed, associated to both retroviruses infection. The mean age of FIV infect animals was 4,4 + 3,0 years old and 2,4 ± 1,7 years old FLV infected cats. All infected, symptomatic animals died during the two years of  observation, while all healthy, infected cats survived, allowing the conclusion that period of latency post-infection may be long.

  14. Exposure to selected Pathogens in to selected pathogens in Geoffroy's cats and domestic carnivores from central Argentina.

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    Uhart, Marcela M; Rago, M Virginia; Marull, Carolina A; Ferreyra, Hebe del Valle; Pereira, Javier A

    2012-10-01

    Wild carnivores share a high percentage of parasites and viruses with closely related domestic carnivores. Because of increased overlap and potential contact with domestic species, we conducted a retrospective serosurvey for 11 common carnivore pathogens in 40 Geoffroy's cats (Leopardus geoffroyi) sampled between 2000 and 2008 within or near two protected areas in central Argentina (Lihué Calel National Park, La Pampa, and Campos del Tuyú National Park, Buenos Aires), as well as five domestic cats and 11 domestic dogs from catde ranches adjacent to Lihué Calel Park. Geoffroy's cats had detectable antibody to canine distemper virus (CDV), feline calicivirus (FCV), feline coronavirus, feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), Toxoplasma gondii, Leptospira interrogans (serovars Ictero/Icter and Ballum), and Dirofilaria immitis. None of the wild cats had antibodies to feline herpesvirus, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), feline leukemia virus, or rabies virus. Domestic dogs had antibodies to CDV, canine adenovirus, canine herpesvirus, and canine parvovirus. Antibodies to FPV, FCV, FIV, and T. gondii were found in domestic cats. We provide the first data on exposure of free-ranging Geoffroy's cats to pathogens at two sites within the core area of the species distribution range, including the first report of antibodies to CDV in this species. We encourage continued monitoring for diseases in wild and domestic carnivores as well as preventive health care for domestic animals, particularly in park buffer zones where overlap is greatest.

  15. Development of Domestic Cat Embryo Produced by Preserved Sperms

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    KARTINI ERIANI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to mature and fertilize oocytes of endangered species may allow us to sustain genetic and global biodiversity. Epididymis sperms may be the last chance to ensure preservation of genetic materials after injury or death of a valuable animal. Studies have been conducted to determine wether both epididymis sperms and oocytes can be used to produce viable embryos and offspring. The purpose of this study was to determine how long cats sperms contained in epididymis were remain motile and had intact membranes when preserved at 4 ° C, and to determine whether such those preserved sperms are able to fertilize oocytes. Epididymis was preserved immediately in phosphate buffer saline at 4 ° C for 1, 3, and 6 days. The observation of sperm quality and viability after preservation was performed by vital staining acrosom and Hoechst-Propidium Iodine. Biological functions of sperms were evaluated by in vitro culture technique for fertilization, micro fertilization and embryonic development rate in CR1aa medium. The results showed that average motility of sperms collected from ductus deferens, cauda and corpus epididymis decreased not significantly (P > 0.05 from 0, 1, 3, and 6 days of preservation times (from 83.0%, 80.2%, 79.0%; 80.9%, 75.0%, 75.5%; 52.0%, 63.2%, 55.0% to 34.6%, 34.6%, 33.3%, respectively. The general results showed that sperms from epididymis preserved for 1, 3, and 6 days can be used for IVF. The rate of embryonal cleavage produced by IVF technique using sperms collected from epididymis preserved for 1-, 3- and 6-days were 33.3, 26.7, and 20.0%, respectively and significantly different (p < 0.05 from that of controll (50.0%. In conclusion, sperms contained in epididyimis preserved at 4 ° C in PBS (Phospate Buffer Saline for 1-6 days can be used to IVF and in vitro production of cat embryos.

  16. Refractive states of eyes and associations between ametropia and age, breed, and axial globe length in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrade, Kricket A; Hoffman, Allison R; Ramey, Kelli L; Goldenberg, Ruby B; Lehenbauer, Terry W

    2012-02-01

    To determine the refractive states of eyes in domestic cats and to evaluate correlations between refractive error and age, breed, and axial globe measurements. 98 healthy ophthalmologically normal domestic cats. The refractive state of 196 eyes (2 eyes/cat) was determined by use of streak retinoscopy. Cats were considered ametropic when the mean refractive state was ≥ ± 0.5 diopter (D). Amplitude-mode ultrasonography was used to determine axial globe length, anterior chamber length, and vitreous chamber depth. Mean ± SD refractive state of all eyes was -0.78 ± 1.37 D. Mean refractive error of cats changed significantly as a function of age. Mean refractive state of kittens (≤ 4 months old) was -2.45 ± 1.57 D, and mean refractive state of adult cats (> 1 year old) was -0.39 ± 0.85 D. Mean axial globe length, anterior chamber length, and vitreous chamber depth were 19.75 ± 1.59 mm, 4.66 ± 0.86 mm, and 7.92 ± 0.86 mm, respectively. Correlations were detected between age and breed and between age and refractive states of feline eyes. Mean refractive error changed significantly as a function of age, and kittens had greater negative refractive error than did adult cats. Domestic shorthair cats were significantly more likely to be myopic than were domestic mediumhair or domestic longhair cats. Domestic cats should be included in the animals in which myopia can be detected at a young age, with a likelihood of progression to emmetropia as cats mature.

  17. Postmortem Scavenging of Human Remains by Domestic Cats

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    Ananya Suntirukpong, M.D.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Crime scene investigators, forensic medicine doctors and pathologists, and forensic anthropologists frequently encounter postmortem scavenging of human remains by household pets. Case presentation: The authors present a case report of a partially skeletonized adult male found dead after more than three months in his apartment in Thailand. The body was in an advanced stage of decomposition with nearly complete skeletonization of the head, neck, hands, and feet. The presence of maggots and necrophagous (flesh eating beetles on the body confirmed that insects had consumed much of the soft tissues. Examination of the hand and foot bones revealed canine tooth puncture marks. Evidence of chewing indicated that one or more of the decedent’s three house cats had fed on the body after death. Recognizing and identifying carnivore and rodent activity on the soft flesh and bones of human remains is important in interpreting and reconstructing postmortem damage. Thorough analysis may help explain why skeletal elements are missing, damaged, or out of anatomical position. Conclusion: This report presents a multi-disciplinary approach combining forensic anthropology and forensic medicine in examining and interpreting human remains.

  18. First clinical case report of Cytauxzoon sp. infection in a domestic cat in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legroux, Jean-Pierre; Halos, Lénaïg; René-Martellet, Magalie; Servonnet, Marielle; Pingret, Jean-Luc; Bourdoiseau, Gilles; Baneth, Gad; Chabanne, Luc

    2017-03-29

    Feline cytauxzoonosis is an emerging infection caused by tick-transmitted apicomplexan parasites of the genus Cytauxzoon. The association of clinical disease with Cytauxzoon infection appears to be limited to C. felis infections in the Americas. Sporadic infections of wild and domestic felids with Cytauxzoon sp. were recently described in European countries but clinical reports of the infection are rare and incomplete. This case report brings new interesting information on cytauxzoonosis expression in Europe. A 9-years-old castrated European shorthair cat living in rural area of north-eastern France (Saint Sauveur, Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region), without any travel history was presented for consultation due to hyperthermia, anorexia, depression and prolonged fever that didn't respond to antibiotic therapy. The cat had outdoor access with a history of vagrancy and was adequately vaccinated (core vaccines and FeLV vaccine). During biological investigations, intraerythrocytic inclusions were observed on blood smear and were further investigated by PCR analysis and sequencing. Molecular analyses confirmed Cytauxzoon sp. infection. The cat was treated with a subcutaneous injection of imidocarb dipropionate (3.5 mg/kg). One week after treatment, the cat improved clinically, although parasitic inclusions within erythrocytes persisted, and only a mild lymphocytosis was found. Two weeks after treatment, the cat appeared in excellent health, appetite was normal and parasitemia was negative. However, one month after treatment the cat relapsed with hyperthermia, anorexia, and depression. Blood smears and PCR were once again positive. Subsequently, the cat received an additional dose of imidocarb dipropionate (3.5 mg/kg SC) and recovered rapidly without other clinical signs. Two weeks after the second imidocarb injection, the cat was hit by a car and died. This case provides the first clinical description of infection by Cytauxzoon sp. in a domestic cat in France. These

  19. Non-accidental injuries found in necropsies of domestic cats: a review of 191 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Siqueira, Adriana; Cassiano, Fabiana Cecília; de Albuquerque Landi, Marina Frota; Marlet, Elza Fernandes; Maiorka, Paulo César

    2012-10-01

    Animal cruelty is defined as a deliberate action that causes pain and suffering to an animal. In Brazil, legislation known as the Environmental Crimes Law states that cruelty toward all animal species is criminal in nature. From 644 domestic cats necropsied between January 1998 and December 2009, 191 (29.66%) presented lesions highly suggestive of animal cruelty. The main necroscopic finding was exogenous carbamate poisoning (75.39%) followed by blunt-force trauma (21.99%). Cats from 7 months to 2 years of age were the most affected (50.79%). In Brazil, violence is a public health problem and there is a high prevalence of domestic violence. Therefore, even if laws provide for animal welfare and protection, animals are common targets for violent acts. Within a context of social violence, cruelty toward animals is an important parameter to be considered, and the non-accidental lesions that were found are evidence of malicious actions.

  20. Seroprevalence and factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic cats from urban areas in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deksne, Gunita; Petrusēviča, Agnese; Kirjušina, Muza

    2013-02-01

    Felids are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection because they are the only hosts that shed resistant oocysts in the environment. A total of 242 serum samples and 80 fecal samples from domestic cats in Latvia was tested for T. gondii infection. Serum samples were tested for T. gondii antibodies by an indirect in-house ELISA; antibodies were found in 125 (51.6%) of 242 cats; seroprevalence increased with age, indicating postnatal infection. Using multiple logistic regression analyses, age and outdoor access were found to be the most significant (F = 21.70, P Latvia. Toxoplasma gondii -like oocysts were detected in 2 of the cats examined microscopically using the salt flotation method, but definitive diagnosis could not be made because a bioassay was not performed.

  1. Domestic cat microsphere immunoassays: detection of antibodies during feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Britta A; Carver, Scott; Troyer, Ryan M; Elder, John H; VandeWoude, Sue

    2013-10-31

    Microsphere immunoassays (MIAs) allow rapid and accurate evaluation of multiple analytes simultaneously within a biological sample. Here we describe the development and validation of domestic cat-specific MIAs for a) the quantification of total IgG and IgA levels in plasma, and b) the detection of IgG and IgA antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) capsid (CA) and surface (SU) proteins, and feline CD134 in plasma. These assays were used to examine the temporal antibody response of domestic cats infected with apathogenic and pathogenic FIVs, and domestic cats infected with parental and chimeric FIVs of varying pathogenicity. The results from these studies demonstrated that a) total IgG antibodies increase over time after infection; b) α-CA and α-SU IgG antibodies are detectable between 9 and 28 days post-infection and increase over time, and these antibodies combined represent a fraction (1.8 to 21.8%) of the total IgG increase due to infection; c) measurable α-CD134 IgG antibody levels vary among individuals and over time, and are not strongly correlated with viral load; d) circulating IgA antibodies, in general, do not increase during the early stage of infection; and e) total IgG, and α-CA and α-SU IgG antibody kinetics and levels vary with FIV viral strain/pathogenicity. The MIAs described here could be used to screen domestic cats for FIV infection, and to evaluate the FIV-specific or total antibody response elicited by various FIV strains/other diseases. © 2013.

  2. Extent of linkage disequilibrium in the domestic cat, Felis silvestris catus, and its breeds.

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    Hasan Alhaddad

    Full Text Available Domestic cats have a unique breeding history and can be used as models for human hereditary and infectious diseases. In the current era of genome-wide association studies, insights regarding linkage disequilibrium (LD are essential for efficient association studies. The objective of this study is to investigate the extent of LD in the domestic cat, Felis silvestris catus, particularly within its breeds. A custom illumina GoldenGate Assay consisting of 1536 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs equally divided over ten 1 Mb chromosomal regions was developed, and genotyped across 18 globally recognized cat breeds and two distinct random bred populations. The pair-wise LD descriptive measure (r(2 was calculated between the SNPs in each region and within each population independently. LD decay was estimated by determining the non-linear least-squares of all pair-wise estimates as a function of distance using established models. The point of 50% decay of r(2 was used to compare the extent of LD between breeds. The longest extent of LD was observed in the Burmese breed, where the distance at which r(2 ≈ 0.25 was ∼380 kb, comparable to several horse and dog breeds. The shortest extent of LD was found in the Siberian breed, with an r(2 ≈ 0.25 at approximately 17 kb, comparable to random bred cats and human populations. A comprehensive haplotype analysis was also conducted. The haplotype structure of each region within each breed mirrored the LD estimates. The LD of cat breeds largely reflects the breeds' population history and breeding strategies. Understanding LD in diverse populations will contribute to an efficient use of the newly developed SNP array for the cat in the design of genome-wide association studies, as well as to the interpretation of results for the fine mapping of disease and phenotypic traits.

  3. Strong spatial segregation between wildcats and domestic cats may explain low hybridization rates on the Iberian Peninsula.

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    Gil-Sánchez, J M; Jaramillo, J; Barea-Azcón, J M

    2015-12-01

    The European wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris) is an endangered felid impacted by genetic introgression with the domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus). The problem of hybridization has had different effects in different areas. In non-Mediterranean regions pure forms of wildcats became almost extinct, while in Mediterranean regions genetic introgression is a rare phenomenon. The study of the potential factors that prevent the gene flow in areas of lower hybridization may be key to wildcat conservation. We studied the population size and spatial segregation of wildcats and domestic cats in a typical Mediterranean area of ancient sympatry, where no evidence of hybridization had been detected by genetic studies. Camera trapping of wild-living cats and walking surveys of stray cats in villages were used for capture-recapture estimations of abundance and spatial segregation. Results showed (i) a low density of wildcats and no apparent presence of putative hybrids; (ii) a very low abundance of feral cats in spite of the widespread and large population sources of domestic cats inhabiting villages; (iii) strong spatial segregation between wildcats and domestic/feral cats; and (iv) no relationship between the size of the potential population sources and the abundance of feral cats. Hence, domestic cats were limited in their ability to become integrated into the local habitat of wildcats. Ecological barriers (habitat preferences, food limitations, intra-specific and intra-guild competition, predation) may explain the severe divergences of hybridization impact observed at a biogeographic level. This has a direct effect on key conservation strategies for wildcats (i.e., control of domestic cats). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Social interaction, food, scent or toys? A formal assessment of domestic pet and shelter cat (Felis silvestris catus) preferences.

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    Vitale Shreve, Kristyn R; Mehrkam, Lindsay R; Udell, Monique A R

    2017-08-01

    Domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) engage in a variety of relationships with humans and can be conditioned to engage in numerous behaviors using Pavlovian and operant methods Increasingly cat cognition research is providing evidence of their complex socio-cognitive and problem solving abilities. Nonetheless, it is still common belief that cats are not especially sociable or trainable. This disconnect may be due, in part, to a lack of knowledge of what stimuli cats prefer, and thus may be most motivated to work for. The current study investigated domestic cat preferences at the individual and population level using a free operant preference assessment. Adult cats from two populations (pet and shelter) were presented with three stimuli within each of the following four categories: human social interaction, food, toy, and scent. Proportion of time interacting with each stimulus was recorded. The single most-preferred stimulus from each of the four categories were simultaneously presented in a final session to determine each cat's most-preferred stimulus overall. Although there was clear individual variability in cat preference, social interaction with humans was the most-preferred stimulus category for the majority of cats, followed by food. This was true for cats in both the pet and shelter population. Future research can examine the use of preferred stimuli as enrichment in applied settings and assess individual cats' motivation to work for their most-preferred stimulus as a measure of reinforcer efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Albinism in the domestic cat (Felis catus) is associated with a tyrosinase (TYR) mutation

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    Imes, DL; Geary, LA; Grahn, RA; Lyons, LA

    2006-01-01

    Summary Albino phenotypes are documented in a variety of species including the domestic cat. As albino phenotypes in other species are associated with tyrosinase (TYR) mutations, TYR was proposed as a candidate gene for albinism in cats. An Oriental and Colourpoint Shorthair cat pedigree segregating for albinism was analysed for association with TYR by linkage and sequence analyses. Microsatellite FCA931, which is closely linked to TYR and TYR sequence variants were tested for segregation with the albinism phenotype. Sequence analysis of genomic DNA from wild-type and albino cats identified a cytosine deletion in TYR at position 975 in exon 2, which causes a frame shift resulting in a premature stop codon nine residues downstream from the mutation. The deletion mutation in TYR and an allele of FCA931 segregated concordantly with the albino phenotype. Taken together, our results suggest that the TYR gene corresponds to the colour locus in cats and its alleles, from dominant to recessive, are as follows: C (full colour) > cb (burmese) ≥ cs (siamese) > c (albino). PMID:16573534

  6. Idiopathic cystitis in domestic cats--beyond the lower urinary tract.

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    Buffington, C A T

    2011-01-01

    Signs of lower urinary tract (LUT) disease in domestic cats can be acute or chronic, and can result from variable combinations of abnormalities within the lumen of the LUT, the parenchyma of the LUT itself, or other organ system(s) that then lead to LUT dysfunction. In the majority of cats with chronic signs of LUT dysfunction, no specific underlying cause can be confirmed after standard clinical evaluation of the LUT, so these cats typically are classified as having idiopathic cystitis. A syndrome in human beings commonly known as interstitial cystitis (IC) shares many features in common with these cats, permitting comparisons between the two species. A wide range of similarities in abnormalities has been identified between these syndromes outside as well as inside the LUT. A variety of potential familial and developmental risk factors also have been identified. These results have permitted generation of the hypothesis that some of these people have a disorder affecting the LUT rather than a disorder of the LUT. This perspective has suggested alternative diagnostic strategies and novel approaches to treatment, at least in cats. The purpose of this review is to summarize research investigations into the various abnormalities present in cats, to compare some of these findings with those identified in human beings, and to discuss how they might modify perceptions about the etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of cats with this disease. Dedication: I dedicate this contribution to Professor Dennis J. Chew, whose collaboration, patience, and support made it all possible. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  7. Parasites of domestic owned cats in Europe: co-infestations and risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Domestic cats can be infested by a large range of parasite species. Parasitic infestations may cause very different clinical signs. Endoparasites and ectoparasites are rarely explored in the same study and therefore multiparasitism is poorly documented. The present survey aimed to improve knowledge of the prevalence and risk factors associated with ecto- and endoparasite infestations in owned cats in Europe. Methods From March 2012 to May 2013, 1519 owned cats were included in a multicenter study conducted in 9 veterinary faculties throughout Europe (Austria, Belgium, France, Hungary, Italy, Romania and Spain). For each cat, ectoparasites were checked by combing of the coat surface associated with otoscopic evaluation and microscopy on cerumen samples. Endoparasites were identified by standard coproscopical examinations performed on fresh faecal samples. Risk factors and their influence on parasitism were evaluated by univariate analysis followed by a multivariate statistical analysis (including center of examination, age, outdoor access, multipet status, and frequency of treatments as main criteria) with logistic regression models. Results Overall, 50.7% of cats resulted positive for at least one internal or one external parasite species. Ectoparasites were found in 29.6% of cats (CI95 27.3-32.0%). Otodectes cynotis was the most frequently identified species (17.4%), followed by fleas (15.5%). Endoparasites were identified in 35.1% of the cats (CI95 32.7-35.7%), including gastro-intestinal helminths in 25.7% (CI95 23.5-28.0), respiratory nematodes in 5.5% (CI95 4.2-7.0%) and protozoans in 13.5% (CI95 11.8-15.3%). Toxocara cati was the most commonly diagnosed endoparasite (19.7%, CI95 17.8-21.8%). Co-infestation with endoparasites and ectoparasites was found in 14.0% of the cats, and 11.9% harbored both ectoparasites and gastro-intestinal helminths. Age, outdoor access, living with other pets, and anthelmintic or insecticide treatments were significantly

  8. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Seropositivity to Toxoplasma gondii among Stray and Domestic Cats (Felis silvestris catus

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    Christel Bohn T. Garcia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that causes toxoplasmosis. It is widespread in the environment and infects a variety of warm-blooded animals, causing miscarriages and birth problems. Previous studies in the Philippines have determined the seropositivity of T. gondii in humans. However, the seroprevalence of the parasite among household pets, par ticularly its feline def initive host, remains insufficient . This study aimed to: (1 determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies among domestic and stray cats in the Philippines; and, (2 to analyze the risk factors associated with seropositivity. Blood samples from 59 domestic and stray cats were collected and tested for T. gondii seropositivity using a commercially available indirect ELISA kit, while pet owners and handlers were given questionnaires about their cats. Thirteen or 22.03% of the cats were seropositive to T. gondii, and risk factor analysis revealed a significant difference between domestic and stray cats with regard to diet (p = 0.026, OR = 8.333, c = 0.299 and domestication (p = 0.039, OR = 5.000, c = 0.276. Cats fed with table food tested 31.43% seropositive compared to the 4.35% of those fed with cat food, whereas 33.33% of the stray cats were seropositive compared to 7.69% for domestic cats. Odds ratio test showed that the risk factors studied were associated with higher likelihood of T. gondii seropositivity. These results implicate diet and environment in the transmission dynamics of T. gondii among cats.

  9. A Mutation in LTBP2 Causes Congenital Glaucoma in Domestic Cats (Felis catus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Markus H; Lipsett, Koren A; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Whitmore, S Scott; Scheetz, Todd E; David, Victor A; O'Brien, Stephen J; Zhao, Zhongyuan; Jens, Jackie K; Snella, Elizabeth M; Ellinwood, N Matthew; McLellan, Gillian J

    2016-01-01

    The glaucomas are a group of diseases characterized by optic nerve damage that together represent a leading cause of blindness in the human population and in domestic animals. Here we report a mutation in LTBP2 that causes primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) in domestic cats. We identified a spontaneous form of PCG in cats and established a breeding colony segregating for PCG consistent with fully penetrant, autosomal recessive inheritance of the trait. Elevated intraocular pressure, globe enlargement and elongated ciliary processes were consistently observed in all affected cats by 8 weeks of age. Varying degrees of optic nerve damage resulted by 6 months of age. Although subtle lens zonular instability was a common feature in this cohort, pronounced ectopia lentis was identified in less than 10% of cats examined. Thus, glaucoma in this pedigree is attributed to histologically confirmed arrest in the early post-natal development of the aqueous humor outflow pathways in the anterior segment of the eyes of affected animals. Using a candidate gene approach, significant linkage was established on cat chromosome B3 (LOD 18.38, θ = 0.00) using tightly linked short tandem repeat (STR) loci to the candidate gene, LTBP2. A 4 base-pair insertion was identified in exon 8 of LTBP2 in affected individuals that generates a frame shift that completely alters the downstream open reading frame and eliminates functional domains. Thus, we describe the first spontaneous and highly penetrant non-rodent model of PCG identifying a valuable animal model for primary glaucoma that closely resembles the human disease, providing valuable insights into mechanisms underlying the disease and a valuable animal model for testing therapies.

  10. A Mutation in LTBP2 Causes Congenital Glaucoma in Domestic Cats (Felis catus.

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    Markus H Kuehn

    Full Text Available The glaucomas are a group of diseases characterized by optic nerve damage that together represent a leading cause of blindness in the human population and in domestic animals. Here we report a mutation in LTBP2 that causes primary congenital glaucoma (PCG in domestic cats. We identified a spontaneous form of PCG in cats and established a breeding colony segregating for PCG consistent with fully penetrant, autosomal recessive inheritance of the trait. Elevated intraocular pressure, globe enlargement and elongated ciliary processes were consistently observed in all affected cats by 8 weeks of age. Varying degrees of optic nerve damage resulted by 6 months of age. Although subtle lens zonular instability was a common feature in this cohort, pronounced ectopia lentis was identified in less than 10% of cats examined. Thus, glaucoma in this pedigree is attributed to histologically confirmed arrest in the early post-natal development of the aqueous humor outflow pathways in the anterior segment of the eyes of affected animals. Using a candidate gene approach, significant linkage was established on cat chromosome B3 (LOD 18.38, θ = 0.00 using tightly linked short tandem repeat (STR loci to the candidate gene, LTBP2. A 4 base-pair insertion was identified in exon 8 of LTBP2 in affected individuals that generates a frame shift that completely alters the downstream open reading frame and eliminates functional domains. Thus, we describe the first spontaneous and highly penetrant non-rodent model of PCG identifying a valuable animal model for primary glaucoma that closely resembles the human disease, providing valuable insights into mechanisms underlying the disease and a valuable animal model for testing therapies.

  11. Experimental transmission of Cystoisospora felis-like coccidium from bobcat (Lynx rufus) to the domestic cat (Felis catus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Houk, A E; Verma, S K; Calero-Bernal, R; Humphreys, J G; Lindsay, D S

    2015-06-30

    Cystoisospora felis is an ubiquitous coccidian of cats. The domestic cat (Felis catus) is its definitive host and several mammalian and avian species are its optional intermediate/transport hosts. Nothing is known if it is transmissible to wild felids. In the present study C. felis-like oocysts were found in two naturally infected bobcats (Lynx rufus) from Pennsylvania. To study transmission of C. felis-like parasite from bobcats to domestic cats, sporulated oocysts of C. felis-like from one bobcat were orally inoculated into interferon gamma gene knockout (KO) mice, and 56 days later tissues of KO mice were fed to two coccidian-free cats; two littermate cats were uninoculated controls. The inoculated cats and controls were euthanized five and seven days later, and their small intestines were studied histologically. One inoculated cat excreted C. felis-like oocysts seven days post inoculation (p.i.) and was immediately euthanized. Mature schizonts, mature male and female gamonts, and unsporulated oocysts were found in the lamina propria of small intestine; these stages were morphologically similar to C. felis of domestic cats. No parasites were seen in histological sections of small intestines of the remaining three cats. The experiment was terminated at seven days p.i. (minimum prepatent period for C. felis) to minimize spread of this highly infectious parasite to other cats. Although oocysts of the parasite in bobcats were morphologically similar to C. felis of domestic cats, the endogenous stages differed in their location of development. The bobcat derived parasite was located in the lamina propria of ileum whereas all endogenous stages of C. felis of domestic cats are always located in enterocytes of intestinal epithelium. Characterization of DNA isolated from C. felis-like oocysts from the donor bobcat revealed that sequences of the ITS1 region was only 87% similar to the ITS1 region of C. felis from domestic cats. These results indicate that the parasite in

  12. Safety and effectiveness of a single and repeat intramuscular injection of a GnRH vaccine (GonaCon™) in adult female domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansandt, L M; Kutzler, M A; Fischer, A E; Morris, K N; Swanson, W F

    2017-04-01

    Sterilization is a key strategy to reduce the number of domestic cats entering and killed in shelters each year. However, surgical sterilization is expensive and labour-intensive and cannot fully address the 70 million free-roaming cats estimated to exist in the United States. GonaCon™ is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine originally developed for use as a wildlife immunocontraceptive. An earlier formulation was tested in domestic cats and found to be safe and effective for long-term contraception. However, the current Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered formulation consists of a different antigen-carrier protein and increased antigen concentration and has never been tested in cats. A pilot study was undertaken to evaluate the short-term safety of a single GonaCon immunization, assess the consequences of vaccinated cats receiving an accidental second GonaCon injection and determine the humoral immune response to immunization. During Phase 1, cats in Group A (n = 3) received a single intramuscular injection of GonaCon and Group B (n = 3) received a single intramuscular injection of saline. During Phase 2, Group A received a second GonaCon injection and Group B received their initial GonaCon injection. All cats developed GnRH antibodies within 30 days of vaccine administration. The endpoint titre (1:1,024,000) was similar among all cats, and levels remained high throughout the duration of the study. Four cats developed a sterile, painless, self-limiting mass at the site of injection. The mean number of days to mass development was 110.3 (range, 18-249 days). In conclusion, this preliminary study suggests that the EPA-registered GonaCon formulation is safe for continued testing in domestic cats, an accidental revaccination should not increase the risk of a vaccine reaction and the EPA-registered formulation effectively elicits a strong humoral immune response. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Molecular epidemiology of feline immunodeficiency virus in the domestic cat (Felis catus)

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    Hayward, Jessica J; Rodrigo, Allen G

    2009-01-01

    Studying the evolutionary mechanisms of feline immunodeficiency virus in the domestic cat (Felis catus), FIVFca, provides a good comparison to other lentiviruses, such as HIV and FIVPco in the cougar (Puma concolor). We review the current epidemiological and evolutionary findings of FIVFca,. In addition to the five accepted FIVFca, subtypes, several recent phylogenetic studies have found strains that form separate clades, indicative of novel subtypes. In New Zealand cats, these strains of unknown subtype have been found to be involved in complex patterns of intergenic recombination, and whole genome sequences are required to resolve these. Evidence of recombination events has been documented with the highest levels in the env gene, the region involved in host cell receptor recognition. Several cases of FIVFca, multiple infection, both inter- and intra-subtype, have been reported. The findings of both unknown subtypes and relatively high levels of recombination suggest the need for further testing of the current vaccine. Limited studies on the evolutionary rate of FIVFca, document a value twice to three times that of FIV in the cougar, a result suggesting the different levels of co-adaptation between the viruses and their respective hosts. We studied the tissue distribution of FIVFca, in feral domestic cats, finding the first case of FIV compartmentalisation, a phenomenon well-documented in HIV-1 patients. PMID:19896220

  14. Functional Analyses of Bitter Taste Receptors in Domestic Cats (Felis catus.

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    Weiwei Lei

    Full Text Available Cats are obligate carnivores and under most circumstances eat only animal products. Owing to the pseudogenization of one of two subunits of the sweet receptor gene, they are indifferent to sweeteners, presumably having no need to detect plant-based sugars in their diet. Following this reasoning and a recent report of a positive correlation between the proportion of dietary plants and the number of Tas2r (bitter receptor genes in vertebrate species, we tested the hypothesis that if bitter perception exists primarily to protect animals from poisonous plant compounds, the genome of the domestic cat (Felis catus should have lost functional bitter receptors and they should also have reduced bitter receptor function. To test functionality of cat bitter receptors, we expressed cat Tas2R receptors in cell-based assays. We found that they have at least 7 functional receptors with distinct receptive ranges, showing many similarities, along with some differences, with human bitter receptors. To provide a comparative perspective, we compared the cat repertoire of intact receptors with those of a restricted number of members of the order Carnivora, with a range of dietary habits as reported in the literature. The numbers of functional bitter receptors in the terrestrial Carnivora we examined, including omnivorous and herbivorous species, were roughly comparable to that of cats thereby providing no strong support for the hypothesis that a strict meat diet influences bitter receptor number or function. Maintenance of bitter receptor function in terrestrial obligate carnivores may be due to the presence of bitter compounds in vertebrate and invertebrate prey, to the necessary role these receptors play in non-oral perception, or to other unknown factors. We also found that the two aquatic Carnivora species examined had fewer intact bitter receptors. Further comparative studies of factors driving numbers and functions of bitter taste receptors will aid in

  15. Effects of castration on penile extracellular matrix morphology in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Nathalia Cs; Pereira-Sampaio, Marco A; Pereira, Vivian Alves; Abidu-Figueiredo, Marcelo; Chagas, Maurício Alves

    2017-12-01

    Objectives This study was undertaken to verify the possible modifications caused by hormonal deprivation in the extracellular matrix in the penises of neutered cats. Methods Twenty-seven penises from domestic shorthair cats were collected: 14 samples from intact cats and 13 from neutered cats. Sections were stained with Weigert's resorcin-fuchsin, hematoxylin and eosin, and picrosirius red. Histomorphometric analysis was performed using light microscopy and image analysis software. The following parameters were analyzed: density of the elastic fibers and collagen fibers in the corpus spongiosum; density of the elastic fibers in the tunica albuginea of the corpus cavernosum and the tunica albuginea of the corpus spongiosum; luminal area of the urethra; area of the corpus spongiosum; area of the corpus cavernosum; and thickness of the urethral epithelium. The data were analyzed using the Shapiro-Wilk test to verify the normal distribution, and groups were compared using Student's t-test; P cats and neutered cats in the density of elastic fibers in the tunica albuginea of the corpus cavernosum (8.13% ± 1.38% vs 3.11% ± 0.66%), tunica albuginea of the corpus spongiosum (4.37% ± 1.08% vs 3.30% ± 1.01%) and corpus spongiosum (6.28% ± 3.03% vs 4.10% ± 2.19%), and density of collagen fibers in the corpus spongiosum (34.11% ± 10.86% vs 44.21% ± 12.72%). Conclusions and relevance The results show a significant decrease in the density of the elastic fibers and a significant increase of the density of the collagen fibers in the corpus spongiosum in neutered animals. This suggests that the compliance of the periurethral region is reduced, and these changes could be a predisposing factor for urethral obstructive disease.

  16. Adaptação de forno de microondas doméstico para realização de reações de transesterificação sob refluxo e catálise por argilas Adapting a domestic microwave oven transesterification reactions for under reflux and clay catalysis

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    Fernando de C. da Silva

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The microwave oven became an important source of heating for many laboratory procedures including accelerating organic reactions. Reactions that require long reflux times can sometimes be carried out in a few hours or minutes in a conventional microwave oven. However, longer reflux times can be troublesome since domestic microwave ovens are not prepared for these harsh conditions. This technical note presents our finding on heterogeneous catalysis transesterification reactions between b-keto-esters and carbohydrate derivatives under heating or microwave irradiation using an adapted domestic microwave oven.

  17. Effect of deslorelin acetate treatment in oocyte recovery and in vitro embryo production in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Camila Louise; Trevisol, Eduardo; Crocomo, Leticia Ferrari; Rascado, Tatiana da Silva; Volpato, Rodrigo; Guaitolini, Carlos Renato de Freitas; Lopes, Carlize; Costa, Talita de Almeida; Lopes, Maria Denise

    2017-10-01

    Objectives The present study investigated the effect of contraceptive treatment with deslorelin acetate on in vitro embryo production and oocyte recovery in domestic queens. Methods Twenty-one mature domestic cats were used. Eleven queens (treated group) and one tom were kept in an experimental cattery, and 10 queens were privately owned (control group). When in interestrus or diestrus (day 0) a deslorelin acetate implant (Suprelorin, 4.7 mg/animal) was inserted into the subcutaneous tissue of the interscapular region in all queens in the treated group. After 6 months of treatment, all animals were ovariohysterectomized, and the ovaries were used for in vitro embryo production. Percentage of cleavage was determined 18 h after oocyte insemination and blastocyst formation was assessed on the eighth day of culture. The rate of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) recovery was analyzed by an unpaired t-test. The cleavage and blastocyst rates were expressed as percentages and analyzed by Fisher's exact test. All analyses were performed using GraphPad Prism v5.0, with P domestic cats. Regarding embryo production, new studies are still necessary to evaluate the success of this technique owing to the individual effect caused by deslorelin acetate.

  18. Phylogenetic analysis to define feline immunodeficiency virus subtypes in 31 domestic cats in South Africa

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    R. Kann

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, a lentivirus, is an important pathogen of domestic cats around the world and has many similarities to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. A characteristic of these lentiviruses is their extensive genetic diversity, which has been an obstacle in the development of successful vaccines. Of the FIV genes, the envelope gene is the most variable and sequence differences in a portion of this gene have been used to define 5 FIV subtypes (A, B, C, D and E. In this study, the proviral DNA sequence of the V3-V5 region of the envelope gene was determined in blood samples from 31 FIV positive cats from 4 different regions of South Africa. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the presence of both subtypes A and C, with subtype A predominating. These findings contribute to the understanding of the genetic diversity of FIV.

  19. Recombination in feline immunodeficiency virus from feral and companion domestic cats

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    Rodrigo Allen G

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recombination is a relatively common phenomenon in retroviruses. We investigated recombination in Feline Immunodeficiency Virus from naturally-infected New Zealand domestic cats (Felis catus by sequencing regions of the gag, pol and env genes. Results The occurrence of intragenic recombination was highest in env, with evidence of recombination in 6.4% (n = 156 of all cats. A further recombinant was identified in each of the gag (n = 48 and pol (n = 91 genes. Comparisons of phylogenetic trees across genes identified cases of incongruence, indicating intergenic recombination. Three (7.7%, n = 39 of these incongruencies were found to be significantly different using the Shimodaira-Hasegawa test. Surprisingly, our phylogenies from the gag and pol genes showed that no New Zealand sequences group with reference subtype C sequences within intrasubtype pairwise distances. Indeed, we find one and two distinct unknown subtype groups in gag and pol, respectively. These observations cause us to speculate that these New Zealand FIV strains have undergone several recombination events between subtype A parent strains and undefined unknown subtype strains, similar to the evolutionary history hypothesised for HIV-1 "subtype E". Endpoint dilution sequencing was used to confirm the consensus sequences of the putative recombinants and unknown subtype groups, providing evidence for the authenticity of these sequences. Endpoint dilution sequencing also resulted in the identification of a dual infection event in the env gene. In addition, an intrahost recombination event between variants of the same subtype in the pol gene was established. This is the first known example of naturally-occurring recombination in a cat with infection of the parent strains. Conclusion Evidence of intragenic recombination in the gag, pol and env regions, and complex intergenic recombination, of FIV from naturally-infected domestic cats in New Zealand was found. Strains

  20. Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania spp. in domestic cats from Luanda, Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Granada, Sara; Rodrigues, Filipa T; Papadopoulos, Elias; Schallig, Henk; Dubey, Jitender P; Cardoso, Luís

    2017-05-30

    Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania spp. are zoonotic protozoa of importance to animal and public health. The present study aimed to assess for the first time the seroprevalence of these zoonotic parasites in a domestic feline population living in Luanda, Angola. One hundred and two cats were sampled at a veterinary medical centre, from May 2014 to February 2016. The age of the cats ranged from 2.5 to 143 months (median: 12 months; interquartile range: 7.5-24). Serum samples were tested for immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies to T. gondii at two-fold dilutions of 1:20 to 1:2560 with a modified agglutination test (MAT) commercial kit. The direct agglutination test (DAT) for titration of IgG antibodies specific to Leishmania spp. used a standard freeze-dried antigen at a concentration of 5×10 7 promastigotes per milliliter, following a predefined protocol. Two-fold dilution series ranging from 1:25 to 1:800 were tested, with a cut-off titre of 100 chosen for seropositivity. Four out of 102 cats (3.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-9.7) had antibodies to T. gondii: one had a titer of 20, one a titer of 160, and two had a titer≥2560. No cat (0.0%; CI: 0.0-3.5) was found seropositive for Leishmania spp. A statistically significant difference was found between T. gondii seroprevalence and Leishmania spp. seroprevalence (p=0.043). The odds of a cat being seropositive to T. gondii increased by an average factor of 1.58 for each 1-year increase in age (p=0.003). The sampled cats were well-cared animals and may not represent the overall feline population of Angola at the national and city levels. The fact that only 12 out of the 102 sampled cats ate or had access to raw or undercooked meat and/or viscera may have reduced the likelihood of finding seropositive results. Under these circumstances, additional studies, including a larger number of cats, are necessary for a more comprehensive assessment of the zoonotic risk posed by these animals in Angola. Copyright © 2017

  1. Morphometry of the coronary ostia and the structure of coronary arteries in the shorthair domestic cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barszcz, Karolina; Kupczyńska, Marta; Polguj, Michał; Klećkowska-Nawrot, Joanna; Janeczek, Maciej; Goździewska-Harłajczuk, Karolina; Dzierzęcka, Małgorzata; Janczyk, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the area of the coronary ostia, assess their localization in the coronary sinuses and to determine the morphology of the stem of the left and right coronary arteries in the domestic shorthair cat. The study was conducted on 100 hearts of domestic shorthair cats of both sexes, aged 2-18 years, with an average body weight of 4.05 kg. A morphometric analysis of the coronary ostia was carried out on 52 hearts. The remaining 48 hearts were injected with a casting material in order to carry out a morphological assessment of the left and right coronary arteries. In all the studied animals, the surface of the left coronary artery ostium was larger than the surface of the right coronary artery ostium. There were four types of the left main coronary artery: type I (23 animals, 49%)-double-branched left main stem (giving off the left circumflex branch and the interventricular paraconal branch, which in turn gave off the septal branch), type II (12 animals, 26%)-double-branched left main stem (giving off the left circumflex branch and the interventricular paraconal branch without the septal branch), type III (11 animals, 23%)-triple-branched left main stem (giving off the left circumflex branch, interventricular branch and the septal branch, type IV (1 animal, 2%)-double-branched left main stem (giving off the interventricular paraconal branch and the left circumflex branch, which in turn gave off the septal branch). The left coronary artery ostium is greater than the right one. There is considerable diversity in the branches of proximal segment of the left coronary artery, while the right coronary artery is more conservative. These results can be useful in defining the optimal strategies in the endovascular procedures involving the coronary arteries or the aortic valve in the domestic shorthair cat.

  2. Morphometry of the coronary ostia and the structure of coronary arteries in the shorthair domestic cat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Barszcz

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to measure the area of the coronary ostia, assess their localization in the coronary sinuses and to determine the morphology of the stem of the left and right coronary arteries in the domestic shorthair cat. The study was conducted on 100 hearts of domestic shorthair cats of both sexes, aged 2-18 years, with an average body weight of 4.05 kg. A morphometric analysis of the coronary ostia was carried out on 52 hearts. The remaining 48 hearts were injected with a casting material in order to carry out a morphological assessment of the left and right coronary arteries. In all the studied animals, the surface of the left coronary artery ostium was larger than the surface of the right coronary artery ostium. There were four types of the left main coronary artery: type I (23 animals, 49%-double-branched left main stem (giving off the left circumflex branch and the interventricular paraconal branch, which in turn gave off the septal branch, type II (12 animals, 26%-double-branched left main stem (giving off the left circumflex branch and the interventricular paraconal branch without the septal branch, type III (11 animals, 23%-triple-branched left main stem (giving off the left circumflex branch, interventricular branch and the septal branch, type IV (1 animal, 2%-double-branched left main stem (giving off the interventricular paraconal branch and the left circumflex branch, which in turn gave off the septal branch. The left coronary artery ostium is greater than the right one. There is considerable diversity in the branches of proximal segment of the left coronary artery, while the right coronary artery is more conservative. These results can be useful in defining the optimal strategies in the endovascular procedures involving the coronary arteries or the aortic valve in the domestic shorthair cat.

  3. Morphometry of the coronary ostia and the structure of coronary arteries in the shorthair domestic cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barszcz, Karolina; Kupczyńska, Marta; Klećkowska-Nawrot, Joanna; Janeczek, Maciej; Goździewska-Harłajczuk, Karolina; Dzierzęcka, Małgorzata; Janczyk, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the area of the coronary ostia, assess their localization in the coronary sinuses and to determine the morphology of the stem of the left and right coronary arteries in the domestic shorthair cat. The study was conducted on 100 hearts of domestic shorthair cats of both sexes, aged 2–18 years, with an average body weight of 4.05 kg. A morphometric analysis of the coronary ostia was carried out on 52 hearts. The remaining 48 hearts were injected with a casting material in order to carry out a morphological assessment of the left and right coronary arteries. In all the studied animals, the surface of the left coronary artery ostium was larger than the surface of the right coronary artery ostium. There were four types of the left main coronary artery: type I (23 animals, 49%)–double-branched left main stem (giving off the left circumflex branch and the interventricular paraconal branch, which in turn gave off the septal branch), type II (12 animals, 26%)–double-branched left main stem (giving off the left circumflex branch and the interventricular paraconal branch without the septal branch), type III (11 animals, 23%)–triple-branched left main stem (giving off the left circumflex branch, interventricular branch and the septal branch, type IV (1 animal, 2%)–double-branched left main stem (giving off the interventricular paraconal branch and the left circumflex branch, which in turn gave off the septal branch). The left coronary artery ostium is greater than the right one. There is considerable diversity in the branches of proximal segment of the left coronary artery, while the right coronary artery is more conservative. These results can be useful in defining the optimal strategies in the endovascular procedures involving the coronary arteries or the aortic valve in the domestic shorthair cat. PMID:29020103

  4. Molecular markers of putative spermatogonial stem cells in the domestic cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford-Guaus, S J; Kim, S; Mulero, L; Vaquero, J M; Morera, C; Adan-Milanès, R; Veiga, A; Raya, Á

    2017-04-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are an important tool for fertility preservation and species conservation. The ability to expand SSCs by in vitro culture is a crucial premise for their use in assisted reproduction. Because SSCs represent a small proportion of the germ cells in the adult testis, culture success is aided by pre-enrichment through sorting techniques based on cell surface-specific markers. Given the importance of the domestic cat as a model for conservation of endangered wild felids, herein we sought to examine culture conditions as well as molecular markers for cat SSCs. Using a cell culture medium for mouse SSCs supplemented with glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), germ cells from prepuberal cat testes remained viable in culture for up to 43 days. Immunohistochemistry for promyelocytic leukaemia zinc finger (PLZF) protein on foetal, prepuberal and adult testis sections revealed a pattern of expression consistent with the labelling of undifferentiated spermatogonia. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) with an antibody against epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EPCAM) was used to sort live cells. Then, the gene expression profile of EPCAM-sorted cells was investigated through RT-qPCR. Notably, EPCAM (+) cells expressed relatively high levels of CKIT (CD117), a surface protein typically expressed in differentiating germ cells but not SSCs. Conversely, EPCAM (-) cells expressed relatively high levels of POU domain class 5 transcription factor 1 (POU1F5 or OCT4), clearly a germ line stem cell marker. These results suggest that cat SSCs would probably be found within the population of EPCAM (-) cells. Future studies should identify additional surface markers that alone or in combination can be used to further enrich SSCs from cat germ cells. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Free-ranging domestic cats (Felis catus) on public lands: estimating density, activity, and diet in the Florida Keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cove, Michael V.; Gardner, Beth; Simons, Theodore R.; Kays, Roland; O'Connell, Allan F.

    2017-01-01

    Feral and free-ranging domestic cats (Felis catus) can have strong negative effects on small mammals and birds, particularly in island ecosystems. We deployed camera traps to study free-ranging cats in national wildlife refuges and state parks on Big Pine Key and Key Largo in the Florida Keys, USA, and used spatial capture–recapture models to estimate cat abundance, movement, and activities. We also used stable isotope analyses to examine the diet of cats captured on public lands. Top population models separated cats based on differences in movement and detection with three and two latent groups on Big Pine Key and Key Largo, respectively. We hypothesize that these latent groups represent feral, semi-feral, and indoor/outdoor house cats based on the estimated movement parameters of each group. Estimated cat densities and activity varied between the two islands, with relatively high densities (~4 cats/km2) exhibiting crepuscular diel patterns on Big Pine Key and lower densities (~1 cat/km2) exhibiting nocturnal diel patterns on Key Largo. These differences are most likely related to the higher proportion of house cats on Big Pine relative to Key Largo. Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios from hair samples of free-ranging cats (n = 43) provided estimates of the proportion of wild and anthropogenic foods in cat diets. At the population level, cats on both islands consumed mostly anthropogenic foods (>80% of the diet), but eight individuals were effective predators of wildlife (>50% of the diet). We provide evidence that cat groups within a population move different distances, exhibit different activity patterns, and that individuals consume wildlife at different rates, which all have implications for managing this invasive predator.

  6. Comparison of serum and plasma taurine values in Bengal tigers with values in taurine-sufficient and -deficient domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, J P; Chesney, R W; Beehler, B; Moore, C P; Lippincott, S; Sturman, J; Ketring, K L

    1990-01-15

    A white Bengal tiger was determined to have a central retinal lesion and a central visual defect. Because of the known association between feline central retinal degeneration (CRD) and taurine deficiency in domestic cats, plasma concentrations of taurine were measured in this tiger. Serum concentrations of taurine, methionine, and cystine also were measured in white Bengal tigers, orange Bengal tigers, taurine-sufficient domestic cats, and taurine-deprived and tissue-taurine-depleted visually impaired cats with CRD. Hepatic and brain enzymes responsible for taurine synthesis were identified in tissue specimens from an orange Bengal tiger. Serum taurine concentrations were lower in white vs orange tigers, but were not as low as those in cats with CRD. Thus, we concluded that taurine depletion did not account for the central retinal lesion in the white Bengal tiger.

  7. First report of Cytauxzoon sp. infection in a domestic cat from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alho, Ana Margarida; Silva, Joana; Fonseca, Maria João; Santos, Filipa; Nunes, Cláudia; de Carvalho, Luís Madeira; Rodrigues, Manuel; Cardoso, Luís

    2016-05-10

    Cytauxzoonosis is an emerging and life-threatening tick-borne feline disease caused by haemoprotozoan parasites of the genus Cytauxzoon. Information regarding epidemiological and clinical presentation of infections by species other than Cytauxzoon felis is scant. A case of Cytauxzoon sp. infection is described in a 2-year-old mixed breed male domestic cat from Portugal, presenting a history of acute lethargy, anorexia and pyrexia. Complete blood count revealed a severe anaemia, leucocytosis and thrombocytopenia. A pleural effusion was noticed on thoracic radiograph, and marked splenomegaly and free abdominal fluid were visualized by ultrasound. A molecular screening for the detection of causative agents of infectious anaemia was performed, and a positive result for Piroplasmorida was obtained. DNA sequencing of a 743 bp amplicon of the 18S rRNA gene (GenBank accession no. KU710344) revealed 99.9 % identity with Cytauxzoon manul. This is the first report of Cytauxzoon sp. (clustering together with C. manul) in a felid from Portugal. Clinical manifestations along with molecular analysis suggest the hypothesis that domestic cats might be infected with and serve as a reservoir host for C. manul.

  8. GM1 gangliosidosis in a Japanese domestic cat: a new variant identified in Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Hiroshi; Yamato, Osamu; Sugiura, Takeshi; Kohyama, Moeko; Yabuki, Akira; Miyoshi, Kenjiro; Matsuda, Kazuya; Uchide, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    A male Japanese domestic cat with retarded growth in Hokkaido, Japan, showed progressive motor dysfunction, such as ataxia starting at 3 months of age and tremors, visual disorder and seizure after 4 months of age. Finally, the cat died of neurological deterioration at 9 months of age. Approximately half of the peripheral blood lymphocytes had multiple abnormal vacuoles. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bisymmetrical hyperintensity in the white matter of the parietal and occipital lobes in the forebrain on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images, and mild encephalatrophy of the olfactory bulbs and temporal lobes. The activity of lysosomal acid β-galactosidase in leukocytes was negligible, resulting in the biochemical diagnosis of GM1 gangliosidosis. Histologically, swollen neurons characterized by accumulation of pale, slightly granular cytoplasmic materials were observed throughout the central nervous system. Dysmyelination or demyelination and gemistocytic astrocytosis were observed in the white matter. Ultrastructually, membranous cytoplasmic bodies were detected in the lysosomes of neurons. However, genetic analysis did not identify the c.1448G>C mutation, which is the single known mutation of feline GM1 gangliosidosis, suggesting that the cat was affected with a new variant of the feline disease.

  9. Effects of Long-Term Exposure to an Electronic Containment System on the Behaviour and Welfare of Domestic Cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naïma Kasbaoui

    Full Text Available Free-roaming cats are exposed to a variety of risks, including involvement in road traffic accidents. One way of mitigating these risks is to contain cats, for example using an electronic boundary fence system that delivers an electric 'correction' via a collar if a cat ignores a warning cue and attempts to cross the boundary. However, concerns have been expressed over the welfare impact of such systems. Our aim was to determine if long-term exposure to an electronic containment system was associated with reduced cat welfare. We compared 46 owned domestic cats: 23 cats that had been contained by an electronic containment system for more than 12 months (AF group; and 23 cats with no containment system that were able to roam more widely (C group. We assessed the cats' behavioural responses and welfare via four behavioural tests (unfamiliar person test; novel object test; sudden noise test; cognitive bias test and an owner questionnaire. In the unfamiliar person test, C group lip-licked more than the AF group, whilst the AF group looked at, explored and interacted more with the unfamiliar person than C group. In the novel object test, the AF group looked at and explored the object more than C group. No significant differences were found between AF and C groups for the sudden noise or cognitive bias tests. Regarding the questionnaire, C group owners thought their cats showed more irritable behaviour and AF owners thought that their cats toileted inappropriately more often than C owners. Overall, AF cats were less neophobic than C cats and there was no evidence of significant differences between the populations in general affective state. These findings indicate that an electronic boundary fence with clear pre-warning cues does not impair the long term quality of life of cats.

  10. Effects of Long-Term Exposure to an Electronic Containment System on the Behaviour and Welfare of Domestic Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasbaoui, Naïma; Cooper, Jonathan; Mills, Daniel S; Burman, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Free-roaming cats are exposed to a variety of risks, including involvement in road traffic accidents. One way of mitigating these risks is to contain cats, for example using an electronic boundary fence system that delivers an electric 'correction' via a collar if a cat ignores a warning cue and attempts to cross the boundary. However, concerns have been expressed over the welfare impact of such systems. Our aim was to determine if long-term exposure to an electronic containment system was associated with reduced cat welfare. We compared 46 owned domestic cats: 23 cats that had been contained by an electronic containment system for more than 12 months (AF group); and 23 cats with no containment system that were able to roam more widely (C group). We assessed the cats' behavioural responses and welfare via four behavioural tests (unfamiliar person test; novel object test; sudden noise test; cognitive bias test) and an owner questionnaire. In the unfamiliar person test, C group lip-licked more than the AF group, whilst the AF group looked at, explored and interacted more with the unfamiliar person than C group. In the novel object test, the AF group looked at and explored the object more than C group. No significant differences were found between AF and C groups for the sudden noise or cognitive bias tests. Regarding the questionnaire, C group owners thought their cats showed more irritable behaviour and AF owners thought that their cats toileted inappropriately more often than C owners. Overall, AF cats were less neophobic than C cats and there was no evidence of significant differences between the populations in general affective state. These findings indicate that an electronic boundary fence with clear pre-warning cues does not impair the long term quality of life of cats.

  11. First case report of infection caused by Encephalitozoon intestinalis in a domestic cat and a patient with AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, Jorge Néstor; Chertcoff, Agustín Víctor; Etchart, Cristina; di Risio, Cecilia; Sodré, Fernando Campos; Cucher, Marcela A; Carnevale, Silvana

    2012-12-21

    Microsporidia are eukaryotic, intracellular obligate parasites that infect invertebrate and vertebrate animals, and have emerged as important opportunistic parasites in AIDS patients. We used light microscopy to detect microsporidial spores in stool samples of a domestic cat confirmed as Encephalitozoon intestinalis by PCR, owned by an AIDS patient with chronic diarrhea and E. intestinalis infection. Cats can be considered hosts of E. intestinalis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A Naturally Occurring Domestic Cat APOBEC3 Variant Confers Resistance to Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Rokusuke; Izumi, Taisuke; Yamada, Eri; Nakano, Yusuke; Misawa, Naoko; Ren, Fengrong; Carpenter, Michael A; Ikeda, Terumasa; Münk, Carsten; Harris, Reuben S; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Koyanagi, Yoshio; Sato, Kei

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3; A3) DNA cytosine deaminases can be incorporated into progeny virions and inhibit lentiviral replication. On the other hand, viral infectivity factor (Vif) of lentiviruses antagonizes A3-mediated antiviral activities by degrading A3 proteins. It is known that domestic cat (Felis catus) APOBEC3Z3 (A3Z3), the ortholog of human APOBEC3H, potently suppresses the infectivity of vif-defective feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Although a recent report has shown that domestic cat encodes 7 haplotypes (hap I to hap VII) of A3Z3, the relevance of A3Z3 polymorphism in domestic cats with FIV Vif has not yet been addressed. In this study, we demonstrated that these feline A3Z3 variants suppress vif-defective FIV infectivity. We also revealed that codon 65 of feline A3Z3 is a positively selected site and that A3Z3 hap V is subject to positive selection during evolution. It is particularly noteworthy that feline A3Z3 hap V is resistant to FIV Vif-mediated degradation and still inhibits vif-proficient viral infection. Moreover, the side chain size, but not the hydrophobicity, of the amino acid at position 65 determines the resistance to FIV Vif-mediated degradation. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses have led to the inference that feline A3Z3 hap V emerged approximately 60,000 years ago. Taken together, these findings suggest that feline A3Z3 hap V may have been selected for escape from an ancestral FIV. This is the first evidence for an evolutionary "arms race" between the domestic cat and its cognate lentivirus. Gene diversity and selective pressure are intriguing topics in the field of evolutionary biology. A direct interaction between a cellular protein and a viral protein can precipitate an evolutionary arms race between host and virus. One example is primate APOBEC3G, which potently restricts the replication of primate lentiviruses (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus type 1 [HIV-1] and simian

  13. Allometric study on the relationship between the growth of ovarian follicles and oocytes in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Tokukazu; Sakakida, Seishi; Muranishi, Yuki; Nagai, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between the growth of preantral and antral follicles and that of their oocytes in ovaries of domestic cats (Felis catus) was analyzed. Eight hundred and five pairs of follicles and oocytes from the ovaries of 51 female cats were collected, and only healthy and fresh follicles and oocytes with or without zona pellucida were used in this study. Immediately after collection, the diameters of follicles and their oocytes were measured. The relationship of the follicle diameter to the oocyte diameter was applied to four regression models and statistically analyzed. The best fitting model was found to be a hyperbolic regression (the coefficient of determination was 0.976 between the follicles and their oocytes with a zona pellucida, y=184x/(x+0.0738); the coefficient of determination was 0.983 between the follicles and their oocytes without a zona pellucida, y=122x/(x+0.0301)). The differentiated equations for the hyperbolic curves in the oocytes with or without a zona pellucida and the follicles were found to be y'=13.6/(x+0.0738)² and y'=3.67/(x+0.0301)², where y and x were the diameters of the oocytes (μm) and follicles (mm), respectively. When follicles grew to a size larger than 0.4 mm in diameter, the growth rates of their oocytes calculated by the differentiation equations showed an asymptotic depression around zero. Thus, it was suggested that when the follicles grew to a size larger than 0.4 mm in diameter, their oocytes reached full size and ceased to grow and that the zona pellucida stopped growing when the diameter of the follicles reached 0.3 mm in domestic cats.

