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Sample records for doe offsite mixed

  1. Incineration of DOE offsite mixed waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.D.; Harvego, L.A.; Jacobs, A.M.; Willcox, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    The Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) incinerator at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is one of three incinerators in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Complex capable of incinerating mixed low-level waste (MLLW). WERF has received MLLW from offsite generators and is scheduled to receive more. The State of Idaho supports receipt of offsite MLLW waste at the WERF incinerator within the requirements established in the (INEEL) Site Treatment Plan (STP). The incinerator is operating as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Interim Status Facility, with a RCRA Part B permit application currently being reviewed by the State of Idaho. Offsite MLLW received from other DOE facilities are currently being incinerated at WERF at no charge to the generator. Residues associated with the incineration of offsite MLLW waste that meet the Envirocare of Utah waste acceptance criteria are sent to that facility for treatment and/or disposal. WERF is contributing to the treatment and reduction of MLLW in the DOE Complex

  2. OFFSITE RADIOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCE CALCULATION FOR THE BOUNDING MIXING OF INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS ACCIDENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SANDGREN, K.R.

    2006-01-01

    This document quantifies the offsite radiological consequence of the bounding mixing of incompatible materials accident for comparison with the 25 rem Evaluation Guideline established in Appendix A of DOE-STD-3009. The bounding accident is an inadvertent addition of acid to a waste tank. The calculated offsite dose does not challenge the Evaluation Guideline. Revision 4 updates the analysis to consider bulk chemical additions to single shell tanks (SSTs)

  3. Environmental Assessment Offsite Thermal Treatment of Low-Level Mixed Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-05-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) needs to demonstrate the economics and feasibility of offsite commercial treatment of contact-handled low-level mixed waste (LLMW), containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) and other organics, to meet existing regulatory standards for eventual disposal.

  4. Management and disposition of off-site laboratory-generated mixed/low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.L.

    1993-10-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) is the first Department of Energy (DOE) site to take back mixed and low level waste generated at commercial laboratories from chemical analyses and treatability studies on samples taken from the site. This paper discusses the steps addressed and the issues resolved in order to initiate the task of taking back mixed/low level waste. Such issues included regulatory, waste management and contractual issues

  5. Finding of no significant impact shipment of stabilized mixed waste from the K-25 Site to an off-site commercial disposal facility, Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for the shipment of stabilized mixed waste, removed from K-1407-B and -C ponds, to an off-site commercial disposal facility (Envirocare) for permanent land disposal. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  6. Offsite demonstrations for MWLID technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.; Gruebel, R.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of the Offsite Demonstration Project for Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID)-developed environmental site characterization and remediation technologies is to facilitate the transfer, use, and commercialization of these technologies to the public and private sector. The meet this goal, the project identified environmental restoration needs of mixed waste and/or hazardous waste landfill owners (Native American, municipal, DOE, and DoD); documenting potential demonstration sites and the contaminants present at each site; assessing the environmental regulations that would effect demonstration activities; and evaluating site suitability for demonstrating MWLID technologies at the tribal and municipal sites identified. Eighteen landfill sites within a 40.2-km radius of Sandia National Laboratories are listed on the CERCLIS Site/Event Listing for the state of New Mexico. Seventeen are not located within DOE or DoD facilities and are potential offsite MWLID technology demonstration sites. Two of the seventeen CERCLIS sites, one on Native American land and one on municipal land, were evaluated and identified as potential candidates for off-site demonstrations of MWLID-developed technologies. Contaminants potentially present on site include chromium waste, household/commercial hazardous waste, volatile organic compounds, and petroleum products. MWLID characterization technologies applicable to these sites include Magnetometer Towed Array, Cross-borehole Electromagnetic Imaging, SitePlanner trademark/PLUME, Hybrid Directional Drilling, Seamist trademark/Vadose Zone Monitoring, Stripping Analyses, and x-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy for Heavy Metals

  7. Off-Site Prefabrication: What Does it Require from the Trade Contractor?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekdik, Baris; Hall, Daniel; Aslesen, Sigmund

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to show what is required to industrialize a building process from the standpoint of the trade contractor. Rationalization of building processes has, over the years, caught the attention of numerous IGLC papers. Although significant contributions have been made to further...... understand and improve existing construction processes, relatively few contributions have focused on the opportunities for industrialization from the trade contractor’s perspective. This paper uses an in-depth case study to address the deployment strategy for off-site fabrication techniques and processes...... at only one case study, the conclusions are limited in generalizability to other prefabrication operations. However, it represents an important in-depth case from the trade contractors’ perspective and will contribute to the growing body of research focused on industrialization and prefabrication in lean...

  8. Offsite transportation hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnside, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the emergency preparedness Hazards Assessment for the offsite transportation of hazardous material from the Hanford Site. The assessment is required by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 151.1. Offsite transportation accidents are categorized using the DOE system to assist communication within the DOE and assure that appropriate assistance is provided to the people in charge at the scene. The assistance will initially include information about the load and the potential hazards. Local authorities will use the information to protect the public following a transportation accident. This Hazards Assessment will focus on the material being transported from the Hanford Site. Shipments coming to Hanford are the responsibility of the shipper and the carrier and, therefore, are not included in this Hazards Assessment, unless the DOE elects to be the shipper of record

  9. Treatment of DOE mixed wastes using commercial facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, J.F.; Ross, M.A.; Dilday, D.R.

    1992-02-01

    In a demonstration program, Department of Energy (DOE) solid mixed wastes generated during uranium processing operations are characterized to define the unit operations required for treatment. The objectives included the implementation of these treatment operations utilizing a commercial Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facility (TSDF). In contracting for commercial hazardous and mixed waste treatment, it is important to characterize the waste beyond the identification of toxicity characteristic (TC) and radiological content. Performing treatability studies and verification of all the unit operations required for treatment is critical. The stream selected for this program was TC hazardous for barium (D005) and contaminated with both depleted and low enriched uranium. The program resulted in the generation of characterization data and treatment strategies. The characterization and treatability studies indicated that although a common unit operation was required to remove the toxic characteristic, multiple pretreatment operations were needed. Many of these operations do not exist at available TSDF's, rendering some portions of the stream untreatable using existing commercial TSDF's. For this project the need for pretreatment operations resulted in only a portion of the waste originally targeted for treatment being accepted for treatment at a commercial TSDF. The majority of the targeted stream could not be successfully treated due to lack of an off-site commercial treatment facility having the available equipment and capacity or with the correct combination of RCRA permits and radioactive material handling licenses. This paper presents a case study documenting the results of the project

  10. DOE's planning process for mixed low-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, J.T.; Letourneau, M.J.; Chu, M.S.Y.

    1995-01-01

    A disposal planning process was established by the Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW) Disposal Workgroup. The process, jointly developed with the States, includes three steps: site-screening, site-evaluation, and configuration study. As a result of the screening process, 28 sites have been eliminated from further consideration for MLLW disposal and 4 sites have been assigned a lower priority for evaluation. Currently 16 sites are being evaluated by the DOE for their potential strengths and weaknesses as MLLW disposal sites. The results of the evaluation will provide a general idea of the technical capability of the 16 disposal sites; the results can also be used to identify which treated MLLW streams can be disposed on-site and which should be disposed of off-site. The information will then serve as the basis for a disposal configuration study, which includes analysis of both technical as well as non-technical issues, that will lead to the ultimate decision on MLLW disposal site locations

  11. DOE regulatory reform initiative vitrified mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, S.J.; Holtzscheiter, E.W.

    1997-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is charged with responsibly managing the largest volume of mixed waste in the United States. This responsibility includes managing waste in compliance with all applicable Federal and State laws and regulations, and in a cost-effective, environmentally responsible manner. Managing certain treated mixed wastes in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted storage and disposal units (specifically those mixed wastes that pose low risks from the hazardous component) is unlikely to provide additional protection to human health and the environment beyond that afforded by managing these wastes in storage and disposal units subject to requirements for radiological control. In October, 1995, the DOE submitted a regulatory reform proposal to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) relating to vitrified mixed waste forms. The technical proposal supports a regulatory strategy that would allow vitrified mixed waste forms treated through a permit or other environmental compliance mechanism to be granted an exemption from RCRA hazardous waste regulation, after treatment, based upon the inherent destruction and immobilization capabilities of vitrification technology. The vitrified waste form will meet, or exceed the performance criteria of the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass that has been accepted as an international standard for immobilizing radioactive waste components and the LDR treatment standards for inorganics and metals for controlling hazardous constituents. The proposal further provides that vitrified mixed waste would be responsibly managed under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) while reducing overall costs. Full regulatory authority by the EPA or a State would be maintained until an acceptable vitrified mixed waste form, protective of human health and the environment, is produced

  12. DOE acceptance of commercial mixed waste -- Studies are under way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plummer, T.L. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Technical Support Program; Owens, C.M. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    1993-03-01

    The topic of the Department of Energy acceptance of commercial mixed waste at DOE facilities has been proposed by host States and compact regions that are developing low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. States support the idea of DOE accepting commercial mixed waste because (a) very little commercial mixed waste is generated compared to generation by DOE facilities (Department of Energy--26,300 cubic meters annually vs. commercial--3400 cubic meters annually); (b) estimated costs for commercial disposal are estimated to be $15,000 to $40,000 per cubic foot; (c) once treatment capability becomes available, 70% of the current levels of commercial mixed waste will be eliminated, (d) some State laws prohibit the development of mixed waste disposal facilities in their States; (e) DOE is developing a nationwide strategy that will include treatment and disposal capacity for its own mixed waste and the incremental burden on the DOE facilities would be minuscule, and (6) no States are developing mixed waste disposal facilities. DOE senior management has repeatedly expressed willingness to consider investigating the feasibility of DOE accepting commercial mixed waste. In January 1991, Leo Duffy of the Department of energy met with members of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum, which led to an agreement to explore such an arrangement. He stated that this seems like a cost-effective way to solve commercial mixed waste management problems.

  13. DOE's performance evaluation project for mixed low-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, R.D.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Gruebel, M.M.; Lee, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    A performance evaluation (PE) is an analysis that estimates radionuclide concentration limits for 16 potential Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low-level waste (ULLW) disposal sites based on the analysis of two environmental exposure pathways (air and water) to an off-site individual and an inadvertent-intruder exposure pathway. Sites are analyzed for their ability to attenuate concentrations of specific radionuclides that could be released from wastes in a hypothetical ULLW disposal facility. Site-specific data and knowledge are used within a generic framework that is consistent across all sites being evaluated. After estimates of waste concentrations for the three pathways are calculated, the minimum of the waste concentration values is selected as the permissible waste concentration for each radionuclide. The PE results will be used as input to the process for DOE's ULLW disposal configuration. Preliminary comparisons of results from the PE and site-specific performance assessments indicate that the simple PE results generally agree with results of the performance assessments, even when site conditions are complex. This agreement with performance-assessment results increases confidence that similar results can be obtained at other sites that have good characterization data. In addition, the simple analyses contained in the PE illustrate a potential method to satisfy the needs of many regulators and the general public for a simple, conservative, defensible, and easily understandable analysis that provides results similar to those of more complex analyses

  14. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR OFFSITE UTILITIES SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) offsite utilities system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998)

  15. R ampersand D activities at DOE applicable to mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, M.D.; Devgun, J.S.; Brown, J.J.; Beskid, N.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. Within the new organization, the Office of Technology Development (OTD) is responsible for research, development, demonstration, testing and evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) activities aimed at meeting DOE cleanup goals, while minimizing cost and risk. Because of US governmental activities dating back to the Manhattan project, mixed radioactive and hazardous waste is an area of particular concern to DOE. The OTD is responsible for a number of R ampersand D activities aimed at improving capabilities to characterize, control, and properly dispose of mixed waste. These activities and their progress to date will be reviewed. In addition, needs for additional R ampersand D on managing mixed waste will be presented. 5 refs., 2 tabs

  16. EPA/DOE joint efforts on mixed waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.C.; Huffman, G.L.; Nalesnik, R.P.

    1995-01-01

    Under the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCA), the Department of Energy (DOE) is directed to develop treatment plans for their stockpile of wastes generated at their various sites. As a result, DOE is facing the monumental problem associated with the treatment and ultimate disposal of their mixed (radioactive and hazardous) waste. Meanwhile, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a final open-quotes Hazardous Waste Combustion Strategyclose quotes in November 1994. Under the Combustion Strategy, EPA permit writers have been given the authority to use the Omnibus Provision of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) to impose more stringent emission limits for waste combustors prior to the development of new regulations. EPA and DOE established a multi-year Interagency Agreement (IAG) in 1991. The main objective of the IAG (and of the second IAG that was added in 1993) is to conduct a research program on thermal technologies for treating mixed waste and to establish permit procedures for these technologies particularly under the new requirements of the above-mentioned EPA Combustion Strategy. The objective of this Paper is to summarize the results of the EPA/DOE joint efforts on mixed waste treatment since the establishment of the original Interagency Agreement. Specifically, this Paper will discuss six activities that have been underway; namely: (1) National Technical Workgroup (NTW) on Mixed Waste Treatment, (2) State-of-the-Art Assessment of APC (Air Pollution Control) and Monitoring Technologies for the Rocky Flats Fluidized Bed Unit, (3) Initial Study of Permit open-quotes Roadmapclose quotes Development for Mixed Waste Treatment, (4) Risk Assessment Approach for a Mixed Waste Thermal Treatment Facility, (5) Development and Application of Technology Selection Criteria for Mixed Waste Thermal Treatment, and (6) Performance Testing of Mixed Waste Incineration: In-Situ Chlorine Capture in a Fluidized Bed Unit

  17. DOE Land Disposal Restrictions Strategy Report for Radioactive Mixed Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    This report represents an effort by the Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors to develop a strategy for achieving radioactive mixed waste (RMW) compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR). Preliminary information provided by the Operations Offices has been reviewed to formulate an overall strategy that will enable DOE operations to comply with the Land Disposal Restrictions. The effort has concluded that all DOE Operations Offices are impacted by LDR due to the inability to meet existing and future LDR storage prohibition requirements or treatment standards for RMW. A total of 178 RMW streams subject to LDR are identified in this report. Quantities of RMW impacted by LDR have been estimated at approximately 710,785 cubic meters. DOE must place a high priority on resolving LDR compliance issues. Failure to resolve these issues could result in the curtailment of waste generating operations at DOE facilities. Actions will be required from both DOE (Headquarters and Operations Offices) and EPA in order to achieve DOE complex-wide compliance. Specific recommendations are included. 1 fig., 4 tabs

  18. Off-site response for radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldridge, J.S.; Oakes, T.W.; Hubbard, H.M.; Hibbitts, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    Environmental radiological surveillance under emergency conditions at off-site locations is one of the advisory functions provided by DOE within the ORO jurisdiction. The Department of Environmental Management of ORNL has been requested to provide sampling and analytical assistance at such emergency response activities. We have assembled and identified specific individuals and equipment to provide a rapid response force to perform field measurements for environmental radioactivity releases as a consequence of nuclear accidents. Survey teams for sample collection and field measurements are provided along with analytical assistance to operate the radioactivity measuring equipment in the DOE emergency van

  19. Determinations of TSD facility acceptability under the CERCLA Off-Site Rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    On September 22, 1993, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the ''Off-Site Rule'' to implement section 121(d)(3) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). CERCLA section 121(d)(3) requires that wastes generated as a result of remediation activities taken under CERCLA authority and transferred off-site be managed only at facilities that comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. In 1994, the DOE's Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance (OEPA), RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-413) published a CERCLA Information Brief titled ''The Off-Site Rule'' which describes the content of the Off-Site Rule and clarifies some of its implications for DOE remedial actions under CERCLA. Additionally, EH-413 published the Guide on Selecting Compliant Off-Site Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facilities which provides a regulatory roadmap for accomplishing off-site transfers of environmental restoration and process hazardous waste at DOE facilities in a manner compliant with the Off-Site Rule and other relevant Federal regulations. Those guidance documents concentrate primarily on DOE's perspective as a hazardous waste generator. The purpose of this Information Brief is to address the implications of the Off-Site Rule for DOE-owned hazardous waste treatment, storage or disposal facilities that accept CERCLA remediation wastes from off-site locations

  20. Benchmarking of RESRAD-OFFSITE : transition from RESRAD (onsite) to RESRAD-OFFSITE and comparison of the RESRAD-OFFSITE predictions with peercodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.; Gnanapragasam, E.; Cheng, J.-J.; Biwer, B.

    2006-01-01

    The main purpose of this report is to document the benchmarking results and verification of the RESRAD-OFFSITE code as part of the quality assurance requirements of the RESRAD development program. This documentation will enable the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors, and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and its licensees and other stakeholders to use the quality-assured version of the code to perform dose analysis in a risk-informed and technically defensible manner to demonstrate compliance with the NRC's License Termination Rule, Title 10, Part 20, Subpart E, of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR Part 20, Subpart E); DOE's 10 CFR Part 834, Order 5400.5, ''Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment''; and other Federal and State regulatory requirements as appropriate. The other purpose of this report is to document the differences and similarities between the RESRAD (onsite) and RESRAD-OFFSITE codes so that users (dose analysts and risk assessors) can make a smooth transition from use of the RESRAD (onsite) code to use of the RESRAD-OFFSITE code for performing both onsite and offsite dose analyses. The evolution of the RESRAD-OFFSITE code from the RESRAD (onsite) code is described in Chapter 1 to help the dose analyst and risk assessor make a smooth conceptual transition from the use of one code to that of the other. Chapter 2 provides a comparison of the predictions of RESRAD (onsite) and RESRAD-OFFSITE for an onsite exposure scenario. Chapter 3 documents the results of benchmarking RESRAD-OFFSITE's atmospheric transport and dispersion submodel against the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) CAP88-PC (Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988) and ISCLT3 (Industrial Source Complex-Long Term) models. Chapter 4 documents the comparison results of the predictions of the RESRAD-OFFSITE code and its submodels with the predictions of peer models. This report was prepared by Argonne National Laboratory's (Argonne

  1. Offsite Shipment Campaign Readiness Assessment (OSCRA): A tool for offsite shipment campaigns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelhaugh, R.D.; Pope, R.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bisaria, A. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Offsite Shipment Campaign Readiness Assessment (OSCRA) tool is designed to assist program managers in identifying, implementing, and verifying applicable transportation and disposal regulatory requirements for specific shipment campaigns. OSCRA addresses these issues and provides the program manager with a tool to support planning for safe and compliant transportation of waste and other regulated materials. Waste transportation and disposal requirements must be identified and addressed in the planning phase of a waste management project. In the past, in some cases, transportation and disposal requirements have not been included in overall project plans. These planning deficiencies have led to substantial delays and cost impacts. Additionally, some transportation regulatory requirements have not been properly implemented, resulting in substantial fines and public embarrassment for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). If a material has been processed and packaged for onsite storage (prior to offsite disposal) in a package that does not meet transportation requirements, it must be repackaged in U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT)-compliant packaging for transport. This repackaging can result in additional cost, time, and personnel radiation exposure. The original OSCRA concept was developed during the Pond Waste Project at the K-25 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The continued development of OSCRA as a user-friendly tool was funded in 1995 by the DOE Office of Environmental Management, Transportation Management Division (TMD). OSCRA is designed to support waste management managers, site remediation managers, and transportation personnel in defining applicable regulatory transportation and disposal requirements for offsite shipment of hazardous waste and other regulated materials. The need for this tool stems from increasing demands imposed on DOE and the need to demonstrate and document safe and compliant packaging and shipment of wastes from various DOE sites.

  2. Private sector participation for the treatment of DOE and commercial radioactive mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, T.L.; Steele, S.M.; Bohrer, H.A.; Garrison, T.W.; Owens, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    The ability of the US DOE to accept commercial low-level mixed waste (LLMW) for disposal has been identified as a technically feasible alternative in developing a strategy for managing commercial mixed waste. This document is an estimation of DOE's capabilities to assist the state compacts and the commercial sector with the difficult issues related to the treatment and disposal of LLMW. The first step in determining DOE's capabilities to assist the commercial sector and the state compacts in managing their LLMW is to establish how closely DOE's LLMW resembles the LLMW generated commercially. This report established that a large portion of the low-level mixed waste streams are common to both the DOE and private sectors. A united approach between the DOE and the host states and compacts to cooperatively manage the low-level mixed wastes (LLMW) would prove to be beneficial to all

  3. Status of vitrification for DOE low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, R.F.; Jantzen, C.M.; Plodinec, M.J.

    1993-04-01

    Vitrification is being considered by the Department of Energy for solidification of many low-level mixed waste streams. Some of the advantages, requirements, and potential problem areas are described. Recommendations for future efforts are presented

  4. Mixed Waste Management Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brummond, W.; Celeste, J.; Steenhoven, J.

    1993-08-01

    The DOE has developed a National Mixed Waste Strategic Plan which calls for the construction of 2 to 9 mixed waste treatment centers in the Complex in the near future. LLNL is working to establish an integrated mixed waste technology development and demonstration system facility, the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF), to support the DOE National Mixed Waste Strategic Plan. The MWMF will develop, demonstrate, test, and evaluate incinerator-alternatives which will comply with regulations governing the treatment and disposal of organic mixed wastes. LLNL will provide the DOE with engineering data for design and operation of new technologies which can be implemented in their mixed waste treatment centers. MWMF will operate under real production plant conditions and process samples of real LLNL mixed waste. In addition to the destruction of organic mixed wastes, the development and demonstration will include waste feed preparation, material transport systems, aqueous treatment, off-gas treatment, and final forms, thus making it an integrated ''cradle to grave'' demonstration. Technologies from offsite as well as LLNL's will be tested and evaluated when they are ready for a pilot scale demonstration, according to the needs of the DOE

  5. User's Guide for RESRAD-OFFSITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnanapragasam, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yu, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The RESRAD-OFFSITE code can be used to model the radiological dose or risk to an offsite receptor. This User’s Guide for RESRAD-OFFSITE Version 3.1 is an update of the User’s Guide for RESRAD-OFFSITE Version 2 contained in the Appendix A of the User’s Manual for RESRAD-OFFSITE Version 2 (ANL/EVS/TM/07-1, DOE/HS-0005, NUREG/CR-6937). This user’s guide presents the basic information necessary to use Version 3.1 of the code. It also points to the help file and other documents that provide more detailed information about the inputs, the input forms and features/tools in the code; two of the features (overriding the source term and computing area factors) are discussed in the appendices to this guide. Section 2 describes how to download and install the code and then verify the installation of the code. Section 3 shows ways to navigate through the input screens to simulate various exposure scenarios and to view the results in graphics and text reports. Section 4 has screen shots of each input form in the code and provides basic information about each parameter to increase the user’s understanding of the code. Section 5 outlines the contents of all the text reports and the graphical output. It also describes the commands in the two output viewers. Section 6 deals with the probabilistic and sensitivity analysis tools available in the code. Section 7 details the various ways of obtaining help in the code.

  6. User's Guide for RESRAD-OFFSITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnanapragasam, E.; Yu, C.

    2015-01-01

    The RESRAD-OFFSITE code can be used to model the radiological dose or risk to an offsite receptor. This User's Guide for RESRAD-OFFSITE Version 3.1 is an update of the User's Guide for RESRAD-OFFSITE Version 2 contained in the Appendix A of the User's Manual for RESRAD-OFFSITE Version 2 (ANL/EVS/TM/07-1, DOE/HS-0005, NUREG/CR-6937). This user's guide presents the basic information necessary to use Version 3.1 of the code. It also points to the help file and other documents that provide more detailed information about the inputs, the input forms and features/tools in the code; two of the features (overriding the source term and computing area factors) are discussed in the appendices to this guide. Section 2 describes how to download and install the code and then verify the installation of the code. Section 3 shows ways to navigate through the input screens to simulate various exposure scenarios and to view the results in graphics and text reports. Section 4 has screen shots of each input form in the code and provides basic information about each parameter to increase the user's understanding of the code. Section 5 outlines the contents of all the text reports and the graphical output. It also describes the commands in the two output viewers. Section 6 deals with the probabilistic and sensitivity analysis tools available in the code. Section 7 details the various ways of obtaining help in the code.

  7. Requirements for shipment of DOE radioactive mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gablin, K.; No, Hyo; Herman, J.

    1993-01-01

    There are several sources of radioactive mixed waste (RMW) at Argonne National Laboratory which, in the past, were collected at waste tanks and/or sludge tanks. They were eventually pumped out by special pumps and processed in an evaporator located in the waste operations area in Building No. 306. Some of this radioactive mixed waste represents pure elementary mercury. These cleaning tanks must be manually cleaned up because the RMW material was too dense to pump with the equipment in use. The four tanks being discussed in this report are located in Building No. 306. They are the Acid Waste Tank, IMOX/FLOC Tanks, Evaporation Feed Tanks, and Waste Storage Tanks. All of these tanks are characterized and handled separately. This paper discusses the process and the requirements for characterization and the associated paperwork for Argonne Waste to be shipped to Westinghouse Hanford Company for storage

  8. Does Assisted Living Capacity Influence Case Mix at Nursing Homes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Jan P; Khushalani, Jaya

    2015-01-01

    Assisted living facilities (ALFs) have grown over the past few decades. If they attract residents with lower care needs away from nursing homes (NHs), NHs may be left with higher case mix residents. We study the relationship between ALF bed market capacity and NH case mix in a state (Virginia) where ALF bed capacity stabilized after a period of growth. Similarly, NH capacity and use had been stable. While it is interesting to study markets in flux, for planning purposes, it is also important to examine what happens after periods of turbulence and adaptation. Our findings show some substitution of ALF for NH care, but the relationship is not linear with ALF market capacity. Communities need to consider the interplay of ALFs and NHs in planning for long-term care services and supports. Policies supporting ALFs may enable care needs to be met in a lower cost setting than the NH.

  9. Does Assisted Living Capacity Influence Case Mix at Nursing Homes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan P. Clement PhD

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Assisted living facilities (ALFs have grown over the past few decades. If they attract residents with lower care needs away from nursing homes (NHs, NHs may be left with higher case mix residents. We study the relationship between ALF bed market capacity and NH case mix in a state (Virginia where ALF bed capacity stabilized after a period of growth. Similarly, NH capacity and use had been stable. While it is interesting to study markets in flux, for planning purposes, it is also important to examine what happens after periods of turbulence and adaptation. Our findings show some substitution of ALF for NH care, but the relationship is not linear with ALF market capacity. Communities need to consider the interplay of ALFs and NHs in planning for long-term care services and supports. Policies supporting ALFs may enable care needs to be met in a lower cost setting than the NH.

  10. DOE evaluates nine alternative thermal technologies for treatment of mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    In June 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Technology Development commissioned a study to evaluate 19 thermal technologies for treating DOE's mixed waste. The study was divided into two phases: Phase I evaluated ten conventional incineration techniques (primarily rotary kiln), and Phase II looked at nine innovative, alternative thermal treatment technologies. The treatment processes were evaluated as part of an integrated waste treatment system, which would include all of the facilities, equipment, and methods required to treat and dispose DOE mixed waste. The relative merits and life-cycle costs were then developed for each of the 19 waste treatment systems evaluated. The study also identified the additional research and development, demonstration, and testing/evaluation steps that would be necessary for the waste treatment systems to successfully treat DOE mixed waste. 3 tabs., 2 refs

  11. Does Corporate Governance Affect Sustainability Disclosure? A Mixed Methods Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Mahmood

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper aims to understand the impact of corporate governance (CG on economic, social, and environmental sustainability disclosures. This paper adopted an explanatory sequential mixed methods approach. The data regarding corporate governance and sustainability disclosure were collected from top 100 companies listed on the Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSE for the period ranging from 2012 to 2015. In addition to the quantitative data, we collected qualitative data through interviews with five board members of different companies. Overall, our results indicate that CG elements enhance sustainability disclosures. This study concludes that a large board size consisting of a female director and a CSR committee (CSRC is better able to check and control management decisions regarding sustainability issues (be they economic, environment, or social and resulted in better sustainability disclosure. This paper, through quantitative and qualitative analysis, provides a methodological and empirical contribution to the literature on corporate governance and sustainability reporting in emerging and developing countries.

  12. DOE Land Disposal Restrictions strategy report for radioactive mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    This report is based on preliminary information available at the time of the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) Strategy Workshop in June 1989, and the critical review of the workshop data conducted by the Office Of Defense Programs and the affected Operations Offices in July and August 1989. The purpose of the workshop and this subsequent report is to identify the magnitude and scope of LDR issues and impacts regarding the storage, treatment, and disposal of RMW, and to suggest potential strategies for addressing LDR requirements. This report was prepared under the overall direction and coordination of the Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters Environmental Guidance Division, RCRA/CERCLA Unit (EH-231). The report is a product of the LDR Strategy Workshop held during the month of June 1989. The workshop was divided into two work groups: a Land Disposal Restriction compliance strategy group and a RMW Best Demonstrated Available Technology and National Capacity Variance group

  13. Hazardous waste shipment data collection from DOE sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, L.A.; Kirkpatrick, T.D.; Stevens, L.

    1992-01-01

    Past practices at the US Department of Energy (DOE) sites for offsite release of hazardous waste are being reviewed to determine if radioactively contaminated hazardous wastes were released to commercial treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. Records indicating the presence of radioactivity in waste shipped to and treated at a commercial incineration facility led to a ban on offsite hazardous waste shipments and investigation of past practices for offsite release of hazardous waste from the DOE sites. A House of Representatives Interior and Insular Affairs Committee oversight hearing on potentially contaminated waste shipments to commercial facilities concluded that the main issue was the lack of a uniform national standard to govern disposal of mixed waste

  14. Off-site emergency planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narrog, J.

    1980-01-01

    In the event of a nuclear accident, the actions taken to protect the public from off-site consequences must be effective. An effective organization of emergency actions is based on two components: the actions of the operator of the nuclear facility and the actions of the competent authorities. The measures of the operator are of special importance in the first hours after the beginning of the nuclear accident, because there is no other help. Therefore the operator of a nuclear facility shall be obliged under the nuclear licensing procedure to make provisions of his own and carry out protective measures which should be compiled in a so-called 'alarm-plan'. On the other hand the means of the operator are too small in many cases and there is a need for actions by the responsible authorities. The actions of the authorities should be compiled in a so-called 'emergency response plan'. The emergency response plan shall apply to all cases in which, as a result of occurrences in or at a nuclear facility, a damaging impact on the environment is expected or has occurred requiring the authorities in charge to intervene for its prevention or limitation. (orig./RW)

  15. Operating cost guidelines for benchmarking DOE thermal treatment systems for low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, R.; Loghry, S.L.; Hermes, W.H.

    1994-11-01

    This report presents guidelines for estimating operating costs for use in benchmarking US Department of Energy (DOE) low-level mixed waste thermal treatment systems. The guidelines are based on operating cost experience at the DOE Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) mixed waste incinerator at the K-25 Site at Oak Ridge. In presenting these guidelines, it should be made clear at the outset that it is not the intention of this report to present operating cost estimates for new technologies, but only guidelines for estimating such costs

  16. Transportation and disposal configuration for DOE-managed low-level and mixed low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsen, T.

    1993-06-01

    This report briefly examines the current U.S. Department of Energy complex-wide configuration for transportation and disposal of low-level and mixed low-level waste, and also retraces the historical sequence of events and rationale that has guided its development. The study determined that Nevada Test Site and the Hanford Site are the only two sites that currently provide substantial disposal services for offsite low-level waste generators. It was also determined that mixed low-level waste shipments are infrequent and are generally limited to shipments to offsite commercial treatment facilities or other Department of Energy sites for storage. The current alignment of generator to disposal site for low-level waste shipments is generally consistent with the programmatic mission of the generator; that is, defense-generated waste is shipped to the Nevada Test Site and research-generated waste is transported to the Hanford Site. The historical development of the current configuration was resurrected by retrieving Department of Energy documentation and interviewing both current and former department and contractor personnel. According to several accounts, the basic framework of the system was developed during the late 1970s, and was reportedly based on the ability of the disposal site to manage a given waste form. Documented evidence to support this reasoning, however, could not be uncovered

  17. Offsite doses from SRP radioactive releases - 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marter, W.L.

    1986-01-01

    This memorandum summarizes the offsite doses from releases of radioactive materials to the environment from SRP operations in 1985. These doses were calculated for inclusion in the environmental report for 1985 to be issued by the Health Protection Department (DPSPU-86-30-1). The environmental report is prepared annually for distribution to state environmental agencies, the news media, and interested members of the public. More detailed data on offsite exposures by radionuclide and exposure pathway will be included in the environmental report

  18. Release protocol to address DOE moratorium on shipments of waste generated in radiologically controlled areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathbun, L.A.; Boothe, G.F.

    1992-10-01

    On May 17, 1991 the US DOE Office of Waste Operations issued a moratorium on the shipment of hazardous waste from radiologically contaminated or potentially contaminated areas on DOE sites to offsite facilities not licensed for radiological material. This document describes a release protocol generated by Westinghouse Hanford submitted for US DOE approval. Topics considered include designating Radiological Materials Management Areas (RMMAs), classification of wastes, handling of mixed wastes, detection limits

  19. Framework for DOE mixed low-level waste disposal: Site fact sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruebel, M.M.; Waters, R.D.; Hospelhorn, M.B.; Chu, M.S.Y. [eds.

    1994-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is required to prepare and submit Site Treatment Plans (STPS) pursuant to the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct). Although the FFCAct does not require that disposal be addressed in the STPS, the DOE and the States recognize that treatment of mixed low-level waste will result in residues that will require disposal in either low-level waste or mixed low-level waste disposal facilities. As a result, the DOE is working with the States to define and develop a process for evaluating disposal-site suitability in concert with the FFCAct and development of the STPS. Forty-nine potential disposal sites were screened; preliminary screening criteria reduced the number of sites for consideration to twenty-six. The DOE then prepared fact sheets for the remaining sites. These fact sheets provided additional site-specific information for understanding the strengths and weaknesses of the twenty-six sites as potential disposal sites. The information also provided the basis for discussion among affected States and the DOE in recommending sites for more detailed evaluation.

  20. Plasma Hearth Process vitrification of DOE low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillins, R.L.; Geimer, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) demonstration project is one of the key technology projects in the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development Mixed Waste Focus Area. The PHP is recognized as one of the more promising solutions to DOE's mixed waste treatment needs, with potential application in the treatment of a wide variety of DOE mixed wastes. The PHP is a high temperature vitrification process using a plasma arc torch in a stationary, refractory lined chamber that destroys organics and stabilizes the residuals in a nonleaching, vitrified waste form. This technology will be equally applicable to low-level mixed wastes generated by nuclear utilities. The final waste form will be volume reduced to the maximum extent practical, because all organics will have been destroyed and the inorganics will be in a high-density, low void-space form and little or no volume-increasing glass makers will have been added. Low volume and high integrity waste forms result in low disposal costs. This project is structured to ensure that the plasma technology can be successfully employed in radioactive service. The PHP technology will be developed into a production system through a sequence of tests on several test units, both non-radioactive and radioactive. As the final step, a prototype PHP system will be constructed for full-scale radioactive waste treatment demonstration

  1. Integrate offsites management with information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valleur, M. (TECHNIP, Paris (France))

    1993-11-01

    Computerized offsites management systems in oil refineries offer a unique opportunity to integrate advanced technology into a coherent refinery information system that contributes to benefits-driven optimal operations: from long-term, multirefinery linear programming (LP) models to sequential control of transfer lineups in the tank farm. There are strong incentives to automate and optimize the offsites operations, and benefits can be quantified to justify properly sized projects. The paper discusses the following: business opportunities, oil movement and advanced technology, project scoping and sizing, review of functional requirements, transfer automation, blending optimal control, on-line analyzers, oil movement and scheduling, organizational issues, and investment and benefits analysis.

  2. Benchmarking the New RESRAD-OFFSITE Source Term Model with DUST-MS and GoldSim - 13377

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, J.J.; Kamboj, S.; Gnanapragasam, E.; Yu, C. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    RESRAD-OFFSITE is a computer code developed by Argonne National Laboratory under the sponsorship of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). It is designed on the basis of RESRAD (onsite) code, a computer code designated by DOE and NRC for evaluating soil-contaminated sites for compliance with human health protection requirements pertaining to license termination or environmental remediation. RESRAD-OFFSITE has enhanced capabilities of modeling radionuclide transport to offsite locations and calculating potential radiation exposure to offsite receptors. Recently, a new source term model was incorporated into RESRAD-OFFSITE to enhance its capability further. This new source term model allows simulation of radionuclide releases from different waste forms, in addition to the soil sources originally considered in RESRAD (onsite) and RESRAD-OFFSITE codes. With this new source term model, a variety of applications can be achieved by using RESRAD-OFFSITE, including but not limited to, assessing the performance of radioactive waste disposal facilities. This paper presents the comparison of radionuclide release rates calculated by the new source term model of RESRAD-OFFSITE versus those calculated by DUST-MS and GoldSim, respectively. The focus of comparison is on the release rates of radionuclides from the bottom of the contaminated zone that was assumed to contain radioactive source materials buried in soil. The transport of released contaminants outside of the primary contaminated zone is beyond the scope of this paper. Overall, the agreement between the RESRAD-OFFSITE results and the DUST-MS and GoldSim results is fairly good, with all three codes predicting identical or similar radionuclide release profiles over time. Numerical dispersion in the DUST-MS and GoldSim results was identified as potentially contributing to the disagreement in the release rates. In general, greater discrepancy in the release rates was found for short

  3. Benchmarking the New RESRAD-OFFSITE Source Term Model with DUST-MS and GoldSim - 13377

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, J.J.; Kamboj, S.; Gnanapragasam, E.; Yu, C.

    2013-01-01

    RESRAD-OFFSITE is a computer code developed by Argonne National Laboratory under the sponsorship of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). It is designed on the basis of RESRAD (onsite) code, a computer code designated by DOE and NRC for evaluating soil-contaminated sites for compliance with human health protection requirements pertaining to license termination or environmental remediation. RESRAD-OFFSITE has enhanced capabilities of modeling radionuclide transport to offsite locations and calculating potential radiation exposure to offsite receptors. Recently, a new source term model was incorporated into RESRAD-OFFSITE to enhance its capability further. This new source term model allows simulation of radionuclide releases from different waste forms, in addition to the soil sources originally considered in RESRAD (onsite) and RESRAD-OFFSITE codes. With this new source term model, a variety of applications can be achieved by using RESRAD-OFFSITE, including but not limited to, assessing the performance of radioactive waste disposal facilities. This paper presents the comparison of radionuclide release rates calculated by the new source term model of RESRAD-OFFSITE versus those calculated by DUST-MS and GoldSim, respectively. The focus of comparison is on the release rates of radionuclides from the bottom of the contaminated zone that was assumed to contain radioactive source materials buried in soil. The transport of released contaminants outside of the primary contaminated zone is beyond the scope of this paper. Overall, the agreement between the RESRAD-OFFSITE results and the DUST-MS and GoldSim results is fairly good, with all three codes predicting identical or similar radionuclide release profiles over time. Numerical dispersion in the DUST-MS and GoldSim results was identified as potentially contributing to the disagreement in the release rates. In general, greater discrepancy in the release rates was found for short

  4. 29 CFR 1908.4 - Offsite consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... on occupational safety and health issues by telephone and correspondence, and at locations other than... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offsite consultation. 1908.4 Section 1908.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  5. 40 CFR 68.22 - Offsite consequence analysis parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offsite consequence analysis... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Hazard Assessment § 68.22 Offsite consequence analysis parameters. (a) Endpoints. For analyses of offsite consequences, the following endpoints shall be...

  6. MWIR-1995 DOE national mixed and TRU waste database users guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) National 1995 Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR-1995) Database Users Guide provides information on computer system requirements and describes installation, operation, and navigation through the database. The MWIR-1995 database contains a detailed, nationwide compilation of information on DOE mixed waste streams and treatment systems. In addition, the 1995 version includes data on non- mixed, transuranic (TRU) waste streams. These were added to the data set as a result of coordination of the 1995 update with the National Transuranic Program Office's (NTPO's) data needs to support the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) TRU Waste Baseline Inventory Report (WTWBIR). However, the information on the TRU waste streams is limited to that associated with the core mixed waste data requirements. The additional, non-core data on TRU streams collected specifically to support the WTWBIR is not included in the MWIR-1995 database. With respect to both the mixed and TRU waste stream data, the data set addresses open-quotes storedclose quotes streams. In this instance, open-quotes storedclose quotes streams are defined as (a) streams currently in storage at both EM-30 and EM-40 sites and (b) streams that have yet to be generated but are anticipated within the next five years from sources other than environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning (ER/D ampersand D) activities. Information on future ER/D ampersand D streams is maintained in the EM-40 core database. The MWIR-1995 database also contains limited information for both waste streams and treatment systems that have been removed or deleted since the 1994 MWIR. Data on these is maintained only through Section 2, Waste Stream Identification/Tracking/Source, to document the reason for removal from the data set

  7. Development of a treatability variance guidance document for US DOE mixed-waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheuer, N.; Spikula, R.; Harms, T.

    1990-03-01

    In response to the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) anticipated need for variances from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Land Disposal Restrictions (LDRs), a treatability variance guidance document was prepared. The guidance manual is for use by DOE facilities and operations offices. The manual was prepared as a part of an ongoing effort by DOE-EH to provide guidance for the operations offices and facilities to comply with the RCRA (LDRs). A treatability variance is an alternative treatment standard granted by EPA for a restricted waste. Such a variance is not an exemption from the requirements of the LDRs, but rather is an alternative treatment standard that must be met before land disposal. The manual, Guidance For Obtaining Variance From the Treatment Standards of the RCRA Land Disposal Restrictions (1), leads the reader through the process of evaluating whether a variance from the treatment standard is a viable approach and through the data-gathering and data-evaluation processes required to develop a petition requesting a variance. The DOE review and coordination process is also described and model language for use in petitions for DOE radioactive mixed waste (RMW) is provided. The guidance manual focuses on RMW streams, however the manual also is applicable to nonmixed, hazardous waste streams. 4 refs

  8. Environmental Assessment for the off-site commercial cleaning of lead and asbestos contaminated laundry from the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the potential environmental impacts of off-site commercial cleaning of lead and asbestos contaminated laundry generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed action constitutes an addition to the already-implemented action of sending controlled and routine SRS laundry to an off-site commercial facility for cleaning. This already-implemented action was evaluated in a previous EA (i.e., DOE/EA-0990; DOE, 1994) prepared under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA)

  9. Supplemental information related to risk assessment for the off-site transportation of low-level mixed waste for the U.S. Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monette, F.A.; Biwer, B.M.; LePoire, D.J.; Lazaro, M.A.; Antonopoulos, A.A.; Hartmann, H.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Chen, S.Y.

    1996-12-01

    This report provides supplemental information to support the human health risk assessment conducted for the transportation of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) in support of the US Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The assessment considers both the radioactive and chemical hazards associated with LLMW transportation. Detailed descriptions of the transportation health risk assessment methods and results of the assessment are presented in Appendix E of the WM PEIS. This report presents additional information that is not included in Appendix E but that was needed to conduct the transportation risk assessment for Waste Management (WM) LLMW. Included are definitions of the LLMW alternatives considered in the WM PEIS; data related to the inventory and to the physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics of WM LLMW; an overview of the risk assessment methods; and detailed results of the assessment for each WM LLMW case considered

  10. Supplemental information related to risk assessment for the off-site transportation of low-level mixed waste for the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monette, F.A.; Biwer, B.M.; LePoire, D.J.

    1995-04-01

    This report provides supplemental information to support the human health risk assessment conducted for the transportation of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) in support of the US Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The assessment considers both the radioactive and chemical hazards associated with LLMW transportation. Detailed descriptions of the transportation health risk assessment methods and results of the assessment are presented in Appendix E of the WM PEIS. This report presents additional information that is not included in Appendix E but is necessary to conduct the transportation risk assessment for Waste Management (WM) LLMW. Included are definitions of the LLMW alternatives considered in the WM PEIS; data related to the inventory and to the physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics of WM LLMW; an overview of the risk assessment methods; and detailed results of the assessment for each WM LLMW case considered

  11. Offsite emergency radiological monitoring system and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Yongze

    1994-01-01

    The study and advance of the offsite radiological monitoring system and technology which is an important branch in the field of nuclear monitoring technology are described. The author suggests that the predicting and measuring system should be involved in the monitoring system. The measuring system can further be divided into four sub-systems, namely plume exposure pathway, emergency worker, ingestion exposure pathway and post accident recovery measuring sub-systems. The main facilities for the monitoring system are concluded as one station, one helicopter, one laboratory and two vehicles. The instrumentation for complement of the facilities and their good performance characteristics, up-to-date technology are also introduced in brief. The offsite emergency radiation monitoring system and technology are compared in detail with those recommended by FEMA U.S.A.. Finally the paper discusses some trends in development of emergency radiation monitoring system and technology in the developed countries

  12. Closure of Off-Site FTP

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    To reduce the number of regular break-ins on CERN machines due to passwords exposed on the network in clear text, OFF-SITE FTP ACCESS TO CERN WILL BE BLOCKED in the CERN firewall from: Tuesday 20th January 2004 If you use ftp to access CERN computers from outside CERN then please see the link below for alternative access means and further advice: http://cern.ch/security/ftp Denise Heagerty, CERN Computer Security officer, Computer.Security@cern.ch

  13. Closure of Off-Site Telnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Denise Heagerty

    2003-01-01

    To reduce the number of regular break-ins on CERN machines due to passwords exposed on the network in clear text, OFF-SITE TELNET ACCESS TO CERN WILL BE BLOCKED in the CERN firewall from Tuesday 28th January 2003 If you use telnet to access CERN computers from outside CERN then please see the link below for alternative access means and further advice http://cern.ch/security/telnet Denise Heagerty, CERN Computer Security officer, Computer.Security@cern.ch

  14. Closure of Off-Site FTP

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    To reduce the number of regular break-ins on CERN machines due to passwords exposed on the network in clear text, OFF-SITE FTP ACCESS TO CERN WILL BE BLOCKED in the CERN firewall from: Tuesday 20th January 2004 If you use ftp to access CERN computers from outside CERN then please see the link below for alternative access means and further advice: http://cern.ch/security/ftp Denise Heagerty, CERN Computer Security officer, Computer.Security@cern.ch

  15. CLOSURE OF OFF-SITE TELNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Denise Heagerty

    2002-01-01

    To reduce the number of regular break-ins on CERN machines due to passwords exposed on the network in clear text, OFF-SITE TELNET ACCESS TO CERN WILL BE BLOCKED in the CERN firewall from Tuesday 28 January 2003 If you use telnet to access CERN computers from outside CERN then please see the link below for alternative access means and further advice http://cern.ch/security/telnet Denise Heagerty, CERN Computer Security officer, Computer.Security@cern.ch

  16. Off-site shipment request development and review plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    On May 17, 1991, Department of Energy Headquarters (DOE-HQ) imposed a moratorium on the shipment of all Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous and Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) waste to commercial treatment, storage and disposal facilities. The moratorium was imposed after it was discovered that some shipments of RCRA and TSCA waste from Department of Energy (DOE) sites contained small quantities of radioactive and special nuclear material (SNM). The shipment of these wastes has been attributed to inconsistent and possibly erroneous interpretation of DOE Orders and guidance. In an effort to clarify existing DOE Orders and guidance and establish throughout the DOE complex, June 21, 1991, DOE-HQ issued in draft the Performance Objective for Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous Waste. This Performance Objective was subsequently approved on November 15, 1991. The Performance Objective contains specific requirements that must be net to allow the shipment of RCRA and TSCA waste for commercial treatment, storage and disposal. On July 16, 1991, based on the initial draft of the Performance Objective, Martin Marietta Energy Systems (MMES) issued a directive which applies the Performance Objective requirements to all wastes and materials. In addition, this MMES directive imposed the requirement for a review by a Central Waste Management (CWM) Readiness Review Board (RRB). Additional DOE and MMES guidance and directives have been issued since May 17, 1991. This plan applies to all waste destined for shipment from the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) to off-site commercial treatment, storage and disposal facilities, and to all materials destined for recycle, surplus and salvage

  17. Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels and the Resin Regeneration Facility Safety Analysis Report, Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-11-29

    The Safety Analysis Report documents the safety authorization basis for the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF) and the Resin Regeneration Facility (RRF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The present mission of the RBOF and RRF is to continue in providing a facility for the safe receipt, storage, handling, and shipping of spent nuclear fuel assemblies from power and research reactors in the United States, fuel from SRS and other Department of Energy (DOE) reactors, and foreign research reactors fuel, in support of the nonproliferation policy. The RBOF and RRF provide the capability to handle, separate, and transfer wastes generated from nuclear fuel element storage. The DOE and Westinghouse Savannah River Company, the prime operating contractor, are committed to managing these activities in such a manner that the health and safety of the offsite general public, the site worker, the facility worker, and the environment are protected.