  14. Sparse serological evidence of H5N1 avian influenza virus infections in domestic cats, northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lingshuang; Zhou, Pei; He, Shuyi; Luo, Yongfeng; Jia, Kun; Fu, Cheng; Sun, Yao; He, Huamei; Tu, Liqing; Ning, Zhangyong; Yuan, Ziguo; Wang, Heng; Li, Shoujun; Yuan, Liguo

    2015-05-01

    Today the cross-species transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIV) are a great concern. A number of AIV strains are now enzootic among poultry, with H9N2 and highly pathogenic H5N1 AIV strains prevalent in China. H5N1 strains have been recognized to infect zoo and domestic feline species. In this serological study we sought to examine evidence that H5N1 strains have infected domestic cats in northeastern China. In 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional serological study of 916 healthy cats in Heilongjian, Jilin, and Liaonin Provinces. Sera were screened with a hemagglutinin inhibition (HI) assay and seropositive specimens (HI ≥ 1:20) were further evaluated with a microneutralization (MN) assay against a clade 2.3.2 H5N1 AIV, a H9N2 AIV, A (H1N1)pdm09, and a canine H3N2 virus. While ∼2% of cats had elevated HI assays against H5N1, no elevations were confirmed (MN ≥ 1:80). These data serve as baseline for future surveillance for AIV infections among domestic cats. Conducting such surveillance seems important for geographical areas recognized as endemic for AIVs. This is especially true for countries such as China where domestic cats and poultry are often in close contact. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Epidemic of salmonellosis in passerine birds in Switzerland with spillover to domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, S; Pewsner, M; Hüssy, D; Hächler, H; Ryser Degiorgis, M-P; von Hirschheydt, J; Origgi, F C

    2013-07-01

    A die-off of passerine birds, mostly Eurasian siskins (Carduelis spinus), occurred in multiple areas of Switzerland between February and March 2010. Several of the dead birds were submitted for full necropsy. Bacteriological examination was carried out on multiple tissues of each bird. At gross examination, common findings were light-tan nodules, 1 to 4 mm in diameter, scattered through the esophagus/crop. Histologically, a necroulcerative transmural esophagitis/ingluvitis was observed. Bacterial cultures yielded Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. At the same time, 2 pet clinics reported an unusual increase of domestic cats presented with fever, anorexia, occasionally dolent abdomen, and history of presumed consumption of passerine birds. Analysis of rectal swabs revealed the presence of S. Typhimurium in all tested cats. PFGE (pulsed field electrophoresis) analysis was performed to characterize and compare the bacterial isolates, and it revealed an indistinguishable pattern between all the avian and all but 1 of the feline isolates. Cloacal swabs collected from clinically healthy migrating Eurasian siskins (during autumn 2010) did not yield S. Typhimurium. The histological and bacteriological findings were consistent with a systemic infection caused by S. Typhimurium. Isolation of the same serovar from the dead birds and ill cats, along with the overlapping results of the PFGE analysis for all the animal species, confirmed a spillover from birds to cats through predation. The sudden increase of the number of siskins over the Swiss territory and their persistency during the whole winter of 2009-2010 is considered the most likely predisposing factor for the onset of the epidemic.

  16. Tiger, Bengal and Domestic Cat Embryos Produced by Homospecific and Interspecific Zona-Free Nuclear Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, L N; Jarazo, J; Buemo, C; Hiriart, M I; Sestelo, A; Salamone, D F

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate three different cloning strategies in the domestic cat (Felis silvestris) and to use the most efficient to generate wild felid embryos by interspecific cloning (iSCNT) using Bengal (a hybrid formed by the cross of Felis silvestris and Prionailurus bengalensis) and tiger (Panthera tigris) donor cells. In experiment 1, zona-free (ZP-free) cloning resulted in higher fusion and expanded blastocyst rates with respect to zona included cloning techniques that involved fusion or injection of the donor cell. In experiment 2, ZP-free iSCNT and embryo aggregation (2X) were assessed. Division velocity and blastocyst rates were increased by embryo aggregation in the three species. Despite fewer tiger embryos than Bengal and cat embryos reached the blastocyst stage, Tiger 2X group increased the percentage of blastocysts with respect to Tiger 1X group (3.2% vs 12.1%, respectively). Moreover, blastocyst cell number was almost duplicated in aggregated embryos with respect to non-aggregated ones within Bengal and tiger groups (278.3 ± 61.9 vs 516.8 ± 103.6 for Bengal 1X and Bengal 2X groups, respectively; 41 vs 220 ± 60 for Tiger 1X and Tiger 2X groups, respectively). OCT4 analysis also revealed that tiger blastocysts had higher proportion of OCT4-positive cells with respect to Bengal blastocysts and cat intracytoplasmic sperm injection blastocysts. In conclusion, ZP-free cloning has improved the quality of cat embryos with respect to the other cloning techniques evaluated and was successfully applied in iSCNT complemented with embryo aggregation. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Effects of Long-Term Exposure to an Electronic Containment System on the Behaviour and Welfare of Domestic Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasbaoui, Naïma; Cooper, Jonathan; Mills, Daniel S.; Burman, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Free-roaming cats are exposed to a variety of risks, including involvement in road traffic accidents. One way of mitigating these risks is to contain cats, for example using an electronic boundary fence system that delivers an electric ‘correction’ via a collar if a cat ignores a warning cue and attempts to cross the boundary. However, concerns have been expressed over the welfare impact of such systems. Our aim was to determine if long-term exposure to an electronic containment system was associated with reduced cat welfare. We compared 46 owned domestic cats: 23 cats that had been contained by an electronic containment system for more than 12 months (AF group); and 23 cats with no containment system that were able to roam more widely (C group). We assessed the cats’ behavioural responses and welfare via four behavioural tests (unfamiliar person test; novel object test; sudden noise test; cognitive bias test) and an owner questionnaire. In the unfamiliar person test, C group lip-licked more than the AF group, whilst the AF group looked at, explored and interacted more with the unfamiliar person than C group. In the novel object test, the AF group looked at and explored the object more than C group. No significant differences were found between AF and C groups for the sudden noise or cognitive bias tests. Regarding the questionnaire, C group owners thought their cats showed more irritable behaviour and AF owners thought that their cats toileted inappropriately more often than C owners. Overall, AF cats were less neophobic than C cats and there was no evidence of significant differences between the populations in general affective state. These findings indicate that an electronic boundary fence with clear pre-warning cues does not impair the long term quality of life of cats. PMID:27602572

  18. Forelimb and hindlimb ground reaction forces of walking cats: Assessment and comparison with walking dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbee, R.J.; Maas, H.; Doornenbal, A; Hazewinkel, H.A.W.

    2014-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the potential of force plate analysis for describing the stride cycle of the cat. The secondary aim was to define differences in feline and canine locomotion based on force plate characteristics. Ground reaction forces of 24 healthy cats were measured and

  19. Forelimb and hindlimb ground reaction forces of walking cats: assessment and comparison with walking dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J; Maas, H; Doornenbal, A; Hazewinkel, H A W

    2014-10-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the potential of force plate analysis for describing the stride cycle of the cat. The secondary aim was to define differences in feline and canine locomotion based on force plate characteristics. Ground reaction forces of 24 healthy cats were measured and compared with ground reaction forces of 24 healthy dogs. Force-time waveforms in cats generated by force plate analysis were consistent, as reflected by intra-class correlation coefficients for peak vertical force, peak propulsive force and peak braking force (0.94-0.95, 0.85-0.89 and 0.89-0.90, respectively). Compared with dogs, cats had a higher peak vertical force during the propulsion phase (cat, 3.89 ± 0.19 N/kg; dog, 3.03 ± 0.16 N/kg), and a higher hindlimb propulsive force (cat, -1.08 ± 0.13 N/kg; dog, (-0.87 ± 0.13 N/kg) and hindlimb impulse (cat, -0.18 ± 0.03 N/kg; dog, -0.14 ± 0.02 N/kg). Force plate analysis is a valuable tool for the assessment of locomotion in cats, because it can be applied in the clinical setting and provides a non-invasive and objective measurement of locomotion characteristics with high repeatability in cats, as well as information about kinetic characteristics. Differences in force-time waveforms between cats and dogs can be explained by the more crouched position of cats during stance and their more compliant gait compared with dogs. Feline waveforms of the medio-lateral ground reaction forces also differ between cats and dogs and this can be explained by differences in paw supination-pronation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of single-cat versus multi-cat home history on perceived behavioral stress in domestic cats (Felis silvestrus catus) in an animal shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadley, Heidi M; McCobb, Emily C; Slater, Margaret R

    2014-02-01

    This study investigates the effect of living with other cats in a prior home on stress levels of cats recently surrendered to an animal shelter. A total of 63 cats was evaluated using a Cat-Stress-Score and an approach test. Cats were categorized in terms of previous home history with or without other cats. No significant difference was found in stress scores between cats from single-cat households and those from multiple-cat households, although single cats that had been in the shelter less than 4 days demonstrated higher stress levels. No significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of approach results. Results of this study suggest that, in traditional individual cage settings, cats that are not accustomed to living with other cats may experience more stress in the initial few days of attempting to adjust to shelter existence. Through the use of such assessments, shelter personnel may develop an increased awareness to the needs of these cats and attempt to provide measures to improve their well-being within the shelter environment.

  1. Hepatic profile of domestic cats anestetized with propofol in continuos infusion rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janh Carlo de Amorim Ferreira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Ferreira J.C.A., Botelho G.G. & Acceta J.L. [Hepatic profile of domestic cats anestetized with propofol in continuos infusion rate.] Perfil hepático de gatos domésticos anestesiados com Propofol em infusão contínua. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(2:127-132, 2015. Curso de Medicina Veterinária, Departamento de Medicina e Cirurgia Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465 Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brasil. E-mail: janhcarlo@yahoo.com.br This study was performed to evaluate the hepatic biochemical profile of cats when submitted to continuous infusion of propofol at a 0,3 mg/kg/min in dosage, for 90 minutes, and comparing to the results obtained from cats receiving continuous infusion of saline solution. Both groups were analyzed during a pre-determined period of time totalizing 12 hours of observation and analysis. The following enzymes activity levels were determined: Aspartate-Aminotransferase (AST, Alanina-Aminotransferase (ALT, Gamma Glutamyl Transpeptidase (GGT and Alkaline Phosphatase (AP; serum levels of Albumin (A, Total Bilirrubin (BT and Total Serum Proteins (sTP. Twenty healthy cats were analyzed on this study, their weights varying from two to four kg and ages between three to five years old, submitted to experimental procedures performed during the months of January and February, 2010. The analysis of these results showed a major difference (p<0,05 between the ALT serum activities at the following moments: T2 (30 minutes, T3 (60 minutes, and T5 (12 hours; AST and AP serum activities at T2. None of the animals presented averages of the results above parameters of normality. The other parameters examined did not present any significant differences, concluding that total intravenous anesthesia using continuous infusion of propofol was safe to hold cats for invasive surgical procedures, therefore providing more information regarding the safe use of this drug in this species.

  2. Hepatic profile of domestic cats anestetized with propofol in continuos infusion rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janh Carlo de Amorim Ferreira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Ferreira J.C.A., Botelho G.G. & Accetta J.L. [Hepatic profile of domestic cats anestetized with propofol in continuos infusion rate.] Perfil hepático de gatos domésticos anestesiados com propofol em infusão contínua. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(2:116-120, 2014. Cirurgia e Anatomia Topográfica, UNIPLI/Anhanguera, Rua Visconde do Rio Branco, 137, Centro, Niterói, RJ 24020-001, Brasil. E-mail: janhcarlo@yahoo.com.br This study was performed to monitor the hepatic biochemical profile of cats when submitted to continuous infusion of propofol at a 0.3 mg/kg/min dosage, for 90 minutes, and comparing to results obtained from cats who received continuous infusion of saline solution. Both groups were analyzed during a pre-determined period of time totalizing 12 hours of observation and analysis. The following enzymes activity levels were determined: Aspartate-Aminotransferase (AST, Alanina-Aminotransferase (ALT, Gamma Glutamyl Transpeptidase (GGT and Alkaline Fosfatasis (FA; serum levels of Albumin (A, Total Bilirrubin (BT and Total Serum Proteins (PT. Twenty healthy cats were analyzed on this study, their weights varying from two to four kg and ages between three to five years old, submitted to experimental procedures performed during the months of January and February, 2010. The analysis of these results showed a major difference (p<0.05 between the ALT serum activities at the following moments: T2 (30 minutes, T3 (60 minutes, and T5 (12 hours; AST and FA serum activities at T2. None of the animals presented averages of the results above parameters of normality. The other parameters examined did not present any significant differences, concluding that total intravenous anesthesia using continuous infusion of propofol was safe to hold cats for invasive surgical procedures, therefore providing more information regarding the safe use of this drug in this species.

  3. Frequency and hematological alterations of different hemoplasma infections with retrovirusis co-infections in domestic cats from Brazil

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    Fernanda P. Firmino

    Full Text Available Abstract: Mycoplasma haemofelis is the agent of feline infectious anemia, although Candidatus M. haemominutum can also be associated. This study evaluated the frequency and hematological alterations caused by hemoplasma infections and co-infections with FeLV, FIV and Toxoplasma gondii in domestic cats from two distinct areas (urban - G1 and periurban - G2 of Brasília, Brazil. One hundred cats were evaluated, 51 from the G1 area and 49 from G2. No cats were positive for T. gondii. Hemoplasma infection was diagnosed in 33% cats from G1 and 32.6% from G2 (p>0.05. In G1 35.3% of the positive cats were infected with Mycoplasma haemofelis, 47.06% with Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum and 17.64% with mixed hemoplasma species infection; 12.5% of the cats identified as PCR positive in G2 were infected with Mycoplasma haemofelis, 18.75% with Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum and 68.75% with mixed infection. Cats from the periurban area had higher mixed hemoplasmas infection rates than those from urban area, and most of them were asymptomatic carriers. Cytology results were positive in only 5% of cats from G1. Mycoplasma haemofelis infected cats had normocytic normochromic anemia while the cats infected with Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum or with both species did not. 37.2% of G1 cats were co-infected with Mycoplasma haemofelis and FeLV, and presented lower PCV and hemoglobin concentration than those infected only with Mycoplasma haemofelis. The co-infection with Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum and FeLV produced lower WBC, segmented cells and platelets, and increased total protein concentration.

  4. Evaluation of cheetah and leopard spermatozoa developmental capability after interspecific ICSI with domestic cat oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, L N; Sestelo, A J; Salamone, D F

    2014-08-01

    The ICSI procedure is potentially of great value for felids, and it has not been extensively studied in these species. The objectives of this work were to determine the best conditions for ICSI in the domestic cat (DC) to generate interspecific embryos by injecting cheetah (Ch) and leopard (Leo) spermatozoa. Firstly, DC oocytes were matured with insulin-transferrin-selenium (ITS) or without it (MM) and cultured using atmospheric (21%) or low (5%) oxygen tension after ICSI. The group ITS-5%O2 showed the highest blastocyst rate (p cheetah and leopard spermatozoa were able to generate blastocysts without artificial activation, which suggests that developmental capacity of wild felid spermatozoa can be evaluated by interspecific ICSI. This technique should be used to assist wild felid reproduction. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Molecular detection of tick-borne protozoan parasites in a population of domestic cats in midwestern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Ísis Assis; de Souza Ramos, Dirceu Guilherme; Marcili, Arlei; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; Taques, Isis Indaiara Gonçalves Granjeiro; Amude, Alexandre Mendes; Chitarra, Cristiane Silva; Nakazato, Luciano; Dutra, Valéria; de Campos Pacheco, Richard; Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2016-07-01

    Some tick-borne pathogens that infect domestic cats have been considered emergent in veterinary medicine. Occurrences of Hepatozoon spp., Babesia spp. and Cytauxzoon spp. have been described in several regions of Brazil. This paper offers a comprehensive analysis of the 18S rRNA gene of a Hepatozoon sp. strain detected in domestic cats in the metropolitan area of Cuiabá, in Midwestern Brazil. Based on a molecular analysis, we detected the presence of Hepatozoon species circulating among cats in this region. The aforementioned strain is closely related to other isolates of H. felis detected in wild felids. Moreover, a phylogenetic analysis indicates that this genotype is grouped into a clade of 18S rRNA sequences previously described for the genus Hepatozoon in wild felids around the world. Hepatozoon felis strains detected in cats from Spain and Israel showed, respectively, 98% and 97% identity to our sequence and are clustered on a separate branch of the phylogenetic tree. This finding suggests a high diversity of Hepatozoon genotypes occurring in cats in Europe and South America. None of the analyzed cats were positive for Babesia spp. or Cytauxzoon spp. by PCR analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Bilateral pre-auricular papillary squamous cell carcinomas associated with papillomavirus infection in a domestic cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, John S; Gwyther, Stacy; Thomson, Neroli A; Malik, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Cutaneous papillary squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are extremely rare in humans and have not been reported in any nonhuman species. In humans, oral papillary SCCs are often caused by papillomavirus infection and have a more favourable prognosis than other SCC subtypes. A 10-year-old ginger and white domestic short hair cat had a 12 month history of symmetrical, roughly circular, exophytic 2 cm diameter masses in both pre-auricular regions. Surgical excision was performed, although with only narrow margins. Histology of both masses revealed a proliferation of neoplastic keratinocytes arranged in numerous filiform projections that were supported by fibrovascular stalks. Although the cells were confined to the epidermis predominantly, nests of neoplastic cells were visible within the superficial dermis. The neoplastic cells demonstrated significant atypia with a variable nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio and a high mitotic index. A papillary subtype SCC was diagnosed. Felis catus papillomavirus type 2 (FcaPV-2) was the only papillomavirus detected in the masses and FcaPV-2 E6/E7 gene expression and p16 CDKN 2A protein immunostaining were detected. Six months after surgery neither recurrence nor further masses had developed. This is the first cutaneous papillary SCC reported in a nonhuman species. Papillary SCCs may be a rare manifestation of FcaPV-2 infection in cats. The unusual location of the SCCs suggests that both papillomavirus infection and ultraviolet light exposure could have contributed to neoplasia development. Evidence from this single case suggests that papillary SCCs may have a more favourable prognosis than conventional SCCs in cats. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  7. Endogenous retrovirus insertion in the KIT oncogene determines white and white spotting in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Victor A; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Wallace, Andrea Coots; Roelke, Melody; Kehler, James; Leighty, Robert; Eizirik, Eduardo; Hannah, Steven S; Nelson, George; Schäffer, Alejandro A; Connelly, Catherine J; O'Brien, Stephen J; Ryugo, David K

    2014-08-01

    The Dominant White locus (W) in the domestic cat demonstrates pleiotropic effects exhibiting complete penetrance for absence of coat pigmentation and incomplete penetrance for deafness and iris hypopigmentation. We performed linkage analysis using a pedigree segregating White to identify KIT (Chr. B1) as the feline W locus. Segregation and sequence analysis of the KIT gene in two pedigrees (P1 and P2) revealed the remarkable retrotransposition and evolution of a feline endogenous retrovirus (FERV1) as responsible for two distinct phenotypes of the W locus, Dominant White, and white spotting. A full-length (7125 bp) FERV1 element is associated with white spotting, whereas a FERV1 long terminal repeat (LTR) is associated with all Dominant White individuals. For purposes of statistical analysis, the alternatives of wild-type sequence, FERV1 element, and LTR-only define a triallelic marker. Taking into account pedigree relationships, deafness is genetically linked and associated with this marker; estimated P values for association are in the range of 0.007 to 0.10. The retrotransposition interrupts a DNAase I hypersensitive site in KIT intron 1 that is highly conserved across mammals and was previously demonstrated to regulate temporal and tissue-specific expression of KIT in murine hematopoietic and melanocytic cells. A large-population genetic survey of cats (n = 270), representing 30 cat breeds, supports our findings and demonstrates statistical significance of the FERV1 LTR and full-length element with Dominant White/blue iris (P < 0.0001) and white spotting (P < 0.0001), respectively. Copyright © 2014 David et al.

  8. Brain neuroimaging of domestic cats: correlation between computed tomography and cross- sectional anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Nepomuceno

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Computed tomography of the brain is necessary as part of the diagnosis of lesions of the central nervous system. In this study we used six domestic cats, male or female, aged between one and five years, evaluated by Computed Tomography (CT examination without clinical signs of central nervous system disorders. Two euthanized animals stating a condition unrelated to the nervous system were incorporated into this study. The proposal consisted in establishing detailed anatomical description of tomographic images of normal brain of cats, using as reference anatomical images of cross sections of the stained brain and cranial part, with thicknesses similar to the planes of the CT images. CT examinations were performed with and without intravenous iodinated contrast media for live animals. With one euthanized animal, the brain was removed and immediately preserved in 10% formalin for later achievement in cross-sectional thickness of approximately 4mm and staining technique of Barnard, and Robert Brown. The head of another animal was disarticulated in the Atlanto-occipital region and frozen at -20ºC then sliced to a thickness of about 5mm. The description of visualized anatomical structures using tomography is useful as a guide and allows transcribing with relative accuracy the brain region affected by an injury, and thus correlating it with the clinical symptoms of the patient, providing additional information and consequent improvement to veterinarians during the course of surgical clinic in this species.

  9. Brain neuroimaging of domestic cats: correlation between computed tomography and cross-sectional anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nepomuceno, A.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Zanatta, R. [Universidade de Cuiaba, MT (Brazil); Chung, D.G.; Costa, P.F.; Feliciano, M.A.R.; Avante, M.L.; Canola, J.C., E-mail: marcusfeliciano@yahoo.com.br [Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil); Lopes, L.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    Computed tomography of the brain is necessary as part of the diagnosis of lesions of the central nervous system. In this study we used six domestic cats, male or female, aged between one and five years, evaluated by Computed Tomography (CT) examination without clinical signs of central nervous system disorders. Two euthanized animals stating a condition unrelated to the nervous system were incorporated into this study. The proposal consisted in establishing detailed anatomical description of tomographic images of normal brain of cats, using as reference anatomical images of cross sections of the stained brain and cranial part, with thicknesses similar to the planes of the CT images. CT examinations were performed with and without intravenous iodinated contrast media for live animals. With one euthanized animal, the brain was removed and immediately preserved in 10% formalin for later achievement in cross-sectional thickness of approximately 4mm and staining technique of Barnard, and Robert Brown. The head of another animal was disarticulated in the Atlanto-occipital region and frozen at -20 deg C then sliced to a thickness of about 5mm. The description of visualized anatomical structures using tomography is useful as a guide and allows transcribing with relative accuracy the brain region affected by an injury, and thus correlating it with the clinical symptoms of the patient, providing additional information and consequent improvement to veterinarians during the course of surgical clinic in this species. (author)

  10. Brain neuroimaging of domestic cats: correlation between computed tomography and cross-sectional anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nepomuceno, A.C.; Zanatta, R.; Chung, D.G.; Costa, P.F.; Feliciano, M.A.R.; Avante, M.L.; Canola, J.C.; Lopes, L.S.

    2016-01-01

    Computed tomography of the brain is necessary as part of the diagnosis of lesions of the central nervous system. In this study we used six domestic cats, male or female, aged between one and five years, evaluated by Computed Tomography (CT) examination without clinical signs of central nervous system disorders. Two euthanized animals stating a condition unrelated to the nervous system were incorporated into this study. The proposal consisted in establishing detailed anatomical description of tomographic images of normal brain of cats, using as reference anatomical images of cross sections of the stained brain and cranial part, with thicknesses similar to the planes of the CT images. CT examinations were performed with and without intravenous iodinated contrast media for live animals. With one euthanized animal, the brain was removed and immediately preserved in 10% formalin for later achievement in cross-sectional thickness of approximately 4mm and staining technique of Barnard, and Robert Brown. The head of another animal was disarticulated in the Atlanto-occipital region and frozen at -20 deg C then sliced to a thickness of about 5mm. The description of visualized anatomical structures using tomography is useful as a guide and allows transcribing with relative accuracy the brain region affected by an injury, and thus correlating it with the clinical symptoms of the patient, providing additional information and consequent improvement to veterinarians during the course of surgical clinic in this species. (author)

  11. Estimation of the dietary nutrient profile of free-roaming feral cats: possible implications for nutrition of domestic cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, E.A.; Bosch, G.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    Cats are strict carnivores and in the wild rely on a diet solely based on animal tissues to meet their specific and unique nutritional requirements. Although the feeding ecology of cats in the wild has been well documented in the literature, there is no information on the precise nutrient profile to

  12. Bixin uptake and antioxidative effect and role in immunoregulation in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J S; Mathison, B D; Zawlocki, B M; Chew, B P

    2016-01-01

    Bixin, a carotenoid found in the seed of the Annatto plant, , is a potent antioxidant. Carotenoids are readily absorbed from the diet; therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine uptake of bixin by plasma, lipoproteins, and leukocytes after dietary supplementation in domestic cats and to assess effects on immune response. Female domestic short hair cats (3 yr old; 4.79 ± 0.13 kg BW) were fed a single dose of 0, 1, 5, or 10 mg bixin, and blood was taken at 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 h after administration ( = 6/treatment) to determine acute absorption rate. Then, bixin was fed daily for 14 d to examine steady-state plasma concentrations and subcellular distribution. Following these preliminary experiments, cats ( = 8/treatment) were fed diets containing 0, 1, 5, or 10 mg bixin/d for 16 wk and blood was collected on wk 0, 6, 12, and 16 for analysis of leukocyte subpopulations, cell-mediated responsiveness, and inflammatory and oxidative biomarkers. Maximal uptake in plasma occurred 1 h after a single oral dose of bixin, with a maximal concentration of 0.119 μ and elimination half-life of 1.8 to 2.2 h. Daily feeding of bixin showed a steady-state plasma concentration of 0.110 μ at the greatest doses. Bixin was primarily associated with the high-density lipoprotein fraction of blood lipoproteins and was primarily distributed in mitochondrial fractions (58-59%) of but also in microsomal and nuclear fractions (37-44%). Leukocyte subpopulations in blood were variably affected by dietary bixin, with an increase ( < 0.05) in total T cells but a concurrent decrease ( < 0.05) in CD18+ and B cell subpopulations. However, plasma IgG increased ( < 0.05) in the 10-mg treatment group by wk 6. Lymphoproliferation was stimulated ( < 0.05) in the 5-mg bixin treatment group by wk 16, and delayed-type hypersensitivity response increased after nonspecific antigenic challenge. Conversely, when a specific challenge of vaccine was assessed on wk 12 and 16, responsiveness decreased ( < 0

  13. Dioctophyme renale (Nematoda: Enoplida) in domestic dogs and cats in the extreme south of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappeti, Josaine Cristina da Silva; Mascarenhas, Carolina Siqueira; Perera, Soliane Carra; Müller, Gertrud; Grecco, Fabiane Borelli; Silva, Luísa Mariano Cerqueira da; Sapin, Carolina da Fonseca; Rausch, Stella Falkenberg; Cleff, Marlete Brum

    2017-01-01

    Dioctophyme renale is a zoonotic nematode that parasites the kidneys of wild and domestic carnivores, and it has been reported frequently in Brazil. The aim here was to register the number of cases of dogs and cats diagnosed with dioctophymosis by necropsy (1981 to 2014) and ultrasound examination (2010 to 2015) in Pelotas-RS. In this context, a survey was conducted on dioctophymosis cases diagnosed at the Veterinary Pathology Laboratory (LPV) and Veterinary Clinical Hospital (HCV) of the Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel), and at a specialist veterinary imaging diagnostics clinic. In total, 95 cases were registered. The high series of the disease in dogs can be related to the presence of a large number of stray and semi-domestic dogs in the city, and also due to the ingestion of intermediate hosts of D. renale parasitized with the infective larvae. Thus, it can be concluded that Pelotas is a city with favorable conditions for the occurrence of dioctophymosis with high rate of disease in recent years.

  14. Frequency of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora caninum in domestic cats in the state of Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Iris Daniela Santos de; Andrade, Müller Ribeiro; Uzêda, Rosângela Soares; Bittencourt, Marta Vasconcelos; Lindsay, David Scott; Gondim, Luís Fernando Pita

    2014-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the major agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. It infects several mammalian species in the Americas, where the definitive hosts, marsupials of the genus Didelphis (D. virginiana and D. albiventris) are found. Domestic cats are one of the confirmed intermediate hosts of the parasite; however, antibodies against S. neurona had never before been demonstrated in Brazilian cats. The aim of this study was to determine whether cats in Bahia, Brazil, are exposed to the parasite. A total of 272 feline serum samples (134 from feral and 138 from house cats) were subjected to an indirect fluorescent antibody test using cultured merozoites of S. neurona as antigen. Positivity was detected in 4.0% (11/272) of the tested samples, with titers ranging from 25 to 800. The feline sera were also tested for antibodies against the protozoan Neospora caninum, with an observed antibody frequency of 2.9%. To the author's knowledge, this is the first study to report antibodies against S. neurona in Brazilian cats. We conclude that cats are exposed to the parasite in the region of this study. Further investigations are needed to confirm the role of cats in the transmission cycle of S. neurona in Brazil.

  15. Frequency of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora caninum in domestic cats in the state of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Daniela Santos de Meneses

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sarcocystis neurona is the major agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. It infects several mammalian species in the Americas, where the definitive hosts, marsupials of the genus Didelphis (D. virginiana and D. albiventris are found. Domestic cats are one of the confirmed intermediate hosts of the parasite; however, antibodies against S. neurona had never before been demonstrated in Brazilian cats. The aim of this study was to determine whether cats in Bahia, Brazil, are exposed to the parasite. A total of 272 feline serum samples (134 from feral and 138 from house cats were subjected to an indirect fluorescent antibody test using cultured merozoites of S. neurona as antigen. Positivity was detected in 4.0% (11/272 of the tested samples, with titers ranging from 25 to 800. The feline sera were also tested for antibodies against the protozoan Neospora caninum, with an observed antibody frequency of 2.9%. To the author's knowledge, this is the first study to report antibodies against S. neurona in Brazilian cats. We conclude that cats are exposed to the parasite in the region of this study. Further investigations are needed to confirm the role of cats in the transmission cycle of S. neurona in Brazil.

  16. A critically appraised topic (CAT) to compare the effects of single and multi-cat housing on physiological and behavioural measures of stress in domestic cats in confined environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Domestic cats have evolved from solitary, asocial predators and whilst they may display social behaviours, they can still exist as solitary survivors. Over-population and relinquishment of pet cats are ubiquitous problems worldwide, and rehoming centres (also known as rescues/ shelters) aim to ameliorate this by holding cats in confinement for a variable period until a new home is found. The provision of optimal housing for large numbers of cats in close confinement, such as in rehoming centres, is therefore inherently difficult. Under these conditions there is the potential for individuals to develop signs of physical and psychological ill health, and thus experience compromised welfare. Available information regarding housing practices that maximise welfare currently provides conflicting results, and as a consequence there are no unanimous housing recommendations. The aim of this study was therefore to review the evidence on the impact of single housing compared to multi-cat housing on stress in confined cats, as measured by physiological and/or behavioural outcomes. The review was conducted using a Critically Appraised Topic (CAT) format. A systematic search of electronic databases (CAB Abstracts, Zoological Records and Medline) was carried out to identify peer-reviewed literature comparing single and multi-cat housing in confined environments. Results A total of 959 papers were initially identified, six of which met sufficient criteria based on their relevance to be included within this review. All of the studies had significant limitations in design and methodology, including a lack of information on how groups were assigned, inconsistent handling and enrichment provision between groups, and lack of information on the socialisation status of cats. Conclusions Whilst some studies suggested that single housing may be less stressful for cats, others suggested group housing was less stressful. Several other important factors were however identified as

  17. Leptospira spp. in Domestic Cats from Different Environments: Prevalence of Antibodies and Risk Factors Associated with the Seropositivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azócar-Aedo, Lucía; Monti, Gustavo; Jara, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Although Leptospira infection occurs in domestic cat populations, studies on leptospirosis are very limited in felines and the role of cats in the epidemiology of this zoonosis has not received much attention. The present work is an epidemiologic study intended to determine the prevalence of anti-Leptospira antibodies and risk factors related with the seropositivity in cats from urban and rural environments. A higher prevalence in rural cats was detected (25.2%) compared with urban animals (1.8%). Characteristics of the habitat of the animals and some agricultural activities performed by cat’s owners were found to be risk factors associated with the seropositivity. Abstract Leptospirosis is an emerging zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution. A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban and rural environments in southern Chile (1) to detect domestic cats with serologic evidence of exposure to Leptospira spp.; (2) to determine the prevalence of anti-Leptospira antibodies; (3) to describe seroprevalences according to different characteristics of the animals, and (4) to identify risk factors associated with the seropositivity in the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). Blood samples were taken from 124 owned cats. A frequentist and Bayesian approach were applied for prevalence estimation. The overall apparent prevalence of anti-Leptospira antibodies was 8.1% (95% Confident Interval = 3.9–4.3). With the Bayesian approach, the overall True Prevalence (TP) was 5.2% (95% Credibility Interval (CrI) = 0.6–12.4). The TP for urban cats was 1.8% (95% CrI = 0.1–7.2) and the TP for rural felines was 25.2% (95% CrI = 9.3–46.6). Cats that live in a place where agricultural activities are performed with water that flows in streams or backwater and cats that live in places near flooded areas had a higher risk of seropositivity in MAT. The exposure to Leptospira spp. in domestic cats of urban and rural origin in Southern Chile is a public health concern

  18. Concentrations of anti-Müllerian hormone in the domestic cat. Relation with spay or neuter status and serum estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axnér, E; Ström Holst, B

    2015-03-15

    Female cats with unknown history can be diagnosed as spayed or intact with a GnRH-stimulation test or an LH test independent of the stage in the estrous cycle. However, although most females are correctly diagnosed with the LH test, the sensitivity and specificity are not 100%. The GnRH-stimulation test, although reliable, requires an injection of buserelin 2 hours before the blood sample is collected. Granulosa cells are the only cell type that produces anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in females, whereas Sertoli cells produce AMH in males. Anti-Müllerian hormone has been linked to spay status in dogs and cats and to ovarian and testicular pathology and fertility in different species. Our aim was to evaluate serum AMH concentrations in spayed female cats and in intact female cats of known age and reproductive stage (inactive ovaries or luteal phase). In addition, our aim was to compare serum AMH concentrations in intact and neutered male cats. We analyzed serum AMH concentrations in 15 spayed and 16 intact females and in 15 intact and 12 neutered male cats. Serum AMH was below the lowest standard point (cats (two females and two males) had the highest AMH concentrations which in the females might represent a prepubertal peak previously described in other species and in males is likely due to high concentrations before puberty. In conclusion, we found that the AMH Gen II ELISA is reliable for diagnosing spay and neuter status of cats and that the domestic cat might be an interesting model for studies on AMH dynamics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Other Gastrointestinal Parasites in Domestic Cats from Households in Thika Region, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyambura Njuguna, Adele; Muturi Karanja, Simon; Ngotho, Maina; Mutharia, Lucy

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GIT) parasites of domestic cats (Felis catus) not only cause morbidity but are also potential zoonotic agents. The current study aimed at establishing the prevalence of GIT parasites in cats kept by households in Thika region, Kenya. Fecal samples were collected randomly from 103 cats and analyzed for presence of parasites using standard parasitological methods. In descending order, the prevalence of the detected protozoa parasites was Isospora spp. 43.7% (95% CI: 40.4–47%), Cryptosporidium spp. 40.8% (95% CI: 37.5–44.1%), Toxoplasma gondii 7.8% (95% CI: 4.5–11.1%), and Entamoeba spp. 2.9% (95% CI: 1.6–6.2%). The prevalence of the observed helminths was Strongyloides stercoralis 43.7% (95% CI: 40.4–47%), Toxocara cati 23.3% (95% CI: 20–26.6%), Ancylostoma spp. 9.7% (95% CI: 6.4–13%), Dipylidium caninum 8.7% (95% CI: 5.4–12.0%), and Acanthocephala spp. 1.9% (95% CI: 1–4.2%). The percentage of cats excreting at least one species of parasite was 73.2% (95% CI = 69.9–76.5%). The study shows that the cats have high spectrum (9) of parasites which are known to affect the cat's health and some are of zoonotic significance. PMID:28691033

  20. Molecular cloning and expression of cytochrome P450 2D6 in the livers of domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Tetsuya; Honda, Kouichi; Kubota, Akira; Kitazawa, Takio; Hiraga, Takeo; Teraoka, Hiroki

    2010-12-01

    Cytochrome P450 2D (CYP2D) is one of the major metabolizing enzymes for drugs in humans and other mammals. Although domestic cats (Felis catus) are the most common companion animal in many countries, the properties of their drug-metabolizing system are largely unknown. We determined the complete cDNA sequence of the CYP2D open reading frame (1,500 bp) with both 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions in domestic cats. Feline CYP2D consists of 500 deduced amino acids and shows high homology with CYP2Ds of primates and rodents, particularly with the canine CYP2D homologue, and was designated as CYP2D6 based on its genomic structure. CYP2D6 transcripts were expressed predominantly in the liver and to a much lesser in the testis, suggesting the role of xenobiotic metabolism in the liver.

  1. Furuncular myiasis caused by the human bot-fly Dermatobia hominis in a domestic cat from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verocai, Guilherme G; Fernandes, Julio I; Correia, Thais R; de Souza, Clarissa P; Melo, Raquel M P S; Scott, Fabio B

    2010-06-01

    This paper reports a case of furuncular myiasis caused by the human bot-fly Dermatobia hominis in a domestic cat from Brazil. A crossbred shorthaired female cat of approximately 3 years old, presented with three boil-like cutaneous lesions at the left cranioventral region of the neck. These were diagnosed as furuncular myiasis. The animal was sedated, and after shaving the fur, bot-fly larvae were removed from the lesion by digital compression. Afterwards, the wounds were treated with 10% iodine solution and also with wound-healing cream containing sulfanilamide, urea and beeswax. Maggots were identified as third-stage larvae of D hominis. Clinical case reports of human bot-fly myiasis in cats are relevant due to its scarce occurrence in feline veterinary practice in some countries. Copyright 2010 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Facultative myiasis of domestic cats by Sarcophaga argyrostoma (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), Calliphora vicina and Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzi, Marco; Whitmore, Daniel; Bonacci, Teresa; Del Zingaro, Carlo Nicola Francesco; Chicca, Milvia; Lanfredi, Massimo; Leis, Marilena

    2017-10-01

    We describe five cases of myiasis of domestic cats, Felis silvestris catus L. (Carnivora: Felidae), reported in 2016 in northern Italy and caused by three Diptera species: Sarcophaga argyrostoma (Robineau-Desvoidy) (Sarcophagidae), Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Calliphoridae). Three were cases of traumatic myiasis, one by S. argyrostoma and two by L. sericata, one was a case of auricular myiasis by C. vicina and one was a case of ophthalmomyiasis caused by an association of L. sericata and C. vicina. The myiasis by S. argyrostoma is the first reported case of this species in a cat, whereas the two myiases by C. vicina are the first reported cases in cats in Italy.

  3. The oral microbiota of domestic cats harbors a wide variety of Staphylococcus species with zoonotic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Ciro César; da Silva Dias, Ingrid; Muniz, Igor Mansur; Lilenbaum, Walter; Giambiagi-deMarval, Marcia

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to characterize the species, antimicrobial resistance and dispersion of CRISPR systems in staphylococci isolated from the oropharynx of domestic cats in Brazil. Staphylococcus strains (n=75) were identified by MALDI-TOF and sequencing of rpoB and tuf genes. Antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed by disk diffusion method and PCR to investigate the presence of antimicrobial-resistance genes usually present in mobile genetic elements (plasmids), in addition to plasmid extraction. CRISPR - genetic arrangements that give the bacteria the ability to resist the entry of exogenous DNA - were investigated by the presence of the essential protein Cas1 gene. A great diversity of Staphylococcus species (n=13) was identified. The presence of understudied species, like S. nepalensis and S. pettenkoferi reveals that more than one identification method may be necessary to achieve conclusive results. At least 56% of the strains contain plamids, being 99% resistant to at least one of the eight tested antimicrobials and 12% multidrug resistant. CRISPR were rare among the studied strains, consistent with their putative role as gene reservoirs. Moreover, herein we describe for the first time their existence in Staphylococcus lentus, to which the system must confer additional adaptive advantage. Prevalence of resistance among staphylococci against antimicrobials used in veterinary and human clinical practice and the zoonotic risk highlight the need of better antimicrobial management practices, as staphylococci may transfer resistance genes among themselves, including to virulent species, like S. aureus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Molecular characterization of Leishmania infantum in domestic cats in a region of Brazil endemic for human and canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzdorf, Isabel Parizotto; da Costa Lima, Manoel Sebastião; de Fatima Cepa Matos, Maria; de Souza Filho, Antonio Francisco; de Souza Tsujisaki, Rosianne A; Franco, Karina Garcia; Shapiro, Julie Teresa; de Almeida Borges, Fernando

    2017-02-01

    Leishmaniasis is a "neglected tropical disease" and serious public health issue in Brazil. While dogs are recognized as particularly important reservoirs, recent reports of domestic cats infected with Leishmania sp. in urban areas suggest their participation in the epidemiological chain of the parasite in endemic areas. The aim of this study was to screen domestic cats for Leishmania sp. infection in an area where human and canine visceral leishmaniasis are endemic, followed by the identification of the species circulating in cats. We collected peripheral blood, lymph-node aspirates and bone marrow from 100 adult animals, both male and female, and analyzed the samples using cytological and molecular (PCR) detection techniques. We detected Leishmania in 6% of animals, which were then analyzed by RFLP-PCR to identify the species. Leishmania infantum (synonym: L. chagasi), a species responsible for visceral leishmaniasis in humans and other animals, was identified from all six samples. Amastigotes were observed in the peripheral blood, bone marrow and lymph-node aspirates in 4 of the 6 PCR-positive animals. The presence of infected cats in endemic areas should not be neglected, because it demonstrates the potential role of these animals in the biological cycle of the pathogen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Adverse reactions of α2-adrenoceptor agonists in cats reported in 2003-2013 in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raekallio, Marja R; Virtanen, Marika; Happonen, Irmeli; Vainio, Outi M

    2017-07-01

    To describe suspected adverse drug reactions in cats associated with use of α 2 -adrenoceptor agonists. Retrospective study. A total of 90 cats. Data were collected from reports on adverse reactions to veterinary medicines sent to the Finnish Medicines Agency during 2003-2013. All reports of suspected adverse reactions associated with use of α 2 -adrenoceptor agonists in cats were included. Probable pulmonary oedema was diagnosed based on post mortem or radiological examination, or presence of frothy or excess fluid from the nostrils or trachea. If only dyspnoea and crackles on auscultation were reported, possible pulmonary oedema was presumed. Pulmonary oedema was suspected in 61 cases. Of these cats, 37 were categorised as probable and 24 as possible pulmonary oedema. The first clinical signs had been noted between 1 minute and 2 days (median, 15 minutes) after α 2 -adrenoceptor agonist administration. Many cats probably had no intravenous overhydration when the first clinical signs were detected, as either they presumably had no intravenous cannula or the signs appeared before, during or immediately after cannulation. Of the 61 cats, 43 survived, 14 died and for four the outcome was not clearly stated. Pulmonary oedema is a perilous condition that may appear within minutes of an intramuscular administration of sedative or anaesthetic agent in cats. The symptoms were not caused by intravenous overhydration, at least in cats having no venous cannula when the first clinical signs were detected. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel carboxylesterase-like protein that is physiologically present at high concentrations in the urine of domestic cats (Felis catus).

    OpenAIRE

    Miyazaki, Masao; Kamiie, Katsuyoshi; Soeta, Satoshi; Taira, Hideharu; Yamashita, Tetsuro

    2003-01-01

    Normal mammals generally excrete only small amounts of protein in the urine, thus avoiding major leakage of proteins from the body. Proteinuria is the most commonly recognized abnormality in renal disease. However, healthy domestic cats ( Felis catus ) excrete proteins at high concentrations (about 0.5 mg/ml) in their urine. We investigated the possible cause of proteinuria in healthy cats, and discovered a 70 kDa glycoprotein, which was excreted as a major urinary protein in cat urine, irres...

  7. A suburban focus of endemic typhus in Los Angeles County: association with seropositive domestic cats and opossums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorvillo, F J; Gondo, B; Emmons, R; Ryan, P; Waterman, S H; Tilzer, A; Andersen, E M; Murray, R A; Barr, R

    1993-02-01

    Thirty-three cases of locally acquired murine typhus were reported in Los Angeles County residents from May 1984 through February 1988. Only eight cases were reported over the previous 20-year period. Thirty (91%) cases resided within a suburban area encompassing approximately 50 km2 in northcentral Los Angeles or had contact with an animal from this area. Serologic testing (complement fixation and indirect fluorescent antibody) of selected animals in close association with human cases revealed a high prevalence of seropositivity among domestic cats and opossums. Nine (90%) of 10 resident cats tested had demonstrable antibody titers compared with none (0%) of 20 cats from a control area (P commensal rodents, and the classic vector of murine typhus, Xenopsylla cheopis, was not found. Ectoparasite indices form seropositive opossums revealed heavy infestations with the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (mean flea count = 104.7), a species that readily bites humans. These data provide evidence that a suburban focus of murine typhus exists in Los Angeles that differs substantially from the classic transmission cycle, and that cats, opossums and C. felis may play an important role in the occurrence of human cases.

  8. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Other Gastrointestinal Parasites in Domestic Cats from Households in Thika Region, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Nyambura Njuguna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GIT parasites of domestic cats (Felis catus not only cause morbidity but are also potential zoonotic agents. The current study aimed at establishing the prevalence of GIT parasites in cats kept by households in Thika region, Kenya. Fecal samples were collected randomly from 103 cats and analyzed for presence of parasites using standard parasitological methods. In descending order, the prevalence of the detected protozoa parasites was Isospora spp. 43.7% (95% CI: 40.4–47%, Cryptosporidium spp. 40.8% (95% CI: 37.5–44.1%, Toxoplasma gondii 7.8% (95% CI: 4.5–11.1%, and Entamoeba spp. 2.9% (95% CI: 1.6–6.2%. The prevalence of the observed helminths was Strongyloides stercoralis 43.7% (95% CI: 40.4–47%, Toxocara cati 23.3% (95% CI: 20–26.6%, Ancylostoma spp. 9.7% (95% CI: 6.4–13%, Dipylidium caninum 8.7% (95% CI: 5.4–12.0%, and Acanthocephala spp. 1.9% (95% CI: 1–4.2%. The percentage of cats excreting at least one species of parasite was 73.2% (95% CI = 69.9–76.5%. The study shows that the cats have high spectrum (9 of parasites which are known to affect the cat’s health and some are of zoonotic significance.

  9. Touchdown polymerase chain reaction detection of polycystic kidney disease and laboratory findings in different cat populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalon, Marcela C; da Silva, Thamiris F; Aquino, Larissa C; Carneiro, Filipe T; Lima, Maíra G da M; Lemos, Marcelle Dos S; Paludo, Giane R

    2014-07-01

    Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most prevalent inherited genetic disease of cats, predominantly affecting Persian and Persian-related cats. A point mutation (C→A transversion) in exon 29 of the PKD1 gene causes ADPKD, and is the specific molecular target for genetic diagnosis in cats. The current study describes a newly developed touchdown polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect this single point mutation, using 2 primers specific for the mutant allele, adapted from an existing multiplex amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS PCR). Furthermore, correlations between the clinical outcomes of tested animals and the results of the genetic test were investigated. A total of 334 cats were tested, 188 from the Veterinary Hospital of Small Animals at the University of Brasilia, and 146 from an anti-rabies vaccine campaign of the Federal District. A total prevalence of 9% was evident among the samples, with 33% of the Persian cats testing positive, and 7% of the Brazilian long- and shorthaired cats testing positive. Prevalence was not correlated with gender or hemogram. Positive animals exhibited hyperglobulinemia ( P = 0.02). This research demonstrated that the mutation does not only occur in Persian and Persian-related cats, and that a touchdown PCR can be used to diagnose ADPKD.

  10. Dietary supplementation of propionylated starch to domestic cats provides propionic acid as gluconeogenic substrate potentially sparing the amino acid valine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochus, Kristel; Cools, An; Janssens, Geert P J; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Wuyts, Birgitte; Lockett, Trevor; Clarke, Julie M; Fievez, Veerle; Hesta, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    In strict carnivorous domestic cats, a metabolic competition arises between the need to use amino acids for gluconeogenesis and for protein synthesis both in health and disease. The present study investigated the amino acid-sparing potential of propionic acid in cats using dietary propionylated starch (HAMSP) supplementation. A total of thirty cats were fed a homemade diet, supplemented with either HAMSP, acetylated starch (HAMSA) or celite (Control) for three adaptation weeks. Propionylated starch was hypothesised to provide propionic acid as an alternative gluconeogenic substrate to amino acids, whereas acetic acid from HAMSA would not provide any gluconeogenic benefit. Post-adaptation, a 5-d total faecal collection was carried out to calculate apparent protein digestibility coefficients. Fresh faecal and blood samples were collected to analyse fermentation endproducts and metabolites. The apparent protein digestibility coefficients did not differ between supplements (P = 0·372) and were not affected by the protein intake level (P = 0·808). Faecal propionic acid concentrations were higher in HAMSP than in HAMSA (P = 0·018) and Control (P = 0·003) groups, whereas concentrations of ammonia (P = 0·007) were higher in HAMSA than in HAMSP cats. Tendencies for or higher propionylcarnitine concentrations were observed in HAMSP compared with HAMSA (P = 0·090) and Control (P = 0·037) groups, and for tiglyl- + 3-methylcrotonylcarnitine concentrations in HAMSP as compared with Control (P = 0·028) cats. Methylmalonylcarnitine concentrations did not differ between groups (P = 0·740), but were negatively correlated with the protein intake level (r -0·459, P = 0·016). These results suggest that HAMSP cats showed more saccharolytic fermentation patterns than those supplemented with HAMSA, as well as signs of sparing of valine in cats with a sufficient protein intake.

  11. U.S. domestic cats as sentinels for perfluoroalkyl substances: Possible linkages with housing, obesity, and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bost, Phillip C.; Strynar, Mark J.; Reiner, Jessica L.; Zweigenbaum, Jerry A.; Secoura, Patricia L.; Lindstrom, Andrew B.; Dye, Janice A.

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), are persistent, globally distributed, anthropogenic compounds. The primary source(s) for human exposure are not well understood although within home exposure is likely important since many consumer products have been treated with different PFAS, and people spend much of their lives indoors. Herein, domestic cats were used as sentinels to investigate potential exposure and health linkages. PFAS in serum samples of 72 pet and feral cats, including 11 healthy and 61 with one or more primary disease diagnoses, were quantitated using high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. All but one sample had detectable PFAS, with PFOS and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) ranging from cats were very similar to contemporary NHANES reports of human sera in the U. S. population. The highest PFAS serum concentrations detected were in indoor cats due to disproportionately elevated PFHxS levels. Ranked by quartile, contingency testing indicated that total PFAS levels were positively associated with living indoors and with higher body weight and body condition scores. Individual PFAS quartile rankings suggested positive associations with respiratory effusion, thyroid, liver, and possibly chronic kidney disease. Domestic cats appear to be useful sentinels for assessing primary PFAS exposure routes, especially indoor sources of relevance to children. Additional case-control studies in pet cats are warranted to better define the potential health associations observed herein. A “One Health” approach assessing humans, pets, and their common environment may improve our understanding of chronic low-level, largely indoor, PFAS exposure and effects in humans and animals alike. - Highlights: • PFAS serum concentrations were measured in healthy and diseased U. S. domestic cats. • Most

  12. Flat Feline Faces: Is Brachycephaly Associated with Respiratory Abnormalities in the Domestic Cat (Felis catus)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnworth, Mark J; Chen, Ruoning; Packer, Rowena M A; Caney, Sarah M A; Gunn-Moore, Danièlle A

    2016-01-01

    There has been little research into brachycephalism and associated disorders in cats. A questionnaire aimed at cat owners was used to determine the relationship between feline facial conformation and owner-reported cat management requirements and respiratory abnormalities. Owner-submitted photographs of cats were used to develop novel measures of skull conformation. One thousand valid questionnaires were received. Within these there were 373 valid photographs that allowed measurement of muzzle ratio (M%) and 494 that allowed nose position ratio (NP%). The data included 239 cats for which both measurements were available. Owners reported lifestyle factors (e.g. feeding type, grooming routine, activity level), physical characteristics (e.g. hair length) and other health characteristics of their cat (e.g. tear staining, body condition score). A composite respiratory score (RS) was calculated for each cat using their owner's assessment of respiratory noise whilst their cat was asleep and then breathing difficulty following activity. Multivariate analyses were carried out using linear models to explore the relationship between RS and facial conformation, and lifestyle risk factors. The results showed that reductions in NP% and M% were significantly associated with RS (P cats with breeding-related alterations in skull confirmation and indicates that brachycephalism may have negative respiratory implications for cat health and welfare, as has been previously shown in dogs.

  13. Vif of feline immunodeficiency virus from domestic cats protects against APOBEC3 restriction factors from many felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielonka, Jörg; Marino, Daniela; Hofmann, Henning; Yuhki, Naoya; Löchelt, Martin; Münk, Carsten

    2010-07-01

    To get more insight into the role of APOBEC3 (A3) cytidine deaminases in the species-specific restriction of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) of the domestic cat, we tested the A3 proteins present in big cats (puma, lion, tiger, and lynx). These A3 proteins were analyzed for expression and sensitivity to the Vif protein of FIV. While A3Z3s and A3Z2-Z3s inhibited Deltavif FIV, felid A3Z2s did not show any antiviral activity against Deltavif FIV or wild-type (wt) FIV. All felid A3Z3s and A3Z2-Z3s were sensitive to Vif of the domestic cat FIV. Vif also induced depletion of felid A3Z2s. Tiger A3s showed a moderate degree of resistance against the Vif-mediated counter defense. These findings may imply that the A3 restriction system does not play a major role to prevent domestic cat FIV transmission to other Felidae. In contrast to the sensitive felid A3s, many nonfelid A3s actively restricted wt FIV replication. To test whether Vif(FIV) can protect also the distantly related human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), a chimeric HIV-1.Vif(FIV) was constructed. This HIV-1.Vif(FIV) was replication competent in nonpermissive feline cells expressing human CD4/CCR5 that did not support the replication of wt HIV-1. We conclude that the replication of HIV-1 in some feline cells is inhibited only by feline A3 restriction factors and the absence of the appropriate receptor or coreceptor.

  14. Vif of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus from Domestic Cats Protects against APOBEC3 Restriction Factors from Many Felids▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielonka, Jörg; Marino, Daniela; Hofmann, Henning; Yuhki, Naoya; Löchelt, Martin; Münk, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    To get more insight into the role of APOBEC3 (A3) cytidine deaminases in the species-specific restriction of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) of the domestic cat, we tested the A3 proteins present in big cats (puma, lion, tiger, and lynx). These A3 proteins were analyzed for expression and sensitivity to the Vif protein of FIV. While A3Z3s and A3Z2-Z3s inhibited Δvif FIV, felid A3Z2s did not show any antiviral activity against Δvif FIV or wild-type (wt) FIV. All felid A3Z3s and A3Z2-Z3s were sensitive to Vif of the domestic cat FIV. Vif also induced depletion of felid A3Z2s. Tiger A3s showed a moderate degree of resistance against the Vif-mediated counter defense. These findings may imply that the A3 restriction system does not play a major role to prevent domestic cat FIV transmission to other Felidae. In contrast to the sensitive felid A3s, many nonfelid A3s actively restricted wt FIV replication. To test whether VifFIV can protect also the distantly related human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), a chimeric HIV-1.VifFIV was constructed. This HIV-1.VifFIV was replication competent in nonpermissive feline cells expressing human CD4/CCR5 that did not support the replication of wt HIV-1. We conclude that the replication of HIV-1 in some feline cells is inhibited only by feline A3 restriction factors and the absence of the appropriate receptor or coreceptor. PMID:20444897

  15. Seroprevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in wild rodents, foxes and domestic cats in three sites in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, A L; Cleaveland, S C; Brown, J; Mahajan, A; Shaw, D J

    2015-04-01

    Encephalitozoon cuniculi is an obligate intracellular microsporidian that is the causal agent of encephalitozoonosis, an important and emerging disease in both humans and animals. Little is known about its occurrence in wildlife. In this study, serum samples from 793 wild rodents [178 bank voles (BV), 312 field voles (FV) and 303 wood mice (WM)], 96 foxes and 27 domestic cats from three study areas in the UK were tested for the presence of antibodies to E. cuniculi using a direct agglutination test (DAT). Seroprevalence in the wild rodents ranged from 1.00% to 10.67% depending on species (overall 5.31%) and was significantly higher in foxes [49.50% (50/96)]. None of the 27 cats sampled were found to be seropositive. This is the first report of seroprevalence to E. cuniculi in BV, FV, WM, foxes and cats in the UK and provides some evidence that foxes could act as sentinels for the presence of E. cuniculi in rodents. The study demonstrates that wildlife species could be significant reservoirs of infection for both domestic animals and humans. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. The post-natal development of intraocular pressure in normal domestic cats (Felis catus) and in feline congenital glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Sara; Shinsako, Daniel; Kiland, Julie A; Yaccarino, Vincent; Ellinwood, N Matthew; Ben-Shlomo, Gil; McLellan, Gillian J

    2018-01-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the most consistent risk factor for progressive vision loss in glaucoma. Cats with recessively inherited feline congenital glaucoma (FCG) exhibit elevated IOP with gradual, painless progression of glaucoma similar to humans and are studied as a model of glaucoma in humans and animals. Here, post-natal development of IOP was characterized in normal domestic cats and in cats with FCG caused by a homozygous LTBP2 mutation. Rebound tonometry (TonoVet ® , ICare Oy, Finland) was used to measure IOP non-invasively, 2-3 times weekly in 63 FCG and 33 normal kittens, of both sexes, from eyelid opening until 3-6 months of age. IOPs in the left and right eyes of both FCG and normal kittens were compared by paired t-test and linear regression. One-way ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer post-tests were used to compare IOP of cats grouped by age and disease status. A p-value normal kittens and 8.72 mmHg (SD = 1.4) in kittens with FCG. Mean IOP at age 10 weeks was significantly higher in FCG (19.8 mmHg; 95% CI = 17.7, 21.9  mmHg) than in normal kittens (13.2 mmHg; 95% CI = 11.9, 14.5  mmHg). At 3 months of age, IOP in normal cats reached adult values while IOP in FCG cats continued to increase through at least six months of age. These results provide ranges for normal IOP values in young kittens and confirm that IOP is significantly higher than normal by 10wks of age in this spontaneous feline glaucoma model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Detection of adenovirus hexon sequence in a cat by polymerase chain reaction(short communication)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Lakatos, B.; Farkas, J.; Egberink, H.F.; Vennema, H.; Benko, M.

    1999-01-01

    Adenoviral nucleic acid was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in pharyngeal and rectal swab samples of a cat seropositive for adenovirus and suffering from transient hepatic failure. The samples were taken at a one-year interval, and both faecal samples as well as the second pharyngeal

  18. A new view on the European feline population from mtDNA analysis in Polish domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głażewska, Iwona; Kijewski, Tomasz

    2017-03-01

    Domestic cats from Eastern Europe have been poorly represented in studies on mitochondrial DNA diversity for forensic purposes until now. The aim of the present study was to contribute to closing this gap. The genetic structure and the origin of a cat population in Poland were examined against the background of human migrations over the centuries. One hundred and eighty-one cats from animal shelters in seven cities were genotyped. Twenty-one mtDNA haplotypes were found, with only one haplotype present in each of the populations, at an average frequency of 63.54%, and 13 haplotypes being found only in single populations. The analysis revealed the unexpectedly high frequency of haplotype PL02, in previous studies observed only in single cats. Differences in the number of the haplotypes, from four to eight, were observed among the shelters. The findings are discussed with regard to a world-wide database of feline sequences and to the complicated history of Poland. The study underscores the necessity of creating local databases of haplotypes that are of high evidentiary value to the forensic investigations conducted in a given country. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Domestic Cats (Felis silvestris catus) Do Not Show Signs of Secure Attachment to Their Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Alice; Mills, Daniel Simon

    2015-01-01

    The Ainsworth Strange Situation Test (SST) has been widely used to demonstrate that the bond between both children and dogs to their primary carer typically meets the requirements of a secure attachment (i.e. the carer being perceived as a focus of safety and security in otherwise threatening environments), and has been adapted for cats with a similar claim made. However methodological problems in this latter research make the claim that the cat-owner bond is typically a secure attachment, operationally definable by its behaviour in the SST, questionable. We therefore developed an adapted version of the SST with the necessary methodological controls which include a full counterbalance of the procedure. A cross-over design experiment with 20 cat-owner pairs (10 each undertaking one of the two versions of the SST first) and continuous focal sampling was used to record the duration of a range of behavioural states expressed by the cats that might be useful for assessing secure attachment. Since data were not normally distributed, non-parametric analyses were used on those behaviours shown to be reliable across the two versions of the test (which excluded much cat behaviour). Although cats vocalised more when the owner rather the stranger left the cat with the other individual, there was no other evidence consistent with the interpretation of the bond between a cat and its owner meeting the requirements of a secure attachment. These results are consistent with the view that adult cats are typically quite autonomous, even in their social relationships, and not necessarily dependent on others to provide a sense of security and safety. It is concluded that alternative methods need to be developed to characterise the normal psychological features of the cat-owner bond. PMID:26332470

  20. Domestic Cats (Felis silvestris catus Do Not Show Signs of Secure Attachment to Their Owners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Potter

    Full Text Available The Ainsworth Strange Situation Test (SST has been widely used to demonstrate that the bond between both children and dogs to their primary carer typically meets the requirements of a secure attachment (i.e. the carer being perceived as a focus of safety and security in otherwise threatening environments, and has been adapted for cats with a similar claim made. However methodological problems in this latter research make the claim that the cat-owner bond is typically a secure attachment, operationally definable by its behaviour in the SST, questionable. We therefore developed an adapted version of the SST with the necessary methodological controls which include a full counterbalance of the procedure. A cross-over design experiment with 20 cat-owner pairs (10 each undertaking one of the two versions of the SST first and continuous focal sampling was used to record the duration of a range of behavioural states expressed by the cats that might be useful for assessing secure attachment. Since data were not normally distributed, non-parametric analyses were used on those behaviours shown to be reliable across the two versions of the test (which excluded much cat behaviour. Although cats vocalised more when the owner rather the stranger left the cat with the other individual, there was no other evidence consistent with the interpretation of the bond between a cat and its owner meeting the requirements of a secure attachment. These results are consistent with the view that adult cats are typically quite autonomous, even in their social relationships, and not necessarily dependent on others to provide a sense of security and safety. It is concluded that alternative methods need to be developed to characterise the normal psychological features of the cat-owner bond.

  1. Laparoscopic oviductal artificial insemination improves pregnancy success in exogenous gonadotropin-treated domestic cats as a model for endangered felids.

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    Conforti, Valéria A; Bateman, Helen L; Schook, Mandi W; Newsom, Jackie; Lyons, Leslie A; Grahn, Robert A; Deddens, James A; Swanson, William F

    2013-07-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) in cats traditionally uses equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to induce follicular development and ovulation, with subsequent bilateral laparoscopic intrauterine insemination. However, long-acting hCG generates undesirable secondary ovulations in cats. Uterine AI also requires relatively high numbers of spermatozoa for fertilization (~8 × 10(6) sperm), and unfortunately, sperm recovery from felids is frequently poor. Using short-acting porcine luteinizing hormone (pLH) instead of hCG, and using the oviduct as the site of sperm deposition, could improve fertilization success while requiring fewer spermatozoa. Our objectives were to compare pregnancy and fertilization success between 1) uterine and oviductal inseminations and 2) eCG/hCG and eCG/pLH regimens in domestic cats. Sixteen females received either eCG (100 IU)/hCG (75 IU) or eCG (100 IU)/pLH (1000 IU). All females ovulated and were inseminated in one uterine horn and the contralateral oviduct using fresh semen (1 × 10(6) motile sperm/site) from a different male for each site. Pregnant females (11/16; 69%) were spayed approximately 20 days post-AI, and fetal paternity was genetically determined. The number of corpora lutea (CL) at AI was similar between hormone regimens, but hCG increased the number of CL at 20 days post-AI. Numbers of pregnancies and normal fetuses were similar between regimens. Implantation abnormalities were observed in the hCG group only. Finally, oviductal AI produced more fetuses than uterine AI. In summary, laparoscopic oviductal AI with low sperm numbers in eCG/hCG- or eCG/pLH-treated females resulted in high pregnancy and fertilization percentages in domestic cats. Our subsequent successes with oviductal AI in eCG/pLH-treated nondomestic felids to produce healthy offspring supports cross-species applicability.

  2. Epidemiology of Sarcocystis neurona infections in domestic cats (Felis domesticus) and its association with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) case farms and feral cats from a mobile spay and neuter clinic.

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    Stanek, J F; Stich, R W; Dubey, J P; Reed, S M; Njoku, C J; Lindsay, D S; Schmall, L M; Johnson, G K; LaFave, B M; Saville, W J A

    2003-11-28

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a serious neurologic disease in the horse most commonly caused by Sarcocystis neurona. The domestic cat (Felis domesticus) is an intermediate host for S. neurona. In the present study, nine farms, known to have prior clinically diagnosed cases of EPM and a resident cat population were identified and sampled accordingly. In addition to the farm cats sampled, samples were also collected from a mobile spay and neuter clinic. Overall, serum samples were collected in 2001 from 310 cats, with samples including barn, feral and inside/outside cats. Of these 310 samples, 35 were from nine horse farms. Horse serum samples were also collected and traps were set for opossums at each of the farms. The S. neurona direct agglutination test (SAT) was used for both the horse and cat serum samples (1:25 dilution). Fourteen of 35 (40%) cats sampled from horse farms had circulating S. neurona agglutinating antibodies. Twenty-seven of the 275 (10%) cats from the spay/neuter clinic also had detectable S. neurona antibodies. Overall, 115 of 123 (93%) horses tested positive for anti-S. neurona antibodies, with each farm having greater than a 75% exposure rate among sampled horses. Twenty-one opossums were trapped on seven of the nine farms. Eleven opossums had Sarcocystis sp. sporocysts, six of them were identified as S. neurona sporocysts based on bioassays in gamma-interferon gene knockout mice with each opossum representing a different farm. Demonstration of S. neurona agglutinating antibodies in domestic and feral cats corroborates previous research demonstrating feral cats to be naturally infected, and also suggests that cats can be frequently infected with S. neurona and serve as one of several natural intermediate hosts for S. neurona.

  3. Highly viscous guar gum shifts dietary amino acids from metabolic use to fermentation substrate in domestic cats.

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    Rochus, Kristel; Janssens, Geert P J; Van de Velde, Hannelore; Verbrugghe, Adronie; Wuyts, Birgitte; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Hesta, Myriam

    2013-03-28

    The present study evaluated the potential of affecting amino acid metabolism through intestinal fermentation in domestic cats, using dietary guar gum as a model. Apparent protein digestibility, plasma fermentation metabolites, faecal fermentation end products and fermentation kinetics (exhaled breath hydrogen concentrations) were evaluated. Ten cats were randomly assigned to either guar gum- or cellulose-supplemented diets, that were fed in two periods of 5 weeks in a crossover design. No treatment effect was seen on fermentation kinetics. The apparent protein digestibility (P= 0.07) tended to be lower in guar gum-supplemented cats. As a consequence of impaired small-intestinal protein digestion and amino acid absorption, fermentation of these molecules in the large intestine was stimulated. Amino acid fermentation has been shown to produce high concentrations of acetic and butyric acids. Therefore, no treatment effect on faecal propionic acid or plasma propionylcarnitine was observed in the present study. The ratio of faecal butyric acid:total SCFA tended to be higher in guar gum-supplemented cats (P= 0.05). The majority of large-intestinal butyric acid is absorbed by colonocytes and metabolised to 3-hydroxy-butyrylcoenzyme A, which is then absorbed into the bloodstream. This metabolite was analysed in plasma as 3-hydroxy-butyrylcarnitine, which was higher (P= 0.02) in guar gum-supplemented cats. In all probability, the high viscosity of the guar gum supplement was responsible for the impaired protein digestion and amino acid absorption. Further research is warranted to investigate whether partially hydrolysed guar gum is useful to potentiate the desirable in vivo effects of this fibre supplement.

  4. Echinococcus multilocularis detection in the intestines and feces of free-ranging domestic cats (Felis s. catus) and European wildcats (Felis s. silvestris) from northeastern France.

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    Umhang, Gérald; Forin-Wiart, Marie-Amélie; Hormaz, Vanessa; Caillot, Christophe; Boucher, Jean-Marc; Poulle, Marie-Lazarine; Franck, Boué

    2015-11-30

    Experimental studies have demonstrated that cats can be infected by Echinococcus multilocularis, although few data are available concerning their natural infection. This study was designed to compare experimental findings with information on the prevalence of natural E. multilocularis infections of cats in a rural high endemic area. Of 19 intestines of domestic cats (Felis s. catus) and five of European wildcats (Felis s. silvestris) analyzed by segmental sedimentation and counting technique (SSCT), infection by E. multilocularis was observed for one individual of each species, resulting in a prevalence estimated at 5%, (CI95%: 1-26) in domestic cats and at 20% (CI95%: 1-72) in wildcats. High worm burdens (680 and 7040) were noted, but comprised only immature worms. The same EmsB microsatellite profile obtained from the worms' DNA was observed in the two cats as in foxes from the same area and from other European countries. The presence of E. multilocularis DNA was diagnosed in 3.1% (10/321) of the domestic cat feces collected on the field in two villages. However, no E. multilocularis eggs were found after flotation with zinc chloride of the positive feces. The detection of DNA from E. multilocularis was thought to be due to the presence of cells from worms untied from the intestine and corresponding to prepatent infection or due to the digested metacestode. These results from E. multilocularis presence in wild and domestic cat populations agree with those previously obtained by experimental infections. These findings support that these cats play an insignificant role in E. multilocularis transmission, even in a "highly endemic" region. Nevertheless, since the presence of thick-shelled E. multilocularis eggs from cats has already been reported, the associated zoonotic risk cannot be totally ruled out, even if it is very low. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative serological investigation between cat and tiger blood for transfusion.

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    Thengchaisri, Naris; Sinthusingha, Chayakrit; Arthitwong, Surapong; Sattasathuchana, Panpicha

    2017-06-29

    Evidence suggests that non-domesticated felids inherited the same AB-erythrocyte antigens as domestic cats. To study the possible compatibility of tiger blood with that of other endangered felidae, blood samples from captive tigers and domestic cats were subjected to an in vitro study. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify whether the captive tigers had blood type AB and (2) determine the compatibility between the blood of captive tigers and that of domestic cats with a similar blood type. The anti-coagulated blood with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid of 30 tigers was examined to determine blood type, and a crossmatching test was performed between tiger and cat blood. All 30 tigers had blood type A. Tube agglutination tests using tiger plasma with cat erythrocytes resulted in 100% agglutination (n=30) with type B cat erythrocytes and 76.7% agglutination (n=23) with type A cat erythrocytes. The 80% of major and 60% of minor compatibilities between blood from 10 tigers and 10 domestic cats with blood type A were found to pass compatibility tests. Interestingly, 3/10 of the tigers' red blood cell samples were fully compatible with all cat plasmas, and 1/10 of the tiger plasma samples were fully compatible with the type A red cells of domestic cats. Although the result of present findings revealed type-A blood group in the surveyed tigers, the reaction of tiger plasma with Type-A red cell from cats suggested a possibility of other blood type in tigers.

  6. Discovery of new feline paramyxoviruses in domestic cats with chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieg, Michael; Heenemann, Kristin; Rückner, Antje; Burgener, Iwan; Oechtering, Gerhard; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    Paramyxoviruses constitute a large family of enveloped RNA viruses including important pathogens in veterinary and human medicine. Recently, feline paramyxoviruses, genus morbillivirus, were detected in cats from Hong Kong and Japan. Here we describe the discovery of several new feline

  7. The Choice of Diet Affects the Oral Health of the Domestic Cat.

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    Mata, Fernando

    2015-02-16

    In this cross-sectional study, the gingivitis and the calculus indices of the teeth of N = 41 cats were used to model oral health as a dependent variable using a Poisson regression. The independent variables used were "quadrant", "teeth type", "age", and "diet". Teeth type (p 0.05). Interactions were all significant: age x teeth (p poor oral health is lower in the incisors of young or adult cats, fed a dry diet in comparison to the cheek teeth of older cats fed a wet diet. Diet has a higher contribution to poor oral health than age. It is argued that cats' oral health may be promoted with an early age hygiene of the cheek teeth and with provision of abrasive dry food.

  8. Variation of amino acid sequences of serum amyloid a (SAA) and immunohistochemical analysis of amyloid a (AA) in Japanese domestic cats.

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    Tei, Meina; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Chambers, James K; Watanabe, Ken-Ichi; Tamamoto, Takashi; Ohno, Koichi; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2018-02-02

    Amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis, a fatal systemic amyloid disease, occurs secondary to chronic inflammatory conditions in humans. Although persistently elevated serum amyloid A (SAA) levels are required for its pathogenesis, not all individuals with chronic inflammation necessarily develop AA amyloidosis. Furthermore, many diseases in cats are associated with the elevated production of SAA, whereas only a small number actually develop AA amyloidosis. We hypothesized that a genetic mutation in the SAA gene may strongly contribute to the pathogenesis of feline AA amyloidosis. In the present study, genomic DNA from four Japanese domestic cats (JDCs) with AA amyloidosis and from five without amyloidosis was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and direct sequencing. We identified the novel variation combination of 45R-51A in the deduced amino acid sequences of four JDCs with amyloidosis and five without. However, there was no relationship between amino acid variations and the distribution of AA amyloid deposits, indicating that differences in SAA sequences do not contribute to the pathogenesis of AA amyloidosis. Immunohistochemical analysis using antisera against the three different parts of the feline SAA protein-i.e., the N-terminal, central, and C-terminal regions-revealed that feline AA contained the C-terminus, unlike human AA. These results indicate that the cleavage and degradation of the C-terminus are not essential for amyloid fibril formation in JDCs.

  9. The effects of L-carnitin in Budd-Chiari syndrome in a domestic cat

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    Aliye Sağkan Öztürk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a thrombosis in the vena cava caudalis of a 15 year-old cat with ascites. Trauma and eventually feline enteric corona virus infection in the cat were not detected. In the intrahepatic region, a blockage of vena cava caudalis was brought to light by ultrasonographic imaging. An aspirate of abdominal fl uid revealed modified transudate. Liver enzyme levels were increased in the serum sample of the cat. The levels of total oxidant status (TOS and total antioxidant status (TAS were elevated in the peritoneal fluid. Liver protection diet with L-carnitine, diuretic therapy and antimicrobial drugs were administrated for treatment of the cat. During the continuous treatment, the amount of abdominal fluid decreased, but never completely absorbed. L-carnitine was administered to the cat during the time of treatment, and subsequently the levels of liver enzymes decreased. However, the cat died because of recurrent ascites and persistent thrombosis. In conclusion, ultrasonographic examination was very reliable, non-invasive and highly useful diagnostic method for BCS and L-carnitine has crucial effects on the quality of life, energy metabolism and liver enzyme levels. However, the blockage of the vena cava caudalis could not completely respond to medical treatment and thrombosis should be eliminated by surgical intervention.

  10. Seasonality in the proportions of domestic cats shedding Toxoplasma gondii or Hammondia hammondi oocysts is associated with climatic factors.

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    Schares, G; Ziller, M; Herrmann, D C; Globokar, M V; Pantchev, N; Conraths, F J

    2016-04-01

    A previous study on domestic cats in Germany and neighbouring countries suggested seasonality in shedding Toxoplasma gondii oocysts. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether this seasonality in shedding could be explained by climatic effects and whether differences between years in the proportions of cats shedding oocysts could also be explained by climatic factors. To this end, a long-term study over a period of 55 months on domestic cats for T. gondii and Hammondia hammondi oocysts was performed and the results compared with climatic data. Using species-specific PCR, T. gondii oocysts were identified in 0.14% (84/61,224) and H. hammondi in 0.10% (61/61,224) of the samples. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were predominantly observed from summer to autumn, while H. hammondi oocysts were mainly found during autumn and winter. In statistical analyses using climatic data, even differences in parasitological findings between years could be partially modelled using monthly temperature, North Atlantic Oscillation indices and precipitation. Of the three climatic variables analysed, precipitation as an explanatory variable had the lowest impact in the statistical models while those taking only temperature and North Atlantic Oscillation indices into account were sufficiently predictive. Interestingly, time lags between the climatic event and the parasitological findings had to be implemented in all models. For T. gondii, North Atlantic Oscillation indices with a time lag of 7 months and temperature with a time lag of 2 months had the best predictive value. In contrast, temperature (with a time lag of 6 months) and the interaction of precipitation (with a time lag of 5 months) and North Atlantic Oscillation indices (with a time lag of 11 months) were optimal for predicting the seasonality of H. hammondi. These results suggest prominent differences in the life cycles of the two closely related parasites. Previous findings showed that H. hammondi lack avian hosts, in

  11. Uso da técnica de Southern Blot/Hibridização associada à reação em cadeia da polimerase para aumentar a sensibilidade no diagnóstico das infecções por hemoplasmas em gatos domésticos: Use of Southern Blot/Hybridization technique associated to polymerase chain reaction to improve the sensitivity in the diagnosis of hemoplasma infections in domestic cats

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    Daniel B. Macieira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se a técnica de Southern Blot/Hibridização (SB em associação à reação de polimerização em cadeia (PCR aumenta a sensibilidade na detecção de DNA de hemoplasmas em gatos domésticos (Felis catus. O sangue total foi coletado em tubos contendo o anticoagulante ácido etilenodiamino tetra-acético, o DNA extraído a partir de 149 animais e a PCR realizada com o uso de sequências iniciadoras espécie-específicas, para amplificar subunidade 16S do RNA ribossomal de Mycoplasma haemofelis e 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' dessas amostras. Para a hibridização, foram utilizadas sondas específicas quimicamente marcadas, e os resultados visualizados por meio da adição de substrato quimiluminescente seguida de autoradiografia. Dezoito (12,1% das 149 amostras testadas apresentaram resultado PCR-positivo para o DNA de hemoplasmas. A técnica de SB mostrou que 24/149 (16,1% amostras apresentaram resultado positivo para hemoplasmas, confirmando os 18 resultados PCR-positivos, além de revelar seis outros adicionais (p The aim of this study was to determine whether Southern Blot/Hybridization (SB associated to Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR improves the sensitivity in the detection of hemoplasma DNA in domestic cats (Felis catus. Whole blood was collected in tubes containing the anticoagulant ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid and DNA extracted from 149 animals. PCR was performed using species specific primers to amplify the 16S ribosomal RNA subunit of Mycoplasma haemofelis and 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' from these samples. Hybridization was performed using a 16S rDNA probes chemically labeled and the results were visualized using a chemiluminescent substrate addition followed by autoradiography. Eighteen (12.1% of the 149 tested samples had a positive PCR result for hemoplasma species DNA. SB/hybridization technique showed that 24/149 (16.1% samples were positive for hemoplasmas, confirming the 18 PCR

  12. Molecular identification of Giardia duodenalis isolates from domestic dogs and cats in Wroclaw, Poland.

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    Piekarska, Jolanta; Bajzert, Joanna; Gorczykowski, Michał; Kantyka, Magdalena; Podkowik, Magdalena

    2016-09-01

    Giardia duodenalis (G. intestinalis) is a common protozoan causing gastrointestinal disorders in many species of mammals. The genus of Giardia has high molecular diversity. Dogs and cats, in addition to their typical infection with assemblages C, D and F, may be a reservoir of zoonotic assemblages (A and B). The aim of this study was a genetic characteristic of Giardia isolates of dogs and cats from the area of Wroclaw (Poland). A total of 128 and 33 faecal samples from dogs and cats, respectively, were analyzed by routine coprological methods. The animals were diagnosed on the presence of G. duodenalis antigens in faeces soluble with the use of SNAP Giardia (IDEXX Laboratories) immunosorbent assay. 27 DNA isolates of Giardia were subjected to molecular identification (PCR-RFLP). The prevalence of G. duodenalis was 21.1% (27/128) in dogs and 15.1% (5/33) in cats. In dogs, C assemblage was present in 18 (81%) positive stool samples, D assemblage in 2 (9%) samples, B assemblage present in one (4.5%), and mixed assemblages (C and D) occurred in one (4.5%) sample. F assemblage was found in 4 (80%) cats' positive stool samples and A assemblage occurred in one case (20%). Confirmation of the presence of A and B zoonotic assemblages suggests that infected pets can be a threat to human health. This study describes for the first time the presence of mixed infections within host-specific C and D assemblages in dogs in Poland.

  13. Seropositivity of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic donkeys (Equus asinus) and isolation of T. gondii from farm cats.

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    Dubey, J P; Ness, S L; Kwok, O C H; Choudhary, S; Mittel, L D; Divers, T J

    2014-01-17

    Donkeys (Equus asinus) are used as both companion and working animals throughout the world and in some countries, their meat and milk are used for human consumption. Here we report the first serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii in donkeys in the United States. Serum samples from 373 donkeys from eight farms in five states were tested for T. gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT). Twenty-four of 373 (6.4%) of donkeys were seropositive, with MAT titers ranging from 25 to ≥ 200. All seropositive donkeys were Miniature breed. Seropositivity prevalence was 7.0% in female donkeys (20/282) and 4.1% in male donkeys (4/91). No donkeys less than 24 months of age (129) were seropositive, suggesting postnatal transmission of infection. Domestic cats were present on six of the eight farms. Three cats from one farm had MAT titers of 200. Viable T. gondii was isolated from the hearts of two cats, but not from brain tissues. Genotyping of isolate DNA extracted from culture-derived tachyzoites using 10 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers (SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, PK1, L358 and Apico loci) revealed that both isolates were clonal Type II (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #1). This is the first serological survey for T. gondii in donkeys in the United States, and suggests that donkey milk and meat should be considered as a potential source for human infection. The role of barn cats in the transmission of T. gondii to donkeys on farms warrents further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Different patterns of metabolic cryo-damage in domestic cat (Felis catus) and cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) spermatozoa.

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    Terrell, Kimberly A; Wildt, David E; Anthony, Nicola M; Bavister, Barry D; Leibo, S P; Penfold, Linda M; Marker, Laurie L; Crosier, Adrienne E

    2012-04-01

    Felid spermatozoa are sensitive to cryopreservation-induced damage, but functional losses can be mitigated by post-thaw swim-up or density gradient processing methods that selectively recover motile or structurally-normal spermatozoa, respectively. Despite the importance of sperm energy production to achieving fertilization, there is little knowledge about the influence of cryopreservation or post-thaw processing on felid sperm metabolism. We conducted a comparative study of domestic cat and cheetah sperm metabolism after cryopreservation and post-thaw processing. We hypothesized that freezing/thawing impairs sperm metabolism and that swim-up, but not density gradient centrifugation, recovers metabolically-normal spermatozoa. Ejaculates were cryopreserved, thawed, and processed by swim-up, Accudenz gradient centrifugation, or conventional washing (representing the 'control'). Sperm glucose and pyruvate uptake, lactate production, motility, and acrosomal integrity were assessed. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was measured in cat spermatozoa. In both species, lactate production, motility, and acrosomal integrity were reduced in post-thaw, washed samples compared to freshly-collected ejaculates. Glucose uptake was minimal pre- and post-cryopreservation, whereas pyruvate uptake was similar between treatments due to high coefficients of variation. In the cat, swim-up, but not Accudenz processing, recovered spermatozoa with increased lactate production, pyruvate uptake, and motility compared to controls. Although confounded by differences in non-specific fluorescence among processing methods, MMP values within treatments were positively correlated to sperm motility and acrosomal integrity. Cheetah spermatozoa isolated by either selection method exhibited improved motility and/or acrosomal integrity, but remained metabolically compromised. Collectively, findings revealed a metabolically-robust subpopulation of cryopreserved cat, but not cheetah, spermatozoa

  15. Spatio-temporal variation in predation by urban domestic cats (Felis catus and the acceptability of possible management actions in the UK.

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    Rebecca L Thomas

    Full Text Available Urban domestic cat (Felis catus populations can attain exceedingly high densities and are not limited by natural prey availability. This has generated concerns that they may negatively affect prey populations, leading to calls for management. We enlisted cat-owners to record prey returned home to estimate patterns of predation by free-roaming pets in different localities within the town of Reading, UK and questionnaire surveys were used to quantify attitudes to different possible management strategies. Prey return rates were highly variable: only 20% of cats returned ≥4 dead prey annually. Consequently, approximately 65% of owners received no prey in a given season, but this declined to 22% after eight seasons. The estimated mean predation rate was 18.3 prey cat⁻¹ year⁻¹ but this varied markedly both spatially and temporally: per capita predation rates declined with increasing cat density. Comparisons with estimates of the density of six common bird prey species indicated that cats killed numbers equivalent to adult density on c. 39% of occasions. Population modeling studies suggest that such predation rates could significantly reduce the size of local bird populations for common urban species. Conversely, most urban residents did not consider cat predation to be a significant problem. Collar-mounted anti-predation devices were the only management action acceptable to the majority of urban residents (65%, but were less acceptable to cat-owners because of perceived risks to their pets; only 24% of cats were fitted with such devices. Overall, cat predation did appear to be of sufficient magnitude to affect some prey populations, although further investigation of some key aspects of cat predation is warranted. Management of the predation behavior of urban cat populations in the UK is likely to be challenging and achieving this would require considerable engagement with cat owners.

  16. Co‐occurrence dynamics of endangered Lower Keys marsh rabbits and free‐ranging domestic cats: Prey responses to an exotic predator removal program

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    Cove, Michael V.; Gardner, Beth; Simons, Theodore R.; O'Connell, Allan F.

    2018-01-01

    The Lower Keys marsh rabbit (Sylvilagus palustris hefneri) is one of many endangered endemic species of the Florida Keys. The main threats are habitat loss and fragmentation from sea‐level rise, development, and habitat succession. Exotic predators such as free‐ranging domestic cats (Felis catus) pose an additional threat to these endangered small mammals. Management strategies have focused on habitat restoration and exotic predator control. However, the effectiveness of predator removal and the effects of anthropogenic habitat modifications and restoration have not been evaluated. Between 2013 and 2015, we used camera traps to survey marsh rabbits and free‐ranging cats at 84 sites in the National Key Deer Refuge, Big Pine Key, Florida, USA. We used dynamic occupancy models to determine factors associated with marsh rabbit occurrence, colonization, extinction, and the co‐occurrence of marsh rabbits and cats during a period of predator removal. Rabbit occurrence was positively related to freshwater habitat and patch size, but was negatively related to the number of individual cats detected at each site. Furthermore, marsh rabbit colonization was negatively associated with relative increases in the number of individual cats at each site between survey years. Cat occurrence was negatively associated with increasing distance from human developments. The probability of cat site extinction was positively related to a 2‐year trapping effort, indicating that predator removal reduced the cat population. Dynamic co‐occurrence models suggested that cats and marsh rabbits co‐occur less frequently than expected under random conditions, whereas co‐detections were site and survey‐specific. Rabbit site extinction and colonization were not strongly conditional on cat presence, but corresponded with a negative association. Our results suggest that while rabbits can colonize and persist at sites where cats occur, it is the number of individual cats at a site that

  17. Primary goitrous hypothyroidism in a young adult domestic longhair cat: diagnosis and treatment monitoring

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    Mark E Peterson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Case summary Primary goitrous hypothyroidism was diagnosed in a 12-month-old cat examined because of small stature, mental dullness, severe lethargy, generalized weakness and gait abnormalities. Radiographs of the long bones and spine revealed delayed epiphyseal ossification and epiphyseal dysgenesis. Diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism was confirmed by low serum concentrations of total and free thyroxine (T4 with high thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH concentrations. Thyroid scintigraphy revealed severe enlargement of both thyroid lobes, as evidenced by a seven-fold increase in calculated thyroid volume above the reference interval. In addition, this bilateral goiter had an extremely high radionuclide uptake, about 10-fold higher than the normal feline thyroid gland. Treatment with twice-daily levothyroxine (L-T4, administered on an empty stomach, resulted in increased alertness, playfulness, strength and improvement in gait, as well as an increase in body length and weight. L-T4 replacement also led to normalization of serum thyroid hormone and TSH concentrations, and complete resolution of goiter. Relevance and novel information Spontaneous hypothyroidism is rarely reported in cats, with congenital hypothyroidism in kittens diagnosed most frequently. Despite the fact that this cat was a young adult, it likely had a form of congenital hypothyroidism caused by dyshormonogenesis (defect in thyroid hormone synthesis that led to compensatory development of goiter. In hypothyroid cats, treatment with L-T4 is best given twice daily on an empty stomach to ensure adequate absorption. Normalization of serum TSH and shrinkage of goiter, as well as improvement in clinical signs, is the goal of treatment for cats with goitrous hypothyroidism.

  18. Genetic variability of cloned Cytauxzoon felis ribosomal RNA ITS1 and ITS2 genomic regions from domestic cats with varied clinical outcomes from five states.

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    Pollard, Dana A; Reichard, Mason V; Cohn, Leah A; James, Andrea M; Holman, Patricia J

    2017-09-15

    Cytauxzoon felis is a tick-borne hemoparasite that causes cytauxzoonosis in domestic cats in the United States. Historically, feline cytauxzoonosis was reported to be nearly always fatal. However, increasing evidence of cats surviving acute infection and/or harboring a chronic, subclinical infection has suggested the existence of different C. felis strains that may vary in pathogenicity. In this study, the intraspecific variation of the C. felis first and second ribosomal RNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS1, ITS2) regions was assessed for any clinical outcome or geographic associations. Sequence data were obtained for 122C. felis ITS1 and ITS2 clones from 41 domestic cat blood samples from Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas. Seven previously reported ITS1 region sequences were found, and a previously undescribed 23-bp insert was detected in cloned ITS1 sequences from a domestic cat in Missouri and two cats in Oklahoma. Four previously reported ITS2 region sequences were identified, and a 40-bp insert similar to that previously reported in C. felis of a domestic cat from Arkansas and pumas was detected in 18 cloned C. felis sequences from 12 domestic cats. One clone contained both the 23-bp insert and 40-bp insert within the ITS1 and ITS2 regions, respectively. Combined ITS1 and ITS2 sequence genotypes revealed that C. felis sequences from 27 cats (72/122 clones) corresponded to four previously described genotypes, ITSa, ITSc, ITSd, and ITSn. Five clones with the novel 23-bp insert from three cat isolates represented two new genotypes, ITSaa and ITSbb. Genotypes ITScc, ITSdd, ITSee, ITSff, ITSgg, and ITShh denoted 13 clones that matched prior sequences but had no previously assigned genotype. Genotypes ITSii through ITStt comprised 32 clones that were similar to, but did not exactly match, previously described genotypes. Twenty-five cats had C. felis infections with multiple ITS genotypes. Considerable C. felis genetic diversity was revealed with no

  19. Habituation and conditioning of the defense reactions and their cardiovascular components in cats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J; Sutherland, C J; Zbrozyna, A W

    1976-09-03

    Cardiovascular and behavioural responses elicited by novel, noxious or aversive stimuli have been studied in dogs and cats. Hindlimb blood flow, heart rate and arterial blood pressure increased in dogs when an orienting response was elicited by a novel stimulus (a sound). Similar cardiovascular responses occurred in dogs to mild noxious stimulus and in cats displaying a threatening posture when confronted by a dog. The cardiovascular components of the orienting response to a sound habituated with repetition of the sound. In two dogs however sensitization (increase) of the response occurred with reped by repetition of the confrontations: the vasodilation in the muscles waned and eventually was replaced by vasoconstriction while the cardiac acceleration and pressor response persisted. The threatening response was the most persistent. The modification of the behavioural and cardiovascular aspect of the response was not developing in parallel. The cardiovascular pattern was altered before any apparent changes of the behavioural pattern occurred. The cardiovascular responses of the noxious stimulus in dogs and cardiovascular components of the defence reaction in cats were readily conditioned to a sound. The possible role of the modification of the cardiovascular pattern in defence reactions in pathogenesis of hypertension is discussed.

  20. Effects of single caging and cage size on behavior and stress level of domestic neutered cats housed in an animal shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uetake, Katsuji; Goto, Akihiro; Koyama, Rumi; Kikuchi, Rieko; Tanaka, Toshio

    2013-03-01

    Cats need a minimum amount of space even in animal shelters. In this study the effects of single caging and cage size on the behavior and stress level of domestic cats were investigated. Six neutered cats (2-15 years old) that had been housed in a group for at least 7 months were moved to three kinds of single cages (small, medium and large) by rotation on a Latin square design. They experienced each cage size for 6 days. Cats could use vertical dimensions when housed in a group room and the large cage. Behavioral observation was conducted for 3 h in the evening, and stress levels were assessed by urine cortisol-to-creatinine ratios. The amounts (estimated proportions) of time spent in locomotion and social/solitary play were lower even in large cages than in group housing (both P housed singly (P = 0.104). The urine cortisol-to-creatinine ratios of singly housed cats tended to be higher than that of group-housed cats (P = 0.086). The results indicate that cats become less active when they are housed singly in cages regardless of the cage size. Cats seem to feel no undue stress even in small cages if the stay is short. © 2012 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. The resistance to chemotherapeutic agents of Escherichia coli from domestic dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, S; Frost, A J

    1984-03-01

    The prevalence of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli in the rectal flora of 168 healthy dogs and 93 cats in the Brisbane area was investigated. Rectal swabs were plated on MacConkey agar with and without antibiotics, and 690 isolates confirmed as faecal E. coli were tested for resistance to tetracycline, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, neomycin, furazolidone and sulphanilamide. Resistant isolates were obtained from 101 (60%) of the dogs and 24 (26%) of the cats sampled. A high percentage of the isolates was resistant to tetracycline, streptomycin, ampicillin and sulphanilamide. Multiple resistance to 3 or more of the drugs was exhibited by the majority of isolates and a total of 31 different multiple resistance patterns was demonstrated. Of the 50 strains tested for transfer of resistance, 30 (60%) transferred some or all of their resistance determinants to an E. coli K12F - recipient.

  2. Spatial distribution of soil contaminated with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in relation to the distribution and use of domestic cat defecation sites on dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J A; Kurdzielewicz, S; Jeanniot, E; Dupuis, E; Marnef, F; Aubert, D; Villena, I; Poulle, M-L

    2017-05-01

    Little information is available on the relationship between the spatial distribution of zoonotic parasites in soil and the pattern of hosts' faeces deposition at a local scale. In this study, the spatial distribution of soil contaminated by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii was investigated in relation to the distribution and use of the defecation sites of its definitive host, the domestic cat (Felis catus). The study was conducted on six dairy farms with a high number of cats (seven to 30 cats). During regular visits to the farms over a 10month period, the cat population and cat defecation sites (latrines and sites of scattered faeces) on each farm were systematically surveyed. During the last visit, 561 soil samples were collected from defecation sites and random points, and these samples were searched for T. gondii DNA using real-time quantitative PCR. Depending on the farm, T. gondii DNA was detected in 37.7-66.3% of the soil samples. The proportion of contaminated samples at a farm was positively correlated with the rate of new cat latrines replacing former cat latrines, suggesting that inconstancy in use of a latrine by cats affects the distribution of T. gondii in soil. On the farms, known cat defecation sites were significantly more often contaminated than random points, but 25-62.5% of the latter were also found to be contaminated. Lastly, the proportion of positive T. gondii samples in latrines was related to the proximity of the cats' main feeding and resting sites on the farms. This study demonstrates that T. gondii can be widely distributed in farm soil despite the heterogeneous distribution of cat faeces. This supports the hypothesis that farms are hotspot areas for the risk of T. gondii oocyst-induced infection in rural environments. Copyright © 2017 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evidence for compromised metabolic function and limited glucose uptake in spermatozoa from the teratospermic domestic cat (Felis catus) and cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Kimberly A; Wildt, David E; Anthony, Nicola M; Bavister, Barry D; Leibo, Stanley P; Penfold, Linda M; Marker, Laurie L; Crosier, Adrienne E

    2010-11-01

    Cheetahs and certain other felids consistently ejaculate high proportions (≥ 60%) of malformed spermatozoa, a condition known as teratospermia, which is prevalent in humans. Even seemingly normal spermatozoa from domestic cat teratospermic ejaculates have reduced fertilizing capacity. To understand the role of sperm metabolism in this phenomenon, we conducted a comparative study in the normospermic domestic cat versus the teratospermic cat and cheetah with the general hypothesis that sperm metabolic function is impaired in males producing predominantly pleiomorphic spermatozoa. Washed ejaculates were incubated in chemically defined medium containing glucose and pyruvate. Uptake of glucose and pyruvate and production of lactate were assessed using enzyme-linked fluorescence assays. Spermatozoa from domestic cats and cheetahs exhibited similar metabolic profiles, with minimal glucose metabolism and approximately equimolar rates of pyruvate uptake and lactate production. Compared to normospermic counterparts, pyruvate and lactate metabolism were reduced in teratospermic cat and cheetah ejaculates, even when controlling for sperm motility. Rates of pyruvate and lactate (but not glucose) metabolism were correlated positively with sperm motility, acrosomal integrity, and normal morphology. Collectively, our findings reveal that pyruvate uptake and lactate production are reliable, quantitative indicators of sperm quality in these two felid species and that metabolic function is impaired in teratospermic ejaculates. Furthermore, patterns of substrate utilization are conserved between these species, including the unexpected lack of exogenous glucose metabolism. Because glycolysis is required to support sperm motility and capacitation in certain other mammals (including dogs), the activity of this pathway in felid spermatozoa is a target for future investigation.

  4. Antiretroviral spermicide WHI-07 prevents vaginal and rectal transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Cruz, Osmond J; Waurzyniak, Barbara; Uckun, Fatih M

    2004-04-01

    WHI-07 [5-bromo-6-methoxy-5,6-dihydro-3'-azidothymidine-5'-(p-bromophenyl)-methoxy alaninyl phosphate] is a novel dual-function aryl phosphate derivative of zidovudine with potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and spermicidal activities. WHI-07 was active against the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). This study evaluated whether topical application of WHI-07 as a single agent and in combination with an organometallic vanadium complex, vanadocene dithiocarbamate (VDDTC), via a nontoxic gel microemulsion can block vaginal as well as rectal transmission of feline AIDS (FAIDS) by chronically FIV-infected feline T cells in the natural host model. Genital transmission of FIV was monitored in recipient cats by the appearance of viral antibodies to FIV Gag proteins and by virus isolation of blood leukocytes as measured by FIV reverse transcriptase activity and FIV-specific PCR. Microbicidal activity was considered effective when the treated cats did not show evidence of FIV infection for up to 18 weeks postchallenge. An aggregate analysis of 46 specific-pathogen-free cats revealed that a single dose of the infected cell inoculum efficiently transmitted FIV infection when delivered into the vagina (100%) or rectum (66%). Pretreatment of the vagina or rectum with 2% WHI-07 alone or in combination with 0.25% VDDTC significantly (P = 0.004) protected cats from genital transmission by the highly infectious inoculum (7 million FIV(Bangston)-infected feline T cells). Collectively, using the vaginal and rectal transmucosal model for FAIDS, our studies demonstrated that WHI-07 either alone or in combination with a vanadocene has clinical potential for the development of a dual-function anti-HIV microbicide for sexually active women.

  5. Neutralising antibody response in domestic cats immunised with a commercial feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bęczkowski, Paweł M; Harris, Matthew; Techakriengkrai, Navapon; Beatty, Julia A; Willett, Brian J; Hosie, Margaret J

    2015-02-18

    Across human and veterinary medicine, vaccines against only two retroviral infections have been brought to market successfully, the vaccines against feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). FeLV vaccines have been a global success story, reducing virus prevalence in countries where uptake is high. In contrast, the more recent FIV vaccine was introduced in 2002 and the degree of protection afforded in the field remains to be established. However, given the similarities between FIV and HIV, field studies of FIV vaccine efficacy are likely to advise and inform the development of future approaches to HIV vaccination. Here we assessed the neutralising antibody response induced by FIV vaccination against a panel of FIV isolates, by testing blood samples collected from client-owned vaccinated Australian cats. We examined the molecular and phenotypic properties of 24 envs isolated from one vaccinated cat that we speculated might have become infected following natural exposure to FIV. Cats vaccinated against FIV did not display broadly neutralising antibodies, suggesting that protection may not extend to some virulent recombinant strains of FIV circulating in Australia. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. The Choice of Diet Affects the Oral Health of the Domestic Cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mata

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this cross-sectional study, the gingivitis and the calculus indices of the teeth of N = 41 cats were used to model oral health as a dependent variable using a Poisson regression. The independent variables used were “quadrant”, “teeth type”, “age”, and “diet”. Teeth type (p < 0.001 and diet (p < 0.001 were found to be significant, however, age was not (p > 0.05. Interactions were all significant: age x teeth (p < 0.01, age × diet (p < 0.01, teeth × diet (p < 0.001, and teeth × age × diet (p < 0.001. The probability of poor oral health is lower in the incisors of young or adult cats, fed a dry diet in comparison to the cheek teeth of older cats fed a wet diet. Diet has a higher contribution to poor oral health than age. It is argued that cats’ oral health may be promoted with an early age hygiene of the cheek teeth and with provision of abrasive dry food.

  7. In vitro fertilizing potential of urethral and epididymal spermatozoa collected from domestic cats (Felis catus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochowska, S; Niżański, W

    2017-03-28

    The aim of this study was to provide a comparative analysis of in vitro fertilizing potential of frozen-thawed urethral and epididymal feline spermatozoa. Both types of semen were collected from 7 cats and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. To perform in vitro fertilization, both urethral and epididymal samples from the same individual were thawed and spermatozoa were co-incubated with in vitro matured cat oocytes. Obtained embryos were cultured in vitro for 7 days in a commercial medium. Cleavage rate, morula rate and blastocyst rate were calculated. Experiment was run in 10 replicates. The examined parameters showed no significant differences between urethral and epididymal spermatozoa (p>0.05). Cleavage rate and embryo's development were highly variable between replicates, even for the different sperm samples collected from one individual. There was no significant correlation between fertilizing capacity of two types of spermatozoa collected from the same male. In this study we confirmed that cryopreserved urethral spermatozoa have equally good fertilizing potential as epididymal ones, and both can be successfully used for in vitro fertilization in cats with the use of commercial medium.

  8. Comparative analysis of paw pad structure in the clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) and domestic cat (Felis catus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Chris; Naples, Virginia; Ross, Erin; Carlon, Burcu

    2009-08-01

    The Clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) is a medium-sized highly arboreal cat. This study compares the structure of the digital, metacarpal and metatarsal pads of the manus and pes in N. nebulosa to that of the domestic cat (Felis catus). Covered by a stratified squamous cornified epithelium, the pads have a supple deposit of subepidermal fat that is partitioned by collagen fibers and extensively anchored to the muscle tendon sheaths. In both animals, a pes metatarsal pad suspensory ligament originates from the Mm. flexores digitorum profundi tendon and forms 3-4 small branches that project through the dermal fat layer and attach to the pad epidermis. In the cat manus, four tendons of equal size extend from the M. flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) to form the manica flexoria in digits 2-4 from which extends a metacarpal pad suspensory ligament (MPSL) on digits 2 and 5 that extends into the tela subcutanea and epidermis. On digits 3 and 4 MPSL extends directly from the FDS tendon itself. In contrast, manus FDS tendons 1 and 5 in N. nebulosa were thin and either project directly to the tela subcutanea (tendon 1) or connect with the manica flexoria forming a metacarpal pad suspensory ligament (tendon 5). Tendons 2-4 connect with the manica flexoria from which MPSL project into the tela subcutanea and epidermis. In both species, the suspensory ligaments may serve to contract the pad to conform to the under lying substrate, thus enhancing the animal's ability to grip branches while climbing. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Cardiovascular-renal axis disorders in the domestic dog and cat: a veterinary consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouchelon, J L; Atkins, C E; Bussadori, C; Oyama, M A; Vaden, S L; Bonagura, J D; Chetboul, V; Cowgill, L D; Elliot, J; Francey, T; Grauer, G F; Fuentes, V Luis; Moise, N Sydney; Polzin, D J; Van Dongen, A M; Van Israël, N

    2015-09-01

    There is a growing understanding of the complexity of interplay between renal and cardiovascular systems in both health and disease. The medical profession has adopted the term "cardiorenal syndrome" (CRS) to describe the pathophysiological relationship between the kidney and heart in disease. CRS has yet to be formally defined and described by the veterinary profession and its existence and importance in dogs and cats warrant investigation. The CRS Consensus Group, comprising nine veterinary cardiologists and seven nephrologists from Europe and North America, sought to achieve consensus around the definition, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of dogs and cats with "cardiovascular-renal disorders" (CvRD). To this end, the Delphi formal methodology for defining/building consensus and defining guidelines was utilised. Following a literature review, 13 candidate statements regarding CvRD in dogs and cats were tested for consensus, using a modified Delphi method. As a new area of interest, well-designed studies, specific to CRS/CvRD, are lacking, particularly in dogs and cats. Hence, while scientific justification of all the recommendations was sought and used when available, recommendations were largely reliant on theory, expert opinion, small clinical studies and extrapolation from data derived from other species. Of the 13 statements, 11 achieved consensus and 2 did not. The modified Delphi approach worked well to achieve consensus in an objective manner and to develop initial guidelines for CvRD. The resultant manuscript describes consensus statements for the definition, classification, diagnosis and management strategies for veterinary patients with CvRD, with an emphasis on the pathological interplay between the two organ systems. By formulating consensus statements regarding CvRD in veterinary medicine, the authors hope to stimulate interest in and advancement of the understanding and management of CvRD in dogs and cats. The use of a formalised method

  10. Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy to detect anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in blood sera of domestic cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Janaina; Pacheco, Marcos T. T.; Silveira, Landulfo, Jr.; Machado, Rosangela Z.; Martins, Rodrigo A. L.; Zangaro, Renato A.; Villaverde, Antonio G. J. B.

    2001-05-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy has been studied for the last years for many biomedical applications. It is a powerful tool for biological materials analysis. Toxoplasmosis is an important zoonosis in public health, cats being the principal responsible for the transmission of the disease in Brazil. The objective of this work is to investigate a new method of diagnosis of this disease. NIR Raman spectroscopy was used to detect anti Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in blood sera from domestic cats, without sample preparation. In all, six blood serum samples were used for this study. A previous serological test was done by the Indirect Immunoenzymatic Assay (ELISA) to permit a comparative study between both techniques and it showed that three serum samples were positive and the other three were negative to toxoplasmosis. Raman spectra were taken for all the samples and analyzed by using the principal components analysis (PCA). A diagnosis parameter was defined from the analysis of the second and third principal components of the Raman spectra. It was found that this parameter can detect the infection level of the animal. The results have indicated that NIR Raman spectroscopy, associated to the PCA can be a promising technique for serological analysis, such as toxoplasmosis, allowing a fast and sensitive method of diagnosis.

  11. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, feline leukaemia virus (FeLV and Leishmania sp. in domestic cats in the Midwest of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Poffo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This search aimed to investigate FIV and FeLV infections in domestic cats, analysing the epidemiological profile of the disease as well as additional infection with Leishmania sp. We evaluated 88 domestic cats for the presence of FIV, FeLV and Leishmania sp. infection. Eleven (12.5% cats were positive for FIV infection, four (4.5% were positive for FeLV, and two were co-infected. However, none was infected with Leishmania sp. The prevalence for FIV infection was higher than FeLV, and those observed in other regions, but no factor was associated with the infection by FIV and FeLV in this study.

  12. Seasonal variation in the voluntary food intake of domesticated cats (Felis catus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Serisier

    Full Text Available There are numerous reports about seasonal cycles on food intake in animals but information is limited in dogs and cats. A 4-year prospective, observational, cohort study was conducted to assess differences in food intake in 38 ad-libitum-fed adult colony cats, of various breeds, ages and genders. Individual food intake was recorded on a daily basis, and the mean daily intake for each calendar month was calculated. These data were compared with climatic data (temperature and daylight length for the region in the South of France where the study was performed. Data were analysed using both conventional statistical methods and by modelling using artificial neural networks (ANN. Irrespective of year, an effect of month was evident on food intake (P<0.001, with three periods of broadly differing intake. Food intake was least in the summer months (e.g. June, to August, and greatest during the months of late autumn and winter (e.g. October to February, with intermediate intake in the spring (e.g. March to May and early autumn (e.g. September. A seasonal effect on bodyweight was not recorded. Periods of peak and trough food intake coincided with peaks and troughs in both temperature and daylight length. In conclusion, average food intake in summer is approximately 15% less than food intake during the winter months, and is likely to be due to the effects of outside temperatures and differences in daylight length. This seasonal effect in food intake should be properly considered when estimating daily maintenance energy requirements in cats.

  13. Acromegaly in a domestic short-haired cat: First report from Iran

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    Mahdieh Rezaei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A 12-year-old cat, weighting 7.4 kg, suffering from fatigue, exercise intolerance, polyphagia, polyuria and polydipsia was presented. Obesity, a massive head, inferior prognathia and widened inter-dental spaces were noted on examination. Radiographic surveys showed organs enlargement. Labaratory results revealed hyperglycemia and glycosuria. Based on fasting hyperglycemia, concurrent hyperglycemia and glycosuria, diagnosis of diabetes mellitus was made. However, according to the poor diabetic regulation, clinical signs and the absence of other diseases, a tentative diagnosis of acromegaly was confirmed by increased plasma levels of growth hormone. Managing diabetes mellitus with increasing doses of insulin was the only possible therapeutic strategy

  14. Obesity and sex influence insulin resistance and total and multimer adiponectin levels in adult neutered domestic shorthair client-owned cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornvad, C R; Rand, J S; Tan, H Y; Jensen, K S; Rose, F J; Armstrong, P J; Whitehead, J P

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we estimated insulin sensitivity and determined plasma concentrations of total-, low-molecular-weight (LMW), and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin and leptin in 72 domestic shorthair, neutered, client-owned cats. Glucose tolerance was assessed with an intravenous glucose tolerance test and body fat percentage (BF%) was measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Total adiponectin was measured with 2 different ELISAs. Low-molecular-weight and HMW adiponectin plasma concentrations were determined by Western blot analysis after sucrose-gradient velocity centrifugation, and the adiponectin multimer ratio [SA = HMW/(HMW + LMW)] was calculated. Differences in glucose tolerance, leptin, total adiponectin, and multimer ratio among lean (BF% 45; n = 18) cats as well as between male (n = 34) and female (n = 38) neutered cats were evaluated by linear regression and 2-way ANOVA. Sex and age were included as covariates for analysis of BF%, whereas BF%, fat mass, and lean body mass were covariates for analysis of sex differences. Increased BF% was negatively correlated with multimer ratio (SA, r = -45; P 0.01). Male cats had indices of decreased insulin tolerance and significantly lower total adiponectin concentrations than did female cats (mean ± SEM, 3.7 ± 0.4 vs 5.4 ± 0.5 μg/mL; P glucose tolerance in cats, and low total adiponectin concentrations may relate to increased risk of diabetes mellitus in neutered male cats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Anatomical study of the forearm and hand nerves of the domestic cat ( Felis catus), puma ( Puma concolor) and jaguar ( Panthera onca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, H L; Silva, L B; Rafasquino, M E; Mateo, A G; Zuccolilli, G O; Portiansky, E L; Alonso, C R

    2013-04-01

    The innervation of the forearm and hand regions of cats has not been well described despite its importance for any surgery or any neurological disorder. It is probably the main area where disorders of peripheral nerves in this species are observed. In felines, the forelimbs facilitate the jump and represent the most important way for capturing prey. The main muscles and nerves involved in this activity are located in the region of the forearm and hand. The aim of the present study was to provide a detailed description of the innervation of the forearm and hand regions of the jaguar and puma, in comparison with that of the domestic cat, contributing thus with the anatomical knowledge of the area for applying it to surgery and pathology. The forearms of three pumas and two jaguars (all of them fixed in formalin) and of six domestic cats (fresh) were dissected. The nerves path and their forearm distribution patterns of all three species were described. The analysed results indicate that the observed variations between species are minimal; thus, the anatomy described for domestic cats can be widely applied to American wild felids. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Glycolytic enzyme activity is essential for domestic cat (Felis catus) and cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) sperm motility and viability in a sugar-free medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Kimberly A; Wildt, David E; Anthony, Nicola M; Bavister, Barry D; Leibo, S P; Penfold, Linda M; Marker, Laurie L; Crosier, Adrienne E

    2011-06-01

    We have previously reported a lack of glucose uptake in domestic cat and cheetah spermatozoa, despite observing that these cells produce lactate at rates that correlate positively with sperm function. To elucidate the role of glycolysis in felid sperm energy production, we conducted a comparative study in the domestic cat and cheetah, with the hypothesis that sperm motility and viability are maintained in both species in the absence of glycolytic metabolism and are fueled by endogenous substrates. Washed ejaculates were incubated in chemically defined medium in the presence/absence of glucose and pyruvate. A second set of ejaculates was exposed to a chemical inhibitor of either lactate dehydrogenase (sodium oxamate) or glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (alpha-chlorohydrin). Sperm function (motility and acrosomal integrity) and lactate production were assessed, and a subset of spermatozoa was assayed for intracellular glycogen. In both the cat and cheetah, sperm function was maintained without exogenous substrates and following lactate dehydrogenase inhibition. Lactate production occurred in the absence of exogenous hexoses, but only if pyruvate was present. Intracellular glycogen was not detected in spermatozoa from either species. Unexpectedly, glycolytic inhibition by alpha-chlorohydrin resulted in an immediate decline in sperm motility, particularly in the domestic cat. Collectively, our findings reveal an essential role of the glycolytic pathway in felid spermatozoa that is unrelated to hexose metabolism or lactate formation. Instead, glycolytic enzyme activity could be required for the metabolism of endogenous lipid-derived glycerol, with fatty acid oxidation providing the primary energy source in felid spermatozoa.