  18. Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels and the Resin Regeneration Facility Safety Analysis Report, Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-01-01

    The Safety Analysis Report documents the safety authorization basis for the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF) and the Resin Regeneration Facility (RRF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The present mission of the RBOF and RRF is to continue in providing a facility for the safe receipt, storage, handling, and shipping of spent nuclear fuel assemblies from power and research reactors in the United States, fuel from SRS and other Department of Energy (DOE) reactors, and foreign research reactors fuel, in support of the nonproliferation policy. The RBOF and RRF provide the capability to handle, separate, and transfer wastes generated from nuclear fuel element storage. The DOE and Westinghouse Savannah River Company, the prime operating contractor, are committed to managing these activities in such a manner that the health and safety of the offsite general public, the site worker, the facility worker, and the environment are protected

  19. A PC-based software package for modeling DOE mixed-waste management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abashian, M.S.; Carney, C.; Schum, K.

    1995-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters and associated contractors have developed an IBM PC-based software package that estimates costs, schedules, and public and occupational health risks for a range of mixed-waste management options. A key application of the software package is the comparison of various waste-treatment options documented in the draft Site Treatment Plans prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992. This automated Systems Analysis Methodology consists of a user interface for configuring complexwide or site-specific waste-management options; calculational algorithms for cost, schedule and risk; and user-selected graphical or tabular output of results. The mixed-waste management activities modeled in the automated Systems Analysis Methodology include waste storage, characterization, handling, transportation, treatment, and disposal. Analyses of treatment options identified in the draft Site Treatment Plans suggest potential cost and schedule savings from consolidation of proposed treatment facilities. This paper presents an overview of the automated Systems Analysis Methodology

  20. Evolution of EPA/DOE technical cooperation in remediation of radiation/mixed waste contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, Robert S.; Garcia-Frias, Beverly; Wolbarst, Anthony B.; Coe, Larry J.

    1992-01-01

    The EPA Office of Radiation Programs (ORP) and the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) are cooperating in efforts related to restoration of radioactive and mixed waste sites. The impetus for these efforts derived from DOE's need to perform restoration activities according to CERCLA/RCRA requirements, and from ORP's role as a supplier of radiation expertise to federal agencies. These activities include: assessing remediation technology, developing radioanalytical protocols; matching cleanup technologies to soil characteristics; developing a process for the evaluation, selection, and appropriate use of groundwater models; reviewing incinerator practices; and addressing technical issues associated with the WIPP. Cooperative projects planned for the future include: evaluation of methodologies for streamlining the restoration process; assessment of the applicability of process knowledge for waste characterization; evaluation of recycling of radioactive metals; and expansion of selected environmental protection initiatives at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Public acceptance is a crucial component of the remediation process. An underlying objective of these cooperative initiatives is to address issues of concern to the public in an open and honest fashion. (author)

  1. Minutes of the workshop on off-site release criteria for contaminated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.P.N.

    1989-11-01

    A one and one-half-day workshop was held May 2-3, 1989, at the Pollard Auditorium in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, with the objective of formulating a strategy for developing reasonable and uniform criteria for releasing radioactively contaminated materials from the US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. This report contains the minutes of the workshop. At the conclusion of the workshop, a plan was formulated to facilitate the development of the above-mentioned off-site release criteria

  2. Analysis of offsite Emergency Planning Zones (EPZs) for the Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrocchi, A.J.; Zimmerman, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    During Phase 3 of the EPZ project, a sitewide analysis will be performed applying a spectrum-of-accidents approach to both radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials release scenarios. This analysis will include the MCA but will be wider in scope and will produce options for the State of Colorado for establishing a bounding EPZ that is intended to more comprehensively update the interim, preliminary EPZ developed in Phase 2. EG ampersand G will propose use of a hazards assessment methodology that is consistent with the DOE Emergency Management Guide for Hazards Assessments and other methods required by DOE orders. This will include hazards, accident, safety, and risk analyses. Using this methodology, EG ampersand G will develop technical analyses for a spectrum of accidents. The analyses will show the potential effects from the spectrum of accidents on the offsite population together with identification of offsite vulnerable zones and areas of concern. These analyses will incorporate state-of-the-art technology for accident analysis, atmospheric plume dispersion modeling, consequence analysis, and the application of these evaluations to the general public population at risk. The analyses will treat both radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials and mixtures of both released accidentally to the atmosphere. DOE/RFO will submit these results to the State of Colorado for the State's use in determining offsite emergency planning zones for the Rocky Flats Plant. In addition, the results will be used for internal Rocky Flats Plant emergency planning

  3. Final environmental impact statement for the Nevada Test Site and off-site locations in the State of Nevada. Transportation study, Volume 1, Appendix I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This report has been prepared to address local transportation issues concerning current and potential operations at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), to document the results of the NTS transportation risk analysis, and to provide information and supporting documentation for the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the NTS and Off-Site Locations in the State of Nevada. Four alternatives are evaluated in the NTS EIS: Alternative 1, Continue Current Operations, (No Action); Alternative 2, Discontinue Operations; Alternative 3, Expanded Use; and Alternative 4, Alternate Use of Withdrawn Lands. The transportation risk analysis estimated the health risk from highway transportation of DOE-generated low-level waste, mixed waste, and defense-related nuclear materials for each of the four alternatives

  4. Effects of spent fuel types on offsite consequences of hypothetical accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtney, J. C.; Dwight, C. C.; Lehto, M. A.

    2000-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducts experimental work on the development of waste forms suitable for several types of spent fuel at its facility on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) located 48 km West of Idaho Falls, ID. The objective of this paper is to compare the offsite radiological consequences of hypothetical accidents involving the various types of spent nuclear fuel handled in nonreactor nuclear facilities. The highest offsite total effective dose equivalents (TEDEs) are estimated at a receptor located about 5 km SSE of ANL facilities. Criticality safety considerations limit the amount of enriched uranium and plutonium that could be at risk in any given scenario. Heat generated by decay of fission products and actinides does not limit the masses of spent fuel within any given operation because the minimum time elapsed since fissions occurred in any form is at least five years. At cooling times of this magnitude, fewer than ten radionuclides account for 99% of the projected TEDE at offsite receptors for any credible accident. Elimination of all but the most important nuclides allows rapid assessments of offsite doses with little loss of accuracy. Since the ARF (airborne release fraction), RF (respirable fraction), LPF (leak path fraction) and atmospheric dilution factor (χ/Q) can vary by orders of magnitude, it is not productive to consider nuclides that contribute less than a few percent of the total dose. Therefore, only 134 Cs, 137 Cs- 137m Ba, and the actinides significantly influence the offsite radiological consequences of severe accidents. Even using highly conservative assumptions in estimating radiological consequences, they remain well below current Department of Energy guidelines for highly unlikely accidents

  5. 40 CFR 273.55 - Off-site shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Universal Waste Transporters § 273.55 Off-site... universal waste being shipped off-site meets the Department of Transportation's definition of hazardous...

  6. 40 CFR 68.165 - Offsite consequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offsite consequence analysis. 68.165 Section 68.165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.165 Offsite consequence...

  7. Fluid management plan for the Project Shoal Area Offsites Subproject

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) has initiated the Offsites Subproject to characterize the hazards posed to human health and the environment as a result of underground nuclear testing activities at facilities other than the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A primary Subproject objective is to gather adequate data to characterize the various Subproject sites through the collection of surface and subsurface soil samples and by drilling several wells for the collection of groundwater data. The Project Shoal Area (PSA) is one of the Subproject's Nevada sites and is subject to the requirements set forth in the Federal Facility Compliance Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (DOE, 1996a). In accordance with the FFACO, a Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed for work at the PSA (designated as Corrective Action Unit Number 416). This Fluid Management Plan (FMP) provides guidance for the management of fluids generated from wells constructed at the PSA. Long-term monitoring and future activities at the site, if required, will be set forth in additional documents as required by the FFACO. The ultimate method for disposition of fluids generated by site operations depends upon sample analysis and process knowledge in relation to fluid management criteria. Section 2 describes well site operations; Section 3 discusses fluid management criteria; Section 4 includes the fluid monitoring program; Section 5 presents the fluid management strategy; Section 6 provides for fluid management during routine well monitoring; and Section 7 contains reporting criteria

  8. Analysis of waste treatment requirements for DOE mixed wastes: Technical basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    The risks and costs of managing DOE wastes are a direct function of the total quantities of 3wastes that are handled at each step of the management process. As part of the analysis of the management of DOE low-level mixed wastes (LLMW), a reference scheme has been developed for the treatment of these wastes to meet EPA criteria. The treatment analysis in a limited form was also applied to one option for treatment of transuranic wastes. The treatment requirements in all cases analyzed are based on a reference flowsheet which provides high level treatment trains for all LLMW. This report explains the background and basis for that treatment scheme. Reference waste stream chemical compositions and physical properties including densities were established for each stream in the data base. These compositions are used to define the expected behavior for wastes as they pass through the treatment train. Each EPA RCRA waste code was reviewed, the properties, chemical composition, or characteristics which are of importance to waste behavior in treatment were designated. Properties that dictate treatment requirements were then used to develop the treatment trains and identify the unit operations that would be included in these trains. A table was prepared showing a correlation of the waste physical matrix and the waste treatment requirements as a guide to the treatment analysis. The analysis of waste treatment loads is done by assigning wastes to treatment steps which would achieve RCRA compliant treatment. These correlation's allow one to examine the treatment requirements in a condensed manner and to see that all wastes and contaminant sets are fully considered

  9. Quantities and characteristics of the contact-handled low-level mixed waste streams for the DOE complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, T.L.; Wilson, J.M.; Ruhter, A.H.; Bonney, S.J.

    1994-08-01

    This report supports the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) Study initiated by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (EM-50), which is a system engineering assessment of a variety of mixed waste treatment process. The DOE generates and stores large quantities of mixed wastes that are contaminated with both chemically hazardous and radioactive species. The treatment of these mixed wastes requires meeting the standards established by the Environmental Protection Agency for the specific hazardous contaminants regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act while also providing adequate control of the radionuclides. The thrust of the study is to develop preconceptual designs and life-cycle cost estimates for integrated thermal treatment systems ranging from conventional incinerators, such as rotary kiln and controlled air systems, to more innovative but not yet established technologies, such as molten salt and molten metal waste destruction systems. Prior to this engineering activity, the physical and chemical characteristics of the DOE low-level mixed waste streams to be treated must be defined or estimated. This report describes efforts to estimate the DOE waste stream characteristics

  10. Radiological assessment of depleted uranium migration offsite from an ordnance range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rynders, D.G.

    1996-01-01

    The military utilizes ordnance loaded with depleted uranium in order to maximize armor penetrating capabilities. These weapons are tested on open ranges where the weapons are fired through a cloth target and impact into the soil. This paper examines the potential environmental impact from use of depleted uranium in an open setting. A preliminary pathway analysis was performed to examine potential routes of exposure to nonhuman species in the vicinity and ultimately to man. Generic data was used in the study to estimate the isotopic mix and weight of the ordnance. Key factors in the analysis included analyzing the physics of weapon impact on soil, chemical changes in material upon impact, and mechanisms of offsite transport (including atmospheric and overland transport). Non-standard exposure scenarios were investigated, including the possibility of offsite contaminant transport due to range grassfires. Two radiological assessment codes, MEPAS (Multi media Environmental Pollutant Assessment System) and RESRAD were used to help analyze the scenarios

  11. Treatment of DOE and commercial mixed waste by the private sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrison, T.W.; Apel, M.L.; Owens, C.M.

    1993-03-01

    This paper presents a conceptual approach for private sector treatment of mixed low-level radioactive waste generated by the US Department of Energy and commercial industries. This approach focuses on MLLW treatment technologies and capacities available through the private sector in the near term. Wastestream characterization data for 108 MLLW streams at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) were collected and combined with similar data for MLLWs generated through commercial practices. These data were then provided to private treatment facilities and vendors to determine if, and to what extent, they could successfully treat these wastes. Data obtained from this project have provided an initial assessment of private sector capability and capacity to treat a variety of MLLW streams. This information will help formulate plans for future treatment of these and similar wastestreams at DOE facilities. This paper presents details of the MLLW data-gathering efforts used in this research, private sector assessment methods employed, and results of this assessment. Advantages of private sector treatment, as well as barriers to its present use, are also addressed.

  12. Regionalization as a strategy for management of low-level and mixed wastes in the DOE system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradford, J.D.; Garcia, E.C.; Gillins, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Energy has been routinely performing low-level waste volume reduction and/or stabilization treatment at various sites for some time. In general, treatment is performed on waste generated onsite. Disposal is also usually performed onsite since most DOE sites have their own LLW disposal facilities. The DOE initiated studies to evaluate strategies for treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous and mixed wastes covered in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to ensure that DOE sites are in compliance with RCRA. These studies recommend regionalization as the most cost-effective solution to the treatment and disposal of hazardous and mixed wastes. The DOE's Defense Low-Level Waste Management Program conducted an additional survey of DOE sites to evaluate the status of one specific treatment method, incineration, at these sites. This study included facilities currently in use or intended for treatment of low-level and mixed wastes. A summary of the findings is presented in this paper

  13. Identification of permit and waste acceptance criteria provisions requiring modification for acceptance of commercial mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    In October 1990, representatives of States and compact regions requested that the US Department of Energy (DOE) explore an agreement with host States and compact regions under which DOE would accept commercial mixed low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at DOE's own treatment and disposal facilities. A program for DOE management of commercial mixed waste is made potentially more attractive in light of the low commercial mixed waste volumes, high regulatory burdens, public opposition to new disposal sites, and relatively high cost of constructing commercial disposal facilities. Several studies were identified as essential in determining the feasibility of DOE accepting commercial mixed waste for disposal. The purpose of this report is to identify any current or proposed waste acceptance criteria (WAC) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) provisions that would have to be modified for commercial mixed waste acceptance at specified DOE facilities. Following the introduction, Section 2 of this report (a) provides a background summary of existing and proposed mixed waste disposal facilities at each DOE site, and (b) summarizes the status of any RCRA Part B permit and WAC provisions relating to the disposal of mixed waste, including provisions relating to acceptance of offsite waste. Section 3 provides overall conclusions regarding the current status and permit modifications that must be implemented in order to grant DOE sites authority under their permits to accept commercial mixed waste for disposal. Section 4 contains a list of references

  14. Does the thermal spike affect low energy ion-induced interfacial mixing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suele, P.; Menyhard, M.; Nordlund, K.

    2003-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to obtain the three-dimensional distribution of interfacial mixing and cascade defects in Ti/Pt multilayer system due to single 1 keV Ar + impact at grazing angle of incidence. The Ti/Pt system was chosen because of its relatively high heat of mixing in the binary alloy and therefore a suitable candidate for testing the effect of heat of mixing on ion-beam mixing. However, the calculated mixing profile is not sensitive to the heat of mixing. Therefore the thermal spike model of mixing is not fully supported under these irradiation conditions. Instead we found that the majority of mixing occurs after the thermal spike during the relaxation process. These conclusions are supported by liquid, vacancy as well as adatom analysis. The interfacial mixing is in various aspects anomalous in this system: the time evolution of mixing is leading to a phase delay for Ti mixing, and Pt exhibits an unexpected double peaked mixing evolution. The reasons to these effects are discussed

  15. Savannah River Site radioiodine atmospheric releases and offsite maximum doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marter, W.L.

    1990-01-01

    Radioisotopes of iodine have been released to the atmosphere from the Savannah River Site since 1955. The releases, mostly from the 200-F and 200-H Chemical Separations areas, consist of the isotopes, I-129 and 1-131. Small amounts of 1-131 and 1-133 have also been released from reactor facilities and the Savannah River Laboratory. This reference memorandum was issued to summarize our current knowledge of releases of radioiodines and resultant maximum offsite doses. This memorandum supplements the reference memorandum by providing more detailed supporting technical information. Doses reported in this memorandum from consumption of the milk containing the highest I-131 concentration following the 1961 1-131 release incident are about 1% higher than reported in the reference memorandum. This is the result of using unrounded 1-131 concentrations of I-131 in milk in this memo. It is emphasized here that this technical report does not constitute a dose reconstruction in the same sense as the dose reconstruction effort currently underway at Hanford. This report uses existing published data for radioiodine releases and existing transport and dosimetry models

  16. Comparison of alternative treatment systems for DOE mixed low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1997-03-01

    From 1993 to 1996, the Department of Energy, Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology (OST), has sponsored a series of systems analyses to guide its future research and development (R ampersand D) programs for the treatment of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) stored in the DOE complex. The two original studies were of 20 mature and innovative thermal systems. As a result of a technical review of these thermal system studies, a similar study of five innovative nonthermal systems was conducted in which unit operations are limited to temperatures less than 350 degrees C to minimize volatilization of heavy metals and radionuclides, and de novo production of dioxins and furans in the offgas. Public involvement in the INTS study was established through a working group of 20 tribal and stakeholder representatives to provide input to the INTS studies and identify principles against which the systems should be designed and evaluated. Pre-conceptual designs were developed for all systems to treat the same waste input (2927 lbs/hr) in a single centralized facility operating 4032 hours per year for 20 years. This inventory consisted of a wide range of combustible and non-combustible materials such as paper, plastics, metals, concrete, soils, sludges, liquids, etc., contaminated with trace quantities of radioactive materials and RCRA regulated wastes. From this inventory, an average waste profile was developed for simulated treatment using ASPEN PLUS copyright for mass balance calculations. Seven representative thermal systems were selected for comparison with the five nonthermal systems. This report presents the comparisons against the TSWG principles, of total life cycle cost (TLCC), and of other system performance indicators such as energy requirements, reagent requirements, land use, final waste volume, aqueous and gaseous effluents, etc

  17. Risk methodologies for offsite hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kot, C.A.; Eichler, T.V.; Wiedermann, A.H.

    1983-01-01

    A number of suggestions have been advanced in recent years concerning the risks posed to nuclear power plants by offsite hazardous materials relative to (1) the regulatory approach including considerations of minimum and safe standoff distances, exclusion distances, site acceptance ceilings and floors, screening distances and screening probabilities, plant design, etc., and (2) the analysis and evaluation procedures such as material screening criteria, plant vulnerability, standarized physical models, etc. An evaluation of current analyses and approaches indicates that this complex problem, variety of approaches, and safety concerns may be better accommodated by developing criteria and treatments along the lines of a so-called conditional risk approach. Specifically, the probability (P) of some ultimate consequence (C) occurring from an accident (A) involving hazardous materials is given as P(C) = P(C/A) x P(A). Assuming that the plant to accident site standoff distance is the fundamental independent variable of the risk methodology, certain conditional risk designations and conditions can be made and are presented

  18. Characterization of mixed waste for shipment to TSD Facilities Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, K.; Goyal, K.

    1995-01-01

    In compliance with the Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is striving to ship its low-level mixed waste (LLMW) off-site for treatment and disposal. In order to ship LLMW off site to a commercial facility, LANL must request exemption from the DOE Order 5820.2A requirement that LLMW be shipped only to Department of Energy facilities. Because the process of obtaining the required information and approvals for a mixed waste shipment campaign can be very expensive, time consuming, and frustrating, a well-planned program is necessary to ensure that the elements for the exemption request package are completed successfully the first time. LANL has developed such a program, which is cost- effective, quality-driven, and compliance-based. This program encompasses selecting a qualified analytical laboratory, developing a quality project-specific sampling plan, properly sampling liquid and solid wastes, validating analytical data, documenting the waste characterization and decision processes, and maintaining quality records. The products of the program are containers of waste that meet the off-site facility's waste acceptance criteria, a quality exemption request package, documentation supporting waste characterization, and overall quality assurance for the process. The primary goal of the program is to provide an avenue for documenting decisions, procedures, and data pertinent to characterizing waste and preparing it for off-site treatment or disposal

  19. Offsite commercial disposal of oil and gas exploration and production waste :availability, options, and cost.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puder, M. G.; Veil, J. A.

    2006-09-05

    A survey conducted in 1995 by the American Petroleum Institute (API) found that the U.S. exploration and production (E&P) segment of the oil and gas industry generated more than 149 million bbl of drilling wastes, almost 18 billion bbl of produced water, and 21 million bbl of associated wastes. The results of that survey, published in 2000, suggested that 3% of drilling wastes, less than 0.5% of produced water, and 15% of associated wastes are sent to offsite commercial facilities for disposal. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) collected information on commercial E&P waste disposal companies in different states in 1997. While the information is nearly a decade old, the report has proved useful. In 2005, Argonne began collecting current information to update and expand the data. This report describes the new 2005-2006 database and focuses on the availability of offsite commercial disposal companies, the prevailing disposal methods, and estimated disposal costs. The data were collected in two phases. In the first phase, state oil and gas regulatory officials in 31 states were contacted to determine whether their agency maintained a list of permitted commercial disposal companies dedicated to oil. In the second stage, individual commercial disposal companies were interviewed to determine disposal methods and costs. The availability of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities falls into three categories. The states with high oil and gas production typically have a dedicated network of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities in place. In other states, such an infrastructure does not exist and very often, commercial disposal companies focus on produced water services. About half of the states do not have any industry-specific offsite commercial disposal infrastructure. In those states, operators take their wastes to local municipal landfills if permitted or haul the wastes to other states. This report provides state-by-state summaries of the

  20. Analysis of the suitability of DOE facilities for treatment of commercial low-level radioactive mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    This report evaluates the capabilities of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) existing and proposed facilities to treat 52 commercially generated low-level radioactive mixed (LLMW) waste streams that were previously identified as being difficult-to-treat using commercial treatment capabilities. The evaluation was performed by comparing the waste matrix and hazardous waste codes for the commercial LLMW streams with the waste acceptance criteria of the treatment facilities, as identified in the following DOE databases: Mixed Waste Inventory Report, Site Treatment Plan, and Waste Stream and Technology Data System. DOE facility personnel also reviewed the list of 52 commercially generated LLMW streams and provided their opinion on whether the wastes were technically acceptable at their facilities, setting aside possible administrative barriers. The evaluation tentatively concludes that the DOE is likely to have at least one treatment facility (either existing or planned) that is technically compatible for most of these difficult-to-treat commercially generated LLMW streams. This conclusion is tempered, however, by the limited amount of data available on the commercially generated LLMW streams, by the preliminary stage of planning for some of the proposed DOE treatment facilities, and by the need to comply with environmental statutes such as the Clean Air Act

  1. Savannah River Site offsite hazardous waste shipment data validation report. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, C.; Kudera, D.E.; Page, L.A.; Rohe, M.J.

    1995-05-01

    The objective of this data validation is to verify that waste shipments reported in response to the US Department of Energy Headquarters data request are properly categorized according to DOE-HQ definitions. This report documents all findings and actions resulting from the independent review of the Savannah River Site data submittal, and provides a summary of the SRS data submittal and data validation strategy. The overall hazardous waste management and offsite release process from 1987--1991 is documented, along with an identification and description of the hazardous waste generation facilities. SRS did not ship any hazardous waste offsite before 1987. Sampling and analysis and surface surveying procedures and techniques used in determining offsite releasability of the shipments are also described in this report. SRS reported 150 manifested waste shipments from 1984 to 1991 that included 4,755 drums or lab packs and 13 tankers. Of these waste items, this report categorizes 4,251 as clean (including 12 tankers), 326 as likely clean, 138 as likely radioactive, and 55 as radioactive (including one tanker). Although outside the original scope of this report, 14 manifests from 1992 and 1993 are included, covering 393 drums or lab packs and seven tankers. From the 1992--1993 shipments, 58 drums or lab packs are categorized as radioactive and 16 drums are categorized as likely radioactive. The remainder are categorized as clean

  2. Savannah River Site offsite hazardous waste shipment data validation report. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, C.; Kudera, D.E.; Page, L.A.; Rohe, M.J.

    1995-05-01

    The objective of this data validation is to verify that waste shipments reported in response to the US Department of Energy Headquarters data request are properly categorized according to DOE-HQ definitions. This report documents all findings and actions resulting from the independent review of the Savannah River Site data submittal, and provides a summary of the SRS data submittal and data validation strategy. The overall hazardous waste management and offsite release process from 1987--1991 is documented, along with an identification and description of the hazardous waste generation facilities. SRS did not ship any hazardous waste offsite before 1987. Sampling and analysis and surface surveying procedures and techniques used in determining offsite releasability of the shipments are also described in this report. SRS reported 150 manifested waste shipments from 1984 to 1991 that included 4,755 drums or lab packs and 13 tankers. Of these waste items, this report categorizes 4,251 as clean (including 12 tankers), 326 as likely clean, 138 as likely radioactive, and 55 as radioactive (including one tanker). Although outside the original scope of this report, 14 manifests from 1992 and 1993 are included, covering 393 drums or lab packs and seven tankers. From the 1992--1993 shipments, 58 drums or lab packs are categorized as radioactive and 16 drums are categorized as likely radioactive. The remainder are categorized as clean.

  3. Does deep ocean mixing drive upwelling or downwelling of abyssal waters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, R. M.; McDougall, T. J.; Mashayek, A.; Nikurashin, M.; Campin, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    It is generally understood that small-scale mixing, such as is caused by breaking internal waves, drives upwelling of the densest ocean waters that sink to the ocean bottom at high latitudes. However the observational evidence that the turbulent fluxes generated by small-scale mixing in the stratified ocean interior are more vigorous close to the ocean bottom than above implies that small-scale mixing converts light waters into denser ones, thus driving a net sinking of abyssal water. Using a combination of numerical models and observations, it will be shown that abyssal waters return to the surface along weakly stratified boundary layers, where the small-scale mixing of density decays to zero. The net ocean meridional overturning circulation is thus the small residual of a large sinking of waters, driven by small-scale mixing in the stratified interior, and a comparably large upwelling, driven by the reduced small-scale mixing along the ocean boundaries.

  4. Research on jet mixing of settled sludges in nuclear waste tanks at Hanford and other DOE sites: A historical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, M.R.; Onishi, Y.; Shekarriz, R.

    1997-09-01

    Jet mixer pumps will be used in the Hanford Site double-shell tanks to mobilize and mix the settled solids layer (sludge) with the tank supernatant liquid. Predicting the performance of the jet mixer pumps has been the subject of analysis and testing at Hanford and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. One important aspect of mixer pump performance is sludge mobilization. The research that correlates mixer pump design and operation with the extent of sludge mobilization is the subject of this report. Sludge mobilization tests have been conducted in tanks ranging from 1/25-scale (3 ft-diameter) to full scale have been conducted at Hanford and other DOE sites over the past 20 years. These tests are described in Sections 3.0 and 4.0 of this report. The computational modeling of sludge mobilization and mixing that has been performed at Hanford is discussed in Section 5.0.

  5. Research on jet mixing of settled sludges in nuclear waste tanks at Hanford and other DOE sites: A historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, M.R.; Onishi, Y.; Shekarriz, R.

    1997-09-01

    Jet mixer pumps will be used in the Hanford Site double-shell tanks to mobilize and mix the settled solids layer (sludge) with the tank supernatant liquid. Predicting the performance of the jet mixer pumps has been the subject of analysis and testing at Hanford and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. One important aspect of mixer pump performance is sludge mobilization. The research that correlates mixer pump design and operation with the extent of sludge mobilization is the subject of this report. Sludge mobilization tests have been conducted in tanks ranging from 1/25-scale (3 ft-diameter) to full scale have been conducted at Hanford and other DOE sites over the past 20 years. These tests are described in Sections 3.0 and 4.0 of this report. The computational modeling of sludge mobilization and mixing that has been performed at Hanford is discussed in Section 5.0

  6. A re-evaluation of nuclear plant offsite power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William E Berger; Robert E Henry

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: De-regulation of the electric power industry has resulted in separate ownership of the transmission and power generation facilities as well as a revised format for operating the transmission facilities. Currently we see the transfer of large blocks of bulk power between markets which can impact the voltage regulation at the offsite power supply. Where Nuclear Plant operations once knew with a large degree of certainty the operating range of the system supplying the offsite power supply, this may no longer be the case and more challenges to the safety systems could result. These challenges may manifest themselves as either a loss of offsite power or voltage levels approaching the degraded level setpoints. In this paper we will first explore what challenges are caused by deregulation and how they impact offsite power supply operations. Next we will incorporate the knowledge grained regarding accidents and consequences from the Individual Plant Evaluations (IPE's) to see how the offsite power supply could be operated to mitigate the challenges and extend the capacity of the auxiliary power system. Various scenarios will be examined using the Modular Accident Analysis Program (MAAP) as an integral plant model. MAAP simulations that include both the plant thermal hydraulic responses and corresponding electric power demand are presented to demonstrate the impact of alternate approaches to offsite power system operation. The original design phase of the offsite and onsite power distribution system was based on a criterion relating to the starting of all safety loads if a safety injection signal was present independent of the accident or its progression. The IPE and risk informed insights that are readily available today will be applied in the re-analyses of the offsite distribution system response. (authors)

  7. Mixed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Baya

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Remenat (Catalan (Mixed, "revoltillo" (Scrambled in Spanish, is a dish which, in Catalunya, consists of a beaten egg cooked with vegetables or other ingredients, normally prawns or asparagus. It is delicious. Scrambled refers to the action of mixing the beaten egg with other ingredients in a pan, normally using a wooden spoon Thought is frequently an amalgam of past ideas put through a spinner and rhythmically shaken around like a cocktail until a uniform and dense paste is made. This malleable product, rather like a cake mixture can be deformed pulling it out, rolling it around, adapting its shape to the commands of one’s hands or the tool which is being used on it. In the piece Mixed, the contortion of the wood seeks to reproduce the plasticity of this slow heavy movement. Each piece lays itself on the next piece consecutively like a tongue of incandescent lava slowly advancing but with unstoppable inertia.

  8. State of offsite construction in India-Drivers and barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, M.; Bendi, D.; Sawhney, A.; Iyer, K. C.

    2012-05-01

    The rapid growth of the construction industry in India has influenced key players in the industry to adopt alternative technologies addressing time, cost and quality. The rising demand in housing, infrastructure and other facilities have further highlighted the need for the construction industry to look at adopting alternate building technologies. Offsite construction has evolved as a panacea to dealing with the under-supply and poor quality in the current age construction industry. Several offsite techniques have been adopted by the construction sector. Although, different forms of offsite techniques have been around for a while but their uptake has been low in the Indian context. This paper presents the perceptions about offsite construction in India and highlights some of the barriers and drivers facing the Indian construction industry. The data was gathered through a survey of 17 high level managers from some of the largest stakeholder organizations of the construction sector in India. The influence of time and cost has been highlighted as a major factor fuelling the adoption of offsite construction. However, the influence of current planning systems and the need for a paradigm shift are some of the prominent barriers towards the adoption of offsite techniques.

  9. Offsite environmental monitoring report; radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, Calendar Year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Huff, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs). No nuclear weapons testing was conducted in 1996 due to the continuing nuclear test moratorium. During this period, R and IE personnel maintained readiness capability to provide direct monitoring support if testing were to be resumed and ascertained compliance with applicable EPA, DOE, state, and federal regulations and guidelines. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no airborne radioactivity from diffusion or resuspension detected by the various EPA monitoring networks surrounding the NTS. There was no indication of potential migration of radioactivity to the offsite area through groundwater and no radiation exposure above natural background was received by the offsite population. All evaluated data were consistent with previous data history

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions during composting of dairy manure: Delaying pile mixing does not reduce overall emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of the timing of pile mixing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during dairy manure composting was determined using large flux chambers designed to completely cover replicate pilot-scale compost piles. GHG emissions from compost piles that were mixed at 2, 3, 4, or 5 weeks after initial c...

  11. A decision methodology for the evaluation of mixed low-level radioactive waste management options for DOE sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassi, J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Abashian, M.S.; Chakraborti, S.; Devarakonda, M.; Djordjevic, S.M. [IT Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Currently, many DOE sites are developing site-specific solutions to manage their mixed low-level wastes. These site-specific MLLW programs often result in duplication of efforts between the different sites, and consequently, inefficient use of DOE system resources. A nationally integrated program for MLLW eliminates unnecessary duplication of effort, but requires a comprehensive analysis of waste management options to ensure that all site issues are addressed. A methodology for comprehensive analysis of the complete DOE MLLW system is being developed by DOE-HQ to establish an integrated and standardized solution for managing MLLW. To be effective, the comprehensive systems analysis must consider all aspects of MLLW management from cradle-to-grave (i.e. from MLLW generation to disposal). The results of the analysis will include recommendations for alternative management options for the complete DOE MLLW system based on various components such as effectiveness, cost, health and safety risks, and the probability of regulatory acceptance for an option. Because of the diverse nature of these various components and the associated difficulties in comparing between them, a decision methodology is being developed that will integrate the above components into a single evaluation scheme for performing relative comparisons between different MLLW management options. The remainder of this paper provides an overview of the roles and responsibilities of the various participants of the DOE MLLW Program, and discusses in detail the components involved in the development of the decision methodology for a comprehensive systems analysis.

  12. Case study and presentation of the DOE treatability group concept for low-level and mixed waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, T.D.; Heath, B.A.; Davis, K.D.

    1994-01-01

    The Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992 requires the US Department of Energy (DOE) to prepare an inventory report of its mixed waste and treatment capacities and technologies. Grouping waste streams according to technological requirements is the logical means of matching waste streams to treatment technologies, and streamlines the effort of identifying technology development needs. To provide consistency, DOE has developed a standard methodology for categorizing waste into treatability groups based on three characteristic parameters: radiological, bulk physical/chemical form, and regulated contaminant. Based on category and component definitions in the methodology, descriptive codes or strings of codes are assigned under each parameter, resulting in a waste characterization amenable to a computerized format for query and sort functions. By using only the applicable parameters, this methodology can be applied to all waste types generated within the DOE complex: radioactive, hazardous, mixed, and sanitary/municipal. Implementation of this methodology will assist the individual sites and DOE Headquarters in analyzing waste management technology and facility needs

  13. Environmental assessment for the off-site volume reduction of low-level radioactive waste from the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1061) for the proposed off-site volume reduction of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  14. Off-site environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, R.F.; Black, S.C.; Dye, R.E.; Smith, D.D.; Thome, D.J.; Mullen, A.A.

    1986-04-01

    The EMSL-LV operates an Off-Site Radiological Safety Program around the NTS and other sites as requested by the Department of Energy (DOE) under an Interagency Agreement between DOE and EPA. This report, prepared in accordance with DOE guidelines (DOE85a), covers the program activities for calendar year 1985. It contains descriptions of pertinent features of the NTS and its environs, summaries of the EMSL-LV dosimetry and sampling methods, analytical procedures, quality assurance, and the analytical results from environmental measurements. Where applicable, dosimetry and sampling data are compared to appropriate guides for external and internal exposures of humans to ionizing radiation

  15. Offsite Source Recovery Program (OSRP) Workshop Module: Tianjin, China, July 16-July 17, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlton, Robert J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-11

    Recovering and disposal of radioactive sources that are no longer in service in their intended capacity is an area of high concern Globally. A joint effort to recover and dispose of such sources was formed between the US Department of Energy and the Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), in preparation for the 2008 Beijing Olympics. LANL involvement in this agreement continues today under the DOE-Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program. LANL will be presenting overview information on their Offsite Source Recovery (OSRP) and Source Disposal programs, in a workshop for the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) at Tianjin, China, on July 16 and 17, 2012.

  16. Public participation in a DOE national program: The mixed waste focus area's approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The authors describe the Mixed Waste Focus Area's approach to involving interested Tribal and public members in the mixed waste technology development process. Evidence is provided to support the thesis that the Focus Area's systems engineering process, which provides visible and documented requirements and decision criteria, facilitates effective Tribal and public participation. Also described is a status of Tribal and public involvement at three levels of Focus Area activities

  17. Design of simulation-based medical education and advantages and disadvantages of in situ simulation versus off-site simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jette Led; Østergaard, Doris; LeBlanc, Vicki

    2017-01-01

    that choice of setting for simulations does not seem to influence individual and team learning. Department-based local simulation, such as simulation in-house and especially in situ simulation, leads to gains in organisational learning. The overall objectives of simulation-based education and factors......BACKGROUND: Simulation-based medical education (SBME) has traditionally been conducted as off-site simulation in simulation centres. Some hospital departments also provide off-site simulation using in-house training room(s) set up for simulation away from the clinical setting, and these activities...... simulations. DISCUSSION: Non-randomised studies argue that in situ simulation is more effective for educational purposes than other types of simulation settings. Conversely, the few comparison studies that exist, either randomised or retrospective, show that choice of setting does not seem to influence...

  18. Does the Distribution of Efficiency Scores Depend on the Input Mix?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Leth Hougaard, Jens; Kronborg, Dorte

    for evaluating the test statistic are violated. Therefore, we propose to explore its statistical properties by the use of simulation studies. The simulations are performed conditional on the observed input mixes. The method, as shown here, is applicable for models with multiple inputs and one output......In this paper we examine the possibility of using the standard Kruskal-Wallis rank test in order to evaluate whether the distribution of efficiency scores resulting from Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is independent of the input (or output) mix. Recently, a general data generating process (DGP......) suiting the DEA methodology has been formulated and some asymptotic properties of the DEA estimators have been established. In line with this generally accepted DGP, we formulate a conditional test for the assumption of mix independence. Since the DEA frontier is estimated, many standardl assumptions...

  19. Does Mixed Reimbursement Schemes Affect Hospital Activity and Productivity? An Analysis of the Case of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Xenia Brun; Bech, Mickael; Jakobsen, Mads Leth

    2013-01-01

    literature with a deeper understanding of such mixed reimbursement systems as well as empirically by identifying key design factors that determines the incentives embedded in such a mixed model. Furthermore, we describe how incentives vary in different designs of the mixed reimbursement scheme and assess...... whether different incentives affects the performance of hospitals regarding activity and productivity differently. Information on Danish reimbursement schemes has been collected from documents provided by the regional governments and through interviews with regional administrations. The data cover...... the period from 2007-2010. A theoretical framework identified the key factors in an ABF/block grant model to be the proportion of the national Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG) tariff above and below a predefined production target (i.e. the baseline); baseline calculations; the presence of kinks...

  20. Importance ranking of various aspects of offsite radiological emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hockert, J.W.; Carter, T.F.

    1987-01-01

    Under contract to the Edison Electric Institute, IEAL developed a method to assess the relative importance of various aspects of offsite radiological emergency preparedness. The basic approach involved structuring the 35 objectives that the Federal Emergency Management Agency expects offsite emergency planners to demonstrate during nuclear power plant emergency preparedness exercises into a hierarchy based upon the emergency response capabilities they support. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was employed to derive the quantitative relative importance of each of the 35 objectives based upon its contribution to the overall capability of offsite agencies to assist in protecting public health and safety in the event of an emergency at a nuclear power plant. The judgments of a cross-section of state and local emergency planners, federal regulators, and intervenors were solicited to rank the 35 objectives

  1. Off-site emergency preparedness activities within the European Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, G.N.

    1998-01-01

    Increasing attention is being given by the European Commission to off-site emergency preparedness as part of its broader contribution to improving nuclear safety in Eastern Europe. The main initiatives being taken or planned by the Commission in this area are summarised. Particular attention is given to two topics: Firstly, the development of the RODOS (Real-time On-line DecisiOn Support) system for supporting off-site emergency management in the event of a nuclear accident; and, secondly, the work of an Inter-Service Group on nuclear Off-Site Emergency Preparedness (OSEP) in Eastern Europe that has been established within the Commission. The contribution that each is making to improving emergency preparedness, both in Eastern Europe and in Europe more widely, is described. (orig.)

  2. European commission contribution to improving off-site emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, G.N.

    1996-01-01

    Increasing attention is being given by the European Commission to off-site emergency preparedness as part of its broader contribution to improving nuclear safety in Eastern Europe. The main initiatives being taken or planned by the Commission in this area are summarized. Particular attention is given to two topics: firstly, the development of the RODOS (Real-time On-line Decision Support) system for supporting off-site emergency management in the event of a nuclear accident; and, secondly, the work of an Inter-Service Group on nuclear Off-Site Emergency Preparedness (OSEP) in Eastern Europe that has recently been established within the Commission. The contribution that each is making to improving emergency preparedness, both in Eastern Europe and in Europe more widely, is described

  3. A systematic process to foster development and implementation of an emerging technology for treating DOE's mixed and hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bench, J.; Carlson, T.; Carpenter, C.; Duray, J.; Walker, R.

    1992-01-01

    An innovative approach for the successful implementation of treatment technologies is presented in this paper. This approach, which could be used on any emerging restoration technology, is described through an example, the molten salt oxidation (MSO) process, that is currently being implemented by the U. S. Department of energy (DOE). MSO is being pursued by DOE because it appears to be a promising treatment technology for many of its hazardous and mixed wastes. MSO is a noncombustion process that is basically a combination of chemical and thermal treatments and can be used as both a primary and a secondary treatment (e. g. , as a dry scrubber to treat incinerator off gases). The molten salt technology provides waste minimization and separation capabilities and is competitive with incineration for certain types of wastes. MSO also has advantages that potentially make it more acceptable to regulatory agencies and the public

  4. Does case-mix based reimbursement stimulate the development of process-oriented care delivery?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, L.; Dückers, M.L.A.; Wagner, C.; Merode, G.G. van

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Reimbursement based on the total care of a patient during an acute episode of illness is believed to stimulate management and clinicians to reduce quality problems like waiting times and poor coordination of care delivery. Although many studies already show that this kind of case-mix

  5. Does case-mix based reimbursement stimulate the development of process-oriented care delivery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Leti; Dückers, Michel L A; Wagner, Cordula; van Merode, Godefridus G

    2010-11-01

    Reimbursement based on the total care of a patient during an acute episode of illness is believed to stimulate management and clinicians to reduce quality problems like waiting times and poor coordination of care delivery. Although many studies already show that this kind of case-mix based reimbursement leads to more efficiency, it remains unclear whether care coordination improved as well. This study aims to explore whether case-mix based reimbursement stimulates development of care coordination by the use of care programmes, and a process-oriented way of working. Data for this study were gathered during the winter of 2007/2008 in a survey involving all Dutch hospitals. Descriptive and structural equation modelling (SEM) analyses were conducted. SEM reveals that adoption of the case-mix reimbursement within hospitals' budgeting processes stimulates hospitals to establish care programmes by the use of process-oriented performance measures. However, the implementation of care programmes is not (yet) accompanied by a change in focus from function (the delivery of independent care activities) to process (the delivery of care activities as being connected to a chain of interdependent care activities). This study demonstrates that hospital management can stimulate the development of care programmes by the adoption of case-mix reimbursement within hospitals' budgeting processes. Future research is recommended to confirm this finding and to determine whether the establishment of care programmes will in time indeed lead to a more process-oriented view of professionals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Vitrification Studies with DOE Low-Level Mixed Waste Wastewater Treatment Sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero, C.A.; Andrews, M.K.; Bickford, D.F.; Hewlett, K.J.; Bennert, D.M.; Overcamp, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Vitrification studies with simulated Low Level Mixed Waste (LLMW) sludges were performed at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). These studies focused on finding the optimum glass compositions for four simulated LLMW wastewater treatment sludges and were based on both crucible-scale and pilot-scale studies. Optimum compositions were determined based on the maximum waste loading achievable without sacrificing glass integrity

  7. Does Bilingualism Have an Economic Value in the Ethnically Mixed Regions of Slovenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limon, David; Novak Lukanovic, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    The paper considers whether bilingualism has an economic value in Slovenia's two ethnically mixed regions, or whether its value is more related to identity, and restricted primarily to the personal, educational and cultural spheres. Specifically, it asks whether bilingualism is rewarded on the labour market and what local people think about this…

  8. Challenging the unipolar-bipolar division: does mixed depression bridge the gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzi, Franco

    2007-01-30

    Mixed states, i.e., opposite polarity symptoms in the same mood episode, question the categorical splitting of mood disorders in bipolar disorders and unipolar depressive disorders, and may support a continuum between these disorders. Study aim was to find if there were a continuum between hypomania (defining BP-II) and depression (defining MDD), by testing mixed depression as a 'bridge' linking these two disorders. A correlation between intradepressive hypomanic symptoms and depressive symptoms could support such a continuum, but other explanations of a correlation are possible. Consecutive 389 BP-II and 261 MDD major depressive episode (MDE) outpatients were interviewed, cross-sectionally, with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, the Hypomania Interview Guide (to assess intradepressive hypomanic symptoms) and the Family History Screen, by a mood disorders specialist psychiatrist in a private practice. Patients presented voluntarily for treatment of depression when interviewed drug-free and had many subsequent follow-ups after treatment start. Mixed depression (depressive mixed state) was defined as the combination of MDE (depression) and three or more DSM-IV intradepressive hypomanic symptoms (elevated mood and increased self-esteem were always absent by definition), a definition validated by Akiskal and Benazzi. BP-II, versus MDD, had significantly lower age at onset, more recurrences, atypical and mixed depressions, bipolar family history, MDE symptoms and intradepressive hypomanic symptoms. Mixed depression was present in 64.5% of BP-II and in 32.1% of MDD (p=0.000). There was a significant correlation between number of MDE symptoms and number of intradepressive hypomanic symptoms. A dose-response relationship between frequency of mixed depression and number of MDE symptoms was also found. Differences on classic diagnostic validators could support a division between BP-II and MDD. Presence of intradepressive hypomanic symptoms by itself, and

  9. Pathways for Off-site Corporate PV Procurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, Jenny S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-06

    Through July 2017, corporate customers contracted for more than 2,300 MW of utility-scale solar. This paper examines the benefits, challenges, and outlooks for large-scale off-site solar purchasing through four pathways: power purchase agreements, retail choice, utility partnerships (green tariffs and bilateral contracts with utilities), and by becoming a licensed wholesale seller of electricity. Each pathway differs based on where in the United States it is available, the value provided to a corporate off-taker, and the ease of implementation. The paper concludes with a discussion of future pathway comparison, noting that to deploy more corporate off-site solar, new procurement pathways are needed.

  10. Nuclear energy: Environmental issues at DOE's nuclear defense facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    GAO's review of nine Department of Energy defense facilities identified a number of significant environmental issues: (1) eight facilities have groundwater contaminated with radioactive and/or hazardous substances to high levels; (2) six facilities have soil contamination in unexpected areas, including offsite locations; (3) four facilities are not in full compliance with the Clean Water Act; and (4) all nine facilities are significantly changing their waste disposal practices to obtain a permit under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. GAO is recommending that DOE develop and overall groundwater and soil protection strategy that would provide a better perspective on the environmental risks and impacts associated with operating DOE's nuclear defense facilities. GAO also recommends that DOE allow outside independent inspections of the disposal practices used for any waste DOE self-regulates and revise its order governing the management of hazardous and mixed waste

  11. Closure of hazardous and mixed radioactive waste management units at DOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    This is document addresses the Federal regulations governing the closure of hazardous and mixed waste units subject to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements. It provides a brief overview of the RCRA permitting program and the extensive RCRA facility design and operating standards. It provides detailed guidance on the procedural requirements for closure and post-closure care of hazardous and mixed waste management units, including guidance on the preparation of closure and post-closure plans that must be submitted with facility permit applications. This document also provides guidance on technical activities that must be conducted both during and after closure of each of the following hazardous waste management units regulated under RCRA

  12. Off-site nuclear emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miska, H.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Urgent protective measures for the possibly affected population are the main items to be addressed here, that means actions to be planned and taken in the pre-release and release phase of a nuclear accident. Since we will focus an off-site nuclear emergency management, the utility or licensee only plays a subordinate role, but nevertheless may be the potential cause of all actions. At the other end, there is the possible affected population, the environment, and also economic values. Emergency preparedness and response aims at minimizing adverse effects from the power plant to the values to protect. In the early phase of an accident under consideration here, prompt and sharp actions are necessary to ensure efficacy. On the other hand, the available information on the situation is most limited in this phase such that pre-determined actions based on simple criteria are indispensable. The responsibility for early response actions normally rest with a regional authority which may have some county administrations at subordinate level. The leader of the regional staff has to decide upon protective measures to be implemented at county or municipal level; thus, coherence of the response is ensured at least at a regional level. The decision will be governed at the one side by the existing or predicted radiological situation, on the other side an practical limitations like availability of teams and means. The radiological situation has to be assessed by an advisory team that compiles all information from the utility, the weather conditions, and monitoring results. While the staff leader is experienced through response to major non-nuclear events, the advisors mainly come from the environmental side, having no experience in taking swift decisions in an emergency, but are used to control and prevent. This might be the source of conflicts as observed in several exercises. The radiation protection advisors collect information from the utility, especially about time

  13. LHCb: The LHCb off-Site HLT Farm Demonstration

    CERN Multimedia

    Liu, Guoming

    2012-01-01

    The LHCb High Level Trigger (HLT) farm consists of about 1300 nodes, which are housed in the underground server room of the experiment point. Due to the constraints of the power supply and cooling system, it is difficult to install more servers in this room for the future. Off-site computing farm is a solution to enlarge the computing capacity. In this paper, we will demonstrate the LHCb off-site HLT farm which locate in the CERN computing center. Since we use private IP addresses for the HLT farm, we would need virtual private network (VPN) to bridge both sites. There are two kinds of traffic in the event builder: control traffic for the control and monitoring of the farm and the Data Acquisition (DAQ) traffic. We adopt IP tunnel for the control traffic and Network Address Translate (NAT) for the DAQ traffic. The performance of the off-site farm have been tested and compared with the on-site farm. The effect of the network latency has been studied. To employ a large off-site farm, one of the potential bottle...

  14. 40 CFR 68.33 - Defining offsite impacts-environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Defining offsite impacts-environment. 68.33 Section 68.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... impacts—environment. (a) The owner or operator shall list in the RMP environmental receptors within a...

  15. Pesticide use and off-site risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide use and off-site risk assessment: a case study of glyphosate fate in Chinese Loess soil

    Xiaomei Yang

    Abstract: Repeated applications of pesticide may contaminate the soil and water, threatening their quality within the

  16. Monitoring the performance of off-site processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.C.

    1995-01-01

    Commercial nuclear power plants have been able to utilize the latest technologies and achieve large volume reduction by obtaining off-site waste processor services. Although the use of such services reduce the burden of waste processing it also reduces the utility's control over the process. Monitoring the performance of off-site processors is important so that the utility is cognizant of the waste disposition for required regulatory reporting. In addition to obtaining data for Reg Guide 1.21 reporting, Performance monitoring is important to determine which vendor and which services to utilize. Off-site processor services were initially offered for the decontamination of metallic waste. Since that time the list of services has expanded to include supercompaction, survey for release, incineration and metal melting. The number of vendors offering off-site services has increased and the services they offer vary. processing rates vary between vendors and have different charge bases. Determining which vendor to use for what service can be complicated and confusing

  17. 40 CFR 273.18 - Off-site shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Small Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste § 273.18... universal waste. (c) If a universal waste being offered for off-site transportation meets the definition of...

  18. 40 CFR 273.38 - Off-site shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....38 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Large Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste § 273.38... universal waste. (c) If a universal waste being offered for off-site transportation meets the definition of...

  19. 40 CFR 68.30 - Defining offsite impacts-population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Defining offsite impacts-population. 68.30 Section 68.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... impacts—population. (a) The owner or operator shall estimate in the RMP the population within a circle...

  20. DOE mixed waste metals partition in a rotary kiln wet off-gas system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.B.; Looper, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    In 1996, the Savannah River Site plans to begin operation of the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) to treat solid and liquid RCRA hazardous and mixed wastes. Test burns were conducted using surrogate CIF wastes spiked with hazardous metals and organics. The partition of metals between the kiln bottom ash, scrubber blowdown solution, and stack gas was measured as a function of kiln temperature, waste chloride content, and waste form (liquid or solid). Three waste simulants were used in these tests, a high and low chloride solid waste mix (paper, plastic, latex, PVC), and a liquid waste mix (benzene and chlorobenzene). An aqueous solution containing: antimony, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, nickel, silver, and thallium was added to the waste to determine metals fate under various combustion conditions. Test results were used to divide the metals into three general groups, volatile, semi-volatile, and nonvolatile metals. Mercury was the only volatile metal. No mercury remained in the kiln bottom ash under any incineration condition. Lead, cadmium, thallium, and silver exhibited semi-volatile behavior. The partition between the kiln ash, blowdown, and stack gas depended on incineration conditions. Chromium, nickel, barium, antimony, and arsenic exhibited nonvolatile behavior, with greater than 90 wt % of the metal remaining in the kiln bottom ash. Incineration temperature had a significant effect on the partition of volatile and semi-volatile metals, and no effect on nonvolatile metal partition. As incineration temperatures were increased, the fraction of metal leaving the kiln increased. Three metals, lead, cadmium, and mercury showed a relationship between chloride concentration in the waste and metals partition. Increasing the concentration of chlorides in the waste or burning liquid waste versus solid waste resulted in a larger fraction of metal exiting the kiln

  1. The Retrieval Knowledge Center Evaluation Of Low Tank Level Mixing Technologies For DOE High Level Waste Tank Retrieval 10516

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellinger, A.

    2009-01-01

    technology have proven to be difficult. Through the RKC, DOE-EM funded an evaluation of adaptable commercial technologies that could assist with the removal of the tank heels. This paper will discuss the efforts and results of developing the RKC to improve communications and discussion of tank waste retrieval through a series of meetings designed to identify technical gaps in retrieval technologies at the DOE Hanford and Savannah River Sites. This paper will also describe the results of an evaluation of commercially available technologies for low level mixing as they might apply to HLW tank heel retrievals.

  2. Planning, Coordinating, and Managing Off-Site Storage is an Area of Increasing, Professional Responsibility for Special Collections Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Goertzen

    2016-03-01

    two locations instead of one. Also, the integration of new workflows required additional oversight to ensure adequate control at all points of process. Static staffing levels and increased levels of responsibility impacted preservation and conservation activities as well. A central concern was the handling of materials by facility staff not trained as special collections professionals. In regard to the facilities themselves, a general concern was that commercial warehouses do not always provide the kind of environmental control systems recommended for storage of special collections materials. Of the total sample group, 12 participants (19% said their institution does not use off-site storage for special collections. When asked if this may occur in the future, four directors (33% said they anticipate off-site storage use within the next five years. Lack of space was listed as the primary motivation. Conclusion – Study findings provide evidence for what was previously known anecdotally: planning, coordinating, and managing off-site storage is a significant professional responsibility that will only grow in the future. As primary resources are integrated into research, teaching, and learning activities, the acquisition of special collections materials will continue to grow. Discussions regarding off-site storage workflows and strategic planning will continue as professionals seek compromises that meet the unique needs of acquisition, preservation, and public service.

  3. AGR steel corrosion monitoring schemes: progress on off-site testing of coupon specimens to end of 1985: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittle, I.; Meredith, M.E.

    1988-03-01

    Off-site Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor steel corrosion monitoring through experiments on mild steel coupon specimens is reported. The appearance of all mild steel coupons oxidised over the temperature range 375 to 450 0 C is consistent with what is expected for the appropriate silicon content, temperature and in the gas mixes used. Likewise, weight gain data from the tests is as expected and where linear (breakaway) oxidation kinetics are in evidence, measured rates are within one standard deviation of the mean oxidation rates predicted by the 1/R model. Also, data relating mean breakaway oxide thickness to weight gain is in good agreement with the currently recommended relationship of 1 mg cm -2 weight gain = 6.72 μm oxide thickness. The observed oxidation behaviour of the off-site mild steel coupons is consistent with the most recent design data. (author)

  4. Preliminary screening analysis of the off-site environment downstream of the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Hoffman, F.O.; Frank, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    Operations and waste disposal activities at the Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP), located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee, have introduced airborne, liquid, and solid wastes into the surrounding environment. Some of these wastes may affect off-site areas by entering local streams that ultimately drain into the Clinch River. Previously reported concentrations of radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds in water, sediment, and biota of the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir suggest the presence of contaminants of possible concern to the protection of human health and the environment. A preliminary screening was conducted of contaminants in the off-site surface water environments downstream of the DOE ORR. This screening analysis represents part of a scoping phase of the Clinch River Resource Conservation and Recovery Facilities Investigation (CRRFI). The purpose of this preliminary screening analysis is to use existing data on off-site contaminant concentrations to identify and prioritize potential contaminants of concern for further evaluation and investigation. The primary objective of this screening analysis is to ensure that CRRFI sampling and analysis efforts focus on those contaminants that may possibly contribute to human health or environmental risk. 8 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  5. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory response to the December 13, 1991, Congressional inquiry on offsite release of hazardous and solid waste containing radioactive materials from Department of Energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, C.; Garcia, K.M.; McMurtrey, C.D.; Williams, K.L.; Jordan, P.J.

    1992-05-01

    This report is a response to the December 13, 1991, Congressional inquiry that requested information on all hazardous and solid waste containing radioactive materials sent from Department of Energy facilities to offsite facilities for treatment or disposal since January 1, 1981. This response is for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Other Department of Energy laboratories are preparing responses for their respective operations. The request includes ten questions, which the report divides into three parts, each responding to a related group of questions. Part 1 answers Questions 5, 6, and 7, which call for a description of Department of Energy and contractor documentation governing the release of waste containing radioactive materials to offsite facilities. ''Offsite'' is defined as non-Department of Energy and non-Department of Defense facilities, such as commercial facilities. Also requested is a description of the review process for relevant release criteria and a list of afl Department of Energy and contractor documents concerning release criteria as of January 1, 1981. Part 2 answers Questions 4, 8, and 9, which call for information about actual releases of waste containing radioactive materials to offsite facilities from 1981 to the present, including radiation levels and pertinent documentation. Part 3 answers Question 10, which requests a description of the process for selecting offsite facilities for treatment or disposal of waste from Department of Energy facilities. In accordance with instructions from the Department of Energy, the report does not address Questions 1, 2, and 3

  6. Hiding an elephant: heavy sterile neutrino with large mixing angle does not contradict cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezrukov, F. [The University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Chudaykin, A.; Gorbunov, D., E-mail: Fedor.Bezrukov@manchester.ac.uk, E-mail: chudy@ms2.inr.ac.ru, E-mail: gorby@ms2.inr.ac.ru [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation)

    2017-06-01

    We study a model of a keV-scale sterile neutrino with a relatively large mixing with the Standard Model sector. Usual considerations predict active generation of such particles in the early Universe, which leads to constraints from the total Dark Matter density and absence of X-ray signal from sterile neutrino decay. These bounds together may deem any attempt of creation of the keV scale sterile neutrino in the laboratory unfeasible. We argue that for models with a hidden sector coupled to the sterile neutrino these bounds can be evaded, opening new perspectives for the direct studies at neutrino experiments such as Troitsk ν-mass and KATRIN. We estimate the generation of sterile neutrinos in scenarios with the hidden sector dynamics keeping the sterile neutrinos either massless or superheavy in the early Universe. In both cases the generation by oscillations from active neutrinos in plasma is suppressed.

  7. How does the Redi parameter for mesoscale mixing impact global climate in an Earth System Model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradal, Marie-Aude; Gnanadesikan, Anand

    2014-09-01

    A coupled climate model is used to examine the impact of an increase in the mixing due to mesoscale eddies on the global climate system. A sixfold increase in the Redi mixing coefficient ARedi, which is within the admissible range of variation, has the overall effect of warming the global-mean surface air and sea surface temperatures by more than 1°C. Locally, sea surface temperatures increase by up to 7°C in the North Pacific and by up to 4°C in the Southern Ocean, with corresponding impacts on the ice concentration and ice extent in polar regions. However, it is not clear that the changes in heat transport from tropics to poles associated with changing this coefficient are primarily responsible for these changes. We found that the changes in the transport of heat are often much smaller than changes in long-wave trapping and short-wave absorption. Additionally, changes in the advective and diffusive transport of heat toward the poles often oppose each other. However, we note that the poleward transport of salt increases near the surface as ARedi increases. We suggest a causal chain in which enhanced eddy stirring leads to increased high-latitude surface salinity reducing salt stratification and water column stability and enhancing convection, triggering two feedback loops. In one, deeper convection prevents sea ice formation, which decreases albedo, which increases SW absorption, further increasing SST and decreasing sea ice formation. In the other, increased SST and reduced sea ice allow for more water vapor in the atmosphere, trapping long-wave radiation. Destratifying the polar regions is thus a potential way in which changes in ocean circulation might warm the planet.

  8. Development of guidance for preparing treatability variance petitions from the RCRA Land Disposal Restrictions for DOE [Department of Energy] mixed-waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, T.; Scheuer, N.; Martin, R.; Van Epp, T.; Triplett, M.

    1990-01-01

    In response to the Department of Energy's (DOE) anticipated need for variances from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) treatment requirements, a treatability variance guidance document is being prepared for use by DOE facilities and operations offices. The guidance document, although applicable to non-mixed hazardous waste streams, provides specific guidance regarding radioactive mixed-waste streams. Preparation of the guidance manual has involved developing an overview of the Land Disposal Restrictions, as well as an overview of the petition preparation process. The DOE internal review requirements are specifically addressed in the manual. Specific data requirements and engineering analyses are also described. A discussion of EPA's criteria for granting a treatability variance is also provided. A checklist for completeness of the petition is provided. Model language for use in DOE treatability variance petitions will be provided in a petition for a DOE waste stream as an appendix to the document

  9. Application of DOE prescribed guides to the evaluation of Hanford's Mixed Low Level Solid Waste Treatment Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, B.F.; Nash, C.R.

    1994-10-01

    A recent Westinghouse Hanford Company report (WHC-SD-W100-ES-008, February, 1994), compared a Vitrification process to the WRAP-2A Grout/PE process for the treatment of Mixed Low Level Waste (MLLW). This comparison applied a limited scope numerical evaluation to compare technology complexity of the two processes, but focused primarily on capital and operating costs. The work reported here is supplementary to WHC-SD-Wl00-ES-008. It provides a record of the application of the more formal DOE-prescribed criteria (Treatment Selection Guides for Federal Facility Compliance Act Draft Site Treatment Plans) to the Vitrification and Grout/PE processes previously evaluated. Results of the evaluation favored the Grout/PE process by a weighted score of 83 to 78 over the Plasma arc vitrification process

  10. Commercial treatability study capabilities for application to the US Department of Energy`s anticipated mixed waste streams. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    US DOE mixed low-level and mixed transuranic waste inventory was estimated at 181,000 cubic meters (about 2,000 waste streams). Treatability studies may be used as part of DOE`s mixed waste management program. Commercial treatability study suppliers have been identified that either have current capability in their own facilities or have access to licensed facilities. Numerous federal and state regulations, as well as DOE Order 5820.2A, impact the performance of treatability studies. Generators, transporters, and treatability study facilities are subject to regulation. From a mixed- waste standpoint, a key requirement is that the treatability study facility must have an NRC or state license that allows it to possess radioactive materials. From a RCRA perspective, the facility must support treatability study activities with the applicable plans, reports, and documentation. If PCBs are present in the waste, TSCA will also be an issue. CERCLA requirements may apply, and both DOE and NRC regulations will impact the transportation of DOE mixed waste to an off-site treatment facility. DOE waste managers will need to be cognizant of all applicable regulations as mixed-waste treatability study programs are initiated.

  11. Application service provider (ASP) financial models for off-site PACS archiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratib, Osman M.; Liu, Brent J.; McCoy, J. Michael; Enzmann, Dieter R.

    2003-05-01

    For the replacement of its legacy Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (approx. annual workload of 300,000 procedures), UCLA Medical Center has evaluated and adopted an off-site data-warehousing solution based on an ASP financial with a one-time single payment per study archived. Different financial models for long-term data archive services were compared to the traditional capital/operational costs of on-site digital archives. Total cost of ownership (TCO), including direct and indirect expenses and savings, were compared for each model. Financial parameters were considered: logistic/operational advantages and disadvantages of ASP models versus traditional archiving systems. Our initial analysis demonstrated that the traditional linear ASP business model for data storage was unsuitable for large institutions. The overall cost markedly exceeds the TCO of an in-house archive infrastructure (when support and maintenance costs are included.) We demonstrated, however, that non-linear ASP pricing models can be cost-effective alternatives for large-scale data storage, particularly if they are based on a scalable off-site data-warehousing service and the prices are adapted to the specific size of a given institution. The added value of ASP is that it does not require iterative data migrations from legacy media to new storage media at regular intervals.

  12. MERCURY REMOVAL FROM DOE SOLID MIXED WASTE USING THE GEMEP(sm) TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-03-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), Metcalf and Eddy (M and E), in association with General Electric Corporate Research and Development Center (GE-CRD), Colorado Minerals Research Institute (CMRI), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), conducted laboratory-scale and bench-scale tests of the General Electric Mercury Extraction Process technology on two mercury-contaminated mixed solid wastes from U. S. Department of Energy sites: sediment from the East Fork of Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge (samples supplied by Oak Ridge National Laboratory), and drummed soils from Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL). Fluorescent lamps provided by GE-CRD were also studied. The GEMEP technology, invented and patented by the General Electric Company, uses an extraction solution composed of aqueous potassium iodide plus iodine to remove mercury from soils and other wastes. The extraction solution is regenerated by chemical oxidation and reused, after the solubilized mercury is removed from solution by reducing it to the metallic state. The results of the laboratory- and bench-scale testing conducted for this project included: (1) GEMEP extraction tests to optimize extraction conditions and determine the extent of co-extraction of radionuclides; (2) pre-screening (pre-segregation) tests to determine if initial separation steps could be used effectively to reduce the volume of material needing GEMEP extraction; and (3) demonstration of the complete extraction, mercury recovery, and iodine recovery and regeneration process (known as locked-cycle testing).

  13. Mixed incontinence: does preoperative urodynamic detrusor overactivity affect postoperative quality of life after pubovaginal sling?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T. Stoffel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine if women with mixed urinary incontinence (MUI and urodynamic detrusor overactivity (DO have less improvement in urinary symptoms after pubovaginal sling surgery (PVS, compared to MUI without DO. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Women with preoperative MUI symptoms prior to PVS were identified through retrospective review. DO was defined as a symptomatic 5 cm H20 detrusor pressure or greater rise during urodynamics. MUI patients with and without DO before PVS were divided into Groups A and B, respectively. All patients had returned a completed Urogenital Distress Inventory 6 (UDI-6 questionnaire and a 3-day diary of pad usage before surgery and at each postoperative visit. Study endpoints included change in total UDI-6 score, and change in number of pad use/day after PVS. RESULTS: 73 patients were identified, 31 in Group A and 42 in Group B. Mean follow-up after PVS was 15 and 16 months, respectively (p = 0.59. Preoperative total UDI-6 scores were 11.8 and 12.7 (p = 0.30 for Group A and B. Mean changes in total UDI-6 after PVS were - 8.0 and - 10.2 (p = 0.030, respectively. After PVS, both groups reported similar mean reduction in pad/day usage from preoperative baseline (-2.57 vs. --2.49, p = 0.83. There were no differences between the groups when comparing demographic, urodynamic, or operative data. CONCLUSION: MUI patients had improved continence and quality of life after PVS. However, MUI patients with DO had less improvement in UDI-6 scores after PVS, despite a similar reduction to pad use/day.

  14. An exposure assessment of radionuclide emissions associated with potential mixed-low level waste disposal facilities at fifteen DOE sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, D.A.; Socolof, M.L.

    1996-01-01

    A screening method was developed to compare the doses received via the atmospheric pathway at 15 potential DOE MLLW (mixed low-level waste) sites. Permissible waste concentrations were back calculated using the radioactivity NESHAP (National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants) in 40 FR 61 (DOE Order 5820.2A performance objective). Site-specific soil and meteorological data were used to determine permissible waste concentrations (PORK). For a particular radionuclide, perks for each site do not vary by more than one order of magnitude. perks of 14 C are about six orders of magnitude more restrictive than perks of 3 H because of differences in liquid/vapor partitioning, decay, and exposure dose. When comparing results from the atmospheric pathway to the water and intruder pathways, 14 C disposal concentrations were limited by the atmospheric pathway for most arid sites; for 3 H, the atmospheric pathway was not limiting at any of the sites. Results of this performance evaluation process are to be used for planning for siting of disposal facilities

  15. The Y-12 Plant No Rad-Added Program for off-site shipment of nonradioactive hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, K.H.; Mattie, B.K.; Williams, J.L.; Jacobs, D.G.; Roberts, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    On May 17, 1991, the US Department of Energy (DOE) issued a directive for DOE operations to cease off-site shipments of non-radioactive hazardous waste pending further clarification and approvals. A DOE Performance Objective for Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous Waste was issued in November 1991. In response to these directives, the Waste Management Division of Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, with assistance from Roy F. Weston, Inc., has developed a No Rad-Added Program to provide small programmatic guidance and a set of procedures, approved by DOE, which will permit hazardous waste to be shipped from the Y-12 Plant to commercial treatment, storage, or disposal facilities after ensuring and certifying that hazardous waste has no radioactivity added as a result of DOE operations. There are serious legal and financial consequences of shipping waste containing radioactivity to an off-site facility not licensed to receive radioactive materials. Therefore, this program is designed with well-defined responsibilities and stringent documentation requirements

  16. Dungeness Power Station off-site emergency plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This off-site Emergency Plan in the event of an accidental release of radioactivity at the Dungeness Nuclear power station sets out the necessary management and coordination processes between Nuclear Electric, operators of the site, the emergency services and relevant local authorities. The objectives promoting the aim are identified and the activities which will be undertaken to protect the public and the environment in the event of an emergency are outlined. (UK)

  17. Assessment of off-site consequences of nuclear accidents (MARIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    A brief report is given of a workshop held in Luxembourg in 1985 on methods for assessing the off-site radiological consequences of nuclear accidents (MARIA). The sessions included topics such as atmospheric dispersion; foodchain transfer; urban contamination; demographic and land use data; dosimetry, health effects, economic and countermeasures models; uncertainty analysis; and application of probabilistic risk assessment results as input to decision aids. (U.K.)

  18. Offsite testing in support of the Salt Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalia, H.N.

    1987-04-01

    This report presents a rationale and recommendation to perform an offsite testing program in support of the Salt Repository Project. The investigation to be performed primarily consists of qualifying test methods and procedures, qualifying personnel-training procedures, evaluating test instruments and selected equipment, and obtaining mining and production equipment performance-related information. The key objective of these activities is to develop capabilities to be used at the exploratory shaft facility (ESF). The ESF is to be excavated at the Deaf Smith County site to characterize the salt site for the construction of a repository used to isolate radioactive waste from the biosphere. The bulk of the offsite testing work will be performed at Avery Island Salt Mine at New Iberia, Lousiana. Additional knowledge will be obtained by exchanging technical information either as participants or as observers at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site and the Asse Mine in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). It is estimated that the offsite testing program will cost approximately $9.3 million over 4 fiscal years. 14 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs

  19. Planning and exercise experiences related to an off-site nuclear emergency in Canada: the federal component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    The Canadian Government's Federal Nuclear Emergency Response Plan (off-site) (FNERP) was issued in 1984. In this plan, a nuclear emergency is defined as an emergency involving the release of radionuclides but does not include the use of nuclear weapons against North America. Because of the federal nature of Canada and its large area, special considerations are required for the plan to cover both the response to nuclear emergencies where the national government has primary responsibility and to provincial requests for assistance where the federal response becomes secondary to the provincial. The nuclear emergencies requiring the implementation of this plan are: (a) an accident in the nuclear energy cycle in Canada with off-site implications; (b) an accident in the nuclear energy cycle in another country which may affect Canada; (c) nuclear weapons testing with off-site implications which may affect Canada; and (d) nuclear-powered devices impacting on Canadian territory. Each emergency requires a separate sub-plan and usually requires different organizations to respond. Some scenarios are described. The Department of National Health and Welfare has established a Federal Nuclear Emergency Control Centre (FNECC). The FNECC participated in September 1985 in an exercise involving a nuclear reactor facility in the Province of Ontario and the experience gained from this activity is presented. The FNECC co-operates with its counterparts in the United States of America through a nuclear emergency information system and this network is also described. (author)

  20. Conceptual Design Report: Nevada Test Site Mixed Waste Disposal Facility Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Environmental cleanup of contaminated nuclear weapons manufacturing and test sites generates radioactive waste that must be disposed. Site cleanup activities throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex are projected to continue through 2050. Some of this waste is mixed waste (MW), containing both hazardous and radioactive components. In addition, there is a need for MW disposal from other mission activities. The Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision designates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as a regional MW disposal site. The NTS has a facility that is permitted to dispose of onsite- and offsite-generated MW until November 30, 2010. There is not a DOE waste management facility that is currently permitted to dispose of offsite-generated MW after 2010, jeopardizing the DOE environmental cleanup mission and other MW-generating mission-related activities. A mission needs document (CD-0) has been prepared for a newly permitted MW disposal facility at the NTS that would provide the needed capability to support DOE's environmental cleanup mission and other MW-generating mission-related activities. This report presents a conceptual engineering design for a MW facility that is fully compliant with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and DOE O 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management'. The facility, which will be located within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the NTS, will provide an approximately 20,000-cubic yard waste disposal capacity. The facility will be licensed by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)

  1. Fructose intervention for 12 weeks does not impair glycemic control or incretin hormone responses during oral glucose or mixed meal tests in obese men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matikainen, N; Söderlund, S; Björnson, E

    2017-01-01

    were measured during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and triglycerides (TG), GLP-1, GIP and PYY during a mixed meal test before and after fructose intervention. Fructose intervention did not worsen glucose and insulin responses during OGTT, and GLP-1 and GIP responses during OGTT and fat-rich meal...... responses during OGTT or GLP-1, GIP or PYY responses during a mixed meal. Therefore, fructose intake, even accompanied with mild weight gain, increases in liver fat and worsening of postprandial TG profile, does not impair glucose tolerance or gut incretin response to oral glucose or mixed meal challenge....

  2. 40 CFR 1400.9 - Access to off-site consequence analysis information by State and local government officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Access to off-site consequence... CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION Access to Off-Site Consequence Analysis Information by Government Officials. § 1400.9 Access to off-site consequence analysis...

  3. 40 CFR 1400.8 - Access to off-site consequence analysis information by Federal government officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Access to off-site consequence... MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS UNDER THE CLEAN AIR ACT SECTION 112(r)(7); DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION Access to Off-Site Consequence Analysis...

  4. Does It Mix?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennon, J. Tillman; Fong, Bryant; Grippo, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This article describes how by using three points to make a line and comparing the graphs for water and oil, students can mathematically demonstrate that Gatorade dissolves in water much more readily than in oil. Students can also use units to understand and solve a multi-step problem by observing the color of each solution, making conductivity…

  5. Cost-effectiveness of reduction of off-site dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, J.J.; Macphee, R.; Arbeau, N.; Miskin, J.; Scott, C.K.; Winters, E.

    1988-03-01

    Since the early 1970's, nuclear power plants have been designed and operated with a target of not releasing more than one percent of the licensed limits (derived emission limits) in liquid and gaseous effluents. The AECB initiated this study of the cost-effectiveness of the reduction of off-site doses as part of a review to determine if further measures to reduce off-site doses might be reasonably achievable. Atlantic Nuclear has estimated the cost of existing technology options that can be applied for a further reduction of radioactive effluents from future CANDU nuclear power plants. Detritiation, filtration, ion exchange and evaporation are included in the assessment. The costs are presented in 1987 Canadian dollars, and include capital and operating costs for a reference 50 year plant life. Darlington NGS and Point Lepreau NGS are the reference nuclear power plant types and locations. The effect resulting from the hypothetical application of each technology has been calculated as the resulting reduction in world collective radiation dose detriment. The CSA N288.1 procedure was used for local pathway analysis and the global dispersion model developed by the NEA (OECD) group of experts was used for dose calculations. The reduction in the 'collective effective dose equivalent commitment' was assumed to exist for 10,000 years, the expected life-span of solid waste repositories. No attempt was made to model world population dynamics. The collective dose reductions were calculated for a nominal world population of 10 billion persons. The estimated cost and effect of applying the technology options are summarized in a tabular form for input to further consideration of 'reasonably achievable off-site dose levels'

  6. Overview of Nevada Test Site Radioactive and Mixed Waste Disposal Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carilli, J.T.; Krenzien, S.K.; Geisinger, R.G.; Gordon, S.J.; Quinn, B.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Environmental Management Program is responsible for carrying out the disposal of on-site and off-site generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and low-level radioactive mixed waste (MW) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Core elements of this mission are ensuring safe and cost-effective disposal while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. This paper focuses on the impacts of new policies, processes, and opportunities at the NTS related to LLW and MW. Covered topics include: the first year of direct funding for NTS waste disposal operations; zero tolerance policy for non-compliant packages; the suspension of mixed waste disposal; waste acceptance changes; DOE Consolidated Audit Program (DOECAP) auditing; the 92-Acre Area closure plan; new eligibility requirements for generators; and operational successes with unusual waste streams

  7. Principles of off-site nuclear emergency exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miska, H.

    2011-01-01

    Due to high safety standards at nuclear power plants, no experience exits with nuclear emergencies in Western Europe. Thus, emergency exercises are the only possibility to assure effective protective measures should the very unlikely severe accident occur. The main objectives of exercises are generally the check of response plans for suitability, the test of the equipment's applicability and training of personnel for the unusual task to manage a nuclear emergency. After an introduction into the different types of exercises, this contribution focuses on offsite nuclear emergency exercises, explaining frame conditions to ensure good practice and, finally, reports some experience from exercises. (orig.)

  8. Effect of source term composition on offsite doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karahalios, P.; Gardner, R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of new realistic accident source terms has identified the need to establish a basis for comparing the impact of such source terms. This paper attempts to develop a generalized basis of comparison by investigating contributions to offsite acute whole body doses from each group of radionuclides being released to the atmosphere, using CRAC2. The paper also investigates the effect of important parameters such as regional meteorology, sheltering, and duration of release. Finally, the paper focuses on significant changes in the relative importance of individual radionuclide groups in PWR2, SST1, and a revision of the Stone and Webster proposed interim source term

  9. Extensive management of field margins enhances their potential for off-site soil erosion mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hamada E; Reineking, Björn

    2016-03-15

    Soil erosion is a widespread problem in agricultural landscapes, particularly in regions with strong rainfall events. Vegetated field margins can mitigate negative impacts of soil erosion off-site by trapping eroded material. Here we analyse how local management affects the trapping capacity of field margins in a monsoon region of South Korea, contrasting intensively and extensively managed field margins on both steep and shallow slopes. Prior to the beginning of monsoon season, we equipped a total of 12 sites representing three replicates for each of four different types of field margins ("intensive managed flat", "intensive managed steep", "extensive managed flat" and "extensive managed steep") with Astroturf mats. The mats (n = 15/site) were placed before, within and after the field margin. Sediment was collected after each rain event until the end of the monsoon season. The effect of management and slope on sediment trapping was analysed using linear mixed effects models, using as response variable either the sediment collected within the field margin or the difference in sediment collected after and before the field margin. There was no difference in the amount of sediment reaching the different field margin types. In contrast, extensively managed field margins showed a large reduction in collected sediment before and after the field margins. This effect was pronounced in steep field margins, and increased with the size of rainfall events. We conclude that a field margin management promoting a dense vegetation cover is a key to mitigating negative off-site effects of soil erosion in monsoon regions, particularly in field margins with steep slopes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Off-site preparedness and nuclear-power-plant licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, S.W.

    1983-01-01

    The first year and a half in which off-site emergency preparedness issues have been litigated before the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards of the NRC have surfaced unique problems of proof for the applicant as well as the staff. These problems seem to be abating as the boards and the parties become more comfortable with the field and its issues, and as FEMA-NRC emergency management expertise gains credibility. Emergency preparedness presentations have also improved as the parties have become more sensitive to the seasonality of the preparedness case, and have increasingly attempted to raise it at a time when a fully developed set of facts is available for the record. Off-site preparedness issues are only now beginning to be raised on appeal to the NRC appeals board, the full commission, and the courts. Helpful guidance on what constitutes an adequate record in this area will undoubtedly be forthcoming in decisions handed down by these bodies in the months ahead

  11. Off-site nuclear emergency exercises in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiji, U.; Kiyoshi, T.; Masao, O.; Shigeru, F.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear emergency planning and preparedness in Japan have been organized by both national and local governments based on the Disaster Countermeasures Basic Act. Off-site nuclear emergency exercises are classified into two types: national-government level exercises and local-government level exercises. National-government level exercises are carried out once a year by the competent national authorities. Among these authorities, the Science and Technology Agency (STA) fills a leading position in the Japanese nuclear emergency planning and preparedness. Local-government level exercises are carried out once a year or once in a few years by the local governments of the prefectures where nuclear facilities are located. Most of the off-site nuclear emergency exercises in Japan are performed by local-governments. The aim of these exercises is to reinforce the skills of the emergency staff. The national government (STA etc.) provides advices and assistance including financial support to the local-governments. Emergency exercises with the participation of residents have been carried out in some local-governments. As an example of local-government level exercises, an experience in Shizuoka prefecture (central part of Japan) is presented

  12. Insights into Architects’ Future Roles in Off-Site Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianing Luo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Today’s construction industry is overflowing with new ideas about its future. Off-Site Manufacture and Construction (OSCM is at the heart of the modern construction industry. Much has been written about the state and context of OSCM in different countries regarding its perceived benefits and barriers to implementation. Off-site production (OSP plays an important role in improving fragmented construction processes. Although most OSP research targets the attitudes and practices of OSP adoption, there is limited understanding of the philosophical issues underpinning OSP-related architecture. The roles of the architects’ personal philosophies are neglected and this hampers their implementation of OSCM (which has had a largely technical focus. This paper explores the traditional thinking patterns of architects in China and predicts possible future roles for them. It then conceptualizes an “architectural work” mode and a “building product” mode of design and construction and identifies the shortcomings of architects in an OSCM environment. The arguments made are based on practitioners’ perceptions and the first author’s practical experiences of leading several real-life projects in recent years. The findings reveal the implications and significance of the transformation from an “architectural work” mode to a “building product” mode. We foresee a study approach that focuses on the order and rules for OSCM, resulting in architects’ existing mindsets being changed to thinking patterns and design methodologies better suited to OSCM.

  13. Why does self-reported emotional intelligence predict job performance? A meta-analytic investigation of mixed EI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Dana L; Jin, Jing; Newman, Daniel A; O'Boyle, Ernest H

    2015-03-01

    Recent empirical reviews have claimed a surprisingly strong relationship between job performance and self-reported emotional intelligence (also commonly called trait EI or mixed EI), suggesting self-reported/mixed EI is one of the best known predictors of job performance (e.g., ρ = .47; Joseph & Newman, 2010b). Results further suggest mixed EI can robustly predict job performance beyond cognitive ability and Big Five personality traits (Joseph & Newman, 2010b; O'Boyle, Humphrey, Pollack, Hawver, & Story, 2011). These criterion-related validity results are problematic, given the paucity of evidence and the questionable construct validity of mixed EI measures themselves. In the current research, we update and reevaluate existing evidence for mixed EI, in light of prior work regarding the content of mixed EI measures. Results of the current meta-analysis demonstrate that (a) the content of mixed EI measures strongly overlaps with a set of well-known psychological constructs (i.e., ability EI, self-efficacy, and self-rated performance, in addition to Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, Extraversion, and general mental ability; multiple R = .79), (b) an updated estimate of the meta-analytic correlation between mixed EI and supervisor-rated job performance is ρ = .29, and (c) the mixed EI-job performance relationship becomes nil (β = -.02) after controlling for the set of covariates listed above. Findings help to establish the construct validity of mixed EI measures and further support an intuitive theoretical explanation for the uncommonly high association between mixed EI and job performance--mixed EI instruments assess a combination of ability EI and self-perceptions, in addition to personality and cognitive ability. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. 13 CFR 120.1025 - Off-site reviews and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Off-site reviews and monitoring. 120.1025 Section 120.1025 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Risk-Based Lender Oversight Supervision § 120.1025 Off-site reviews and monitoring. SBA may conduct off...

  15. 40 CFR 1400.5 - Internet access to certain off-site consequence analysis data elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... consequence analysis data elements. 1400.5 Section 1400.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... UNDER THE CLEAN AIR ACT SECTION 112(r)(7); DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION Public Access § 1400.5 Internet access to certain off...

  16. System transient response to loss of off-site power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sozer, A.

    1990-01-01

    A simultaneous trip of the reactor, main circulation pumps, secondary coolant pumps, and pressurizer pump due to loss of off-site power at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been analyzed to estimate available safety margin. A computer model based on the Modular Modeling System code has been used to calculate the transient response of the system. The reactor depressurizes from 482.7 psia down to about 23 psia in about 50 seconds and remains stable thereafter. Available safety margin has been estimated in terms of the incipient boiling heat flux ratio. It is a conservative estimate due to assumed less than available primary and secondary flows and higher than normal depressurization rate. The ratio indicates no incipient boiling conditions at the hot spot. No potential damage to the fuel is likely to occur during this transient. 2 refs., 6 figs

  17. Off-site emergency planning in Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prouza, Z.; Drabova, D.

    1996-01-01

    In the Czech Republic, the NPP Dukovany - PWR 440/213-type (4 blocks) is currently in operation (from 1985) and NPP Temelin - PWR 1000 (2 blocks) is under construction. Radiation accident on the NPP is defined as an unexpected or unintentional event in a facility with a potential of off-site consequences. The principles of emergency planning in Czech Republic now are based on the philosophy and principles described in the ICRP Publication 40 and the IAEA Safety Series No. 55, 72, and includes already the post Chernobyl experiences. Nevertheless, Czech Republic legislation experiences an extensive reconstruction. The Atomic Act, which will be based from point of view the structure, philosophy and principles on new International Basic Safety Standards, already being elaborated. That acts and related laws should solve our legislative problems on field of emergency planning and preparedness

  18. Examination of offsite emergency protective measures for core melt accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrich, D.C.; McGrath, P.E.; Ericson, D.M. Jr.; Jones, R.B.; Rasmussen, N.C.

    Evacuation, sheltering followed by population relocation, and iodine prophylaxis are evaluated as offsite public protective measures in response to potential nuclear reactor accidents involving core-melt. Evaluations were conducted using a modified version of the Reactor Safety Study consequence model. Models representing each protective measure were developed and are discussed. Potential PWR core-melt radioactive material releases are separated into two categories, ''Melt-through'' and ''Atmospheric,'' based upon the mode of containment falure. Protective measures are examined and compared for each category in terms of projected doses to the whole body and thyroid. Measures for ''Atmospheric'' accidents are also examined in terms of their influence on the occurrence of public health effects

  19. A unique manual method for emergency offsite dose calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildner, T.E.; Carson, B.H.; Shank, K.E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a manual method developed for performance of emergency offsite dose calculations for PP and L's Susquehanna Steam Electric Station. The method is based on a three-part carbonless form. The front page guides the user through selection of the appropriate accident case and inclusion of meteorological and effluent data data. By circling the applicable accident descriptors, the user circles the dose factors on pages 2 and 3 which are then simply multiplied to yield the whole body and thyroid dose rates at the plant boundary, two, five, and ten miles. The process used to generate the worksheet is discussed, including the method used to incorporate the observed terrain effects on airflow patterns caused by the Susquehanna River Valley topography

  20. Using a Consensus Conference to Characterize Regulatory Concerns Regarding Bioremediation of Radionuclides and Heavy Metals in Mixed Waste at DOE Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denise Lach; Stephanie Sanford

    2006-01-01

    A consensus workshop was developed and convened with ten state regulators to characterize concerns regarding emerging bioremediation technology to be used to clean-up radionuclides and heavy metals in mixed wastes at US DOE sites. Two questions were explored: integrated questions: (1) What impact does participation in a consensus workshop have on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of state regulators regarding bioremediation technology? (2) How effective is a consensus workshop as a strategy for eliciting and articulating regulators concerns regarding the use of bioremediation to clean up radionuclides and heavy metals in mixed wastes at U.S. Department of Energy Sites around the county? State regulators met together for five days over two months to learn about bioremediation technology and develop a consensus report of their recommendations regarding state regulatory concerns. In summary we found that panel members: quickly grasped the science related to bioremediation and were able to effectively interact with scientists working on complicated issues related to the development and implementation of the technology; are generally accepting of in situ bioremediation, but concerned about costs, implementation (e.g., institutional controls), and long-term effectiveness of the technology; are concerned equally about technological and implementation issues; and believed that the consensus workshop approach to learning about bioremediation was appropriate and useful. Finally, regulators wanted decision makers at US DOE to know they are willing to work with DOE regarding innovative approaches to clean-up at their sites, and consider a strong relationship between states and the DOE as critical to any effective clean-up. They do not want perceive themselves to be and do not want others to perceive them as barriers to successful clean-up at their sites

  1. Study on the operational guides of the off-site emergency management center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Won Jong; Han, S. J.; Oh, K. H.

    2005-01-01

    The emergency response organizational groups and roles of Off-site Emergency Management Center was proposed to respond in case of radiological emergency. Development of implementing procedures of Off-site Emergency Management Center in case of radiological emergency to improve effective co-operation and rapid response in radiological emergency. Establishment of 'The Ordinance of Operation of residence radiological emergency office of the Minister of Science and Technology' and announced by the Minister of Science and Technology. The Implementing procedures of Off-site Emergency Management Center and 'The Ordinance of Operation of residence radiological emergency office of the Minister of Science and Technology' can be provide guidelines in case of emergency

  2. Comparative analysis of DOE Order 5820.2A, NRC, and EPA radioactive and mixed waste management requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    As directed by DOE-Headquarters and DOE-Idaho, the Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program (TSP) drafted an analysis of DOE Order 5820. 2A on ''Radioactive Waste Management'' to develop guidelines and criteria for revising the Order. This comparative matrix is a follow up to the earlier analysis. This matrix comparing the requirements of DOE Order 5820.2A with Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations was prepared at the request of EM-30. The matrix compares DOE Order 5820.2A with the following: NRC regulations in 10 CFR Part 61 on ''Licensing Requirements for Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste''; NRC regulations in 10 CFR Part 60 on ''Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste in Geologic Repositories''; EPA regulations in 40 CFR Part 191 on ''Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Waste''; EPA regulations in 40 FR Part 192 on ''Health and Environmental Protection Standards for Uranium and Thorium Mill Tailing''; and EPA regulations under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

  3. Off-site protective action selection for nuclear reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weerakkody, S.D.

    1986-01-01

    A computer program based upon a model using a rational theoretical basis was developed to select appropriate off-site protective actions during nuclear reactor accidents. The special features of this program include (a) introduction of a precursor concept that uses the history of the accident progression to determine the spectrum of potential accident scenarios and estimates of the likelihoods of each accident scenario; (b) use of statistical decision theory and the concept of entropy of a spectrum to select the appropriate protective actions using either the minimax principle or the Bayes action method; and (c) introduction of methods to quantify evacuation travel risks. In order to illustrate the usefulness of the computer program, it was applied at three stages of the Three Mile Island accident scenario. Quantified non-radiological risks of evaluation have been used to establish dose thresholds below which evacuations are not justified. Using the Poisson analysis for evacuation risks and the absolute L-L BEIR model for radiation risk suggests 330 mrems as a reasonable value for this threshold. The usefulness of the program in developing a technical basis to select the size of the plume exposure pathway emergency planning zone (EPZ) is discussed. Quantified evacuation risks, cost, and the current rationale upon which the EPZ is based, justify an EPZ between 5-10 miles for WASH-1400 source-terms

  4. Decision support for off-site emergency preparedness in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, G.N.; Ehrhardt, J.

    1996-01-01

    The decision support system, RODOS, for off-site emergency management in the event of a future accident is being developed with support from the European Commission. The development is being carried out within a large and fully integrated international project involving about forty institutes from sixteen countries in Eastern and Western Europe. RODOS has been designed to provide comprehensive (i.e. applicable at all distances, at all times and to all important countermeasures) decision support and to be applicable throughout Europe. The background to the development of RODOS is described in this paper together with its basic features, its current status and plans for its further development. Given the context of this Special Issue, particular attention is given to the contribution made by institutes in the former Soviet Union to the development of RODOS and plans for its implementation in these countries. The benefits of the system are increasingly being recognised following the completion of the pilot version in 1995. Of particular importance is its potential role as part of a wider European network, the existence of which would promote a more effective and coherent response to any future nuclear accident that might affect Europe. (Author)

  5. White paper on possible inclusion of mixed plutonium-uranium oxides in DOE-STD-3013-96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haschke, J.M.; Venetz, T.; Szempruch, R.; McClard, J.W.

    1997-11-01

    This report assesses stabilization issues concerning mixed plutonium-uranium oxides containing 50 mass % Pu. Possible consequences of uranium substitution on thermal stabilization, specific surface areas, moisture readsorption behavior, loss-on-ignition analysis, and criticality safety of the oxide are examined and discussed

  6. AMCO Off-Site Air Monitoring Polygons, Oakland CA, 2017, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This feature class was developed to support the AMCO Chemical Superfund Site air monitoring process and depicts a single polygon layer, Off-Site Air Monitors,...

  7. 24 CFR 242.47 - Insured advances for building components stored off-site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Construction § 242.47 Insured advances... only for components stored off-site in a quantity required to permit uninterrupted installation at the...

  8. Operating experience feedback on lose of offsite power supply for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Feng; Hou Qinmai; Che Shuwei

    2013-01-01

    The function of the service power system of a nuclear power plant is to provide safe and reliable power supply for the nuclear power plant facilities. The safety of nuclear power plant power supply is essential for nuclear safety. The serious accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant occurred due to loss of service power and the ultimate heat sink. The service power system has two independent offsite power supplies as working power and auxiliary power. This article collected events of loss of offsite power supply in operating nuclear power plants at home and abroad, and analyzed the plant status and cause of loss of offsite power supply events, and proposed improvement measures for dealing with loss of offsite power supply. (authors)

  9. AMCO Off-Site Air Monitoring Map Service, Oakland CA, 2017, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service contains a single layer: Off-Site Air Monitors. The layer draws at all scales. Full FGDC metadata for the layer may be found by clicking the layer...

  10. Research from Afar: Considerations for Conducting an Off-Site Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Reg Arthur; Hagerty, Bonnie M.; Hoyle, Kenneth; Yousha, Steven M.; Abdoo, Yvonne; Andersen, Curt; Engler, Dorothy

    1999-01-01

    Critical elements in the success of off-site research projects include the following: negotiation, attention to personnel issues, communication, participation of research subjects, data management, and concern for privacy issues. (SK)

  11. Analysis of HFETR shut-down state caused by loss of off-site power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinghu

    1997-01-01

    During the last 15 years, there are more than 40 unplanned shut-downs caused by loss of off-site power in HFETR. Because HFETR is a special research reactor, the author describes the shut-down state as three period. The author also discusses the influence of the number of shut-down due to loss of off-site power supply on the reactor safety, and propose some suggestions and measures to reduce the effects

  12. A mixed diet supplemented with l-arabinose does not alter glycaemic or insulinaemic responses in healthy human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halschou-Jensen, Kia; Knudsen, Knud E Bach; Nielsen, Soren

    2015-01-01

    of the present study showed that the peak plasma concentration, time to reach peak plasma concentration or AUC values of glucose, insulin and C-peptide were not altered after consumption of the test meals. Overall, it was not possible to reproduce the beneficial effects of L-arabinose added to sucrose drinks...... effects on postprandial blood glucose, insulin and C-peptide responses in humans. However, the effects of adding L-arabinose to mixed meals on the indices of glucose control are unknown. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the positive effects of L-arabinose added to a sugar drink...... could be reproduced in subjects consuming a mixed meal containing sucrose and/or starch from wheat flour. A total of seventeen healthy men participated in study 1, a randomised, double-blind, cross-over trial. In this study, the subjects consumed two different breakfast meals containing sucrose...