  17. Molecular identification of Giardia duodenalis isolates from domestic dogs and cats in Wroclaw, Poland

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    Jolanta Piekarska

    2016-07-01

    The prevalence of G. duodenalis was 21.1% (27/128 in dogs and 15.1% (5/33 in cats. In dogs, C assemblage was present in 18 (81% positive stool samples, D assemblage in 2 (9% samples, B assemblage present in one (4.5%, and mixed assemblages (C and D occurred in one (4.5% sample. F assemblage was found in 4 (80% cats’ positive stool samples and A assemblage occurred in one case (20%. Confirmation of the presence of A and B zoonotic assemblages suggests that infected pets can be a threat to human health. This study describes for the first time the presence of mixed infections within host-specific C and D assemblages in dogs in Poland.

  18. Recovery of sperm after epididymal refrigeration from domestic cats using ACP-117c and Tris extenders

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    D.B.C. Lima

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We aimed to compare fresh sperm and sperm cooled to 4ºC that had been recovered from the epididymides of cats using powdered coconut water (ACP-117c and Tris extenders. Sixty epididymides were divided into 6 groups: 10 fresh epididymides were recovered using Tris (T0h; 10 were kept at 4°C/2h and recovered using Tris (T2h; 10 were kept at 4°C/4h and recovered using Tris (T4h; 10 fresh were recovered using ACP-117c (A0h; 10 were kept at 4°C/2h and recovered using ACP-117c (A2h, and 10 were kept at 4°C/4h and recovered using ACP-117c (A4h. The testis-epididymis complexes (TEC control were not cooled. The others were cooled at 4°C for 2 or 4h. The epididymis was separated and the sperm was recovered by the modified flotation method. Sperm kinetic parameters were evaluated by a computer-system analysis, and vigor, viability, concentration, membrane function and morphology of the sperm were assessed under a light microscope. The progressive motility with ACP-117c declined after 2h of cooling, but did not differ between fresh and 4h. The vigor and membrane function were higher in A4h than A0h. The vigor at T2h and T4h were decreased compared to T0h. T0h was higher than A0h for vigor and sperm membrane function. However, after 4h of cooling, ACP-117c maintained a higher percentage of living cells. Feline epididymal sperm quality can be maintained to the degree necessary for artificial breeding programs following cooling and ACP-117c may be successfully used to recover cat sperm that have been cooled for up to 4h.

  19. Tick-borne agents in domesticated and stray cats from the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, midwestern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Marcos Rogério; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Fernandes, Simone de Jesus; de Sousa, Keyla Cartens Marques; Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; Domingos, Iara Helena; de Macedo, Gabriel Carvalho; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2015-09-01

    Anaplasmataceae agents, piroplasmids and Hepatozoon spp. have emerged as important pathogens among domestic and wild felines. The present work aimed to detect the presence of species belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family, piroplasmas and Hepatozoon spp. DNA in blood samples of domesticated and stray cats in the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, midwestern Brazil. Between January and April 2013, whole blood samples were collected from 151 cats (54 males, 95 females and two without gender registration) in the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. DNA extracted from cat blood samples was submitted to conventional PCR assays for Theileria/Babesia/Cytauxzoon spp. (18S rRNA, ITS-1), Ehrlichia spp. (16S rRNA, dsb, groESL), Anaplasma spp. (16S rRNA, groESL) and Hepatozoon spp. (18S rRNA) followed by phylogenetic reconstructions. Out of 151 sampled cats, 13 (8.5%) were positive for Ehrlichia spp. closely related to Ehrlichia canis, 1 (0.66%) for Hepatozoon spp. closely related to Hepatozoon americanum and Hepatozoon spp. isolate from a wild felid, 1 (0.66%) for Cytauxzoon sp. closely related do Cytauxzoon felis, and 18 (11.9%) for Babesia/Theileria (one sequence was closely related to Babesia bigemina, eight for Babesia vogeli, five to Theileria spp. from ruminants [Theileria ovis, Theileria lestoquardi] and four to Theileria sp. recently detected in a cat). The present study showed that Ehrlichia spp., piroplasmids (B. vogeli, Theileria spp. and Cytauxzoon spp.) and, more rarely, Hepatozoon spp. circulate among stray and domesticated cats in the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, midwestern Brazil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Parasite spread at the domestic animal - wildlife interface: anthropogenic habitat use, phylogeny and body mass drive risk of cat and dog flea (Ctenocephalides spp.) infestation in wild mammals.

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    Clark, Nicholas J; Seddon, Jennifer M; Šlapeta, Jan; Wells, Konstans

    2018-01-08

    Spillover of parasites at the domestic animal - wildlife interface is a pervasive threat to animal health. Cat and dog fleas (Ctenocephalides felis and C. canis) are among the world's most invasive and economically important ectoparasites. Although both species are presumed to infest a diversity of host species across the globe, knowledge on their distributions in wildlife is poor. We built a global dataset of wild mammal host associations for cat and dog fleas, and used Bayesian hierarchical models to identify traits that predict wildlife infestation probability. We complemented this by calculating functional-phylogenetic host specificity to assess whether fleas are restricted to hosts with similar evolutionary histories, diet or habitat niches. Over 130 wildlife species have been found to harbour cat fleas, representing nearly 20% of all mammal species sampled for fleas. Phylogenetic models indicate cat fleas are capable of infesting a broad diversity of wild mammal species through ecological fitting. Those that use anthropogenic habitats are at highest risk. Dog fleas, by contrast, have been recorded in 31 mammal species that are primarily restricted to certain phylogenetic clades, including canids, felids and murids. Both flea species are commonly reported infesting mammals that are feral (free-roaming cats and dogs) or introduced (red foxes, black rats and brown rats), suggesting the breakdown of barriers between wildlife and invasive reservoir species will increase spillover at the domestic animal - wildlife interface. Our empirical evidence shows that cat fleas are incredibly host-generalist, likely exhibiting a host range that is among the broadest of all ectoparasites. Reducing wild species' contact rates with domestic animals across natural and anthropogenic habitats, together with mitigating impacts of invasive reservoir hosts, will be crucial for reducing invasive flea infestations in wild mammals.

  1. Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 (FcaGHV1 and coinfections with feline viral pathogens in domestic cats in Brazil

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    Jacqueline Kazue Kurissio

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 (FcaGHV1 may causes an asymptomatic infection that result in an efficient transmission and subsequently dissemination of the virus in feline population. This study used molecular detection by qPCR (quantitative PCR based on DNA polymerase gene fragment amplification to evaluate the occurrence of FcaGHV1 and its correlation with other feline viral pathogens, such as Carnivore protoparvovirus 1 (CPPV-1, Felid alphaherpesvirus 1 (FeHV-1, and feline retroviruses such as feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV and feline leukemia virus (FeLV. Of the 182 blood samples evaluated 23.6% (43/182 were positives for FcaGHV1. Approximately 37.9% (33/87 of the samples that tested positive for retrovirus were also were positive for FcaGHV1 infection (P0.66 or CPPV-1 (P>0.46 coinfection. All samples were negative for FeHV-1. Male felines were significantly associated to FcaGHV1 (P<0.0001 and their risk of infection with FcaGHV1 was about of 7.74 times greater compared to females. Kittens (≤ 1year were the least affected by FcaGHV1 infection, being verified a rate of 7.7% (4/52. Therefore, male cats over one year old and infected with FIV were considerably more likely to be infected with FcaGHV1. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the occurrence and molecular detection of FcaGHV1 infection in domestic cats in Brazil and in South America.

  2. Could the domestic cat play a significant role in the transmission of Echinococcus multilocularis? A study based on qPCR analysis of cat feces in a rural area in France

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    Knapp Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcus multilocularis, a cestode parasite responsible for alveolar echinococcosis in humans, is often reported in Europe. It involves red foxes, domestic dogs, and domestic and wild cats as definitive hosts. The parasite infects small mammals and accidentally humans as intermediate hosts and develops in a similar way to a tumor, usually in the liver. Domestic animals are suspected of playing a role in parasite transmission, but this is rarely proven. Moreover, the role of domestic cats is thought to be small, because of experimental studies showing incomplete development of the parasite observed in their intestines. In the present study, we investigated copro-sampling performed in a rural and highly endemic area in Eastern France, on carnivore feces (n = 150. From these samples, the parasite was detected and identified by DNA analysis using quantitative PCR targeting part of a mitochondrial gene (Em-qPCR. Taeniid eggs were isolated from positive-Em-qPCR samples by flotation, and species identification was confirmed by sequencing on DNA extracts. From a total of 43 copro-samples from cats, four tested positive for E. multilocularis by the Em-qPCR. In two of these, we found parasite eggs that were identified as E. multilocularis. This finding was confirmed by sequencing, while one dog stool out of 61 collected was found to be positive, no egg was detectable. At the same time, 34% of fox stools tested positive for the parasite. The present study challenges the current idea that cats are only of minor significance in the E. multilocularis life cycle.

  3. Could the domestic cat play a significant role in the transmission of Echinococcus multilocularis? A study based on qPCR analysis of cat feces in a rural area in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Jenny; Combes, Benoît; Umhang, Gérald; Aknouche, Soufiane; Millon, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis, a cestode parasite responsible for alveolar echinococcosis in humans, is often reported in Europe. It involves red foxes, domestic dogs, and domestic and wild cats as definitive hosts. The parasite infects small mammals and accidentally humans as intermediate hosts and develops in a similar way to a tumor, usually in the liver. Domestic animals are suspected of playing a role in parasite transmission, but this is rarely proven. Moreover, the role of domestic cats is thought to be small, because of experimental studies showing incomplete development of the parasite observed in their intestines. In the present study, we investigated copro-sampling performed in a rural and highly endemic area in Eastern France, on carnivore feces (n = 150). From these samples, the parasite was detected and identified by DNA analysis using quantitative PCR targeting part of a mitochondrial gene (Em-qPCR). Taeniid eggs were isolated from positive-Em-qPCR samples by flotation, and species identification was confirmed by sequencing on DNA extracts. From a total of 43 copro-samples from cats, four tested positive for E. multilocularis by the Em-qPCR. In two of these, we found parasite eggs that were identified as E. multilocularis. This finding was confirmed by sequencing, while one dog stool out of 61 collected was found to be positive, no egg was detectable. At the same time, 34% of fox stools tested positive for the parasite. The present study challenges the current idea that cats are only of minor significance in the E. multilocularis life cycle. PMID:27739398

  4. LPS-challenged TNFα production, prostaglandin secretion, and TNFα/TNFRs expression in the endometrium of domestic cats in estrus or diestrus, and in cats with pyometra or receiving medroxyprogesterone acetate.

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    Jursza, Ewelina; Szóstek, Anna Z; Kowalewski, Mariusz P; Boos, Alois; Okuda, Kiyoshi; Siemieniuch, Marta J

    2014-01-01

    Progesterone (P4) derivatives which are commonly used to block the cyclicity of domestic cats disturb the endocrine balance in the endometrium. The aims of this study were (i) to examine whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is responsible for enhancement of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) secretion by the feline endometrial epithelial and stromal cells in vitro, (ii) to know whether immunolocalization of TNFα/TNFR1 and TNFR2 differs in cats at estrus or diestrus, receiving medroxyprogesterone acetate and suffering from pyometra, and (iii) to determine if TNFα-challenged prostaglandin secretion is stopped by prostaglandin synthases inhibitors. A total of 37 domestic adult cats in estrus or diestrus, receiving octane medroxyprogesterone or having clinical symptoms of pyometra, were enrolled in this study. The results obtained showed a distinct increase in LPS-challenged TNFα secretion in endometrial epithelial, but not stromal cells. TNFα augmented PG secretion was blocked by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and cyclooxygeanase-2 (COX-2), but not by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor. TNFα/TNFR1 and 2 protein expressions were limited mostly to the surface and glandular epithelium. TNFα/TNFRs protein was upregulated in the inflammatory uterus and hence may be involved in development of pathologic changes in the endometrial glands in cats receiving exogenous P4 as a hormonal contraceptive.

  5. LPS-Challenged TNFα Production, Prostaglandin Secretion, and TNFα/TNFRs Expression in the Endometrium of Domestic Cats in Estrus or Diestrus, and in Cats with Pyometra or Receiving Medroxyprogesterone Acetate

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    Ewelina Jursza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Progesterone (P4 derivatives which are commonly used to block the cyclicity of domestic cats disturb the endocrine balance in the endometrium. The aims of this study were (i to examine whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS is responsible for enhancement of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα secretion by the feline endometrial epithelial and stromal cells in vitro, (ii to know whether immunolocalization of TNFα/TNFR1 and TNFR2 differs in cats at estrus or diestrus, receiving medroxyprogesterone acetate and suffering from pyometra, and (iii to determine if TNFα-challenged prostaglandin secretion is stopped by prostaglandin synthases inhibitors. A total of 37 domestic adult cats in estrus or diestrus, receiving octane medroxyprogesterone or having clinical symptoms of pyometra, were enrolled in this study. The results obtained showed a distinct increase in LPS-challenged TNFα secretion in endometrial epithelial, but not stromal cells. TNFα augmented PG secretion was blocked by phospholipase A2 (PLA2 and cyclooxygeanase-2 (COX-2, but not by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK inhibitor. TNFα/TNFR1 and 2 protein expressions were limited mostly to the surface and glandular epithelium. TNFα/TNFRs protein was upregulated in the inflammatory uterus and hence may be involved in development of pathologic changes in the endometrial glands in cats receiving exogenous P4 as a hormonal contraceptive.

  6. Hypersensitivity reactions associated with L-asparaginase administration in 142 dogs and 68 cats with lymphoid malignancies: 2007–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Mary Kay; Carr, Brittany J.; Mauldin, Glenna E.

    2016-01-01

    Clinically significant hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) to the chemotherapy drug L-asparaginase are reported in humans and dogs, but frequency in small animals is not well-defined. This study retrospectively evaluated the frequency of HSR to L-asparaginase given by IM injection to dogs and cats with lymphoid malignancies. The medical records of all dogs and cats treated with at least 1 dose of L-asparaginase chemotherapy over a 5-year period were reviewed. A total of 370 doses of L-asparaginase were administered to the dogs, with 88 of 142 dogs receiving multiple doses, and 6 dogs experiencing an HSR. A total of 197 doses were administered to the cats, with 33 of 68 cats receiving multiple doses, and no cats experiencing an HSR. Hypersensitivity reactions were documented in 4.2% of dogs, and in association with 1.6% of L-asparaginase doses administered. These results show that HSRs occur uncommonly among dogs and cats, even with repeated dosing. PMID:26834270

  7. Hypersensitivity reactions associated with L-asparaginase administration in 142 dogs and 68 cats with lymphoid malignancies: 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Mary Kay; Carr, Brittany J; Mauldin, Glenna E

    2016-02-01

    Clinically significant hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) to the chemotherapy drug L-asparaginase are reported in humans and dogs, but frequency in small animals is not well-defined. This study retrospectively evaluated the frequency of HSR to L-asparaginase given by IM injection to dogs and cats with lymphoid malignancies. The medical records of all dogs and cats treated with at least 1 dose of L-asparaginase chemotherapy over a 5-year period were reviewed. A total of 370 doses of L-asparaginase were administered to the dogs, with 88 of 142 dogs receiving multiple doses, and 6 dogs experiencing an HSR. A total of 197 doses were administered to the cats, with 33 of 68 cats receiving multiple doses, and no cats experiencing an HSR. Hypersensitivity reactions were documented in 4.2% of dogs, and in association with 1.6% of L-asparaginase doses administered. These results show that HSRs occur uncommonly among dogs and cats, even with repeated dosing.

  8. [Feline sarcoid in a 1-year-old domestic short-haired cat caused by bovine papillomavirus type 14 in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, C; Tobler, K; Ramsauer, A; Biegel, U; Kuehn, N; Ruetten, M

    2017-09-01

    A 1-year- old domestic short haired cat, living on a farm in Switzerland, was presented to the veterinarian with a 5 cm in diameter mass, bulging from her left nostril. The mass was only incompletely removed because of its unfavourable location. Histologically, the lesion consisted of an infiltrative growing spindeloid proliferation in close approximation to the epidermis and was diagnosed as a feline sarcoid tumour. The presence of Bovine Papillomavirus type 14 (BPV-14) specific DNA could be identified in the tissue by using two PCR assays. The amplified sequences of 194 and 549 base pairs (bp) were 99% and 100% identical with a virus isolated after autopsy, from a cat with feline sarcoid in the USA. The cat recovered completely after an even incomplete surgical excision and no recurrence could be observed 10 months later.

  9. Pre-and post-puberty physiological plasma oxytocin concentrations in male domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus

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    José O.T. Souza

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The hormone oxytocin is released by the neuropituitary gland through stimulation of the neurons of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus. In order to determine the physiological concentrations of this hormone in domestic cats, blood samples were collected from 15 male animals (Felis silvestris catus during the pre- and post-puberty periods (at four and eight months of age, respectively. Oxytocin determination was accomplished by radioimmunoassay. The average oxytocin concentrations measured in the pre- and post-puberty periods were 2.54±0.24 (μg/dL and 2.53±0.28 (μg/dL, respectively, and there were no statistical differences between these measurements. Because there are few literature on the analysis of this hormone, especially in the case of male Felis silvestris catus, more studies on the influence of oxytocin on the physiology and reproduction of this species should be conducted under maintenance and situations of stress (such as transportation, and other routine events.

  10. The Domestic Cat as a Large Animal Model for Characterization of Disease and Therapeutic Intervention in Hereditary Retinal Blindness

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    Kristina Narfström

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Large mammals, including canids and felids, are affected by spontaneously occurring hereditary retinal diseases with similarities to those of humans. The large mammal models may be used for thorough clinical characterization of disease processes, understanding the effects of specific mutations, elucidation of disease mechanisms, and for development of therapeutic intervention. Two well-characterized feline models are addressed in this paper. The first model is the autosomal recessive, slowly progressive, late-onset, rod-cone degenerative disease caused by a mutation in the CEP290 gene. The second model addressed in this paper is the autosomal dominant early onset rod cone dysplasia, putatively caused by the mutation found in the CRX gene. Therapeutic trials have been performed mainly in the former type including stem cell therapy, retinal transplantation, and development of ocular prosthetics. Domestic cats, having large human-like eyes with comparable spontaneous retinal diseases, are also considered useful for gene replacement therapy, thus functioning as effective model systems for further research.

  11. Toward a genome-wide approach for detecting hybrids: informative SNPs to detect introgression between domestic cats and European wildcats (Felis silvestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R; Randi, E; Mattucci, F; Kurushima, J D; Lyons, L A; Alves, P C

    2015-09-01

    Endemic gene pools have been severely endangered by human-mediated hybridization, which is posing new challenges in the conservation of several vertebrate species. The endangered European wildcat is an example of this problem, as several natural populations are suffering introgression of genes from the domestic cat. The implementation of molecular methods for detecting hybridization is crucial for supporting appropriate conservation programs on the wildcat. In this study, genetic variation at 158 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was analyzed in 139 domestic cats, 130 putative European wildcats and 5 captive-bred hybrids (N=274). These SNPs were variable both in wild (HE=0.107) and domestic cats (HE=0.340). Although we did not find any SNP that was private in any population, 22 SNPs were monomorphic in wildcats and pairwise FCT values revealed marked differences between domestic and wildcats, with the most divergent 35 loci providing an average FCT>0.74. The power of all the loci to accurately identify admixture events and discriminate the different hybrid categories was evaluated. Results from simulated and real genotypes show that the 158 SNPs provide successful estimates of admixture, with 100% hybrid individuals (two to three generations in the past) being correctly identified in STRUCTURE and over 92% using the NEWHYBRIDS' algorithm. None of the unclassified cats were wrongly allocated to another hybrid class. Thirty-five SNPs, showing the highest FCT values, provided the most parsimonious panel for robust inferences of parental and first generations of admixed ancestries. This approach may be used to further reconstruct the evolution of wildcat populations and, hopefully, to develop sound conservation guidelines for its legal protection in Europe.

  12. The Genetic Integrity of the Ex Situ Population of the European Wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris) Is Seriously Threatened by Introgression from Domestic Cats (Felis silvestris catus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzenberger, Kathrin A.; Hochkirch, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the genetic diversity and relatedness of zoo populations are crucial for implementing successful breeding programmes. The European wildcat, Felis s. silvestris, is subject to intensive conservation measures, including captive breeding and reintroduction. We here present the first systematic genetic analysis of the captive population of Felis s. silvestris in comparison with a natural wild population. We used microsatellites and mtDNA sequencing to assess genetic diversity, structure and integrity of the ex situ population. Our results show that the ex situ population of the European wildcat is highly structured and that it has a higher genetic diversity than the studied wild population. Some genetic clusters matched the breeding lines of certain zoos or groups of zoos that often exchanged individuals. Two mitochondrial haplotype groups were detected in the in situ populations, one of which was closely related to the most common haplotype found in domestic cats, suggesting past introgression in the wild. Although native haplotypes were also found in the captive population, the majority (68%) of captive individuals shared a common mtDNA haplotype with the domestic cat (Felis s. catus). Only six captive individuals (7.7%) were assigned as wildcats in the STRUCTURE analysis (at K = 2), two of which had domestic cat mtDNA haplotypes and only two captive individuals were assigned as purebred wildcats by NewHybrids. These results suggest that the high genetic diversity of the captive population has been caused by admixture with domestic cats. Therefore, the captive population cannot be recommended for further breeding and reintroduction. PMID:25162450

  13. A High-Resolution SNP Array-Based Linkage Map Anchors a New Domestic Cat Draft Genome Assembly and Provides Detailed Patterns of Recombination

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    Gang Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution genetic and physical maps are invaluable tools for building accurate genome assemblies, and interpreting results of genome-wide association studies (GWAS. Previous genetic and physical maps anchored good quality draft assemblies of the domestic cat genome, enabling the discovery of numerous genes underlying hereditary disease and phenotypes of interest to the biomedical science and breeding communities. However, these maps lacked sufficient marker density to order thousands of shorter scaffolds in earlier assemblies, which instead relied heavily on comparative mapping with related species. A high-resolution map would aid in validating and ordering chromosome scaffolds from existing and new genome assemblies. Here, we describe a high-resolution genetic linkage map of the domestic cat genome based on genotyping 453 domestic cats from several multi-generational pedigrees on the Illumina 63K SNP array. The final maps include 58,055 SNP markers placed relative to 6637 markers with unique positions, distributed across all autosomes and the X chromosome. Our final sex-averaged maps span a total autosomal length of 4464 cM, the longest described linkage map for any mammal, confirming length estimates from a previous microsatellite-based map. The linkage map was used to order and orient the scaffolds from a substantially more contiguous domestic cat genome assembly (Felis catus v8.0, which incorporated ∼20 × coverage of Illumina fragment reads. The new genome assembly shows substantial improvements in contiguity, with a nearly fourfold increase in N50 scaffold size to 18 Mb. We use this map to report probable structural errors in previous maps and assemblies, and to describe features of the recombination landscape, including a massive (∼50 Mb recombination desert (of virtually zero recombination on the X chromosome that parallels a similar desert on the porcine X chromosome in both size and physical location.

  14. High Prevalence of the Liver Fluke Amphimerus sp. in Domestic Cats and Dogs in an Area for Human Amphimeriasis in Ecuador

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    Calvopiña, Manuel; Cevallos, William; Atherton, Richard; Saunders, Matthew; Small, Alexander; Kumazawa, Hideo; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2015-01-01

    Background Amphimerus sp. is a liver fluke which recently has been shown to have a high prevalence of infection among an indigenous group, Chachi, who reside in a tropical rainforest in the northwestern region of Ecuador. Since it is unknown which animals can act as a reservoir and/or definitive hosts for Amphimerus sp. in this endemic area, a study was done to determine the prevalence of infection in domestic cats and dogs. This information is important to understand the epidemiology, life cycle and control of this parasite. Methodology/Findings In July 2012, three Chachi communities located on Rio Cayapas, province of Esmeraldas, were surveyed. A total of 89 of the 109 registered households participated in the study. Of the 27 cats and 43 dogs found residing in the communities, stool samples were collected from 14 cats and 31 dogs (total of 45 animals) and examined microscopically for the presence of Amphimerus eggs. The prevalence of infection was 71.4% in cats and 38.7% in dogs, with similar rates of infection in all three communities. Significantly more cats were infected than dogs (p = 0.042). Conclusions/Significance The data show a high rate of Amphimerus sp. infection in domestic cats and dogs residing in Chachi communities. It can be concluded that these animals act as definitive and reservoir hosts for this liver fluke and that amphimeriasis is a zoonotic disease. These findings provide important epidemiological data which will aid in the development and implementation of control strategies against the transmission of Amphimerus. PMID:25647171

  15. Isolation of Sporothrix schenckii from the claws of domestic cats (indoor and outdoor) and in captivity in São Paulo (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Tatiana Saleme; Rossi, Claudio Nazaretian; Fedullo, José Daniel Luzes; Taborda, Carlos Pelleschi; Taborda, João Pelleschi; Larsson, Carlos Eduardo

    2013-08-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis and is also a zoonosis (sapro- and anthropozoonosis). The objective of the present study was to determine the occurrence of sporotrichosis in domestic cats and in wild or exotic felines in captivity through the isolation of Sporothrix spp. from claw impressions in a culture medium. The samples included 132 felines, of which 120 (91.0 %) were domestic cats, 11 (8.3 %) were wild felines, and one (0.7 %) was an exotic felid. Twenty-one (17.5 %) were outdoor cats. Of the total, 89 (67.4 %) had contact with other animals of the same species. It was possible to isolate Sporothrix schenckii from the claws of one (0.7 %) of the felids probed; this animal exhibited generalised sporotrichosis and had infected a female veterinarian. The potential pathogenic agents Microsporum canis and Malassezia pachydermatis were isolated in 12.1 and 5.3 % of the animals, respectively. The following anemophilous fungi, which were considered to be contaminants, were also isolated: Penicillium sp. (28 or 21.2 %), Aspergillus sp. (13 or 9.8 %), Rhodotorula sp. (5 or 3.8 %), Candida sp. (5 or 3.8 %), Trichoderma sp. (1 or 0.7 %), and Acremonium sp. (1 or 0.7 %). Due to the low magnitude of occurrence (0.7 %) of Sporothrix in feline claws, the potential of the cats evaluated in this study to be sources of infection in the city of São Paulo is considerably low.

  16. Critically appraised topic on adverse food reactions of companion animals (3): prevalence of cutaneous adverse food reactions in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivry, Thierry; Mueller, Ralf S

    2017-02-15

    The prevalence of cutaneous adverse food reactions (CAFRs) in dogs and cats is not precisely known. This imprecision is likely due to the various populations that had been studied. Our objectives were to systematically review the literature to determine the prevalence of CAFRs among dogs and cats with pruritus and skin diseases. We searched two databases for pertinent references on August 18, 2016. Among 490 and 220 articles respectively found in the Web of Science (Science Citation Index Expanded) and CAB Abstract databases, we selected 22 and nine articles that reported data usable for CAFR prevalence determination in dogs and cats, respectively. The prevalence of CAFR in dogs and cats was found to vary depending upon the type of diagnoses made. Among dogs presented to their veterinarian for any diagnosis, the prevalence was 1 to 2% and among those with skin diseases, it ranged between 0 and 24%. The range of CAFR prevalence was similar in dogs with pruritus (9 to 40%), those with any type of allergic skin disease (8 to 62%) and in dogs diagnosed with atopic dermatitis (9 to 50%). In cats presented to a university hospital, the prevalence of CAFR was less than 1% (0.2%), while it was fairly homogeneous in cats with skin diseases (range: 3 to 6%), but higher in cats with pruritus (12 to 21%) than in cats with allergic skin disease (5 to 13%). Among dogs and cats with pruritus and those suspected of allergic skin disease, the prevalence of CAFR is high enough to justify this syndrome to be ruled-out with a restriction (elimination)-provocation dietary trial. This must especially be considered in companion animals with nonseasonal pruritus or signs of allergic dermatitis.

  17. Esporotricose do gato doméstico (Felis catus: transmissão humana Sporothricosis of the domestic cat (Felis catus: human transmission

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    Silvio Alencar Marques

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho relata-se caso de paciente, funcionário de hospital veterinário, infectado através de arranhadura de gato doméstico portador de esporotricose. Inquérito domiciliar junto aos proprietários do animal fonte de infecção, revelou dois outros casos presuntivos de esporotricose humana transmitida por gatos, e confirmou o diagnóstico, por cultivo do Sporotrix schenckii, em 3 gatos domésticos adicionais. A esporotricose felina caracteriza-se por lesões cutâneas ulceradas e tendência à disseminação sistêmica e evolução fatal. A transmissão intra e inter-espécie é facilitada pela exuberância de fungos nas lesões cutâneas de felinos infectados.A case of sporothricosis transmitted by cat to a veterinarian hospital employee is reported. Inquiry at domiciliar area of the cat's owner revelled two other presumable cases of human sporothricosis transmitted by cats, and confirmed the diagnosis (by culture of Sporothrix schenckii of disease in three other domestic cats. Feline sporothricosis is characterized by ulcerative, cutaneous lesions and systemic dissemination, which invariably cause animal's death. The transmission of sporothricosis to other animals and humans is enhanced by the great amount of fungus present in cat's lesions.

  18. Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in domestic cats from the Brazilian semi-arid: seroprevalence and risk factors

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    T.F. Feitosa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we aimed to establish the seroprevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum in stray and domiciled cats from the municipality of Patos, Paraíba state, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 201 animals: 132 domiciled cats and 69 stray cats. An epidemiological questionnaire was conducted with all cat owners. Indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT was performed at cut-offs of 1:16 and 1:50 for T. gondii and N. caninum, respectively. Overall prevalence of seroreagent cats for T. gondii was 43.8%. We found a prevalence of 47.7% in domiciled cats and 36.2% in stray cats. Antibody titers ranged from 1:16 (cut-off to 1:8192; 1:128 was the most frequent titer. No statistical difference was observed between domiciled cats and stray cats. Correlation was verified between seroreagent for T. gondii and age and hunting habit (P<0.05. No animals tested seroreagent for N. caninum. It was possible to conclude that there is high prevalence of cat seroreagent for T. gondii and that N. caninum is not present in cats from the area studied.

  19. Adverse reactions following administration of contrast media for diagnostic imaging in anaesthetized dogs and cats: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarabelli, Stefania; Cripps, Peter; Rioja, Eva; Alderson, Briony

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate incidences of adverse reaction after the administration of contrast media. Retrospective observational study. Animals included 356 dogs and 58 cats receiving non-ionic iodinated contrast agents, and 425 dogs and 49 cats receiving gadolinium-based contrast agents. Anaesthesia records of dogs and cats receiving intravenous (IV) gadobutrol for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or IV iohexol for computed tomography (CT) were reviewed. Changes in pulse rate, respiratory rate and mean arterial pressure at 5 minutes after administration of the contrast medium were evaluated. Changes of 10-20% were considered mild, those of >20% moderate, and reactions that required immediate treatment were considered severe. Associations of sex, age and weight with contrast reaction were investigated using logistic regression. Differences in the incidences of reactions to CT and MRI contrast media were examined with chi-squared tests. A p-value of  0.2). Of dogs receiving iohexol, 64 (18.0%) had mild, 65 (18.3%) had moderate and three (0.8%) had severe reactions. Of dogs receiving gadobutrol, 42 (9.9%) had mild, 87 (20.5%) had moderate and one (0.2%) had a severe reaction. When dogs receiving iohexol were compared with those receiving gadobutrol, the odds ratio of a moderate reaction was 2.0 (95% confidence interval 1.34-3.10; p = 0.001). These estimates did not change substantially after adjustment for age, weight and sex. Severe reactions to iohexol and gadobutrol are rare in dogs and cats; moderate reactions are more likely with iohexol than with gadobutrol. © 2015 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  20. Sodium/glucose cotransporter-1, sweet receptor, and disaccharidase expression in the intestine of the domestic dog and cat: two species of different dietary habit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, D J; Al-Rammahi, M; Moran, A W; Brand, J G; Li, X; Haskins, M; German, A J; Shirazi-Beechey, S P

    2011-01-01

    The domestic cat (Felis catus), a carnivore, naturally eats a very low carbohydrate diet. In contrast, the dog (Canis familiaris), a carno-omnivore, has a varied diet. This study was performed to determine the expression of the intestinal brush border membrane sodium/glucose cotransporter, SGLT1, sweet receptor, T1R2/T1R3, and disaccharidases in these species adapted to contrasting diets. The expression (this includes function) of SGLT1, sucrase, maltase and lactase were determined using purified brush border membrane vesicles and by quantitative immunohistochemistry of fixed tissues. The pattern of expression of subunits of the sweet receptor T1R2 and T1R3 was assessed using fluorescent immunohistochemistry. In proximal, middle, and distal small intestine, SGLT1 function in dogs was 1.9- to 2.3-fold higher than in cats (P = 0.037, P = 0.0011, P = 0.027, respectively), and SGLT1 protein abundance followed an identical pattern. Both cats and dogs express T1R3 in a subset of intestinal epithelial cells, and dogs, but not cats, express T1R2. In proximal and middle regions, there were 3.1- and 1.6-fold higher lactase (P = 0.006 and P = 0.019), 4.4- and 2.9-fold higher sucrase (both P cats. Dogs have a potential higher capacity to digest and absorb carbohydrates than cats. Cats may suffer from carbohydrate malabsorption following ingestion of high-carbohydrate meals. However, dogs have a digestive ability to cope with diets containing significant levels of carbohydrate.

  1. Proteomic analysis of germinal vesicles in the domestic cat model reveals candidate nuclear proteins involved in oocyte competence acquisition.

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    Lee, P-C; Wildt, D E; Comizzoli, P

    2018-01-01

    Do nuclear proteins in the germinal vesicle (GV) contribute to oocyte competence acquisition during folliculogenesis? Proteomic analysis of GVs identified candidate proteins for oocyte competence acquisition, including a key RNA processing protein-heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 (hnRNPA2B1). The domestic cat GV, which is physiologically similar to the human GV, gains the intrinsic ability to resume meiosis and support early embryo development during the pre-antral-to-antral follicle transition. However, little is known about nuclear proteins that contribute to this developmental process. GVs were enriched from pre-antral (incompetent) and antral (competent) follicles from 802 cat ovaries. Protein lysates were subjected to quantitative proteomic analysis to identify differentially expressed proteins in GVs from the two follicular categories. Two biological replicates (from independent pools of ovaries) of pre-antral versus antral samples were labeled by tandem mass tags and then assessed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Proteomic data were analyzed according to gene ontology and a protein-protein interaction network. Immunofluorescent staining and protein inhibition assays were used for validation. A total of 174 nuclear proteins was identified, with 54 being up-regulated and 22 down-regulated (≥1.5-fold) after antrum formation. Functional protein analysis through gene ontology over-representation tests revealed that changes in molecular network within the GVs during this transitional phase were related to chromatin reorganization, gene transcription, and maternal RNA processing and storage. Protein inhibition assays verified that hnRNPA2B1, a key nuclear protein identified, was required for oocyte meiotic maturation and subsequent blastocyst formation. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD007211. Proteins identified by proteomic comparison may (i) be involved in processes other than competence acquisition

  2. Feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus infection in free-ranging guignas (Leopardus guigna) and sympatric domestic cats in human perturbed landscapes on Chiloé Island, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Mónica; Napolitano, Constanza; Ortega, René; Poulin, Elie; Pizarro-Lucero, José

    2015-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) are two of the most common viruses affecting domestic cats (Felis catus). During the last two decades, reports show that both viruses also infect or affect other species of the family Felidae. Human landscape perturbation is one of the main causes of emerging diseases in wild animals, facilitating contact and transmission of pathogens between domestic and wild animals. We investigated FIV and FeLV infection in free-ranging guignas (Leopardus guigna) and sympatric domestic cats in human perturbed landscapes on Chiloé Island, Chile. Samples from 78 domestic cats and 15 guignas were collected from 2008 to 2010 and analyzed by PCR amplification and sequencing. Two guignas and two domestic cats were positive for FIV; three guignas and 26 domestic cats were positive for FeLV. The high percentage of nucleotide identity of FIV and FeLV sequences from both species suggests possible interspecies transmission of viruses, facilitated by increased contact probability through human invasion into natural habitats, fragmentation of guigna habitat, and poultry attacks by guignas. This study enhances our knowledge on the transmission of pathogens from domestic to wild animals in the global scenario of human landscape perturbation and emerging diseases.

  3. Uretrostomia peniana e perineal em felinos domésticos Penile and perineal urethrostomy in domestic cats

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    Erika Cosendey Toledo de Mello Peixoto

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available O conteúdo do presente trabalho é o resultado de diferentes técnicas de uretrostomia em felinos domésticos. Foram utilizados vinte quatro gatos sem raça definida, machos, distribuídos em quatro grupos de seis animais cada e submetidos a orquiectomia e aos seguintes procedimentos cirúrgicos: uretrostomia peniana cranial (grupo I, uretrostomia peniana caudal (grupoII, uretrostomia peniana craniocaudal (grupo III e uretrostomia perineal associada à penectomia cranial (grupo IV. Os resultados foram avaliados através de exame clínico geral, realizado do primeiro dia ao nonagésimo dia após intervenção cirúrgica. O aspecto macroscópico da ferida cirúrgica, grau de contração e aspecto estético foram inspecionados diariamente até a retirada dos pontos externos. Foram realizados exame de urina tipo l e urocultura, apenas nos animais que apresentaram melhores resultados: aqueles submetidos à uretrostomia peniana craniocaudal e à uretrostomia perineal associada à penectomia cranial. Esses exames foram realizados 24h antes do procedimento cirúrgico (T0, 15 (Tl e 30 (T2 do período pós-operatório. Os animais do primeiro grupo apresentaram fechamento completo da uretra peniana, os do segundo grupo apresentaram intensa retração cicatricial pós-operatória que promoveu exposição peniana permanente. Os animais do grupo III, também desenvolveram exposição peniana permanente, porém em menor grau. Os resultados apresentados por todos os indivíduos do grupo IV foramos melhores, sendo a técnica recomendada para desobstrução uretral em gatos.The content of lhe present paper is lhe result of different technics for urethrostomy in domestic cats. Twenty four mongrel males cats were used. They were distributed in four groups of six animais each and the following protocol were used: cranial penile urethrostomy (group 1, caudal penile urethrostomy (group II, association of the previous techniques (group III and association of cranial

  4. Oxidative phosphorylation is essential for felid sperm function, but is substantially lower in cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) compared to domestic cat (Felis catus) ejaculate.

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    Terrell, Kimberly A; Wildt, David E; Anthony, Nicola M; Bavister, Barry D; Leibo, S P; Penfold, Linda M; Marker, Laurie L; Crosier, Adrienne E

    2011-09-01

    Compared with the normospermic domestic cat, sperm metabolic function is compromised in the teratospermic cat and cheetah, but the pathway(s) involved in this deficiency are unknown. Glycolysis is essential for sperm motility, yet it appears to function normally in spermatozoa of either species regardless of structural morphology. We conducted a comparative study to further understand the mechanisms of energy production in felid spermatozoa, with the hypothesis that oxidative phosphorylation is required for normal sperm function and is impaired in teratospermic ejaculates. Electroejaculates from both species were stained with MitoTracker to quantify mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) or were incubated to assess changes in sperm function (motility, acrosomal integrity, and lactate production) after mitochondrial inhibition with myxothiazol. Sperm midpiece dimensions also were quantified. Sperm mitochondrial fluorescence (directly proportional to MMP) was ~95% lower in the cheetah compared with the normospermic and teratospermic cat, despite the cheetah having a 10% longer midpiece. In both species, MMP was increased 5-fold in spermatozoa with retained cytoplasm compared with structurally normal cells. Inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation impaired sperm function in both species, but a 100-fold higher inhibitor concentration was required in the cat compared with the cheetah. Collectively, findings revealed that oxidative phosphorylation was required for sperm function in the domestic cat and cheetah. This pathway of energy production appeared markedly less active in the cheetah, indicating a species-specific vulnerability to mitochondrial dysfunction. The unexpected, cross-species linkage between retained cytoplasmic droplets and elevated MMP may reflect increased concentrations of metabolic enzymes or substrates in these structures.

  5. A polymorphism in the melanocortin 4 receptor gene (MC4R:c.92C>T) is associated with diabetes mellitus in overweight domestic shorthaired cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcada, Y; Holder, A; Church, D B; Catchpole, B

    2014-01-01

    Feline diabetes mellitus (DM) shares many pathophysiologic features with human type 2 DM. Human genome-wide association studies have identified genes associated with obesity and DM, including melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), which plays an important role in energy balance and appetite regulation. To identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the feline MC4R gene and to determine whether any SNPs are associated with DM or overweight body condition in cats. Two-hundred forty domestic shorthaired (DSH) cats were recruited for the study. Of these, 120 diabetics were selected (60 overweight, 60 lean), along with 120 nondiabetic controls (60 overweight and 60 lean). Males and females were equally represented. A prospective case-control study was performed. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples and used as template for PCR amplification of the feline MC4R gene. The coding region of the gene was sequenced in 10 cats to identify polymorphisms. Subsequently, genotyping by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis assessed MC4R:c.92C > T allele and genotype frequencies in each group of cats. No significant differences in MC4R:c.92C>T allele or genotype frequencies were identified between nondiabetic overweight and lean cats. In the overweight diabetic group, 55% were homozygous for the MC4R:c.92C allele, compared to 33% of the lean diabetics and 30% of the nondiabetics. The differences between the overweight diabetic and the nondiabetics were significant (P overweight DSH cats, similar to the situation in humans. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel carboxylesterase-like protein that is physiologically present at high concentrations in the urine of domestic cats (Felis catus).

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    Miyazaki, Masao; Kamiie, Katsuyoshi; Soeta, Satoshi; Taira, Hideharu; Yamashita, Tetsuro

    2003-02-15

    Normal mammals generally excrete only small amounts of protein in the urine, thus avoiding major leakage of proteins from the body. Proteinuria is the most commonly recognized abnormality in renal disease. However, healthy domestic cats ( Felis catus ) excrete proteins at high concentrations (about 0.5 mg/ml) in their urine. We investigated the possible cause of proteinuria in healthy cats, and discovered a 70 kDa glycoprotein, which was excreted as a major urinary protein in cat urine, irrespective of gender. To elucidate the biochemical functions and the excretion mechanism of this protein, we cloned the cDNA for this protein from a cat kidney cDNA library. The deduced amino acid sequence shared 47% identity with the rat liver carboxylesterase (EC 3.1.1.1), and both the serine hydrolase active site and the carboxylesterase-specific sequence were conserved. Therefore we named this protein cauxin (carboxylesterase-like urinary excreted protein). In contrast to the mammalian carboxylesterases, most of which are localized within the cells of various organs, cauxin was expressed specifically in the epithelial cells of the distal tubules, and was secreted efficiently into the urine, probably because it lacked the endoplasmic reticulum retention sequence (HDEL). Based on our finding that cauxin is not expressed in the immature cat kidney, we conclude that cauxin is involved in physiological functions that are specific for mature cats. Recently, cauxin-like cDNAs were found from human brain and teratocarcinoma cells. These data suggest that cauxin and cauxin-like human proteins are categorized as a novel group of carboxylesterase multigene family.

  7. Critically appraised topic on adverse food reactions of companion animals (2): common food allergen sources in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Ralf S; Olivry, Thierry; Prélaud, Pascal

    2016-01-12

    To diagnose cutaneous adverse food reactions (CAFRs) in dogs and cats, dietary restriction-provocation trials are performed. Knowing the most common offending food allergens for these species would help determining the order of food challenges to optimize the time to diagnosis. The search for, and review and analysis of the best evidence available as of January 16, 2015 suggests that the most likely food allergens contributing to canine CAFRs are beef, dairy products, chicken, and wheat. The most common food allergens in cats are beef, fish and chicken. In dogs and cats, after a period of dietary restriction leading to the complete remission of clinical signs, food challenges to diagnose CAFR should begin with beef and dairy products, the most commonly recognized food allergens in these two species.

  8. Natural anti-insulin autoantibodies in cats: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of plasma anti-insulin IgG and its concentrations in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Satoshi; Nishii, Naohito; Hachisu, Tatsuyuki; Kojima, Masaaki; Kigure-Hoshino, Megumi; Ogawa, Shizuko; Suzuki, Takafumi; Iwasawa, Atsushi; Ohba, Yasunori; Kitagawa, Hitoshi

    2013-12-01

    Anti-insulin immunoglobulin G (IgG) has been found in the sera of healthy cats. To determine the concentrations of these antibodies, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for anti-insulin IgG was developed. ELISA maintained the linearity of a standard concentration line between 67.5 and 2160 ng/ml. The coefficients of variances (CVs) of intra-assays in two different plasma samples were 4.0% and 3.7%, respectively. The inter-assay CVs in two different plasma samples were 5.1% and 6.9%, respectively. The dilution curves of two samples were rectilinear. Anti-insulin IgG was detected in all 84 of the healthy cats that were tested. Plasma anti-insulin IgG concentrations ranged from 80 to 1578 μg/ml, with a median concentration of 221 μg/ml, and this value correlated positively with total plasma IgG concentrations (r=0.383, pglucose tolerance test, plasma anti-insulin IgG concentrations did not alter, even with changes in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. The ELISA that was developed was able to determine plasma anti-insulin IgG in domestic cats, and confirmed that all healthy cats had plasma anti-insulin IgG. Determining the plasma concentrations of anti-insulin IgG in cats with various pathological conditions might clarify the role of anti-insulin IgG. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reaction to and Coping With Domestic Violence by Iranian Women Victims: A Qualitative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Masoud; Shokrollahi, Paymaneh; Kohan, Shahnaz; Momeni, Ghodratollah; Rivaz, Mozhgan

    2015-11-18

    Domestic violence is a continual stressor that motivates its victim to react. The way a woman deals with her husband's violence determine the consequence of the violent relationship. In the present study, a qualitative approach was employed to investigate women's reactions to and ways of coping with domestic violence. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2014 with 18 women who experienced domestic violence in an attempt to explain how women deal with domestic violence. After the interviews were transcribed word by word, they were explored in the form of meaningful units and encoded as subcategories and categories through inductive content analysis. The reliability and validity of the interviews were measured by an external supervisor. Two categories of reaction and coping were identified through content analysis: passive and non-normative measures and active measures. Passive and non-normative measures included the subcategories of harmful behaviors, retaliation, tolerance, and silence. Active measures included seeking help and advice, legal measures, leaving the spouse, positive and health promoting measures. In the present study, ways of coping with a husband's violence among women experiencing domestic violence were divided into two categories: passive and non-normative measures and active measures. These categories confirmed the models of coping with stress in previous studies. Adopting an appropriate approach to dealing with domestic violence is affected by a woman's capacity and beliefs, the dominant culture, intensity of the violence, available social and legal supports, and effectiveness of evaluation measures. To generalize service provision to victimized women, the type of coping and the reason for adopting the chosen approach need to be taken into account.

  10. Parental reactions to parent- and sibling-directed aggression within a domestic violence context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desir, Michelle P; Karatekin, Canan

    2018-02-01

    Parent- and sibling-directed aggression by minor children are two forms of family violence that often co-occur and have strong relations to prior exposure to domestic violence, yet are often overlooked in intervention efforts. In addition, current research does not examine these forms of family violence in tandem, and there is very limited research with samples exposed to domestic violence. To better understand how these forms of aggression operate within a domestic violence context, we interviewed 44 women residing in a domestic violence shelter with at least one child over 3.5 years of age who was aggressive toward them and/or siblings. Caregivers reported on their emotional reactions to children's parent-directed aggression and the types of and effectiveness of help they sought for parent- and/or sibling-directed aggression. In line with previous literature, caregivers endorsed a complex mix of emotional reactions to their children's parent-directed aggression, including anger, sadness, guilt, forgiveness, and worthlessness. In contrast to other studies, most caregivers (89%) had sought help for children's parent- and/or sibling-directed aggression and found it effective. Findings contribute to the literature on parent- and sibling-directed aggression and provide implications for how to effectively intervene.

  11. Coxiella burnetii (Q-Fever) Seroprevalence in Prey and Predators in the United Kingdom: Evaluation of Infection in Wild Rodents, Foxes and Domestic Cats Using a Modified ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, A L; Cleaveland, S C; Denwood, M J; Brown, J K; Shaw, D J

    2015-12-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q-fever, is recognized as a worldwide zoonosis with a wide host range and potentially complex reservoir systems. Infected ruminants are the main source of infection for humans, but cats and other mammals, including wild rodents, also represent potential sources of infection. There has been a recent upsurge of reported cases in humans, domestic ruminants and wildlife in many parts of the world, and studies have indicated that wild brown rats may act as true reservoirs for C. burnetii and be implicated in outbreaks in livestock and humans. However, investigation of reservoir systems is limited by lack of validated serological tests for wildlife or other non-target species. In this study, serum samples from 796 wild rodents (180 bank voles, 309 field voles, 307 wood mice) 102 wild foxes and 26 domestic cats from three study areas in the UK were tested for the presence of antibodies to C. burnetii using a commercial indirect ELISA kit modified for use in multiple wildlife species. Test thresholds were determined for each species in the absence of species-specific reference sera using a bi-modal latent class mixture model to discriminate between positive from negative results. Based on the thresholds determined, seroprevalence in the wild rodents ranged from 15.6% to 19.1% depending on species (overall 17.3%) and was significantly higher in both foxes (41.2%) and cats (61.5%) than in rodents. This is the first report to quantify seroprevalence to C. burnetii in bank voles, field voles, wood mice, foxes and cats in the UK and provides evidence that predator species could act as indicators for the presence of C. burnetii in rodents. The study demonstrates that wildlife species could be significant reservoirs of infection for both livestock and humans, and the high seroprevalence in domestic cats highlights the potential zoonotic risk from this species. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Coinfection by Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania spp. in domestic cats (Felis catus in State of Mato Grosso do Sul

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    Audrey Rennó Campos Braga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Leishmaniasis and toxoplasmosis are important to public health. Methods Antibodies for Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania spp. were evaluated in cats from Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, a region endemic for canine visceral leishmaniasis. Serum samples from 50 asymptomatic cats were titrated for T. gondii by the immunofluorescence antibody test and modified agglutination test and for Leishmania spp. by the immunofluorescence antibody test. Results These two agents coinfected two (4% of the 50 tested animals. Conclusions These findings demonstrate the concomitant presence of two important zoonoses in cats from Brazilian endemic regions for canine visceral leishmaniasis.

  13. Genetic analysis shows low levels of hybridization between African wildcats (Felis silvestris lybica) and domestic cats (F. s. catus) in South Africa.

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    Le Roux, Johannes J; Foxcroft, Llewellyn C; Herbst, Marna; MacFadyen, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization between domestic and wild animals is a major concern for biodiversity conservation, and as habitats become increasingly fragmented, conserving biodiversity at all levels, including genetic, becomes increasingly important. Except for tropical forests and true deserts, African wildcats occur across the African continent; however, almost no work has been carried out to assess its genetic status and extent of hybridization with domestic cats. For example, in South Africa it has been argued that the long-term viability of maintaining pure wildcat populations lies in large protected areas only, isolated from human populations. Two of the largest protected areas in Africa, the Kgalagadi Transfrontier and Kruger National Parks, as well as the size of South Africa and range of landscape uses, provide a model situation to assess how habitat fragmentation and heterogeneity influences the genetic purity of African wildcats. Using population genetic and home range data, we examined the genetic purity of African wildcats and their suspected hybrids across South Africa, including areas within and outside of protected areas. Overall, we found African wildcat populations to be genetically relatively pure, but instances of hybridization and a significant relationship between the genetic distinctiveness (purity) of wildcats and human population pressure were evident. The genetically purest African wildcats were found in the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park, while samples from around Kruger National Park showed cause for concern, especially combined with the substantial human population density along the park's boundary. While African wildcat populations in South Africa generally appear to be genetically pure, with low levels of hybridization, our genetic data do suggest that protected areas may play an important role in maintaining genetic purity by reducing the likelihood of contact with domestic cats. We suggest that approaches such as corridors between protected areas

  14. Apparent total tract energy and macronutrient digestibility of one- to three-day-old, adult ground, extruded, and canned chicken-based diets in domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, K R; Morris, C L; Burke, S L; Swanson, K S

    2014-08-01

    There has been a recent increase in the popularity of feeding unconventional diets, including whole prey diets, to domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus). Data are needed that allow animal caretakers to choose and formulate diets that meet the nutritional requirements of their cats. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of feeding 1- to 3-d-old whole chicks (WHO), ground adult chicken product (GRO), a chicken-based canned diet (CAN), and a chicken-based extruded diet (EXT) on apparent total tract energy and macronutrient digestibility, N balance, and blood metabolites of domestic cats (n = 11). Macronutrient, energy, and moisture concentrations of diets varied greatly (e.g., CP: 35 to 72% DM); however, cats fed all diets maintained BW and N balance. In general, cats fed WHO had lower nutrient digestibility than those fed CAN and EXT. Cats fed GRO had greater nutrient digestibility than cats fed commercial diets. For example, apparent OM and GE digestibility coefficients were greater (P ≤ 0.05) for cats fed CAN (86 and 88%, respectively), EXT (88 and 88%), and GRO (94 and 95%) compared with those fed WHO (83 and 83%) and greater (P ≤ 0.05) for cats fed GRO compared with those fed CAN and EXT. Many blood metabolites were modified by diet, but most remained within reference ranges for domestic cats. Serum cholesterol was elevated above the reference range for all treatments and greater (P ≤ 0.05) for cats fed WHO compared with those fed CAN, EXT, and GRO. Serum creatinine concentrations were above the reference range for all treatments and greater (P ≤ 0.05) for cats fed GRO compared with those fed CAN or WHO. These data indicate that the whole prey tested herein maintained short-term health and are adequately digestible for use in companion animal diets. Research is needed to determine the global and long-term health implications of feeding whole or ground diets to domestic cats, which may be different in terms of macronutrient, energy, and moisture

  15. Blood and seminal plasma concentrations of selenium, zinc and testosterone and their relationship to sperm quality and testicular biometry in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, Ana Izabel S B; Fioratti, Eduardo G; Ramos, Renata S; Neves, Renato C F; Ferreira, João Carlos P; Cardoso, Guilherme S; Padilha, Pedro M; Lopes, Maria Denise

    2014-11-10

    The aim of this study was to assess seminal plasma (SP) and serum concentrations of zinc (Zn), selenium (Se) and testosterone (T) in domestic cats and determine whether these are related to sperm quality and testicular biometry. Six tomcats were collected using an artificial vagina and sperm analysis included motility by CASA, morphology, plasma membrane integrity, and sperm count. Serum and SP were submitted to total T concentration determination using a solid-phase radioimmunoassay technique while Zn and Se were measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Serum T concentrations were greater compared to SP concentrations, but both values were significantly correlated. Se concentrations were higher in serum, whereas SP had greater Zn values. Concentrations of Se, Zn and T were not correlated with each other either in serum or SP. Negative correlations were detected between Se concentrations in SP and total sperm head defects, and between Se concentrations in serum and VAP, VSL, STR, and LIN. Serum concentrations of Zn were negatively correlated with total abnormal sperm and midpiece defects and positively related to progressive motility. Both serum and SP concentrations of T had no relationship with sperm quality. Concentrations of Se exhibited a negative correlation with total testicular weight, whereas T concentrations in SP and serum were correlated with total testicular volume and weight. In conclusion, both Se and Zn concentrations in serum were correlated to sperm quality variables in the domestic cat, thus, making these potential candidates for fertility markers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy to detect anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibody in blood sera of domestic cats: quantitative analysis based on partial least-squares multivariate statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Janaína; Pacheco, Marcos T. T.; Villaverde, Antonio Balbin; Machado, Rosangela Z.; Zângaro, Renato A.; Silveira, Landulfo

    2010-07-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an important zoonosis in public health because domestic cats are the main agents responsible for the transmission of this disease in Brazil. We investigate a method for diagnosing toxoplasmosis based on Raman spectroscopy. Dispersive near-infrared Raman spectra are used to quantify anti-Toxoplasma gondii (IgG) antibodies in blood sera from domestic cats. An 830-nm laser is used for sample excitation, and a dispersive spectrometer is used to detect the Raman scattering. A serological test is performed in all serum samples by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for validation. Raman spectra are taken from 59 blood serum samples and a quantification model is implemented based on partial least squares (PLS) to quantify the sample's serology by Raman spectra compared to the results provided by the ELISA test. Based on the serological values provided by the Raman/PLS model, diagnostic parameters such as sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive prediction values, and negative prediction values are calculated to discriminate negative from positive samples, obtaining 100, 80, 90, 83.3, and 100%, respectively. Raman spectroscopy, associated with the PLS, is promising as a serological assay for toxoplasmosis, enabling fast and sensitive diagnosis.