  13. Scoping evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of hazardous metals in mixed low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruebel, M.M.; Waters, R.D.; Langkopf, B.S.

    1997-05-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a scoping evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of the hazardous metals in mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Eight hazardous metals were evaluated: arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, and silver. The analysis considered transport only through the groundwater pathway. The results are reported as site-specific estimates of maximum concentrations of each hazardous metal in treated mixed low-level waste that do not exceed the performance measures established for the analysis. Also reported are site-specific estimates of travel times of each hazardous metal to the point of compliance

  14. The effect of UV radiation on photosynthesis in an Antarctic diatom (Thalassiosira sp.): does vertical mixing matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernando, Marcelo P.; Ferreyra, Gustavo A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The reduction of the Antarctic stratospheric ozone resulted in significant increases in ultraviolet B radiation (UVBR, 280-320 nm) reaching the surface of the ocean. A series of laboratory and field experiments were conducted at Potter Cove (25 de Mayo Is., South Shetland Is., Antarctica) to study the effects of UVBR on photosynthesis of a typical Antarctic bloom forming diatom (Thalassiosira sp.) in fixed and moving incubations. There were three irradiance treatments: PART (with only photosynthetic active radiation, PAR, 400- 700 nm), UVAT (with PAR and ultraviolet A radiation, UVAR, 320-400 nm) and UVBT (with PAR, UVAR and UVBR). The three treatments were incubated in the field and laboratory with a solar simulator (SOLSI) in fixed frames at 0.5 and 5 m depth (S fix and B fix , respectively), while for the moving incubations were done within 6 h cycles (Mix). Considering the field and laboratory pooled data, results suggest an overall 45-50 % photosynthesis inhibition of S fix incubations in relation with Mix ones. During SOLSI experiments no significant differences were found between irradiance treatments under normal and medium ozone concentrations. Under low ozone conditions, a 40 % reduction in photosynthesis was observed in the UVBT for S fix . In contrast, no significant differences were observed between the irradiance treatments for Mix. Field experiment showed results similar to the laboratory ones, but in this case not only S fix but Mix incubations presented a significant reduction in photosynthesis under low ozone. The differences between laboratory and field experiments are discussed in terms of the relative significance of UVBR dose and dose rate on both types of experiments. (author)

  15. Does having the right visitor mix do the job? Applying an econometric shift-share model to regional tourism developments

    OpenAIRE

    Firgo, Matthias; Fritz, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the first to apply an econometric shift-share model to tourism. The approach allows us to isolate the growth contributions of changes in regional touristic attractiveness from those induced by the structure of visitors, but does not share the caveats of the conventional shift-share approach. Our application to regional tourism in Austria reveals important results: First, differences in long-run performance between regions are mostly related to idiosyncratic changes in the touris...

  16. Average Stand Age from Forest Inventory Plots Does Not Describe Historical Fire Regimes in Ponderosa Pine and Mixed-Conifer Forests of Western North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens T Stevens

    Full Text Available Quantifying historical fire regimes provides important information for managing contemporary forests. Historical fire frequency and severity can be estimated using several methods; each method has strengths and weaknesses and presents challenges for interpretation and verification. Recent efforts to quantify the timing of historical high-severity fire events in forests of western North America have assumed that the "stand age" variable from the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA program reflects the timing of historical high-severity (i.e. stand-replacing fire in ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests. To test this assumption, we re-analyze the dataset used in a previous analysis, and compare information from fire history records with information from co-located FIA plots. We demonstrate that 1 the FIA stand age variable does not reflect the large range of individual tree ages in the FIA plots: older trees comprised more than 10% of pre-stand age basal area in 58% of plots analyzed and more than 30% of pre-stand age basal area in 32% of plots, and 2 recruitment events are not necessarily related to high-severity fire occurrence. Because the FIA stand age variable is estimated from a sample of tree ages within the tree size class containing a plurality of canopy trees in the plot, it does not necessarily include the oldest trees, especially in uneven-aged stands. Thus, the FIA stand age variable does not indicate whether the trees in the predominant size class established in response to severe fire, or established during the absence of fire. FIA stand age was not designed to measure the time since a stand-replacing disturbance. Quantification of historical "mixed-severity" fire regimes must be explicit about the spatial scale of high-severity fire effects, which is not possible using FIA stand age data.

  17. Analysis of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of residuals from the treatment of mixed low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.; Langkopf, B.S.; Kuehne, P.B.

    1997-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has stored or expects to generate over the next five years more than 130,000 m 3 of mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Before disposal, MLLW is usually treated to comply with the land disposal restrictions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Depending on the type of treatment, the original volume of MLLW and the radionuclide concentrations in the waste streams may change. These changes must be taken into account in determining the necessary disposal capacity at a site. Treatment may remove the characteristic in some waste that caused it to be classified as mixed. Treatment of some waste may, by reduction of the mass, increase the concentrations of some transuranic radionuclides sufficiently so that it becomes transuranic waste. In this report, the DOE MLLW streams were analyzed to determine after-treatment volumes and radionuclide concentrations. The waste streams were reclassified as residual MLLW or low-level or transuranic waste resulting from treatment. The volume analysis indicated that about 89,000 m 3 of waste will require disposal as residual MLLW. Fifteen DOE sites were then evaluated to determine their capabilities for hosting disposal facilities for some or all of the residual MLLW. Waste streams associated with about 90% of the total residual MLLW volume are likely to present no significant issues for disposal and require little additional analysis. Future studies should focus on the remaining waste streams that are potentially problematic by examining site-specific waste acceptance criteria, alternative treatment processes, alternative waste forms for disposal, and pending changes in regulatory requirements

  18. Average Stand Age from Forest Inventory Plots Does Not Describe Historical Fire Regimes in Ponderosa Pine and Mixed-Conifer Forests of Western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jens T; Safford, Hugh D; North, Malcolm P; Fried, Jeremy S; Gray, Andrew N; Brown, Peter M; Dolanc, Christopher R; Dobrowski, Solomon Z; Falk, Donald A; Farris, Calvin A; Franklin, Jerry F; Fulé, Peter Z; Hagmann, R Keala; Knapp, Eric E; Miller, Jay D; Smith, Douglas F; Swetnam, Thomas W; Taylor, Alan H

    Quantifying historical fire regimes provides important information for managing contemporary forests. Historical fire frequency and severity can be estimated using several methods; each method has strengths and weaknesses and presents challenges for interpretation and verification. Recent efforts to quantify the timing of historical high-severity fire events in forests of western North America have assumed that the "stand age" variable from the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program reflects the timing of historical high-severity (i.e. stand-replacing) fire in ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests. To test this assumption, we re-analyze the dataset used in a previous analysis, and compare information from fire history records with information from co-located FIA plots. We demonstrate that 1) the FIA stand age variable does not reflect the large range of individual tree ages in the FIA plots: older trees comprised more than 10% of pre-stand age basal area in 58% of plots analyzed and more than 30% of pre-stand age basal area in 32% of plots, and 2) recruitment events are not necessarily related to high-severity fire occurrence. Because the FIA stand age variable is estimated from a sample of tree ages within the tree size class containing a plurality of canopy trees in the plot, it does not necessarily include the oldest trees, especially in uneven-aged stands. Thus, the FIA stand age variable does not indicate whether the trees in the predominant size class established in response to severe fire, or established during the absence of fire. FIA stand age was not designed to measure the time since a stand-replacing disturbance. Quantification of historical "mixed-severity" fire regimes must be explicit about the spatial scale of high-severity fire effects, which is not possible using FIA stand age data.

  19. Spent nuclear fuel characterization for a bounding reference assembly for the receiving basin for off-site fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahook, S.D.; Garrett, R.L.; Canas, L.R.

    1995-01-01

    A basis for interim operation 1 (BIO) for the receiving basin for off-site fuel (RBOF) facility at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River site nuclear materials production complex has been developed in accordance to draft DOE-STD-0019-93 (Ref. 2). The latter document requires a hazard categorization per DOE-STD-1027-92 (Ref. 3) for the safety analysis portion of the BIO. This classification places the facility in one of three categories as defined in DOE 5480.23 (Ref. 4) per the total radioactivity, which can be released during an accident. The diversity of spent nuclear fuels stored in the RBOF made an exacting assessment of the total radioactive inventory virtually impossible. This restriction led to a conservative calculation based on the concept of a hypothetical bounding reference fuel assembly (RFA) integrated over the total capacity of the facility. The RFA is derived from a systematic ranking of the real assemblies (current and expected) according to a maximum burnup criterion. The indicated scheme is not only simple but precluded a potential delay in the completion of the BIO

  20. Does mixed-species flocking influence how birds respond to a gradient of land-use intensity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammides, Christos; Chen, Jin; Goodale, Uromi Manage; Kotagama, Sarath Wimalabandara; Sidhu, Swati; Goodale, Eben

    2015-07-22

    Conservation biology is increasingly concerned with preserving interactions among species such as mutualisms in landscapes facing anthropogenic change. We investigated how one kind of mutualism, mixed-species bird flocks, influences the way in which birds respond to different habitat types of varying land-use intensity. We use data from a well-replicated, large-scale study in Sri Lanka and the Western Ghats of India, in which flocks were observed inside forest reserves, in 'buffer zones' of degraded forest or timber plantations, and in areas of intensive agriculture. We find flocks affected the responses of birds in three ways: (i) species with high propensity to flock were more sensitive to land use; (ii) different flock types, dominated by different flock leaders, varied in their sensitivity to land use and because following species have distinct preferences for leaders, this can have a cascading effect on followers' habitat selection; and (iii) those forest-interior species that remain outside of forests were found more inside flocks than would be expected by chance, as they may use flocks more in suboptimal habitat. We conclude that designing policies to protect flocks and their leading species may be an effective way to conserve multiple bird species in mixed forest and agricultural landscapes. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Criteria for preparation and evaluation of radiological emergency response plans and preparedness in support of nuclear power plants: Criteria for utility offsite planning and preparedness: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podolak, E.M. Jr.; Sanders, M.E.; Wingert, V.L.; Donovan, R.W.

    1988-09-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) have added a supplement to NUREG-0654/FEMA-REP-1, Rev. 1 that provides guidance for the development, review, and evaluation of utility offsite radiological emergency response planning and preparedness for those situations in which state and/or local governments decline to participate in emergency planning. While this guidance primarily applies to plants that do not have full-power operating licenses, it does have relevance to operating nuclear power plants

  2. Final environmental impact statement for the Nevada Test Site and off-site locations in the State of Nevada. American Indian Assessments. Volume 1, Appendix G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The Native American Resource Document is a summary of opinions expressed by the Consolidated Group of Tribes and Organizations (CGTO) regarding the Environmental Impact Statement for the Nevada Test Site and Other Off-Site Locations within the State of Nevada (NTS EIS). The document contains (a) general concerns regarding long-term impacts of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) operations on the NTS and (b) a synopsis of specific comments made by the American Indian Writers Subgroup (AIWS) for various chapters of the NTS EIS. The Native American Resource Document was produced in response to consultation required for the NTS EIS, in accordance with DOE Order 1230.2, American Indian Tribal Government Policy. The consultation focused specifically on four alternative management decisions concerning the future mission of the NTS and related off-site locations in Nevada. However, the present CGTO's response to this consultation is not limited to EIS alternatives, but also integrates relevant recommendations made by Indian people for previous DOE projects in which American Indians participated

  3. 10 years and 20,000 sources: the offsite source recovery project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitworth, Julia R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Abeyta, Cristy L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pearson, Michael W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) Offsite Source Recovery Project (OSRP) has been recovering excess and unwanted sealed sources for ten years. In January 2009, GTRI announced that the project had recovered 20,000 sealed radioactive sources. This project grew out of early efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to recover and disposition excess Plutonium-239 (Pu-239) sealed sources that were distributed in the 1960s and 1970s under the Atoms for Peace Program. Sealed source recovery was initially considered a waste management activity, as evidenced by its initial organization under the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Environmental Management (EM) program. After the terrorist attacks of 2001, however, the interagency community began to recognize the threat posed by excess and unwanted radiological material, particularly those that could not be disposed at the end of their useful life. After being transferred to the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to be part of GTRI, OSRP's mission was expanded to include not only material that would be classified as Greater-than-Class-C (GTCC) when it became waste, but also any other materials that might be a 'national security consideration.' This paper discusses OSRP's history, recovery operations, expansion to accept high-activity beta-gamma-emitting sealed sources and devices and foreign-possessed sources, and more recent efforts such as cooperative projects with the Council on Radiation Control Program Directors (CRCPD) and involvement in GTRI's Search and Secure project. Current challenges and future work will also be discussed.

  4. On-Site or Off-Site Renewable Energy Supply Options?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2012-01-01

    The concept of a Net Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) encompasses two options of supplying renewable energy, which can offset energy use of a building, in particular on-site or off-site renewable energy supply. Currently, the on-site options are much more popular than the off-site; however, taking...... into consideration the limited area of roof and/or façade, primarily in the dense city areas, the Danish weather conditions, the growing interest and number of wind turbine co-ops, the off-site renewable energy supply options could become a meaningful solution for reaching ‘zero’ energy goal in the Danish context...... five technologies, i.e., two on-site options: (1) photovoltaic, (2) micro combined heat and power, and three off-site options: (1) off-site windmill, (2) share of a windmill farm and (3) purchase of green energy from the 100% renewable utility grid. The results indicate that in case of the on...

  5. User's Manual for RESRAD-OFFSITE Version 2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C.; Gnanapragasam, E.; Biwer, B. M.; Kamboj, S.; Cheng, J. -J.; Klett, T.; LePoire, D.; Zielen, A. J.; Chen, S. Y.; Williams, W. A.; Wallo, A.; Domotor, S.; Mo, T.; Schwartzman, A.; Environmental Science Division; DOE; NRC

    2007-09-05

    The RESRAD-OFFSITE code is an extension of the RESRAD (onsite) code, which has been widely used for calculating doses and risks from exposure to radioactively contaminated soils. The development of RESRAD-OFFSITE started more than 10 years ago, but new models and methodologies have been developed, tested, and incorporated since then. Some of the new models have been benchmarked against other independently developed (international) models. The databases used have also expanded to include all the radionuclides (more than 830) contained in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) 38 database. This manual provides detailed information on the design and application of the RESRAD-OFFSITE code. It describes in detail the new models used in the code, such as the three-dimensional dispersion groundwater flow and radionuclide transport model, the Gaussian plume model for atmospheric dispersion, and the deposition model used to estimate the accumulation of radionuclides in offsite locations and in foods. Potential exposure pathways and exposure scenarios that can be modeled by the RESRAD-OFFSITE code are also discussed. A user's guide is included in Appendix A of this manual. The default parameter values and parameter distributions are presented in Appendix B, along with a discussion on the statistical distributions for probabilistic analysis. A detailed discussion on how to reduce run time, especially when conducting probabilistic (uncertainty) analysis, is presented in Appendix C of this manual.

  6. In-plant considerations for optimal offsite response to reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, R.P.; Heising, C.D.; Aldrich, D.C.

    1982-11-01

    Offsite response decision-making methods based on in-plant conditions are developed for use during severe reactor-accident situations. Dose projections are used to eliminate all LWR plant systems except the reactor core and the spent-fuel storage pool from consideration for immediate offsite emergency response during accident situations. A simple plant information-management scheme is developed for use in offsite response decision-making. Detailed consequence calculations performed with the CRAC2 model are used to determine the appropriate timing of offsite-response implementation for a range of PWR accidents involving the reactor core. In-plant decision criteria for offsite-response implementation are defined. The definition of decision criteria is based on consideration of core-accident physical processes, in-plant accident monitoring information, and results of consequence calculations performed to determine the effectiveness of various public-protective measures. The benefits and negative aspects of the proposed response-implementation criteria are detailed

  7. Responses of Mixed-Phase Cloud Condensates and Cloud Radiative Effects to Ice Nucleating Particle Concentrations in NCAR CAM5 and DOE ACME Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Shi, Y.; Wu, M.; Zhang, K.

    2017-12-01

    Mixed-phase clouds frequently observed in the Arctic and mid-latitude storm tracks have the substantial impacts on the surface energy budget, precipitation and climate. In this study, we first implement the two empirical parameterizations (Niemand et al. 2012 and DeMott et al. 2015) of heterogeneous ice nucleation for mixed-phase clouds in the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model Version 5 (CAM5) and DOE Accelerated Climate Model for Energy Version 1 (ACME1). Model simulated ice nucleating particle (INP) concentrations based on Niemand et al. and DeMott et al. are compared with those from the default ice nucleation parameterization based on the classical nucleation theory (CNT) in CAM5 and ACME, and with in situ observations. Significantly higher INP concentrations (by up to a factor of 5) are simulated from Niemand et al. than DeMott et al. and CNT especially over the dust source regions in both CAM5 and ACME. Interestingly the ACME model simulates higher INP concentrations than CAM5, especially in the Polar regions. This is also the case when we nudge the two models' winds and temperature towards the same reanalysis, indicating more efficient transport of aerosols (dust) to the Polar regions in ACME. Next, we examine the responses of model simulated cloud liquid water and ice water contents to different INP concentrations from three ice nucleation parameterizations (Niemand et al., DeMott et al., and CNT) in CAM5 and ACME. Changes in liquid water path (LWP) reach as much as 20% in the Arctic regions in ACME between the three parameterizations while the LWP changes are smaller and limited in the Northern Hemispheric mid-latitudes in CAM5. Finally, the impacts on cloud radiative forcing and dust indirect effects on mixed-phase clouds are quantified with the three ice nucleation parameterizations in CAM5 and ACME.

  8. Does routinely collected patient-reported outcome data represent the actual case-mix of elective coronary revascularization patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oinasmaa, Salla; Heiskanen, Jari; Hartikainen, Juha; Hippeläinen, Mikko; Miettinen, Heikki; Martikainen, Janne; Roine, Risto P; Tolppanen, Anna-Maija

    2018-04-01

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are valuable for effectiveness evaluation, but it is unknown whether the patient views obtained represent the actual case mix. We studied the representativeness of the responses obtained to a routinely administered health-related quality of life (HRQoL) questionnaire in a cardiology unit. Elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG; n = 404) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI; n = 738) patients operated during June 2012 to August 2014 in the Heart Center, Kuopio University Hospital. The characteristics of the patients with a baseline (n = 260 and 290 for CABG and PCI, respectively) or both baseline and follow-up HRQoL measurements (n = 203 and 189 for CABG and PCI, respectively) were compared with those who did not respond (n = 144 and 448 for CABG and PCI). Baseline questionnaires were less likely obtained from older CABG patients (odds ratio 0.51, 95% confidence interval 0.28-0.91) and those with more severe disease (0.20, 0.05-0.79). Among PCI patients, women (0.64, 0.45-0.91), smokers (0.74, 0.53-1.04), and those with more severe disease (0.26, 0.13-0.52) or more hospital days were underrepresented. Routinely collected PROs in cardiac patients may be biased towards younger and healthier patients. This needs to be recognized when evaluating the representativeness of such data. The routine collection of these data should be adequately resourced.

  9. Processing mixed-waste compressed-gas cylinders at the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.I.; Conley, T.B.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.

    1998-05-01

    Until recently, several thousand kilograms of compressed gases were stored at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, because these cylinders could not be taken off-site in their state of configuration for disposal. Restrictions on the storage of old compressed-gas cylinders compelled the Waste Management Organization of Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES) to dispose of these materials. Furthermore, a milestone in the ORR Site Treatment Plan required repackaging and shipment off-site of 21 cylinders by September 30, 1997. A pilot project, coordinated by the Chemical Technology Division (CTD) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), was undertaken to evaluate and recontainerize or neutralize these cylinders, which are mixed waste, to meet that milestone. Because the radiological component was considered to be confined to the exterior of the cylinder, the contents (once removed from the cylinder) could be handled as hazardous waste, and the cylinder could be handled as low-level waste (LLW). This pilot project to process 21 cylinders was important because of its potential impact. The successful completion of the project provides a newly demonstrated technology which can now be used to process the thousands of additional cylinders in inventory across the DOE complex. In this paper, many of the various aspects of implementing this project, including hurdles encountered and the lessons learned in overcoming them, are reported

  10. "How long does it take?" A mixed methods evaluation of computer-related work in GP consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, James; Buckingham, Susan; Thomson, Fionagh; Milne, Heather; Sheikh, Aziz; Fernando, Bernard; Cresswell, Kathrin; Williams, Robin; Pinnock, Hilary

    2015-12-24

    Systematic reviews have suggested that time spent on computer-related tasks increases consultation length. However, these reviews pre-date the current ubiquitous use of computers in U.K. general practice. As part of a U.K. national study of the influence of information technology (IT) on the interaction between patients and healthcare professionals during consultations, we explored how IT functions affected time allocation and styles of computer use during general practitioner (GP) consultations. We drew on multichannel video recording of consultations and measured consultation phases and the duration of computer-related tasks. We related measures of actual time to GP's interpretation of computer use elicited in qualitative interviews. Our sample included recordings of 112 consultations from 6 GPs in three practices. The computer was used for about one-third of the greater consultation. However, its use was concentrated pre- and post- the patient consultation. The workflow of consultation was exemplified through six computer use cases. Most functionality was accepted and accommodated within the consultation, though disruptive and time-consuming tasks were generally delegated to administrative staff. Recognised styles of computer use (minimal, block and conversational) were apparent, but applied very flexibly by GPs according to the nature of the consultation. In contrast to earlier reports, contemporary computer use does not appear to have lengthened consultations. GPs adopted different styles of computer use in different consultations, challenging classifications that seek to stereotype GP computer use. Designing systems that support this versatility require an understanding of the fluid application of computer use within consultation structure.

  11. Using RFID to Enhance Security in Off-Site Data Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Carmona, Miguel A.; Marsa-Maestre, Ivan; de la Hoz, Enrique; Velasco, Juan R.

    2010-01-01

    Off-site data storage is one of the most widely used strategies in enterprises of all sizes to improve business continuity. In medium-to-large size enterprises, the off-site data storage processes are usually outsourced to specialized providers. However, outsourcing the storage of critical business information assets raises serious security considerations, some of which are usually either disregarded or incorrectly addressed by service providers. This article reviews these security considerations and presents a radio frequency identification (RFID)-based, off-site, data storage management system specifically designed to address security issues. The system relies on a set of security mechanisms or controls that are arranged in security layers or tiers to balance security requirements with usability and costs. The system has been successfully implemented, deployed and put into production. In addition, an experimental comparison with classical bar-code-based systems is provided, demonstrating the system’s benefits in terms of efficiency and failure prevention. PMID:22163638

  12. Using RFID to enhance security in off-site data storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Carmona, Miguel A; Marsa-Maestre, Ivan; de la Hoz, Enrique; Velasco, Juan R

    2010-01-01

    Off-site data storage is one of the most widely used strategies in enterprises of all sizes to improve business continuity. In medium-to-large size enterprises, the off-site data storage processes are usually outsourced to specialized providers. However, outsourcing the storage of critical business information assets raises serious security considerations, some of which are usually either disregarded or incorrectly addressed by service providers. This article reviews these security considerations and presents a radio frequency identification (RFID)-based, off-site, data storage management system specifically designed to address security issues. The system relies on a set of security mechanisms or controls that are arranged in security layers or tiers to balance security requirements with usability and costs. The system has been successfully implemented, deployed and put into production. In addition, an experimental comparison with classical bar-code-based systems is provided, demonstrating the system's benefits in terms of efficiency and failure prevention.

  13. Savannah River Site mixed waste Proposed Site Treatment Plan (PSTP). Volumes 1 and 2 and reference document: Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmich, E.; Noller, D.K.; Wierzbicki, K.S.; Bailey, L.L.

    1995-01-01

    The DOE is required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act to prepare site treatment plans describing the development of treatment capacities and technologies for treating mixed waste. This proposed plan contains Savannah River Site's preferred options and schedules for constructing new facilities, and otherwise obtaining treatment for mixed wastes. The proposed plan consists of 2 volumes. Volume 1, Compliance Plan, identifies the capacity to be developed and the schedules as required. Volume 2, Background, provides a detailed discussion of the preferred options with technical basis, plus a description of the specific waste streams. Chapters are: Introduction; Methodology; Mixed low level waste streams; Mixed transuranic waste; High level waste; Future generation of mixed waste streams; Storage; Process for evaluation of disposal issues in support of the site treatment plans discussions; Treatment facilities and treatment technologies; Offsite waste streams for which SRS treatment is the Preferred Option (Naval reactor wastes); Summary information; and Acronyms and glossary. This revision does not contain the complete revised report, but only those pages that have been revised

  14. Adequate technologies for wireless real-time dose rate monitoring for off-site emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dielmann, R.; Buerkin, W.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: What are the requirements for off-site gamma dose rate monitoring systems? What are the pros and cons of available communication technologies? This report gives an overview of modern communication techniques and their applicability for reliable real-time data acquisition as basis for off-site nuclear emergency management. The results of three years operating experience with a wireless gamma dose rate monitoring system, installed around the NPPs of KURSK, KALININ and BALAKOVA (Russia) in the year 2000, are shown. (author)

  15. COCO-1: model for assessing the cost of offsite consequences of accidental releases of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, S.M.; Robinson, C.A.; Heady, C.

    1991-09-01

    This report describes a new model, called COCO-1 (Cost Of Consequences Offsite), for assessing the offsite economic consequences of an accident involving the release of radioactive material. The costs calculated are a measure of the benefit foregone as a result of the accident, and in addition to tangible monetary costs the model attempts to include costs arising from the effect of the accident on individuals, for instance the disruption caused by the loss of homes. The approach has limitations, which are discussed, but offers a broadly applicable and robust technique for estimating the economic impact of most accidents. (author)

  16. Survey of commercial firms with mixed-waste treatability study capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFee, J.; McNeel, K.; Eaton, D.; Kimmel, R.

    1996-01-01

    According to the data developed for the Proposed Site Treatment Plans, the US Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low-level and mixed transuranic waste inventory was estimated at 230,000 m 3 and embodied in approximately 2,000 waste streams. Many of these streams are unique and may require new technologies to facilitate compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act disposal requirements. Because most waste streams are unique, a demonstration of the selected technologies is justified. Evaluation of commercially available or innovative technologies in a treatability study is a cost-effective method of providing a demonstration of the technology and supporting decisions on technology selection. This paper summarizes a document being prepared by the Mixed Waste Focus Area of the DOE Office of Science and Technology (EM-50). The document will provide DOE waste managers with a list of commercial firms (and universities) that have mixed-waste treatability study capabilities and with the specifics regarding the technologies available at those facilities. In addition, the document will provide a short summary of key points of the relevant regulations affecting treatability studies and will compile recommendations for successfully conducting an off-site treatability study. Interim results of the supplier survey are tabulated in this paper. The tabulation demonstrates that treatment technologies in 17 of the US Environmental Protection Agency's technology categories are available at commercial facilities. These technologies include straightforward application of standard technologies, such as pyrolysis, as well as proprietary technologies developed specifically for mixed waste. The paper also discusses the key points of the management of commercial mixed-waste treatability studies

  17. Offsite source recovery project - ten years of sealed source recovery and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitworth, Julia Rose [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pearson, Mike [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Witkowski, Ioana [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wald - Hopkins, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cuthbertson, A [NNSA

    2010-01-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) Offsite Source Recovery Project (OSRP) has been recovering excess and unwanted radioactive sealed sources for ten years. In January 2009, GTRI announced that the project had recovered 20,000 sealed radioactive sources (this number has since increased to more than 23,000). This project grew out of early efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to recover and disposition excess Plutonium-239 (Pu-239) sealed sources that were distributed in the 1960s and 1970s under the Atoms for Peace Program. Decades later, these sources began to exceed their special form certifications or fall out of regular use. As OSRP has collected and stored sealed sources, initially using 'No Path Forward' waste exemptions for storage within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, it has consistently worked to create disposal pathways for the material it has recovered. The project was initially restricted to recovering sealed sources that would meet the definition of Greater-than-Class-C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste, assisting DOE in meeting its obligations under the Low-level Radioactive Waste Policy Act Amendments (PL 99-240) to provide disposal for this type of waste. After being transferred from DOE-Environmental Management (EM) to the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to be part of GTRI, OSRP's mission was expanded to include not only material that would be classified as GTCC when it became waste, but also any other materials that might constitute a 'national security consideration.' It was recognized at the time that the GTCC category was a waste designation having to do with environmental consequence, rather than the threat posed by deliberate or accidental misuse. The project faces barriers to recovery in many areas, but disposal continues to be one of the more difficult to overcome. This paper discusses OSRP's disposal efforts over its 10-year history. For sources

  18. 40 CFR 1400.3 - Public access to paper copies of off-site consequence analysis information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-site consequence analysis information. 1400.3 Section 1400.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PROGRAMS UNDER THE CLEAN AIR ACT SECTION 112(r)(7); DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION Public Access § 1400.3 Public access to...

  19. Design of simulation-based medical education and advantages and disadvantages of in situ simulation versus off-site simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorensen, J.L.; Ostergaard, D.; Leblanc, V.; Ottesen, B.; Konge, L.; Dieckmann, P.; Vleuten, C. van der

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Simulation-based medical education (SBME) has traditionally been conducted as off-site simulation in simulation centres. Some hospital departments also provide off-site simulation using in-house training room(s) set up for simulation away from the clinical setting, and these activities

  20. Losses of off-site power at U.S. nuclear power plants -- through 1995. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyckoff, H.

    1996-04-01

    This report provides a database and summary analysis of losses of off-site power at US nuclear generating units. It includes the 16 years 1980 through 1995. This is the twelfth update of this database and analysis. During 1994 there were no losses of all off-site power and in 1995 only two short losses. Both the short term and long term US loss of all off-site power experience is extremely favorable. The frequency of losing all off-site power is an important input to many nuclear plant safety assessments. The industry's loss of all off-site power experience that is set forth in this report can provide perspective to plant specific probabilistic safety assessments

  1. Low-level radioactive waste management: transitioning to off-site disposal at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorries, Alison M.

    2010-01-01

    Facing the closure of nearly all on-site management and disposal capability for low-level radioactive waste (LLW), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is making ready to ship the majority of LLW off-site. In order to ship off-site, waste must meet the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility's (TSDF) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). In preparation, LANL's waste management organization must ensure LANL waste generators characterize and package waste compliantly and waste characterization documentation is complete and accurate. Key challenges that must be addressed to successfully make the shift to off-site disposal of LLW include improving the detail, accuracy, and quality of process knowledge (PK) and acceptable knowledge (AK) documentation, training waste generators and waste management staff on the higher standard of data quality and expectations, improved WAC compliance for off-site facilities, and enhanced quality assurance throughout the process. Certification of LANL generators will allow direct off-site shipping of LLW from their facilities.

  2. Off-site training of laparoscopic skills, a scoping review using a thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinggaard, Ebbe; Kleif, Jakob; Bjerrum, Flemming; Strandbygaard, Jeanett; Gögenur, Ismail; Matthew Ritter, E; Konge, Lars

    2016-11-01

    The focus of research in simulation-based laparoscopic training has changed from examining whether simulation training works to examining how best to implement it. In laparoscopic skills training, portable and affordable box trainers allow for off-site training. Training outside simulation centers and hospitals can increase access to training, but also poses new challenges to implementation. This review aims to guide implementation of off-site training of laparoscopic skills by critically reviewing the existing literature. An iterative systematic search was carried out in MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, Scopus, and PsychINFO, following a scoping review methodology. The included literature was analyzed iteratively using a thematic analysis approach. The study was reported in accordance with the STructured apprOach to the Reporting In healthcare education of Evidence Synthesis statement. From the search, 22 records were identified and included for analysis. A thematic analysis revealed the themes: access to training, protected training time, distribution of training, goal setting and testing, task design, and unsupervised training. The identified themes were based on learning theories including proficiency-based learning, deliberate practice, and self-regulated learning. Methods of instructional design vary widely in off-site training of laparoscopic skills. Implementation can be facilitated by organizing courses and training curricula following sound education theories such as proficiency-based learning and deliberate practice. Directed self-regulated learning has the potential to improve off-site laparoscopic skills training; however, further studies are needed to demonstrate the effect of this type of instructional design.

  3. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, S.C.; Grossman, R.F.; Mullen, A.A.; Potter, G.D.; Smith, D.D.

    1983-07-01

    A principal activity of the Offsite Radiological Safety Program is routine environmental monitoring for radioactive materials in various media and for radiation in areas which may be affected by nuclear tests. It is conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends, and to provide information to the public. This report summarizes these activities for CY 1982

  4. 40 CFR 300.440 - Procedures for planning and implementing off-site response actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... unless the Remedial Project Manager or OSC assures the proper management of the CERCLA waste samples or... OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Hazardous Substance Response § 300.440... § 300.440(d). (5) Off-site transfers of those laboratory samples and treatability study CERCLA wastes...

  5. Online Decision Support System (IRODOS) - an emergency preparedness tool for handling offsite nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinod Kumar, A.; Oza, R.B.; Chaudhury, P.; Suri, M.; Saindane, S.; Singh, K.D.; Bhargava, P.; Sharma, V.K.

    2009-01-01

    A real time online decision support system as a nuclear emergency response system for handling offsite nuclear emergency at the Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) has been developed by Health, Safety and Environment Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) under the frame work of 'Indian Real time Online Decision Support System 'IRODOS'. (author)

  6. A Bookless Library, Part I: Relocating Print Materials to Off-Site Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Bethany B.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the feasibility of a bookless library in a research setting. As spaces for collections are being converted for increased study and community spaces, many libraries have been moving low-use collections to off-site storage. Issues regarding the types of storage spaces available are addressed. Concerns and…

  7. Application of GIS in prediction and assessment system of off-site accident consequence for NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xingyu; Shi Zhongqi

    2002-01-01

    The assessment and prediction software system of off-site accident consequence for Guangdong Nuclear Power Plant (GNARD2.0) is a GIS-based software system. The spatial analysis of radioactive materials and doses with geographic information is available in this system. The structure and functions of the GNARD system and the method of applying ArcView GIS are presented

  8. Evolution of Onsite and Offsite Power Systems in US Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, Roy K.

    2015-01-01

    The AC electric power system is the source of power for station auxiliaries during normal operation and for the reactor protection system and emergency safety features during abnormal and accident conditions. Since the construction of early plants in US, the functional adequacy and requirements of the offsite power systems, safety and non safety related onsite electric power systems have changed considerably to ensure that these systems have adequate redundancy, independence, quality, maintenance and testability to support safe shutdown of the nuclear plant. The design of AC systems has evolved from a single train to multiple (up to four) redundant trains in the current evolutionary designs coupled with other auxiliary AC systems. The early plants were designed to cope with a Loss of Offsite Power (LOOP) event through the use of onsite power supplies only. However operating experience has indicated that onsite and offsite power AC power systems can fail due to natural phenomena (earthquakes, lightning strikes, fires, geomagnetic storms, tsunamis, etc.) or operational abnormalities such as loss of a single phase, switching surges or human error. The onsite DC systems may not be adequately sized to support plant safe shutdown over an extended period if AC power cannot be restored within a reasonable time. This paper will discuss the requirements to improve availability and reliability of offsite and onsite alternating current (AC) power sources to U.S. Nuclear Power Plants. In addition, the paper will discuss the requirements and guidance beyond design basis events. (author)

  9. Fructose intervention for 12 weeks does not impair glycemic control or incretin hormone responses during oral glucose or mixed meal tests in obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matikainen, N; Söderlund, S; Björnson, E; Bogl, L H; Pietiläinen, K H; Hakkarainen, A; Lundbom, N; Eliasson, B; Räsänen, S M; Rivellese, A; Patti, L; Prinster, A; Riccardi, G; Després, J-P; Alméras, N; Holst, J J; Deacon, C F; Borén, J; Taskinen, M-R

    2017-06-01

    Incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are affected early on in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Epidemiologic studies consistently link high fructose consumption to insulin resistance but whether fructose consumption impairs the incretin response remains unknown. As many as 66 obese (BMI 26-40 kg/m 2 ) male subjects consumed fructose-sweetened beverages containing 75 g fructose/day for 12 weeks while continuing their usual lifestyle. Glucose, insulin, GLP-1 and GIP were measured during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and triglycerides (TG), GLP-1, GIP and PYY during a mixed meal test before and after fructose intervention. Fructose intervention did not worsen glucose and insulin responses during OGTT, and GLP-1 and GIP responses during OGTT and fat-rich meal were unchanged. Postprandial TG response increased significantly, p = 0.004, and we observed small but significant increases in weight and liver fat content, but not in visceral or subcutaneous fat depots. However, even the subgroups who gained weight or liver fat during fructose intervention did not worsen their glucose, insulin, GLP-1 or PYY responses. A minor increase in GIP response during OGTT occurred in subjects who gained liver fat (p = 0.049). In obese males with features of metabolic syndrome, 12 weeks fructose intervention 75 g/day did not change glucose, insulin, GLP-1 or GIP responses during OGTT or GLP-1, GIP or PYY responses during a mixed meal. Therefore, fructose intake, even accompanied with mild weight gain, increases in liver fat and worsening of postprandial TG profile, does not impair glucose tolerance or gut incretin response to oral glucose or mixed meal challenge. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University

  10. MIXING OF INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS IN WASTE TANKS TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SANDGREN, K.R.

    2006-01-01

    This document presents onsite radiological, onsite toxicological, and offsite toxicological consequences, risk binning, and control decision results for the mixing of incompatible materials in waste tanks representative accident. Revision 4 updates the analysis to consider bulk chemical additions to single shell tanks (SSTs)

  11. TEMA-DOE annual report, July 1, 1997--June 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The Tennessee Emergency Management Agency (TEMA) will develop off-site Multi-Jurisdictional Emergency Response Plans (MJERPs) in coordination with Federal, State, and local agencies. The MJERPs will describe actions to minimize the risks to the citizens of Tennessee as a result of an off-site release of hazardous material from the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation. This report describes actions made during each quarter of the year.

  12. Offsite radiological consequence analysis for the bounding aircraft crash accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OBERG, B.D.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation note is to quantitatively analyze a bounding aircraft crash accident for comparison to the DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'', Appendix A, Evaluation Guideline of 25 rem. The potential of aircraft impacting a facility was evaluated using the approach given in DOE-STD-3014-96, ''Accident Analysis for Aircraft Crash into Hazardous Facilities''. The following aircraft crash FR-equencies were determined for the Tank Farms in RPP-11736, ''Assessment Of Aircraft Crash FR-equency For The Hanford Site 200 Area Tank Farms'': (1) The total aircraft crash FR-equency is ''extremely unlikely.'' (2) The general aviation crash FR-equency is ''extremely unlikely.'' (3) The helicopter crash FR-equency is ''beyond extremely unlikely.'' (4) For the Hanford Site 200 Areas, other aircraft type, commercial or military, each above ground facility, and any other type of underground facility is ''beyond extremely unlikely.'' As the potential of aircraft crash into the 200 Area tank farms is more FR-equent than ''beyond extremely unlikely,'' consequence analysis of the aircraft crash is required

  13. Environmental assessment for the Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management Facility: Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0466) under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 for the proposed completion of construction and subsequent operation of a central Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management Facility (RMWMF), in the southeastern portion of Technical Area III at Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque (SNLA). The RMWMF is designed to receive, store, characterize, conduct limited bench-scale treatment of, repackage, and certify low-level waste (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) (as necessary) for shipment to an offsite disposal or treatment facility. The RMWMF was partially constructed in 1989. Due to changing regulatory requirements, planned facility upgrades would be undertaken as part of the proposed action. These upgrades would include paving of road surfaces and work areas, installation of pumping equipment and lines for surface impoundment, and design and construction of air locks and truck decontamination and water treatment systems. The proposed action also includes an adjacent corrosive and reactive metals storage area, and associated roads and paving. LLW and MW generated at SNLA would be transported from the technical areas to the RMWMF in containers approved by the Department of Transportation. The RMWMF would not handle nonradioactive hazardous waste. Based on the analysis in the EA, the proposed completion of construction and operation of the RMWMF does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement for the proposed action is not required

  14. Design of simulation-based medical education and advantages and disadvantages of in situ simulation versus off-site simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Jette Led; Østergaard, Doris; LeBlanc, Vicki; Ottesen, Bent; Konge, Lars; Dieckmann, Peter; Van der Vleuten, Cees

    2017-01-21

    Simulation-based medical education (SBME) has traditionally been conducted as off-site simulation in simulation centres. Some hospital departments also provide off-site simulation using in-house training room(s) set up for simulation away from the clinical setting, and these activities are called in-house training. In-house training facilities can be part of hospital departments and resemble to some extent simulation centres but often have less technical equipment. In situ simulation, introduced over the past decade, mainly comprises of team-based activities and occurs in patient care units with healthcare professionals in their own working environment. Thus, this intentional blend of simulation and real working environments means that in situ simulation brings simulation to the real working environment and provides training where people work. In situ simulation can be either announced or unannounced, the latter also known as a drill. This article presents and discusses the design of SBME and the advantage and disadvantage of the different simulation settings, such as training in simulation-centres, in-house simulations in hospital departments, announced or unannounced in situ simulations. Non-randomised studies argue that in situ simulation is more effective for educational purposes than other types of simulation settings. Conversely, the few comparison studies that exist, either randomised or retrospective, show that choice of setting does not seem to influence individual or team learning. However, hospital department-based simulations, such as in-house simulation and in situ simulation, lead to a gain in organisational learning. To our knowledge no studies have compared announced and unannounced in situ simulation. The literature suggests some improved organisational learning from unannounced in situ simulation; however, unannounced in situ simulation was also found to be challenging to plan and conduct, and more stressful among participants. The importance of

  15. Glassy slag: A complementary waste form to homogeneous glass for the implementation of MAWS in treating DOE low level/mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.; Ordaz, G.; Krumrine, P.

    1994-01-01

    Glassy slag waste forms are being developed to complement glass waste forms in implementing the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS) Program for supporting DOE's environmental restoration efforts. These glassy slags are composed of various metal oxide crystalline phases embedded in an alumino-silicate glass phase. The slags are appropriate final waste forms for waste streams that contain large amounts of scrap metals and elements with low solubilities in glass, and that have low-flux contents. Homogeneous glass waste forms are appropriate for wastes with sufficient fluxes and low metal contents. Therefore, utilization of both glass and glassy slag waste forms will make vitrification technology applicable to the treatment of a much larger range of radioactive and mixed wastes. The MAWS approach was a plied to glassy slags by blending multiple waste streams to produce the final waste form, minimizing overall waste form volume and reducing costs. The crystalline oxide phases formed in the glassy slags can be specially formulated so that they are very durable and contain hazardous and radioactive elements in their lattice structures. The Structural Bond Strength (SBS) Model was used to predict the chemical durability of the product from the slag composition so that optimized slag compositions could be obtain with a limited number of crucible melts and testing

  16. Low-temperature setting phosphate ceramics for stabilization of DOE problem low level mixed-waste: I. Material and waste form development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.; Knox, L.; Mayberry, J.

    1994-03-01

    Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics are proposed as candidates for solidification and stabilization of some of the open-quotes problemclose quotes DOE low-level mixed wastes at low-temperatures. Development of these materials is crucial for stabilization of waste streams which have volatile species and any use of high-temperature technology leads to generation of off-gas secondary waste streams. Several phosphates of Mg, Al, and Zr have been investigated as candidate materials. Monoliths of these phosphates were synthesized using chemical routes at room or slightly elevated temperatures. Detailed physical and chemical characterizations have been conducted on some of these phosphates to establish their durability. Magnesium ammonium phosphate has shown to possess excellent mechanical and as well chemical properties. These phosphates were also used to stabilize a surrogate ash waste with a loading ranging from 25-35 wt.%. Characterization of the final waste forms show that waste immobilization is due to both chemical stabilization and physical encapsulation of the surrogate waste which is desirable for waste immobilization

  17. Off-site monitoring for the Mighty Oak nuclear test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, S.C.; Smith, A.E.; Costa, C.F.

    1986-07-01

    After a nuclear explosives test, code name Mighty Oak, the tunnel leading to the test point became contaminated with radioactive debris. To re-enter and recover valuable equipment and data, the DOE purged the tunnel air using particulate and charcoal filters to minimize discharge of radioactivity to the atmosphere. During this purging, the EPA established special air samples supplementing their routine air monitoring networks. Analysis of the collected samples for radioactive noble gases and for gamma-emitting radionuclides indicated that only low levels of xenon-133 were released in amounts detectable in populated areas near the Nevada Test Site. The maximum dose to an individual was calculated to be 0.36 microrem, assuming that person remained in the open field at the measurement site during the whole period of the purging

  18. Practical use of offsite atmospheric measurements to enhance profitability of onsite wind prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collier, Craig [GL Garrad Hassan (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the use of offsite atmospheric measurements to improve the profitability of onsite wind prediction. There are two common sensitivities used, intraday and interday. Results from US mid-western sites show that the error associated with wind predictions is large but there are possibilities for improvement. Inter- and intraday can be used traditionally to contribute towards NWP bias correction. Intraday alone can be used with machine learning and NWP. These techniques are compared and given in order of ease of use and potential accuracy gains. Some considerations and differences for all three techniques, namely, traditional, data assimilation and machine learning are also detailed. An offsite selection matrix shows how elements like location, geography and telemetry rate in the 3 techniques. The experimental setup for all 3 techniques over a 3-month period is given and the results are presented. It can be concluded that the results from these simple experiments show promise but vary in method and time scale.

  19. Analysis of offsite dose calculation methodology for a nuclear power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    This technical study reviews the methodology for calculating offsite dose estimates as described in the offsite dose calculation manual (ODCM) for Pennsylvania Power and Light - Susquehanna Steam Electric Station (SSES). An evaluation of the SSES ODCM dose assessment methodology indicates that it conforms with methodology accepted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Using 1993 SSES effluent data, dose estimates are calculated according to SSES ODCM methodology and compared to the dose estimates calculated according to SSES ODCM and the computer model used to produce the reported 1993 dose estimates. The 1993 SSES dose estimates are based on the axioms of Publication 2 of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). SSES Dose estimates based on the axioms of ICRP Publication 26 and 30 reveal the total body estimates to be the most affected

  20. Examination of off-site emergency protective measures for core melt accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrich, D.C.; Ericson, D.M. Jr.; Jones, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    Results from the Reactor Safety Study (RSS) have shown that to cause significant impacts off-site, i.e., sufficient quantities of biologically important radionuclides released, it is necessary to have a core melt accident. To mitigate the impact of such potential accidents, the design of appropriate emergency response actions requires information as to the relative merit of publicly available protective measures. In order to provide this information, a study using the consequence model developed for the RSS is being conducted to evaluate (in terms of reduced public health effects and dose exposure) potential off-site protective strategies. The paper describes the methods being used in the study as well as the results and conclusions obtained

  1. 3D Analysis of Cooling Performance with Loss of Offsite Power Using GOTHIC Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Kye Min; Heo, Gyun Young; Na, In Sik; Choi, Yu Jung

    2010-01-01

    GOTHIC code enables to analyze one-dimensional or multi-dimensional problems for evaluating the cooling performance of loss of offsite power. The conventional GOTHIC code analysis performs heat transfer between plant containment and the outside of the fan cooler tubes by modeling each of fan cooler part model and component cooling water inside tube each to analyze boiling probability. In this paper, we suggest a way which reduces the multi-procedure of the cooling performance with loss of offsite power or the heat transfer states with complex geometrical structure to a single-procedure and verify the applicability of the heat transfer differences from the containment atmosphere humidity changes by the multi-nodes which component cooling water of tube or air of Reactor Containment Fan Cooler in the containment, otherwise the component model uses only one node

  2. Application of GO methodology in reliability analysis of offsite power supply of Daya Bay NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Zupei; Li Xiaodong; Huang Xiangrui

    2003-01-01

    The author applies the GO methodology to reliability analysis of the offsite power supply system of Daya Bay NPP. The direct quantitative calculation formulas of the stable reliability target of the system with shared signals and the dynamic calculation formulas of the state probability for the unit with two states are derived. The method to solve the fault event sets of the system is also presented and all the fault event sets of the outer power supply system and their failure probability are obtained. The resumption reliability of the offsite power supply system after the stability failure of the power net is also calculated. The result shows that the GO methodology is very simple and useful in the stable and dynamic reliability analysis of the repairable system

  3. Developments in the JRodos decision support system for off-site nuclear emergency management and rehabilitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landman, Claudia [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Pro-Science GmbH, Ettlingen (Germany); Raskob, Wolfgang; Trybushnyi, Dmytro [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    JRodos is a non-commercial computer-based decision support system for nuclear accidents. The simulation models for assessing radiological and other consequences and the system features and components allow real-time operation for off-site emergency management as well as the use as a tool for preparing exercises and pre-plannng of countermeasures. There is an active user community that takes influence on further developments.

  4. Development of operation control expert system for off-site facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Masaaki

    1988-09-01

    Concerning off-site facilities of oil refinary, changes of facilities and equipment are frequently made in order to cope flexibly with the market trends and changes of the social environment. In addition, it is desirable to introduce computerization into control and manipulation of off-site facilities for its fast, safe and sure operation. In order to achieve the above, against the existing exclusively control-oriented system, it is necessary to add the processing and generating functions to combinations between valves to be shut and piping as well as equipment to be used along the whole extent of the oil flow in the system and to add the function which makes verification of the above functions easy through a dialogue between users and the system. In order to realize the above, Cosmo Oil and Yokokawa Denki developed jointly an operation control expert system for off-site facilities and the system started its actual operation from October 1986. This article is an outline of the system. The result of its actual operation for one and a half years since its inception showed that the system was operated only by the staff responsible for the operation of the facilities, the workload was reduced to 1/3-1/4 of the workload before the adoption of the system and absolutely no omission of work nor mistake was experienced. (2 figs)

  5. Using RFID to Enhance Security in Off-Site Data Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique de la Hoz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Off-site data storage is one of the most widely used strategies in enterprises of all sizes to improve business continuity. In medium-to-large size enterprises, the off-site data storage processes are usually outsourced to specialized providers. However, outsourcing the storage of critical business information assets raises serious security considerations, some of which are usually either disregarded or incorrectly addressed by service providers. This article reviews these security considerations and presents a radio frequency identification (RFID-based, off-site, data storage management system specifically designed to address security issues. The system relies on a set of security mechanisms or controls that are arranged in security layers or tiers to balance security requirements with usability and costs. The system has been successfully implemented, deployed and put into production. In addition, an experimental comparison with classical bar-code-based systems is provided, demonstrating the system’s benefits in terms of efficiency and failure prevention.

  6. Final environmental impact statement for the Nevada Test Site and off-site locations in the State of Nevada. Framework for the resource management plan, Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to publicize how the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) proposes to develop and use a Resource Management Plan for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) so the public could comment on and assist in the following activities: (1) Developing the methods for creating and using the plan; (2) Identifying the values people place on manmade and natural resources found on the NTS; (3) Developing the goals the DOE/NV will use to guide the conservation and use of those resources; (4) Identifying the management actions needed to meet constraints and resource management goals; and (5) Incorporating the principles of ecosystem management into land and resource management on the NTS. This framework for the Resource Management Plan was developed in conjunction with the Environmental Impact Statement for the Nevada Test Site and off-site locations in the state of Nevada (NTS EIS) to take advantage of the extensive data collection and public participation activities associated with the National Environmental Policy Act. After public input was received during the comment period for the Draft NTS EIS, DOE/NV revised this description of the Resource Management Plan and published it with the NTS Final EIS. This revision includes the goals DOE/NV has developed for managing resources and land-use constraints. It also includes the final plans for developing the Resource Management Plan. These plans will guide DOE/NV as it develops a Resource Management Plan in the coming years

  7. Rethinking the Business Model in Construction by the Use of Off-Site System Deliverance: Case of the Shaft Project

    OpenAIRE

    Thuesen, Christian; Hvam, Lars

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a set of insights to be used in the development of business models for off-site system deliveries contributing to the development of Off-Site Manufacturing practices (OSM). The theoretical offset for discussing the development of business models is the blue ocean strategy literature combined with theories on mass-customization and platform development identifying the optimization of cost and value through the handling of complexity as the central process. This framework is...

  8. Using Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Technology To Meet Accelerated Cleanup Program Milestones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, P.J.; Garcia, J.; Estes, C.H.; Palmer, C.R.; Meyers, G.S.

    2006-01-01

    Some DOE Complex facilities are entering the late stages of facility closure. As waste management operations are completed at these sites, remaining inventories of legacy mixed wastes must be finally disposed. These wastes have unique physical, chemical and radiological properties that have made their management troublesome, and hence why they have remained on site until this late stage of closure. Some of these wastes have had no approved or practical treatment alternative until just recently. Results are provided from using advanced mixed waste treatment technology to perform two treatment campaigns on these legacy wastes. Combinations of macro-encapsulation, vacuum thermal desorption (VTD), and chemical stabilization, with off-site incineration of the organic condensate, provided a complete solution to the problem wastes. One program included approximately 1,900 drums of material from the Fernald Environmental Management Project. Another included approximately 1,200 drums of material from the Accelerated Cleanup Program at the Oak Ridge Reservation. Both of these campaigns were conducted under tight time schedules and demanding specifications, and were performed in a matter of only a few months each. Coordinated rapid waste shipment, flexible permitting and waste acceptance criteria, adequate waste receiving and storage capacity, versatile feed preparation and sorting capability, robust treatment technology with a broad feed specification, and highly reliable operations were all valuable components to successful accomplishment of the project requirements. Descriptions of the waste are provided; material that was difficult or impossible to treat in earlier phases of site closure. These problem wastes included: 1) the combination of special nuclear materials mixed with high organic chemical content and/or mercury, 2) high toxic metal content mixed with high organic chemical content, and 3) very high organic chemical content mixed with debris, solids and sludge

  9. Does participating in the development of Medium-Density Mixed Housing projects make a difference in the residents’ satisfaction with the quality of their environment?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sebake, N

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available of mix involved. The case studies are presented below:  Brickfields, Carr Gardens, Pennyville and Cosmo City (City of Johannesburg);  Amalinda (Buffalo City Municipality);  Sakhasonke (Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan Municipality);  The Hull...

  10. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaloud, D.J.; Dicey, B.B.; Mullen, A.A.; Neale, A.C.; Sparks, A.R.; Fontana, C.A.; Carroll, L.D.; Phillips, W.G.; Smith, D.D.; Thome, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1991 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas. This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of animals, food crops, and humans. Personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each nuclear weapons test to implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any occurrence of radioactivity release. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to current NTS activities. Annual and long-term trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas, Tritium, Milk Surveillance, Biomonitoring, TLD, PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program.

  11. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaloud, D.J.; Dicey, B.B.; Mullen, A.A.; Neale, A.C.; Sparks, A.R.; Fontana, C.A.; Carroll, L.D.; Phillips, W.G.; Smith, D.D.; Thome, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1991 by the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas. This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of animals, food crops, and humans. Personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each nuclear weapons test to implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any occurrence of radioactivity release. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to current NTS activities. Annual and long-term trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas, Tritium, Milk Surveillance, Biomonitoring, TLD, PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program

  12. Analysis of loss of offsite power events reported in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkanovski, Andrija, E-mail: Andrija.VOLKANOVSKI@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport, P.O. Box 2, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Ballesteros Avila, Antonio; Peinador Veira, Miguel [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport, P.O. Box 2, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Kančev, Duško [Kernkraftwerk Goesgen-Daeniken AG, CH-4658 Daeniken (Switzerland); Maqua, Michael [Gesellschaft für Anlagen-und-Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Schwertnergasse 1, 50667 Köln (Germany); Stephan, Jean-Luc [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), BP 17 – 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Loss of offsite power events were identified in four databases. • Engineering analysis of relevant events was done. • The dominant root cause for LOOP are human failures. • Improved maintenance procedures can decrease the number of LOOP events. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of analysis of the loss of offsite power events (LOOP) in four databases of operational events. The screened databases include: the Gesellschaft für Anlagen und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS) and Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN) databases, the IAEA International Reporting System for Operating Experience (IRS) and the U.S. Licensee Event Reports (LER). In total 228 relevant loss of offsite power events were identified in the IRSN database, 190 in the GRS database, 120 in U.S. LER and 52 in IRS database. Identified events were classified in predefined categories. Obtained results show that the largest percentage of LOOP events is registered during On power operational mode and lasted for two minutes or more. The plant centered events is the main contributor to LOOP events identified in IRSN, GRS and IAEA IRS database. The switchyard centered events are the main contributor in events registered in the NRC LER database. The main type of failed equipment is switchyard failures in IRSN and IAEA IRS, main or secondary lines in NRC LER and busbar failures in GRS database. The dominant root cause for the LOOP events are human failures during test, inspection and maintenance followed by human failures due to the insufficient or wrong procedures. The largest number of LOOP events resulted in reactor trip followed by EDG start. The actions that can result in reduction of the number of LOOP events and minimize consequences on plant safety are identified and presented.

  13. Preliminary results on food consumption rates for off-site dose calculation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gab Bock; Chung, Yang Geun; Bang, Sun Young; Kang, Duk Won

    2005-01-01

    The Internal dose by food consumption mostly account for radiological dose of public around nuclear power plants(NPP). But, food consumption rate applied to off-site dose calculation in Korea which is the result of field investigation around Kori NPP by the KAERI in 1988. is not reflected of the latest dietary characteristics. The Ministry of Health and Welfare Affairs has investigated the food and nutrition of nations every 3 years based on the Law of National Health Improvement. To update the food consumption rates of the maximum individual, the analysis of the national food investigation results and field surveys around nuclear power plant sites have been carried out

  14. Offsite dose calculation manual guidance: Standard radiological effluent controls for boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinke, W.W.; Essig, T.H.

    1991-04-01

    This report contains guidance which may be voluntarily used by licensees who choose to implement the provision of Generic Letter 89-- 01, which allows Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications (RETS) to be removed from the main body of the Technical Specifications and placed in the Offsite Dose Calculation Manual (ODCM). Guidance is provided for Standard Effluent Controls definitions, Controls for effluent monitoring instrumentation, Controls for effluent releases, Controls for radiological environmental monitoring, and the basis for Controls. Guidance on the formulation of RETS has been available in draft form for a number of years; the current effort simply recasts those RETS into Standard Radiological Effluent Controls for application to the ODCM. 11 tabs

  15. A simplified model for calculating early offsite consequences from nuclear reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madni, I.K.; Cazzoli, E.G.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.

    1988-07-01

    A personal computer-based model, SMART, has been developed that uses an integral approach for calculating early offsite consequences from nuclear reactor accidents. The solution procedure uses simplified meteorology and involves direct analytic integration of air concentration equations over time and position. This is different from the discretization approach currently used in the CRAC2 and MACCS codes. The SMART code is fast-running, thereby providing a valuable tool for sensitivity and uncertainty studies. The code was benchmarked against both MACCS version 1.4 and CRAC2. Results of benchmarking and detailed sensitivity/uncertainty analyses using SMART are presented. 34 refs., 21 figs., 24 tabs

  16. Examination of offsite radiological emergency measures for nuclear reactor accidents involving core melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrich, D.C.; McGrath, P.E.; Rasmussen, N.C.

    1978-06-01

    Evacuation, sheltering followed by population relocation, and iodine prophylaxis are evaluated as offsite public protective measures in response to nuclear reactor accidents involving core-melt. Evaluations were conducted using a modified version of the Reactor Safety Study consequence model. Models representing each measure were developed and are discussed. Potential PWR core-melt radioactive material releases are separated into two categories, ''Melt-through'' and ''Atmospheric,'' based upon the mode of containment failure. Protective measures are examined and compared for each category in terms of projected doses to the whole body and thyroid. Measures for ''Atmospheric'' accidents are also examined in terms of their influence on the occurrence of public health effects

  17. RODOS: decision support system for off-site emergency management in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhardt, J.; Shershakov, V.; Zheleznyak, M.; Mikhalevich, A.

    1996-01-01

    The integrated and comprehensive real-time on-line decision support system, RODOS, for off-site emergency management of nuclear accidents is being developed under the auspices of the European Commission's Radiation Protection Research Action. A large number of both West and East European institutes are involved in the further development of the existing prototype versions to operational use with significant contributions coming from the partner institutes in the CIS Republics. This paper summarizes the structure, the main functions and the status of the RODOS system

  18. Design basis of off-site emergency response plans for fuel cycle installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzepka, J.P.; Dubiau, Ph.; Jouve, A.C.; Charles, T.; Mercier, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    In France, the term 'off-site emergency response plan' refers to all the arrangements which should be made by the government authorities to protect the population in the event of an accident affecting the installations of the site considered. The outline of the method of defining typical accidents, evaluation of 'source-terms' and health consequences is presented. Two applications to installations from the front-end and from the back-end of the fuel cycle are discussed. (K.A.). 1 tab

  19. Severe accident modeling and offsite dose consequence evaluations for nuclear power plant emergency planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S.H.; Feng, T.S.; Huang, K.C. [National Tsing-Hua Univ., Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Wang, J.R. [Inst. of Nuclear Energy Research, Longtan, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Y.H. [Industrial Tech. Res. Inst., Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Shih, C., E-mail: ckshih@ess.nthu.edu.tw [National Tsing-Hua Univ., Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2011-07-01

    We have investigated the roles of Firewater Addition System and Passive Flooder in ABWR severe accidents, such as LOCA and SBO. The results are apparent that Firewater System is vital in the highly unlikely situation where all AC are lost. Also in this paper, we present EPZDose, an effective and faster-than-real time code for offsite dose consequences predictions and evaluations. Illustrations with the release from our severe accident scenario show friendly and informative user's interface for supporting decision makings in nuclear emergency situations. (author)

  20. Off-site nuclear emergency management in Germany under the auspices of the federal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, A.; Bittner, S.; Korn, H.

    1998-01-01

    Both the individual states (Laender) and the federation (Bund) are involved in off-site emergency management in Germany. The states operate site-related Remote Monitoring Systems for Nuclear Power Plants, while the federation operates a nationwide Integrated Measurement and Information System. The states are responsible for accident response, the federation is responsible for radiation precaution measures. In the event of an accident, the state and federal authorities make their decisions and implement the corresponding emergency measures within their responsibility. Exchange of information exists between the two levels. (P.A.)

  1. Collection and evaluation of complete and partial losses of off-site power at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battle, R.E.

    1985-02-01

    Events involving loss of off-site power that have occurred at nuclear power plants through 1983 are described and categorized as complete or partial losses. The events were identified as plant-centered or grid-related failures. In addition, the causes of the failures were classified as weather, human error, design error, or hardware failure. The plant-centered failures were usually of shorter duration than the weather-related grid failures. For this reason, the weather-related events were reviewed in detail. Design features that may be important factors affecting off-site power system reliability were tabulated for most of the operating nuclear power plants. The tabulated information was provided to NRC for a statistical analysis to determine the importance of these design features for losses of off-site power. The frequency of losses of off-site power versus duration was estimated for three time periods. The frequency of loss of off-site power was estimated to be 0.09/reactor-year based on industry-wide data for the years 1959 through 1983

  2. An approach to estimating radiological risk of offsite release from a design basis earthquake for the Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero, V.; Meale, B.M.; Reny, D.A.; Brown, A.N.

    1990-09-01

    In compliance with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 6430.1A, a seismic analysis was performed on DOE's Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP), a facility for processing low-level and transuranic (TRU) waste. Because no hazard curves were available for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), DOE guidelines were used to estimate the frequency for the specified design-basis earthquake (DBE). A dynamic structural analysis of the building was performed, using the DBE parameters, followed by a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). For the PRA, a functional organization of the facility equipment was effected so that top events for a representative event tree model could be determined. Building response spectra (calculated from the structural analysis), in conjunction with generic fragility data, were used to generate fragility curves for the PREPP equipment. Using these curves, failure probabilities for each top event were calculated. These probabilities were integrated into the event tree model, and accident sequences and respective probabilities were calculated through quantification. By combining the sequences failure probabilities with a transport analysis of the estimated airborne source term from a DBE, onsite and offsite consequences were calculated. The results of the comprehensive analysis substantiated the ability of the PREPP facility to withstand a DBE with negligible consequence (i.e., estimated release was within personnel and environmental dose guidelines). 57 refs., 19 figs., 20 tabs

  3. An approach to estimating radiological risk of offsite release from a design basis earthquake for the Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucero, V.; Meale, B.M.; Reny, D.A.; Brown, A.N.

    1990-09-01

    In compliance with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 6430.1A, a seismic analysis was performed on DOE's Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP), a facility for processing low-level and transuranic (TRU) waste. Because no hazard curves were available for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), DOE guidelines were used to estimate the frequency for the specified design-basis earthquake (DBE). A dynamic structural analysis of the building was performed, using the DBE parameters, followed by a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). For the PRA, a functional organization of the facility equipment was effected so that top events for a representative event tree model could be determined. Building response spectra (calculated from the structural analysis), in conjunction with generic fragility data, were used to generate fragility curves for the PREPP equipment. Using these curves, failure probabilities for each top event were calculated. These probabilities were integrated into the event tree model, and accident sequences and respective probabilities were calculated through quantification. By combining the sequences failure probabilities with a transport analysis of the estimated airborne source term from a DBE, onsite and offsite consequences were calculated. The results of the comprehensive analysis substantiated the ability of the PREPP facility to withstand a DBE with negligible consequence (i.e., estimated release was within personnel and environmental dose guidelines). 57 refs., 19 figs., 20 tabs.

  4. Chemical inventory control program for mixed and hazardous waste facilities at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ades, M.J.; Vincent, A.M. III.

    1997-01-01

    Mixed Waste (MW) and Hazardous Waste (HW) are being stored at the Savannah River Site (SRS) pending onsite and/or offsite treatment and disposal. The inventory control for these wastes has recently been brought under Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) in accordance with DOE Order 5480.22. With the TSRs was the question of the degree of rigor with which the inventory is to be tracked, considering that the variety of chemicals present, or that could be present, numbers in the hundreds. This paper describes the graded approach program to track Solid Waste (SW) inventories relative to TSRs. The approach uses a ratio of the maximum anticipated chemical inventory to the permissible inventory in accordance with Emergency Response Planning Guideline (ERPG) limits for on- and off-site receptors. A specific threshold ratio can then be determined. The chemicals above this threshold ratio are to be included in the chemical inventory control program. The chemicals that fall below the threshold ratio are managed in accordance with existing practice per State and RCRA hazardous materials requirements. Additionally, the facilities are managed in accordance with process safety management principles, specifically using process hazards analyses, which provides safety assurance for even the small quantities that may be excluded from the formal inventory control program. The method yields a practical approach to chemical inventory control, while maintaining appropriate chemical safety margins. The resulting number of specific chemicals that require inclusion in a rigorous inventory control program is greatly reduced by about 80%, thereby resulting in significant reduction in chemical data management while preserving appropriate safety margins

  5. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Hennessey, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program (OREMP) conducted during 1997 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPAs), Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling and analyzing milk, water, and air; by deploying and reading thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs) to measure ambient gamma exposure rates with a sensitivity capable of detecting low level exposures not detected by other monitoring methods.

  6. Off-site relations and emergency planning or the importance of being earnest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkle, M.K.

    1987-01-01

    Emergency planning is and will continue to be a vulnerable spot for the nuclear industry. Emergency planning issues can be reopened at any time during the life of the plant and this represents a threat that continues for the life of the plant. The area of planning in which utilities find themselves most vulnerable is off-site relations with the state and local government officials, the public, and even the news media. Utilities face two very basic challenges in developing and maintaining good off-site relations for emergency preparedness: (1) utility managers must understand and be capable of working with the myriad of personalities and dynamics in the emergency preparedness arena. (2) Emergency preparedness is an emotional issue and a technical subject not well understood by the average citizen. The public looks to well-founded emergency plans and strong leaders to effect them. With these, a sound communications strategy, and a good plant record, a utility stands a chance of achieving the real key to success, credibility

  7. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaloud, D.J; Daigler, D.M.; Davis, M.G. [and others

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1993 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory - Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs); by biological monitoring of foodstuffs including animal tissues and food crops; and by measurement of radioactive material deposited in humans.

  8. Impact of Uncertainty on Calculations for Recovery from Loss of Offsite Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Dana L.

    2010-01-01

    Uncertainty, both aleatory and epistemic, can have a significant impact on estimated probabilities of recovering from loss of offsite power within a specified time window, and such probabilities are an input to risk-informed decisions as to the significance of inspection findings in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Reactor Oversight Process. In particular, the choice of aleatory model for offsite power recovery time can have a significant impact on the estimated nonrecovery probability, especially if epistemic uncertainty regarding parameters in the aleatory model is accounted for properly. In past and current analyses, such uncertainty has largely been ignored. This paper examines the impact of both aleatory and epistemic uncertainty on the results, using modern open-source Bayesian inference software, which implements Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. It includes examples of time-dependent convolution calculations to show the impact that uncertainty can have on this increasingly frequent type of calculation, also. The results show that the 'point estimate' result, which is an input to risk-informed decisions, can easily be uncertain by a factor of 10 if both aleatory and epistemic uncertainties are considered. The paper also illustrates the use of Bayesian model selection criteria to aid in the choice of aleatory model.

  9. The modelling of off-site economic consequences of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, A.; Gallego, E.; Martin, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    The paper presents a computer model for the probabilistic assessment of the off-site economic risk derived from nuclear accidents. The model is called MECA (Model for Economic Consequence Assessment) and takes into consideration the direct costs caused, following an accident, by the different countermeasures adopted to prevent both the early and chronic exposure of the population to the radionuclides released, as well as the direct costs derived from health damage to the affected population. The model uses site-specific data that are organized in a socio-economic data base; detailed distributions of population, livestock census, agricultural production and farmland use, as well as of employment, salaries, and added value for different economic sectors are included. This data base has been completed for Spain, based on available official statistics. The new code, coupled to a general ACA code, provides capability to complete probabilistic risk assessments from the point of view of the off-site economic consequences, and also to perform cost-effectiveness analysis of the different countermeasures in the field of emergency preparedness

  10. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaloud, D.J; Daigler, D.M.; Davis, M.G.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1993 by the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory - Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs); by biological monitoring of foodstuffs including animal tissues and food crops; and by measurement of radioactive material deposited in humans

  11. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Hennessey, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program (OREMP) conducted during 1997 by the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPAs), Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling and analyzing milk, water, and air; by deploying and reading thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs) to measure ambient gamma exposure rates with a sensitivity capable of detecting low level exposures not detected by other monitoring methods

  12. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1990 by the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory -- Las Vegas. This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of animals, food crops, and humans. Personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each nuclear weapons test to implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any occurrence of radioactivity release

  13. Study on the code system for the off-site consequences assessment of severe nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sora; Mn, Byung Il; Park, Ki Hyun; Yang, Byung Mo; Suh, Kyung Suk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The importance of severe nuclear accidents and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) were brought to international attention with the occurrence of severe nuclear accidents caused by the extreme natural disaster at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. In Korea, studies on level 3 PSA had made little progress until recently. The code systems of level 3 PSA, MACCS2 (MELCORE Accident Consequence Code System 2, US), COSYMA (COde SYstem from MAria, EU) and OSCAAR (Off-Site Consequence Analysis code for Atmospheric Releases in reactor accidents, JAPAN), were reviewed in this study, and the disadvantages and limitations of MACCS2 were also analyzed. Experts from Korea and abroad pointed out that the limitations of MACCS2 include the following: MACCS2 cannot simulate multi-unit accidents/release from spent fuel pools, and its atmospheric dispersion is based on a simple Gaussian plume model. Some of these limitations have been improved in the updated versions of MACCS2. The absence of a marine and aquatic dispersion model and the limited simulating range of food-chain and economic models are also important aspects that need to be improved. This paper is expected to be utilized as basic research material for developing a Korean code system for assessing off-site consequences of severe nuclear accidents.

  14. Analysis of Loss-of-Offsite-Power Events 1997-2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Nancy Ellen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Loss of offsite power (LOOP) can have a major negative impact on a power plant’s ability to achieve and maintain safe shutdown conditions. LOOP event frequencies and times required for subsequent restoration of offsite power are important inputs to plant probabilistic risk assessments. This report presents a statistical and engineering analysis of LOOP frequencies and durations at U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The data used in this study are based on the operating experience during calendar years 1997 through 2015. LOOP events during critical operation that do not result in a reactor trip, are not included. Frequencies and durations were determined for four event categories: plant-centered, switchyard-centered, grid-related, and weather-related. Emergency diesel generator reliability is also considered (failure to start, failure to load and run, and failure to run more than 1 hour). There is an adverse trend in LOOP durations. The previously reported adverse trend in LOOP frequency was not statistically significant for 2006-2015. Grid-related LOOPs happen predominantly in the summer. Switchyard-centered LOOPs happen predominantly in winter and spring. Plant-centered and weather-related LOOPs do not show statistically significant seasonality. The engineering analysis of LOOP data shows that human errors have been much less frequent since 1997 than in the 1986 -1996 time period.

  15. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patzer, R.G.; Black, S.C.; Grossman, R.F.; Smith, D.D.

    1984-07-01

    This report covers the routine radiation monitoring activities conducted by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas in areas which may be affected by nuclear testing programs of the Department of Energy. This monitoring is conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends in environmental radiation, and to provide such information to the public. It summarizes these activities for calendar year 1983. No radioactivity attributable to NTS activities was detectable offsite by the monitoring networks. Using recorded wind data and Pasquill stability categories, atmospheric dispersion calculations based on reported radionuclide releases yield an estimated dose of 5 x 10 -5 man-rem to the population within 80 km of the Nevada Test Site during 1983. World-wide fallout of Kr-85, Sr-90, Cs-137, and Pu-239 detected by the monitoring networks would cause maximum exposure to an individual of less than 0.2 mrem per year. Plutonium and krypton in air were similar to 1982 levels while cesium and strontium in other samples were near the detection limits. An occasional net exposure to offsite residents has been detected by the TLD network. On investigation, the cause of such net exposures has been due to personal habits or occupational activities, not to NTS activities. 29 references, 35 figures, 30 tables

  16. Study on the code system for the off-site consequences assessment of severe nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sora; Mn, Byung Il; Park, Ki Hyun; Yang, Byung Mo; Suh, Kyung Suk

    2016-01-01

    The importance of severe nuclear accidents and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) were brought to international attention with the occurrence of severe nuclear accidents caused by the extreme natural disaster at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. In Korea, studies on level 3 PSA had made little progress until recently. The code systems of level 3 PSA, MACCS2 (MELCORE Accident Consequence Code System 2, US), COSYMA (COde SYstem from MAria, EU) and OSCAAR (Off-Site Consequence Analysis code for Atmospheric Releases in reactor accidents, JAPAN), were reviewed in this study, and the disadvantages and limitations of MACCS2 were also analyzed. Experts from Korea and abroad pointed out that the limitations of MACCS2 include the following: MACCS2 cannot simulate multi-unit accidents/release from spent fuel pools, and its atmospheric dispersion is based on a simple Gaussian plume model. Some of these limitations have been improved in the updated versions of MACCS2. The absence of a marine and aquatic dispersion model and the limited simulating range of food-chain and economic models are also important aspects that need to be improved. This paper is expected to be utilized as basic research material for developing a Korean code system for assessing off-site consequences of severe nuclear accidents

  17. Rethinking the Business Model in Construction by the Use of Off-Site System Deliverance: Case of the Shaft Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian; Hvam, Lars

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a set of insights to be used in the development of business models for off-site system deliveries contributing to the development of Off-Site Manufacturing practices (OSM). The theoretical offset for discussing the development of business models is the blue ocean strategy...... of installation shafts. Findings from the development and production of the installation shaft show that system deliveries represent a promising strategy for moving from red ocean competitive environment with the predominant cost+ business model, to a blue ocean situation in which the competition emerges...... in the constant pursue of value creation and cost reduction. On the basis of that system deliverances represent a promising strategy in the future development and application of off-site manufacturing practices. The application of system deliveries is however demanding as it represents a fundamental shift...

  18. Estimation of the loss of Offsite power frequency for the probabilistic safety assessment of the Juragua NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilaragut Llanes, J.J.; Valhuerdi Debesa, C.

    1996-01-01

    The loss offsite power is defined as the interruption of the preferred power supply to the essential and non essential switchgear buses necessitating or resulting in the use of emergency AC power supply. Because many safety system required for reactor core decay heat removal and containment heat removal depend on AC power, a loss of offsite power, if emergency power supply (diesel generators) fails, could be severe accidents The purpose of this work was to determine, for the Probabilistic Safety Assessment of the Juragua NPP, the causes, frequency and duration relationships of the loss of offsite power. A description is presented of the different factor that determine the occurrence of this event and the characteristics for the Juragua NPP

  19. The sensitivity of calculated doses to critical assumptions for the offsite consequences of nuclear power reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, M.P.; Scherpelz, R.I.; Desrosiers, A.E.

    1982-01-01

    This work analyzes the sensitivity of calculated doses to critical assumptions for offsite consequences following a PWR-2 accident at a nuclear power reactor. The calculations include three radiation dose pathways: internal dose resulting from inhalation, external doses from exposure to the plume, and external doses from exposure to contaminated ground. The critical parameters are the time period of integration for internal dose commitment and the duration of residence on contaminated ground. The data indicate the calculated offsite whole body dose will vary by as much as 600% depending upon the parameters assumed. When offsite radiation doses determine the size of emergency planning zones, this uncertainty has significant effect upon the resources allocated to emergency preparedness

  20. Development of a decision support system for off-site emergency management in the early phase of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, D.; Sharma, R.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Experience gained after the Chernobyl accident clearly demonstrated the importance of improving administrative, organizational and technical emergency management arrangements in India. The more important areas where technical improvements were needed were early warning monitoring, communication networks for the rapid and reliable exchange of radiological and other information and decision support systems for off-site emergency management. A PC based artificial intelligent software has been developed to have a decision support system that can easily implement to manage off-site nuclear emergency and subsequently analyze the off-site consequences of the nuclear accident. A decision support tool, STEPS (source term estimate based on plant status), that provides desired input to the present software was developed. The tool STEPS facilitates meta knowledge of the system. The paper describes the details of the design of the software, functions of various modules, tuning of respective knowledge base and overall its scope in real sense in nuclear emergency preparedness and response

  1. RCRA Part A and Part B Permit Application for Waste Management Activities at the Nevada Test Site: Proposed Mixed Waste Disposal Unit (MWSU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-07-19

    The proposed Mixed Waste Storage Unit (MWSU) will be located within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Existing facilities at the RWMC will be used to store low-level mixed waste (LLMW). Storage is required to accommodate offsite-generated LLMW shipped to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal in the new Mixed Waste Disposal Unit (MWDU) currently in the design/build stage. LLMW generated at the NTS (onsite) is currently stored on the Transuranic (TRU) Pad (TP) in Area 5 under a Mutual Consent Agreement (MCA) with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Federal Facilities (NDEP/BFF). When the proposed MWSU is permitted, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will ask that NDEP revoke the MCA and onsite-generated LLMW will fall under the MWSU permit terms and conditions. The unit will also store polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste and friable and non-friable asbestos waste that meets the acceptance criteria in the Waste Analysis Plan (Exhibit 2) for disposal in the MWDU. In addition to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements, the proposed MWSU will also be subject to Department of Energy (DOE) orders and other applicable state and federal regulations. Table 1 provides the metric conversion factors used in this application. Table 2 provides a list of existing permits. Table 3 lists operational RCRA units at the NTS and their respective regulatory status.

  2. RCRA Part A and Part B Permit Application for Waste Management Activities at the Nevada Test Site: Proposed Mixed Waste Disposal Unit (MWSU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The proposed Mixed Waste Storage Unit (MWSU) will be located within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Existing facilities at the RWMC will be used to store low-level mixed waste (LLMW). Storage is required to accommodate offsite-generated LLMW shipped to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal in the new Mixed Waste Disposal Unit (MWDU) currently in the design/build stage. LLMW generated at the NTS (onsite) is currently stored on the Transuranic (TRU) Pad (TP) in Area 5 under a Mutual Consent Agreement (MCA) with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Federal Facilities (NDEP/BFF). When the proposed MWSU is permitted, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will ask that NDEP revoke the MCA and onsite-generated LLMW will fall under the MWSU permit terms and conditions. The unit will also store polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste and friable and non-friable asbestos waste that meets the acceptance criteria in the Waste Analysis Plan (Exhibit 2) for disposal in the MWDU. In addition to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements, the proposed MWSU will also be subject to Department of Energy (DOE) orders and other applicable state and federal regulations. Table 1 provides the metric conversion factors used in this application. Table 2 provides a list of existing permits. Table 3 lists operational RCRA units at the NTS and their respective regulatory status.

  3. Serum estradiol does not differentiate stress, mixed and urge incontinent women around menopause. A report from the Women's Health in the Lund Area (WHILA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Maria Andrada; Källén, Karin; Lidfeldt, Jonas; Samsioe, Göran; Teleman, Pia

    2011-11-01

    To outline serum estradiol levels in perimenopausal women with stress, mixed or urge incontinence. We believe the majority of urgency symptoms in perimenopausal women to be caused by a pelvic floor dysfunction and a hypermobility of the bladder neck. If this is the case, there would be no difference in estradiol levels between the groups. University hospital. In the observational Women's Health in the Lund Area study, a subset of 400/2221 women reporting urinary incontinence completed a detailed questionnaire regarding lower urinary tract symptoms and had their serum steroid hormone levels measured. Statistical analyses were made by Chi-square test, nonparametrical tests, ANOVA, multi- and univariate logistic regression analysis. Stress incontinence was reported by 196, mixed incontinence by 153 and urge incontinence by 43 women; in 369, serumestradiol values were available. Serum estradiol did not differ significantly between stress incontinent (median 49.5 pmo/l, range 2.63-875.4), urge incontinent (median 31.6 pmol/l, range 2.63-460.7) or mixed incontinent women (median 35.5 pmol/l, range 2.63-787.9, p=0.62). Logistic regression analysis correcting for age, parity, hormonal status, smoking, hysterectomy and BMI also failed to show any difference in estradiol levels between the groups (p=0.41-0.58). No significant differences in serum estradiol levels between stress, mixed or urge incontinent perimenopausal women could be demonstrated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Using Microsoft Excel to compute the 5% overall site X/Q value and the 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest maximally exposed offsite individual (MEOI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Linda D

    2010-05-01

    This paper describes the method using Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399) to compute the 5% overall site X/Q value and the 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest maximally exposed offsite individual (MEOI) in accordance with guidance from DOE-STD-3009-1994 and U.S. NRC Regulatory Guide 1.145-1982. The accurate determination of the 5% overall site X/Q value is the most important factor in the computation of the 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest MEOI. This method should be used to validate software codes that compute the X/Q. The 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest MEOI must be compared to the U.S. DOE Evaluation Guide of 25 rem to determine the relative severity of hazard to the public from a postulated, unmitigated design basis accident that involves an offsite release of radioactive material.

  5. Supplementation with mixed tocopherols increases serum and blood cell gamma-tocopherol but does not alter biomarkers of platelet activation in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Michael W; Ward, Natalie C; Wu, Jason H Y; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Puddey, Ian B; Croft, Kevin D

    2006-01-01

    Some studies have shown potential benefit of vitamin E on platelet function, but several clinical trials failed to show improved cardiovascular outcome with alpha-tocopherol supplementation. Gamma-tocopherol, a major dietary form of vitamin E, may have protective properties different from those of alpha-tocopherol. We compared the effects of supplementation with alpha-tocopherol (500 mg) and a gamma-tocopherol-rich compound (500 mg, containing 60% gamma-tocopherol) on serum and cellular tocopherol concentrations, urinary tocopherol metabolite excretion, and in vivo platelet activation in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Fifty-eight subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 500 mg alpha-tocopherol/d, 500 mg mixed tocopherols/d, or matching placebo. Serum, erythrocyte, and platelet tocopherol and urinary metabolite concentrations were measured at baseline and after the 6-wk intervention. Soluble CD40 ligand, urinary 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2, serum thromboxane B2, soluble P-selectin, and von Willebrand factor were measured as biomarkers of in vivo platelet activation. Serum alpha-tocopherol increased with both tocopherol treatments. Serum and cellular gamma-tocopherol increased 4-fold (P tocopherol group, whereas red blood cell gamma-tocopherol decreased significantly after alpha-tocopherol supplementation. Excretion of alpha-carboxyethyl-hydroxychroman increased significantly after supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and mixed tocopherols. Excretion of gamma-carboxyethyl-hydroxychroman increased significantly after supplementation with mixed tocopherols and after that with alpha-tocopherol, which may reflect the displacement of gamma-tocopherol by alpha-tocopherol due to incorporation of the latter into lipoproteins in the liver. Neither treatment had any significant effect on markers of platelet activation. Supplementation with alpha-tocopherol decreased red blood cell gamma-tocopherol, whereas mixed tocopherols increased both serum alpha-tocopherol and

  6. Scoping evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste. Examples: Sandia National Laboratories and Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruebel, M.R.; Parsons, A.M.; Waters, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    The disposal of mixed low-level waste has become an issue for the U.S. Department of Energy and the States since the inception of the Federal Facilities Compliance Act in 1992. Fifteen sites, including Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), have been evaluated to estimate their technical capabilities for disposal of this type of waste after it has been subjected to treatment processes. The analyses were designed to quantify the maximum permissible concentrations of radioactive and hazardous constituents in mixed low-level waste that could potentially be disposed of in a facility at one of the fifteen sites and meet regulatory requirements. The evaluations provided several major insights about the disposal of mixed low-level waste. All of the fifteen sites have the technical capability for disposal of some waste. Maximum permissible concentrations for the radioactive component of the waste at and sites such as SNL and LANL are almost exclusively determined by pathways other than through groundwater. In general, for the hazardous component of the waste, travel times through groundwater to a point 100 meters from the disposal facility are on the order of thousands of years. The results of the evaluations will be compared to actual treated waste that may be disposed of in a facility at one of these fifteen evaluated sites. These comparisons will indicate which waste streams may exceed the disposal limitations of a site and which component of the waste limits the technical acceptability for disposal. The technical analyses provide only partial input to the decision-making process for determining the disposal sites for mixed low-level waste. Other, less quantitative factors such as social and political issues will also be considered

  7. Evaluating background noise: Assessing off-site data from field surveys around the Italic sanctuary of S. Giovanni in Galdo, Molise, Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waagen, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates the potential of intensive sampling and off-site analyses to identify evidence of human activity in the past using the off-site data collected around the Italic sanctuary of S. Giovanni in Galdo, Molise, Italy. Rather than employing general and monocausal explanatory

  8. Investigation of Novel Electrode Materials for Electrochemically-Based Remediation of High- and Low-Level Mixed Wastes in the DOE Complex - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, N.S.; Anderson, M.

    2000-12-01

    New materials are investigated, based on degenerately-doped titanias, for use in the electrochemical degradation of organics and nitrogen-containing compounds in sites of concern to the DOE remediation effort. The data collected in this project appear to provide a rational approach for design of more efficient nanoporous electrodes. Also, osmium complexes appear to be promising candidates for further optimization in operating photo electrochemical cells for solar energy conversion applications.

  9. Investigation of Novel Electrode Materials for Electrochemically-Based Remediation of High- and Low-Level Mixed Wastes in the DOE Complex - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, N.S.; Anderson, M.

    2000-01-01

    New materials are investigated, based on degenerately-doped titanias, for use in the electrochemical degradation of organics and nitrogen-containing compounds in sites of concern to the DOE remediation effort. The data collected in this project appear to provide a rational approach for design of more efficient nanoporous electrodes. Also, osmium complexes appear to be promising candidates for further optimization in operating photo electrochemical cells for solar energy conversion applications

  10. Preparation of off-site emergency preparedness plans for nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    Safety of public, occupational workers and the protection of environment should be assured while activities for economic and social progress are pursued. These activities include the establishment and utilisation of nuclear facilities and use of radioactive sources. This document is issued as a lead document to facilitate preparation of specific site manuals by the Responsible Organisation for emergency response plans at each site to ensure their preparedness to meet any eventuality due to site emergency in order to mitigate its consequences on the health and safety of site personnel. It takes cognizance of an earlier AERB publication on the subject: Safety Manual on Off-Site Emergency Plan for Nuclear Installations, AERB/SM/NISD-2, 1988 and also takes into consideration the urgent need for promoting public awareness and drawing up revised emergency response plans, which has come out in a significant manner after the accidents at Chernobyl and Bhopal

  11. An off-site screening process for the public in radiation emergencies and disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Seok Won; Ho, Ha Wi; Jin, Young Woo

    2016-01-01

    A contamination screening process for the local population in radiation emergencies is discussed. We present an overview of the relevant Korean governmental regulations that underpin the development of an effective response system. Moreover, case studies of foreign countries responding to mass casualties are presented, and indicate that responses should be able to handle a large demand for contamination screening of the local public as well as screening of the immediate victims of the incident. We propose operating procedures for an off-site contamination screening post operated by the local government for members of the public who have not been directly harmed in the accident. In order to devise screening categories, sorting strategies assessing contamination and exposure are discussed, as well as a psychological response system. This study will lead to the effective operation of contamination screening clinics if an accident occurs. Furthermore, the role of contamination screening clinics in the overall context of the radiation emergency treatment system should be clearly established

  12. Offsite dose calculation manual guidance: Standard radiological effluent controls for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinke, W.W.; Essig, T.H.

    1991-04-01

    This report contains guidance which may be voluntarily used by licensees who choose to implement the provision of Generic Letter 89-01, which allows Radiological Effect Technical Specifications (RETS) to be removed from the main body of the Technical Specifications and placed in the Offsite Dose Calculation Manual (ODCM). Guidance is provided for Standard Effluent Controls definitions, Controls for effluent monitoring instrumentation, Controls for effluent releases, Controls for radiological environmental monitoring, and the basis for Controls. Guidance on the formulation of RETS has been available in draft from (NUREG-0471 and -0473) for a number of years; the current effort simply recasts those RETS into Standard Radiological Effluent Controls for application to the ODCM. Also included for completeness are: (1) radiological environmental monitoring program guidance previously which had been available as a Branch Technical Position (Rev. 1, November 1979); (2) existing ODCM guidance; and (3) a reproduction of generic Letter 89-01

  13. RHF RELAP5 model and preliminary loss-of-offsite-power simulation results for LEU conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licht, J. R. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Div.; Bergeron, A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Div.; Dionne, B. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Div.; Thomas, F. [Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), Grenoble (Switzerland). RHF Reactor Dept.

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the current state of the RELAP5 model for the Institut Laue-Langevin High Flux Reactor (RHF) located in Grenoble, France, and provide an update to the key information required to complete, for example, simulations for a loss of offsite power (LOOP) accident. A previous status report identified a list of 22 items to be resolved in order to complete the RELAP5 model. Most of these items have been resolved by ANL and the RHF team. Enough information was available to perform preliminary safety analyses and define the key items that are still required. Section 2 of this document describes the RELAP5 model of RHF. The final part of this section briefly summarizes previous model issues and resolutions. Section 3 of this document describes preliminary LOOP simulations for both HEU and LEU fuel at beginning of cycle conditions.

  14. Improved Safety Margin Characterization of Risk from Loss of Offsite Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Paul [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2017-11-07

    Original intent: The original intent of this task was “support of the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characteristic (RISMC) methodology in order” “to address … efficiency of computation so that more accurate and cost-effective techniques can be used to address safety margin characterizations” (S. M. Hess et al., “Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization,” Procs. ICONE17, Brussels, July 2009, CD format). It was intended that “in Task 1 itself this improvement will be directed toward upon the very important issue of Loss of Offsite Power (LOOP) events,” more specifically toward the challenge of efficient computation of the multidimensional nonrecovery integral that has been discussed by many previous contributors to the theory of nuclear safety. It was further envisioned that “three different computational approaches will be explored,” corresponding to the three subtasks listed below; deliverables were tied to the individual subtasks.

  15. New method for presenting offsite radiological monitoring data during emergency preparedness exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, M.P.; Martin, G.F.; Hickey, E.E.; Jamison, J.D.

    1986-09-01

    As scenarios for exercises become more complicated and flexible to challenge emergency response personnel, improved means of presenting data must be developed. To provide maximum realism and free play during an exercise, staff at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) have recently devised a simple method of presenting realistic radiological field monitoring information for a range of possible releases. The method uses only two pieces of paper. The first is a map of the offsite area showing the shape of the plume for the duration of the exercise. The second is a semilog graph containing curves that relate exposure rate and iodine concentration to downwind distance and time. Several techniques are used to maximize the information on the graph

  16. New method for presenting off-site radiological monitoring data during emergency preparedness exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, M.P.; Martin, G.F.; Hickey, E.E.; Jamison, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    As scenarios for exercises become more complicated and flexible to challenge emergency response personnel, improved means of presenting data must be developed to meet this need. To provide maximum realism and free play during an exercise, staff at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) have recently devised a simple method of presenting realistic radiological field monitoring information for a range of possible releases. The method utilizes only two pieces of paper. The first is a map of the offsite area showing the shape of the plume for the duration of the exercise. The second is a semi-log graph containing curves relating exposure rate and iodine concentration to downwind distance and time. Several techniques are used to maximize the information on the graph

  17. Health effects models for off-site radiological consequence analysis on nuclear reactor accidents (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homma, Toshimitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Takahashi, Tomoyuki [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst; Yonehara, Hidenori [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)] [eds.

    2000-12-01

    This report is a revision of JAERI-M 91-005, 'Health Effects Models for Off-Site Radiological Consequence Analysis of Nuclear Reactor Accidents'. This revision provides a review of two revisions of NUREG/CR-4214 reports by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission which is the basis of the JAERI health effects models and other several recent reports that may impact the health effects models by international organizations. The major changes to the first version of the JAERI health effects models and the recommended parameters in this report are for late somatic effects. These changes reflect recent changes in cancer risk factors that have come from longer followup and revised dosimetry in major studies on the Japanese A-bomb survivors. This report also provides suggestions about future revisions of computational aspects on health effects models. (author)

  18. Health effects models for off-site radiological consequence analysis on nuclear reactor accidents (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, Toshimitsu

    2000-12-01

    This report is a revision of JAERI-M 91-005, 'Health Effects Models for Off-Site Radiological Consequence Analysis of Nuclear Reactor Accidents'. This revision provides a review of two revisions of NUREG/CR-4214 reports by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission which is the basis of the JAERI health effects models and other several recent reports that may impact the health effects models by international organizations. The major changes to the first version of the JAERI health effects models and the recommended parameters in this report are for late somatic effects. These changes reflect recent changes in cancer risk factors that have come from longer followup and revised dosimetry in major studies on the Japanese A-bomb survivors. This report also provides suggestions about future revisions of computational aspects on health effects models. (author)

  19. German offsite accident consequence model for nuclear facilities: further development and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, A.