  17. Comparison of lyophilization, and freezing in honey as techniques to preserve cortical bone allografts used to repair experimental femoral defects in domestic adult cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Ferreira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cats with orthopedic conditions are a prominent part of the clinical work of veterinary. Conditions such as comminuted fractures, bone tumors and non-unions are often difficult to repair and may require the use of bone grafts for treatment. This study evaluated cortical bone allografts preserved in honey, frozen or lyophilized for correcting long bone defects created in the diaphysis of the right femur of domestic cats (n=24. In the control group (n=6, the defect was repaired using autogenous cortical bone graft. In the remaining animals (n=6/group, the defect was repaired with cortical bone allografts preserved in honey, frozen or lyophilized. Success of graft incorporation and length of time for consolidation were assessed through clinical, radiographic and histological evaluations performed up to 180 days. In the control, frozen, honey and lyophylized groups, respectively, success of graft incorporation was 91.6%, 83.3%, 75%, and 25%, with corresponding mean length of time for consolidation of 83.1, 78, 105 and 120 days. Incorporation percentage in the lyophilized group was significantly lower than in the frozen and control groups. In conclusion, bone grafts preserved in honey or frozen were effective for repairing cortical defects in the femurs of cats as compared to autogenous cortical bone grafts.

  18. Assessment of dental plaque coverage by Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence (QLF) in domestic short-haired cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall-Jones, Zoe V; Wallis, Corrin V; Allsopp, Judi M; Colyer, Alison; Davis, Ian J; Holcombe, Lucy J

    2017-04-01

    Dietary means of reducing plaque and calculus deposits are frequently sought for the maintenance of oral health in cats and dogs. In the development of such products sensitive, reliable, reproducible methods of measuring plaque and calculus are key. The aim of this study was to assess Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence (QLF™) for the detection of dental plaque coverage in cats compared to the modified Logan and Boyce technique. The techniques were utilised in a crossover study, which compared two diets for their effect on plaque deposition in a cohort of 24 adult cats. Analysis of the effect of diet on plaque coverage by both the modified Logan and Boyce technique and QLF showed a significant effect of feeding regime (p=0.024 and p≤0.0001, respectively) with good agreement between the techniques in the percentage reduction of plaque accumulation. A within study assessment of QLF demonstrated excellent intra-operator repeatability (coefficient of variation 2.2%). Similarly, inter-operator reproducibility was also good (coefficient of variation 2.3%). A retrospective analysis, using the data to estimate the sample size required for at least 90% power to detect a 15% difference between treatments in a two-way crossover study, established that 10 cats would be sufficient for plaque measurement by QLF, while assessment by the modified Logan and Boyce method required over 30 cats. QLF was determined to be a reliable, reproducible method for the assessment of plaque deposition in cats and requires fewer subjects for the detection of differences between treatment effects compared to the modified Logan and Boyce method. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. The domestic dog and cat as models for understanding the regulation of ovarian follicle development in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songsasen, N.; Comizzoli, P.; Nagashima, J.; Fujihara, M.; Wildt, D.E

    2012-01-01

    The culture of ovarian follicles is an important tool for understanding of the mechanisms controlling follicle development and differentiation of its oocyte. The benefit of recovering meiotically and developmentally competent oocytes from early stage follicles (primordial, primary, preantral and early antral) also would be significant, ranging from rescue of genomes from endangered species to preserving fertility in women facing cancer treatments. This field of research is at an early stage of scientific discovery. To-date, live offspring from cultured primordial follicles that produced fertilizable oocytes has occurred only in the mouse. Progress in other more complex species has been limited because larger animals have longer durations of natural folliculogenesis, thereby requiring more culture time to generate fully grown follicles and oocytes. We believe the dog and cat are excellent models for understanding more about folliculogenesis in vitro. This review highlights what is known about this topic for these two species as well as future priorities. In brief, it is more challenging to maintain viability of primordial follicles within ovarian tissues in vitro in the dog than the cat. Nonetheless, it is possible to grow both isolated cat and dog preantral follicles in culture. Although the follicles of both species have the capacity to increase in size and produce steroids, only cat oocytes are morphologically normal. This striking difference between the dog and cat is an area of high research priority. While much more fundamental data are required, we envision advanced technology that will allow harvesting oocytes from the vast, unused follicle stores sequestered within carnivore ovaries. These gametes have utility for reproducing genetically valuable dogs and cats that are ‘companions’ or biomedical models for investigating human disorders or for salvaging the genomes of rare canid and felid species that die before contributing to genetic management

  20. A nationwide survey of ixodid tick species recovered from domestic dogs and cats in Japan in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakami, Shinya; Ichikawa, Yasuaki; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2014-10-01

    A nationwide survey of ixodid ticks was performed in 2011, during which a total of 4237 and 298 ticks were recovered from 1162 dogs and 136 cats, respectively. Haemaphysalis longicornis was the most frequently found tick species on canine hosts (739 dogs), followed by H. flava (166), Ixodes ovatus (139), and Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (70). H. hystricis, H. japonica, H. megaspinosa, H. formosensis, H. campanulata, H. ias, I. nipponensis, I. persulcatus, and Amblyomma testudinarium were also recovered. H. longicornis was also the most frequently found species on feline hosts (52 cats), followed by I. ovatus (34), A. testudinarium (19), and H. flava (12). H. hystricis, H. japonica, H. megaspinosa, I. nipponensis, I. persulcatus, I. granulatus and R. sanguineus sensu lato were also recovered from cats. The three major species of ticks found on dogs and cats, H. longicornis, H. flava, and I. ovatus, displayed a wide geographical distribution, with specimens found throughout northern and southern Japan. R. sanguineus sensu lato was primarily recovered in Okinawa, but was also found in Kanagawa, Wakayama, Hiroshima, and Yamaguchi Prefectures. A. testudinarium was mainly distributed throughout western Japan, but small numbers were also recovered from Gumma and Shizuoka Prefectures. H. longicornis was more frequently found on dogs in rural areas than those in urban or suburban areas. Exposure to woodland environments was significantly associated with H. flava and I. ovatus in dogs. Dogs in urban or suburban areas encountered R. sanguineus sensu lato more often than other tick species. Most of the cats surveyed in the present study were from rural areas. In the present study, H. hystricis and R. sanguineus sensu lato were found on cats for the first time in Japan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Detection of Chloramphenicol Resistance Genes (cat in Clinical Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with Polymerase Chain Reaction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiana Milanda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic Gram negative bacteria, which may cause infection in eyes, ears, skin, bones, central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, circulatory system, heart, respiratory system, and urinary tract. Recently, chloramphenicol is no longer used as the main option of the therapy due of its resistance case. The aim of this research was to detect the presence of gene which is responsible to chloramphenicol resistance in clinical isolates of P.aeruginosa. These bacteria isolated from pus of external otitis patients in Hasan Sadikin Hospital in Bandung City. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR method (colony-PCR and DNA-PCR were performed to detect this resistance gene. Electropherogram from PCR products showed that the chloramphenicol resistance in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa was caused by cat gene (317 bp. Based on this research, cat gene may be used to detect the chloramphenicol resistance in patients with external ostitis.

  2. Antibody Detection and Molecular Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from Bobcats (Lynx rufus), Domestic Cats (Felis catus), and Wildlife from Minnesota, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shiv K; Minicucci, Larissa; Murphy, Darby; Carstensen, Michelle; Humpal, Carolin; Wolf, Paul; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Cerqueira-Cézar, Camila K; Kwok, Oliver C H; Su, Chunlei; Hill, Dolores; Dubey, Jitender P

    2016-09-01

    Little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in Minnesota. Here, we evaluated Toxoplasma gondii infection in 50 wild bobcats (Lynx rufus) and 75 other animals on/near 10 cattle farms. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed in serum samples or tissue fluids by the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off 1:25). Twenty nine of 50 bobcats and 15 of 41 wildlife trapped on the vicinity of 10 farms and nine of 16 adult domestic cats (Felis catus) and six of 14 domestic dogs resident on farms were seropositive. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were not found in feces of any felid. Tissues of all seropositive wild animals trapped on the farm were bioassayed in mice and viable T. gondii was isolated from two badgers (Taxidea taxus), two raccoons (Procyon lotor), one coyote (Canis latrans), and one opossum (Didelphis virginiana). All six T. gondii isolates were further propagated in cell culture. Multi-locus PCR-RFLP genotyping using 10 markers (SAG1, SAG2 (5'-3'SAG2, and alt.SAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico), and DNA from cell culture derived tachyzoites revealed three genotypes; #5 ToxoDataBase (1 coyote, 1 raccoon), #1 (1 badger, 1 raccoon, 1 opossum), and #2 (1 badger). This is the first report of T. gondii prevalence in domestic cats and in bobcats from Minnesota, and the first isolation of viable T. gondii from badger. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Propionate absorbed from the colon acts as gluconeogenic substrate in a strict carnivore, the domestic cat (Felis catus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbrugghe, A; Hesta, M; Daminet, S

    2012-01-01

    In six normal-weight and six obese cats, the metabolic effect of propionate absorbed from the colon was assessed. Two colonic infusions were tested in a crossover design with intervals of 4 weeks. The test solution contained 4 mmol sodium propionate per kg ideal body weight in a 0.2% NaCl solution...

  4. Efficacy of a topically administered combination of emodepside and praziquantel against mature and immature Ancylostoma tubaeforme in domestic cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altreuther, G.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Buch, J.; Charles, S.D.; Cruthers, L.; Epe, C.; Young, D.R.; Krieger, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the efficacy of emodepside/praziquantel spot¿on (Profender®, Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany), a novel broadspectrum anthelmintic for dermal application, against L4 larvae and immature adult and adult stages of Ancylostoma tubaeforme in cats. The formulation contains 2.14% (w/w)

  5. Viral diagnostic criteria for Feline immunodeficiency virus and Feline leukemia virus infections in domestic cats from Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdo Novo, Sabrina; Bucafusco, Danilo; Diaz, Leandro M; Bratanich, Ana Cristina

    A cross-sectional study was carried out on cats attending the Small Animal Hospital at the Faculty of Veterinary Sciences of the University of Buenos Aires to assess the prevalence and associated risk factors of Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Blood samples from 255 cats with symptoms compatible with FIV or FeLV infection, collected between 2009 and 2013 were analyzed by serology (immunochromatography, IA) and by hemi-nested PCR (n-PCR). The IA and n-PCR assays showed similar percentages of positivity for FIV while the n-PCR test was more sensitive for FeLV. Differences between the diagnostic tests and their choice according to the age of the animal are discussed. The clinical histories of ninety of the 255 cats showed blood profiles similar to others previously reported and revealed a higher risk of infection in male adult cats with outdoor access. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Seasonal Changes in Testes Vascularisation in the Domestic Cat (Felis domesticus: Evaluation of Microvasculature, Angiogenic Activity, and Endothelial Cell Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graça Alexandre-Pires

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Some male seasonal breeders undergo testicular growth and regression throughout the year. The objective of this study was to understand the effect of seasonality on: (i microvasculature of cat testes; (ii angiogenic activity in testicular tissue in vitro; and (iii testicular endothelial cells expression throughout the year. Testicular vascular areas increased in March and April, June and July, being the highest in November and December. Testes tissue differently stimulated in vitro angiogenic activity, according to seasonality, being more evident in February, and November and December. Even though CD143 expression was higher in December, smaller peaks were present in April and July. As changes in angiogenesis may play a role on testes vascular growth and regression during the breeding and non-breeding seasons, data suggest that testicular vascularisation in cats is increased in three photoperiod windows of time, November/December, March/April and June/July. This increase in testicular vascularisation might be related to higher seasonal sexual activity in cats, which is in agreement with the fact that most queens give birth at the beginning of the year, between May and July, and in September.

  7. Pathology of articular cartilage and synovial membrane from elbow joints with and without degenerative joint disease in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, M; Meuten, D; Lascelles, D

    2014-09-01

    The elbow joint is one of the feline appendicular joints most commonly and severely affected by degenerative joint disease. The macroscopic and histopathological lesions of the elbow joints of 30 adult cats were evaluated immediately after euthanasia. Macroscopic evidence of degenerative joint disease was found in 22 of 30 cats (39 elbow joints) (73.33% cats; 65% elbow joints), and macroscopic cartilage erosion ranged from mild fibrillation to complete ulceration of the hyaline cartilage with exposure of the subchondral bone. Distribution of the lesions in the cartilage indicated the presence of medial compartment joint disease (most severe lesions located in the medial coronoid process of the ulna and medial humeral epicondyle). Synovitis scores were mild overall and correlated only weakly with macroscopic cartilage damage. Intra-articular osteochondral fragments either free or attached to the synovium were found in 10 joints. Macroscopic or histologic evidence of a fragmented coronoid process was not found even in those cases with intra-articular osteochondral fragments. Lesions observed in these animals are most consistent with synovial osteochondromatosis secondary to degenerative joint disease. The pathogenesis for the medial compartmentalization of these lesions has not been established, but a fragmented medial coronoid process or osteochondritis dissecans does not appear to play a role. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Key factors enhancing sperm fertilizing ability are transferred from the epididymis to the spermatozoa via epididymosomes in the domestic cat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlison, Tricia; Ottinger, Mary Ann; Comizzoli, Pierre

    2017-11-14

    Spermatozoa undergo critical changes in structure and function during the epididymal transit. Our previous studies in the domestic cat demonstrated that incidence of cenexin-a key protein involved in the centrosomal maturation-progressively increases in sperm cells from caput to cauda epididymidis. The objectives of the study were to (1) characterize mechanisms involved in transferring key factors-using the cenexin as a marker-between the epididymis and maturing sperm cells and (2) demonstrate the impact of such mechanisms on the acquisition of functional properties by spermatozoa. Epididymides were dissected from adult cat testes to assess the presence and localization of cenexin in testicular tissues and each epididymal segment (caput, corpus, and cauda) via immunofluorescence, Western blot, and mass spectrometry. Results showed that tissues, luminal fluid, and isolated epididymosomes from each segment contained cenexin. Co-incubation of immature sperm cells for 3 h with luminal fluid or epididymosomes followed by immunostaining revealed that percentages of sperm cells containing cenexin significantly increased in samples co-incubated with epididymosome suspensions. Additionally, epididymosome co-incubation with immature spermatozoa resulted in sustained motility compared to untreated spermatozoa while there was no significant effect on acrosome integrity. Taken together, these results suggest that epididymosomes play a critical role in epididymal sperm maturation and could be ideal vehicles to assist in the enhancement or suppression of male fertility.

  9. Variation in the ITS-1 and ITS-2 rRNA genomic regions of Cytauxzoon felis from bobcats and pumas in the eastern United States and comparison with sequences from domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock, Barbara C; Birkenheuer, Adam J; Patton, Laura L; Olfenbuttel, Colleen; Beringer, Jeff; Grove, Daniel M; Peek, Matt; Butfiloski, Joseph W; Hughes, Daymond W; Lockhart, J Mitchell; Cunningham, Mark W; Brown, Holly M; Peterson, David S; Yabsley, Michael J

    2012-11-23

    Cytauxzoon felis, a tick-borne protozoan parasite, is the causative agent of cytauxzoonosis in domestic cats in the United States. The natural reservoir for this parasite is the bobcat (Lynx rufus), which typically does not develop clinical signs. Although not likely important reservoirs, C. felis has also been detected in pumas (Puma concolor) in Florida and Louisiana. Recent studies suggest that specific genotypes of C. felis that circulate in domestic cats may be associated with variable clinical outcomes and specific spatial locations. In the current study, we investigated the intraspecific variation of the C. felis internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-1 and ITS-2 rRNA regions from 145 wild felids (139 bobcats and six pumas) from 11 states (Florida, Georgia, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, North Carolina, North Dakota, South Carolina, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania). Unambiguous ITS-1 and ITS-2 data were obtained for 144 and 112 samples, respectively, and both ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences were obtained for 111 (77%) samples. For the ITS-1 region, sequences from 65 samples collected from wild felids were identical to those previously reported in domestic cats, while the other 79 sequences were unique. C. felis from 45 bobcats and one puma had ITS-1 sequences identical to the most common sequence reported from domestic cats. Within the ITS-2 region, sequences from 49 bobcats were identical to those previously reported in domestic cats and 63 sequences were unique (with some occurring in more than one bobcat). The most common ITS-2 sequence from domestic cats was also common in wild felids (31 bobcats and a puma). Samples from three pumas from Florida and two bobcats from Missouri had a 40- or 41-bp insert in the ITS-2 similar to one described previously in a domestic cat from Arkansas. Additionally, a previously undescribed 198- or 199-bp insert was detected in the ITS-2 sequence from four bobcats. Collectively, based on combined ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences, five

  10. Source of protein supplementation during in vitro culture does not affect the quality of resulting blastocysts in the domestic cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, E; Graves-Herring, J; Keefer, C; Comizzoli, P

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess and compare the quality of cat blastocysts produced in vitro using commercial blastocyst growth media supplemented with different sources of proteins (serum protein substitute from in vitro maturation through embryo development vs 4 mg/ml of bovine serum albumin for maturation and 5% foetal calf serum for fertilization and embryo development). Impact was specifically examined on the proportion of blastocyst formation, total number of blastomeres, proportion of inner cell mass and expression of pluripotency marker proteins NANOG and OCT-4. Blastocyst formation per total cleaved embryos was similar (p > 0.05) regardless of the protein supplementation. There were no differences (p > 0.05) between culture conditions regarding average number of blastomeres and proportion of inner cell mass in each embryo. Presence of OCT-4 protein was detected in nuclei of both trophectoderm and inner cell mass region, with a stronger signal in the latter regardless of the culture medium. NANOG protein also was present in the inner cell mass regardless of the in vitro culture condition. We therefore demonstrated that serum protein substitute was as good as semi-defined protein sources for the production of good-quality blastocysts and embryonic stem cells. In addition, a single defined medium could be successfully used for cat oocyte maturation, in vitro fertilization and embryo development. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. rROP2 from Toxoplasma gondii as a potential vaccine against oocyst shedding in domestic cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauton Luiz Zulpo

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the present study was to evaluate oocyst shedding in cats immunized by nasal route with T. gondii proteins ROP2. Twelve short hair cats (Felis catus were divided in three groups G1, G2 and G3 (n=4. Animals from G1 received 100 μg of rROP2 proteins plus 20 μg of Quil-A, G2 received 100 μg of BSA plus 20 μg of Quil-A, and the G3 only saline solution (control group. All treatments were done by intranasal route at days 0, 21, 42, and 63. The challenge was performed in all groups on day 70 with ≅ 800 tissue cysts of ME-49 strain by oral route. Animals from G1 shed less oocysts (86.7% than control groups. ELISA was used to detect anti-rROP2 IgG and IgA, however, there were no correlation between number of oocyst shedding by either IgG or IgA antibody levels. In the present work, in spite of lesser oocysts production in immunized group than control groups, it was not possible to associate the use of rROP2 via nostrils with protection against oocyst shedding. For the future, the use of either other recombinant proteins or DNA vaccine, in combination with rROP2 could be tested to try improving the efficacy of this kind of vaccine.

  12. Distribution of blood types in a sample of 245 New Zealand non-purebred cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattin, R P

    2016-05-01

    To determine the distribution of feline blood types in a sample of non-pedigree, domestic cats in New Zealand, whether a difference exists in this distribution between domestic short haired and domestic long haired cats, and between the North and South Islands of New Zealand; and to calculate the risk of a random blood transfusion causing a severe transfusion reaction, and the risk of a random mating producing kittens susceptible to neonatal isoerythrolysis. The results of 245 blood typing tests in non-pedigree cats performed at the New Zealand Veterinary Pathology (NZVP) and Gribbles Veterinary Pathology laboratories between the beginning of 2009 and the end of 2014 were retrospectively collated and analysed. Cats that were identified as domestic short or long haired were included. For the cats tested at Gribbles Veterinary Pathology 62 were from the North Island, and 27 from the South Island. The blood type distribution differed between samples from the two laboratories (p=0.029), but not between domestic short and long haired cats (p=0.50), or between the North and South Islands (p=0.76). Of the 89 cats tested at Gribbles Veterinary Pathology, 70 (79%) were type A, 18 (20%) type B, and 1 (1%) type AB; for NZVP 139/156 (89.1%) cats were type A, 16 (10.3%) type B, and 1 (0.6%) type AB. It was estimated that 18.3-31.9% of random blood transfusions would be at risk of a transfusion reaction, and neonatal isoerythrolysis would be a risk in 9.2-16.1% of random matings between non-pedigree cats. The results from this study suggest that there is a high risk of complications for a random blood transfusion between non-purebred cats in New Zealand. Neonatal isoerythrolysis should be considered an important differential diagnosis in illness or mortality in kittens during the first days of life.

  13. Responsiveness of cats (Felidae) to silver vine (Actinidia polygama), Tatarian honeysuckle (Lonicera tatarica), valerian (Valeriana officinalis) and catnip (Nepeta cataria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bol, Sebastiaan; Caspers, Jana; Buckingham, Lauren; Anderson-Shelton, Gail Denise; Ridgway, Carrie; Buffington, C A Tony; Schulz, Stefan; Bunnik, Evelien M

    2017-03-16

    Olfactory stimulation is an often overlooked method of environmental enrichment for cats in captivity. The best known example of olfactory enrichment is the use of catnip, a plant that can cause an apparently euphoric reaction in domestic cats and most of the Pantherinae. It has long been known that some domestic cats and most tigers do not respond to catnip. Although many anecdotes exist of other plants with similar effects, data are lacking about the number of cats that respond to these plants, and if cats that do not respond to catnip respond to any of them. Furthermore, much is still unknown about which chemicals in these plants cause this response. We tested catnip, silver vine, Tatarian honeysuckle and valerian root on 100 domestic cats and observed their response. Each cat was offered all four plant materials and a control, multiple times. Catnip and silver vine also were offered to nine tigers. The plant materials were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry to quantify concentrations of compounds believed to exert stimulating effects on cats. Nearly all domestic cats responded positively to olfactory enrichment. In agreement with previous studies, one out of every three cats did not respond to catnip. Almost 80% of the domestic cats responded to silver vine and about 50% to Tatarian honeysuckle and valerian root. Although cats predominantly responded to fruit galls of the silver vine plant, some also responded positively to its wood. Of the cats that did not respond to catnip, almost 75% did respond to silver vine and about one out of three to Tatarian honeysuckle. Unlike domestic cats, tigers were either not interested in silver vine or responded disapprovingly. The amount of nepetalactone was highest in catnip and only present at marginal levels in the other plants. Silver vine contained the highest concentrations of all other compounds tested. Olfactory enrichment for cats may have great potential. Silver vine powder from dried

  14. The effect of different photoperiods on plasma concentrations of melatonin, prolactin, and cortisol in the domestic cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, H; Addiego, L; Stabenfeldt, G

    1984-11-01

    These studies investigated the effects of photoperiod on plasma melatonin, PRL, and cortisol concentrations in cats. Animals were placed in one of three different photoperiod regimens [short (SP), 8 h of light, 16 h of darkness (8L:16D); normal (NP), 14L:10D; long (LP), 24L:OD] 140 days before experimentation (n = 4/group). In the first experiment, melatonin, PRL, and cortisol concentrations were measured in plasma obtained at 2-h intervals for 24 h. Peak melatonin concentrations were significantly different (P less than 0.05) in the groups with SP greater than NP greater than LP (9226 +/- 1052 vs. 3890 +/- 556 vs. 590 +/- 198 pg/ml, respectively). Melatonin concentrations declined significantly (P less than 0.01) during the last 2 h of dark in the SP animals, but not in NP animals. Acrophases for melatonin biorhythms occurred at 0030, 0430, and 0215 h for SP, NP, and LP, respectively. Significant regression coefficients were found for 8-, 12-, and 24-h cycles in the SP and for 8- and 24-h cycles in the NP (none in the LP). PRL concentrations were significantly higher during darkness in cats under a longer duration of dark with SP greater than NP greater than LP (164 +/- 5 vs. 57 +/- 3 vs. 26 +/- 7 ng/ml, respectively; P less than 0.05). Acrophases for SP and NP PRL biorhythms were similar (0145 vs. 0200 h, respectively), while exposure to a LP resulted in a major change in the acrophase (1200 h). Cortisol secretion was not affected by photoperiod. In the second experiment, animals entrained to SP for about 160 days were exposed to light at 2000 h for 12 h (6 h after lights off). Significant decreases (P less than 0.05) in PRL concentrations were noted within 2 h and in melatonin concentrations by 4 h (first sample analyzed). In a third experiment, animals entrained to a LP released significantly more PRL in response to TRH administration (P less than 0.001) than did those in NP and SP. The data indicate that melatonin and PRL secretion, but not cortisol secretion

  15. Detection of Paragonimus heterotremus eggs in experimentally infected cats by a polymerase chain reaction-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intapan, Pewpan M; Wongkham, Chaisiri; Imtawil, Kanokwan J; Pumidonming, Wilawan; Prasongdee, Thidarat K; Miwa, Masanao; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2005-02-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure for the detection of Paragonimus heterotremus eggs in stool samples was developed and compared with Stoll's egg count method. The primers were designed on the basis of a previously constructed pPH-13-specific DNA probe, which produced an approximate 0.5-kb amplified product. This PCR method could detect as few as 5 eggs in 0.6 g of artificially inoculated feces of a healthy control cat or as little as 1 x 10(-4) ng of P. heterotremus genomic DNA. The assay had 100% sensitivity in all infected cats. The method did not yield an approximate 0.5-kb product with DNA from other parasites such as Gnathostoma spinigerum, Trichinella spiralis, Fasciola gigantica, Echinostoma malayanum, Opisthorchis viverrini, Dirofilaria immitis, and Taenia saginata; exceptions were Paragonimus siamensis and Paragonimus westermani. In addition, no genomic DNA from Escherichia coli, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Acinetobacter anitratus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureus, beta-Streptococcus grA, and Proteus mirabilis or from the vertebrate and invertebrate hosts of P. heterotremus was amplified in the PCR assay. This assay has great potential for application in clinical epidemiological studies.

  16. Critically appraised topic on adverse food reactions of companion animals (4): can we diagnose adverse food reactions in dogs and cats with in vivo or in vitro tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Ralf S; Olivry, Thierry

    2017-08-30

    The gold standard to diagnose adverse food reactions (AFRs) in the dog and cat is currently an elimination diet with subsequent provocation trials. However, those trials are inconvenient and client compliance can be low. Our objective was to systematically review the literature to evaluate in vivo and in vitro tests used to diagnose AFR in small animals. We searched three databases (CAB Abstracts, MEDLINE and Web of Science) for pertinent references on September 16, 2016. Among 71, 544 and 41 articles found in the CAB Abstract, MEDLINE and Web of Science databases, respectively, we selected 22 articles and abstracts from conference proceedings that reported data usable for evaluation of tests for AFR. Serum tests for food-specific IgE and IgG, intradermal testing with food antigens, lymphocyte proliferation tests, fecal food-specific IgE, patch, gastroscopic, and colonoscopic testing were evaluated. Testing for serum food-specific IgE and IgG showed low repeatability and, in dogs, a highly variable accuracy. In cats, the accuracy of testing for food-specific IgE was low. Lymphocyte proliferation tests were more frequently positive and more accurate in animals with AFR, but, as they are more difficult to perform, they remain currently a research tool. All other reported tests were only evaluated by individual studies with small numbers of animals. Negative patch test reactions have a very high negative predictability in dogs and could enable a choice of ingredients for the elimination diet in selected patients. Gastroscopic and colonoscopic testing as well as food-specific fecal IgE or food-specific serum IgG measurements appear less useful. Currently, the best diagnostic procedure to identify AFRs in small animals remains an elimination diet with subsequent provocation trials.

  17. Coping Style Modifies General and Affective Autonomic Reactions of Domestic Pigs in Different Behavioral Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Krause

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on individual adaptive strategies (coping, animals may react differently to environmental challenges in terms of behavior and physiology according to their emotional perception. Emotional valence as well as arousal may be derived by measuring vagal and sympathetic tone of the autonomic nervous system (ANS. We investigated the situation-dependent autonomic response of 16 domestic pigs with either a reactive or a proactive coping style, previously selected according to the backtest which is accepted in piglets to assess escape behavior. At 11 weeks of age, the pigs were equipped with an implantable telemetric device, and heart rate (HR, blood pressure (BP and their respective variabilities (HRV, BPV were recorded for 1 h daily over a time period of 10 days and analyzed in four behavioral contexts (resting, feeding, idling, handling. Additionally, the first minute of feeding and handling was used for a short-term analysis of these parameters in 10-s intervals. Data from day 1–3 (period 1 and day 8–10 (period 2 were grouped into two separate periods. Our results revealed general differences between the coping styles during feeding, resting and handling, with proactive pigs showing higher HR compared to reactive pigs. This elevated HR was based on either lower vagal (resting or elevated sympathetic activation (feeding, handling. The short-term analysis of the autonomic activation during feeding revealed a physiological anticipation reaction in proactive pigs in period 1, whereas reactive pigs showed this reaction only in period 2. Food intake was characterized by sympathetic arousal with concurrent vagal withdrawal, which was more pronounced in proactive pigs. In contrast, neither coping style resulted in an anticipation reaction to handling. Vagal activation increased in reactive pigs during handling, while proactive pigs showed an increase in sympathetically driven arousal in period 2. Our findings confirm significant context

  18. Morphological, biological and molecular characterization of three strains of Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae) isolated from Triatoma sordida (Stal) 1859 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) and a domestic cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    RIMOLDI, ALINE; TOMÉ ALVES, RENATA; AMBRÓSIO, DANIELA LUZ; FERNANDES, MARIA ZENAIDE TITA; MARTINEZ, ISABEL; DE ARAÚJO, RENATO FREITAS; CICARELLI, REGINA MARIA BARRETO; DA ROSA, JOÃO ARISTEU

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY A study was conducted of the biological, morphological and molecular characters of 3 strains of Trypanosoma cruzi (SI5, SI8 and SIGR3) isolated from specimens of Triatoma sordida collected in Santo Inácio and a domestic cat. In order to carry out the study, the following parameters were evaluated: pre-patent period, parasitaemia curves, morphology of the parasites, mortality rates, histopathological lesions and molecular typing. The strains presented variable pre-patent periods, low parasitaemia and no animal mortality. The morphological study of trypomastigotes showed a predominance of intermediate-width and short-length forms, as well as low nuclear index. Epimastigotes presented a low nuclear index, intermediate-width forms in strains SI5 and SI8, and large-width forms in SIGR3. A shorter length could be noted in strains SI8 and SIGR3, whereas SI5 displayed an intermediate length. The histopathological study did not detect amastigote nests in tissues. The amplification of the divergent domain of 24Sα rRNA, HSP60 and GPI genes of strains SI5, SI8 and SIGR3 classified the 3 strains into Group II. Biological parameters made it possible to classify the strains isolated in Santo Inácio (BA) into Biodeme III, Zymodeme 1 and Group II of T. cruzi. PMID:22217619

  19. Reaction kinetics and validity of BOD test for domestic wastewater released in marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhage, Shivani S; Dalvi, Amita A; Prabhu, Damodar V

    2012-09-01

    With urbanization of coastal cities, marine pollution is becoming a severe problem. The rates of biodegradation, decomposition, and ratification of pollutants get slowed down due to salinity. The higher temperatures prevalent in tropical regions significantly affect reaction rates. Multiple factors influence the rate of biodegradation, making the process complex. Hence, prediction and evaluation of the assimilative capacity of the marine environment due to wastewater discharges is becoming a difficult task. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is a wet oxidation process, which follows first-order kinetics. The values of kinetic rate constants are expected to differ with varying salinities and temperatures. Research is carried out using glucose-glutamic acid and domestic wastewater to evaluate the impact of salinity on biodegradation of carbonaceous waste at 20°C and 27°C. The findings confirm the hypothesis of slow biodegradation of carbonaceous organic matter in marine waters. An inverse relationship between rate of biodegradation and salinity was observed. BOD exertion at 20°C (5 days) and 27°C (3 days) for the marine environment is comparable at selected salinities thereby confirming the validity of BOD test of shorter duration at elevated temperature.

  20. Safety and Immunogenicity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis {Delta}lysA {Delta}panCD Vaccine in Domestic Cats Infected with Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)+ and FIV- cats (n = 4/group) received 2 x 10**6 cfu Mycobacterium tuberculosis Delta-lysA Delta-panCD intramuscularly. Vaccination elicited antibody responses; albeit, at lower levels in FIV+ cats as compared to FIV- cats. Delayed-type hypersensitivity responses ...

  1. Personality structure in the domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus), Scottish wildcat (Felis silvestris grampia), clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), snow leopard (Panthera uncia), and African lion (Panthera leo): a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Marieke Cassia; Powell, David M; Weiss, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    Although the study of nonhuman personality has increased in the last decade, there are still few studies on felid species, and the majority focus on domestic cats. We assessed the structure of personality and its reliability in five felids-domestic cats, clouded leopards, snow leopards, African lions, and previous data on Scottish wildcats-and compared the results. In addition to the benefits of understanding more about this taxon, comparative studies of personality structure have the potential to provide information on evolutionary relationships among closely related species. Each of the species studied was found to have three factors of personality. Scottish wildcats' factors were labeled Dominance, Agreeableness, and Self Control; domestic cats' factors were Dominance, Impulsiveness, and Neuroticism; clouded leopards' factors were Dominance/Impulsiveness, Agreeableness/Openness, and Neuroticism; snow leopards' factors were Dominance, Impulsiveness/Openness, and Neuroticism; and African lions' factors were Dominance, Impulsiveness, and Neuroticism. The Neuroticism and Impulsiveness factors were similar, as were two of the Dominance factors. A taxon-level personality structure also showed three similar factors. Age and sex effects are also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Utilização de indicadores para estimar a digestibilidade aparente em gatos Use of markers to estimate the apparent digestibility in domestic cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Vasconcellos

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Compararam-se os métodos de coleta total (CT e dos indicadores óxido crômico (Cr2O3, cinzas insolúveis em ácido (CIA e lignina na determinação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CDA dos nutrientes para gatos. Os CDA de quatro rações foram determinados pela CT e estimados pelos diferentes indicadores em teste. Foram utilizados 24 gatos adultos castrados, alojados em gaiolas metabólicas individuais, totalizando seis animais por ração. O experimento seguiu um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em parcelas subdivididas, sendo as rações as parcelas, os métodos as subparcelas e cada gato uma unidade experimental. Os CDA foram significativamente menores pelo método da lignina em uma das rações estudadas (P0,05. As taxas de recuperação dos indicadores, médias±erro-padrão da média, foram, respectivamente, de 97,1±2,5%, 97,3±2,9% e 83,9±9,1% para o Cr2O3, CIA e lignina. A CIA e o Cr2O3 mostraram grande potencial para utilização como indicadores, enquanto a ampla variabilidade dos resultados obtidos com a utilização da lignina não justificou seu emprego como substância índice para felinos.The total collection (TC method was compared to chromium oxide (Cr2O3, acid-insoluble ash (AIA and lignin marker methods for determining the coefficients of apparent digestibility (CAD of nutrients in domestic cats. The CAD of four diets were determined by TC and estimated for the three markers through tests. Twenty-four adult neutered cats were housed in individual metabolic cages, totaling six animals per diet. The experiment was carried out using a completely randomized design in subdivided blocks where diets were blocks, methods were sub-blocks and each cat an experimental unit. CAD for the lignin method was significantly lower than TC method (P<0.05 in one of the studied diets. CAD for the Cr2O3, AIA and TC methods were similar in all diets. Recuperation rates of Cr2O3, AIA and lignin markers were 97.1±2.5%, 97.3±2

  3. Use of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay in the antemortem diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and neosporosis in the central nervous system of cats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatzberg, Scott J; Haley, Nicholas J; Barr, Stephen C; deLahunta, Alexander; Olby, Natasha; Munana, Karen; Sharp, Nicholas J H

    2003-12-01

    To develop a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum DNA in canine and feline biological samples. SAMPLE POPULATION; Biological samples from 7 cats with systemic (n = 4) or CNS (3) toxoplasmosis, 6 dogs with neospora- or toxoplasma-associated encephalitis, and 11 animals with nonprotozoal disease. Primers for T gondii, N caninum, and the canine ferritin gene (dogs) or feline histone 3.3 gene (cats) were combined in a single PCR assay. The DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded brain tissue, CSF, or skeletal muscle. The PCR products with positive results were cloned, and sequence identity was confirmed. Of 7 cats and 4 dogs with immunohistochemical or serologic evidence of toxoplasmosis, PCR results were positive for all cats and 3 dogs for T gondii, and positive for T gondii and N caninum for 1 dog. Another dog had negative PCR results for both parasites. Of 2 dogs with immunohistochemical or serologic evidence of neosporosis, PCR results were positive for 1 for N caninum and positive for the other for T gondii. All negative-control samples yielded negative results for T gondii and N caninum on the PCR assay. Standard tests for toxoplasmosis or neosporosis associated with the CNS rely on serologic, histologic, or immunohistochemical analysis and can be difficult to interpret. The multiplex PCR assay with built-in control reactions could be a complementary clinical tool for the antemortem diagnosis of toxoplasmosis or neosporosis associated with the CNS.

  4. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at a...

  5. A comparison of real-time PCR and reverse line blot hybridization in detecting feline haemoplasmas of domestic cats and an analysis of risk factors associated with haemoplasma infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Karla

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three species of feline haemoplasma are recognised: Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf, ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ (CMhm and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis (CMt. This study compared a reverse line blot hybridization (RLB assay for simultaneous detection of Mhf, CMhm with three separate quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR assays used for diagnosis of Mhf, CMhm and CMt. The RLB and qPCR assays were applied to DNA extracted from blood samples collected from 154 cats from Trinidad and Tobago. Results CMhm and Mhf DNA were detected using both RLB and qPCR. CMt DNA was detected by qPCR only. Comparing RLB and qPCR for the detection of CMhm DNA, 40 (26.3% and 48 (31.6% cats, respectively, were positive. The difference was more marked for Mhf, with RLB detecting a total of only 11 (7.2% positive cats whereas qPCR detected 41 (27.0% positive cats. Using qPCR as a gold standard, haemoplasma infected cats were more likely to be retrovirus positive (OR = 5.68, P = 0.02 and older (median age 5.5 years, than non-infected cats. In addition, CMhm positive cats were more likely to be male (OR = 3.4, P = 0.04. Conclusions Overall the qPCR was more sensitive than RLB. In addition, age (median 5.5 years and retrovirus positivity were risk factors for infection with the feline haemoplasmas in this study population. Further studies on feline haemoplasma infections in cats are needed to determine the significance of detecting small amounts of haemoplasma DNA, feline retrovirus infection and other associated risk factors on the clinical manifestation of disease.

  6. Echocardiographic Findings in 11 Cats with Acromegaly

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, J.A.; Lunn, K.F.; Bright, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Information regarding cardiac changes in domestic cats with acromegaly is limited. Hypothesis/Objectives The objective of this study was to describe the echocardiographic findings in cats with acromegaly. Animals Eighteen cats diagnosed with acromegaly at Colorado State University between 2008 and 2012. Of these 18 cats, 11 had echocardiography performed. Methods A retrospective review of medical records was made to identify cats with acromegaly that also had echocardiography perfo...

  7. Bartonella infection in shelter cats and dogs and their ectoparasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Lun; Lin, Chao-Chen; Chomel, Bruno B; Chuang, Shih-Te; Tsai, Kun-Hsien; Wu, Wen-Jer; Huang, Chin-Gi; Yu, Jiann-Chung; Sung, Min-Hua; Kass, Philip H; Chang, Chao-Chin

    2011-08-01

    Mainly through vector transmission, domestic cats and dogs are infected by several Bartonella spp. and represent a large reservoir for human infections. This study investigated the relationship of prevalences of Bartonella infection in shelter dogs and cats and various ectoparasite species infesting them (fleas, ticks, and lice). Moreover, relationships between Bartonella infection and animal gender and age and presence of ectoparasites were analyzed. Blood samples were collected from 120 dogs and 103 cats. There were 386 ticks and 36 fleas harvested on these dogs, and 141 fleas, 4 ticks, and 2 lice harvested on these cats. Isolation/detection of Bartonella sp. was performed by culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and partial sequencing. Bartonella was isolated from 21 (20.4%) cats and detected by PCR from 20 (19.4%) cats, 2 (1.7%) dogs, 55 (39%) fleas collected from cats, 28 (10%) ticks DNA samples, and 1 (2.8%) flea collected from dogs. When combining culture and PCR data, 27 cats and 55 fleas collected on cats were positive for Bartonella henselae or Bartonella clarridgeiae, but none were coinfected. Approximately half of the B. henselae isolates from 21 cats were B. henselae type I. Moreover, B. henselae, Bartonella phoceensis, Bartonella queenslandensis, Bartonella rattimassiliensis, Bartonella elizabethae DNA was detected in ticks collected from dogs and one flea was B. clarridgeiae PCR positive. This is the first report of such a wide variety of Bartonella spp. detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Further studies are required to understand the relative importance of these ectoparasites to transmit Bartonella spp. in dogs and cats.

  8. The burden of domestication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Nørspang, Annika Patursson; Forkman, Björn

    2017-01-01

    The way in which domestic cats are kept and bred has changed dramatically over the last two centuries. Notably, a significant number of cats are kept indoors, most of them are neutered and many are selectively bred. This likely has consequences for their welfare. A few studies link housing, neuter...... status and breeding in cats to risks of welfare problems. However, the study presented here is the first to quantify the risks and document the prevalence of risk factors. It builds on results from a questionnaire sent to a representative sample of the Danish population. Using the responses from cat...... owners who keep cats in the home (n = 378), the paper aims to investigate how indoor confinement, neutering and selective breeding affect health, behaviour and other factors relating to cat welfare. The paper reports that confined cats had significantly more behavioural problems than free-roaming cats...

  9. Optimization of induced crystallization reaction in a novel process of nutrients removal coupled with phosphorus recovery from domestic wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Haiming

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus removal and recovery from domestic wastewater is urgent nowadays. A novel process of nutrients removal coupled with phosphorus recovery from domestic sewage was proposed and optimization of induced crystallization reaction was performed in this study. The results showed that 92.3% of phosphorus recovery via induced Hydroxyapatite crystallization was achieved at the optimum process parameters: reaction time of 80 min, seed crystal loads of 60 g/L, pH of 8.5, Ca/P mole ratio of 2.0 and 4.0 L/min aeration rate when the PO43--P concentration was 10 mg/L in the influent, displaying an excellent phosphorus recovery performance. Importantly, it was found that the effect of reaction temperature on induced Hydroxyapatite crystallization was slight, thus favoring practical application of phosphorus recovery method described in this study. From these results, the proposed method of induced HAP crystallization to recover phosphorus combined with nutrients removal can be an economical and effective technology, probably favoring the water pollution control and phosphate rock recycle.

  10. Lumbosacral agenesis in a cat

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielle C Hybki; Lisa A Murphy; Joseph P Marchi; Jeffrey E Patlogar; Jennifer O Brisson; Reid K Nakamura

    2016-01-01

    Case summary Lumbosacral agenesis is a rare congenital condition reported in children. We report a 17-week-old female domestic shorthair cat with lumbosacral agenesis on whole-body radiographs. The cat was euthanized shortly thereafter presentation. A necropsy was not permitted. Relevance and novel information This is the first reported feline case of lumbosacral agenesis.

  11. Lumbosacral agenesis in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle C Hybki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Case summary Lumbosacral agenesis is a rare congenital condition reported in children. We report a 17-week-old female domestic shorthair cat with lumbosacral agenesis on whole-body radiographs. The cat was euthanized shortly thereafter presentation. A necropsy was not permitted. Relevance and novel information This is the first reported feline case of lumbosacral agenesis.

  12. Molecular Evidence of Bartonella Infection in Domestic Dogs from Algeria, North Africa, by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernif, Tahar; Aissi, Meriem; Doumandji, Salah-Eddine; Chomel, Bruno B.; Raoult, Didier; Bitam, Idir

    2010-01-01

    Bartonella species are being recognized as important bacterial human and canine pathogens, and are associated with multiple arthropod vectors. Bartonella DNA extracted from blood samples was obtained from domestic dogs in Algiers, Algeria. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequence analyses of the ftsZ gene and the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region (ITS) were performed. Three Bartonella species: Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, Bartonella clarridgeiae, and Bartonells elizabethae were detected infecting Algerian dogs. To our knowledge, this study is the first report of detection by PCR amplification of Bartonella in dogs in North Africa. PMID:20682871

  13. Development and evaluation of the Fe-BARQ: A new survey instrument for measuring behavior in domestic cats (Felis s. catus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Deborah L; de Moura, Roseana T Diniz; Serpell, James A

    2017-08-01

    A questionnaire instrument for obtaining quantitative behavioral evaluations of pet cats from cat owners was developed and validated. Exploratory Factor Analysis of 2608 questionnaire responses to 149 behavioral questions/items extracted a total of 23 distinct factors that measured most of the more common dimensions of cat behavior. Seventeen of the 23 factors demonstrated adequate-high internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha=0.712-0.923). Questionnaire validation was accomplished by determining: (a) whether owners' subjective ratings of the severity of their cat's behavior problems were associated with cats' actual scores on expected questionnaire factors, (b) whether expected associations between specific demographic and/or lifestyle characteristics and behavior were confirmed by cats' factor or item scores on the questionnaire, and (c) whether breed rankings based on owner-reported factor scores matched those previously derived from the opinions of experts (veterinarians). The results of these various tests confirmed the overall construct validity of the questionnaire. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Isolation of dermatophytes from 50 asymptomatic domestic cats treated at the Federal University of Mato Grosso Veterinary – Hospital in Cuiabá, MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara Rosolem Lima

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytosis, commonly known as ringworm, is a zoonotic disease caused by complex fungi that grow as hyphae and attach to the skin, hair and nails or claws. About 40 species of fungi of the genera Microsporum spp., Trichophyton spp. and Epidermophyton spp. are considered dermatophytes, and Microsporum canis is the genus most commonly isolated from cats. This study investigated the occurrence of dermatophytes in cats without clinical signs of skin diseases. The study involved the physical examination of 50 clinically healthy cats and the collection of samples for direct examination and fungal culture at a university veterinary hospital. The resulting data were evaluated by the chi-square association test. Of the 50 cats, 11 (22% presented dermatophytes, with a predominance of Microsporum spp. The other 39 animals were diagnosed for non-dermatophytic fungi. Sex, breed and the presence of contactants showed no statistical difference, although there was a predominance of adult animals. The high dermatophyte infection rate confirms that cats without clinical signs can harbor these fungi, acting as asymptomatic carriers, contaminating the environment and increasing the infection rate. This study confirms that cats without clinical signs can be carriers of ringworm, which underscores the importance of the adoption of control methods even for clinically healthy animals.

  15. Analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the APOBEC3H gene of domestic cats (Felis catus) and their association with the susceptibility to feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Fernanda Luz; Junqueira, Dennis Maletich; de Medeiros, Rúbia Marília; da Silva, Tailene Rabello; Costenaro, Jamile Girardi; Knak, Marcus Braga; de Matos Almeida, Sabrina Esteves; Campos, Fabrício Souza; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Franco, Ana Cláudia

    2014-10-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) are widely distributed retroviruses that infect domestic cats (Felis catus). Restriction factors are proteins that have the ability to hamper retroviruses' replication and are part of the conserved mechanisms of anti-viral immunity of mammals. The APOBEC3 protein family is the most studied class of restriction factors; they are cytidine deaminases that generate hypermutations in provirus DNA during reverse transcription, thus causing hypermutations in the viral genome, hindering virus replication. One of the feline APOBEC3 genes, named APOBEC3H, encodes two proteins (APOBEC3H and APOBEC3CH). In other mammals, APOBEC3H single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can alter the stability and cellular localization of the encoded protein, thus influencing its subcellular localization and reducing its anti-viral effect. In cats, the association of APOBEC3H SNPs with susceptibility to retroviral infections was not yet demonstrated. Therefore, this study aimed the investigation on the variability of APOBEC3H and the possible association with FIV/FeLV infections. DNA obtained from whole blood of fifty FIV- and/or FeLV-infected cats and fifty-nine FIV- and/or FeLV-uninfected cats were used as templates to amplify two different regions of the APOBEC3H, with subsequent sequencing and analysis. The first region was highly conserved among all samples, while in the second, six single-nucleotide variation points were identified. One of the SNPs, A65S (A65I), was significantly correlated with the susceptibility to FIV and/or FeLV infections. On the other hand, the haplotype analysis showed that the combination "GGGGCC" was positively correlated with the lack of FIV and/or FeLV infections. Our results indicate that, as previously shown in other mammals, variability of restriction factors may contribute to susceptibility of domestic cats to retroviral infections; however, these results should be confirmed by more

  16. Ocorrência de Leishmania spp. em felinos do município de Araçatuba, SP Occurrence de Leishmania spp. in domestic cats from Araçatuba, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Denise Saraiva Bresciani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo comparar a ocorrência de Leishmania spp. em gatos por dois métodos (citológico e sorológico, bem como associar a ocorrência deste protozoário com as variáveis sexo, idade e raça. Amostras séricas de 283 felinos domésticos foram testadas pela Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI, e o exame parasitológico direto de linfonodos também foi realizado para a verificação da positividade para Leishmania spp. Ocorrência de 0,7% (2/283 foi observada nos felinos examinados, por meio de imprint de linfonodos e nenhum animal apresentou títulos de anticorpos para Leishmania spp. As duas fêmeas positivas eram sem raça definida, sendo uma jovem e outra adulta. Por meio dos resultados obtidos, não foi constatada diferença estatisticamente significante em relação às variáveis sexo, raça e idade nos gatos desta pesquisa (p > 0,05. Ocorrência de Leishmania spp. nos gatos deste estudo foi baixa. Devido a esta baixa incidência sugere-se que estes não assumem importância epidemiológica na área do estudo.This study had the purpose to compare the occurrence of Leishmania spp. in felines through two methods (cytological and serological, as well as to associate the occurrence of this protozoan with the sex, age and breed variables. Serum samples from 283 domestic felines were processed by means of Indirect Immunofluorescence Reaction (IIR, and the direct parasitological test for linfonodes was also carried out in order to verify positivity for Leishmania spp. Occurrence of 0.7% (2/283 was observed in the tested felines by means of linfonode imprinting and no animal showed title of antibodies for Leishmania spp. The two positive females were mongrel, a young female and an adult female feline. From the obtained results, no statistically significant difference was observed as regards the sex, breed and age variables in this research (p > 0.05. Occurrence of Leishmania spp. in the cats of this study was

  17. The assessment of daily dietary intake reveals the existence of a different pattern of bioaccumulation of chlorinated pollutants between domestic dogs and cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Camacho, María; Boada, Luis D.; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Rial, Cristian; Valerón, Pilar F.; Zumbado, Manuel; González, Maira Almeida; Luzardo, Octavio P.

    2015-01-01

    Pet dogs and cats have been proposed as sentinel species to assess environmental contamination and human exposure to a variety of pollutants, including POPs. However, some authors have reported that dogs but not cats exhibit intriguingly low levels of some of the most commonly detected POPs, such as DDT and its metabolites. This research was designed to explore these differences between dogs and cats. Thus, we first determined the concentrations of 53 persistent and semi-persistent pollutants (16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)) in samples of the most consumed brands of commercial feed for dogs and cats, and we calculated the daily dietary intake of these pollutants in both species. Higher levels of pollutants were found in dog food and our results showed that the median values of intake were about twice higher in dogs than in cats for all the three groups of pollutants (ΣPAHs: 274.8 vs. 141.8; ΣOCPs: 233.1 vs. 83; ΣPCBs: 101.8 vs. 43.8 (ng/kg bw/day); respectively). Additionally, we determined the plasma levels of the same pollutants in 42 and 35 pet dogs and cats, respectively. All these animals lived indoors and were fed on the commercial brands of feed analyzed. As expected (considering the intake), the plasma levels of PAHs were higher in dogs than in cats. However, for organochlorines (OCPs and PCBs) the plasma levels were much higher in cats than in dogs (as much as 23 times higher for DDTs), in spite of the higher intake in dogs. This reveals a lower capacity of bioaccumulation of some pollutants in dogs, which is probably related with higher metabolizing capabilities in this species. - Highlights: • First assessment of the dietary intake of POPs in pet animals. • Intake levels of pollutants are more than double in dogs than in cats. • Proportionality between intake of PAHs and their plasma levels in both species. • Lower levels of organochlorines in dog plasma

  18. The assessment of daily dietary intake reveals the existence of a different pattern of bioaccumulation of chlorinated pollutants between domestic dogs and cats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Camacho, María; Boada, Luis D.; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Rial, Cristian; Valerón, Pilar F.; Zumbado, Manuel; González, Maira Almeida; Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail: octavio.perez@ulpgc.es

    2015-10-15

    Pet dogs and cats have been proposed as sentinel species to assess environmental contamination and human exposure to a variety of pollutants, including POPs. However, some authors have reported that dogs but not cats exhibit intriguingly low levels of some of the most commonly detected POPs, such as DDT and its metabolites. This research was designed to explore these differences between dogs and cats. Thus, we first determined the concentrations of 53 persistent and semi-persistent pollutants (16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)) in samples of the most consumed brands of commercial feed for dogs and cats, and we calculated the daily dietary intake of these pollutants in both species. Higher levels of pollutants were found in dog food and our results showed that the median values of intake were about twice higher in dogs than in cats for all the three groups of pollutants (ΣPAHs: 274.8 vs. 141.8; ΣOCPs: 233.1 vs. 83; ΣPCBs: 101.8 vs. 43.8 (ng/kg bw/day); respectively). Additionally, we determined the plasma levels of the same pollutants in 42 and 35 pet dogs and cats, respectively. All these animals lived indoors and were fed on the commercial brands of feed analyzed. As expected (considering the intake), the plasma levels of PAHs were higher in dogs than in cats. However, for organochlorines (OCPs and PCBs) the plasma levels were much higher in cats than in dogs (as much as 23 times higher for DDTs), in spite of the higher intake in dogs. This reveals a lower capacity of bioaccumulation of some pollutants in dogs, which is probably related with higher metabolizing capabilities in this species. - Highlights: • First assessment of the dietary intake of POPs in pet animals. • Intake levels of pollutants are more than double in dogs than in cats. • Proportionality between intake of PAHs and their plasma levels in both species. • Lower levels of organochlorines in dog plasma

  19. Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer in Asiatic cheetah using nuclei derived from post-mortem frozen tissue in absence of cryo-protectant and in vitro matured domestic cat oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulavi, F; Hosseini, S M; Tanhaie-Vash, N; Ostadhosseini, S; Hosseini, S H; Hajinasrollah, M; Asghari, M H; Gourabi, H; Shahverdi, A; Vosough, A D; Nasr-Esfahani, M H

    2017-03-01

    Recent accomplishments in the field of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) hold tremendous promise to prevent rapid loss of animal genetic resources using ex situ conservation technology. Most of SCNT studies use viable cells for nuclear transfer into recipient oocytes. However, preparation of live cells in extreme circumstances, in which post-mortem material of endangered/rare animals is improperly retained frozen, is difficult, if not impossible. This study investigated the possibility of interspecies-SCNT (iSCNT) in Asiatic cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus), a critically endangered subspecies, using nuclei derived from frozen tissue in absence of cryo-protectant at -20 °C and in vitro matured domestic cat oocytes. No cells growth was detected in primary culture of skin and tendon pieces or following culture of singled cells prepared by enzymatic digestion. Furthermore, no live cells were detected following differential viable staining and almost all cells had ruptured membrane. Therefore, direct injection of donor nuclei into enucleated cat oocytes matured in vitro was carried out for SCNT experiments. Early signs of nuclear remodeling were observed as early as 2 h post-iSCNT and significantly increased at 4 h post-iSCNT. The percentages of iSCNT reconstructs that cleaved and developed to 4-16 cell and morula stages were 32.3 ± 7.3, 18.2 ± 9.8 and 5.9 ± 4.3%, respectively. However, none of the iSCNT reconstructs developed to the blastocyst stage. When domestic cat somatic and oocytes were used for control SCNT and parthenogenetic activation, the respective percentages of oocytes that cleaved (51.3 ± 13.9 and 77.3 ± 4.0%) and further developed to the blastocyst stage (11.3 ± 3.3 and 16.8 ± 3.8%) were comparable. In summary, this study demonstrated that enucleated cat oocytes can partially remodel and reactivate non-viable nuclei of Asiatic cheetah and support its reprogramming back to the embryonic stage. To our knowledge, this is

  20. Cats and Carbohydrates: The Carnivore Fantasy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbrugghe, Adronie; Hesta, Myriam

    2017-11-15

    The domestic cat's wild ancestors are obligate carnivores that consume prey containing only minimal amounts of carbohydrates. Evolutionary events adapted the cat's metabolism and physiology to this diet strictly composed of animal tissues and led to unique digestive and metabolic peculiarities of carbohydrate metabolism. The domestic cat still closely resembles its wild ancestor. Although the carnivore connection of domestic cats is well recognised, little is known about the precise nutrient profile to which the digestive physiology and metabolism of the cat have adapted throughout evolution. Moreover, studies show that domestic cats balance macronutrient intake by selecting low-carbohydrate foods. The fact that cats evolved consuming low-carbohydrate prey has led to speculations that high-carbohydrate diets could be detrimental for a cat's health. More specifically, it has been suggested that excess carbohydrates could lead to feline obesity and diabetes mellitus. Additionally, the chances for remission of diabetes mellitus are higher in cats that consume a low-carbohydrate diet. This literature review will summarise current carbohydrate knowledge pertaining to digestion, absorption and metabolism of carbohydrates, food selection and macronutrient balancing in healthy, obese and diabetic cats, as well as the role of carbohydrates in prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes mellitus.

  1. Extrahepatic biliary duct obstruction as a result of involuntary transcavitary implantation of hair in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Michael; Buffa, Eugene; Simon, Adrian; Ashton, Julie; McGregor, Ross; Foster, Darren J

    2015-01-01

    A 4-year-old male neutered domestic shorthair cat was referred for investigation of jaundice. The cat had a recent history of a skin laceration repair following trauma. Sequential serum biochemistry demonstrated increasing plasma bilirubin concentrations; abdominal ultrasonography revealed ongoing pancreatitis and apparent extrahepatic obstruction of the common bile duct. Exploratory laparotomy identified constriction of the common bile duct with foreign material (cat hair). The constricting band of hair was removed surgically; cholecystoduodenostomy was performed. Postsurgical quality of life is excellent with chronic treatment of tylosin, omeprazole and ursodeoxycholic acid. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of extrahepatic biliary duct obstruction resulting from the intra-abdominal migration of a foreign body, in this case, hair shafts. The mechanism by which this occurred was likely a combination of physical constriction by the hair shafts and subsequent foreign body reaction surrounding this. This should be included in the differential diagnosis of a cat with jaundice.

  2. Growth reaction norms of domesticated, wild and hybrid Atlantic salmon families in response to differing social and physical environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Directional selection for growth has resulted in the 9-10th generation of domesticated Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. outgrowing wild salmon by a ratio of approximately 3:1 when reared under standard hatchery conditions. In the wild however, growth of domesticated and wild salmon is more similar, and seems to differ at the most by a ratio of 1.25:1. Comparative studies of quantitative traits in farmed and wild salmon are often performed by the use of common-garden experiments where salmon of all origins are reared together to avoid origin-specific environmental differences. As social interaction may influence growth, the large observed difference in growth between wild and domesticated salmon in the hatchery may not be entirely genetically based, but inflated by inter-strain competition. This study had two primary aims: (i) investigate the effect of social interaction and inter-strain competition in common-garden experiments, by comparing the relative growth of farmed, hybrid and wild salmon when reared together and separately; (ii) investigate the competitive balance between wild and farmed salmon by comparing their norm of reaction for survival and growth along an environmental gradient ranging from standard hatchery conditions to a semi-natural environment with restricted feed. Results The main results of this study, which are based upon the analysis of more than 6000 juvenile salmon, can be summarised as; (i) there was no difference in relative growth between wild and farmed salmon when reared together and separately; (ii) the relative difference in body weight at termination between wild and farmed salmon decreased as mortality increased along the environmental gradient approaching natural conditions. Conclusions This study demonstrates that potential social interactions between wild and farmed salmon when reared communally are not likely to cause an overestimation of the genetic growth differences between them. Therefore, common-garden experiments

  3. Radiografia intraoral e convencional da hemiarcada superior direita de gatos domésticos Intraoral and convencional radiography of the right maxilla hemiarcade of domestic cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Nepomuceno

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A proposta com este trabalho foi avaliar a hemiarcada superior direita de gatos domésticos por meio de técnicas radiográficas odontológicas do paralelismo, empregando-se filmes intraorais aos posicionadores de Han Shin. As imagens obtidas por essa metodologia foram correlacionadas com as técnicas radiográficas convencionais (extraorais, com o intuito de se estabelecerem vantagens ou desvantagens para detectar possíveis afecções dentais e periodontais. Foram utilizados 30 gatos, sem raça definida, 17 machos e 13 fêmeas, faixa etária entre um e três anos, confinados em gatis do Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Lavras/MG. Com os animais sob anestesia geral, foram realizadas radiografias da hemiarcada superior direita, incluindo três incisivos, um canino, três pré-molares e um molar em radiografias intraorais e extraorais. As imagens radiográficas foram analisadas e efetuaram-se comparações qualitativas entre pares intraorais e convencionais dos mesmos animais. Para se estabelecer a técnica radiográfica dental mais bem adaptada, foram realizadas análises estatísticas pelo teste de McNemar (qui-quadrado modificado. A técnica intraoral mostrou ser superior à extraoral (PThe aim of this research was to evaluate the right maxilla hemiarcade of cats through parallel dental radiographic techniques, applying Han Shin intraoral film positioner. Images obtained with this method were correlated with conventional radiographic techniques (extraoral. The goal was to establish the advantages and disadvantages to detect possible dental and periodontal diseases. Thirty mixed breed cats were evaluated, 17 males and 13 females, ages one to three years old, confined in catteries in the Department of Zootecnia of the Federal University of Lavras/MG. Radiographies of the right maxilla were taken with the animals under general anesthesia, and three incisors, one canine, three premolars and one molar teeth were included in the

  4. Effects of electric field strengths on fusion and in vitro development of domestic cat embryos derived by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karja, Ni Wayan Kurniani; Otoi, Takeshige; Wongsrikeao, Pimprapar; Shimizu, Ryohei; Murakami, Masako; Agung, Budiyanto; Fahrudin, Mokhamad; Nagai, Takashi

    2006-09-15

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of electric field strength on the rate of membrane fusion between the somatic cell and cytoplast and on subsequent in vitro development of reconstructed embryos. Additionally, the in vitro developmental competence of cat oocytes artificially activated after 44 h of maturation culture was examined. An efficient fusion rate (64.2%) was obtained by applying a single pulse of 1.5 kV/cm for 50 micros, and the fusion rate remained almost constant at the higher field intensity (59.8 and 54.9% at 1.7 and 2.0 kV/cm, respectively). Although the cleavage rate of fused embryos increased with an increase of the electric field strength, there were no differences among the groups with respect to the proportion of development to the morula and blastocyst stages. In the additional experiment, oocytes at the metaphase II stage after culture for 44 h were activated by the combination of calcium ionophore (CaI) with cycloheximide (CHX). Some (11.8%) of activated oocytes developed to the blastocyst stage. Results from this study indicated that electric field strength affects the rates of fusion and cleavage but has no significant effects on the development to the blastocyst stage of reconstructed embryos. Prolonged maturation culture of cat oocytes (up to 44 h) decreased their ability to develop to the blastocyst stage.

  5. Are foetal ultrasonographic and maternal blood progesterone measurements near parturition reliable predictors of the time of birth in the domestic cat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, R; Reichler, I M; Balogh, O

    2017-06-01

    In cats, accuracy of parturition day prediction by ultrasonographic measurement of foetal structures is decreasing towards the end of gestation. Foetal measurements during the last days of pregnancy are scarce. We determined foetal biparietal, abdominal and eye diameter (BPD, AD and ED, respectively) by ultrasonography as well as maternal blood progesterone (P4) within five days of delivery to predict parturition date and calculate accuracy of prediction. Foetal BPD at birth was compared with newborn kitten head diameter (HD). Kitten HD, crown-rump length (CRL) and body weight were compared by breed and gender. Ultrasonography measurements were carried out on the day of parturition in 14 queens, and on days 62-63 after the first mating and repeated 24-72 hr later in ten other cats. Accuracy of parturition day prediction using BPD and AD was determined based on the equations of Beccaglia et al. (2008) Veterinary Research Communications, 32(Suppl 1), S99 and Garcia Mitacek et al. (2015) Theriogenology, 84, 1131. Progesterone was measured at the time of presentation and repeated 24-72 hr later if parturition did not occur. Data were analysed with linear regression, t test, Mann-Whitney U test, one-way anova and Kruskal-Wallis test. There was a moderate relationship between BPD, days before birth (DBB) and litter size. AD and DBB had a low agreement, and ED was not associated with DBB. BPD at birth was significantly related to HD. The accuracy of parturition day prediction using BPD and AD was 27-53% and 17-35%, respectively. Kitten HD was associated with body weight, and both were inversely related to litter size. Newborn biometric measurements differed by breed but not by gender. Progesterone decreased towards parturition and reached 3.18 ± 1.68 ng/ml on the day of delivery. In conclusion, close to birth, the combination of foetal ultrasonography and maternal blood P4 rather than each as a sole predictor of parturition is recommended. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag

  6. Feral Cats: Too Long a Threat to Hawaiian Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Steven C.; Banko, Paul C.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Domestic cats (Felis catus) were first brought to Hawai`i aboard sailing ships of European explorers and colonists. The job of these predators was to control mice and rats on the ships during the long voyages. As in other places, cats were taken in and adopted by the families of Hawai`i and soon became household pets known as popoki. But cats have always been very well equipped to live and hunt on their own. On tropical archipelagos like the Hawaiian Islands where no other predatory mammals of comparable size existed, abundant and naive prey were particularly easy game, and cats soon thrived in the wild. Although the details of when cats first came to live in the wild remain little known, adventurers, writers, and naturalists of the day recorded some important observations. Feral cats were observed in remote wilderness around K?ilauea volcano on Hawai`i Island as early as 1840 by explorer William Brackenridge. Mark Twain was so impressed by the great abundance of cats when he visited Honolulu in 1866 that he reported his observations in the Sacramento Union newspaper, which were later reprinted in his book Roughing It: I saw... tame cats, wild cats, singed cats, individual cats, groups of cats, platoons of cats, companies of cats, regiments of cats, armies of cats, multitudes of cats, millions of cats...

  7. Gallbladder mucocoele and concurrent hepatic lipidosis in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, S L; Milne, M; Slocombe, R F; Landon, B P

    2007-10-01

    A 3-year-old Domestic Shorthair cat was presented with weight loss, anorexia and icterus. Feline hepatic lipidosis and gallbladder mucocoele were diagnosed; this is the first report of gallbladder mucocoele in the cat. The case was managed successfully with cholecystojejunostomy, gastrostomy tube placement and tube feeding for 3 months. The cat has survived over the long term with minimal complications.

  8. Lungworm disease in cats : ABCD guidelines on prevention and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Hartmann, Katrin; Addie, Diane D; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Egberink, Herman; Frymus, Tadeusz; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Horzinek, Marian C; Hosie, Margaret J; Lloret, Albert; Lutz, Hans; Marsilio, Fulvio; Radford, Alan D; Thiry, Etienne; Truyen, Uwe; Möstl, Karin

    OVERVIEW: Cardiopulmonary nematodes are emerging parasites of cats in Europe. A number of helminth parasites may be involved. The most prevalent lungworm in domestic cats is Aelurostrongylus abstrusus. Oslerus rostratus and Troglostrongylus species are found mainly in wild cats. The trichurid

  9. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna S. Nagel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days’ duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 °C, had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV were negative. Broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for infectious hepatitis was to no avail; the cat deteriorated and died 72 h after admission. Necropsy revealed mild icterus and anaemia, severe multifocal hepatic necrosis, serofibrinous hydrothorax, pulmonary oedema and interstitial pneumonia. Histopathology confirmed the macroscopic findings and revealed multifocal microgranulomata in the brain and myocardium, as well as areas of necrosis in lymph nodes and multifocally in splenic red pulp. Long bone shaft marrow was hyperplastic with a predominance of leukocyte precursors and megakaryocytes and splenic red pulp showed mild extramedullary haemopoiesis. Immunohistochemical staining for Toxoplasma gondii was strongly positive, with scattered cysts and tachyzoites in the liver, lymph nodes, spleen, lungs, brain, salivary glands and intracellularly in round cells in occasional blood vessels. Immunohistochemical staining for corona virus on the same tissues was negative, ruling out feline infectious peritonitis (FIP. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR on formalin-fixed paraffin-wax embedded tissues was positive for Toxoplasma sp., but attempts at sequencing were unsuccessful. This was the first case report of fulminant disseminated toxoplasmosis in South Africa, in which detailed histopathology in an apparently immunocompetent cat was described.

  10. Cats and Carbohydrates: The Carnivore Fantasy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbrugghe, Adronie; Hesta, Myriam

    2017-01-01

    The domestic cat’s wild ancestors are obligate carnivores that consume prey containing only minimal amounts of carbohydrates. Evolutionary events adapted the cat’s metabolism and physiology to this diet strictly composed of animal tissues and led to unique digestive and metabolic peculiarities of carbohydrate metabolism. The domestic cat still closely resembles its wild ancestor. Although the carnivore connection of domestic cats is well recognised, little is known about the precise nutrient profile to which the digestive physiology and metabolism of the cat have adapted throughout evolution. Moreover, studies show that domestic cats balance macronutrient intake by selecting low-carbohydrate foods. The fact that cats evolved consuming low-carbohydrate prey has led to speculations that high-carbohydrate diets could be detrimental for a cat’s health. More specifically, it has been suggested that excess carbohydrates could lead to feline obesity and diabetes mellitus. Additionally, the chances for remission of diabetes mellitus are higher in cats that consume a low-carbohydrate diet. This literature review will summarise current carbohydrate knowledge pertaining to digestion, absorption and metabolism of carbohydrates, food selection and macronutrient balancing in healthy, obese and diabetic cats, as well as the role of carbohydrates in prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes mellitus. PMID:29140289

  11. Cats and Carbohydrates: The Carnivore Fantasy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adronie Verbrugghe

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The domestic cat’s wild ancestors are obligate carnivores that consume prey containing only minimal amounts of carbohydrates. Evolutionary events adapted the cat’s metabolism and physiology to this diet strictly composed of animal tissues and led to unique digestive and metabolic peculiarities of carbohydrate metabolism. The domestic cat still closely resembles its wild ancestor. Although the carnivore connection of domestic cats is well recognised, little is known about the precise nutrient profile to which the digestive physiology and metabolism of the cat have adapted throughout evolution. Moreover, studies show that domestic cats balance macronutrient intake by selecting low-carbohydrate foods. The fact that cats evolved consuming low-carbohydrate prey has led to speculations that high-carbohydrate diets could be detrimental for a cat’s health. More specifically, it has been suggested that excess carbohydrates could lead to feline obesity and diabetes mellitus. Additionally, the chances for remission of diabetes mellitus are higher in cats that consume a low-carbohydrate diet. This literature review will summarise current carbohydrate knowledge pertaining to digestion, absorption and metabolism of carbohydrates, food selection and macronutrient balancing in healthy, obese and diabetic cats, as well as the role of carbohydrates in prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes mellitus.

  12. Does domestication cause changes in growth reaction norms? A study of farmed, wild and hybrid Atlantic salmon families exposed to environmental stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Favnebøe Solberg

    Full Text Available One of the most important traits linked with the successful domestication of animals is reducing their sensitivity to environmental stressors in the human controlled environment. In order to examine whether domestication selection in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L., over approximately ten generations, has inadvertently selected for reduced responsiveness to stress, we compared the growth reaction norms of 29 wild, hybrid and domesticated families reared together under standard hatchery conditions (control and in the presence of a stressor (reduced water level twice daily. The experiment was conducted for a 14 week period. Farmed salmon outgrew wild salmon 1:2.93 in the control tanks, and no overlap in mean weight was displayed between families representing the three groups. Thus, the elevation of the reaction norms differed among the groups. Overall, growth was approximately 25% lower in the stressed tanksl; however, farmed salmon outgrew wild salmon 1:3.42 under these conditions. That farmed salmon maintained a relatively higher growth rate than the wild salmon in the stressed tanks demonstrates a lower responsiveness to stress in the farmed salmon. Thus, flatter reaction norm slopes were displayed in the farmed salmon, demonstrating reduced plasticity for this trait under these specific experimental conditions. For all growth measurements, hybrid salmon displayed intermediate values. Wild salmon displayed higher heritability estimates for body weight than the hybrid and farmed salmon in both environments. This suggests reduced genetic variation for body weight in the farmed contra wild salmon studied here. While these results may be linked to the specific families and stocks investigated, and verification in other stocks and traits is needed, these data are consistent with the theoretical predictions of domestication.

  13. Does Domestication Cause Changes in Growth Reaction Norms? A Study of Farmed, Wild and Hybrid Atlantic Salmon Families Exposed to Environmental Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Monica Favnebøe; Skaala, Øystein; Nilsen, Frank; Glover, Kevin Alan

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important traits linked with the successful domestication of animals is reducing their sensitivity to environmental stressors in the human controlled environment. In order to examine whether domestication selection in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L., over approximately ten generations, has inadvertently selected for reduced responsiveness to stress, we compared the growth reaction norms of 29 wild, hybrid and domesticated families reared together under standard hatchery conditions (control) and in the presence of a stressor (reduced water level twice daily). The experiment was conducted for a 14 week period. Farmed salmon outgrew wild salmon 1∶2.93 in the control tanks, and no overlap in mean weight was displayed between families representing the three groups. Thus, the elevation of the reaction norms differed among the groups. Overall, growth was approximately 25% lower in the stressed tanksl; however, farmed salmon outgrew wild salmon 1∶3.42 under these conditions. That farmed salmon maintained a relatively higher growth rate than the wild salmon in the stressed tanks demonstrates a lower responsiveness to stress in the farmed salmon. Thus, flatter reaction norm slopes were displayed in the farmed salmon, demonstrating reduced plasticity for this trait under these specific experimental conditions. For all growth measurements, hybrid salmon displayed intermediate values. Wild salmon displayed higher heritability estimates for body weight than the hybrid and farmed salmon in both environments. This suggests reduced genetic variation for body weight in the farmed contra wild salmon studied here. While these results may be linked to the specific families and stocks investigated, and verification in other stocks and traits is needed, these data are consistent with the theoretical predictions of domestication. PMID:23382901

  14. Topografia do cone medular em gatos sem raça definida Topography of the medullar cone in the domestic non-defined breed cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.H.C. Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a topografia post mortem do cone medular em 30 gatos adultos sem raça definida. Procedeu-se à remoção da pele e da musculatura dorsal da coluna vertebral e expuseram-se a medula espinhal e seus envoltórios, após a secção dos arcos vertebrais. O cone medular foi evidenciado e mensurado. Avaliou-se a sua relação com as vértebras lombares (L, sacrais (S e caudais (Cd. O cone medular variou de 3,40 a 8,00cm (média=5,08cm. A esqueletopia foi variável, pois em 24 (80% animais o cone medular iniciou-se na vértebra L6; em quatro (13,3%, na L7; e em dois (6,7%, na L5. Em 12 (40% animais terminou na vértebra S2; em 10 (33,3%, na S3; em cinco (16,7%, na Cd1; em dois (6,7%, na S1; e em um (3,3% na Cd2.It was studied the post mortem topography of the medullar cone in 30 adult non-defined breed cats. The dorsal skin and muscles from the vertebral column were removed and the spinal cord and its wrappers were visualized, after the section of the vertebral arcs. The medullar cone was then exposed and measured. Its relationship with lumbar (L, sacral (S, and caudal (Cd vertebrae was determined. The length of the medullar cone presented a variation from 3.40 to 8.00cm (average 5.08cm. Its skeletopy was variable; since in 24 animals (80%, the medullar cone began at the L6 vertebra; in four (13.3%, at the L7; and in two (6.7% at the L5 vertebra. It ended in 12 (40% animals at the S2 vertebra; in 10 (33,33%, at the S3; in five (16.7% at the caudal (Cd vertebra; in two (6.7%, at the S1; and in one (3.3%, at the Cd2.

  15. Cat's Claw

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Cat's Claw Share: On This Page Background How Much ... Foster This fact sheet provides basic information about cat’s claw—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources ...

  16. Respiratory nematodes in cat populations of Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cesare, Angela; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Grillotti, Eleonora; Manzocchi, Simone; Perrucci, Stefania; Beraldo, Paola; Cazzin, Stefania; De Liberato, Claudio; Barros, Luciano A; Simonato, Giulia; Traversa, Donato

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of common respiratory parasites of domestic cats (the metastrongyloid "cat lungworm" Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and the trichuroid Capillaria aerophila) and of neglected respiratory nematodes of felids (Troglostrongylus brevior, Angiostrongylus chabaudi and Oslerus rostratus) was here evaluated in two and three geographical sites of Northern and Central Italy, respectively. In 2014-2015, individual fecal samples of 868 domestic cats were examined microscopically and genetically, and epidemiological data related to parasitic infections were evaluated as possible risk factors by binary logistic regression models. The most common parasite was A. abstrusus in both mono- and poli-specific infections, followed by T. brevior and C. aerophila, while cats scored negative for other parasites. Cats positive for A. abstrusus (1.9-17 % infection rate) and C. aerophila (0.9-4.8 % infection rate) were found in all examined sites, while cats scored positive for T. brevior (1-14.3 % infection rate) in four sites. Also, T. brevior was here found for the first time in a domestic cat from a mountainous area of Northern Italy. The occurrence of lungworms was statistically related to the presence of respiratory signs and more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. Cats living in site C of Central Italy resulted statistically more at risk of infection for lungworms than cats living in the other study sites, while animals ageing less than 1 year were at more risk for troglostrongylosis. Finally, the presence of lungworms was more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. These results are discussed under epidemiological and clinical points of views.

  17. Molecular detection of vector-borne pathogens in dogs and cats from Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alho, Ana Margarida; Lima, Clara; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Colella, Vito; Ravagnan, Silvia; Capelli, Gioia; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís; Cardoso, Luís; Otranto, Domenico

    2017-06-20

    Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) have been increasingly reported in dogs and cats worldwide. However, no data are currently available regarding canine and feline VBDs in Qatar and limited information is available from other Persian Gulf countries. Blood samples from 98 client-owned animals (i.e. 64 dogs and 34 cats) living in Doha (Qatar) were collected and the presence of genomic DNA of Anaplasma spp., Babesia spp., Dirofilaria spp., Ehrlichia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Mycoplasma spp. and Rickettsia spp. was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), real time-PCR (rt-PCR) and sequence analysis. Of the 64 dogs, 12 (18.8%) were infected with at least one pathogen (i.e. 7.8% with Mycoplasma spp., 4.7% with Babesia vogeli, 3.1% with Ehrlichia canis, and 1.6% with Anaplasma platys, Babesia gibsoni and Hepatozoon canis, each). One of the 12 dogs was co-infected with B. vogeli and E. canis. Of the 34 cats, seven (20.6%) animals were infected with at least one pathogen (i.e. 5.9% were positive for Mycoplasma spp., and 2.9% for Babesia felis, B. vogeli, E. canis, "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" and Mycoplasma haemofelis, each). No dogs or cats were positive for Dirofilaria spp. or Rickettsia spp. Although the sample sizes of dogs and cats herein analysed was moderately small, data from this study report the occurrence of A. platys, B. vogeli, B. gibsoni, E. canis, H. canis and Mycoplasma spp. in domestic dogs and of B. felis, B. vogeli, "Candidatus M. haemominutum", E. canis and M. haemofelis in domestic cats from Qatar. Further investigations along with prophylactic measures are strongly recommended in order to reduce the risk of dogs and cats acquiring VBDs in Qatar.

  18. Detection and identification of Malassezia species in domestic animals and aquatic birds by PCR-RFLP

    OpenAIRE

    Zia, M.; Mirhendi, H.; Toghyani, M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at detection and species-level identification of the Malassezia yeasts in domestic animals and aquatic birds by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Samples were collected using tape strips and swabs from 471 animals including 97 horses, 102 cattle, 105 sheep, 20 camels, 60 dogs, 30 cats, 1 hamster, 1 squirrel, 50 aquatic birds and 5 turkeys. Tape-strip samples were examined by direct microscopy. All samples were inoculated on ...

  19. Who's behind that mask and cape? The Asian leopard cat's Agouti (ASIP) allele likely affects coat colour phenotype in the Bengal cat breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershony, L C; Penedo, M C T; Davis, B W; Murphy, W J; Helps, C R; Lyons, L A

    2014-12-01

    Coat colours and patterns are highly variable in cats and are determined mainly by several genes with Mendelian inheritance. A 2-bp deletion in agouti signalling protein (ASIP) is associated with melanism in domestic cats. Bengal cats are hybrids between domestic cats and Asian leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis), and the charcoal coat colouration/pattern in Bengals presents as a possible incomplete melanism. The complete coding region of ASIP was directly sequenced in Asian leopard, domestic and Bengal cats. Twenty-seven variants were identified between domestic and leopard cats and were investigated in Bengals and Savannahs, a hybrid with servals (Leptailurus serval). The leopard cat ASIP haplotype was distinguished from domestic cat by four synonymous and four non-synonymous exonic SNPs, as well as 19 intronic variants, including a 42-bp deletion in intron 4. Fifty-six of 64 reported charcoal cats were compound heterozygotes at ASIP, with leopard cat agouti (A(P) (be) ) and domestic cat non-agouti (a) haplotypes. Twenty-four Bengals had an additional unique haplotype (A2) for exon 2 that was not identified in leopard cats, servals or jungle cats (Felis chaus). The compound heterozygote state suggests the leopard cat allele, in combination with the recessive non-agouti allele, influences Bengal markings, producing a darker, yet not completely melanistic coat. This is the first validation of a leopard cat allele segregating in the Bengal breed and likely affecting their overall pelage phenotype. Genetic testing services need to be aware of the possible segregation of wild felid alleles in all assays performed on hybrid cats. © 2014 The Authors. Animal Genetics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  20. [Presence of Bartonella henselae in cats: natural reservoir quantification and human exposition risk of this zoonoses in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrés, Marcela; Abarca, Katia; Godoy, Paula; García, Patricia; Palavecino, Elizabeth; Méndez, Gabriela; Valdés, Alicia; Ernst, Santiago; Thibaut, Julio; Koberg, Jurgen; Chanqueo, Leonardo; Vial, Pablo A

    2005-12-01

    The availability of a serologic test for cat scratch disease in humans has allowed the diagnosis of an increasing number of cases of this disease in Chile. To perform a serological survey for Bartonella henselae among cats in Chile. Blood samples from 187 cats living in three Chilean cities were obtained. IgG antibodies against Bartonella henselae were measured using indirect immunofluorescence. Blood cultures were done in 60 samples. The presence of Bartonella henselae in positive cultures was confirmed by restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR). The general prevalence of IgG antibodies against Bartonella henselae was 85.6%. No differences in this prevalence were found among cats younger or older than 1 year, or those infested or not infested with fleas. However domestic cats had a lower prevalence when compared with stray cats (73 and 90% respectively, p <0.01). Bartonella henselae was isolated in 41% of blood cultures. All the isolated were confirmed as Bartonella henselae by RFLP-PCR. This study found an important reservoir of Bartonella henselae in Chilean cats and therefore a high risk of exposure in humans who have contact with them.

  1. Application of a real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer polymerase chain reaction assay with melting curve analysis for the detection of Paragonimus heterotremus eggs in the feces of experimentally infected cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Intapan, Pewpan M; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Anamnart, Witthaya; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2013-09-01

    Paragonimus heterotremus is a medically important lung fluke that causes human and animal paragonimiasis in Southeast Asia, including Thailand. In the current study, a real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer polymerase chain reaction (real-time FRET PCR) with melting curve analysis was developed and evaluated to detect P. heterotremus eggs in the feces of experimentally infected cats. The detection limit of this method for the P. heterotremus DNA sequence was 3 × 10(2) copies of the positive control plasmid and 10(-3) ng of P. heterotremus genomic DNA. The assay system could detect 10 eggs of P. heterotremus per gram of cat feces. No fluorescence signal was observed when DNA purified from 16 other organisms or genomic DNA from cats and human beings were tested. Real-time FRET PCR yielded positive results for all fecal samples from 17 P. heterotremus-infected cats and showed a negative relationship (r = -0.852, P Paragonimus species examined were divided into 4 groups by melting peak analysis. This assay can be useful for the detection of, and epidemiological studies on, P. heterotremus infection in endemic areas.

  2. Katsvanga, CAT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Katsvanga, CAT. Vol 1, No 2 (2006) - Articles Eucalyptus species performance under short rotation conditions on the Vumba highlands in Zimbabwe Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1819-3692. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

  3. The safety of high-dose buprenorphine administered subcutaneously in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sramek, M K; Haas, M C; Coleman, G D; Atterson, P R; Hamlin, R L

    2015-10-01

    The safety of a proprietary formulation of buprenorphine hydrochloride administered subcutaneously (SC) to young cats was investigated in a blinded, randomized study. Four cohorts of eight cats aged approximately 4 months were administered saline, 0.24, 0.72 or 1.20 mg/kg/day buprenorphine SC for nine consecutive days, representing 0×, 1×, 3× and 5× of the intended dose. Cats were monitored daily for evidence of clinical reactions, food and water intake and adverse events (AEs). Physical examinations, clinical pathology, vital signs and electrocardiograms (ECGs) were evaluated at protocol-specified time points. Complete necropsy and histopathologic examinations were performed following humane euthanasia. Four buprenorphine-treated cats experienced AEs during the study, two unrelated and two related to study drug administration. The two cats with AEs considered related to drug administration had clinical signs of hyperactivity, difficulty in handling, disorientation, agitation and dilated pupils in one 0.24 mg/kg/day cat and one 0.72 mg/kg/day cat. All of these clinical signs were observed simultaneously. There were no drug-related effects on survival, injection response, injection site inspections, body weight, food or water consumption, bleeding time, urinalysis, respiration rate, heart rate, ECGs, blood pressures, body temperatures, macroscopic examinations or organ weights. Once daily buprenorphine s.c. injections at doses of 0.24, 0.72 and 1.20 mg/kg/day for 9 consecutive days were well tolerated in young domestic cats. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A Catalogue of Anatomical Fugitive Sheets: Cat. 49-62

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Images Cat. 50 Cat. 51 Cat. 53 Cat. 54 Cat. 55 (a) Cat. 55 (b) Cat. 56 Cat. 57: 1 Cat. 57: 2 Cat. 57: 3 Cat. 57: 4 Cat. 59: 1 Cat. 59: 2 Cat. 59: 3 Cat. 59: 4 Cat. 60 Cat. 61 Cat. 62: 1 (a) Cat. 62: 1 (b) Cat. 62: 2 (a) Cat. 62: 2 (b)

  5. A Catalogue of Anatomical Fugitive Sheets: Cat. 26-48

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Images Cat. 26: 1 (a) Cat. 26: 1 (b) Cat. 26: 2 (a) Cat. 26: 2(b) Cat. 27: 1 (a) Cat. 27: 1 (b) Cat. 27: 2 (a) Cat. 27: 2 (b) Cat. 28 Cat. 29: 2 (a) Cat. 29: 2 (b) Cat. 30: 1 Cat. 30: 2 Cat. 30: 3 Cat. 33 Cat. 34: 1 Cat. 34: 2 Cat. 35: 1 Cat. 35: 2 Cat. 35: 3 Cat. 36 Cat. 37 Cat. 38: 1 Cat. 38: 2 Cat. 40 Cat. 42 Cat. 43 Cat. 44 Cat. 45: 1 Cat. 45: 2 Cat. 46 Cat. 47: 1 Cat. 47: 2 Cat. 47: 3 Cat. 48: 1 Cat. 48: 2 Cat. 48: 3

  6. [Epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in Chile. V. Prevalence of the infection in humans and domestic and wild animals, studied by indirect hemagglutination reaction, in the Juan Fernández Archipelago. V Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzin, M; Contreras, M C; Schenone, H

    1989-01-01

    A serological study utilizing an indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT) for toxoplasmosis was carried out in 222 humans and in 58 domestic animals (31 dogs, Canis familiaris; 27 cats, Felis catus), and in 62 wild mammals distributed into 50 rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus and 12 goats, Capra hircus. This survey was performed in the Juan Fernández Archipelago, formed by three islands: Robinson Crusoe, Santa Clara and Alejandro Selkirk (80 degrees 47'-78 degrees 47' west long., and 33 degrees 36'-33 degrees 47' south lat.). Blood samples were collected in filter paper and IHAT with titres greater than or equal to 1:16 were considered positive. This survey showed a prevalence of 42.3% in humans with no difference between men (43.0%) and women (41.5%). A high prevalence was found within groups of young individuals (0 to 19 years old), men and women. Regarding the domestic animal population, 44.8% resulted positive, distributed as follows: dogs 9.7% and cats 85.2%. Twenty one percent of wild animals were positive, distributed as follows: rabbits 8.0% and goats 75.0%. The global prevalence of toxoplasmosis in animals (domestic and wild) was 32.5%. All titres in humans and animals were less than or equal to 1:512. Toxoplasmosis is well extended among the human and animal population of the Juan Fernández Archipelago.

  7. Domestic violence against children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihić Biljana D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author is analysing definitions and basic notions related to domestic violence against children, as one of the most serious forms of violence. The special chapter deals with effects of violence against children and causes of domestic violence against them. Also, the author is analysing different forms of social reaction and considering the problem of legal regulation of mandatory reporting domestic violence against children.

  8. Domestic violence against children

    OpenAIRE

    Mihić Biljana D.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the author is analysing definitions and basic notions related to domestic violence against children, as one of the most serious forms of violence. The special chapter deals with effects of violence against children and causes of domestic violence against them. Also, the author is analysing different forms of social reaction and considering the problem of legal regulation of mandatory reporting domestic violence against children.

  9. Second order Horner's syndrome in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Risio, Luisa; Fraser McConnell, James

    2009-08-01

    This case report describes the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of a 3.5-year-old, male neutered, domestic shorthair cat with second order Horner's syndrome as the only clinical abnormality. The neuroanatomical pathway of the sympathetic innervation to the eye, differential diagnoses for Horner's syndrome in cats, and the interpretation of pharmacological testing are reviewed. The unusual MRI findings and the value of fat-suppressed MRI sequences are discussed.

  10. TOPOGRAFIA DAS INTUMESCÊNCIAS CERVICAL E LOMBAR EM GATOS SEM RAÇA DEFINIDA (Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 TOPOGRAPHY OF THE CERVICAL AND LUMBAR INTUMESCENSES IN THE DOMESTIC WITHOUT RACE CAT (Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Marques Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram obtidas informações sobre as intumescências cervical (IC e lombar (IL de gatos sem raça definida, analisando trinta animais, post-mortem, adultos. Removeram-se a pele e a musculatura dorsal da coluna vertebral para expor a medula espinhal e seus envoltórios por meio de secção dos arcos vertebrais, evidenciando-se a IC e a IL. Fez-se a mensuração da IC e IL e sua relação com as vértebras cervicais (C, torácicas (T e lombares (L para obter a esqueletopia. A IC apresentou-se com o tamanho variando de 3,30-8,00 cm, sendo que em nove animais (30,00 ± 8,36% este foi entre 5,00-5,50 cm. A IL apresentou-se com o tamanho variando de 2,90-5,70 cm, e em 21 animais (70,00 ± 8,36% este foi de 3,00-4,50 cm. A esqueletopia dessas estruturas foi variável: em dezesseis animais (53,33 ± 9,10% a IC iniciou-se na vértebra C3 e a IL, em 23 animais (76,67 ± 7,72% na L4. Os finais da IC e da IL ocorriam em doze animais (40,00 ± 8,94% na vértebra T1 e em 24 (80,00 ± 7,30% ao nível da vértebra L6, respectivamente.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Gatos, medula espinhal, intumescência, topografia There were analyzed the cervical (CI and lumbar intumescences (IL of 30 post mortem domestic without race cats of both sexes. The dorsal skin and muscles from the vertebral column were removed to expose the spinal cord and its wrappers were visualized when the vertebral arcs were sectioned, exposing the CI and LI. The CI and LI where measured up and their relationship with cervical (C, thoracic (T and lumbar (L vertebrae were analyzed to get their skeletopy. The length of the CI presented a variation from 3.30-8.00 cm, with a higher frequency of 9 animals (30.00 ± 8.36% presenting 5.00-5.50 cm. The length of the LI presented a variation from 2.90-5.70 and the higher frequency observed was 21 animals (70.00 ± 8.36% presenting 3.00-4.50 cm. Their skeletopy were also variable: in 16 animals (53.33 ± 9.10% the CI began at the C3 and the LI began at the L

  11. Spotlight census of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes and the domestic cat (Felis catus in three sample areas of the Marches region (Central Italy / Censimento notturno di Volpe (Vulpes vulpes e di Gatto domestico (Felis catus in tre aree campione delle Marche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Pandolfi

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to evaluate the density of the red fox and of the domestic cat, 55 transects were made from 1986 to 1989 using spotlight census method in three sample areas. The mean density of foxes agreed substantially with its biological cycle and the hightes values (2.01 foxes/km² in spring and 4.3 foxes/km² in winter were recorded in the study area with the better natural characteristics. Foxes selected the shrub woodland (macchia all year round, the inhabited area in spring. The domestic cat was widely spread and abundant, and selected especially inhabited areas where the density varied from 4.27 cats/km² (in winter to 12.42 cat/km² (in spring. Riassunto Dal 1986 al 1989, con il metodo dei percorsi notturni con fari, sono stati effettuati complessivamente 55 conteggi in tre aree campione per valutare la densità della Volpe (Vulpes vulpes e del Gatto domestico (Felis catus nonché le loro preferenze ambientali limitatamente ad una zona campione. Per la Volpe le densità medie rilevate sono sostanzialmente in accordo con il ciclo biologico della specie e quelle più elevate (2,O1 volpi/km² in primavera e 4,3 volpi/km² in inverno sono state registrate nella zona campione con maggior presenza di boschi ed aree incolte. La Volpe seleziona le zone con vegetazione "di macchia" in ogni periodo dell'anno, e le aree abitate in primavera. Per il Gatto domestico le densità rilevate evidenziano la presenza di una diffusa ed abbondante popolazione. La specie mostra una spiccata preferenza per le aree abitate dove raggiunge densità di 4,27 individui/km² e 12,42 individui/km² in inverno e primavera rispettivamente.

  12. A Histologic Evaluation on Tissue Reaction to Three Implanted Materials (MTA, Root MTA and Portland Cement Type I in the Mandible of Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sasani

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Nowadays Mineral Trioxide aggregate (MTA is widely used for root end fillings, pulp capping, perforation repair and other endodontic treatments.Investigations have shown similar physical and chemical properties for Portland cement and Root MTA with those described for MTA.Purpose: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the tissue reaction to implanted MTA, Portland cement and Root MTA in the mandible of cats.Materials and Methods: Under asepsis condition and general anesthesia, a mucoperiosteal flap, following the application of local anesthesia, was elevated to expose mandibular symphysis. Two small holes in both sides of mandible were drilled. MTA, Portland cement and Root MTA were mixed according to the manufacturers, recommendation and placed in bony cavities. In positive control group, the test material was Zinc oxide powder plus tricresoformalin. In negative control group, the bony cavities were left untreated. After 3,6 and 12 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and the mandibular sections were prepared for histologic examination under light microscope. The presence and thickness of inflammation, presence of fibrosis capsule, the severity of fibrosis and bone formation were investigated. The data were submitted to Exact Fisher test, chi square test and Kruskal-Wallis test for statistical analysis.Results: No statistically significant differences were found in the degree of inflammation,presence of fibrotic capsule, severity of fibrosis and inflammation thickness between Root MTA, Portland cement and MTA (P>0.05. There was no statistical difference in boneformation between MTA and Portland cement (P>0.05. However, bone formation was not found in any of the Root MTA specimens and the observed tissue was exclusively of fibrosis type.Conclusion: The physical and histological results observed with MTA are similar to those of Root MTA and Portland cement. Additionally, all of these three materials are biocompatible

  13. Penile and perineal urethrostomy in domestic cats

    OpenAIRE

    Peixoto, Erika Cosendey Toledo de Mello; Pippi, Ney Luis; Raiser, Alceu Gaspar; Portella, Liandra Vogel; Moreira, Tatiana Lima; Oliveira, Tânia Cilja Sheid Rodrigues de

    1997-01-01

    O conteúdo do presente trabalho é o resultado de diferentes técnicas de uretrostomia em felinos domésticos. Foram utilizados vinte quatro gatos sem raça definida, machos, distribuídos em quatro grupos de seis animais cada e submetidos a orquiectomia e aos seguintes procedimentos cirúrgicos: uretrostomia peniana cranial (grupo I), uretrostomia peniana caudal (grupoII), uretrostomia peniana craniocaudal (grupo III) e uretrostomia perineal associada à penectomia cranial (grupo IV). Os resultados...

  14. Born to roam? Surveying cat owners in Tasmania, Australia, to identify the drivers and barriers to cat containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Lynette J; Hine, Donald W; Bengsen, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    Free-roaming domestic cats, Felis catus, are a major public nuisance in neighbourhoods across the world, and have been linked to biodiversity loss and a host of community health problems. Owners who let their cats roam, also place their cats at risk of serious injury. One management strategy that is gaining considerable support involves encouraging cat owners to contain their pets within their property. Contemporary behaviour change models highlight the importance of identifying drivers and barriers that encourage and discourage target behaviours such as cat containment. Results from a random dial phone survey of 356 cat owners in northern Tasmania identified four distinct cat containment profiles: owners who contained their cat all the time, owners who only contained their cat at night, owners who sporadically contained their cat with no set routine, and owners who made no attempt to contain their pet. Our results indicated that cat-owners' decisions to contain or not contain their cats were guided by a range of factors including owners' beliefs about their ability to implement an effective containment strategy and their views about the physical and psychological needs of their cats. The results are discussed in terms of improving the behavioural effectiveness of cat containment interventions by selecting appropriate behavioural change tools for the identified drivers and barriers, and developing targeted engagement strategies and messaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Enteric protozoa of cats and their zoonotic potential-a field study from Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinney, Barbara; Ederer, Christina; Stengl, Carina; Wilding, Katrin; Štrkolcová, Gabriela; Harl, Josef; Flechl, Eva; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Joachim, Anja

    2015-05-01

    Domestic cats can be infected with a variety of enteric protozoa. Genotyping of protozoan species, especially Giardia as the most common, can improve assessment of their relevance as zoonotic agents. For an overview on the occurrence of feline enteric protozoa, 298 faecal samples of cats from private households, catteries and animal shelters in Austria were collected. All samples were examined by flotation and using a rapid test for Giardia (FASTest). For the detection of Tritrichomonas blagburni, freshly voided faeces (n = 40) were processed using a commercial culturing system (InPouch TF-Feline). Genotyping was done at the β-giardin gene loci (each sample) and triosephosphate isomerase gene loci (positive samples) for Giardia and at the 18S rRNA gene (positive samples) for Cryptosporidium. Thirty-seven samples (12.4%) were positive for Giardia by flotation and/or using a rapid test. Cryptosporidium was present in 1.7%, Cystoisospora in 4.0%, Sarcocystis in 0.3% and T. blagburni in 2.5% of the samples. Genotyping revealed Giardia cati, the potentially zoonotic Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium felis. Most of the infected cats had no diarrhoea. Cats from shelters were significantly more often infected than owned cats (p = 0.01). When comparing Giardia detection methods, the rapid test had a higher sensitivity than flotation. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results were mostly independent from the other two tests.

  16. Prevalence of parasitic infections of stray cats in Jammu, India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Gastrointestinal parasites of feral cats from. Christmas Island. Australian Veterinary. Journal, 86:60-63. Arai H, Fukuda Y, Hara T, Funakoshi Y, Kaneko S,. Yoshida T, Asahi H, Kumada M, Kato K &. Koyama T (1990). Prevalence of cryptosporidium infection among domestic cat in the Tokyo Metropolitan District,. Japan.

  17. Cat-scratch disease osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heye, S.; Matthijs, P.; Campenhoudt, M. van; Wallon, J.

    2003-01-01

    We report on a patient who presented with osteomyelitis of a rib and adjacent abscess as a rare and atypical manifestation of cat-scratch disease. Radiographic findings showed an osteolytic lesion with adjacent mass. Biopsy, serology and polymerase chain reaction technique are essential for the final diagnosis. Prognosis is excellent with full recovery. (orig.)

  18. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence varies by cat breed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kärt Must

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread zoonotic parasite that is relevant for veterinary and public health. The domestic cat, the definitive host species with the largest worldwide population, has become evolutionarily and epidemiologically the most important host of T. gondii. The outcome of T. gondii infection is influenced by congenital and acquired host characteristics. We detected differences in T. gondii seroprevalence by cat breed in our previous studies. The aims of this study were to estimate T. gondii seroprevalence in selected domestic cat breeds, and to evaluate whether being of a certain breed is associated with T. gondii seropositivity, when the age and lifestyle of the cat are taken into account. The studied breeds were the Birman, British Shorthair, Burmese, Korat, Norwegian Forest Cat, Ocicat, Persian, and Siamese. Plasma samples were analyzed for the presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against T. gondii with a commercial direct agglutination test at dilution 1:40. The samples were accompanied by owner-completed questionnaires that provided background data on the cats. Overall, 41.12% of the 1121 cats tested seropositive, and the seroprevalence increased with age. The Burmese had the lowest seroprevalence (18.82% and the Persian had the highest (60.00%. According to the final multivariable logistic regression model, the odds to test seropositive were four to seven times higher in Birmans, Ocicats, Norwegian Forest Cats, and Persians when compared with the Burmese, while older age and receiving raw meat were also risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity. This study showed that T. gondii seroprevalence varies by cat breed and identified being of certain breeds, older age, and receiving raw meat as risk factors for seropositivity.

  19. Cross-clade immunity in cats vaccinated with a canarypox-vectored avian influenza vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several felid species have been shown to be susceptible to infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 subtype. Infection of felids by H5N1 HPAI virus is often fatal, and cat-to-cat transmission has been documented. Domestic cats may then be involved in the transmis...

  20. Hypoglycemia associated with refeeding syndrome in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAvilla, Marisa D; Leech, Elizabeth B

    2016-11-01

    To describe the clinical presentation and biochemical abnormalities occurring during the successful treatment of refeeding syndrome in a cat. A 2-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat presented after having been missing for 12 weeks. The cat had clinical signs of severe starvation. Common complications developed during refeeding (eg, hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, and hemolytic anemia). The cat also developed hypoglycemia, a complication common in people but not previously reported in a cat. Hypoglycemia and electrolyte deficiencies were managed with intravenous supplementation. The cat was successfully treated and was discharged alive 7 days after presentation. Hypoglycemia has not been reported previously as a complication of refeeding in a cat. Frequent monitoring of electrolyte, mineral, and blood glucose concentrations is essential to successful management of refeeding syndrome. The ideal refeeding strategy is unknown at this time. Evidence suggests that a diet low in carbohydrate decreases the likelihood of metabolic derangements commonly associated with refeeding. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2016.

  1. Occupancy of the Invasive Feral Cat Varies with Habitat Complexity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Hohnen

    Full Text Available The domestic cat (Felis catus is an invasive exotic in many locations around the world and is thought to be a key factor driving recent mammal declines across northern Australia. Many mammal species native to this region now persist only in areas with high topographic complexity, provided by features such as gorges or escarpments. Do mammals persist in these habitats because cats occupy them less, or despite high cat occupancy? We show that occupancy of feral cats was lower in mammal-rich habitats of high topographic complexity. These results support the idea that predation pressure by feral cats is a factor contributing to the collapse of mammal communities across northern Australia. Managing impacts of feral cats is a global conservation challenge. Conservation actions such as choosing sites for small mammal reintroductions may be more successful if variation in cat occupancy with landscape features is taken into account.

  2. Daffodil toxicosis in an adult cat

    OpenAIRE

    Saxon-Buri, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    A domestic longhair cat with a 3-day history of lethargy and vomiting after ingesting dried daffodil stems (Narcissus spp.) was severely hypothermic (33.0°C), with bradycardia (78 beats/min) and hypotension. Treatment with atropine, dexamethasone, fluid therapy, and supportive care resulted in a complete recovery by 6 days after exposure.

  3. Viral reproductive pathogens of dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Carmichael, Leland E; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2012-05-01

    This article reviews the current literature on the viral agents that cause reproductive failures in domestic carnivores (dogs and cats). A meaningful update is provided on the etiologic, clinical, pathologic, diagnostic, and prophylactic aspects of the viral infections impacting canine and feline reproduction as a consequence of either direct virus replication or severe debilitation of pregnant animals.

  4. Earliest “Domestic” Cats in China Identified as Leopard Cat (Prionailurus bengalensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigne, Jean-Denis; Evin, Allowen; Cucchi, Thomas; Dai, Lingling; Yu, Chong; Hu, Songmei; Soulages, Nicolas; Wang, Weilin; Sun, Zhouyong; Gao, Jiangtao; Dobney, Keith; Yuan, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The ancestor of all modern domestic cats is the wildcat, Felis silvestris lybica, with archaeological evidence indicating it was domesticated as early as 10,000 years ago in South-West Asia. A recent study, however, claims that cat domestication also occurred in China some 5,000 years ago and involved the same wildcat ancestor (F. silvestris). The application of geometric morphometric analyses to ancient small felid bones from China dating between 5,500 to 4,900 BP, instead reveal these and other remains to be that of the leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis). These data clearly indicate that the origins of a human-cat ‘domestic’ relationship in Neolithic China began independently from South-West Asia and involved a different wild felid species altogether. The leopard cat’s ‘domestic’ status, however, appears to have been short-lived—its apparent subsequent replacement shown by the fact that today all domestic cats in China are genetically related to F. silvestris. PMID:26799955

  5. Assessing the impact of introduced cats on island biodiversity by combining dietary and movement analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hervias, s; Oppel, S.; Medina, F.M.; Pipa, T.; Diez, A.; Ramos, J.A.; Ruiz de Ybanez, R.; Nogales, M.

    2014-01-01

    Populations of feral (not owned by humans) and domestic cats Felis catus coexist in most inhabited islands, and they have similar impacts on native species. Feral cats are generally believed to vary their diet according to prey availability; however, no previous studies of diet have tested this hypothesis on insular ecosystems with a limited range of available prey. Because domestic cats kill prey independently of hunger, the spatial extent of their impact on wildlife will be influenced...

  6. Assessing the impact of introduced cats on island biodiversity by combining dietary and movement analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hervías, S.; Oppel, S.; Medina, Félix M.; Pipa, T.; Díez-Fernández, Alazne; Ramos, J.A.; Ruiz de Ybáñez, R.; Nogales, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Populations of feral (not owned by humans) and domestic cats Felis catus coexist in most inhabited islands, and they have similar impacts on native species. Feral cats are generally believed to vary their diet according to prey availability; however, no previous studies of diet have tested this hypothesis on insular ecosystems with a limited range of available prey. Because domestic cats kill prey independently of hunger, the spatial extent of their impact on wildlife will be influenced by ho...

  7. Schroedinger's cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubkin, E.

    1979-01-01

    The issue is to seek quantum interference effects in an arbitrary field, in particular in psychology. For this a digest of quantum mechanics over finite-n-dimensional Hilbert space is invented. In order to match crude data not only von Neumann's mixed states are used but also a parallel notion of unsharp tests. The mathematically styled text (and earlier work on multibin tests, designated MB) deals largely with these new tests. Quantum psychology itself is only given a foundation. It readily engenders objections; its plausibility is developed gradually, in interlocking essays. There is also the empirically definite proposal that (state, test, outcome)-indexed counts be gathered to record data, then fed to a 'matrix format' (MF) search for quantum models. A previously proposed experiment in visual perception which has since failed to find significant quantum correlations, is discussed. The suspicion that quantum mechanics is all around goes beyond MF, and 'Schroedinger's cat' symbolizes this broader perspective. (author)

  8. Feline panleukopaenia virus in captive non-domestic felids in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily P. Lane

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of feline panleukopaenia virus (FPLV infection was diagnosed by pathology, electron microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR in vaccinated captive-bred subadult cheetahs in South Africa. Subsequent to this disease outbreak, 12 cases of FPLV diagnosed on histology were confirmed by PCR in captive African black-footed cat, caracal, cheetah, lion, ocelot and serval. Phylogenetic analyses of the viral capsid protein gene on PCR-positive samples, vaccine and National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI reference strains identified a previously unknown strain of FPLV, present since at least 2006, that differs from both the inactivated and the modified live vaccine strains. A previously described South African strain from domestic cats and cheetahs was identified in a serval. Surveys of FPLV strains in South African felids are needed to determine the geographical and host species distribution of this virus. Since non-domestic species may be reservoirs of parvoviruses, and since these viruses readily change host specificity, the risks of FPLV transmission between captive-bred and free-ranging carnivores and domestic cats and dogs warrant further research. Keywords: feline panleukopaenia; parvovirus; felid; cheetah; vaccination

  9. Fibrinous pericarditis secondary to bacterial infection in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagawa, Michihito; Kurashima, Chihiro; Shimbo, Genya; Omura, Hiroshi; Koyama, Kenji; Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Kawamoto, Keiko; Miyahara, Kazuro

    2017-06-10

    A three-year-old spayed domestic short-haired cat presented for evaluation of weight loss, cardiomegaly and pleural effusion. Echocardiographic examination demonstrated a thickened pericardium with mild pericardial effusion and a large volume of pleural effusion characterized by exudate. Although the cat was treated with antibiotics, the clinical symptoms did not improve. The cat developed dyspnea and died on day 7. Necropsy revealed a large amount of modified transudates ascites, pleural effusion and markedly dilated pericardium. Histopathological examination revealed severe exudation of fibrin and granulation tissue in a thick layer of the epicardium. The cat was diagnosed with fibrinous pericarditis secondary to bacterial infection.

  10. Cat and Dog Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wellness Staying Healthy Pets and Animals Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites Share Print Cat and dog bites are common injuries. A family pet or ... bites. Path to safety If a cat or dog bites you, you should: Wash the wound gently ...

  11. Seroprevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in Cats from Liaoning Province, Northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Honglie; Cao, Lili; Ren, Wenzhi; Wang, Dansheng; Ding, He; You, Juan; Yao, Xinhua; Dong, Hang; Guo, Yanbing; Yuan, Shuxian; Zhang, Xichen; Gong, Pengtao

    2017-12-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the seroprevalence and risk factors for Dirofilaria immitis infection in cats from Liaoning province, northeastern China. From October 2014 to September 2016, sera of 651 cats, including 364 domestic cats and 287 feral cats (332 females and 319 males) were assessed. They were tested for the presence of D. immitis antigen using SNAP Heartworm RT test kit. In this population, the average prevalence was 4.5%. Age and rearing conditions (feral or domestic) were found to be associated with the prevalence of D. immitis. The prevalence was significantly higher in feral cats compared with domestic cats (8.4% vs 1.4%, P0.05), but older cats (≥3 years old) showed a statistically higher prevalence compared with younger cats (cats (2.4% vs 0.51%, P>0.05), all these results suggest that outdoor exposure time may be one of the most important factors for D. immitis prevalence in cats. Results reveal that D. immitis are prevalence in domestic and feral cats in northeastern China, which indicates that appropriate preventive measures should be taken to decrease the incidence of feline heartworm disease in Liaoning province, northeastern China.