    1985-01-01

    The German Offsite Accident Consequence Model - first applied in the German Risk Study for nuclear power plants with light water reactors - has been further developed with the improvement of several important submodels in the areas of atmospheric dispersion, shielding effects of houses, and the foodchains. To aid interpretation, the presentation of results has been extended with special emphasis on the presentation of the loss of life expectancy. The accident consequence model has been further developed for application to risk assessments for other nuclear facilities, e.g., the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (SNR-300) and the high temperature gas cooled reactor. Moreover the model have been further developed in the area of optimal countermeasure strategies (sheltering, evacuation, etc.) in the case of the Central European conditions. Preliminary considerations has been performed in connection with safety goals on the basis of doses

  20. Off-site interaction effect in the Extended Hubbard Model with the SCRPA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harir, S; Bennai, M; Boughaleb, Y

    2007-01-01

    The self consistent random phase approximation (SCRPA) and a direct analytical (DA) method are proposed to solve the Extended Hubbard Model (EHM) in one dimension (1D). We have considered an EHM including on-site and off-site interactions for closed chains in 1D with periodic boundary conditions. The comparison of the SCRPA results with the ones obtained by a DA approach shows that the SCRPA treats the problem of these closed chains in a rigorous manner. The analysis of the nearest-neighbour repulsion effect on the dynamics of our closed chains shows that this repulsive interaction between the electrons of the neighbouring atoms induces supplementary conductivity, since, the SCRPA energygap vanishes when these closed chains are governed by a strong repulsive on-site interaction and intermediate nearest-neighbour repulsion

  1. The knowledge-based off-site emergency response system for a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, L.W.; Loa, W.W.; Wang, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    A knowledge-based expert system for a nuclear power plant off-site emergency response system is described. The system incorporates the knowledge about the nuclear power plant behaviours, site environment and site geographic factors, etc. The system is developed using Chinshan nuclear power station of Taipower Company, Taiwan, ROC as a representative model. The objectives of developing this system are to provide an automated intelligent system with functions of accident simulation, prediction and with learning capabilities to supplement the actions of the emergency planners and accident managers in order to protect the plant personnel and the surrounding population, and prevent or mitigate property damages resulting from the plant accident. The system is capable of providing local and national authorities with rapid retrieval data from the site characteristics and accident progression. The system can also provide the framework for allocation of available resources and can handle the uncertainties in data and models

  2. Off-site emergency response plans in case of technological catastrophes: the case Angra dos Reis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Junior, M.D. de.

    1990-04-01

    In the first part of the thesis a discussion of the technical, operational and methodological features of the current practices for emergency planning in case of a nuclear fallout. Based on this general reference is possible to evaluate the features in the natural and social environment of Angra dos Reis that probably will obstruct the application of the protective countermeasures to the public. These critical points are enhanced to permit the discussion of a methodological approach that is supposed to be suitable to the reality of Angra dos Reis. The approach was developed specifically to this region and was introduced as a part of the general emergency off-site plan to the Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto (CNAAA). Starting from this experience will be possible to enlarge this approach in a further research, in order to study this potential hazards of other industrial plants. (author)

  3. New Source Term Model for the RESRAD-OFFSITE Code Version 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Charley [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gnanapragasam, Emmanuel [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cheng, Jing-Jy [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kamboj, Sunita [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chen, Shih-Yew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This report documents the new source term model developed and implemented in Version 3 of the RESRAD-OFFSITE code. This new source term model includes: (1) "first order release with transport" option, in which the release of the radionuclide is proportional to the inventory in the primary contamination and the user-specified leach rate is the proportionality constant, (2) "equilibrium desorption release" option, in which the user specifies the distribution coefficient which quantifies the partitioning of the radionuclide between the solid and aqueous phases, and (3) "uniform release" option, in which the radionuclides are released from a constant fraction of the initially contaminated material during each time interval and the user specifies the duration over which the radionuclides are released.

  4. CEC workshop on methods for assessing the offsite radiological consequences of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luykx, F.; Sinnaeve, J.

    1986-01-01

    On Apr 15-19, 1985, in Luxembourg, the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), in collaboration with the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK), Federal Republic of Germany, and the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), United Kingdom, presented a workshop on methods for assessing the offsite radiological consequences of nuclear accidents. The program consisted of eight sessions. The main conclusions, which were presented in the Round Table Session by the individual Session Chairmen, are summarized. Session topics are as follows: Session I: international developments in the field of accident consequence assessment (ACA); Session II: atmospheric dispersion; Session III: food chain models; Session IV: urban contamination; Session V: demographic and land use data; Session VI: dosimetry, health effects, economic and counter measure models; Session VII: uncertainty analysis; and Session VIII: application of probabilistic consequence models as decision aids

  5. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.D.; Grossman, R.F.; Corkern, W.D.; Thome, D.J.; Patzer, R.G.; Hopper, J.L.

    1981-06-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory in Las Vegas (EMSL-LV) continued its Offsite Radiological Safety Program for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and other sites of past underground nuclear tests. For each test, the Laboratory provided airborne meteorological measurements, ground and airborne radiation monitoring teams, and special briefings to the Test Controller's Advisory Panel. Test-related radioactivity from the NTS was detected offsite following the Riola Test conducted on September 25, 1980. This consisted of xenon-133 (3.4 x 10 -11 μCi/m1) and xenon-135 (3.6 x 10 -10 μCi/m1) in a compressed air sample collected at Lathrop Wells, Nevada. The estimated dose equivalent to the whole body of a hypothetical receptor at Lathrop Wells from exposure to the radioxenon was 0.011 mrem, which is 0.006 percent of the radiation protection guide for a suitable sample of the general population. Whole-body counts of individuals residing in the environs of the NTS showed no manmade radionuclides attributable to the testing program. The only radioactivity from non-NTS sites of past underground nuclear tests was due to tritium in water samples collected from the Project Dribble Site near Hattiesburg, Mississippi, and the Project Long Shot Site on Amchitka Island, Alaska. The maximum concentrations measured at these locations were 1 and 0.1 percent of the Concentration Guide for drinking water, respectively. A small amount of airborne radioactivity originating from nuclear tests carried out by the People's Republic of China was detected during 1980 at some stations scattered throughout the Air Surveillance Network. The Laboratory's Animal Investigation Program sampled tissues from wildlife and domestic animals on and around the NTS. Data from analysis of these tissues are published separately in an annual report

  6. Alternative off-site power supply improves nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjorgiev, Blaže; Volkanovski, Andrija; Kančev, Duško; Čepin, Marko

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Additional power supply for mitigation of the station blackout event in NPP is used. • A hydro power plant is considered as an off-site alternative power supply. • An upgrade of the probabilistic safety assessment from its traditional use is made. • The obtained results show improvement of nuclear power plant safety. - Abstract: A reliable power system is important for safe operation of the nuclear power plants. The station blackout event is of great importance for nuclear power plant safety. This event is caused by the loss of all alternating current power supply to the safety and non-safety buses of the nuclear power plant. In this study an independent electrical connection between a pumped-storage hydro power plant and a nuclear power plant is assumed as a standpoint for safety and reliability analysis. The pumped-storage hydro power plant is considered as an alternative power supply. The connection with conventional accumulation type of hydro power plant is analysed in addition. The objective of this paper is to investigate the improvement of nuclear power plant safety resulting from the consideration of the alternative power supplies. The safety of the nuclear power plant is analysed through the core damage frequency, a risk measure assess by the probabilistic safety assessment. The presented method upgrades the probabilistic safety assessment from its common traditional use in sense that it considers non-plant sited systems. The obtained results show significant decrease of the core damage frequency, indicating improvement of nuclear safety if hydro power plant is introduced as an alternative off-site power source

  7. On-site and off-site emergency planning at Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyberk, O.A.

    1986-01-01

    An emergency plan was prepared for minimizing the consequences of any unforeseen radiation accident in Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Centre (CNAEM) in Istanbul, Turkey. CNAEM is situated near Kucukcekmece Lake, which is about 30 km to the west of Istanbul. It includes two pool-type research reactors of 1 MW(th) and 5 MW(th). The population in the nearest inhabited areas varies from 1000 to 50,000. Accidents are classified, according to their severity, into three categories at CNAEM: (a) local emergency, (b) on-site emergency, (c) off-site emergency. During local emergency situations evacuation is not necessary. An on-site emergency situation requires the evacuation of personnel from the plant. Personnel hearing the emergency alarm should move directly to the preselected place as soon as possible. An off-site emergency is any accident that leads to widespread contamination outside the boundary. In this situation the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority and governmental authorities are notified immediately. The emergency organization group consists of: (a) Plant Superintendent, (b) Emergency Director, (c) Reactor Supervisor, (d) Senior Health Physicist, (e) Reactor Shift Operator, (f) Health Physicists. The administration building will be used as the Emergency Control Centre. The emergency teams working under the direction of the Emergency Director consist of: (a) Health Physics, (b) Fire and Rescue, (c) First Aid and Decontamination, (d) Transportation, (e) Security and Patrol. The emergency situation is evaluated in three phases at CNAEM. The first phase is the first few hours after the beginning of the accident. The second phase is between 8-10 hours or more following the first phase. The third phase is the recovery phase. The integrated doses over periods of two hours and two days are calculated according to the situation of the core, i.e. total or partial melting, and weather conditions. The results of the calculated parameters can be adapted to possible

  8. The Changing Adventures of Mixed Low-Level Waste Disposal at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    After a 15-year hiatus, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) began accepting DOE off-site generated mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in December 2005. This action was predicated on the acceptance by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) of a waste analysis plan (WAP). The NNSA/NSO agreed to limit mixed waste disposal to 20,000 cubic meters (approximately 706,000 cubic feet) and close the facility by December 2010 or sooner, if the volume limit is reached. The WAP and implementing procedures were developed based on Hanford?s system of verification to the extent possible so the two regional disposal sites could have similar processes. Since the NNSA/NSO does not have a breaching facility to allow the opening of boxes at the site, verification of the waste occurs by visual inspection at the generator/treatment facility or by Real-Time-Radiography (RTR) at the NTS. This system allows the NTS to effectively, efficiently, and compliantly accept MLLW for disposal. The WAP, NTS Waste Acceptance Criteria, and procedures have been revised based on learning experiences. These changes include: RTR expectations; visual inspection techniques; tamper-indicating device selection; void space requirements; and chemical screening concerns. The NNSA/NSO, NDEP, and the generators have been working together throughout the debugging of the verification processes. Additionally, the NNSA/NSO will continue to refine the MLLW acceptance processes and strive for continual improvement of the program

  9. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste: Volume 3, Site evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M. [eds.

    1996-03-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 2 provides details about the site-selection process, the performance-evaluation methodology, and the overall results of the analysis. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussion of the results for each site.

  10. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste: Volume 3, Site evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.

    1996-03-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 2 provides details about the site-selection process, the performance-evaluation methodology, and the overall results of the analysis. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussion of the results for each site

  11. Off-Site Storage and Special Collections: A Study in Use and Impact in ARL Libraries in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priddle, Charlotte; McCann, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Special collections libraries collect and preserve materials of intellectual and cultural heritage, providing access to unique research resources. As their holdings continue to expand, special collections in research libraries confront increased space pressures. Off-site storage facilities, used frequently by research libraries for general…

  12. Data on loss of off-site electric power simulation tests of the high temperature engineering test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Fujimoto, Nozomu; Tachibana, Yukio; Iyoku, Tatsuo

    2002-07-01

    The high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR), the first high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) in Japan, achieved the first full power of 30 MW on December 7 in 2001. In the rise-to-power test of the HTTR, simulation tests on loss of off-site electric power from 15 and 30 MW operations were carried out by manual shutdown of off-site electric power. Because helium circulators and water pumps coasted down immediately after the loss of off-site electric power, flow rates of helium and water decreased to the scram points. To shut down the reactor safely, the subcriticality should be kept by the insertion of control rods and the auxiliary cooling system should cool the core continuously avoiding excessive cold shock to core graphite components. About 50 s later from the loss of off-site electric power, the auxiliary cooling system started up by supplying electricity from emergency power feeders. Temperature of hot plenum block among core graphite structures decreased continuously after the startup of the auxiliary cooling system. This report describes sequences of dynamic components and transient behaviors of the reactor and its cooling system during the simulation tests from 15 and 30 MW operations. (author)

  13. Mixed waste management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P.

    1992-01-01

    Currently, limited storage and treatment capacity exists for commercial mixed waste streams. No commercial mixed waste disposal is available, and it has been estimated that if and when commercial mixed waste disposal becomes available, the costs will be high. If high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and management options. Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition) no migration petition) and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly. Another option for mixed waste management that is being explored is the feasibility of Department of Energy (DOE) accepting commercial mixed waste for treatment, storage, and disposal. A study has been completed that analyzes DOE treatment capacity in comparison with commercial mixed waste streams. (author)

  14. Does e-pain plan improve management of sickle cell disease associated vaso-occlusive pain crisis? a mixed methods evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Lin, Yi-Chin; Krishnamurti, Lakshmanan; Padman, Rema; Seltman, Howard J

    2014-11-01

    There is limited application and evaluation of health information systems in the management of vaso-occlusive pain crises in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients. This study evaluates the impact of digitization of paper-based individualized pain plans on process efficiency and care quality by examining both objective patient data and subjective clinician insights. Retrospective, before and after, mixed methods evaluation of digitization of paper documents in Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC. Subjective perceptions are analyzed using surveys completed by 115 clinicians in emergency department (ED) and inpatient units (IP). Objective effects are evaluated using mixed models with data on 1089 ED visits collected via electronic chart review 28 months before and 22 months after the digitization. Surveys indicate that all clinicians perceived the digitization to improve the efficiency and quality of pain management. Physicians overwhelmingly preferred using the digitized plans, but only 44% of the nurses had the same response. Analysis of patient records indicates that adjusted time from analgesic order to administration was significantly reduced from 35.50 to 26.77 min (pmanagement. This study highlights the important role of health information technology (HIT) on vaso-occlusive pain management for pediatric patients with sickle cell disease and the critical challenges in accommodating human factor considerations in implementing and evaluating HIT effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Does Quantitative Research in Child Maltreatment Tell the Whole Story? The Need for Mixed-Methods Approaches to Explore the Effects of Maltreatment in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Samuel; Gajwani, Ruchika; Turner-Halliday, Fiona

    Background and Aims. Research on child maltreatment has largely overlooked the under-five age group and focuses primarily on quantitative measurement. This mixed-methods study of maltreated children (N = 92) entering care (age 6-60 months) combines a quantitative focus on the associations between care journey characteristics and mental health outcomes with a qualitative exploration of maltreatment in four different families. Methods. Care journey data was obtained from social care records; mental health and attachment assessments were carried out following entry to care; qualitative data comprised semistructured interviews with professionals, foster carers, and parents. Results. Significant associations were found between suspected sexual abuse and increased DAI inhibited attachment symptoms (p = 0.001) and between reported domestic violence and decreased DAI inhibited (p = 0.016) and disinhibited (p = 0.004) attachment symptoms. Qualitative results: two themes demonstrate the complexity of assessing maltreatment: (1) overlapping maltreatment factors occur in most cases and (2) maltreatment effects may be particularly challenging to isolate. Conclusions. Qualitative exploration has underscored the complexity of assessing maltreatment, indicating why expected associations were not found in this study and posing questions for the quantitative measurement of maltreatment in general. We therefore suggest a new categorisation of maltreatment and call for the complimentary research lenses of further mixed-methods approaches.

  16. Does Quantitative Research in Child Maltreatment Tell the Whole Story? The Need for Mixed-Methods Approaches to Explore the Effects of Maltreatment in Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Glass

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Research on child maltreatment has largely overlooked the under-five age group and focuses primarily on quantitative measurement. This mixed-methods study of maltreated children (N=92 entering care (age 6–60 months combines a quantitative focus on the associations between care journey characteristics and mental health outcomes with a qualitative exploration of maltreatment in four different families. Methods. Care journey data was obtained from social care records; mental health and attachment assessments were carried out following entry to care; qualitative data comprised semistructured interviews with professionals, foster carers, and parents. Results. Significant associations were found between suspected sexual abuse and increased DAI inhibited attachment symptoms (p=0.001 and between reported domestic violence and decreased DAI inhibited (p=0.016 and disinhibited (p=0.004 attachment symptoms. Qualitative results: two themes demonstrate the complexity of assessing maltreatment: (1 overlapping maltreatment factors occur in most cases and (2 maltreatment effects may be particularly challenging to isolate. Conclusions. Qualitative exploration has underscored the complexity of assessing maltreatment, indicating why expected associations were not found in this study and posing questions for the quantitative measurement of maltreatment in general. We therefore suggest a new categorisation of maltreatment and call for the complimentary research lenses of further mixed-methods approaches.

  17. OFF-SITE SMARTPHONE VS. STANDARD WORKSTATION IN THE RADIOGRAPHIC DIAGNOSIS OF SMALL INTESTINAL MECHANICAL OBSTRUCTION IN DOGS AND CATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Peter G; Fischetti, Anthony J; Moore, George E; Le Roux, Alexandre B

    2016-09-01

    Off-site consultations by board-certified veterinary radiologists benefit residents and emergency clinicians by providing immediate feedback and potentially improving patient outcome. Smartphone devices and compressed images transmitted by email or text greatly facilitate availability of these off-site consultations. Criticism of a smartphone interface for off-site consultation is mostly directed at image degradation relative to the standard radiographic viewing room and monitors. The purpose of this retrospective, cross-sectional, methods comparison study was to compare the accuracy of abdominal radiographs in two imaging interfaces (Joint Photographic Experts Group, off-site, smartphone vs. Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine, on-site, standard workstation) for the diagnosis of small intestinal mechanical obstruction in vomiting dogs and cats. Two board-certified radiologists graded randomized abdominal radiographs using a five-point Likert scale for the presence of mechanical obstruction in 100 dogs or cats presenting for vomiting. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curves for both imaging interfaces was high. The accuracy of the smartphone and traditional workstation was not statistically significantly different for either reviewer (P = 0.384 and P = 0.536). Correlation coefficients were 0.821 and 0.705 for each reviewer when the same radiographic study was viewed in different formats. Accuracy differences between radiologists were potentially related to years of experience. We conclude that off-site expert consultation with a smartphone provides an acceptable interface for accurate diagnosis of small intestinal mechanical obstruction in dogs and cat. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  18. Investigation of novel electrode materials for electrochemically based remediation of high and low-level mixed wastes in the DOE complex. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.A.; Lewis, N.S.

    1997-01-01

    'This work is focused on the preparation of novel electrode materials for the degradation of toxic wastes in the DOE complex. One of the goals of this work is to characterize whether it is possible to use controlled doping of TiO 2 with species such as Nb in order to create new electrode materials that will facilitate the destruction of undesirable organics and inorganics, without light and instead only with an applied potential, in the waste tanks at the DOE sites. In the first part of this project, the authors have therefore spent an extensive amount of effort characterizing, as a baseline, the chemical and electrochemical behavior of TiO 2 itself, so that they can make robust comparisons to the behavior of the Nb-doped systems in subsequent work on this project. The preparation of these electrode films is being performed by Marc Anderson at Wisconsin, who is preparing a number of different stoichiometries, grain sizes, etc. for investigation of their electrochemical properties by the Lewis group at Caltech. First they report on the progress of the electrode preparation work, and then they describe progress on the electrochemical work.'

  19. Peak Dose Assessment for Proposed DOE-PPPO Authorized Limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado, Delis

    2012-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prime contractor, was contracted by the DOE Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office (DOE-PPPO) to conduct a peak dose assessment in support of the Authorized Limits Request for Solid Waste Disposal at Landfill C-746-U at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (DOE-PPPO 2011a). The peak doses were calculated based on the DOE-PPPO Proposed Single Radionuclides Soil Guidelines and the DOE-PPPO Proposed Authorized Limits (AL) Volumetric Concentrations available in DOE-PPPO 2011a. This work is provided as an appendix to the Dose Modeling Evaluations and Technical Support Document for the Authorized Limits Request for the C-746-U Landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky (ORISE 2012). The receptors evaluated in ORISE 2012 were selected by the DOE-PPPO for the additional peak dose evaluations. These receptors included a Landfill Worker, Trespasser, Resident Farmer (onsite), Resident Gardener, Recreational User, Outdoor Worker and an Offsite Resident Farmer. The RESRAD (Version 6.5) and RESRAD-OFFSITE (Version 2.5) computer codes were used for the peak dose assessments. Deterministic peak dose assessments were performed for all the receptors and a probabilistic dose assessment was performed only for the Offsite Resident Farmer at the request of the DOE-PPPO. In a deterministic analysis, a single input value results in a single output value. In other words, a deterministic analysis uses single parameter values for every variable in the code. By contrast, a probabilistic approach assigns parameter ranges to certain variables, and the code randomly selects the values for each variable from the parameter range each time it calculates the dose (NRC 2006). The receptor scenarios, computer codes and parameter input files were previously used in ORISE 2012. A few modifications were made to the parameter input files as appropriate for this effort. Some of these changes

  20. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste. Volume 1: Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation (PE) to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 1 is an executive summary both of the PE methodology and of the results obtained from the PEs. While this volume briefly reviews the scope and method of analyses, its main objective is to emphasize the important insights and conclusions derived from the conduct of the PEs. Volume 2 provides details about the site-selection process, the performance-evaluation methodology, and the overall results of the analysis. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussions of the results for each site

  1. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste. Volume 2: Technical basis and discussion of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.; Hospelhorn, M.B.

    1996-03-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 2 first describes the screening process used to determine the sites to be considered in the PEs. This volume then provides the technical details of the methodology for conducting the performance evaluations. It also provides a comparison and analysis of the overall results for all sites that were evaluated. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussions of the results for each site

  2. Using a Consensus Conference to Characterize Regulatory Concerns Regarding Bioremediation of Radionuclides and Heavy Metals in Mixed Wastes at DOE Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lach, Denise

    2005-01-01

    We have spent this first part of the project preparing background material for conference participants and making arrangements for the conference itself. Material regarding state regulatory constraints to the use of bioremediation in the cleanup of radionuclides and heavy metals at DOE sites around the country has been added to the Bioremediation Briefing paper for participants. The Steering Committee has been formulated and will hold their first meeting via phone conference on Monday, September 13, 2005. On the agenda is identification of conference participants, experts, and initial issues likely to be addressed. Human Subjects approval has been secured from the University. The ''pre-test'' has been developed and is ready to implement. The Consensus Conference will be held in Phoenix, AZ during January and February 2005; we are working with the Chamber of Commerce to find an appropriate site

  3. Household preferences for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in four European high-income countries: Does health information matter? A mixed-methods study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Herrmann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is now universally acknowledged that climate change constitutes a major threat to human health. At the same time, some of the measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, so-called climate change mitigation measures, have significant health co-benefits (e.g., walking or cycling more; eating less meat. The goal of limiting global warming to 1,5° Celsius set by the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Paris in 2015 can only be reached if all stakeholders, including households, take actions to mitigate climate change. Results on whether framing mitigation measures in terms of their health co-benefits increases the likelihood of their implementation are inconsistent. The present study protocol describes the transdisciplinary project HOPE (HOuseholds’ Preferences for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in four European high-income countries that investigates the role of health co-benefits in households’ decision making on climate change mitigation measures in urban households in France, Germany, Norway and Sweden. Methods HOPE employs a mixed-methods approach combining status-quo carbon footprint assessments, simulations of the reduction of households’ carbon footprints, and qualitative in-depth interviews with a subgroup of households. Furthermore, a policy analysis of current household oriented climate policies is conducted. In the simulation of the reduction of households’ carbon footprints, half of the households are provided with information on health co-benefits of climate change mitigation measures, the other half is not. Households’ willingness to implement the measures is assessed and compared in between-group analyses of variance. Discussion This is one of the first comprehensive mixed-methods approaches to investigate which mitigation measures households are most willing to implement in order to reach the 1,5° target set by the Paris Agreement, and

  4. Household preferences for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in four European high-income countries: Does health information matter? A mixed-methods study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Alina; Fischer, Helen; Amelung, Dorothee; Litvine, Dorian; Aall, Carlo; Andersson, Camilla; Baltruszewicz, Marta; Barbier, Carine; Bruyère, Sébastien; Bénévise, Françoise; Dubois, Ghislain; Louis, Valérie R; Nilsson, Maria; Richardsen Moberg, Karen; Sköld, Bore; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2017-08-01

    It is now universally acknowledged that climate change constitutes a major threat to human health. At the same time, some of the measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, so-called climate change mitigation measures, have significant health co-benefits (e.g., walking or cycling more; eating less meat). The goal of limiting global warming to 1,5° Celsius set by the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Paris in 2015 can only be reached if all stakeholders, including households, take actions to mitigate climate change. Results on whether framing mitigation measures in terms of their health co-benefits increases the likelihood of their implementation are inconsistent. The present study protocol describes the transdisciplinary project HOPE (HOuseholds' Preferences for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in four European high-income countries) that investigates the role of health co-benefits in households' decision making on climate change mitigation measures in urban households in France, Germany, Norway and Sweden. HOPE employs a mixed-methods approach combining status-quo carbon footprint assessments, simulations of the reduction of households' carbon footprints, and qualitative in-depth interviews with a subgroup of households. Furthermore, a policy analysis of current household oriented climate policies is conducted. In the simulation of the reduction of households' carbon footprints, half of the households are provided with information on health co-benefits of climate change mitigation measures, the other half is not. Households' willingness to implement the measures is assessed and compared in between-group analyses of variance. This is one of the first comprehensive mixed-methods approaches to investigate which mitigation measures households are most willing to implement in order to reach the 1,5° target set by the Paris Agreement, and whether health co-benefits can serve as a motivator for households to

  5. A case report of mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas treated with S-1 chemotherapy: Does it work or induce endocrine differentiation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokode, Masataka; Itai, Ryosuke; Yamashita, Yukimasa; Zen, Yoh

    2017-11-01

    Acinar cell carcinomas (ACCs) and mixed acinar-endocrine carcinomas (MAECs) of the pancreas are rare, accounting for only 1% of pancreatic tumors. Although both typically present at an advanced stage, chemotherapeutic regimes have not yet been standardized. A 65-year-old man presented with a large mass in the pancreatic tail with multiple liver metastases. He was initially treated with gemcitabine for suspected ductal carcinoma of the pancreas, but no response was observed. S-1, administered as second-line chemotherapy, showed an approximately 38% reduction in the size of the primary tumor and metastatic deposits with therapeutic effects being maintained for 12 months. When the tumor progressed again, he underwent a percutaneous liver biopsy, which led to the diagnosis of MAEC. Combination therapy with cisplatin and etoposide targeting the endocrine component was administered, and this was based on the endocrine component potentially being less sensitive to S-1 than the ACC element. However, therapy was stopped due to the development of neutropenia, and the patient is currently receiving best supportive care. Given the previous studies suggested that S-1 is more effective for ACCs than gemcitabine, MAECs may also respond to S-1 chemotherapy, similar to ACCs. Another potential interpretation is that S-1 was effective when the condition was ACC, and eventually showed decreased effectiveness when the condition shifted to MAEC. Future studies are needed to conclude whether S-1 chemotherapy truly works against MAECs or induces endocrine differentiation in ACCs as a part of the drug-resistance process.

  6. Tree Stress and Mortality from Emerald Ash Borer Does Not Systematically Alter Short-Term Soil Carbon Flux in a Mixed Northeastern U.S. Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaclyn Hatala Matthes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive insect pests are a common disturbance in temperate forests, but their effects on belowground processes in these ecosystems are poorly understood. This study examined how aboveground disturbance might impact short-term soil carbon flux in a forest impacted by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire in central New Hampshire, USA. We anticipated changes to soil moisture and temperature resulting from tree mortality caused by emerald ash borer, with subsequent effects on rates of soil respiration and methane oxidation. We measured carbon dioxide emissions and methane uptake beneath trees before, during, and after infestation by emerald ash borer. In our study, emerald ash borer damage to nearby trees did not alter soil microclimate nor soil carbon fluxes. While surprising, the lack of change in soil microclimate conditions may have been a result of the sandy, well-drained soil in our study area and the diffuse spatial distribution of canopy ash trees and subsequent canopy light gaps after tree mortality. Overall, our results indicate that short-term changes in soil carbon flux following insect disturbances may be minimal, particularly in forests with well-drained soils and a mixed-species canopy.

  7. The DOE/DHHS memorandum of understanding: The DOE perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, R.

    1991-01-01

    On March 27, 1990, Secretary James D. Watkins established an Office of Health under the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health. All epidemiologic activities throughout the department were consolidated into this office as part of an Office of Epidemiology and Health Surveillance (OEHS) with specific responsibilities for occupational and community health surveillance. The mission and functions of the OEHS include the conduct of epidemiologic studies at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, nearby communities, and other populations. These studies comprise retrospective mortality studies of DOE contractor workers, hypothesis-generating studies related to the potential health effects of energy production and use, ecologic studies of off-site populations, quick-response investigations of suspected disease clusters, and others as needed. In addition, OEHS is responsible for providing procedures, technical support, and other resources for the conduct of DOE-sponsored epidemiologic research studies to be managed outside of DOE, including analytic studies to be managed by the Department of Health and Human Service (HHS) under a memorandum of understanding (MOU), dose-reconstruction studies, and studies related to DOE facilities to be conducted through state health departments

  8. The energy highways. The three safety barriers at nuclear power plants. Where does coal fit into the energy mix?. Sustainable urban development in Hanover. Energy in sub-Saharan Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    This issue of Alternatives newsletter contains a main press-kit about the economics of interconnected power distribution systems and 4 articles dealing with reactors safety, the advantages and drawbacks of coal in the energy mix, the environmental policy of Hanover city, and the energy situation in sub-Saharan Africa: 1 - 'The energy highways': Spotlight on the electrical power grids. From the much needed modernization of existing installations to the extension of networks in developing countries, Alternatives takes a look at these infrastructures that shape our environment, which can be considered as veritable 'energy highways' ensuring the coverage of our planet. 2 - 'The three safety barriers at nuclear power plants': Review of the three protective barriers deployed in the nuclear industry to ensure reactor safety. 3 - 'Where does coal fit into the energy mix?': Two experts put into perspective the challenges related to the use of coal, its efficiency and its environmental impact, on the basis of the Chinese and Polish examples. 4 - 'Sustainable urban development in Hanover': Bringing together quality of living and energy savings, this is the challenge taken up by Hanover in the Kronsberg area. Alternatives has examined this original model, which could serve as an example for other European cities. 5 - 'Energy in sub-Saharan Africa': Relatively abundant resources but which are poorly utilized and distributed characterize the energy situation in sub-Saharan Africa. Analysis of the situation and explanation of this paradox

  9. Disassortative Age-Mixing Does Not Explain Differences in HIV Prevalence between Young White and Black MSM: Findings from Four Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Alexander Grey

    Full Text Available Age disassortativity is one hypothesis for HIV disparities between Black and White MSM. We examined differences in age mixing by race and the effect of partner age difference on the association between race and HIV status.We used data from four studies of MSM. Participants reported information about recent sexual partners, including age, race, and sexual behavior. Two studies were online with a US sample and two focused on MSM in Atlanta.We computed concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs by race across strata of partner type, participant HIV status, condom use, and number of partners. We used Wilcoxon rank-sum tests to compare Black and White MSM on partner age differences across five age groups. Finally, we used logistic regression models using race, age, and partner age difference to determine the odds ratio of HIV-positive serostatus.Of 48 CCC comparisons, Black MSM were more age-disassortative than White MSM in only two. Furthermore, of 20 comparisons of median partner age, Black and White MSM differed in two age groups. One indicated larger age gaps among the Black MSM (18-19. Prevalent HIV infection was associated with race and age. Including partner age difference in the model resulted in a 2% change in the relative odds of infection among Black MSM.Partner age disassortativity and partner age differences do not differ by race. Partner age difference offers little predictive value in understanding prevalent HIV infection among Black and White MSM, including diagnosis of HIV-positive status among self-reported HIV-negative individuals.

  10. A Native American community with a 7% cesarean delivery rate: does case mix, ethnicity, or labor management explain the low rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, Lawrence; Leeman, Rebecca

    2003-01-01

    Cesarean delivery rates vary widely across populations. Studying communities with low rates of cesarean delivery may identify practices that can lower the cesarean rate. A population-based historical cohort study included all pregnant women (N = 1132) from 1992 through 1996 in a predominantly Native American region of northwestern New Mexico known to have a high prevalence of gestational diabetes and preeclampsia. The outcomes studied included delivery type (eg, cesarean, operative vaginal, spontaneous vaginal), indication for cesarean delivery, presence of obstetrical risk factors, and use of labor induction or augmentation. The cesarean delivery rate of the study group (7.3%) was only 35% of the 1996 US rate of 20.7%. Among study participants, the relative risk of a primary cesarean delivery for dystocia was 0.22 (95% CI, 0.14, 0.35). Trial of labor after cesarean delivery was attempted by 93% of study participants compared with 42% of women nationwide in 1994. The cesarean delivery rates for women with diabetes in pregnancy (11.5% versus 35.4%) and preeclampsia (14.8% versus 37.4%) were significantly lower than nationwide rates. Case-mix analysis comparison with a standardized population and comparison of standard (ie, term, singleton, vertex) primiparous women demonstrate that the low rate of cesarean delivery was not because of a lower prevalence of risk factors. The community's low rate of cesarean delivery is primarily the result of a decreased use of cesarean delivery for labor dystocia and an almost universal acceptance of trial of labor after cesarean delivery. Cultural attitudes toward childbirth, design of the perinatal system, and genetic factors also may explain the low rate of cesarean delivery.

  11. How does performance-based financing affect health workers' intrinsic motivation? A Self-Determination Theory-based mixed-methods study in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Julia; Muula, Adamson S; Houlfort, Nathalie; De Allegri, Manuela

    2018-07-01

    "Intrinsic motivation crowding out", the erosion of high-quality, sustainable motivation through the introduction of financial incentives, is one of the most frequently discussed but yet little researched potential unfavorable consequence of Performance-based Financing (PBF). We used the opportunity of the introduction of PBF in Malawi to investigate whether and how PBF affected intrinsic motivation, using a mixed-methods research design theoretically grounded in Self-Determination Theory (SDT). The quantitative component served to estimate the impact of PBF on intrinsic motivation, relying on a controlled pre- and post-test design, with data collected from health workers in 23 intervention and 10 comparison facilities before (March/April 2013; n = 70) and approximately two years after (June/July 2015; n = 71) the start of the intervention. The qualitative component, relying on in-depth interviews with health workers in selected intervention facilities one (April 2014; n = 21) and two (September 2015; n = 20) years after the start of PBF, served to understand how PBF did or did not bring about change in intrinsic motivation. Specifically, it allowed us to examine how the various motivation-relevant elements and consequences of PBF impacted health workers' basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness, which SDT postulates as central to intrinsic motivation. Our results suggest that PBF did not affect health workers' overall intrinsic motivation levels, with the intervention having had both positive and negative effects on psychological needs satisfaction. To maximize positive PBF effects on intrinsic motivation, our results underline the potential value of explicit strategies to mitigate unintended negative impact of unavoidable design, implementation, and contextual challenges, for instance by building autonomy support activities into PBF designs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. “How long does it take?” A mixed methods evaluation of computer-related work in GP consultations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Hayward

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Systematic reviews have suggested that time spent on computerrelated tasks increases consultation length. However, these reviews pre-date the current ubiquitous use of computers in U.K. general practice.Objective As part of a U.K. national study of the influence of information technology (IT on the interaction between patients and healthcare professionals during consultations, we explored how IT functions affected time allocation and styles of computer use during general practitioner (GP consultations.Methods We drew on multichannel video recording of consultations and measured consultation phases and the duration of computer-related tasks. We related measures of actual time to GP’s interpretation of computer use elicited in qualitative interviews.Results Our sample included recordings of 112 consultations from 6 GPs in three practices. The computer was used for about one-third of the greater consultation. However, its use was concentrated pre- and post- the patient consultation. The workflow of consultation was exemplified through six computer use cases. Most functionality was accepted and accommodated within the consultation, though disruptive and time-consuming tasks were generally delegated to administrative staff. Recognised styles of computer use (minimal, block and conversational were apparent, but applied very flexibly by GPs according to the nature of the consultation.Conclusions In contrast to earlier reports, contemporary computer use does not appear to have lengthened consultations. GPs adopted different styles of computer use in different consultations, challenging classifications that seek to stereotype GP computer use. Designing systems that support this versatility require an understanding of the fluid application of computer use within consultation structure.

  13. Challenging the conventional wisdom -- The case for off-site water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gidumal, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    Two recent remediation projects have demonstrated off-site water treatment as economically beneficial to on-site treatment. The project cost showed that significantly reduced capital costs and O and M costs were obtained by sending the material to a commercial waste water treatment plant vs. depending on on-site treatment. This paper will detail the line item capital costs as well as the expected annual operation and maintenance charges. The first project involved a major oil refinery needed to remediate a 2.1 MM gallon lagoon. The lagoon was used to dispose of primary oil/water/solids/separation sludge and currently comprised of 7% solid material. The second project is a remediation project with a pump and treat system. The water contains heavy metal (Pb, As) and VOC (ppm TCE, PCE, etc.) contamination. The Record of Decision (ROD) specified installation of groundwater/leachate extraction and injection wells within the existing landfill for dewatering and flushing of the system. The treatment choice for the leachate (40--60 GPM) was on-site pretreatment and discharge to the local POTW

  14. Improved Safety Margin Characterization of Risk from Loss of Offsite Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Original intent: The original intent of this task was ''support of the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characteristic (RISMC) methodology in order'' ''to address ... efficiency of computation so that more accurate and cost-effective techniques can be used to address safety margin characterizations'' (S. M. Hess et al., ''Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization,'' Procs. ICONE17, Brussels, July 2009, CD format). It was intended that ''in Task 1 itself this improvement will be directed toward upon the very important issue of Loss of Offsite Power (LOOP) events,'' more specifically toward the challenge of efficient computation of the multidimensional nonrecovery integral that has been discussed by many previous contributors to the theory of nuclear safety. It was further envisioned that ''three different computational approaches will be explored,'' corresponding to the three subtasks listed below; deliverables were tied to the individual subtasks.

  15. Improvement of Off-site Dose Assessment Code for Operating Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Juyub; Kim, Juyoul; Shin, Kwangyoung [FNC Technology Co. Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); You, Songjae; Moon, Jongyi [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    XOQDOQ code which calculates atmospheric Dispersion factor was included into INDAC also. A research on the improvement of off-site dose assessment system for an operating nuclear power plant was performed by KINS in 2011. As a result, following improvements were derived: - Separation of dose assessment for new and existing facilities - Update of food ingestion data - Consideration of multi-unit operation and so on In order to reflect the results, INDAC is under modification. INDAC is an integrated dose assessment code for an operating nuclear power plant and consists of three main modules: XOQDOQ, GASDOS and LIQDOS. The modules are under modification in order to improve the accuracy of assessment and usability. Assessment points for multi-unit release can be calculated through the improved code and the method on dose assessment for multi-unit release has been modified, so that the dose assessment result of multi-unit site becomes more realistic by relieving excessive conservatism. Finally, as the accuracy of calculation modules has been improved, the reliability of dose assessment result has been strengthened.

  16. Guidance on offsite emergency radiation measurement systems. Phase 2: The milk pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-04-01

    This document provides guidance to State and local governments and to Federal agencies on offsite emergency measurement of radionuclides after an accident involving a light-water nuclear power plant; in particular, this document provides guidance on determining the dose commitment from the milk pathway. Protective action levels proposed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for milk are used as the basis for monitoring requirements. Measurement of radionuclides in milk should be made at the earliest practical point in the production chain: dairy farms, receiving and transfer stations, processing plants or marketing facilities. Early monitoring will provide data to keep significantly contaminated milk out of distribution and will provide the basis for the most timely emergency response action. Radioiodine plus four other radionuclides, cesium-134, cesium-137, strontium-89, and strontium-90, contribute significantly to dose via the milk pathway; of the most severe potential accident, the short-term dose via the milk pathway from radioiodine is significantly greater than that of cesium or strontium. There is no emergency field monitoring instrumentation available for accurately monitoring cesium and strontium, particularly in the presence of radioiodine. Radioiodine can be a potential contamination problem in liquid milk, whereas radiocesium and radiostrontium can be a contamination problem in processed milk products. Monitoring for the long half-life nuclides such as cesium and strontium requires sophisticated equipment or chemistry procedures which are only available in a laboratory. 2 references, 21 figures, 21 tables

  17. Developments in modelling the economic impact of Off-site accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, S.M.; Robinson, C.A.; Faude, D.

    1991-01-01

    Models for assessing the economic consequences of accidental releases of radioactivity have application both in accident consequence codes and in decision aiding computer systems for use in emergency response. Such models may be applied in emergency planning, and studies in connection with the siting, design and licensing of nuclear facilities. Several models for predicting economic impact have been developed, in Europe and the US, and these are reviewed. A new model, called COCO-1 (Cost of Consequences Off-site), has been developed under the CEC MARIA programme and the features of the model are summarised. The costs calculated are a measure of the benefit foregone as a result of the accident, and in addition to tangible monetary costs the model attempts to include costs arising from the effect of the accident on individuals, for instance the disruption caused by the loss of homes. COCO-1 includes the cost of countermeasures, namely evacuation, relocation, sheltering, food restrictions and decontamination, and also the cost of health effects in the exposed population. The primary quantity used in COCO-1 to measure the economic value of land subject to restrictions on usage is Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Examples of default data included in the model are presented, as are the results of an illustrative application. The limitations of COCO-1 are discussed, and areas where further data are needed are identified

  18. Methods and codes for assessing the off-site Consequences of nuclear accidents. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, G.N.; Luykx, F.

    1991-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities, within the framework of its 1980-84 radiation protection research programme, initiated a two-year project in 1983 entitled methods for assessing the radiological impact of accidents (Maria). This project was continued in a substantially enlarged form within the 1985-89 research programme. The main objectives of the project were, firstly, to develop a new probabilistic accident consequence code that was modular, incorporated the best features of those codes already in use, could be readily modified to take account of new data and model developments and would be broadly applicable within the EC; secondly, to acquire a better understanding of the limitations of current models and to develop more rigorous approaches where necessary; and, thirdly, to quantify the uncertainties associated with the model predictions. This research led to the development of the accident consequence code Cosyma (COde System from MAria), which will be made generally available later in 1990. The numerous and diverse studies that have been undertaken in support of this development are summarized in this paper, together with indications of where further effort might be most profitably directed. Consideration is also given to related research directed towards the development of real-time decision support systems for use in off-site emergency management

  19. ROSA-III/971, BWR Rig of Safety Assessment LOCA, Loss of Offsite Power Transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    1 - Description of test facility: ROSA-III is a 1/124 scaled down test facility with electrically heated core designed to study the response of engineered safety features to loss-of-coolant accidents in in commercial BWR. It consists of the following, fully instrumented subsystems: (a) the pressure vessel with a core simulating four half-length fuel assemblies and control rod; (b) steam line and feed water line, which are independent open loops; (c) coolant recirculation system, which consists of two loops provided with a recirculation pump and two jet pumps in each loop; (d) emergency cooling system, including HPCS, LPCS, LPCI, and ADS. 2 - Description of test: Run 971 simulated a BWR LOSS of off-site power transient. The core scram was assumed to occur at 6 seconds after the transient initiated by the turbine trip. HPCS failure was assumed. After ADS started, the upper half of the core was uncovered by steam. The core was re-flooded by LPCS alone

  20. Off-site radiation exposure review project: computer-aided surface interpolation and graphical display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, T.A. Jr.

    1981-08-01

    This report presents the implementation of an iterative procedure that solves the following bivariate interpolation problem: Given N distinct points in the plane (x/sub i/, y/sub i/) and N real numbers Z/sub i/, construct a function F(x,y) that satisfies F(x/sub i/, y/sub i/) = Z/sub i/, for i = 1, ..., N. This problem can be interpreted as fitting a surface through N points in three dimensional space. The application of primary concern to the Offsite Radiation Exposure Review Project is the characterization of the radionuclide activity resulting from nuclear tests. Samples of activity were measured at various locations. The location of the sample point is represented by (x/sub i/, y/sub i/), and the magnitude of the reading is represented by Z/sub i/. The method presented in this report is constructed to be efficient on large data sets, stable on the large variations of the Z/sub i/ magnitudes, and capable of smoothly filling in areas that are void of data. This globally defined icode was initiateminednitial shock but to two later eriological invaders are Staphylococcus albus, Beta-hemolytic Streptococcus e to the same general semiclassical treatment

  1. 10 years and 20,000 sources: the GTRI offsite source recovery project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitworth, Julia; Streeper, Charles; Cuthbertson, Abigail

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) Offsite Source Recovery Project (OSRP) has been recovering excess and unwanted radioactive sealed sources for ten years. In January 2009, GTRI announced that the project had recovered 20,000 sealed radioactive sources. This project grew out of early efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to recover and disposition excess Plutonium-239 ( 239 Pu) sealed sources that were distributed in the 1960s and 1970s under the Atoms for Peace Program. Decades later, these sources began to exceed their design life or fall out of regular use. Sealed source recovery was initially considered a waste management activity, but after the terrorist attacks of 2001, the interagency community began to recognize the threat posed by excess and unwanted radiological materials, particularly those that could not be disposed at the end of their useful life. After being transferred to the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to be part of GTRI, OSRP's mission was expanded to include not only material that would be classified as Greater-than-Class-C (GTCC) when it became waste, but also any other materials that might constitute a 'national security consideration'. This paper discusses OSRP's history, recovery operations, expansion to accept high-activity beta-gamma-emitting sealed sources and devices and foreign-possessed sources, and more recent efforts such as involvement in GTRI's Search and Secure project. Current challenges and future work will also be discussed

  2. Determination of the carbon content of domestic farm produces to estimate offsite C-14 ingestion dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Y. G.; Kim, M. J.; Lee, G. B.

    2003-01-01

    The carbon content of grains, leafy and root vegetables, and fruits which the Koreans usually eat were calculated to use in the estimation of offsite C-14 ingestion dose. With the data of food intake per day in the Report on 1998 national health and nutrition survey- dietary intake survey, 5 age-group integrate d intake of the 4 farm produce groups were extracted for food items and the amount. Intake percentage in each food group were taken as food weighing factor for the foods. Carbon content was calculated using protein, fat, and carbohydrate content of the foods, and multiplied by the corresponding food weighing factor to derive the content of the food groups. The calculated carbon content of grains, leafy and root vegetables, and fruits were 39.%, 4.2%, 8.0%, and 5.9% respectively. Grains and fruits were not much different from ODCM for carbon content, but vegetables were higher by 0.7%∼4.5%

  3. Analysis of loss of offsite power transient using RELAP5/MOD1/NSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hho Jung; Chung, Bub Dong; Lee, Young Jin; Kim, Jin Soo

    1986-01-01

    System thermal-hydraulic parameters and simulated, using the best-estimate system code(RELAP5/MOD1/NSC), based upon the sequence of events for the KNU1( Korea Nuclear Unit 1) loss of offsite power transient at 77.5% power which occurred on June 9,1981. The results are compared with the actual plant transient data and show good agreements. After the flow coastdown following the trips of both reactor coolant pumps, the establishment of natural circulation by the temperature difference between the hot and the cold legs is confirmed. The calculated reactor coolant flowrate closely approximate the plant data indicating the validity of relevant thermal-hydraulic models in the RELAP5/MOD1/NSC. Results also show that the sufficient heat removal capability is secured by the appropriate supply of the auxiliary feedwater without the operation of S/G PORVs. In addition, a scenario accident at full power, based upon the same sequence of events described above, is also analysed and the results confirmed that the safety of KNU1 is secured by the appropriate operation of the S/G PORVs coupled with the supply of auxiliary feedwater which ensures sufficient heat removal capability. The characteristics of the non-safety related components such as the turbine stop valve closing time, S/G PORV setting etc. are recognized to be important in the transient analyses on a bestestimate basis. (Author)

  4. On-site and off-site forensic analysis capabilities for proliferation and terrorism prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whipple, R.E.; Nunes, P.J.; Reynolds, J.G.; Alcaraz, A.; Hart, B.R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: We will present current on-site technologies that can be utilized for the screening of explosives, chemical agents, and environmental contaminants. These techniques must have the capability to detect various hazardous materials at very low levels, since they pose a major challenge for first responders. Specifically, the technology must detect concealed explosives or chemical agents on-site rapidly. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently developing several different high explosive screening and detection technologies for field use. Two technologies that have demonstrated an ability to screen for explosives at low levels are colorimetric spot tests and thin layer chromatography (TLC). Another technology that has demonstrated usefulness for the on-site analysis of unknowns is portable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) sampling. Several examples utilizing these technologies and their usefulness will be presented. In addition to developing on-site screening methods, LLNL is an Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) designated laboratory and is certified to accept CW suspect samples. Currently, LLNL is expanding its ISO-17025 certification to include nuclear forensics and explosives. These off-site forensic analysis capabilities and certified procedures will support the needs for homeland security. We will highlight some of the ISO-17025 requirements to accredit procedures, handle samples, and reports. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract W-7405-ENG-48

  5. On-site and off-site forensic analysis capabilities for proliferation and terrorism prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, B.R.; Whipple, R.E.; Nunes, P.J.; Reynolds, J.G.; Alcaraz, A.