  12. What's inside your cat's head? A review of cat (Felis silvestris catus) cognition research past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale Shreve, Kristyn R; Udell, Monique A R

    2015-11-01

    The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus) has shared an intertwined existence with humans for thousands of years, living on our city streets and in our homes. Yet, little scientific research has focused on the cognition of the domestic cat, especially in comparison with human's other companion, the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris). This review surveys the current status of several areas of cat cognition research including perception, object permanence, memory, physical causality, quantity and time discrimination, cats' sensitivity to human cues, vocal recognition and communication, attachment bonds, personality, and cognitive health. Although interest in cat cognition is growing, we still have a long way to go until we have an inclusive body of research on the subject. Therefore, this review also identifies areas where future research must be conducted. In addition to the scientific value of future work in this area, future research on cat cognition could have an important influence on the management and welfare of pet and free-roaming cats, leading to improved human-cat interactions.

  13. RD-114 virus story: from RNA rumor virus to a useful viral tool for elucidating the world cats' journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Takayuki; Shimode, Sayumi; Nakagawa, So

    2016-01-01

    RD-114 virus is a feline endogenous retrovirus (ERV) isolated from human rhabdomyosarcoma in 1971 and classified as endogenous gammaretrovirus in domestic cats (Felis catus). Based on the previous reports in 70's, it has been considered that a horizontal, infectious event occurred to transfer the virus from ancient baboon species to ancient cat species, whereupon it became endogenous in the cat species about several million years ago in Mediterranean Basin. Although it has been believed that all domestic cats harbor infectious RD-114 provirus in their genome, we revealed that cats do not have infectious RD-114 viral loci, but infectious RD-114 virus is resurrected by recombination between uninfectious RD-114 virus-related ERVs [here we designated them as RD-114-related sequences (RDRSs)]. Further, we also revealed the RDRSs which would potentially be resurrected as RD-114 virus (here we refer to them as ''new'' RDRSs) had entered the genome of the domestic cat after domestication of the cat around 10 thousand years ago. The fractions and positions of RDRSs in the cat genome differed in Western and Eastern cat populations and cat breeds. Our study revealed that RDRS would be a useful tool for elucidating the world travel routes of domestic cats after domestication.

  14. Extrahepatic biliary duct obstruction as a result of involuntary transcavitary implantation of hair in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Linton

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 4-year-old male neutered domestic shorthair cat was referred for investigation of jaundice. The cat had a recent history of a skin laceration repair following trauma. Sequential serum biochemistry demonstrated increasing plasma bilirubin concentrations; abdominal ultrasonography revealed ongoing pancreatitis and apparent extrahepatic obstruction of the common bile duct. Exploratory laparotomy identified constriction of the common bile duct with foreign material (cat hair. The constricting band of hair was removed surgically; cholecystoduodenostomy was performed. Postsurgical quality of life is excellent with chronic treatment of tylosin, omeprazole and ursodeoxycholic acid. Relevance and novel information To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of extrahepatic biliary duct obstruction resulting from the intra-abdominal migration of a foreign body, in this case, hair shafts. The mechanism by which this occurred was likely a combination of physical constriction by the hair shafts and subsequent foreign body reaction surrounding this. This should be included in the differential diagnosis of a cat with jaundice.

  15. Polycystic kidney disease in a Chartreux cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volta, Antonella; Manfredi, Sabrina; Gnudi, Giacomo; Gelati, Aldo; Bertoni, Giorgio

    2010-02-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is one of the most common genetic diseases in cats. It has been widely described in Persians and Persian-related cats and sporadically in other breeds. The purpose of the present paper is to describe the first reported case of PKD in a 12-year-old female Chartreux cat. The cat was referred with polyuria and polydipsia and enlarged and irregular kidneys at palpation. Multiple renal cysts and a single liver cyst were identified by ultrasound and the inherited pattern was confirmed by genetic test (polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP) assay). Chartreux cats should be included in the screening programme of PKD, and PKD should be always considered as a possible cause of chronic renal failure in this breed. Copyright 2009 ESFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also ... a child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...

  17. Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ083 WOMEN’S HEALTH Domestic Violence • What is domestic violence? • What are the types of abuse? • How can I tell if my partner is abusive? • What is the ...

  18. Systemic Cat Scratch Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Min Liao

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic cat scratch disease (CSD is often associated with prolonged fever and microabscesses in the liver and/or spleen. We report a case of systemic CSD with hepatic, splenic and renal involvement in an aboriginal child in Taiwan. A previously healthy 9-year-old girl had an intermittent fever for about 17 days, and complained of abdominal pain, headache and weight loss. Abdominal computed tomography showed multiple tiny hypodense nodular lesions in the spleen and both kidneys. Laparotomy revealed multiple soft, whitishtan lesions on the surface of the liver and spleen. Histopathologic examination of a biopsy specimen of the spleen showed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation with central necrosis surrounded by epithelioid cells and occasional Langhans' giant cells, strongly suggestive of Bartonella henselae infection. History revealed close contact with a cat. B. henselae DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in the tissue specimen, and the single antibody titer against B. henselae was greater than 1:2048. These results confirmed the diagnosis of visceral CSD caused by B. henselae. The patient's symptoms resolved after treatment with rifampin and tetracycline. This case illustrates the need for inclusion of systemic CSD in patients with fever of unknown origin and abdominal pain.

  19. Septic lens implantation syndrome in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalesandro, Nicole; Stiles, Jean; Miller, Margaret

    2011-09-01

    A 13-year-old female spayed domestic shorthair cat was presented initially for a change in the appearance of the left eye. On initial examination, a small penetrating wound was suspected as the cause for a corneal scar, an anterior cortical incipient cataract and mild iritis. The cat was not re-presented until 1 year later at which time ocular pain was marked. Severe anterior uveitis and glaucoma were diagnosed and the eye enucleated. Histopathology documented intralenticular coccoid bacteria and septic lens implantation syndrome. © 2011 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  20. Fatal toxoplasmosis in sand cats (Felis margarita).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pas, An; Dubey, J P

    2008-09-01

    The sand cat (Felis margarita) is a small-sized felid occurring in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The sand cat captive-breeding program at the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife in Sharjah, UAE, has until recently been severely compromised by very high newborn mortality rates. Two different pairs of sand cats gave birth, respectively, to one and two litters (with a total of eight kittens) between 1999 and 2006. Seven out of eight kittens died between the third and 21st wk of life. Toxoplasmosis was confirmed as the cause of death in these two litters. Adult cats had high antibody titers to Toxoplasma gondii before pregnancy, suggesting that maternal immunity did not protect the kittens against infection with T. gondii and that maternal immunity might not have prevented transplacental transmission of the parasite. This observation contrasts with what is seen in domestic cats. To date, this is the first report on confirmed fatal toxoplasmosis and prevalence of T. gondii in sand cats.

  1. The Population Origins and Expansion of Feral Cats in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Andrey A.; David, Victor A.; Scott, Rachael; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Driscoll, Carlos; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    The historical literature suggests that in Australia, the domestic cat (Felis catus) had a European origin [~200 years before present (ybp)], but it is unclear if cats arrived from across the Asian land bridge contemporaneously with the dingo (4000 ybp), or perhaps immigrated ~40000 ybp in association with Aboriginal settlement from Asia. The origin of cats in Australia is important because the continent has a complex and ancient faunal assemblage that is dominated by endemic rodents and marsupials and lacks the large placental carnivores found on other large continents. Cats are now ubiquitous across the entire Australian continent and have been implicit in the range contraction or extinction of its small to medium sized (cats using 15 short tandem repeat (STR) genomic markers. Their origin appears to come exclusively from European founders. Feral cats in continental Australia exhibit high genetic diversity in comparison with the low diversity found in populations of feral cats living on islands. The genetic structure is consistent with a rapid westerly expansion from eastern Australia and a limited expansion in coastal Western Australia. Australian cats show modest if any population structure and a close genetic alignment with European feral cats as compared to cats from Asia, the Christmas and Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Indian Ocean), and European wildcats (F. silvestris silvestris). PMID:26647063

  2. Dog and cat bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Robert; Ellis, Carrie

    2014-08-15

    Animal bites account for 1% of all emergency department visits in the United States and more than $50 million in health care costs per year. Most animal bites are from a dog, usually one known to the victim. Most dog bite victims are children. Bite wounds should be cleaned, copiously irrigated with normal saline using a 20-mL or larger syringe or a 20-gauge catheter attached to the syringe. The wound should be explored for tendon or bone involvement and possible foreign bodies. Wounds may be closed if cosmetically favorable, such as wounds on the face or gaping wounds. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered, especially if there is a high risk of infection, such as with cat bites, with puncture wounds, with wounds to the hand, and in persons who are immunosuppressed. Amoxicillin/clavulanate is the first-line prophylactic antibiotic. The need for rabies prophylaxis should be addressed with any animal bite because even domestic animals are often unvaccinated. Postexposure rabies prophylaxis consists of immune globulin at presentation and vaccination on days 0, 3, 7, and 14. Counseling patients and families about animal safety may help decrease animal bites. In most states, physicians are required by law to report animal bites.

  3. Cat-Scratch Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mammals Pet Rodents Wildlife Animal Tales & Features Giant Sharks Help Wounded Warriors Heal Loving Your Special Cat ... bite while they play and learn how to attack prey. How cats and people become infected Kitten ...

  4. Cat Scratch Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry the infection ... symptoms of CSD, call your doctor. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  5. Occurrence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898) in Danish cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Caroline Salling; Willesen, Jakob; Pipper, Christian Bressen

    2015-01-01

    As Aelurostrongylus abstrusus has not previously received any attention in Denmark, the study investigated the occurrence of A. abstrusus amongst outdoor cats from three regions (Zealand, Møn and Falster). Faeces and lungs were collected from a total of 147 feral (n=125) and domesticated cats (n=22....... There was no difference between feral and domesticated cats just as sex and age did not appear to influence prevalence and worm burden. Lungs from 87% of the positive cats had the gross appearance compatible with A. abstrusus and the severity of lung damage was proportional to LPG and number of adult worms. Within...

  6. Feline Epitheliotropic Mastocytic Conjunctivitis in 15 Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith-Cohen, B; Dubielzig, R R; Maggs, D J; Teixeira, L B C

    2017-01-01

    Mast cell infiltration occurs in malignant, inflammatory (eg, allergic, infectious), and idiopathic disease processes in humans and animals. Here, we describe the clinical and histological features of a unique proliferative conjunctivitis occurring in 15 cats. Ocular specimens were examined histologically, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) was performed on ocular tissues obtained from 10 cats. Cats had a median age of 8 years (range: 7 months-17.5 years). The known median duration of ocular lesions prior to biopsy was 4 months (range: 1 week-3 years). Ocular disease was unilateral in 12 cats, and 9 cats had coexisting corneal disease. Clinically and histologically, proliferative or nodular conjunctival lesions were noted in 13 cats. The nictitating membrane was affected in 10 cats. Histologically, lesions were characterized by mixed inflammatory infiltrates with an abundance of Giemsa-positive and toluidine blue-positive intraepithelial and subepithelial mast cells, marked edema, and papillary epithelial hyperplasia. Feline herpesvirus 1 was demonstrated by PCR in 1 of 10 cats tested. Follow-up information was available for 14 cats: 8 had no recurrence during a median follow-up period of 17.5 months (range: 4.5-30 months), 2 underwent orbital exenteration, 3 had recurrence that was medically managed, and 1 cat had diffuse conjunctivitis at the time of biopsy and recurrence was deemed irrelevant. Various ocular medications were administered before and after surgical biopsy. This condition was designated as feline epitheliotropic mastocytic conjunctivitis, with intraepithelial mast cells being an essential feature and papillary epithelial proliferation being characteristic but not diagnostic alone. The condition appears to be uncommon and benign. Although the cause is unknown, an allergic component is possible.

  7. Central tarsal bone fracture in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinti, Filippo; Pisani, Guido; Penazzi, Claudio; Carusi, Umberto; Vezzoni, Luca; Vezzoni, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    Fracture of the central tarsal bone is an uncommon injury in dogs and occurs predominantly in racing Greyhounds. To the authors' knowledge, this type of fracture has not been described previously in cats. This case report describes a five-year-old Domestic Shorthair cat referred to the Centro Veterinario Luni Mare because of lameness, swelling and signs of pain in the right hindlimb caused by trauma. Clinical examination and diagnostic imaging revealed a right central tarsal bone fracture. Open reduction and internal fixation with a 2.0 mm position screw and two 0.8 mm Kirschner wires were carried out. The last follow-up examination three years postoperatively found the cat in good health with normal range of motion and function, and no signs of lameness in the right hindlimb.

  8. [Occurrence of parasites in the alimentary canal of cats from Szczecin area, Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ładczuk, Dorota; Balicka-Ramisz, Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the average prevalence of cats with parasites in their alimentary canal in the area of Szczecin and to identify the parasite species in the alimentary canal in these animals. This research was carried on: domestic cats, stray cats and cats from the Animal Shelter and from the Animal Protection Society. Approximately, 3 grams of weight faeces was collected, and each sample was homogenized with a glass rod, examined with microscope, and then processed by flotation method of Willis-Schlaf. The average prevalence of cats with parasites in their alimentary canal was 33.65%. The highest prevalence was observed among stray cats (i. e., 57.14%) and among cats from the Animal Shelter (i. e., 42.18%); the lowest among domestic cats (i. e., 5.68%). The prevalence of infection among cats from the Animal Protection Society was 29.62%. The following parasites were observed: Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina, Dipylidium caninum, Isospora sp. Toxocara cati was the most common parasite in cats from the Animal Shelter (i. e., 24.21%) and stray cats (i. e., 26.1%). The occurrence of this parasite was lowest among domestic cats (i. e., 1.13%). Toxascaris leonina occurred more frequently in domestic cats (i. e., 3.4%), while Dipylidium caninum was predominant in cats from the Animal Protection Society (i. e., 18.5%). The high prevalence of infections among cats from Animal Shelter was caused by the fact that these animals have been rarely de-wormed. De-worming of animals once a year is not effective. The low prevalence of infection among domestic cats can be explained by the facts that these cats were routinely de-wormed and had only limited access to outdoor environment. In order to prevent transmission of cat parasites it is mandatory to undertake preventive actions, such as: regular de-worming of animals, removal animals' faeces, and advertisement of de-worming among cat owners by distribution leaflets and brochures.

  9. Blood meal identification in off-host cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) from a plague-endemic region of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Christine B; Borchert, Jeff N; Black, William C; Atiku, Linda A; Mpanga, Joseph T; Boegler, Karen A; Moore, Sean M; Gage, Kenneth L; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2013-02-01

    The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, is an inefficient vector of the plague bacterium (Yersinia pestis) and is the predominant off-host flea species in human habitations in the West Nile region, an established plague focus in northwest Uganda. To determine if C. felis might serve as a Y. pestis bridging vector in the West Nile region, we collected on- and off-host fleas from human habitations and used a real-time polymerase chain reaction-based assay to estimate the proportion of off-host C. felis that had fed on humans and the proportion that had fed on potentially infectious rodents or shrews. Our findings indicate that cat fleas in human habitations in the West Nile region feed primarily on domesticated species. We conclude that C. felis is unlikely to serve as a Y. pestis bridging vector in this region.

  10. Cryptosporidium diagnosis by qPCR in cats at Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Patrícia Santos Carrasco

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Carrasco L.P.S., Oliveira R.L.S., Moreira C.M.R., Santos C.R.G.R., Corgozinho K.B. & Souza H.J.M. [Cryptosporidium diagnosis by qPCR in cats at Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil.] Diagnóstico de Cryptosporidium spp. pela técnica de qPCR em gatos no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(Supl.:22-26, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em MedicinaVeteriná- ria, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR-465, Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brasil. E-mail: carrasco.lara@gmail.com Cryptosporidium spp. is recognized as an important etiologic agent of diarrhea in many countries. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of DNA of the parasite Cryptosporidium spp. in feces of cats with history of chronic diarrhea attended in the Feline Medicine Sector of the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, by the polymerase chain reaction technique in real time (RT-PCR. In this study, 100 animals were admitted, of any breed or sex and from 8 weeks of age. As inclusion criteria, patients had to have diarrhea history for more than three weeks, with little success of clinical response to previously established therapies. From the samples obtained by collecting via washing the animal colon and spontaneous defecation, methods of direct examination of the feces, centrifugal flotation technique and real-time PCR were carried out. Of all cats selected for this study, 10% showed infection by Cryptosporidium spp. Most positive animals were aged over one year (70% and only 30% had up to one year old. Cats were 50% purebred and 50% were domestic short hair cats. The clinical signs presented by these cats at the time of consultation were diarrhea (60% and prolapsed rectum (40%. Four animals had co-infections with other enteropathogens (40%, such as Giardia, Toxocara sp. or Tritrichomonas fetus alone or combined. We concluded that infection by

  11. A Catalogue of Anatomical Fugitive Sheets: Cat. 1-10

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Images Cat. 1 Cat. 2 (a) Cat. 2 (b) Cat. 2 (c) Cat. 2 (d) Cat. 2 (e) Cat. 2 (f) Cat. 3: 1 (a) Cat. 3: 1 (b) Cat. 3: 2 (a) Cat. 3: 2 (b) Cat. 4: 1 Cat. 4: 2 Cat. 6: 1 (a) Cat. 6: 1 (b) Cat. 6: 2 (a) Cat. 6: 2 (b) Cat. 7: 1 (a) Cat. 7: 1 (b) Cat. 7: 2 (a) Cat. 7: 2 (b) Cat. 8: 1 Cat. 9: 1 Cat. 9: 2 Cat. 10: 1 Cat. 10: 2

  12. Benign cementoblastoma (true cementoma in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenin A Villamizar-Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 10-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat was presented for assessment of a gingival mass surrounding the left maxillary third and fourth premolar teeth. The mass was surgically removed by means of a marginal rim excision, and the tissue was submitted for histological assessment. It was identified as a benign cementoblastoma (true cementoma. There was proliferation of mineralized eosinophilic material with multiple irregularly placed lacunae and reversal lines, reminiscent of cementum. The cat recovered uneventfully from the anesthesia, and there was no evidence of tumor recurrence 6 months after surgery. Relevance and novel information Cementoblastomas (true cementomas in domestic animals are rare, with just a few reports in ruminants, monogastric herbivores and rodents. Cementoblastoma is considered a benign tumor that arises from the tooth root. The slow, expansive and constant growth that characterizes these masses may be accompanied by signs of oral discomfort and dysphagia. This case report is intended to increase knowledge regarding this tumor in cats and also highlights the importance of complete excision of the neoplasm. To our knowledge, there are no previous reports in the literature of cementoblastoma in the cat.

  13. Vitamin D status predicts 30 day mortality in hospitalised cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Titmarsh

    Full Text Available Vitamin D insufficiency, defined as low serum concentrations of the major circulating form of vitamin D, 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD, has been associated with the development of numerous infectious, inflammatory, and neoplastic disorders in humans. In addition, vitamin D insufficiency has been found to be predictive of mortality for many disorders. However, interpretation of human studies is difficult since vitamin D status is influenced by many factors, including diet, season, latitude, and exposure to UV radiation. In contrast, domesticated cats do not produce vitamin D cutaneously, and most cats are fed a commercial diet containing a relatively standard amount of vitamin D. Consequently, domesticated cats are an attractive model system in which to examine the relationship between serum 25(OHD and health outcomes. The hypothesis of this study was that vitamin D status would predict short term, all-cause mortality in domesticated cats. Serum concentrations of 25(OHD, together with a wide range of other clinical, hematological, and biochemical parameters, were measured in 99 consecutively hospitalised cats. Cats which died within 30 days of initial assessment had significantly lower serum 25(OHD concentrations than cats which survived. In a linear regression model including 12 clinical variables, serum 25(OHD concentration in the lower tertile was significantly predictive of mortality. The odds ratio of mortality within 30 days was 8.27 (95% confidence interval 2.54-31.52 for cats with a serum 25(OHD concentration in the lower tertile. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that low serum 25(OHD concentration status is an independent predictor of short term mortality in cats.

  14. Understanding public perceptions of risk regarding outdoor pet cats to inform conservation action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramza, Ashley; Teel, Tara; VandeWoude, Susan; Crooks, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    Free-ranging domestic cats (Felis catus) incur and impose risks on ecosystems and represent a complex issue of critical importance to biodiversity conservation and cat and human health globally. Prior social science research on this topic is limited and has emphasized feral cats even though owned cats often comprise a large proportion of the outdoor cat population, particularly in urban areas. To address this gap, we examined public risk perceptions and attitudes toward outdoor pet cats across varying levels of urbanization, including along the wildland-urban interface, in Colorado (U.S.A.), through a mail survey of 1397 residents. Residents did not view all types of risks uniformly. They viewed risks of cat predation on wildlife and carnivore predation on cats as more likely than disease-related risks. Additionally, risk perceptions were related to attitudes, prior experiences with cats and cat-wildlife interactions, and cat-owner behavior. Our findings suggest that changes in risk perceptions may result in behavior change. Therefore, knowledge of cat-related risk perceptions and attitudes could be used to develop communication programs aimed at promoting risk-aversive behaviors among cat owners and cat-management strategies that are acceptable to the public and that directly advance the conservation of native species. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. The identification of two Trypanosoma cruzi I genotypes from domestic and sylvatic transmission cycles in Colombia based on a single polymerase chain reaction amplification of the spliced-leader intergenic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Marcela Villa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A single polymerase chain reaction (PCR reaction targeting the spliced-leader intergenic region of Trypanosoma cruzi I was standardised by amplifying a 231 bp fragment in domestic (TcIDOM strains or clones and 450 and 550 bp fragments in sylvatic strains or clones. This reaction was validated using 44 blind coded samples and 184 non-coded T. cruzi I clones isolated from sylvatic triatomines and the correspondence between the amplified fragments and their domestic or sylvatic origin was determined. Six of the nine strains isolated from acute cases suspected of oral infection had the sylvatic T. cruzi I profile. These results confirmed that the sylvatic T. cruzi I genotype is linked to cases of oral Chagas disease in Colombia. We therefore propose the use of this novel PCR reaction in strains or clones previously characterised as T. cruzi I to distinguish TcIDOMfrom sylvatic genotypes in studies of transmission dynamics, including the verification of population selection within hosts or detection of the frequency of mixed infections by both T. cruzi I genotypes in Colombia.

  16. [Uroliths of cats in Switzerland from 2002 to 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, B; Brandenberger-Schenk, F; Rothenanger, E; Müller, C

    2016-10-01

    In this study data on composition of uroliths collected from cats and epidemiologic data of affected cats in Switzerland from 2002 to 2009 are summarised. Of 884 stones analysed 50% (n=441) were composed of calcium oxalate, 45% (n=398) of struvite, 3% (n=18) of ammonium urate, 1% (n=12) were mixed stones, 1% (n=9) were composed of silica, 3 stones were solidified blood, 2 consisted of cystine and 1of xanthine. 40% of the ureteral stones were composed of struvite. Domestic cats had significantly less calcium oxalate stones compared to British Shorthair or Persian cats. Cats with calcium oxalate stones were older and cats with struvite stones were younger than other affected cats. Female and male cats were equally affected with stones. Compared to studies from other countries, in Switzerland silica stones occurred more often and ureteral stones were more often composed of Struvite. The present study shows that occurrence and prevalence of urinary calculi of cats from Switzerland exhibited only slight differences to studies from other countries.

  17. Acquired cervical spinal arachnoid diverticulum in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, R J; Garosi, L; Matiasek, K; Lowrie, M

    2015-04-01

    A one-year-old, female entire, domestic, shorthair cat presented with acute onset non-ambulatory tetraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging was consistent with a C3-C4 acute non-compressive nucleus pulposus extrusion and the cat was treated conservatively. The cat was able to walk after 10 days and was normal 2 months after presentation. The cat was referred five and a half years later for investigation of an insidious onset 3-month history of ataxia and tetraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine was repeated, demonstrating a spinal arachnoid diverticulum at C3 causing marked focal compression of the spinal cord. This was treated surgically with hemilaminectomy and durectomy. The cat improved uneventfully and was discharged 12 days later. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  18. FELINE IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (FIV) IN WILD PALLAS’ CATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Meredith A.; Munkhtsog, Bariushaa; Troyer, Jennifer L.; Ross, Steve; Sellers, Rani; Fine, Amanda E.; Swanson, William F.; Roelke, Melody E.; O’Brien1, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a feline lentivirus related to HIV, causes immune dysfunction in domestic and wild cats. The Pallas’ cat is the only species from Asia known to harbor a species-specific strain of FIV designated FIVOma in natural populations. Here, a 25% seroprevalence of FIV is reported from 28 wild Mongolian Pallas’ cats sampled from 2000-2008. Phylogenetic analysis of proviral RT-Pol from eight FIVOma isolates from Mongolia, Russia, China and Kazakhstan reveals a unique monophyletic lineage of the virus within the Pallas’ cat population, most closely related to the African cheetah and leopard FIV strains. Histopathological examination of lymph node and spleen from infected and uninfected Pallas’ cats suggests that FIVOma causes immune depletion in its’ native host. PMID:19926144

  19. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in wild Pallas' cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Meredith A; Munkhtsog, Bariushaa; Troyer, Jennifer L; Ross, Steve; Sellers, Rani; Fine, Amanda E; Swanson, William F; Roelke, Melody E; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2010-03-15

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a feline lentivirus related to HIV, causes immune dysfunction in domestic and wild cats. The Pallas' cat is the only species from Asia known to harbor a species-specific strain of FIV designated FIV(Oma) in natural populations. Here, a 25% seroprevalence of FIV is reported from 28 wild Mongolian Pallas' cats sampled from 2000 to 2008. Phylogenetic analysis of proviral RT-Pol from eight FIV(Oma) isolates from Mongolia, Russia, China and Kazakhstan reveals a unique monophyletic lineage of the virus within the Pallas' cat population, most closely related to the African cheetah and leopard FIV strains. Histopathological examination of lymph node and spleen from infected and uninfected Pallas' cats suggests that FIV(Oma) causes immune depletion in its' native host. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome and steroid hepatopathy in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaer, M; Ginn, P E

    1999-01-01

    The distinguishing clinical features of Cushing's syndrome in the cat include very friable skin, a high incidence of diabetes mellitus, and the general absence of steroid hepatopathy. This case report describes a nine-year-old, spayed female domestic shorthair with triamcinolone-induced Cushing's syndrome. Unique to this cat were markedly elevated liver enzymes which prompted an expanded clinical evaluation. An ultrasonographic-guided liver biopsy demonstrated diffuse hepatocellular vacuolation that stained periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) positive and was removed subsequently with diastase application, indicating glycogen accumulation. These findings are compatible with the rarely seen syndrome of steroid hepatopathy in the cat.

  1. A Catalogue of Anatomical Fugitive Sheets: Cat. 11-25

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Images Cat. 11 (a) Cat. 11 (b) Cat. 11 (c) Cat. 11 (d) Cat. 12: 1 (a) Cat. 12: 1 (b) Cat. 12: 2 (a) Cat. 12: 2 (b) Cat. 13 Cat. 14 (a) Cat. 14 (b) Cat. 14 (c) Cat. 15 (a) Cat. 15 (b) Cat. 17: 1 Cat. 17: 2 Cat. 18: 1 Cat. 18: 2 Cat. 19: 1 (a) Cat. 19: 1 (b) Cat. 19: 2 (a) Cat. 19: 2 (b) Cat. 20: 1 Cat. 20: 2 (a) Cat. 20: 2 (b) Cat. 21 (a) Cat. 21 (b) Cat. 21 (c) Cat. 21 (d) Cat. 21 (e) Cat. 22 Cat. 24: 1 and 2 Cat. 25: 1 Cat. 25: 2 Cat. 25: 3 Cat. 25: 4

  2. EU agricultural domestic support in GTAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulanger, Pierre; Philippidis, George; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    9 includes EU domestic support which follows the approach adopted in the previous releases (Jensen, 2009, 2010). The difference is for pillar 1 support for which the CATS data are used (in previous GTAP database releases, pillar 1 support was based on EAGF financial reports). All together EU...

  3. A tortoiseshell male cat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A. S.; Berg, Lise Charlotte; Almstrup, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Tortoiseshell coat color is normally restricted to female cats due to X-linkage of the gene that encodes the orange coat color. Tortoiseshell male cats do, however, occur at a low frequency among tortoiseshell cats because of chromosome aberrations similar to the Klinefelter syndrome in man...... tissue from a tortoiseshell male cat referred to us. Chromosome analysis using RBA-banding consistently revealed a 39,XXY karyotype. Histological examinations of testis biopsies from this cat showed degeneration of the tubules, hyperplasia of the interstitial tissue, and complete loss of germ cells....... Immunostaining using anti-vimentin and anti-VASA (DDX4) showed that only Sertoli cells and no germ cells were observed in the testicular tubules. As no sign of spermatogenesis was detected, we conclude that this is a classic case of a sterile, male tortoiseshell cat with a 39,XXY chromosome complement. © 2013 S...

  4. Megaesophagus in a Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Forbes, Douglas C.; Leishman, Dyan E.

    1985-01-01

    Megaesophagus in an eight month old Siamese cat is described. Initially, a cause for the vomiting was not discovered and the cat was treated for pyloric spasm. Several months later the same cat, in poor physical condition, was presented with a palpable bulge along its ventral neck. At this time a very dilated and flaccid esophagus was found. An exploratory thoracotomy was done but a cause for the megaesophagus was not discovered.

  5. L-carnitine Supplemented Extender Improves Cryopreserved-thawed Cat Epididymal Sperm Motility

    OpenAIRE

    S. Manee-in; S. Parmornsupornvichit; S. Kraiprayoon; T. Tharasanit; P. Chanapiwat; K. Kaeoket

    2014-01-01

    Cryopreservation of epididymal sperm is an effective technique to preserve genetic materials of domestic cats and wild felids when they unexpectedly die. However, this technique inevitably causes detrimental changes of cryopreserved-thawed spermatozoa, for example, by physical damage and excessive oxidative stress. L-carnitine is an antioxidant that has been used to improve sperm motility in humans and domestic animals. This study aimed to investigate the effects of L-carnitine on cat epididy...

  6. Immunolocalization of succinate dehydrogenase in the esophagus epithelium of domesticated mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Meyer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Using immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, the esophagus epithelia of seven domesticated mammals (horse, cattle, goat, pig, dog, laboratory rat, cat of three nutrition groups (herbivorous, omnivorous, carnivorous were studied to get first information about energy generation, as demonstrated by succinate dehydrogenase (SDH activities. Distinct reaction intensities could be observed in all esophageal cell layers of the different species studied reflecting moderate to strong metabolic activities. The generally strong staining in the stratum basale indicated that new cells are continuously produced. The latter feature was confirmed by a thick, and in the horse generally highly active stratum spinosum. Only in the pig, reaction intensity variations occurred, obviously related to differences in physical feed quality or restricted feed allocation. The immunohistochemical results were corroborated by the presence of intact mitochondria in the esophageal cells of all species and nutrition types studied, except for the horse. Possible relationships between SDH reaction intensities and feed structure, mass or consistency are discussed.

  7. Domestic violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intimate partner violence; Spousal abuse; Elder abuse; Child abuse; Sexual abuse - domestic violence ... biting, slapping, choking, or attacking with a weapon. Sexual abuse, forcing someone to have any type of sexual ...

  8. Corneal hemangiosarcoma in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazalot, G; Regnier, A; Deviers, A; Serra, F; Lucas, M N; Etienne, C L; Letron, I Raymond

    2011-09-01

    A 10 year-old castrated male Domestic Short-hair cat with a history of chronic bilateral keratitis was referred for assessment of a red, elevated mass involving the left cornea. The rapid growth of the mass, over a month period in combination with pronounced vascularization and invasion of the corneal surface suggested an aggressive inflammatory or neoplastic process. Following keratectomy, the lesion was diagnosed histopathologically as a hemangiosarcoma. The tumor recurred locally within 3 weeks and enucleation was performed. Histopathologic examination of the globe confirmed the diagnosis and did not reveal infiltration of the limbus and conjunctiva. No signs of local recurrence or metastatic disease have been observed 18 months following enucleation. To the authors' knowledge this is the first case of primary corneal hemangiosarcoma described in the feline species. © 2011 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  9. Hypertriglyceridemia and transient corneal lipidosis in a cat following intravenous lipid therapy for permethrin toxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuh, Eunice L; Keir, Iain

    2018-02-01

    An 8-year-old male neutered domestic shorthair cat developed corneal lipidosis and marked hypertriglyceridemia approximately 36 hours after intravenous lipid therapy (IVLT) for the treatment of permethrin toxicosis. The cat's ocular changes resolved approximately 72 hours after IVLT without treatment. This study reports a rare complication of IVLT.

  10. Predation threats to the Red-billed Tropicbird breeding colony of Saba: focus on cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.; Ruijter, M.; Endarwin, W.; Hooft, van P.; Wulf, K.

    2014-01-01

    Feral domestic cats (Felis catus) are recognized as one of the most devastating alien predator species in the world and are a major threat to nesting colonies of the Red-billed Tropicbird (Phaethon aethereus), on Saba island, Dutch Caribbean. Cats and rats are both known to impact nesting seabirds

  11. Urinary felinine excretion in intact male cats is increased by dietary cystine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, W.H.; Rutherfurd-Markwick, K.J.; Weidgraaf, K.; Morton, R.H.; Rogers, Q.R.

    2008-01-01

    Felinine is a branched-chain sulfur amino acid present in the urine of certain Felidae, including domestic cats. The objective of the present study was to determine if additional cystine and/or dietary N would increase felinine and N-acetylfelinine excretion by intact male cats fed a low-protein

  12. Low seroprevalence of Leishmania infantum infection in cats from northern Portugal based on DAT and ELISA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, Luís; Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Sherry, Kate; Schallig, Henk; Solano-Gallego, Laia

    2010-01-01

    Cats have been considered playing a role in the epidemiology of leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum, an endemic zoonosis in countries of the Mediterranean basin. The present study assessed the prevalence of antibodies to L. infantum in 316 domestic cats from northern Portugal, by means of

  13. Keratinization of the esophageal epithelium of domesticated mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Wilfried; Schoennagel, Britta; Kacza, Johannes; Busche, Roger; Hornickel, Isabelle Nina; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Schnapper, Anke

    2014-01-01

    We studied the esophageal epithelium for keratinization characteristics from samples of domesticated mammals of three nutrition groups (herbivores: horse, cattle, sheep; omnivores: pig, dog, rat; carnivores: cat) using histochemistry (keratins, disulfides), sulfur measurements, and cryo-SEM. Keratins were found in all esophageal layers of all species, except for the equine Stratum corneum. The positive reaction staining of Pan-keratin was remarkable, but decreased in intensity toward the outer layers, whereas in the pig and cat, staining was confined to the corneal layer. The herbivores revealed positive staining reactions in the upper Stratum spinosum, particularly in the sheep. Regarding single keratins, CK6 immunostating was found in most esophageal layers, but only weakly or negatively in the porcine and equine Stratum corneum. CK13 staining was restricted to the sheep and here was found in all layers. CK14 could be detected in the equine and feline Stratum basale, and upper vital layers of the dog and rat. CK17 appeared only in the Stratum spinosum and Stratum granulosum, but in all layers of the dog and cat. Disulfides reacted strongest in the Stratum corneum of the herbivores, as corroborated by the sulfur concentrations in the esophagus. Our study emphasized that keratins are very important for the mechanical stability of the epithelial cells and cell layers of the mammalian esophagus. The role of these keratins in the esophageal epithelia is of specific interest owing to the varying feed qualities and mechanical loads of different nutrition groups, which have to be countered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Cats, Cancer and Comparative Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M. Cannon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring tumors in dogs are well-established models for several human cancers. Domestic cats share many of the benefits of dogs as a model (spontaneous cancers developing in an immunocompetent animal sharing the same environment as humans, shorter lifespan allowing more rapid trial completion and data collection, lack of standard of care for many cancers allowing evaluation of therapies in treatment-naïve populations, but have not been utilized to the same degree in the One Medicine approach to cancer. There are both challenges and opportunities in feline compared to canine models. This review will discuss three specific tumor types where cats may offer insights into human cancers. Feline oral squamous cell carcinoma is common, shares both clinical and molecular features with human head and neck cancer and is an attractive model for evaluating new therapies. Feline mammary tumors are usually malignant and aggressive, with the ‘triple-negative’ phenotype being more common than in humans, offering an enriched population in which to examine potential targets and treatments. Finally, although there is not an exact corollary in humans, feline injection site sarcoma may be a model for inflammation-driven tumorigenesis, offering opportunities for studying variations in individual susceptibility as well as preventative and therapeutic strategies.

  15. The Population Origins and Expansion of Feral Cats in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Peter B S; Yurchenko, Andrey A; David, Victor A; Scott, Rachael; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Driscoll, Carlos; O'Brien, Stephen J; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2016-03-01

    The historical literature suggests that in Australia, the domestic cat (Felis catus) had a European origin [~200 years before present (ybp)], but it is unclear if cats arrived from across the Asian land bridge contemporaneously with the dingo (4000 ybp), or perhaps immigrated ~40000 ybp in association with Aboriginal settlement from Asia. The origin of cats in Australia is important because the continent has a complex and ancient faunal assemblage that is dominated by endemic rodents and marsupials and lacks the large placental carnivores found on other large continents. Cats are now ubiquitous across the entire Australian continent and have been implicit in the range contraction or extinction of its small to medium sized (Australia exhibit high genetic diversity in comparison with the low diversity found in populations of feral cats living on islands. The genetic structure is consistent with a rapid westerly expansion from eastern Australia and a limited expansion in coastal Western Australia. Australian cats show modest if any population structure and a close genetic alignment with European feral cats as compared to cats from Asia, the Christmas and Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Indian Ocean), and European wildcats (F. silvestris silvestris). © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Dermatophilus congolensis in a feral cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Anne M; Weedon, G Robert; Maddox, Carol W; Galloway, Kimberly A

    2014-10-01

    A young adult feral cat presented to the Champaign County Humane Society with a subcutaneous mass near the stifle. The mass was aspirated. Chains of paired cocci organisms were identified, consistent with Dermatophilus congolensis. The identity of these organisms was confirmed by culture and polymerase chain reaction. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  17. The Use of Refuges by Communally Housed Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Sicuto de Oliveira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The increase of domestic animals kept in shelters highlights the need to ensure animal welfare. Environmental enrichment can improve animal welfare in many ways, such as encouraging captive animals to use all the space available to them. The effects of physical environmental enrichment on the spatial distribution and behavioral repertoire of 35 neutered domestic cats housed communally were analyzed. The provision of boxes in the environment increases the use of available space by the cats. We suggest this improves the cats’ welfare while in communally-housed rescue shelters. The frequencies of active and especially inactive behaviors also increased in the enriched condition. In a test with vertical environmental enrichment, the animals showed an increased length of stay in refuges located at a height of 0.5 m compared to those on the ground (0.0 m. However, the entry frequency was higher in refuges at 0.0 m. Both horizontal and vertical environmental enrichment increased the use of available space, demonstrating that box refuges as enrichment are effective in providing a refuge when at a height, or a place to explore at ground level. We suggest it enhances the welfare of cats in communally housed shelters. This information adds to the body of evidence relating to cat enrichment and can be useful in designing cat housing in veterinary clinics, research laboratories, shelters and domestic homes.

  18. That Fat Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  19. Pollen Allergies in Humans and their Dogs, Cats and Horses: Differences and Similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Einhorn, Lukas; Herrmann, Ina; Thalhammer, Johann G; Panakova, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Both humans and their most important domestic animals harbor IgE and a similar IgE receptor repertoire and expression pattern. The same cell types are also involved in the triggering or regulation of allergies, such as mast cells, eosinophils or T-regulatory cells. Translational clinical studies in domestic animals could therefore help cure animal allergies and at the same time gather knowledge relevant to human patients. Dogs, cats and horses may spontaneously and to different extents develop immediate type symptoms to pollen allergens. The skin, nasal and bronchial reactions, as well as chronic skin lesions due to pollen are in principle comparable to human patients. Pollen of various species most often causes allergic rhinitis in human patients, whereas in dogs it elicits predominantly eczematous lesions (canine atopic dermatitis), in horses recurrent airway obstruction or hives as well as pruritic dermatitis, and in cats bronchial asthma and so-called cutaneous reactive patterns (eosinophilic granuloma complex, head and neck pruritus, symmetric self-induced alopecia). In human allergy-specific IgE detection, skin tests or other allergen provocation tests should be completed. In contrast, in animals IgE and dermal tests are regarded as equally important and may even replace each other. However, for practical and economic reasons intradermal tests are most commonly performed in a specialized practice. As in humans, in dogs, cats and horses allergen immunotherapy leads to significant improvement of the clinical symptoms. The collected evidence suggests that canines, felines and equines, with their spontaneous allergies, are attractive model patients for translational studies.

  20. Terapia floral em gatos domésticos (Felis catus, Linnaeus, 1758 portadores do complexo da doença respiratória felina: estudo clínico e hematológico Flower therapy in domestic cats (Felis catus, Linnaeus, 1758 with feline respiratory disease complex: clinical and hematological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. Araújo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A terapia floral é considerada, atualmente, prática médica alternativa utilizada em diversas situações clínicas, constituindo possibilidade a mais de prevenção e cura de muitas doenças de natureza física e emocional. Este estudo objetivou pesquisar o efeito das essências do Sistema Brasileiro de Florais Compostos de Joel Aleixo num mesmo grupo de gatos domésticos com sinais clínicos sugestivos de Doença Respiratória Felina (DRF, tratados em diferentes momentos (M0, M1, M2, M3. Foram utilizados 20 gatos domésticos, de ambos os sexos, sem raça definida, com idade média de 5,63 ± 3,02 anos criados em gatil na UFRPE. Os animais foram submetidos ao tratamento com os florais por via oral em duas etapas. Na primeira etapa com os florais Desintus Total e Helminthus Total por 14 dias, e na segunda etapa com os florais Antibius e Regius por 28 dias. Os resultados observados, quanto aos aspectos clínicos, foram redução de secreção nasal, secreção ocular e estertores pulmonares; desaparecimento de sinais clínicos como fezes alteradas, úlceras na cavidade oral, pêlos eriçados e permanência da hipertrofia dos linfonodos. Quanto aos aspectos hematológicos houve interferência nas variáveis relacionadas ao hemograma (hemoglobina, VCM, CHCM, leucócitos, linfócitos e monócitos. Conclui-se que a terapia floral mostrou-se eficaz em gatos domésticos com sinais sugestivos de DRF criados nas mesmas condições de manejo.Flower therapy is currently considered an alternative medical practice used in several clinical situations, providing another way to prevent and cure many diseases of physical and emotional nature. This study aimed to investigate the effect of essences of the Brazilian Compound Flower System of Joel Aleixo in one same group of domestic cats showing suggestive clinical signs of Feline Respiratory Disease (FRD, treated in different moments (M0, M1, M2, M3. Twenty domestic cats, males and females, of mixed breed, with

  1. CAT questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This document, prepared in February 1993, addresses the most common questions asked by APS Collaborative Access Teams (CATs). The answers represent the best judgment on the part of the APS at this time. In some cases, details are provided in separate documents to be supplied by the APS. Some of the answers are brief because details are not yet available. The questions are separated into five categories representing different aspects of CAT interactions with the APS: (1) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), (2) CAT Beamline Review and Construction, (3) CAT Beamline Safety, (4) CAT Beamline Operations, and (5) Miscellaneous. The APS plans to generate similar documents as needed to both address new questions and clarify answers to present questions

  2. Feline immunodeficiency virus infection in cats from São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitika Kuribayashi Hagiwara

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and epidemiological aspects of three cases of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in cats related to FIV infection are described. Two of the patients were siamese, male and female, three years old cats and the third one was a male, six years old, short haired domestic cat. Fever, icterus, spleen enlargement, ematiation and weakness were the clinical signs observed. The main hematological alterations were anemia, apparently not related to hemobartonellosis, found in two of the cats, neutrophilia in all of them and lymphopenia observed in one. The necropsy made on two cats revealed that sepsis was the major cause of the worsening of clinical conditions of the FIV infected cats. Moraxella phenilpiruvica was isolated from kidney of one patient. All of the cats were FIV positive and FeLV negative and had been sick for a long time with clinical signs related to feline AIDS.

  3. Cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) from cats and dogs in New Zealand: Molecular characterisation, presence of Rickettsia felis and Bartonella clarridgeiae and comparison with Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Shona; Forsyth, Maureen; Lawrence, Andrea L; Emery, David; Šlapeta, Jan

    2017-01-30

    The cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) is the most common flea species parasitising both domestic cats and dogs globally. Fleas are known vectors of zoonotic pathogens such as vector borne Rickettsia and Bartonella. This study compared cat fleas from domestic cats and dogs in New Zealand's North and South Islands to Australian cat fleas, using the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) marker, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and II (cox1, cox2). We assessed the prevalence of Rickettsia and Bartonella using genus specific multiplexed real-time PCR assays. Morphological identification confirmed that the cat flea (C. felis) is the most common flea in New Zealand. The examined fleas (n=43) at cox1 locus revealed six closely related C. felis haplotypes (inter-haplotype distance 1.1%) across New Zealand. The New Zealand C. felis haplotypes were identical or near identical with haplotypes from southern Australia demonstrating common dispersal of haplotype lineage across both the geographical (Tasman Sea) and climate scale. New Zealand cat fleas carried Rickettsia felis (5.3%) and Bartonella clarridgeiae (18.4%). To understand the capability of C. felis to vector zoonotic pathogens, we determined flea cox1 and cox2 haplotype diversity with the tandem multiplexed real-time PCR and sequencing for Bartonella and Rickettsia. This enabled us to demonstrate highly similar cat fleas on cat and dog populations across Australia and New Zealand. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Will a hiding box provide stress reduction for shelter cats?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinke, Claudia|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/235196053; Godijn, L.M.; van der Leij, Ruth|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412860430

    2014-01-01

    Domestic cats (Felis sylvestris catus) can experience serious stress in shelters. Stressful experiences can have a major impact on the cats’ welfare and may cause higher incidences of infectious diseases in the shelters due to raised cortisol levels causing immuno deficiency.Though several studies

  5. Convergent Strabismus in a Cat and It’s Surgical Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat KİBAR

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to improve visual acuity and esthetic correction in a short hair domestic cat with strabismus. A domestic short hair cat (1 year old, male referred with visual deficit and progressively obvious strabismus. For recession surgery, medial rectus muscle was detached from the sclera after used suspensory suture. The muscle insertion was recessed 4 mm and sutured to sclera. In conclusion, strabismus can be caused to visual deficy and treated succesfully by recession surgery in cats.

  6. Cat-scratch neuroretinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, J

    1999-08-01

    Cat-scratch disease is a subacute regional lymphadenitis, usually preceded by a history of a cat scratch or exposure to kittens. The disease is caused by Bartonella henselae, and possibly Bartonella quintana, pleomorphic gram-negative rods formerly known as Rochalimaea henselae and Rochalimaea quintana. Ocular involvement is rare and typically manifests as either Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome or neuroretinitis. Patients with neuroretinitis resulting from cat-scratch disease may be asymptomatic or experience mild-to-severe vision loss. The clinical features, angiographic appearance, differential diagnosis, and management of cat-scratch neuroretinitis are discussed. A 30-year-old white woman reported to the eye clinic with painless, decreased vision in the right eye. A diagnosis of cat scratch neuroretinitis was made on the basis of the history of cat scratch, clinical appearance, and angiographic findings. Treatment with oral ciprofloxacin restored vision to normal in 4 weeks. Painless vision loss associated with optic nerve swelling and macular star exudate should alert suspicion of systemic disease. Additional findings--including positive history of a cat scratch, lymphadenopathy, and flu-like symptoms--may indicate Bartonella henselae or Bartonella quintana infection. While treatment remains controversial, appropriate serology testing may aid in the diagnosis and management of the underlying infection.

  7. COMPARISON BETWEEN TWO METHODS OF STAINING FOR ASSESSMENT OF MORPHOLOGY AND ACROSOME IN DOMESTIC CAT (Felis catus SPERMATOZOA COMPARAÇÃO ENTRE DOIS MÉTODOS DE COLORAÇÃO PARA ANÁLISE MORFOLÓGICA E ACROSSOMAL DE ESPERMATOZÓIDES DE GATO DOMÉSTICO (Felis catus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Ozanam Papa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of the modified Karras staining technique (KA to analyze domestic cat sperm morphology by comparing it with the Fast Green FCF/ Rose Bengal staining (FR, previously used for this species. Four adult cats were used, from which sperm samples were collected four times in alternate days for each tom using an artificial vagina (n=16 ejaculates. Both staining techniques were performed for each ejaculate. For the FR staining technique, the semen in natura was diluted in 2.9% sodium citrate and, afterwards, in the staining solution. After 70 seconds, smears were made onto slide and dried at 37ºC. For the KA staining technique, previously made and formol saline fixed slides were sequentially immersed in Rose Bengal solution, Tannin solution, and Victoria Blue B solution, and dried at room temperature. For sperm evaluation, 200 sperm cells were assessed for each staining technique in all ejaculate samples using a bright field microscope at 1000X magnification. Statistical analysis used the non-parametric Wilcoxon test, establishing significance at p<0.05. For the KA staining technique, higher percentage of distal cytoplasmic droplets and lower percentage of sperm head defects were obtained when compared to the FR staining technique. This way, both staining techniques were not totally efficient for the assessment of morphological defects found in the domestic cat in natura spermatozoa.

    KEY WORDS: Acrosome, domestic cat, spermatozoa, sperm morphology, staining.

     

    O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a eficiência do método de colora

  8. A case of tail self-mutilation in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zita Talamonti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present report describes a case of distal tail self-mutilation in a 5-year-old neutered male domestic short-hair cat. The cat started licking his tail few months before the behavioural visit. Because of the severity of the self-induced injuries, the veterinarian performed a surgical partial caudectomy. After 3 months, the excessive self-grooming of the tail recurred. Neurological and dermatological examinations, radiographs, urine and blood tests did not show any abnormalities. During the behavioural visit, through direct observation of the cat’s posture and behavioural history, the pet received a diagnosis of psychogenic alopecia. The cat was treated with clomipramine for 2 months (0.5 mg/kg/PO SID along with behaviour modification and environmental changes. After 1 month, the cat no longer showed excessive self-grooming. Even if no other systemic pathologies were identified, it is always recommended to address these patients with a multidisciplinary approach.

  9. Risk factors for road traffic accidents in cats up to age 12 months that were registered between 2010 and 2013 with the UK pet cat cohort ('Bristol Cats').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J L; Gruffydd-Jones, T J; Murray, J K

    2017-02-25

    Road traffic accidents (RTAs) are a common cause of death and injury in domestic cats, and a concern to many owners. This study assessed potential risk factors for RTAs in cats up to 12 months of age within a UK cat cohort known as 'The Bristol Cats study'. Data were obtained from three questionnaires, completed by cat owners when their cats were approximately 8-16 weeks old, 6 months old and 12 months old. Information was gathered regarding environmental conditions, cat characteristics and owner management factors. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess associations between these factors and RTAs. Of 1264 eligible study cats, 49 (3.9 per cent) had been involved in an RTA, of which 71.4 per cent (35/49) were known to result in fatal injuries. Rural locations were associated with a higher odds of RTAs than towns, cities or suburban locations. An increased odds of an RTA was also associated with cats that were reported by their owners to hunt at the roadside, as well as cats whose owners classified the road by their house as being a 'long straight section of road'. No significant associations were found between coat colour, breed, sex or neuter status and the odds of an RTA. British Veterinary Association.

  10. Dystocia in the cat evaluated using an insurance database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Bodil Ström; Axnér, Eva; Öhlund, Malin; Möller, Lotta; Egenvall, Agneta

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to describe the incidence of feline dystocia with respect to breed. Methods The data used were reimbursed claims for veterinary care insurance and/or life insurance claims in cats registered in a Swedish insurance database from 1999-2006. Results The incidence rates for dystocia were about 22 cats per 10,000 cat-years at risk, 67 per 10,000 for purebred cats and seven per 10,000 for domestic shorthair cats. The median age was 2.5 years. A significant effect of breed was seen. An incidence rate ratio (IRR) that was significantly higher compared with other purebred cats was seen in the British Shorthair (IRR 2.5), the Oriental group (IRR 2.2), Birman (IRR 1.7), Ragdoll (IRR 1.5) and the Abyssinian group (IRR 1.5). A significantly lower IRR was seen in the Norwegian Forest Cat (IRR 0.38), the Maine Coon (IRR 0.48), the Persian/Exotic group (IRR 0.49) and the Cornish Rex (IRR 0.50). No common factor among the high-risk breeds explained their high risk for dystocia. There was no effect of location; that is, the incidence rate did not differ depending on whether the cat lived in an urban or rural area. Caesarean section was performed in 56% of the cats with dystocia, and the case fatality was 2%. Conclusions and relevance The incidence rate for dystocia was of a similar magnitude in purebred cats as in dogs. The IRR varied significantly among breeds, and the main cause for dystocia should be identified separately for each breed. A selection for easy parturitions in breeding programmes is suggested.

  11. Detection of antibodies against Leishmania infantum in cats (Felis catus) from the State of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rita de Cássia Nascimento; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Pimentel, Danillo de Souza; Oliveira, Gênova Maria de Azevedo; Carvalho, Gílcia Aparecida de; Santana, Marília de Andrade; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Glória; Alves, Leucio Câmara

    2014-01-01

    Little information is available concerning infection by Leishmania infantum in cats. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a serological study in domestic cats. Serum samples (n=153) obtained from animals living in the Cities of Recife and Petrolina, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, were tested by ELISA/S7® (Biogene). Anti-L. infantum antibodies were detected in 3.9% (6/153) of the cats. All seroreagent animals were from Petrolina. These results serve as an important alert, and future studies are needed to better understand the possible role of cats in the epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in this area.

  12. IndexCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — IndexCat provides access to the digitized version of the printed Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office; eTK for medieval Latin texts; and...

  13. StreamCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The StreamCat Dataset provides summaries of natural and anthropogenic landscape features for ~2.65 million streams, and their associated catchments, within the...

  14. Cat-Scratch Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pain. Antibiotics may be needed if your symptoms don’t go away in a month or two. In rare cases, the infection can travel to your bones, liver, or other organs. This requires more intensive treatment. Should cats be ...

  15. Eurytrema procyonis and pancreatitis in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyhnal, Kristin K; Barr, Stephen C; Hornbuckle, William E; Yeager, Amy E; Wade, Susan E; Frongillo, Marguerite F; Simpson, Kenneth W; Bowman, Dwight D

    2008-08-01

    A young adult male domestic shorthair cat was presented for physical examination, routine vaccinations, and a fecal examination. Physical examination revealed no significant abnormalities. Eggs of the raccoon pancreatic fluke Eurytrema procyonis were detected by fecal flotation. Results of a complete blood count and serum biochemistry panel were normal. Abdominal sonography revealed an enlarged hypoechoic pancreas with a hyperechoic rim, and a distended and thickened pancreatic duct. Serum pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (PLI) was increased. These findings supported the possibility of fluke-associated pancreatitis. Treatment with praziquantel/pyrantel/febantel was associated with resolution of sonographic abnormalities and normalization of PLI.

  16. Prostatic abscess in a neutered cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordecai, Adam; Liptak, Julius M; Hofstede, Tamara; Stalker, Margaret; Kruth, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    A 6-year-old, male castrated domestic shorthair cat was presented for evaluation of lethargy, vomiting, anorexia, and constipation. Physical examination revealed an elevated body temperature and an extramural colonic mass. Abdominal ultrasonography demonstrated a hypoechoic mass measuring 2.2 cm in maximum dimension immediately caudal to the bladder. Cytological evaluation of a fine-needle aspirate confirmed the mass was a prostatic abscess. Abdominal celiotomy and prostatic omentalization were successful in resolving clinical abnormalities. Feline prostatic abscessation is a rare condition that has not been previously reported and may have a good outcome if treated early and appropriately.