    2004-01-01

    We present current on-site technologies that can be utilized for the screening of explosives, chemical agents, and environmental contaminants. These techniques must have the capability to detect various hazardous materials at very low levels, since they pose a major challenge for first responders. Specifically, the technology must detect concealed explosives or chemical agents on-site rapidly. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently developing several different high explosive screening and detection technologies for field use. Two technologies that have demonstrated an ability to screen for explosives at low levels are colorimetric spot tests and thin layer chromatography (TLC). Another technology that has demonstrated usefulness for the on-site analysis of unknowns is portable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) sampling. Several examples utilizing these technologies and their usefulness will be presented. In addition to developing on-site screening methods, LLNL is an Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) designated laboratory and is certified to accept CW suspect samples. Currently, LLNL is expanding its ISO-17025 certification to include nuclear forensics and explosives. These off-site forensic analysis capabilities and certified procedures will support the needs for homeland security. We will highlight some of the ISO-17025 requirements to accredit procedures, handle samples, and reports. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract W-7405-ENG-48. (author)

  6. A model for the calculation of the off-site economic consequences of nuclear reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego, E.; Alonso, A.

    1988-01-01

    The off-site economic cost of nuclear reactor accidents will depend on the countermeasures adopted to reduce its radiological impact. The assessment of the direct costs of emergency countermeasures (evacuation, early relocation and food disposal) as well as those of long-term protective actions (food disposal, decontamination or interdiction) is the objective of a model under development, with the sponsorship of the CEC Radiation Protection Programme, called MECA (Model for assessing the Economic Consequences of Accidents). The meteorological and socio-economical peculiarities of each site studied will be taken into account, by means of a flexible meteorological sampling scheme, which considers the geographical distribution of population and economic centers, and a data-base, compatible with the existing European grid, that contains the population distribution and the economic characteristics of the environs of the site to be studied with more detail near the reactor. The paper summarizes the particular models which will be included in MECA and shows the importance of site-specific adaptable modelling for economic risk evaluation

  7. Passive Mixing inside Microdroplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengmin Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Droplet-based micromixers are essential units in many microfluidic devices for widespread applications, such as diagnostics and synthesis. The mixers can be either passive or active. When compared to active methods, the passive mixer is widely used because it does not require extra energy input apart from the pump drive. In recent years, several passive droplet-based mixers were developed, where mixing was characterized by both experiments and simulation. A unified physical understanding of both experimental processes and simulation models is beneficial for effectively developing new and efficient mixing techniques. This review covers the state-of-the-art passive droplet-based micromixers in microfluidics, which mainly focuses on three aspects: (1 Mixing parameters and analysis method; (2 Typical mixing element designs and the mixing characters in experiments; and, (3 Comprehensive introduction of numerical models used in microfluidic flow and diffusion.

  8. Does a one-day workshop improve clinical faculty's comfort and behaviour in practising and teaching evidence-based medicine? A Canadian mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David; Abourbih, Jacques; Maar, Marion; Boesch, Lisa; Goertzen, James; Cervin, Catherine

    2017-07-13

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a 1-day evidence-based medicine (EBM) workshop on physician attitudes and behaviours around teaching and practicing EBM. A mixed methods study using a before/after cohort. A medical school delivering continuing professional development to 1250 clinical faculty over a large geographic area in Canada. 105 physician clinical faculty members. A 1-day workshop presented at 11 different sites over an 18-month period focusing on EBM skills for teaching and clinical practice. (1) A quantitative survey administered immediately before and after the workshop, and 3-6 months later, to assess the hypothesis that comfort with teaching and practising EBM can be improved.(2) A qualitative survey of the expectations for, and impact of the workshop on, participant behaviours and attitudes using a combination of pre, post and 3 to 6-month follow-up questionnaires, and telephone interviews completed 10-14 months after the workshop. Physician comfort with their EBM clinical skills improved on average by 0.93 points on a 5-point Likert scale, and comfort with EBM teaching skills by 0.97 points (p values 0.001). Most of this improvement was sustained 3-6 months later. Three to fourteen months after the workshop, half of responding participants reported that they were using the Population Intervention Comparator Outcome (PICO) methodology of question framing for teaching, clinical practice or both. Comfort in teaching and practicing EBM can be improved by a 1-day workshop, with most of this improvement sustained 3-6 months later. PICO question framing can be learnt at a 1-day workshop, and is associated with a self-reported change in clinical and teaching practice 3-14 months later. This represents both level 2 (attitudes) and level 3 (behaviours) change using the Kirkpatrick model of evaluation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial

  9. Analysis of results from a loss-of-offsite-power-initiated ATWS experiment in the LOFT Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varacalle, D.J.; Giri, A.M.; Koizumi, Y.; Koske, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    An anticipated transient without scram (ATWS), initiated by loss-of-offsite power, was experimentally simulated in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) pressurized water reactor (PWR). Primary system pressure was controlled using a scaled safety relief valve (SRV) representative of those in a commercial PWR, while reactor power was reduced by moderator reactivity feedback in a natural circulation mode. The experiment showed that reactor power decreases more rapidly when the primary pumps are tripped in a loss-of-offsite-power ATWS than in a loss-of-feedwater induced ATWS when the primary pumps are left on. During the experiment, the SRV had sufficient relief capacity to control primary system pressure. Natural circulation was effective in removing core heat at high temperature, pressure, and core power. The system transient response predicted using the RELAPS/MOD1 computer code showed good agreement with the experimental data

  10. Hinkley Point 'C' power station public inquiry: proof of evidence on potential off-site effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Western, D.J.

    1988-09-01

    A public inquiry has been set up to examine the planning application made by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) for the construction of a 1200 MW Pressurized Water Reactor power station at Hinkley Point (Hinkley Point ''C'') in the United Kingdom. This evidence to the Inquiry is concerned with the potential of the proposed Hinkely Point ''C'' PWR to increase the exposure of members of the public offsite to radiation. The policy is to replicate the design of the Sizewell ''B'' reactor. The evidence examined in great detail at the Sizewell ''B'' Public Inquiry where the Inspector concluded that the risk would be very small. The purpose of this evidence is to provide an explicit account of the potential off-site effects of radiation at the Hinkley Point site, so that it can be seen that there is nothing specific to this location that could lead to a different conclusion. (author)

  11. Mixed wasted integrated program: Logic diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.; Stelle, S.; O'Brien, M.; Rudin, M.; Ferguson, J.; McFee, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Integrated Program Logic Diagram was developed to provide technical alternative for mixed wastes projects for the Office of Technology Development's Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Technical solutions in the areas of characterization, treatment, and disposal were matched to a select number of US Department of Energy (DOE) treatability groups represented by waste streams found in the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR)

  12. Modeling time to recovery and initiating event frequency for loss of off-site power incidents at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iman, R.L.; Hora, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    Industry data representing the time to recovery of loss of off-site power at nuclear power plants for 63 incidents caused by plant-centered losses, grid losses, or severe weather losses are fit with exponential, lognormal, gamma and Weibull probability models. A Bayesian analysis is used to compare the adequacy of each of these models and to provide uncertainty bounds on each of the fitted models. A composite model that combines the probability models fitted to each of the three sources of data is presented as a method for predicting the time to recovery of loss of off-site power. The composite model is very general and can be made site specific by making adjustments on the models used, such as might occur due to the type of switchyard configuration or type of grid, and by adjusting the weights on the individual models, such as might occur with weather conditions existing at a particular plant. Adjustments in the composite model are shown for different models used for switchyard configuration and for different weights due to weather. Bayesian approaches are also presented for modeling the frequency of initiating events leading to loss of off-site power. One Bayesian model assumes that all plants share a common incidence rate for loss of off-site power, while the other Bayesian approach models the incidence rate for each plant relative to the incidence rates of all other plants. Combining the Bayesian models for the frequency of the initiating events with the composite Bayesian model for recovery provides the necessary vehicle for a complete model that incorporates uncertainty into a probabilistic risk assessment

  13. THE EVALUATION OF SOIL EROSION OFF-SITES EFFECTS IN LARGE BASINS: THE STUDYCASE OF LERMA-CHAPALA WATERSHED, MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Cotler A.; Susana Gutierrez D.; Carlos Enriquez G.; Arturo Garrido P.

    2005-01-01

    One of the primary global concerns during the new millennium is the assessment of the impact of accelerated soil erosion on the economy and the environment (Pimentel et al. 1995; Lal, 1995). Erosion damages the site on which it occurs and also has undesirable effects off-site in the larger environment. Erosion moves sediments and nutrients out of the land, creating the two most widespread water pollution problems in the rivers, lakes and dams. The nutrients impact water quality largely throug...

  14. Safety analysis, 200 Area, Savannah River Plant: Separations area operations. Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuel (Supplement 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, P M

    1983-09-01

    Analysis of the Savannah River Plant RBOF and RRF included an evaluation of the reliability of process equipment and controls, administrative controls, and engineered safety features. The evaluation also identified potential scenarios and radiological consequences. Risks were calculated in terms of 50-year population dose commitment per year (man-rem/year) to the onsite and offsite population within an 80 Km radius of RBOF and RRF, and to an individual at the plant boundary. The total 50-year onsite and offsite population radiological risks of operating the RBOF and RRF were estimated to be 1.0 man-rem/year. These risks are significantly less than the population dose of 54,000 man/rem/yr for natural background radiation in a 50-mile radius. The 50-year maximum offsite individual risk from operating the facility was estimated to be 2.1 {times} 10{sup 5} rem/yr. These risks are significantly lower than 93 mrem/yr an individual is expected to receive from natural background radiation in this area. The analysis shows. that the RBOF and RRF can be operated without undue risk to onsite personnel or to the general public.

  15. An examination of the proposals for the off-site electrical power sources at the Sizewell B PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhouse, P. A. [HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate, London (United Kingdom)

    1986-02-15

    Over the past few years there has been an increase in the attention being given to the adequacy and reliability of alternative sources of power provided to supply safety equipment should off-site electrical sources fail. This paper discusses the rationale of HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorates assessment of the electrical systems proposed for the UK's first Pressurized water Reactor, Sizewell 3. The requirements for on-site sources are given, and a discussion is provided of the NII's Assessment Principles including common mode failure, single failure criterion and reliability targets. Where the assessment has resulted in notifications to the original design the reasons are given. The UK's large interconnected Grid System makes complete losses of off-site power comparatively rare. The potential exists however and this paper shows how the current approach ensures that not only are adequate on-site sources available but also that their siting, maintenance and testing are such that loss of off-site power will not cause an unacceptable risk to the public. (author)

  16. Simulation-based multiprofessional obstetric anaesthesia training conducted in situ versus off-site leads to similar individual and team outcomes: a randomised educational trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorensen, J.L.; Vleuten, C. van der; Rosthoj, S.; Ostergaard, D.; Leblanc, V.; Johansen, M.; Ekelund, K.; Starkopf, L.; Lindschou, J.; Gluud, C.; Weikop, P.; Ottesen, B.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of in situ simulation (ISS) versus off-site simulation (OSS) on knowledge, patient safety attitude, stress, motivation, perceptions of simulation, team performance and organisational impact. DESIGN: Investigator-initiated single-centre randomised superiority

  17. Idaho Habitat Evaluation for Off-Site Mitigation Record : Annual Report 1987.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrosky, Charles E.; Holubetz, Terry B. (Idaho Dept. of Fish and Game, Boise, ID (USA)

    1988-04-01

    The Idaho Department of Fish and Game has been monitoring and evaluating existing and proposed habitat improvement projects for steelhead (Salmo gairdneri) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Clearwater and Salmon River drainages over the last four years. Projects included in the evaluation are funded by, or proposed for funding by, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the Northwest Power Planning Act as off-site mitigation for downstream hydropower development on the Snake and Columbia rivers. A mitigation record is being developed to use increased smolt production at full seeding as the best measure of benefit from a habitat enhancement project. Determination of full benefit from a project depends on presence of adequate numbers of fish to document actual increases in fish production. The depressed nature of upriver anadromous stocks have precluded attainment of full benefit of any habitat project in Idaho. Partial benefit will be credited to the mitigation record in the interim period of run restoration. According to the BPA Work Plan, project implementors have the primary responsibility for measuring physical habitat and estimating habitat change. To date, Idaho habitat projects have been implemented primarily by the US Forest Service (USFS). The Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) have sponsored three projects (Bear Valley Mine, Yankee Fork, and the proposed East Fork Salmon River projects). IDFG implemented two barrier-removal projects (Johnson Creek and Boulder Creek) that the USFS was unable to sponsor at that time. The role of IDFG in physical habitat monitoring is primarily to link habitat quality and habitat change to changes in actual, or potential, fish production. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  18. Offsite radiation doses summarized from Hanford environmental monitoring reports for the years 1957-1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldat, J.K.; Price, K.R.; McCormack, W.D.

    1986-02-01

    Since 1957, evaluations of offsite impacts from each year of operation have been summarized in publicly available, annual environmental reports. These evaluations included estimates of potential radiation exposure to members of the public, either in terms of percentages of the then permissible limits or in terms of radiation dose. The estimated potential radiation doses to maximally exposed individuals from each year of Hanford operations are summarized in a series of tables and figures. The applicable standard for radiation dose to an individual for whom the maximum exposure was estimated is also shown. Although the estimates address potential radiation doses to the public from each year of operations at Hanford between 1957 and 1984, their sum will not produce an accurate estimate of doses accumulated over this time period. The estimates were the best evaluations available at the time to assess potential dose from the current year of operation as well as from any radionuclides still present in the environment from previous years of operation. There was a constant striving for improved evaluation of the potential radiation doses received by members of the public, and as a result the methods and assumptions used to estimate doses were periodically modified to add new pathways of exposure and to increase the accuracy of the dose calculations. Three conclusions were reached from this review: radiation doses reported for the years 1957 through 1984 for the maximum individual did not exceed the applicable dose standards; radiation doses reported over the past 27 years are not additive because of the changing and inconsistent methods used; and results from environmental monitoring and the associated dose calculations reported over the 27 years from 1957 through 1984 do not suggest a significant dose contribution from the buildup in the environment of radioactive materials associated with Hanford operations

  19. IAEA Coordinates International Mission on Remediation of Areas Off-site Fukushima Daiichi NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) will dispatch an international expert mission to Japan to assist the country in its planning to remediate the areas off-site from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Following a request by the Government of Japan, the mission, comprising 12 international and IAEA experts from several countries, will visit Japan between 7 and 15 October 2011 under the leadership of Mr. Juan Carlos Lentijo, General Director for Radiation Protection at Spain's nuclear regulatory authority. The team will go to several locations in the Fukushima Prefecture and conduct meetings in Tokyo with Japanese officials to: Provide assistance to Japan in its plans to manage remediation efforts; Review the country's remediation strategies, plans and work; and Share its findings with the international community. The IAEA mission will provide an opportunity for the international experts to exchange views with the Japanese authorities involved in the decontamination effort and other interested parties. It will also provide an opportunity for the IAEA to take stock of lessons learned from this important decontamination initiative. At the end of the mission a preliminary summary report will be provided to the Government of Japan and be made publically available. The team is also planning to hold a press briefing at the end of the mission. The final report of the mission will be presented to the Government in the month following the conclusion of the mission. Background The accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant has led to the radiological contamination of large areas. The Government of Japan has been formulating a strategy and plans to implement countermeasures to remediate these areas. The IAEA organized an International Fact Finding Expert Mission Of The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident Following The Great East Japan Earthquake And Tsunami, which was held between 24 May and 2 June 2011. The current mission is a

  20. The RODOS system: decision support for nuclear off-site emergency management in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskob, W.; Ehrhardt, J.

    2000-01-01

    The integrated and comprehensive real-time on-line decision support system, RODOS, for off-site emergency management of nuclear accidents has been developed with support of the European Commission and the German Ministry of Environment. About 40 West and East European institutes have been involved in the development of the existing version for (pre-) operational use. This paper gives an overview of the structure, the content, the main functions and the development status of the RODOS system. It describes how the system has been and is being installed in emergency centres of a number of European counties. Designed as a generic tool, the RODOS system is applicable from the very early stages of an accident up to many year after the release and from the vicinity of a site to far distant areas, unperturbed by national boundaries. Decision support is provided by the system at various levels, ranging from the largely descriptive with information on the present and future radiological situation, to an evaluation of the benefits and disadvantages of different countermeasures' options and their feasibility. This includes ranking them according to the decision-makers' expressed preferences and weights with due consideration of subjective arguments on socio-psychological and political influences. The capability of the RODOS software framework for integrating models, methods and database in a modular way and the flexibility of the user interface will be addressed in the paper. Their functionalities offer the possibility of adapting RODOS to local, regional and national conditions, in particular to the corresponding meteorological and radiological monitoring networks, the geographical and economic structures, different plant types and accident conditions. A hierarchy of user interfaces allows adaptation of the system to the needs and qualifications of users in real emergencies and in training and exercises. The potential role of RODOS for improving emergency response in Europe

  1. Development of web-based Off-Site Consequence Analysis Program (OSCAP) for extending ILRT intervals and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Ho-Jun; Hwang, Seok-Won; Oh, Ji-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We develop web-based offsite consequence analysis program based on MACCS II code. ► The program has an automatic processing module to make the main input data. ► It is effective in conducting risk assessments according to extending ILRT intervals. ► Even a beginner can perform offsite consequence analysis with the program. - Abstract: For an offsite consequence analysis, MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS) II code is widely used as a tool. In this study, the algorithm of web-based Off-Site Consequence Analysis Program (OSCAP) using the MACCS II code was developed for an integrated leak rate test (ILRT) interval extension and Level 3 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), and verification and validation (V and V) of the program was performed. The main input data of the MACCS II code are meteorological data, population distribution data and source term data. However, it requires lots of time and efforts to generate the main input data for an offsite consequence analysis using the MACCS II code. For example, the meteorological data are collected from each nuclear power site in real time, but the formats of the raw data collected are different from each other as a site. To reduce efforts and time for risk assessments, the web-based OSCAP has an automatic processing module which converts the format of the raw data collected from each site in Korea to the input data format of the MACCS II code. The program also provides an automatic function of converting the latest population data from Statistics Korea, the National Statistical Office, to the population distribution input data format of the MACCS II code. In case of the source term data, the program includes the release fraction of each source term category resulting from Modular Accident Analysis Program (MAAP) code analysis and the core inventory data from ORIGEN code analysis. These analysis results of each plant in Korea are stored in a database module of the web-based OSCAP, so a

  2. Sneutrino mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, Y.

    1997-10-01

    In supersymmetric models with nonvanishing Majorana neutrino masses, the sneutrino and antisneutrino mix. The conditions under which this mixing is experimentally observable are studied, and mass-splitting of the sneutrino mass eigenstates and sneutrino oscillation phenomena are analyzed

  3. Final environmental impact statement for the Nevada test site and off-site locations in the State of Nevada. Public comment and response document, Volume 3, Part A comments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    On February 2, 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Nevada Test Site and Off-Site Locations in the State of Nevada (NTS EIS) for review by the state of Nevada, Indian tribes, local governments, other federal agencies, groups and organizations, and the general public. The formal comment period lasted 90 days, ending May 3, 1996. As part of the comment process, the DOE held public hearings in St. George, Utah, and in Pahrump, Reno, and Las Vegas, Nevada. Community Workshops were held in Caliente, Tonopah, Boulder City, and North Las Vegas, Nevada, in conjunction with the University of Nevada Las Vegas to discuss the Draft NTS EIS. Volume 3 of the Final NTS EIS contains 3 chapters. Chapter 1 summarizes the major issues raised by the public. Chapter 2 contains the full text of the public comments on the Draft NTS EIS received by the DOE; it includes public hearing transcripts, written comments, and comments received via a toll-free comment open-quotes hot line.close quotes Chapter 3 contains the DOE's responses to the public comments and describes how the comments were considered in the Final NTS EIS

  4. RPV in-situ segmentation combined with off-site treatment for volume reduction and recycling - Proven In-Situ Segmentation Combined with Off-Site Treatment for Volume Reduction and Recycling. RPV case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Arne; Lidar, Per; Segerud, Per; Hedin, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants generates large volumes of radioactive or potentially radioactive waste. The proper management of the large components and the dismantling waste are key success factors in a decommissioning project. A large component of major interest is, due to its size and its span in radioactivity content, the RVP, which can be disposed as is or be segmented, treated, partially free released for recycling and conditioned for disposal in licensed packages. To a certain extent the decommissioning program have to be led by the waste management process. The costs for the plant decommissioning can be reduced by the usage of off-site waste treatment facilities as the time needed for performing the decommissioning project will be reduced as well as the waste volumes for disposal. Long execution times and delays due to problems with on-site waste management processes are major cost drivers for decommissioning projects. This involves also the RPV. In Sweden, the extension of the geological repository SFR plans for a potential disposal of whole RPVs. Disposal of whole RPVs is currently the main alternative but other options are considered. The target is to avoid extensive on-site waste management of RPVs to reduce the risk for delays. This paper describes in-situ RPV segmentation followed by off-site treatment aiming for free release for recycling of a substantial amount of the material, and volume efficient conditioning of the remaining parts. Real data from existing LWR RPVs was used for this study. Proven segmentation methods are intended to be used for the in situ segmentation followed by proven methods for packaging, transportation, treatment, recycling and conditioning for disposal. The expected volume reduction for disposal can be about 90% compared to whole RPV disposal. In this respect the in-situ segmentation of the RVPs to large pieces followed by off-site treatment is an interesting alternative that fits very well with the objective

  5. Wireless remote control of clinical image workflow: using a PDA for off-site distribution and disaster recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documet, Jorge; Liu, Brent J; Documet, Luis; Huang, H K

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) tool based on Web technology that remotely manages medical images between a PACS archive and remote destinations. Successfully implemented in a clinical environment and also demonstrated for the past 3 years at the conferences of various organizations, including the Radiological Society of North America, this tool provides a very practical and simple way to manage a PACS, including off-site image distribution and disaster recovery. The application is robust and flexible and can be used on a standard PC workstation or a Tablet PC, but more important, it can be used with a personal digital assistant (PDA). With a PDA, the Web application becomes a powerful wireless and mobile image management tool. The application's quick and easy-to-use features allow users to perform Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) queries and retrievals with a single interface, without having to worry about the underlying configuration of DICOM nodes. In addition, this frees up dedicated PACS workstations to perform their specialized roles within the PACS workflow. This tool has been used at Saint John's Health Center in Santa Monica, California, for 2 years. The average number of queries per month is 2,021, with 816 C-MOVE retrieve requests. Clinical staff members can use PDAs to manage image workflow and PACS examination distribution conveniently for off-site consultations by referring physicians and radiologists and for disaster recovery. This solution also improves radiologists' effectiveness and efficiency in health care delivery both within radiology departments and for off-site clinical coverage.

  6. Off-site environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States Nuclear Test areas, Calendar year 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patzer, R.G.; Fontana, C.A.; Grossman, R.F.; Black, S.C.; Dye, R.E.; Smith, D.D.; Thome', D.J.; Mullen, A.A.

    1987-05-01

    The principal activity at the NTS is testing of nuclear devices, though other related projects are also conducted. The principal activities of the Off-Site Radiological Safety Program are routine environmental monitoring for radioactive materials in various media and for radiation in areas which may be affected by nuclear tests; and protective actions in support of the nuclear testing program. These are conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends, and to provide information to the public. 28 refs., 37 figs., 30 tabs

  7. DOE's Phytoremediation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    This presentation contains an outline of the US DOE's phytoremediation program. A brief overview of the goals, infrastructure, and results of the program is presented. Environmental contaminants addressed include chlorinated hydrocarbons, metals, radionuclides, inorganic wastes, and mixed hazardous and radioactive wastes. Studies of soil remediation using phytoextraction and water remediation using rhizofiltration are briefly described

  8. DOE Hazardous Waste Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyman, L.D.; Craig, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    The goal of the DOE Hazardous Waste Program is to support the implementation and improvement of hazardous-chemical and mixed-radioactive-waste management such that public health, safety, and the environment are protected and DOE missions are effectively accomplished. The strategy for accomplishing this goal is to define the character and magnitude of hazardous wastes emanating from DOE facilities, determine what DOE resources are available to address these problems, define the regulatory and operational constraints, and develop programs and plans to resolve hazardous waste issues. Over the longer term the program will support the adaptation and application of technologies to meet hazardous waste management needs and to implement an integrated, DOE-wide hazardous waste management strategy. 1 reference, 1 figure

  9. A Development of Domestic Food Chain Model Data for Chronic Effect Estimation of Off-site Consequence Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seok-Jung; KEUM, Dong-Kwon; Jang, Seung-Cheol [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The FCM includes complex transport phenomena of radiation materials on a biokinetic system of contaminated environments. An estimation of chronic health effects is a key part of the level 3 PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment), which depends on the FCM estimation from contaminated foods ingestion. A cultural ingestion habit of a local region and agricultural productions are different to the general features over worldwide scale or case by case. This is a reason to develop a domestic FCM data for the level 3 PSA. However, a generation of the specific FCM data is a complex process and under a large degree of uncertainty due to inherent biokinetic models. As a preliminary study, the present study focuses on an infrastructure development to generation of a specific FCM data. During this process, the features of FCM data to generate a domestic FCM data were investigated. Based on the insights obtained from this process, a specific domestic FCM data was developed. The present study was developed a domestic FCM data to estimate the chronic health effects of off-site consequence analysis. From this study, an insight was obtained, that a domestic FCM data is roughly 20 times higher than the MACCS2 defaults data. Based on this observation, it is clear that the specific chronic health effects of a domestic plant site should be considered in the off-site consequence analysis.

  10. Sensitivity Analysis of Weather Variables on Offsite Consequence Analysis Tools in South Korea and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Uk; Moon, Kyong Whan; Sohn, Jong-Ryeul; Byeon, Sang-Hoon

    2018-05-18

    We studied sensitive weather variables for consequence analysis, in the case of chemical leaks on the user side of offsite consequence analysis (OCA) tools. We used OCA tools Korea Offsite Risk Assessment (KORA) and Areal Location of Hazardous Atmospheres (ALOHA) in South Korea and the United States, respectively. The chemicals used for this analysis were 28% ammonia (NH₃), 35% hydrogen chloride (HCl), 50% hydrofluoric acid (HF), and 69% nitric acid (HNO₃). The accident scenarios were based on leakage accidents in storage tanks. The weather variables were air temperature, wind speed, humidity, and atmospheric stability. Sensitivity analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) program for dummy regression analysis. Sensitivity analysis showed that impact distance was not sensitive to humidity. Impact distance was most sensitive to atmospheric stability, and was also more sensitive to air temperature than wind speed, according to both the KORA and ALOHA tools. Moreover, the weather variables were more sensitive in rural conditions than in urban conditions, with the ALOHA tool being more influenced by weather variables than the KORA tool. Therefore, if using the ALOHA tool instead of the KORA tool in rural conditions, users should be careful not to cause any differences in impact distance due to input errors of weather variables, with the most sensitive one being atmospheric stability.

  11. Utilities and offsites design baseline. Outside Battery Limits Facility 6000 tpd SRC-I Demonstration Plant. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-05-25

    As part of the overall Solvent Refined Coal (SRC-1) project baseline being prepared by International Coal Refining Company (ICRC), the RUST Engineering Company is providing necessary input for the Outside Battery Limits (OSBL) Facilities. The project baseline is comprised of: design baseline - technical definition of work; schedule baseline - detailed and management level 1 schedules; and cost baseline - estimates and cost/manpower plan. The design baseline (technical definition) for the OSBL Facilities has been completed and is presented in Volumes I, II, III, IV, V and VI. The OSBL technical definition is based on, and compatible with, the ICRC defined statement of work, design basis memorandum, master project procedures, process and mechanical design criteria, and baseline guidance documents. The design basis memorandum is included in Paragraph 1.3 of Volume I. The baseline design data is presented in 6 volumes. Volume I contains the introduction section and utility systems data through steam and feedwater. Volume II continues with utility systems data through fuel system, and contains the interconnecting systems and utility system integration information. Volume III contains the offsites data through water and waste treatment. Volume IV continues with offsites data, including site development and buildings, and contains raw materials and product handling and storage information. Volume V contains wastewater treatment and solid wastes landfill systems developed by Catalytic, Inc. to supplement the information contained in Volume III. Volume VI contains proprietary information of Resources Conservation Company related to the evaporator/crystallizer system of the wastewater treatment area.

  12. Factors and Drivers Effecting the Decision of Using Off-Site Manufacturing (OSM Systems in House Building Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Elnaas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Much has been written on Off-site Manufacturing (OSM in construction, particularly regarding the perceived benefits and barriers to implementation. However, there seems to be a wide misunderstanding of the state of OSM associated with the concept of decision by many of those involved in decision making process within the house building industry. This has led to a demand for guidance’s on decision making process for construction project leaders particularly at early project stages. Choosing a construction method for a project will require an optimum decision strategy which involves careful understanding, measurement and evaluation of a number of decision factors that can have the most influence on successful decision action. This paper, therefore, aims to identify the key decision factors to be considered at evaluation stage when choosing to use Off-Site Manufacturing (OSM as a construction strategy in house building projects. This will reveal the key drivers for change in the industry towards the use of OSM in house building.

  13. Sensitivity Analysis of Weather Variables on Offsite Consequence Analysis Tools in South Korea and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Uk Kim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied sensitive weather variables for consequence analysis, in the case of chemical leaks on the user side of offsite consequence analysis (OCA tools. We used OCA tools Korea Offsite Risk Assessment (KORA and Areal Location of Hazardous Atmospheres (ALOHA in South Korea and the United States, respectively. The chemicals used for this analysis were 28% ammonia (NH3, 35% hydrogen chloride (HCl, 50% hydrofluoric acid (HF, and 69% nitric acid (HNO3. The accident scenarios were based on leakage accidents in storage tanks. The weather variables were air temperature, wind speed, humidity, and atmospheric stability. Sensitivity analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS program for dummy regression analysis. Sensitivity analysis showed that impact distance was not sensitive to humidity. Impact distance was most sensitive to atmospheric stability, and was also more sensitive to air temperature than wind speed, according to both the KORA and ALOHA tools. Moreover, the weather variables were more sensitive in rural conditions than in urban conditions, with the ALOHA tool being more influenced by weather variables than the KORA tool. Therefore, if using the ALOHA tool instead of the KORA tool in rural conditions, users should be careful not to cause any differences in impact distance due to input errors of weather variables, with the most sensitive one being atmospheric stability.

  14. A Development of Domestic Food Chain Model Data for Chronic Effect Estimation of Off-site Consequence Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Seok-Jung; KEUM, Dong-Kwon; Jang, Seung-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    The FCM includes complex transport phenomena of radiation materials on a biokinetic system of contaminated environments. An estimation of chronic health effects is a key part of the level 3 PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment), which depends on the FCM estimation from contaminated foods ingestion. A cultural ingestion habit of a local region and agricultural productions are different to the general features over worldwide scale or case by case. This is a reason to develop a domestic FCM data for the level 3 PSA. However, a generation of the specific FCM data is a complex process and under a large degree of uncertainty due to inherent biokinetic models. As a preliminary study, the present study focuses on an infrastructure development to generation of a specific FCM data. During this process, the features of FCM data to generate a domestic FCM data were investigated. Based on the insights obtained from this process, a specific domestic FCM data was developed. The present study was developed a domestic FCM data to estimate the chronic health effects of off-site consequence analysis. From this study, an insight was obtained, that a domestic FCM data is roughly 20 times higher than the MACCS2 defaults data. Based on this observation, it is clear that the specific chronic health effects of a domestic plant site should be considered in the off-site consequence analysis

  15. Off-site environmental monitoring report: radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, G.D.; Black, S.C.; Grossman, R.F.; Patzer, R.G.; Smith, D.D.

    1985-04-01

    This report covers the routine radiation monitoring activities conducted by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas in areas which may be affected by nuclear testing programs of the Department of Energy. This monitoring is conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends in environmental radiation, and to provide such information to the public. It summarizes these activities for calendar year 1984. No radioactivity attributable to NTS activities was detectable offsite by the monitoring networks. Using recorded wind data and Pasquill stability categories, atmospheric dispersion calculations based on reported radionuclides releases yield an estimated dose of 1 x 10 -3 person-rem to the population within 80 km of the Nevada Test Site during 1983. World-wide fallout of Kr-85, Sr-90, Cs-137, and Pu-239 detected by the monitoring networks would cause maximum exposure to an individual of less than 0.6 mrem per year. Plutonium in air was still detectable along with krypton-85, which continued its gradual increase, as has been reported previously. Cesium and strontium in air were near their detection limits. An occasional net exposure to offsite residents has been detected by the TLD network. On investigation, the cause of such net exposures has been due to personal habits or occupational activities, not to NTS activities. 32 refs., 36 figs., 27 tabs

  16. Mixing Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandzia, Claudia; Kosonen, Risto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    In this guidebook most of the known and used in practice methods for achieving mixing air distribution are discussed. Mixing ventilation has been applied to many different spaces providing fresh air and thermal comfort to the occupants. Today, a design engineer can choose from large selection...

  17. Investigation of off-site airborne transport of lead from a superfund removal action site using lead isotope ratios and concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribil, Michael J.; Maddaloni, Mark A.; Staiger, Kimberly; Wilson, Eric; Magriples, Nick; Ali, Mustafa; Santella, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) concentration and Pb isotopic composition of surface and subsurface soil samples were used to investigate the potential for off-site air transport of Pb from a former white Pb processing facility to neighboring residential homes in a six block area on Staten Island, NY. Surface and subsurface soil samples collected on the Jewett White Pb site were found to range from 1.122 to 1.138 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.393 to 2.411 for 208Pb/207Pb. The off-site surface soil samples collected from residential backyards, train trestle, near site grass patches and background areas varied from 1.144 to 1.196 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.427 to 2.464 for 208Pb/207Pb. Two soil samples collected along Richmond Terrace, where Jewett site soils accumulated after major rain events, varied from 1.136 to 1.147 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.407 to 2.419 for 208Pb/207Pb. Lead concentration for on-site surface soil samples ranged from 450 to 8000 ug/g, on-site subsurface soil samples ranged from 90,000 to 240,000 ug/g and off-site samples varied from 380 to 3500 ug/g. Lead concentration and isotopic composition for the Staten Island off-site samples were similar to previously published data for other northeastern US cities and reflect re-suspension and re-mobilization of local accumulated Pb. The considerable differences in both the Pb isotopic composition and Pb concentration of on-site and off-site samples resulted in the ability to geochemically trace the transport of particulate Pb. Data in this study indicate minimal off-site surface transport of Pb from the Jewett site into the neighboring residential area.

  18. Nuclear power plants in Germany. Recent developments in off-site nuclear emergency preparedness and response; Kernkraftwerke in Deutschland. Neue Entwicklungen im anlagenexternen Notfallschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gering, Florian [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim/Neuherberg (Germany). Abt. SW 2.2 Entscheidungshilfesysteme, Lageermittlung und Kommunikation

    2014-10-15

    The reactor accident in Fukushima, Japan, in 2011 triggered a thorough review of the off-site emergency preparedness and response for nuclear power plants in Germany. ''Off-site emergency preparedness and response'' includes all actions to protect the public outside the fence of a nuclear power plant. This review resulted in several changes in off-site emergency preparedness and response, which are briefly described in this article. Additionally, several recent activities are described which may influence emergency preparedness and response in the future.

  19. DOE regulation of mixed waste. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy Conservation and Power and the Subcommittee on Commerce, Transportation, and Tourism of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session on H. R. 2009 and H. R. 2593, April 10, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Testimony by representatives of the Environmental Protection Agency, citizen environmental organizations, DOE, and universities on the Mixed Hazardous Waste Amendment Act of 1985 (H.R. 2009) and the Military Radioactive Emissions Control Act of 1985 (H.R. 2593) focused on safety aspects of mixed wastes at DOE facilities from the point of view of the general public and the implications for tourism and recreation in affected areas. H.R. 2593 calls for standards and continuous independent monitoring, while H.R. 2009 ensures that wastes the Solid Waste Management Act covers solid wastes containing radioactive material. The testimony covered definitions and interpretations by byproduct material and the problems associated with self-regulation. The testimony of the 10 witnesses follows the text of the two bills.

  20. DOE regulation of mixed waste. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy Conservation and Power and the Subcommittee on Commerce, Transportation, and Tourism of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session on H.R. 2009 and H.R. 2593, April 10, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Testimony by representatives of the Environmental Protection Agency, citizen environmental organizations, DOE, and universities on the Mixed Hazardous Waste Amendment Act of 1985 (H.R. 2009) and the Military Radioactive Emissions Control Act of 1985 (H.R. 2593) focused on safety aspects of mixed wastes at DOE facilities from the point of view of the general public and the implications for tourism and recreation in affected areas. H.R. 2593 calls for standards and continuous independent monitoring, while H.R. 2009 ensures that wastes the Solid Waste Management Act covers solid wastes containing radioactive material. The testimony covered definitions and interpretations by byproduct material and the problems associated with self-regulation. The testimony of the 10 witnesses follows the text of the two bills

  1. Mixed wasted integrated program: Logic diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, J.; Stelle, S. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); O`Brien, M. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Rudin, M. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Ferguson, J. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McFee, J. [I.T. Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-11-30

    The Mixed Waste Integrated Program Logic Diagram was developed to provide technical alternative for mixed wastes projects for the Office of Technology Development`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Technical solutions in the areas of characterization, treatment, and disposal were matched to a select number of US Department of Energy (DOE) treatability groups represented by waste streams found in the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR).

  2. Mixed Waste Working Group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The treatment of mixed waste remains one of this country's most vexing environmental problems. Mixed waste is the combination of radioactive waste and hazardous waste, as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Department of Energy (DOE), as the country's largest mixed waste generator, responsible for 95 percent of the Nation's mixed waste volume, is now required to address a strict set of milestones under the Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992. DOE's earlier failure to adequately address the storage and treatment issues associated with mixed waste has led to a significant backlog of temporarily stored waste, significant quantities of buried waste, limited permanent disposal options, and inadequate treatment solutions. Between May and November of 1993, the Mixed Waste Working Group brought together stakeholders from around the Nation. Scientists, citizens, entrepreneurs, and bureaucrats convened in a series of forums to chart a course for accelerated testing of innovative mixed waste technologies. For the first time, a wide range of stakeholders were asked to examine new technologies that, if given the chance to be tested and evaluated, offer the prospect for better, safer, cheaper, and faster solutions to the mixed waste problem. In a matter of months, the Working Group has managed to bridge a gap between science and perception, engineer and citizen, and has developed a shared program for testing new technologies

  3. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, S.C.; Grossman, R.F.; Mullen, A.A.; Potter, G.D.; Smith, D.D.; Hopper, J.L.

    1982-08-01

    This report, prepared in accordance with the guidelines in DOE/E-0023 (DOE 1981), covers the program activities conducted around Nevada Test Site (NTS) for calendar year 1981. It contains descriptions of pertinent features of the NTS and its environs, summaries of the dosimetry and sampling methods, analytical procedures, and the analytical results from environmental measurements. Where applicable, dosimetry and sampling data are compared to appropriate guides for external and internal exposures of humans to ionizing radiation. The monitoring networks detected no radioactivity in the various media which could be attributed to US nuclear testing. Small amounts of fission products were detected in air samples as a result of the People's Republic of China nuclear test and atmospheric krypton-85 increased, following the trend beginning in 1960, due to increased use of nuclear technology. Strontium-90 in milk and cesium-137 in meat samples continued the slow decline as observed for the last several years

  4. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, S.C.; Grossman, R.F.; Mullen, A.A.; Potter, G.D.; Smith, D.D.; Hopper, J.L. (comps.)

    1982-08-01

    This report, prepared in accordance with the guidelines in DOE/E-0023 (DOE 1981), covers the program activities conducted around Nevada Test Site (NTS) for calendar year 1981. It contains descriptions of pertinent features of the NTS and its environs, summaries of the dosimetry and sampling methods, analytical procedures, and the analytical results from environmental measurements. Where applicable, dosimetry and sampling data are compared to appropriate guides for external and internal exposures of humans to ionizing radiation. The monitoring networks detected no radioactivity in the various media which could be attributed to US nuclear testing. Small amounts of fission products were detected in air samples as a result of the People's Republic of China nuclear test and atmospheric krypton-85 increased, following the trend beginning in 1960, due to increased use of nuclear technology. Strontium-90 in milk and cesium-137 in meat samples continued the slow decline as observed for the last several years.

  5. Environmental assessment for the treatment of Class A low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste generated by the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently evaluating low-level radioactive waste management alternatives at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) located on the Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC) near West Valley, New York. The WVDP's mission is to vitrify high-level radioactive waste resulting from commercial fuel reprocessing operations that took place at the WNYNSC from 1966 to 1972. During the process of high-level waste vitrification, low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste (MILLW) will result and must be properly managed. It is estimated that the WVDP's LLW storage facilities will be filled to capacity in 1996. In order to provide sufficient safe storage of LLW until disposal options become available and partially fulfill requirements under the Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA), the DOE is proposing to use U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission-licensed and permitted commercial facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Clive, Utah; and Houston, Texas to treat (volume-reduce) a limited amount of Class A LLW and MLLW generated from the WVDP. Alternatives for ultimate disposal of the West Valley LLW are currently being evaluated in an environmental impact statement. This proposed action is for a limited quantity of waste, over a limited period of time, and for treatment only; this proposal does not include disposal. The proposed action consists of sorting, repacking, and loading waste at the WVDP; transporting the waste for commercial treatment; and returning the residual waste to the WVDP for interim storage. For the purposes of this assessment, environmental impacts were quantified for a five-year operating period (1996 - 2001). Alternatives to the proposed action include no action, construction of additional on-site storage facilities, construction of a treatment facility at the WVDP comparable to commercial treatment, and off-site disposal at a commercial or DOE facility

  6. Environmental analysis burial of offsite low-level waste at SRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poe, W.L.; Moyer, R.A.

    1980-12-01

    The environmental effects of receipt and burial of low-level naval waste generated at Department of Energy Laboratories are assessed in this environmental analysis. Through 1979, this low-level DOE waste was sent to the NRC-licensed burial ground operated by Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc., at Barnwell, South Carolina. DOE announced on October 26, 1979, that DOE-generated low-level waste would no longer be buried at commercial waste burial sites. SRP was selected to receive the naval waste described in this analysis. Receipt and burial of these wastes will have a negligible effect on SRP's environment and increase only slightly the environmental effects of the SRP operations discussed in the EIS on SRP waste management operations. The environmental effects of burial of this waste at Chem-Nuclear Burial Ground or at the SRP Burial Ground are described in this environmental analysis to permit assessment of incremental effects caused by the decision to bury this naval waste in the SRP Burial Ground rather than in the Barnwell Burial Ground. The radiological effects from burial of this waste in either the SRP or Chem-Nuclear Burial Ground are very small when compared to those from natural background radiation or to the annual population dose commitment from operation of SRP. The environmental effects of burial at SRP to dose commitments normally received by the population surrounding SRP are compared

  7. The real-time on-line decision support system RODOS for off-site emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benz, G.; Ehrhardt, J.; Faude, D.; Fischer, F.; Paesler-Sauer, J.; Rafat, M.; Schichtel, T.; Schuele, O.; Steinhauer, C.

    1994-01-01

    The project RODOS aims at the development of an integrated and comprehensive real-time on-line decision support system for off-site emergency management of nuclear accidents in Europe, applicable to the vicinity of the accident and its early phase up to far distant areas and later stages. As a joint venture of 18 institutions in the European Union, in close cooperation with institutions in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and east-central Europe, the project is to provide the methodological basis, develop models, collect data, and install the hardware and software framework of the RODOS system. The paper describes the project status, the overall design of the system and its present software structure, and gives a brief overview of important research and development tasks for the next project phases. (orig.) [de

  8. PCTRAN enhancement for large break loss of coolant accident concurrent with loss of offsite power in VVER-1000 simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadad, Kamal; Esmaeili-Sanjavanmareh, Mansour [Shiraz Univ., Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2017-05-15

    PCTRAN capability to simulate a large break loss of coolant accident concurrent with the loss of offsite power in Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant is enhanced and investigated. Following the correction of the accident scenario for Bushehr nuclear power plant in PCTRAN, simulation results are compared with the final safety assessment report of that plant. As a result, the primary loop thermal hydraulics parameters including pressure, total flow rates, leakage flow rates and reactor power are in a good agreement with the reference data. Hot and cold leg temperature variations have the same trends as reference data but have a maximum of 80 C disagreement at the transient initiation. The reason for this disagreement is explained and its adjustment is discussed. Improvements of PCTRAN simulator are mainly due to enhancing user control for atmospheric steam dump valve, containment pressure and emergency core cooling systems which are thoroughly described in this paper.

  9. Analysis of parameters for the off-site dose calculation due to HTO, OBT, and radioactive carbon ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, G. B.; Jeung, Y. K.; Bang, S. Y.; Um, H. M.

    2004-01-01

    For assessment of tritium and radiocarbon ingestion dose to off site individuals, water, hydrogen, and carbon content of main farm produce of Korea were investigated to replace the existing data in K-DOSE60, the Offsite Dose Calculation Manual(ODCM) of Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd. (KHNP). Main items and weighting factors of farm produce were determined with the nationwide food intake data in 2001, 2002. Main farm produce were sampled around Kori, Wolsong, Ulchin, Yonggwang nuclear power sites. Content of each produce was multiplied by weighting factor and summed up to make the weighted mean group value. For grains, water, hydrogen, and carbon content was not much different from the existing data currently used in K-DOSE60, but root vegetables had 3.5 times more hydrogen, and leafy vegetables and fruits had 0.7 - 1.3 times more or less water, hydrogen, and carbon contents than K-DOSE60

  10. Mixed Waste Integrated Program: A technology assessment for mercury-containing mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perona, J.J.; Brown, C.H.

    1993-03-01

    The treatment of mixed wastes must meet US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for chemically hazardous species and also must provide adequate control of the radioactive species. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development established the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) to develop mixed-waste treatment technology in support of the Mixed Low-Level Waste Program. Many DOE mixed-waste streams contain mercury. This report is an assessment of current state-of-the-art technologies for mercury separations from solids, liquids, and gases. A total of 19 technologies were assessed. This project is funded through the Chemical-Physical Technology Support Group of the MWIP

  11. Off-site source recovery project case study: disposal of high activity cobalt 60 sources at the Nevada test site 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocina, Frank G.; Stewart, William C.; Wald-Hopkins, Mark; Hageman, John P.

    2009-01-01

    The Off-Site Source Recovery Project has been operating at Los Alamos National Laboratory since 1998 to address the U.S. Department of Energy responsibility for collection and management of orphaned or disused radioactive sealed sources which may represent a risk to public health and national security if not properly managed.