  17. Hemoplasma prevalence and hematological abnormalities associated with infection in three different cat populations from Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pires dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Three hemoplasma species are recognized in domestic cats: Mycoplasma haemofelis, ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’. We report the prevalence and hematological abnormalities of hemoplasma infection in 369 domestic cats from three different populations (blood donors, hospitalized cats and shelter cats from Southern Brazil. Complete blood counts were performed at the time of blood collection, and DNA was extracted and tested by conventional PCR for each hemoplasma species. A total of 79 samples (21.40% were positive for at least one species. The most prevalent hemoplasma was ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’, with 50/369 (13.55% positive cats, followed by ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’, 10/369 (2.71%, and Mycoplasma haemofelis, 8/369 (2.16%. Mycoplasma haemofelis and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ coinfection was observed in 4/369 (1.08%, whereas ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’ in 5/369 (1.35%. Three cats (0.81% were infected with all three hemoplasmas. There was no association between infection and the different populations. Anemia was associated with Mycoplasma haemofelis and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’, but not with ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’. Male cats and cats with outdoor access were more likely to be infected. Although ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ is believed to cause minimal or no hematological alterations, the infected cats studied herein were more likely to be anemic.

  18. Técnica de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco no diagnóstico de helmintos gastrintestinais de gatos domésticos Zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation technique on the diagnosis of gastrointestinal helminthes of domestic cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Mattos de Souza-Dantas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O diagnóstico coproparasitológico é o recurso laboratorial mais utilizado para detecção de infecções parasitárias gastrintestinais. A técnica de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco (FAUST et al., 1938 é técnica de eleição no diagnóstico de estruturas parasitárias leves, podendo também ser usada para detecção de estruturas pesadas. Para avaliar o desempenho dessa técnica no diagnóstico das helmintoses gastrintestinais de gatos domésticos, foram realizados exames coproparasitológicos de 13 gatos domésticos 15 dias antes de suas mortes. À necropsia, os helmintos adultos encontrados no tubo digestivo e fígado foram contados, fixados e identificados. A técnica utilizada mostrou-se capaz de recuperar ovos de todos os nematóides e trematódeos encontrados, mas não foi adequada para a recuperação de cestóides.Fecal examinations are the most commonly used laboratory tool for diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematode parasitic infections. Zinc centrifugal floatation technique (FAUST et al., 1938 is not only considered to be efficient in detecting light parasitic structures, but it is also used for recovery of heavy structures. In order to evaluate the performance of that technique in the diagnosis of domestic cats' gastrointestinal helminthiasis, fecal examinations of 13 animals were carried out 15 days prior to the animals' deaths. At necropsy, adult gastrointestinal parasites found were collected, counted, fixed and identified. The studied technique was able to recover eggs from all detected nematodes and trematodes, but appeared inappropriate for recovery of cestode eggs.

  19. Cats Have Nine Lives, but Only One Liver: The Effects of Acetaminophen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewprashad, Brahmadeo

    2009-01-01

    This case recounts the story of a student who gave her cat half of a Tylenol tablet not knowing its potential harmful effects. The cat survives, but the incident motivates the student to learn more about the reaction mechanism underlying the liver toxicity of acetaminophen. The case outlines three possible reaction schemes that would explain the…

  20. Development of a laboratory model to assess fear and anxiety in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rivera, Christina; Ley, Jacqui; Milgram, Bill; Landsberg, Gary

    2017-06-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were: (1) to develop a laboratory-based model to assess fear and anxiety in cats using the feline open-field test (OFT) and the feline human interaction test (HIT); and (2) to validate the model using diazepam, a known anxiolytic. Methods Laboratory-housed cats (n = 41) were first classified as fearful, mildly fearful or non-fearful by a technician familiar with the cats and also by veterinary behaviorists (GL, JL), by assessing the cats' behavior in their home rooms. In experiment 1, each cat's behavior was assessed in an OFT and an HIT. In experiment 2, after administration of the anxiolytic diazepam, a subset of the cats was re-tested. Results In experiment 1, the OFT revealed significant group effects on two measures: duration of inactivity, and vocalization. Fearful animals had significantly longer periods of inactivity than non-fearful animals. Non-fearful and mildly fearful cats vocalized more frequently than fearful cats. In the HIT, fearful cats travelled less than non-fearful and mildly fearful cats. Fearful and mildly fearful animals had significantly longer durations of inactivity, and non-fearful and mildly fearful cats had a significantly higher frequency of vocalization compared with fearful cats. In experiment 2, in the OFT, treatment with diazepam caused an increase in distance travelled, shorter durations of inactivity, and more frequent inactivity and vocalization. In the HIT, diazepam increased distance travelled and decreased duration of inactivity. Fearful cats spent significantly less time near the human compared with non-fearful cats, and this persisted under diazepam. Conclusions and relevance The feline OFT and feline HIT can be used jointly to assess the effects of medications or other therapies on fear and anxiety in the domestic cat.

  1. THE OCCURRENCE OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII ANTIBODIES IN BACKYARD PIGS AND CATS FROM AN ENDEMIC TROPICAL AREA OF MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Matilde Jimenez-Coello; Karla Y Acosta-Viana; Eugenia Guzman-Marín; Edwin J Gutierrez-ruiz; Roger I Rodriguez-Vivas; Manuel E Bolio-Gonzalez; Antonio Ortega-Pacheco

    2013-01-01

    In Mexico, backyard animal production system is an important source of food for domestic consumption as in many other developing countries and is characterized by a virtually nonexistent sanitary management. With the objective to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors associated with antibodies against T. gondii in pigs and cats from an endemic area in the Mexican tropics, a cross-sectional study was performed in 30 backyard pigs and 50 cats. Pigs and cats were blood sampled and tested by a...

  2. Iatrogenic biloma (biliary pseudocyst) in a cat with hepatic lipidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, C.R.; Ackerman, N.; Charach, M.; Lawrence, D.

    1992-01-01

    An eight-year-old neutered female domestic longhair cat was presented with icterus and a palpable cranial abdominal mass. The cat had undergone an open biopsy of the liver two years previously. Abdominal radiographic findings included a solitary soft tissue mass originating from the right cranial hepatic region. An anechoic cystic structure was identified on ultrasound examination. Surgical exploration revealed the cyst to be filled with bile. The fibrous capsule of the cyst originated in the liver. Severe hepatic lipidosis was also present. It is believed that the bilorna was a complication of the previous hepatic biopsy and not a sequela of hepatic lipidosis

  3. Pancreatitis in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, P Jane; Williams, David A

    2012-08-01

    Pancreatitis was considered a rare disease in the cat until a couple of decades ago when several retrospective studies of severe acute pancreatitis were published. It was apparent that few of the diagnostic tests of value in the dog were helpful in cats. With increasing clinical suspicion, availability of abdominal ultrasonography, and introduction of pancreas-specific blood tests of increasing utility, it is now accepted that acute pancreatitis is probably almost as common in cats as it is in dogs, although the etiology(s) remain more obscure. Pancreatitis in cats often co-exists with inflammatory bowel disease, less commonly with cholangitis, and sometimes with both. Additionally, pancreatitis may trigger hepatic lipidosis, while other diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, may be complicated by pancreatitis. Therapy is similar to that used in dogs, with added emphasis on early nutritional support to prevent hepatic lipidosis. Less is known about chronic pancreatitis than the acute form, but chronic pancreatitis is more common in cats than it is in dogs and may respond positively to treatment with corticosteroids. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. CatSper channel, sperm function and male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akhand Pratap; Rajender, Singh

    2015-01-01

    A number of physiological events, such as sperm hyperactivation, chemotaxis towards the egg, capacitation and acrosome reaction, are triggered by activation of sperm ion channels in response to a diverse range of chemical cues. Cation channel of sperm (CatSper), a sperm-specific ion channel, is unique in orchestrating the events for fertilization, and seems to be exclusively evolved for sperm function and male fertility. CatSper acts as a polymodal, chemosensory calcium channel and plays a vital role in the regulation of sperm hyperactivation. CatSper knockout models and application of patch clamp recordings have shown that it is indispensable for male fertility, and mutations and deletions in CatSper gene(s) may lead to infertility. In fact, mutations in CatSper1 and 2 have been identified in infertile individuals; however, CatSper3 and 4 have not been explored. Restricted localization and expression of CatSper in sperm offer an added advantage to developing gamete-based safe non-hormonal contraceptives. This review concisely covers identification, structure, function, and mechanism of action of CatSper channels. The functional importance of this complex ion channel in sperm motility and male fertility is highlighted for further research on male fertility, infertility, and contraception. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Surgical correction of labial fusion with vaginoplasty in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavec, Tanja; Pavlin, Darja

    2013-06-01

    A spayed female domestic shorthair cat was first examined at the age of 16 months because of persistent licking of the perineal area. The cat had a grossly enlarged and oedematous vulva with pronounced superficial pyoderma of the perivulvar area, which responded favourably to systemic antibiotics, analgesics and local corticosteroids. A month after the initial examination, the cat was re-presented owing to pollakiuria, stranguria and dyschesia. The oedema of the vulva had disappeared and the vulvar labia were fused together; there was only a fistulous tract with a diameter of 1 mm present in the area of the vulva, and the cat strained to urinate through that opening. A contrast study revealed normal transit through the lower urinary tract, but labial adhesions resulted in the development of dilation cranially, where the vaginal vestibule was supposed to be. Vaginoplasty was subsequently performed, the cat recovered normally and, 10 months after the procedure, the lumen of the vaginostoma is preserved and the cat is urinating without difficulty.

  6. Suspected zonisamide-related anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinet, Audrey; Sammut, Veronique

    2017-12-15

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 2-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat was evaluated for sudden onset of cluster seizures. CLINICAL FINDINGS At an emergency clinic, the cat had hyperimmunoglobulinemia and thrombocytopenia. On referral, treatment with levetiracetam, zonisamide, and phenobarbital initially provided good control of cluster seizure activity (attributable to epilepsy of unknow origin). Two weeks later, assessments revealed that serum phenobarbital concentration was within the ideal range but serum zonisamide concentration exceeded the recommended therapeutic range. The dosage of zonisamide was therefore decreased. Four days after dosage reduction, the cat developed generalized lymphadenopathy. Cytologic analysis of lymph node aspirate samples revealed a heterogeneous population of well-differentiated lymphocytes, interpreted as marked reactivity. Although neoplasia could not be ruled out, hypersensitivity to phenobarbital was suspected, and this treatment was discontinued. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Despite cessation of phenobarbital administration, generalized peripheral lymphadenopathy progressed and hyperglobulinemia and cytopenias developed. These abnormalities resolved after discontinuation of zonisamide administration. The cat remained seizure free with no recurrence of the aforementioned concerns after reinstitution of phenobarbital treatment. CLINICAL RELEVANCE To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of zonisamide-related lymphadenopathy, hyperglobulinemia, and cytopenias in a cat. Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome is well documented in human medicine, but little information has been published in the veterinary medical literature. Although the effects of anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome in this cat were serious, these effects were reversible with treatment discontinuation.

  7. E-Z-CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, U.; Dinnetz, G.; Andersson, I.

    1984-01-01

    A new barium sulphate suspension, E-Z-CAT, for use as an oral contrast medium at computed tomography of the abdomen has been compared with the commonly used water-soluble iodinated contrast medium Gastrografin as regards patient tolerance and diagnostic information. The investigation was conducted as an unpaired randomized single-blind study in 100 consecutive patients. E-Z-CAT seems to be preferred because of its better taste, its lesser tendency to cause diarrhoea, and for usage in patients who are known to be hypersensitive to iodinated contrast media. The diagnostic information was the same for both contrast media. (Auth.)

  8. [Declawing in cats?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, I

    1983-02-15

    Those forms of behaviour in which cats use their claws are reviewed. Forms of undesirable use of the claws and possible solutions to this problem are discussed. An inquiry among veterinary practitioners showed that nearly fifty per cent of these practitioners refused to declaw cats on principle. Approximately seventy-five per cent of the veterinarians taking part in the inquiry advocated that the Royal Netherlands Veterinary Association should state its position with regard to declawing. It is concluded by the present author that declawing is unacceptable for ethical and ethological reasons.

  9. Brain abscess in seven cats due to a bite wound: MRI findings, surgical management and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Chiara; Garosi, Laurent S; Glass, Eric N; Rusbridge, Clare; Stalin, Catherine E; Volk, Holger A

    2011-09-01

    PRESENTATION AND LESION LOCALISATION: Seven adult domestic shorthair cats were presented with a 1- to 6-day history of progressive neurological signs. A focal skin puncture and subcutaneous swelling over the dorsal part of the head were detected on physical examination. Neurological examination indicated lesion(s) in the right forebrain in four cats, multifocal forebrain in one cat, left forebrain in one cat, and multifocal forebrain and brainstem in the remaining cat. In all cats, magnetic resonance imaging revealed a space-occupying forebrain lesion causing a severe mass effect on adjacent brain parenchyma. CLINICAL APPROACH AND OUTCOME: All cats were managed with a combination of medical and surgical treatment. At surgery a small penetrating calvarial fracture was detected in all cats, and a tooth fragment was found within the content of the abscess in two cats. The combination of surgical intervention, intensive care and intravenous antimicrobials led to a return to normal neurological function in five cats. As this series of cases indicates, successful resolution of a brain abscess due to a bite injury depends on early recognition and combined used of antimicrobials and surgical intervention. A particular aim of surgery is to remove any skull and foreign body (tooth) fragments that may represent a continuing focus of infection. Copyright © 2011 ISFM and AAFP. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessing the impact of different persuasive messages on the intentions and behaviour of cat owners: A randomised control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Lynette J; Hine, Donald W; Bengsen, Andrew J; Driver, Aaron B

    2017-10-01

    Owners of free-ranging domestic cats (Felis catus) are under increasing pressure to keep their pet contained within their house or yard, in an effort to reduce adverse impacts on cat welfare, ecosystem biodiversity and neighbourhoods. We conducted a randomised online experiment to assess the effectiveness of two persuasive messages to encourage cat owners to contain their pets. A total of 512 Australian cat owners, who currently do not contain their cats, were randomly assigned to view one of three short video messages: one framed to highlight the negative impact of cats' on wildlife and biodiversity ('wildlife protection' frame), one framed to highlight the health and safety benefits of keeping cats contained ('cat benefit' frame), and a control message focused on general information about cats ('neutral' frame). We assessed the impact of these video messages on two post-treatment outcome variables: (1) the intention of owners to contain their cat; and (2) the adoption of containment practices, based on a 4-week follow-up survey. Mediation analysis revealed both the 'wildlife protection' and 'cat benefit' messages increased owners' motivation to contain their cat and their beliefs that they could effectively contain their cat to achieve the desired outcomes (response efficacy). In turn, higher levels of motivation and response efficacy predicted increased cat containment intentions and increased adoption of cat containment. In addition, the response efficacy effects of the 'cat benefit' message were strengthened by the cat owner's bond to their pet, suggesting audience segmentation may improve the effectiveness of interventions. Implications for future intervention development are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical findings and survival in cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, B P; Dhand, N K; Pepper, A E; Barrs, V R; Beatty, J A

    2013-01-01

    The clinical course and outcome of natural feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection are variable and incompletely understood. Assigning clinical relevance to FIV infection in individual cats represents a considerable clinical challenge. To compare signalment, hematologic and biochemical data, major clinical problem, and survival among client-owned, FIV-infected, and uninfected domestic cats. Client-owned, domestic cats tested for FIV (n = 520). Retrospective, case control study. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify risk factors for FIV infection and to compare hematologic and biochemical data between cases and controls, after adjusting for potential confounders. Survival times were compared using Kaplan-Meier curves. The prevalence of FIV infection was 14.6%. Mixed breed, male sex, and older age were risk factors for FIV infection. Hematologic abnormalities, biochemical abnormalities or both were common in both FIV-infected and uninfected cats. Lymphoid malignancies were slightly more common in FIV-infected than uninfected cats. Survival of FIV-infected cats was not significantly different from that of uninfected cats. Multiple hematologic and biochemical abnormalities are common in old, sick cats regardless of their FIV status. Their presence should not be assumed to indicate clinical progression of FIV infection. A negative effect of FIV on survival was not apparent in this study. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  12. Tracheal collapse in two cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, J.C.; O'Brien, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Two cats examined bronchoscopically to discover the cause of tracheal collapse were found to have tracheal obstruction cranial to the collapse. Cats with this unusual sign should be examined bronchoscopically to ascertain whether there is an obstruction, as the cause in these 2 cats was distinct from the diffuse airway abnormality that causes tracheal collapse in dogs

  13. Surgical intervention in the management of severe acute pancreatitis in cats: 8 cases (2003-2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Tolina T; Thompson, Lisa; Serrano, Sergi; Seshadri, Ravi

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate clinical characteristics and outcomes of cats undergoing surgical intervention in the course of treatment for severe acute pancreatitis. Retrospective observational study from 2003 to 2007 with a median follow-up period of 2.2 years (range 11 d-5.4 y) postoperatively. Private referral veterinary center. Eight cats. None. Quantitative data included preoperative physical and clinicopathologic values. Qualitative parameters included preoperative ultrasonographic interpretation, perioperative and intraoperative feeding tube placement, presence of free abdominal fluid, intraoperative closed suction abdominal drain placement, postoperative complications, microbiological culture, and histopathology. Common presenting clinical signs included lethargy, anorexia, and vomiting. Leukocytosis and hyponatremia were present in 5 of 8 cats. Hypokalemia, increased total bilirubin, and hyperglycemia were present in 6 of 8 cats. Elevated alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transferase were present in all cats. Surgery for extrahepatic biliary obstruction was performed in 6 cats, pancreatic abscess in 3 cats, and pancreatic necrosis in 1 cat. Six of the 8 cats survived. Five of the 6 cats that underwent surgery for extrahepatic biliary obstruction and 1 cat that underwent pancreatic necrosectomy survived. All 5 of the cats with extrahepatic biliary obstruction secondary to pancreatitis survived. The 2 nonsurvivors included a cat with a pancreatic abscess and a cat with severe pancreatitis and extrahepatic biliary obstruction secondary to a mass at the gastroduodenal junction. Postoperative complications included progression of diabetes mellitus, septic peritonitis, local gastrostomy tube stoma inflammation, local gastrostomy tube stoma infection, and mild dermal suture reaction. Cats with severe acute pancreatitis and concomitant extrahepatic biliary obstruction, pancreatic necrosis, or pancreatic abscesses may benefit from surgical intervention. Cats with extrahepatic

  14. Intra-abdominal fungal pseudomycetoma in two cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Matheus V; Laisse, Cláudio J M; Vargas, Thainã P; Wouters, Flademir; Boabaid, Fabiana M; Pavarini, Saulo P; Ferreiro, Laerte; Driemeier, David

    Pseudomycetomas are deep cutaneous to subcutaneous lesions caused by Microsporum canis mainly described in Persian cats, with few reports of intra-abdominal location. This report describes the clinical signs and lesions of intra-abdominal pseudomycetomas caused by M. canis in two Persian cats. Two Persian cats with a history of previous laparotomy (ovariohysterectomy and nephrostomy) and fecal impaction were examined. Cat #1 was euthanized and subjected to necropsy, histopathology and mycological evaluation. Cat #2 presented with chronic dermatophytosis, and an intra-abdominal mass, that was subjected to histopathology evaluation. Cat #1 presented at necropsy a white-grayish, firm mass (6cm×3.5cm×2.8cm) in the uterine cervix. Cat #2 presented a firm whitish mass (6.5cm×1.5cm×0.5cm) located close to the left kidney. Histologically, both masses contained multifocal granules with hyphae and spores surrounded by Splendore-Hoeppli reaction, with a pyogranulomatous inflammatory infiltrate and fibrous connective tissue proliferation in the periphery. Hyphae and spores exhibited marked Grocott and periodic acid-Schiff staining. M. canis was identified by fungal isolation in cat #1. Pseudomycetoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cats, especially in Persian cats presenting with an intra-abdominal mass. Entrance of the agent into the cavity can occur during laparotomy. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. U.S. Domestic Cats as Sentinels for Perfluoroalkyl Substances

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Legacy PFC work. Data stored in Phillip Bost’s Lab Notebook #1778; Room D286 (Lindstrom) RTP, NC EPA office. This dataset is associated with the following...

  16. Mycobacterial panniculitis caused by in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polina Vishkautsan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A domestic shorthair cat was evaluated for chronic, bilateral, ulcerative dermatitis affecting the inguinal region and lateral aspects of both pelvic limbs. Histopathologic examination of skin biopsies collected throughout the course of disease revealed chronic pyogranulomatous ulcerative dermatitis. Aerobic bacterial skin cultures yielded growth of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Corynebacterium amycolatum . Upon referral the clinical findings were suggestive of a non-tuberculous Mycobacterium species infection. Previously obtained skin cultures failed to yield growth of mycobacterial organisms. A deep skin biopsy was collected and submitted for mycobacterial culture. At 5 weeks of incubation Mycobacterium thermoresistibile was isolated. In previous reports, M thermoresistibile has been isolated after 2–4 days of incubation, suggesting that this strain may have been a slower growing variant, or other factors (such as prior antimicrobial therapy inhibited rapid growth of this isolate. The cat was hospitalized for intravenous antibiotic therapy, surgical debridement of wounds, vacuum-assisted wound closure therapy and reconstruction procedures. The wounds were ultimately primarily closed and the cat was discharged to the owner after 50 days of hospitalization. Seven months after hospitalization, the ulcerative skin lesions had healed. Relevance and novel information To our knowledge, only two cases of M thermoresistibile panniculitis have been reported in cats. In the only detailed report of feline M thermoresistibile panniculitis, treatment was not attempted. The second case only reported detection of M thermoresistibile by PCR without a clinical description of the case. In our case report, severe chronic skin infection with M thermoresistibile was addressed using prolonged specific antibiotic therapy, surgical debridement and reconstructions, and treatment of secondary bacterial infections.

  17. Lymphocytic mural folliculitis and pancreatic carcinoma in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobetti, Remo

    2015-06-01

    A 9-year-old castrated domestic shorthair cat was presented with a 6 week history of progressive non-pruritic alopecia, polyphagia and weight loss. A diagnosis of lymphocytic mural folliculitis was made and the cat was treated with a combination of prednisolone and ciclosporin; this produced an improvement in the alopecia but no resolution. Sixteen months after the initial assessment and diagnosis, the cat was re-evaluated for intermittent vomiting and weight loss with normal appetite. On examination the dermatopathy was still evident and a mass involving the duodenum and pancreas was present, which was diagnosed as a pancreatic carcinoma. From this case it would appear that lymphocytic mural folliculitis might be an early dermatological manifestation of pancreatic neoplasia. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  18. Presence of domesticated cats and visual impairment associated to Toxoplasma gondii serum positive children at an elementary school in Jataizinho, state of Paraná, Brazil Presença de gatos domésticos e alterações visuais associados a amostras positivas para Toxoplasma gondii em escolares de Jataizinho, Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Maria R. Lopes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis possess worldwide geographic distribution and high serological prevalence in human beings and animals. Acquired way is, in the majority of the times, light or asymptomatic however, in approximately 15% of the cases can be developed the ocular form. The aim of this study is to research the occurrence of IgG anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in children at an elementary school in Jataizinho (PR and relate some factors with the epidemiology of the toxoplasmosis. A total of 276 samples of blood by using indirect immunofluorescence (IFA where 128 (46.4% were detected positives. The analysis of the variables indicated that the presence of domestic cats in the household was an important factor associated to the infection by T. gondii (OR= 3.45; 1.617.45 as well as to the children who described any kind of visual impairment (OR= 3.19; 1.11 - 9.35.A toxoplasmose possui ampla distribuição geográfica e elevada prevalência sorológica entre seres humanos e animais. A forma adquirida é, na maioria dos casos, leve ou assintomática, entretanto, em aproximadamente 15% dos casos pode-se desenvolver a forma ocular. O objetivo deste trabalho foi relacionar algumas variáveis à ocorrência de anticorpos IgG anti- Toxoplasma gondii em escolares do ensino fundamental de Jataizinho (PR. Foram analisadas amostras de sangue de 276 crianças testadas pela reação de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI onde 128 (46,4% foram positivas. A análise das variáveis revelou que a presença de gato doméstico foi um importante fator associado à infecção pelo T. gondii (OR= 3.45; 1.61- 7.45 assim como crianças que relataram algum tipo de alteração visual (OR= 3.19; 1.11 - 9.35.

  19. Frustration behaviors in domestic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovcevic, Adriana; Elgier, Angel M; Mustaca, Alba E; Bentosela, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    During extinction a previously learned behavior stops being reinforced. In addition to the decrease in the rate of the instrumental response, it produces an aversive emotional state known as frustration. This state can be assimilated with the fear reactions that occur after aversive stimuli are introduced at both the physiological and behavioral levels. This study evaluated frustration reactions of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) during a communicative situation involving interactions with a human. The task included the reinforcement and extinction of the gaze response toward the experimenter's face when the dogs tried to obtain inaccessible food. The dog's frustration reactions during extinction involved an increase in withdrawal and side orientation to the location of the human as well as lying down, ambulation, sniffing, and vocalizations compared with the last acquisition trial. These results are especially relevant for domestic dog training situations in which the extinction technique is commonly used to discourage undesirable behaviors.

  20. Characteristics and consequences of psychopathic domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Danka M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic violence is a problem to which more attention is paid today. However, in its theoretical consideration, as well as in practical reaction, one must not lose sight of characteristics of domestic violence of one, rather numerous category of perpetrators who have psychopathic structure of personality. Domestic violence which offenders are psychopaths must be treated very carefully, because each mistake in intervention can cause much bigger damage to the victim than absence of reaction at all. Due to that, before any intervention, it would be necessary to make a diagnosis on whether the perpetrator has psychopathic structure of personality or not.

  1. Prostatic carcinoma in two cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caney, S.M.A.; Holt, P.E.; Day, M.J.; Rudorf, H.; Gruffydd-Jones, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    Clinical, radiological and pathological features of two cats with prostatic carcinoma are reported. In both cats the presenting history included signs of lower urinary tract disease with haematuria and dysuria. Prostatomegaly was visible radiographically in one cat; an irregular intraprostatic urethra was seen on retrograde contrast urethrography in both cats. In one of the cats, neoplasia was suspected on the basis of a transurethral catheter biopsy. Following a poor response to palliative treatment in both cases, euthanasia was performed with histological confirmation of the diagnosis

  2. Treatment performance of small-scale vermifilter for domestic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment performance of small-scale vermifilter for domestic wastewater and its relationship to earthworm growth, reproduction and enzymatic activity. ... In addition, activities of protease, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and cellulase in earthworm body dropped, but superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) increased ...

  3. Pseudogenization of a Sweet-Receptor Gene Accounts for Cats' Indifference toward Sugar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Although domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus possess an otherwise functional sense of taste, they, unlike most mammals, do not prefer and may be unable to detect the sweetness of sugars. One possible explanation for this behavior is that cats lack the sensory system to taste sugars and therefore are indifferent to them. Drawing on work in mice, demonstrating that alleles of sweet-receptor genes predict low sugar intake, we examined the possibility that genes involved in the initial transduction of sweet perception might account for the indifference to sweet-tasting foods by cats. We characterized the sweet-receptor genes of domestic cats as well as those of other members of the Felidae family of obligate carnivores, tiger and cheetah. Because the mammalian sweet-taste receptor is formed by the dimerization of two proteins (T1R2 and T1R3; gene symbols Tas1r2 and Tas1r3, we identified and sequenced both genes in the cat by screening a feline genomic BAC library and by performing PCR with degenerate primers on cat genomic DNA. Gene expression was assessed by RT-PCR of taste tissue, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. The cat Tas1r3 gene shows high sequence similarity with functional Tas1r3 genes of other species. Message from Tas1r3 was detected by RT-PCR of taste tissue. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical studies demonstrate that Tas1r3 is expressed, as expected, in taste buds. However, the cat Tas1r2 gene shows a 247-base pair microdeletion in exon 3 and stop codons in exons 4 and 6. There was no evidence of detectable mRNA from cat Tas1r2 by RT-PCR or in situ hybridization, and no evidence of protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Tas1r2 in tiger and cheetah and in six healthy adult domestic cats all show the similar deletion and stop codons. We conclude that cat Tas1r3 is an apparently functional and expressed receptor but that cat Tas1r2 is an unexpressed pseudogene. A functional sweet-taste receptor heteromer

  4. Pseudogenization of a sweet-receptor gene accounts for cats' indifference toward sugar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Li

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Although domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus possess an otherwise functional sense of taste, they, unlike most mammals, do not prefer and may be unable to detect the sweetness of sugars. One possible explanation for this behavior is that cats lack the sensory system to taste sugars and therefore are indifferent to them. Drawing on work in mice, demonstrating that alleles of sweet-receptor genes predict low sugar intake, we examined the possibility that genes involved in the initial transduction of sweet perception might account for the indifference to sweet-tasting foods by cats. We characterized the sweet-receptor genes of domestic cats as well as those of other members of the Felidae family of obligate carnivores, tiger and cheetah. Because the mammalian sweet-taste receptor is formed by the dimerization of two proteins (T1R2 and T1R3; gene symbols Tas1r2 and Tas1r3, we identified and sequenced both genes in the cat by screening a feline genomic BAC library and by performing PCR with degenerate primers on cat genomic DNA. Gene expression was assessed by RT-PCR of taste tissue, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. The cat Tas1r3 gene shows high sequence similarity with functional Tas1r3 genes of other species. Message from Tas1r3 was detected by RT-PCR of taste tissue. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical studies demonstrate that Tas1r3 is expressed, as expected, in taste buds. However, the cat Tas1r2 gene shows a 247-base pair microdeletion in exon 3 and stop codons in exons 4 and 6. There was no evidence of detectable mRNA from cat Tas1r2 by RT-PCR or in situ hybridization, and no evidence of protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Tas1r2 in tiger and cheetah and in six healthy adult domestic cats all show the similar deletion and stop codons. We conclude that cat Tas1r3 is an apparently functional and expressed receptor but that cat Tas1r2 is an unexpressed pseudogene. A functional sweet-taste receptor heteromer

  5. Pseudogenization of a sweet-receptor gene accounts for cats' indifference toward sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Li, Weihua; Wang, Hong; Cao, Jie; Maehashi, Kenji; Huang, Liquan; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Reed, Danielle R; Legrand-Defretin, Véronique; Beauchamp, Gary K; Brand, Joseph G

    2005-07-01

    Although domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) possess an otherwise functional sense of taste, they, unlike most mammals, do not prefer and may be unable to detect the sweetness of sugars. One possible explanation for this behavior is that cats lack the sensory system to taste sugars and therefore are indifferent to them. Drawing on work in mice, demonstrating that alleles of sweet-receptor genes predict low sugar intake, we examined the possibility that genes involved in the initial transduction of sweet perception might account for the indifference to sweet-tasting foods by cats. We characterized the sweet-receptor genes of domestic cats as well as those of other members of the Felidae family of obligate carnivores, tiger and cheetah. Because the mammalian sweet-taste receptor is formed by the dimerization of two proteins (T1R2 and T1R3; gene symbols Tas1r2 and Tas1r3), we identified and sequenced both genes in the cat by screening a feline genomic BAC library and by performing PCR with degenerate primers on cat genomic DNA. Gene expression was assessed by RT-PCR of taste tissue, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. The cat Tas1r3 gene shows high sequence similarity with functional Tas1r3 genes of other species. Message from Tas1r3 was detected by RT-PCR of taste tissue. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical studies demonstrate that Tas1r3 is expressed, as expected, in taste buds. However, the cat Tas1r2 gene shows a 247-base pair microdeletion in exon 3 and stop codons in exons 4 and 6. There was no evidence of detectable mRNA from cat Tas1r2 by RT-PCR or in situ hybridization, and no evidence of protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Tas1r2 in tiger and cheetah and in six healthy adult domestic cats all show the similar deletion and stop codons. We conclude that cat Tas1r3 is an apparently functional and expressed receptor but that cat Tas1r2 is an unexpressed pseudogene. A functional sweet-taste receptor heteromer cannot form, and

  6. The use of epifluorescent microscopy and quantitative polymerase chain reaction to determine the presence/absence and identification of microorganisms associated with domestic and foreign wallboard samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Dale W.

    2011-01-01

    Epifluorescent microscopy and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were utilized to determine the presence, concentration and identification of bacteria, and more specifically sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in subsamples of Chinese and North American wallboard, and wallboard-mine rock. Bacteria were visible in most subsamples, which included wallboard-lining paper from each side of the wallboard, wallboard filler, wallboard tape and fragments of mined wallboard rock via microscopy. Observed bacteria occurred as single or small clusters of cells and no mass aggregates indicating colonization were noted. Universal 16S qPCR was utilized to directly examine samples and detected bacteria at concentrations ranging from 1.4 x 103 to 6.4 x 104 genomic equivalents per mm2 of paper or per gram of wallboard filler or mined rock, in 12 of 41 subsamples. Subsamples were incubated in sulfate reducing broth for ~30 to 60 days (enrichment assay) and then analyzed by universal 16S and SRB qPCR. Enrichment universal 16S qPCR detected bacteria in 32 of 41 subsamples at concentrations ranging from 1.5 x 104 to 4.2 x 107 genomic equivalents per ml of culture broth. Evaluation of enriched subsamples by SRB qPCR demonstrated that SRB were not detectable in most of the samples and if they were detected, detection was not reproducible (an indication of low concentrations, if present). Enrichment universal 16S and SRB qPCR demonstrated that viable bacteria were present in subsamples (as expected given exposure of the samples following manufacture, transport and use) but that SRB were either not present or present at very low numbers. Further, no differences in trends were noted between the various Chinese and North American wallboard samples. In all, the microscopy and qPCR data indicated that the suspected ‘sulfur emissions’ emanating from suspect wallboard samples is not due to microbial activity.

  7. Retrospective study of central nervous system lesions and association with Parelaphostrongylus species by histology and specific nested polymerase chain reaction in domestic camelids and wild ungulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobey, Carrie L; Grunenwald, Caroline; Newman, Shelley J; Muller, Lisa; Gerhold, Richard W

    2014-11-01

    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from elk (Cervus elaphus), goats, and camelids with case histories and lesions suggestive of Parelaphostrongylus tenuis were examined by histology to characterize lesions that could aid in definitively diagnosing P. tenuis infection. Additionally, sections of paraffin-embedded tissue were used in a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) using Parelaphostrongylus-specific primers to determine how PCR results corresponded with histological findings. Histological changes in brain and spinal cord consisted of linear tracks of hemorrhage; tracks or perivascular accumulations of hemosiderin-laden macrophages; acute foci of axonal degeneration and/or linear glial scars; and perivascular, parenchymal, or meningeal accumulations of eosinophils and/or lymphocytes and plasma cells. Of the 43 samples with histologic lesions consistent with neural larval migrans, 19 were PCR positive; however, only 8 were confirmed Parelaphostrongylus by DNA sequencing. Additionally, 1 goat was identified with a protostrongylid that had a 97% identity to both Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei and a protostrongylid nematode from pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus celer) from Argentina. None of the histologic lesions individually or in combination correlated statistically to positive molecular tests for the nematode. The results indicate that it is possible to extract Parelaphostrongylus DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue, but extended fixation presumably can cause DNA crosslinking. Nested PCR provides another diagnostic tool to identify the cause of neurologic disease in camelids and elk with histologic lesions consistent with neural larval migrans. Furthermore, potential novel protostrongylid DNA was detected from a goat with lesions consistent with P. tenuis infection, suggesting that other neurotropic Parelaphostrongylus species may occur locally. © 2014 The Author(s).

  8. Prevalence and risk factors for cats testing positive for feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukaemia virus infection in cats entering an animal shelter in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, M C; Vigeant, S; Dale, A

    2017-11-01

    AIMS To estimate the prevalence of cats testing positive for antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) antigens in domestic cats entering a New Zealand animal shelter, based on a commercial point-of-care ELISA, to identify risk factors associated with cats testing positive, and to compare the results obtained from the ELISA with those obtained using PCR-based testing. METHOD A cross-sectional study was performed on 388 cats entering the Royal New Zealand Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals animal shelter in Auckland, New Zealand between 7 February 2014 and 30 May 2014. Whole blood samples were collected from each cat and tested for FIV antibody and FeLV antigen using a commercial point-of-care ELISA. Information on the signalment and health status of the cat at the time of entry was also recorded. Blood and saliva samples from a subset of cats were tested for FIV and FeLV proviral DNA using a real-time PCR assay. RESULTS Of the 388 cats in the study sample, 146 (37.6%) had been relinquished by owners, 237 (62.4%) were strays, and 5 (1.3%) were of unknown origin. Overall, 53/388 (13.7%) cats tested positive for FIV antibodies and 4/388 (1.0%) were positive for FeLV antigen. Stray cats had a higher FIV seroprevalence than relinquished cats (42/237 (17.8%) vs. 11/146 (7.5%); p=0.008). Of 53 cats that were FIV-seropositive, 51 (96%) tested positive for FIV proviral DNA using PCR testing of blood. Of these 51 cats, 28 (55%) were positive by PCR testing of saliva. Of the four cats that were FeLV antigen-positive by ELISA, two (50%) were positive for FeLV proviral DNA by PCR testing of blood. The odds of a cat being seropositive for FIV were greater for intact compared to desexed cats (OR=3.3; 95% CI=1.6-7.4) and for male compared to female cats (OR=6.5; 95% CI=3.2-14.0). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The seroprevalence for FIV was 14% among cats entering an animal shelter in Auckland, whereas the prevalence of

  9. Four glycoproteins are expressed in the cat zona pellucida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetson, I; Avilés, M; Moros, C; García-Vázquez, F A; Gimeno, L; Torrecillas, A; Aliaga, C; Bernardo-Pisa, M V; Ballesta, J; Izquierdo-Rico, M J

    2015-04-15

    The mammalian oocyte is surrounded by a matrix called the zona pellucida (ZP). This envelope participates in processes such as acrosome reaction induction, sperm binding and may be involved in speciation. In cat (Felis catus), this matrix is composed of at least three glycoproteins called ZP2, ZP3, and ZP4. However, recent studies have pointed to the presence of a fourth protein in several mammals (rat, human, hamster or rabbit), meaning that a reevaluation of cat ZP is needed. For this reason, the objective of this research was to analyze the protein composition of cat ZP by means of proteomic analysis. Using ZP from ovaries and oocytes, several peptides corresponding to four proteins were detected, yielding a coverage of 33.17%, 71.50%, 50.23%, and 49.64% for ZP1, ZP2, ZP3, and ZP4, respectively. Moreover, the expression of four genes was confirmed by molecular analysis. Using total RNA isolated from cat ovaries, the complementary deoxyribonucleic acids encoding cat ZP were partially amplified by reverse-transcribed polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, ZP1 was totally amplified for the first time in this species. As far as we are aware, this is the first study that confirms the presence of four proteins in cat ZP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The ‘Feline Five’: An exploration of personality in pet cats (Felis catus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinton, Gillian; Tindle, Hayley; Chiera, Belinda; Kikillus, K. Heidy; Roetman, Philip

    2017-01-01

    The idea of animals possessing personalities was once dismissed by the scientific community, but has since gained traction with evidence for potential application to improve captive animal management and welfare. Although domestic cats are popular companion animals, research has tended to overlook the value of personality assessment for management and care of pet cats. The aim of this study was to investigate personality in a large sample of pet cats with a view to understanding practical implications for pet cats in the home. Personality of 2,802 pet cats, from South Australia and New Zealand, was rated by their owners utilising a survey measuring 52 personality traits. Five reliable personality factors were found using principal axis factor analysis: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Dominance, Impulsiveness and Agreeableness. Implications for the ‘Feline Five’ are discussed in relation to their potential application to improving the management and welfare of pet cats. Highly Impulsive cats for example, may be reacting to something stressful in their environment, whereas cats with low Agreeableness scores, showing irritability may indicate underlying pain or illness. Thus, the need for a systematic and holistic approach to personality that includes both the individual pet cat and its environment is recommended, and opens the door to future interdisciplinary intervention. PMID:28832622

  11. TWO-DIMENSIONAL REAL-TIME ULTRASONIC BIOMETRY OF OCULAR GLOBE OF DOMESTIC CATS. BIOMETRÍA ULTRASÓNICA BIDIMENSIONAL EN TIEMPO REAL DEL BULBO OCULAR DE GATOS. BIOMETRIA ULTRA-SONOGRÁFICA BIDIMENSIONAL EM TEMPO REAL DE BULBO OCULAR DE GATOS DOMÉSTICOS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ney Luis Pippi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The eye is an ideal organ for the ultrassonographic examination, because it is of easy access and will count to some reflexives surfaces or interfaces. For the ultrassonographic examination of the ocular bulb high frequencies are necessary to delineate the tissues adequately. For the attainment of the measures 60 eyes of 30 cats had been used, where if it got sagittal cuts and transversal with microconvex transducer of 7.5MHz. They had been affected measured from the cornea in direction the retina. They had been registered measured of the distance between the cornea and the anterior capsule of the lens (D1, thickness of the lens (D2, diameter of the lens (D3, distance between the posterior capsule of the lens until the retina (D4, and distance between the cornea and the retina (D5. The measures had been grouped and gotten average, from the averages were applied a statistical test of variance analysis, with level of significance of 5%, to verify the homogeneity of the measures. The extreme one of healthful ocular bulbs of domestic cats produces images with average measures of 0.39cm for D1, 0.68cm for D2, 1.25cm for D3, 0.78cm for D4 and 1.86cm for D5. It was not observed significant difference between the sex, applied ages, weights or cuts.

    KEY WORDS: Biometry, cats, ophtalmology, ultra-sonography. El ojo es un órgano ideal para la examinación sonográfica, porque está de acceso fácil y contará a algunas superficies reflexivas o interfaces. Para la examinación sonográfica del bulbo del ojo los de alta frecuencia son necesarios delinear los tejidos finos adecuadamente. Para el logro de las medidas 60 ojos de 30 gatos habían sido utilizados, donde si consiguió cortes sagitales y transversales con el transductor microconvexo de 7,5MHz. Habían sido afectados midieron de la córnea en la dirección la retina. Habían sido colocados midieron de la distancia entre la córnea y la cápsula anterior de la lente (D1, el grueso de la

  12. High feline trypsin-like immunoreactivity in a cat with pancreatitis and hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, J M; Steiner, J M; Williams, D A; Van Alstine, W G; Blevins, W

    1997-06-15

    A 1.5-year-old domestic shorthair cat was examined because of vomiting and icterus. Clinicopathologic abnormalities included high alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase activities and high total bilirubin concentration. During abdominal ultrasonography, the left limb and body of the pancreas appeared hypoechoic, and a small quantity of peritoneal effusion was seen. The liver was diffusely hyperechoic, with echogenicity similar to that of the spleen, indicating hepatic lipidosis. Feline trypsin-like immunoreactivity was high, suggesting that the cat also had pancreatitis. The cat was treated with crystalloid fluids and was fed a protein-restricted diet via a percutaneous endoscopically placed gastrostomy tube. The cat's condition continued to deteriorate despite medical treatment, and it was euthanatized. Necropsy confirmed the clinical suspicion of acute pancreatitis and hepatic lipidosis. This case suggests that measurement of trypsin-like immunoreactivity may be useful in cats suspected of having pancreatitis.

  13. Retrobulbar lymphoma associated with a ballistic foreign body in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robat, C; Bemelmans, I; Marescaux, L

    2016-04-01

    A seven-year-old domestic shorthair cat, adopted 5 years previously with a corneal perforation of the left eye, was presented for investigation of a left orbital mass. Computed tomography revealed a metallic foreign body within a contrast-enhancing, heterogeneous orbital mass. Large cell lymphoma was diagnosed from a fine needle aspirate. The cat staged negatively and was treated with L-asparaginase, prednisolone and three fractions of radiation therapy. A rapid clinical remission was obtained and the cat remained in remission for 3 years after therapy. This is the first report of large cell lymphoma likely occurring secondary to a foreign body. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  14. Migration of a sewing needle foreign body into the brainstem of a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottam, Emily J; Gannon, Kristi

    2015-01-01

    A 1-year-old, female spayed domestic shorthair cat with a 6 week history of upper respiratory signs and a progressive reluctance to move, which culminated in a right-sided hemiparesis, was found to have a sewing needle foreign body lodged in the brainstem. Surgical extraction of the needle was successful and the cat's neurological deficits resolved over the days to weeks following its removal. This case report describes, to our knowledge, the first reported incidence and management of an ingested sewing needle migrating into the central nervous system of a cat.

  15. Managing feral cats on a university's campuses: how many are there and is sterilization having an effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Amanda L; Downs, Colleen T

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide domestic and feral cat (Felis catus) numbers have increased. Concerns regarding high populations of feral cats in urban areas include wildlife predation, public nuisance, and disease. This study aimed to estimate the size of the feral cat population on 5 campuses of the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, to determine whether sterilization has an effect and to make management recommendations. The study used both the total count and mark-recapture methods to estimate the feral cat population on each campus. The study chose a noninvasive method of taking photographs to "mark" individuals and record those who were sterilized. The study estimated a total of 186 cats on all campuses and density at 161 cats km(-2). There was a negative relationship between sterilization and numbers. Sites with higher sterilization showed a lower proportion of younger cats. At the average sterilization of 55%, the population, according to predictions, would remain stable at fecundity, survival, and immigration rates reported by cat caretakers. However, caretakers underestimated cat abundance by 7 ± 37 SD%. Caretakers' feral cat sterilization and feeding programs appear to provide a service to the university community. Key management recommendations were to increase sterilization to 90% to reduce the population over the long term and to raise funds to support the costs incurred by voluntary cat caretakers.

  16. Serological response of cats to experimental Besnoitia darlingi and Besnoitia neotomofelis infections and prevalence of antibodies to these parasites in cats from Virginia and Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnoitia darlingi and B. neotomofelis are tissue cyst-forming apicomplexan parasite that use domestic cats (Felis domesticus) as definitive hosts and opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and southern planes woodrats (Neotoma micropus) as intermediate hosts, respectively. Nothing is known about the preva...

  17. Gastric Helicobacter-like Organisms in Stray Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Erginsoy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten adult domestic shorthaired stray cats (Felis catus were investigated for the presence and localization of different species of gastric Helicobacter-like organisms (GHLOs using Warthin-Starry silver staining, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM; the severity and distribution of lesions in different regions of the stomach were assessed in HE-stained sections. GHLOs were present in all areas of the stomach in all of 10 cats. Three morphologically different types of spiral-shaped bacteria were demonstrated; in silver-stained sections, H. pylori like organisms (HPLO were easily differentiated from other GHLOs. Eight of the cats had H. heilmannii-like organisms (HHLOs and one cat had HPLO. Mixed H. heilmannii and H. felis infection was seen in only one cat. GHLO infection was associated with a mild to severe gastritis in 8 of 10 cats. GHLOs colonized the cardia, corpus and antrum in similar density. The most striking histopathological changes consisted of accumulation of lymphocytes and neutrophilic granulocytes, fibrosis of the lamina propria mucosae, lymphoid follicles and lymphocytic infiltrates. There was no obvious relation between the degree of colonization by GHLOs and the extent of histopathological changes. GHLOs were present on the mucosal surface, in the lumen of gastric glands, and in the cytoplasm of parietal cells. These findings indicate that immunohistochemistry and silver staining are useful for detecting GHLO infections, particularly with different Helicobacter species present. Stray cats are frequently colonized by HHLOs without any significant correlation between the degree of infection and gastritis score; in contrast HPLOs and HFLOs infections are not very common.

  18. Endocrine Disruptors in Domestic Animal Reproduction: A Clinical Issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Ulf; Persson, Sara

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this review was to discuss whether endocrine disruption is a clinical concern in domestic animal reproduction. To that end, we firstly summarize the phenomenon of endocrine disruption, giving examples of the agents of concern and their effects on the mammalian reproductive system. Then there is a brief overview of the literature on endocrine disruptors and domestic animal reproduction. Finally, the clinical implications of endocrine disruptors on the reproductive system of farm animals as well as in dogs and cats are discussed. It is concluded that the evidence for clinical cases of endocrine disruption by chemical pollutants is weak, whereas for phytooestrogens, it is well established. However, there is concern that particular dogs and cats may be exposed to man-made endocrine disruptors. © 2015 The Authors. Reproduction in Domestic Animals Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. [Mycoses in domestic animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, M E; Blanco, J L

    2000-03-01

    In the present paper we will present a general view of the main mycoses affecting domestic animals. In the dog, we show the importance of the dermatophytoses, increased by its zoonosic character and the problem of the false negatives in the traditional microbiological culture. Under the general term of systemic mycoses we include a series of conditions considered usually as aspergillosis, bat with more and more fungal species implicated as possible etiological agents. In addition, fungi, especially yeasts, are being implicated in canine otitis; in our laboratory 86 % of canine chronic otitis involve a yeast etiology, alone or in collaboration with bacteria. In the cat, dermatophytes are more common than in the dog, and are the main source of infection in man, with the description of a high percentage of healthy carrier animals. Cryptococcosis is a severe disease, usually secondary to other process, especially feline immunodeficiency. In cows we refer to fungal abortion, with three main fungi implicated: Aspergillus, Candida and Zygomycetes. In some areas of our country the percentage of fungal abortion is around 10 %. A consequence of the multiple use of antibiotics in mastitis is selection of yeasts, especially those included in the genera Candida and Cryptococcus. Bovine dermatophytoses is an extensively disseminated disease in our country, with a commercial specific vaccine available. In small ruminants, Cryptococcus causes severe pneumonic processes that could be confused clinically with other conditions. An additional important question is the description of isolation of this fungus from tree leaves. In poultry, aspergillosis is a known and controlled disease, but with more importance in captive wild birds with an ecological value. In horses, we emphasize the lung infections by different fungi, specially Pneumocystis carinii, and arthritis by yeasts as consequence of wound contamination or surgery.

  20. Effectiveness of GonaCon as an immunocontraceptive in colony-housed cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Amy; Benka, Valerie Aw; Briggs, Joyce; Driancourt, Marc-Antoine; Maki, Joanne; Mora, Darcy So; Morris, Kevin; Myers, Kayla A; Rhodes, Linda; Vansandt, Lindsey M; Weedon, George Robert; Wolf, Julie; Levy, Julie K

    2018-02-01

    Objectives Non-surgical contraceptive management of free-roaming cat populations is a global goal for public health and humane reasons. The objectives of this study were to measure the duration of contraception following a single intramuscular injection of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone-based vaccine (GonaCon) and to confirm its safe use in female cats living in colony conditions. Methods GonaCon (0.5 ml/cat) was administered intramuscularly to 20 intact female cats (queens), and saline was administered to 10 queens serving as sham-treated controls. Beginning in late February, 4 months after injection, all cats were housed with fertile male cats in a simulated colony environment. Time to pregnancy, fetal counts and vaccine-elicited injection-site reactions were evaluated. Results All control cats (n = 10/10) and 60% (n = 12/20) of vaccinated cats became pregnant within 4 months of the introduction of males. Two additional vaccinates became pregnant (70%; n = 14/20) within 1 year of treatment. Average fetal counts were significantly lower in vaccinated cats than in control cats. Vaccinates had a significantly longer ( P = 0.0120) median time to conception (212 days) compared with controls (127.5 days). Injection-site reactions ranging from swelling to transient granulomatous masses were observed in 45% (n = 9/20) of vaccinated cats. Conclusions and relevance A single dose of GonaCon provided contraception lasting for a minimum of 1 year in 30% (n = 6/20) of treated cats. The level of contraception induced by this GonaCon dose and vaccine lot was not sufficiently effective to be recommended for use in free-roaming cats.

  1. In vitro fertilization and sperm cryopreservation in the black-footed cat (Felis nigripes) and sand cat (Felis margarita).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, J R; Campbell, M; Levens, G; Moore, T; Benson, K; D'Agostino, J; West, G; Okeson, D M; Coke, R; Portacio, S C; Leiske, K; Kreider, C; Polumbo, P J; Swanson, W F

    2010-03-01

    Studies of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and sperm cryopreservation have been conducted in several small cat species, but virtually no data exist for black-footed cats (Felis nigripes) (BFCs) or sand cats (Felis margarita) (SCs). The objectives of this study were 1) to compare in vitro motility and acrosome status of fresh and cryopreserved (frozen in pellets on dry ice or in straws in liquid nitrogen vapor) BFC and SC spermatozoa cultured in feline-optimized culture medium (FOCM) or Ham F-10, 2) to assess ovarian responsiveness in BFCs and SCs following exogenous gonadotropin treatment and laparoscopic oocyte recovery, and 3) to evaluate the fertility of fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa from both species using homologous and heterologous (domestic cat oocytes) IVF in the two culture media. Motility and acrosomal integrity of fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa from BFCs and SCs were similar (P > 0.05) in both media during 6 h of culture. Although effects were more pronounced in SCs, cryopreservation in straws was superior (P 80% of recovered oocytes were of optimal (grade 1) quality. The BFC and SC spermatozoa fertilized 60.0%-79.4% of homologous and 37.7%-42.7% of heterologous oocytes in both culture media, with increased (P < 0.05) cleavage of homologous (SC) and heterologous (BFC and SC) oocytes in FOCM. These results provide the first information to date on the gamete biology of two imperiled cat species and further our capacity to apply reproductive technologies for their conservation.

  2. Local cloning of CAT states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahaman, Ramij

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter we analyze the (im)possibility of the exact cloning of orthogonal three-qubit CAT states under local operation and classical communication (LOCC) with the help of a restricted entangled state. We also classify the three-qubit CAT states that can (not) be cloned under LOCC restrictions and extend the results to the n-qubit case. -- Highlights: → We analyze the (im)possibility of exact cloning of orthogonal CAT states under LOCC. → We also classify the set of CAT states that can(not) be cloned by LOCC. → No set of orthogonal CAT states can be cloned by LOCC with help of similar CAT state. → Any two orthogonal n-qubit GHZ-states can be cloned by LOCC with help of a GHZ state.

  3. From crop domestication to super-domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, D A; Balázs, E; Heslop-Harrison, J S

    2007-11-01

    Research related to crop domestication has been transformed by technologies and discoveries in the genome sciences as well as information-related sciences that are providing new tools for bioinformatics and systems' biology. Rapid progress in archaeobotany and ethnobotany are also contributing new knowledge to understanding crop domestication. This sense of rapid progress is encapsulated in this Special Issue, which contains 18 papers by scientists in botanical, crop sciences and related disciplines on the topic of crop domestication. One paper focuses on current themes in the genetics of crop domestication across crops, whereas other papers have a crop or geographic focus. One feature of progress in the sciences related to crop domestication is the availability of well-characterized germplasm resources in the global network of genetic resources centres (genebanks). Germplasm in genebanks is providing research materials for understanding domestication as well as for plant breeding. In this review, we highlight current genetic themes related to crop domestication. Impressive progress in this field in recent years is transforming plant breeding into crop engineering to meet the human need for increased crop yield with the minimum environmental impact - we consider this to be 'super-domestication'. While the time scale of domestication of 10 000 years or less is a very short evolutionary time span, the details emerging of what has happened and what is happening provide a window to see where domestication might - and can - advance in the future.

  4. Role of nasal challenge and local eosinophilia in indirect exposure to cat in allergic rhinitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ahmad, M; Arifhodzic, N; Nurkic, J; Jusufovic, E; Hanoun, A L; Rodriguez, T

    2018-01-17

    Introduction. Sensitization to cat allergens is common worldwide. Currently, there is a trend towards costly and often unavailable diagnostic analysis. Objectives. The aim is to assess the reliability of skin prick test (SPT) and serum specific IgE (ssIgE) to cat sensitization, by performing nasal challenge test (NCT) in a community with low cat ownership but common presence of stray cats. Patients and methods. Forty-one pa-tients with perennial allergic rhinitis (AR) who were mono or polysensitized (including cat) were included. We had 31 cat non-owners and 10 present cat owners. SPT (> 5 mm / diameter), ssIgE (≥ 0.70 IU/ml), nasal smear for eosinophil (Eo) and NCT were compared between groups. Outcomes included nasal challenge score, nasal Eo positivity, peak inspiratory and expiratory flow (PIF and PEF) 2 and 8 hours after the NCT, and were compared to baseline. Results. Baseline SPT wheal size and ssIgE level were similar in both groups. NCT positivity was more frequent in cat owners. The strongest nasal reaction was on the top concentration in both groups. Nasal Eo positivity in cat owners was higher before and 2 hours after NCT, but similar to non-owners at last measurement. NCT positive cat non-owners had bigger SPT wheal size than NCT negative non-owners, but smaller than NCT positive cat owners. In contrast to PEF, a significant fall in PIF was noticed in both groups. Mono and polysensitised patients showed similar NCT positivity. Conclusion. Stray cats may pose a relevant risk of developing perennial AR. Regardless of cat ownership status, SPT and ssIgE should be the first diagnostic tool. Nasal Eo and NCT seem to be good diagnostic tools in cat non-owners if diagnosis is elusive.

  5. Medical management of gastrinoma in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lane

    2016-04-01