  12. Clarifying the learning experiences of healthcare professionals with in situ and off-site simulation-based medical education: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorensen, J.L.; Navne, L.E.; Martin, H.M.; Ottesen, B.; Albrecthsen, C.K.; Pedersen, B.W.; Kjaergaard, H.; Vleuten, C. van der

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine how the setting in in situ simulation (ISS) and off-site simulation (OSS) in simulation-based medical education affects the perceptions and learning experience of healthcare professionals. DESIGN: Qualitative study using focus groups and content analysis. PARTICIPANTS:

  13. A report on anti-earthquake countermeasures of the switchyard etc. with a view to securing reliability of offsite power supply for Nuclear Power Stations etc. (Attachment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Submission of a report on anti-earthquake countermeasures of the switchyard etc. with a view to securing reliability of offsite power supply for Nuclear Power Stations etc. to Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency of Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry

  14. Planning for off-site response to radiation accidents in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to give guidance to those who are responsible for the protection of the public in the event of an accident occurring at a land-based nuclear facility. This guidance should assist in the advance preparation of emergency response plans and implementing procedures. Basic principles of protective measures along with their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Other principles related to emergency planning and the operational response to an emergency are outlined. Although the guidance is primarily oriented towards land-based nuclear power facilities, the guidance does have general application to other types of nuclear facility

  15. Planning for off-site response to radiation accidents in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to give guidance to those who are responsible for the protection of the public in the event of an accident occurring at a land-based nuclear facility. This guidance should assist in the advance preparation of emergency response plans and implementing procedures. Basic principles of protective measures along with their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Other principles related to emergency planning and the operational response to an emergency are outlined. Although the guidance is primarily oriented toward land-based nuclear power facilities, the guidance does have general application to other types of nuclear facilities

  16. Mixed parentage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang Appel, Helene; Singla, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    Despite an increase in cross border intimate relationships and children of mixed parentage, there is little mention or scholarship about them in the area of childhood and migrancy in the Nordic countries. The international literature implies historical pathologisation, contestation and current...... of identity formation in the . They position themselves as having an “in-between” identity or “ just Danes” in their every day lives among friends, family, and during leisure activities. Thus a new paradigm is evolving away- from the pathologisation of mixed children, simplified one-sided categories...

  17. Characterisation of focal liver lesions with unenhanced and contrast enhanced low MI real time ultrasound: On-site unblinded versus off-site blinded reading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohmann, Joachim; Skrok, Jan; Basilico, Raffaella; Jennett, Manfred; Müller, Anja; Wolf, Karl-Jürgen; Albrecht, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare on-site and blinded off-site reading of baseline ultrasound (US) and contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) for classification and characterisation of focal liver lesions. Materials and methods: 99 patients (57 women and 42 men, age range 18–89 years, mean age: 59 years) with 53 malignant and 46 benign liver lesions were studied with unenhanced US followed by contrast enhanced US after injection of 2.4 ml SonoVue ® (Bracco, Milano, Italy). Image interpretation was performed on-site with clinical information available by consensus of two readers and off-site by two independent blinded readers at two different centers. Comparison of pre and post contrast scans and of the different readers was performed. Reference examinations were histology, intraoperative US, MRI or CT. Results: Sensitivity for malignancy improved from 81/89/66% (on-site/off-site reader 1/2) before to 100/96/96% post contrast administration (p < 0.05, except for reader 1). Specificity improved from 48/48/54% on baseline US to 89/80/76% on CEUS (p < 0.05). Accuracy for specific lesion diagnosis was 62/59/50% pre and 90/77/72% post contrast (p < 0.05). Classification and characterisation post contrast were mildly inferior for off-site reading. Agreement between on-site and off-site readers of unenhanced scans was fair (κ = 0.29–0.39) while it was good for CEUS (κ = 0.63–0.79). Conclusions: CEUS improves classification and characterisation of focal liver lesions and interobserver agreement compared to conventional US. Classification and characterisation post contrast were mildly but statistically significantly better for on-site than for off-site reading.

  18. Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956)- An Assessment of Quantities released, Off-Site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostoaei, A.I.; Burns, R.E.; Hoffman, F.O.; Ijaz, T.; Lewis, C.J.; Nair, S.K.; Widner, T.E.

    1999-01-01

    In the early 1990s, concern about the Oak Ridge Reservation's past releases of contaminants to the environment prompted Tennessee's public health officials to pursue an in-depth study of potential off-site health effects at Oak Ridge. This study, the Oak Ridge dose reconstruction, was supported by an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Tennessee, and was overseen by a 12-member panel appointed by Tennessee's Commissioner of Health. One of the major contaminants studied in the dose reconstruction was radioactive iodine, which was released to the air by X-10 (now called Oak Ridge National Laboratory) as it processed spent nuclear reactor fuel from 1944 through 1956. The process recovered radioactive lanthanum for use in weapons development. Iodine concentrates in the thyroid gland so health concerns include various diseases of the thyroid, such as thyroid cancer. The large report, ''Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956) - An Assessment of Quantities Released, Off-site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer,'' is in two volumes. Volume 1 is the main body of the report, and Volume 1A, which has the same title, consists of 22 supporting appendices. Together, these reports serve the following purposes: (1) describe the methodologies used to estimate the amount of iodine-131 (I-131) released; (2) evaluate I-131's pathway from air to vegetation to food to humans; (3) estimate doses received by human thyroids; (4) estimate excess risk of acquiring a thyroid cancer during ones lifetime; and (5) provide equations, examples of historical documents used, and tables of calculated values. Results indicate that females born in 1952 who consumed milk from a goat pastured a few miles east of X-10 received the highest doses from I-131 and would have had the highest risks of contracting thyroid cancer. Doses from cow's milk are considerably less . Detailed

  19. Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956)- An Assessment of Quantities released, Off-Site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostoaei, A.I.; Burns, R.E.; Hoffman, F.O.; Ijaz, T.; Lewis, C.J.; Nair, S.K.; Widner, T.E.

    1999-07-01

    In the early 1990s, concern about the Oak Ridge Reservation's past releases of contaminants to the environment prompted Tennessee's public health officials to pursue an in-depth study of potential off-site health effects at Oak Ridge. This study, the Oak Ridge dose reconstruction, was supported by an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Tennessee, and was overseen by a 12-member panel appointed by Tennessee's Commissioner of Health. One of the major contaminants studied in the dose reconstruction was radioactive iodine, which was released to the air by X-10 (now called Oak Ridge National Laboratory) as it processed spent nuclear reactor fuel from 1944 through 1956. The process recovered radioactive lanthanum for use in weapons development. Iodine concentrates in the thyroid gland so health concerns include various diseases of the thyroid, such as thyroid cancer. The large report, ''Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956) - An Assessment of Quantities Released, Off-site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer,'' is in two volumes. Volume 1 is the main body of the report, and Volume 1A, which has the same title, consists of 22 supporting appendices. Together, these reports serve the following purposes: (1) describe the methodologies used to estimate the amount of iodine-131 (I-131) released; (2) evaluate I-131's pathway from air to vegetation to food to humans; (3) estimate doses received by human thyroids; (4) estimate excess risk of acquiring a thyroid cancer during ones lifetime; and (5) provide equations, examples of historical documents used, and tables of calculated values. Results indicate that females born in 1952 who consumed milk from a goat pastured a few miles east of X-10 received the highest doses from I-131 and would have had the highest risks of contracting thyroid cancer. Doses from cow

  20. Use of knowledge and experience gained from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident to establish the technical basis for strategic off-site response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Kaname; Saito, Kimiaki; Iijima, Kazuki; McKinley, Ian; Hardie, Susan

    2015-03-01

    This report provides a concise overview of knowledge and experience gained from the activities for environmental remediation after the Fukushima Daiichi (1F) accident. It is specifically tailored for international use, to establish or refine the technical basis for strategic, off-site response to nuclear incidents. It reflects JAEA's key role in the research associated with both remediation of contaminated areas and also the natural contamination migration processes in non-remediated areas, in collaboration with other Japanese and international organisations and research institutes. Environmental monitoring and mapping to define boundary conditions in terms of the distribution of radioactivity and resultant doses, guides the resultant response. Radiation protection considerations set constraints, with approaches developed to estimate doses to different critical groups and set appropriate dose reduction targets. Decontamination activities, with special emphasis on associated waste management, provide experience in evaluation of the effectiveness of decontamination and the pros and cons of different approaches / technologies. The assessment of the natural behaviour of contaminant radionuclides and their mobility in the environment is now focused almost entirely on radiocaesium. Here, the impact of natural mobility in terms of self-cleaning / re-concentration in cleaned areas is discussed, along with possible actions to modify such transport or manage potential areas of radiocaesium accumulation. Many of the conditions in Fukushima are similar to those following past contamination events in other countries, where natural self-cleaning alone has allowed recovery to such an extent that the original incident is now largely forgotten. Decontamination efforts in Japan will certainly accelerate this process. On-going remediation work is based on a good technical understanding of the movement of radiocaesium in the environment and this understanding is being translated into

  1. Mixed Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2010-01-01

    levels than those related to building, and this exploration is a special challenge and competence implicit artistic development work. The project Mixed Movements generates drawing-material, not primary as representation, but as a performance-based media, making the body being-in-the-media felt and appear...... as possible operational moves....

  2. Lateral Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    negative (right panel c) and the kinetic energy dissipation is larger than that expected from meterological forcing alone (right panel a). This is...10.1002/grl.50919. Shcherbina, A. et al., 2014, The LatMix Summer Campaign: Submesoscale Stirring in the Upper Ocean., Bull. American Meterological

  3. Reentry planning: The technical basis for offsite recovery following warfare agent contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.P.; Munro, N.B.

    1990-04-01

    In the event on an unplanned release of chemical agent during any stage of Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), the potential exists for contamination of drinking water, forage crops, grains, garden produce and livestock. Persistent agents, such as VX or sulfur mustard, pose the greatest human health concern for reentry. The purpose of this technical support study is to provide information and analyses that can be used by federal, state and local emergency planners in determining the safety or reentry to, as well as the potential for recovery of, contaminated or suspect areas beyond the installation boundary. Guidelines for disposition of livestock, agricultural crops and personal/real property are summarized. Advisories for ingestion of food crops, water, meat and milk from the affected zones are proposed. This document does not address potential adverse effects to, or agent contamination of, wild species of plants or animals. 80 refs., 4 figs., 29 tabs.

  4. Parity mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelberger, E.G.

    1975-01-01

    The field of parity mixing in light nuclei bears upon one of the exciting and active problems of physics--the nature of the fundamental weak interaction. It is also a subject where polarization techniques play a very important role. Weak interaction theory is first reviewed to motivate the parity mixing experiments. Two very attractive systems are discussed where the nuclear physics is so beautifully simple that the experimental observation of tiny effects directly measures parity violating (PV) nuclear matrix elements which are quite sensitive to the form of the basic weak interaction. Since the measurement of very small analyzing powers and polarizations may be of general interest to this conference, some discussion is devoted to experimental techniques

  5. Cost Effectiveness of On-site versus Off-site Depression Collaborative Care in Rural Federally Qualified Health Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, Jeffrey M.; Fortney, John C.; Mouden, Sip; Lu, Liya; Hudson, Teresa J; Mittal, Dinesh

    2018-01-01

    Objective Collaborative care for depression is effective and cost-effective in primary care settings. However, there is minimal evidence to inform the choice of on-site versus off-site models. This study examined the cost-effectiveness of on-site practice-based collaborative care (PBCC) versus off-site telemedicine-based collaborative care (TBCC) for depression in Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs). Methods Multi-site randomized pragmatic comparative cost-effectiveness trial. 19,285 patients were screened for depression, 14.8% (n=2,863) screened positive (PHQ9 ≥10) and 364 were enrolled. Telephone interview data were collected at baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-months. Base case analysis used Arkansas FQHC healthcare costs and secondary analysis used national cost estimates. Effectiveness measures were depression-free days and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) derived from depression-free days, Medical Outcomes Study SF-12, and Quality of Well Being scale (QWB). Nonparametric bootstrap with replacement methods were used to generate an empirical joint distribution of incremental costs and QALYs and acceptability curves. Results Mean base case FQHC incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) using depression-free days was $10.78/depression-free day. Mean base case ICERs using QALYs ranged from $14,754/QALY (depression-free day QALY) to $37,261/QALY (QWB QALY). Mean secondary national ICER using depression-free days was $8.43/depression-free day and using QALYs ranged from $11,532/QALY (depression-free day QALY) to $29,234/QALY (QWB QALY). Conclusions These results support the cost-effectiveness of the TBCC intervention in medically underserved primary care settings. Results can inform the decision about whether to insource (make) or outsource (buy) depression care management in the FQHC setting within the current context of Patient-Centered Medical Home, value-based purchasing, and potential bundled payments for depression care. The www.clinicaltrials.gov # for

  6. Scaling up kangaroo mother care in South Africa: 'on-site' versus 'off-site' educational facilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Rooyen Elise

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scaling up the implementation of new health care interventions can be challenging and demand intensive training or retraining of health workers. This paper reports on the results of testing the effectiveness of two different kinds of face-to-face facilitation used in conjunction with a well-designed educational package in the scaling up of kangaroo mother care. Methods Thirty-six hospitals in the Provinces of Gauteng and Mpumalanga in South Africa were targeted to implement kangaroo mother care and participated in the trial. The hospitals were paired with respect to their geographical location and annual number of births. One hospital in each pair was randomly allocated to receive either 'on-site' facilitation (Group A or 'off-site' facilitation (Group B. Hospitals in Group A received two on-site visits, whereas delegates from hospitals in Group B attended one off-site, 'hands-on' workshop at a training hospital. All hospitals were evaluated during a site visit six to eight months after attending an introductory workshop and were scored by means of an existing progress-monitoring tool with a scoring scale of 0–30. Successful implementation was regarded as demonstrating evidence of practice (score >10 during the site visit. Results There was no significant difference between the scores of Groups A and B (p = 0.633. Fifteen hospitals in Group A and 16 in Group B demonstrated evidence of practice. The median score for Group A was 16.52 (range 00.00–23.79 and that for Group B 14.76 (range 07.50–23.29. Conclusion A previous trial illustrated that the implementation of a new health care intervention could be scaled up by using a carefully designed educational package, combined with face-to-face facilitation by respected resource persons. This study demonstrated that the site of facilitation, either on site or at a centre of excellence, did not influence the ability of a hospital to implement KMC. The choice of outreach

  7. Influence of the CVCS Modelling on Results of the Loss of Offsite Power (LOOP) Safety Analysis for NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bencik, V.; Bajs, T.; Debrecin, N.

    2006-01-01

    A Loss of Offsite Power (LOOP) transient scenario is based on a complete loss of non-emergency AC power that results in the loss of all power to the plant auxiliaries, i.e., the Reactor Coolant Pumps (RCPs), condensate pumps, etc. An actual LOOP event would cause a loss of all feedwater, a loss of forced Reactor Coolant System (RCS) flow and a reactor trip within less than 2 seconds as a result of either loss of power to the rod cluster assembly gripper coils or any RCS flow trips. For safety analysis purposes the LOOP event is conservatively modelled as a Loss of Normal Feedwater (LONF) transient with a subsequent loss of offsite power as a result of a reactor trip. The reactor trip followed by RCP trip are delayed until a low-low Steam Generator (SG) level signal is reached. This is a more conservative scenario than the LOOP event because the least amount of SG secondary side water mass available for heat removal and the increased amount of the stored energy in the primary circuit at the time of the loss of RCS flow result. The standard LOOP safety analysis is aimed to demonstrate the natural circulation capability of the RCS to remove residual and decay heat from the core aided by Auxiliary Feedwater in the secondary system. In addition to this goal the presented work is aimed to resolve the potential safety issue resulting from the influence of the Chemical and Volume Control System (CVCS) operation during LOOP event for NPP Krsko. The potential safety concern for the LOOP analysis is that the loss of instrument air system may occur thus leading to the CVCS charging and letdown flow imbalance. A net RCS inventory addition may result with water solid pressurizer condition. Water discharge through the pressurizer relief and safety valves could lead to overpressurization of the Pressurizer Relief Tank (PRT) and rupture of the PRT rupture disks. Additional concern is that pressurizer relief and safety valves may fail to properly reseat when exposed to water relief

  8. Mercury removal from solid mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, D.D.; Morrissey, M.; Chava, K.K.; Chao, K.

    1994-01-01

    The removal of mercury from mixed wastes is an essential step in eliminating the temporary storage of large inventories of mixed waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Currently thermal treatment has been identified as a baseline technology and is being developed as part of the DOE Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Since thermal treatment will not be applicable to all mercury containing mixed waste and the removal of mercury prior to thermal treatment may be desirable, laboratory studies have been initiated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop alternative remediation technologies capable of removing mercury from certain mixed waste. This paper describes laboratory investigations of the KI/I 2 leaching processes to determine the applicability of this process to mercury containing solid mixed waste

  9. Effect of mixing on properties of SCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Ekstrand, John Peter; Hansen, Rune

    2007-01-01

    agglomerates will remain. The paper focuses on the effect of mixing schedule on self-compacting concrete properties. Workability and micro structure of a typical Danish self-compacting concrete mixed at varying intensity and with addition of superplasticizer in either one or two batches are described....... The observations indicate that the most homogeneous concrete does not necessarily exhibit the lowest rheological properties....

  10. Proceedings of the Seminar on Methods and Codes for Assessing the off-site consequences of nuclear accidents. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, G.N.; Luykx, F.

    1991-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities, within the framework of its 1980-84 radiation protection research programme, initiated a two-year project in 1983 entitled 'methods for assessing the radiological impact of accidents' (Maria). This project was continued in a substantially enlarged form within the 1985-89 research programme. The main objectives of the project were, firstly, to develop a new probabilistic accident consequence code that was modular, incorporated the best features of those codes already in use, could be readily modified to take account of new data and model developments and would be broadly applicable within the EC; secondly, to acquire a better understanding of the limitations of current models and to develop more rigorous approaches where necessary; and, thirdly, to quantify the uncertainties associated with the model predictions. This research led to the development of the accident consequence code Cosyma (COde System from MAria), which will be made generally available later in 1990. The numerous and diverse studies that have been undertaken in support of this development are summarized in this paper, together with indications of where further effort might be most profitably directed. Consideration is also given to related research directed towards the development of real-time decision support systems for use in off-site emergency management

  11. Techniques and decision making in the assessment of off-site consequences of an accident in a nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This Guide is intended to complement the IAEA's existing technical guidance on emergency planning and preparedness by providing information and practical guidance related to the assessment of off-site consequences of an accident in a nuclear or radioactive materials installation and to the decision making process in implementing protective measures. This Guide contains information on emergency response philosophy, fundamental factors affecting accident consequences, principles of accident assessment, data acquisition and handling, systems, techniques and decision making principles. Many of the accident assessment concepts presented are considerably more advanced than some of those that now pertain in most countries. They could, if properly interpreted, developed and applied, significantly improve emergency response in the early and intermediate phases of an accident. Furthermore, they are considered to be applicable to a broad range of serious nuclear accidents and radiological emergencies. The extent of their application is governed by both the scale of the accident and by the availability of preplanned resources for accident assessment and emergency response. 68 refs, 28 figs, 14 tabs

  12. Costs for off-site disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes: Salt caverns versus other disposal methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-09-01

    According to an American Petroleum Institute production waste survey reported on by P.G. Wakim in 1987 and 1988, the exploration and production segment of the US oil and gas industry generated more than 360 million barrels (bbl) of drilling wastes, more than 20 billion bbl of produced water, and nearly 12 million bbl of associated wastes in 1985. Current exploration and production activities are believed to be generating comparable quantities of these oil field wastes. Wakim estimates that 28% of drilling wastes, less than 2% of produced water, and 52% of associated wastes are disposed of in off-site commercial facilities. In recent years, interest in disposing of oil field wastes in solution-mined salt caverns has been growing. This report provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in oil-and gas-producing states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and the amounts they charge. It also compares cavern disposal costs with the costs of other forms of waste disposal.

  13. Evaluation of Frequency and Restoration time for Loss of Offsite Power events based on domestic operation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin-Hee; Han, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Ho Joong

    2006-01-01

    It is recognized that the availability of AC power to nuclear power plants is essential for safe operation and shutdown and accident recovery of commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). Unavailability of AC power can be a important adverse impact on a plant's ability to recover accident sequences and maintain safe shutdown. The probabilistic safety assessment (PSA or PRA) performed for Korea NPPs also indicated that a loss of offsite power (LOOP) event and a station blackout (SBO) event can be a important contributors to total risk at nuclear power plant, contributing from 30% to 70% of the total risk at some NPPs in Korea. But, up to now, the LOOP and subsequent restoration time are important inputs to plant probabilistic risk assessment have relied upon foreign data. Therefore, in this paper, the actual LOOP events that have occurred from 1978 to 2004 at commercial nuclear power plants in Korea are collected. A statistical analysis for LOOP frequency and restoration time are performed to apply NPPs's specific and realistic risk model in Korea. Additionally, an engineering analysis is also performed to obtain the insights about the LOOP events

  14. A study on the food consumption rates for off-site radiological dose assessment around Korean Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gab Bock; Chung, Yang Geun

    2008-01-01

    The internal dose by food consumption mostly accounts for radiological dose of public around Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). But, food consumption rates applied to off-site dose calculation in Korea which are the result of field investigation around Kori NPP by the KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) in 1988, are not able to reflect the latest dietary characteristics of Korean. The food consumption rates to be used for radiological dose assessment in Korea are based on the maximum individual of US NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) Regulatory Guide 1.109. However, the representative individual of the critical group is considered in the recent ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection) recommendation and European nations' practice. Therefore, the study on the re-establishment of the food consumption rates for individual around nuclear power plant sites in Korea was carried out to reflect on the recent change of the Korean dietary characteristics and to apply the representative individual of critical group to domestic regulations. The ministry of Health and Welfare Affairs has investigated the food and nutrition of nations every 3 years based on the Law of National Health Improvement. The statistical data such as mean, standard deviation, various percentile values about food consumption rates to be used for the representative individual of the critical group were analyzed by using the raw data of the national food consumption survey in 2001∼2002. Also, the food consumption rates for maximum individual are re-estimated

  15. [Onsite microbiology services and outsourcing microbiology and offsite laboratories--advantage and disadvantage, thinking of effective utilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Naoto

    2011-10-01

    In recent years, budget restrictions have prompted hospital managers to consider outsourcing microbiology service. But there are many advantages onsite microbiology services. Onsite microbiology services have some advantages. 1) High recovery rate of microorganism. 2) Shorter turn around time. 3) Easy to communicate between physician and laboratory technician. 4) Effective utilization of blood culture. 5) Getting early information about microorganism. 6) Making antibiogram (microbiological local factor). 7) Getting information for infection control. The disadvantages are operating costs and labor cost. The important point of maximal utilization of onsite microbiology service is close communication between physicians to microbiology laboratory. It will be able to provide prompt and efficient report to physicians through discussion about Gram stain findings, agar plate media findings and epidemiological information. The rapid and accurate identification of pathogen affords directed therapy, thereby decreasing the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and shortening the length of hospital stay and unnecessary ancillary procedures. When the physician use outsourcing microbiology services, should discuss with offsite laboratories about provided services. Infection control person has to arrange data of susceptibility about every isolate and monitoring multi-drug resistant organism. Not only onsite microbiology services but also outsourcing microbiology services, to communicate bedside and laboratory is most important point of effective utilization.

  16. Comparison of the regulatory models assessing off-site radiological dose due to the routine releases of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, W. T.; Kim, E. H.; Han, M. H.; Choi, Y. H.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, C. W.

    2005-01-01

    Methodologies of NEWTRIT model, NRC model and AIRDOS-EPA model, which are off-site dose assessment models for regulatory compliance from routine releases of tritium into the environment, were investigated. Using the domestic data, if available, the predictive results of the models were compared. Among them, recently developed NEWTRIT model considers only doses from organically bounded tritium (OBT) due to environmental releases of tritiated water (HTO). A total dose from all exposure pathways predicted from AIRDOS-EPA model was 1.03 and 2.46 times higher than that from NEWTRIT model and NRC model, respectively. From above result, readers should not have an understanding that a predictive dose from NRC model may be underestimated compared with a realistic dose. It is because of that both mathematical models and corresponding parameter values for regulatory compliance are based on the conservative assumptions. For a dose by food consumption predicted from NEWTRIT model, the contribution of OBT was nearly equivalent to that of HTO due to relatively high consumption of grains in Korean. Although a total dose predicted from NEWTRIT model is similar to that from AIRDOS-EPA model, NEWTRIT model may be have a meaning in the understanding of phenomena for the behavior of HTO released into the environment

  17. Comparing different technologies for wireless real-time dose rate monitoring for on- and offsite emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dielmann, R.

    2004-01-01

    At a nuclear disaster the efficiency of emergency management on-site as well as off-site is closely connected to the quality and reliability of the actual status information. Reliability and short response time of the data communication path are important in the early phase. In order to protect investment and minimize TCO (Total Cost of Ownership) the dose rate measurement systems should also be adequate for the later phase emergency management and rehabilitation of contaminated areas. Based on four years experience the pros and cons of available GSM / GPRS / UMTS / TETRA (Terrestrial Trunked Radio) and satellite based technologies are compared with SkyLINK - a proprietary wireless network technology which is fully owned by the supervising authority or a nuclear installation. The European Commission's decision in 1999 to opt for this state-of-the-art technology within the TACIS program fulfills highest standards for emergency management networks featuring especially: independence of public communication lines, good data availability also in rural areas and in emergency scenarios, fast installation, system startup and training, extreme mobility in emergency cases, high flexibility for changing tasks, very high degree of autonomy, low operating and maintenance costs over a ten year lifetime, long-term reliability of probes and data management system. After more than four years of experience with installations around the world especially those installed around three Russian nuclear power plants a comparison of this reliably operating technology can be done. (author)

  18. Assessment on the Reactor Containment Cooling Capability of Kori Unit 1 Under LOCA Conditions with Loss of Offsite Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Yong; Park, Jong Woon; Kim, Hyeong Taek

    2006-01-01

    The fan cooler system is designed to remove heat from containment under postulated accident conditions. During a postulated LOCA concurrent with a Loss of Offsite Power (LOOP), the Component Cooling Water (CCW) pumps that supply cooling water to the fan cooler and the fan that supplies containment air to the fan cooler will temporarily lose power. Then, the high temperature steam in the containment atmosphere will pass over the fan cooler tubing without forced cooling water flow. In that case, boiling may occur in the fan cooler tubes causing steam bubbles to form and pass into the attached CCW piping creating steam voids. Prior to the CCW pumps restart, the presence of steam and subcooled water can induce the potential for water hammer. As the CCW pumps restart, the accumulated steam condenses and the pumped water can produce a water hammer when the void closes. The hydrodynamic loads caused by such a water hammer event could challenge the integrity and the function of the fan cooler and associated CCW system. With respect to this phenomena, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) issued the Generic Letter (GL) 96-06, which requests an assessment of the possibility of boiling and water hammer in the cooling water system. The objectives of this study are to develop a analysis method for predicting the thermal hydraulic status of containment fan cooler and then to assess the containment fan cooler of Kori Unit 1 using the developed model under a LOCA with LOOP

  19. Closeout of IE Bulletin 80-15: Possible loss of Emergency Notification System (ENS) with loss of offsite power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, W.J.; Dean, R.S.; Hennick, A.

    1990-12-01

    Documentation is provided in this report for the closeout of IE Bulletin 80-15 for nuclear power reactors. This bulletin pertained to a possible loss of the Emergency Notification System (ENS) upon loss of offsite power. Closeout is based on the implementation and verification of six (6) required actions by licensees of nuclear power reactors in operation or near to receiving an operating license when the bulletin was issued on June 18, 1980. Evaluation of utility responses and NRC/Region inspection reports indicates that the bulletin is closed for all of the 69 nuclear power reactors to which it was issued for action and which were not shut down indefinitely or permanently at the time of issuance of this report. Background information is supplied in the Introduction and Appendix A. Nuclear fuel facilities as well as nuclear power facilities were identified in the enclosures to the bulletin. However, per an NRC memorandum, the closeout of the bulletin for nuclear fuel facilities is not within the scope of this report

  20. Processing of mixed-waste compressed-gas cylinders on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.I.; Conley, T.B.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.

    1998-03-01

    To comply with restrictions on the storage of old compressed gas cylinders, the environmental management organization of Lockheed Martin Energy Systems must dispose of several thousand kilograms of compressed gases stored on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) because the cylinders cannot be taken off-site for disposal in their current configuration. In the ORR Site Treatment Plan, a milestone is cited that requires repackaging and shipment off-site of 21 cylinders by September 30, 1997. A project was undertaken to first evaluate and then either recontainerize or neutralize these cylinders using a transportable compressed gas recontainerization skid (TCGRS), which was developed by Integrated Environmental Services of Atlanta. The transportable system can: (1) sample, analyze, and identify at the site the chemical and radiological content of each cylinder, even those with inoperable valves; (2) breach cylinders, when necessary, to release their contents into a containment chamber; and (3) either neutralize the gas or liquid contents within the containment chamber or transfer the gas or liquids to a new cylinder. The old cylinders and cylinder fragments were disposed of and the gases neutralized or transferred to new cylinders for transportation off-site for disposal. The entire operation to process the 21 cylinders took place in only 5 days once the system was approved for operation. The system performed as expected and can now be used to process the potentially thousands of more cylinders located across the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex that have not yet been declared surplus

  1. Cooldown to residual heat removal entry conditions using atmospheric dump valves and auxiliary pressurizer spray following a loss-of-offsite power at Calvert Cliffs, Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenks, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation of cooldown using atmospheric dump valves (ADVs) and auxiliary pressurizer spray (APS) following loss-of-offsite power at Calvert Cliffs-1 showed residual heat removal entry conditions could not be reached with the plant ADVs alone. Use of APS with the plant ADVs enhanced depressurization, but still provided insufficient cooldown. Effective cooldown and depressurization was shown to occur when rated steady state flow through the ADVs was increased by a factor of four. 6 refs., 30 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Preliminary accident analysis of Loss of Off-Site Power and In-Box LOCA for the CFETR helium cooled solid breeder blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Qiang; Cui, Shijie [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710049 (China); Shaanxi Key Lab. of Advanced Nuclear Energy and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710049 (China); Tian, Wenxi, E-mail: wxtian@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710049 (China); Shaanxi Key Lab. of Advanced Nuclear Energy and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710049 (China); Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Dalin; Su, G.H. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710049 (China); Shaanxi Key Lab. of Advanced Nuclear Energy and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710049 (China)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • The CFETR HCSB blanket has been investigated using RELAP5. • Loss of Off-Site Power is investigated. • The parametric analyses during In-Box LOCA are investigated. • The HCSB blanket for CFETR is designed with sufficient decay heat removal capability. - Abstract: As one of three candidate tritium breeding blanket concepts for Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR), a conceptual structure of helium cooled solid breeder (HCSB) blanket was recently proposed. In this paper, the preliminary thermal-hydraulic and safety analyses of the typical outboard equatorial blanket module (No.12) have been carried out using RELAP5/Mod3.4 code. Two design basis accidents are investigated based on the steady-state initialization, including Loss of Off-Site Power and In-Box Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). The differences between circulator coast down and circulator rotor locked under Loss of Off-Site Power are compared. Regarding the In-Box LOCA, the influences of different break sizes and locations are thoroughly analyzed based on a relatively accurate modeling method of the heat structures in sub-modules. The analysis results show that the blanket and the combined helium cooling system (HCS) are designed with sufficient decay heat removal capability for both accidents, which can preliminarily verify the feasibility of the conceptual design. The research work can also provide an important reference for parameter optimization of the blanket and its HCS in the next stage.

  3. DOE management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezendes, V.S.

    1991-07-01

    This paper reports that GAO, as well as the Department of Energy's Inspector General, have pointed out the need for major improvement in the University of California's management of the three DOE laboratories-Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, and Lawrence Berkeley- and DOE oversight of that management effort. GAO found problems with University of California controls over laboratory operations, such as managing property, protecting classified documents, and ensuring that subcontractors are not subject to foreign influence, which might lead to transfers of nuclear technology to foreign influence, which might lead to transfers of nuclear technology or materials to foreign countries. In addition, clauses in the University of California contracts hamper DOE's ability to effectively manage the laboratories. DOE has addressed many of the specific problems that GAO identified and has tried to improve overall contract management. Negotiations with the University of California to extend the laboratory contracts will present another opportunity for DOE to take a firm stance on the need for management improvements. Having appropriate procedures and resources in place would also help DOE carry out its administration of contracts

  4. Mixed waste disposal facility at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, P.T.; Kendall, E.W.

    1987-01-01

    In 1984, a law suit brought against DOE resulted in the requirement that DOE be subject to regulation by the state and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for all hazardous wastes, including mixed wastes. Therefore, all DOE facilities generating, storing, treating, or disposing of mixed wastes will be regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCTA). In FY 1985, DOE Headquarters requested DOE low-level waste (LLW) sites to apply for a RCRA Part B Permit to operate radioactive mixed waste facilities. An application for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was prepared and submitted to the EPA, Region IX in November 1985 for review and approval. At that time, the state of Nevada had not yet received authorization for hazardous wastes nor had they applied for regulatory authority for mixed wastes. In October 1986, DOE Nevada Operations Office was informed by the Rocky Flats Plant that some past waste shipments to NTS contained trace quantities of hazardous substances. Under Colorado law, these wastes are defined as mixed. A DOE Headquarters task force was convened by the Under Secretary to investigate the situation. The task force concluded that DOE has a high priority need to develop a permitted mixed waste site and that DOE Nevada Operations Office should develop a fast track project to obtain this site and all necessary permits. The status and issues to be resolved on the permit for a mixed waste site are discussed

  5. THE EVALUATION OF SOIL EROSION OFF-SITES EFFECTS IN LARGE BASINS: THE STUDYCASE OF LERMA-CHAPALA WATERSHED, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Cotler A.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary global concerns during the new millennium is the assessment of the impact of accelerated soil erosion on the economy and the environment (Pimentel et al. 1995; Lal, 1995. Erosion damages the site on which it occurs and also has undesirable effects off-site in the larger environment. Erosion moves sediments and nutrients out of the land, creating the two most widespread water pollution problems in the rivers, lakes and dams. The nutrients impact water quality largely through the process of eutrophication caused by an excessive content of nitrogen and phosphorus. In addition to the nutrients presence, sediment and runoff may also carry toxic metals and organic compounds, such as pesticides (Brady and Weil, 1999; Lal, 1994; de Graaf, 2000; Renschler and Harbor, 2002. The sediment itself is a major pollutant causative agent, causing a wide range of environmental damages. The sedimentation of dams and canals, reduces their lifetime and efficiency, promoting a high restoration cost to the downstream users and affecting thenational budget. In this sense, sedimentation knowledge is an important tool to guide spatial planning efficiently. Despite more than six decades of research, sedimentation is still probably the most serious technical problem faced by the dam industry (Mc Cully, 2001. Many studies estimate present-day fluvial sediment and solute loads including both natural and accelerated soil erosion (Douglas, 1990. However, as Douglas mentioned (op.cit many do not include all the erosion caused by human activity, because the eroded sediment is redeposited after a short movement downslope. Many soil particles are detached and carried downslope only to be held and trapped by a plant, tree or other obstacle a little further downslope. The sediment reaching the valley floor may not be completely removed by the river, but may be redistributed as alluvial floodplain deposits. The sediment transported downstream may be redeposited

  6. Off-site intervention plan of the public health authorities for emergencies at the Caorso nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, S.; Sogni, R.; Boeri, G.; Cencetti, S.; Melandri, G.; Paterlini, L.

    1986-01-01

    The Caorso nuclear power plant, which is near Piacenza and has an 875 MW boiling water reactor, has been generating electricity on a regular basis since 1978. The off-site intervention plan of the public health authorities, based on an analysis of hypothetical accidents, was approved in 1977 and subsequently revised. A study of the radiological consequences of these accidents for man and the environment indicates that the highest doses likely to be received by inhalation of 131 I would be no more than a few rem, whereas the levels of soil contamination, even at a distance of 40 km, could exceed 1 μCi/m 2 . The main problems caused by such accidents are therefore related to environmental contamination. Under the intervention plan, the provincial prefect is responsible for co-ordinating the work of all the civil, military and medical authorities. Teams from ENEL, the fire service and the local health services (USL) monitor the concentration of 131 I in the air and the exposure level, and take samples within a radius of 10 km around the site. The police and army control road traffic and are responsible, if necessary, for the evacuation of the population. A radiometry co-ordination centre (CCRI) is set up to process the readings made by the teams and provides the prefect with the technical information he requires to take decisions The local medical services (USL) run the centre where the population is assembled and monitor superficial contamination, apply initial decontamination measures, and provide medical assistance in general. The Piacenza USL also takes action by sending out its mobile radiometry laboratory, using its measurement equipment and providing logistic support to the CCRI. It is also to play a major role in informing the population in the event of an alarm. (author)

  7. The practical outfall of DOE compliance agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Leanne; Henrie, Gregory O.

    1992-01-01

    Perhaps the significant regulatory issue facing the Department of Energy (DOE or the Department) is the compliant treatment, storage, and disposal of mixed (radioactive and hazardous) waste. Since DOE'S By-Product Rulemaking in 1987, when the Department acknowledged that the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) applied to the hazardous component of mixed waste, DOE has repeatedly communicated to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and host States that, for mixed waste, DOE is not always able to strictly comply with RCRA standards and that bringing treatment on-line in an expeditious manner is proving very difficult. One of the most effective methods used between DOE and its regulators to address mixed waste management issues is the negotiation of compliance agreements. These agreements establish formal mile stones for bringing DOE sites into compliance. The milestones are not completed without overcoming technical roadblocks and a struggle for funding. However, agreements can establish technically attainable compliance methods that take into account the special problems radiation introduces into RCRA waste management. Compliance agreements help promote a cooperative relationship within the Department and between DOE and its regulators in that all parties have reached agreement and have a stake in attaining the same goal. Where agreements exist, mixed waste compliance efforts can proceed in a situation where all parties have a full understanding of each other's needs and expectations. (author)

  8. Marketing mix and competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Slobodan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness cannot simply be viewed as a country's ability to export or generate trade surpluses, since these can be brought about at least temporarily by means of artificially lowering the exchange rate and/or compressing domestic expenditures, as has been done in recent years by many DC that have tried to adjust to diminished resource availability. Authors standpoint is that international competitiveness requires creating comparative advantage where it does not exist, and requires action on several levels including an emerging consensus on the importance of macroeconomic policy, role and accountability of the government as well as the imperative of developing and internalizing technology body of knowledge for achieving competitiveness. Particular attention is given to the role and impact of marketing instruments marketing mix.

  9. The importance of using the mixed neutron flux in activation analysis of D-3He fueled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, H.Y.; Sawan, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the D-D and D-T secondary reactions in D- 3 He reactors which provide the neutron source term for most of the radioactivity produced in the structure of the reactor. radionuclides are produced as a result of neutron interactions with their parent nuclides. The amount of activity produced by any radionuclide depends on the number of its parent atoms present at any given time. One approach to account for the activity induced by both neutron sources in any activation analysis is to add their individual contributions. Performing two separate calculations for the D-D and D-T neutron flux components and adding their contributions yields conservative results due to underestimating the destruction of the parent atoms. The overestimation is more pronounced for short and intermediate lived nuclides, long operation time, large neutron flux and large destruction cross section for the parent atoms. In the steel first wall of a typical d- 3 He reactor, adding the individual contributions of the tow neutron sources results in overestimating the activities produced by most of the radioactive isotopes of Ag, Lu, Ta, W and Re. After 30 years of reactor operation, the activity of 187 W, which is a major source of safety concern in case of an accident, is more than an order of magnitude higher than its value if the mixed neutron flux is used. The activity of 188 Re, which is an important source of offsite does in case of accidental release, is overestimated by more than a factor of two

  10. Recommendations for continuous emissions monitoring of mixed waste incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigley, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    Considerable quantities of incinerable mixed waste are being stored in and generated by the DOE complex. Mixed waste is defined as containing a hazardous component and a radioactive component. At the present time, there is only one incinerator in the complex which has the proper TSCA and RCRA permits to handle mixed waste. This report describes monitoring techniques needed for the incinerator

  11. Assessing mixed waste treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.B.; Bloom, G.A.; Hart, P.W.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the management and treatment of its mixed low-level wastes (MLLW). As discussed earlier in this conference MLLW are regulated under both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and various DOE orders. During the next 5 years, DOE will manage over 1,200,000 m 3 of MLLW and mixed transuranic (MTRU) waste at 50 sites in 22 states (see Table 1). The difference between MLLW and MTRU waste is in the concentration of elements that have a higher atomic weight than uranium. Nearly all of this waste will be located at 13 sites. More than 1400 individual mixed waste streams exist with different chemical and physical matrices containing a wide range of both hazardous and radioactive contaminants. Their containment and packaging vary widely (e.g., drums, bins, boxes, and buried waste). This heterogeneity in both packaging and waste stream constituents makes characterization difficult, which results in costly sampling and analytical procedures and increased risk to workers

  12. Robotics for mixed waste operations, demonstration description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) is developing technology to aid in the cleanup of DOE sites. Included in the OTD program are the Robotics Technology Development Program and the Mixed Waste Integrated Program. These two programs are working together to provide technology for the cleanup of mixed waste, which is waste that has both radioactive and hazardous constituents. There are over 240,000 cubic meters of mixed low level waste accumulated at DOE sites and the cleanup is expected to generate about 900,000 cubic meters of mixed low level waste over the next five years. This waste must be monitored during storage and then treated and disposed of in a cost effective manner acceptable to regulators and the states involved. The Robotics Technology Development Program is developing robotics technology to make these tasks safer, better, faster and cheaper through the Mixed Waste Operations team. This technology will also apply to treatment of transuranic waste. The demonstration at the Savannah River Site on November 2-4, 1993, showed the progress of this technology by DOE, universities and industry over the previous year. Robotics technology for the handling, characterization and treatment of mixed waste as well robotics technology for monitoring of stored waste was demonstrated. It was shown that robotics technology can make future waste storage and waste treatment facilities better, faster, safer and cheaper

  13. Mixed Waste Integrated Program emerging technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.B.; Hart, P.W.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the management and treatment of its mixed low-level wastes (MLLW). MLLW are regulated under both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and various DOE orders. Over the next 5 years, DOE will manage over 1.2 m 3 of MLLW and mixed transuranic (MTRU) wastes. In order to successfully manage and treat these mixed wastes, DOE must adapt and develop characterization, treatment, and disposal technologies which will meet performance criteria, regulatory approvals, and public acceptance. Although technology to treat MLLW is not currently available without modification, DOE is committed to developing such treatment technologies and demonstrating them at the field scale by FY 1997. The Office of Research and Development's Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) within the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM), OfFice of Technology Development, is responsible for the development and demonstration of such technologies for MLLW and MTRU wastes. MWIP advocates and sponsors expedited technology development and demonstrations for the treatment of MLLW

  14. Mixed Waste Integrated Program emerging technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, J.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hart, P.W. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the management and treatment of its mixed low-level wastes (MLLW). MLLW are regulated under both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and various DOE orders. Over the next 5 years, DOE will manage over 1.2 m{sup 3} of MLLW and mixed transuranic (MTRU) wastes. In order to successfully manage and treat these mixed wastes, DOE must adapt and develop characterization, treatment, and disposal technologies which will meet performance criteria, regulatory approvals, and public acceptance. Although technology to treat MLLW is not currently available without modification, DOE is committed to developing such treatment technologies and demonstrating them at the field scale by FY 1997. The Office of Research and Development`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) within the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM), OfFice of Technology Development, is responsible for the development and demonstration of such technologies for MLLW and MTRU wastes. MWIP advocates and sponsors expedited technology development and demonstrations for the treatment of MLLW.

  15. Effects of secondary containment air cleanup system leakage on the accident offsite dose as determined during preop tests of the Sequoyah Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaes, L.J.; Nass, S.A.; Proctor, L.D.

    1981-01-01

    The Sequoyah Nuclear Plant has two secondary containments. One is the annular region between the primary containment and the shield building surrounding the primary containment. The second is the auxiliary building secondary containment enclosure which is potentially subject to direct airborne radioactivity. Two air cleanup systems are provided to serve these areas. The emergency gas treatment system (EGTS) serves the annulus between the primary containment and the shield building, and the auxiliary building gas treatment system (ABGTS) serves the area inside of the auxiliary building secondary containment enclosure. The major function served by these air cleanup systems is that of controlling and processing airborne contamination released in these areas during any accident up to a design basis accident. This is accomplished by (1) creating a negative pressure in the areas served to ensure that no unprocessed air is released to the atmosphere, (2) providing filtration units to process all air exhausted from the secondary containment spaces, and (3) providing a low-leakage enclosure to limit exhaust flows. Offsite dose effects due to secondary containment release rates, bypass leakage, and duct and damper leakages are presented and parameter variations are considered. For the EGTS, a recirculation system, the most important parameter is the total inleakage of the system which causes an increase in both whole body (gamma) and thyroid (iodine) doses. For the ABGTS, a once-through system, the most important paramter is the inleakage which bypasses the filters resulting in an increase in the thyroid dose only. Actual preoperational test data are utilized. Problems encountered during the preop test are summarized. Solutions incorporated to bring the EGTS and ABGTS air cleanup systems within the test acceptance criteria required to meet offsite dose limitations are discussed and the resultant calculated offsite dose is presented

  16. Simulation-based multiprofessional obstetric anaesthesia training conducted in situ versus off-site leads to similar individual and team outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jette Led; van der Vleuten, Cees; Rosthøj, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    choice question test. EXPLORATORY OUTCOMES: Individual outcomes: scores on the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire, stress measurements (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, cognitive appraisal and salivary cortisol), Intrinsic Motivation Inventory and perceptions of simulations. Team outcome: video assessment......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of in situ simulation (ISS) versus off-site simulation (OSS) on knowledge, patient safety attitude, stress, motivation, perceptions of simulation, team performance and organisational impact. DESIGN: Investigator-initiated single-centre randomised superiority...... educational trial. SETTING: Obstetrics and anaesthesiology departments, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 100 participants in teams of 10, comprising midwives, specialised midwives, auxiliary nurses, nurse anaesthetists, operating theatre nurses, and consultant doctors...

  17. Development of a computer code system for selecting off-site protective action in radiological accidents based on the multiobjective optimization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishigami, Tsutomu; Oyama, Kazuo

    1989-09-01

    This report presents a new method to support selection of off-site protective action in nuclear reactor accidents, and provides a user's manual of a computer code system, PRASMA, developed using the method. The PRASMA code system gives several candidates of protective action zones of evacuation, sheltering and no action based on the multiobjective optimization method, which requires objective functions and decision variables. We have assigned population risks of fatality, injury and cost as the objective functions, and distance from a nuclear power plant characterizing the above three protective action zones as the decision variables. (author)

  18. Does the ingestion of a 24 hour low glycaemic index Asian mixed meal diet improve glycaemic response and promote fat oxidation? A controlled, randomized cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Stefan Gerardus; Kaur, Bhupinder; Quek, Rina Yu Chin; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2017-07-12

    The health benefits of consuming a low glycaemic index (GI) diet to reduce the risk of type 2 Diabetes are well recognized. In recent years the GI values of various foods have been determined. Their efficacy in constructing and consuming a low GI diet over 24 h in modulating glycaemic response has not been fully documented. The translation of using single-point GI values of foods to develop a 24 h mixed meal diet can provide valuable information to consumers, researchers and dietitians to optimize food choice for glycaemic control. By using GI values of foods to develop mixed meals, our study is the first to determine how both blood glucose and substrate oxidation may be modulated over 24 h. The study included 11 Asian men with a BMI between 17-24 kg/m 2 who followed both a 1-day low GI and 1-day high GI diet in a randomized, controlled cross-over design. Test meals included breakfast, lunch, snack and dinner. Glycaemic response was measured continuously for over 24 h and postprandial substrate oxidation for 10 h inside a whole body calorimeter. The low GI diet resulted in lower 24 h glucose iAUC (860 ± 440 vs 1329 ± 614 mmol/L.min; p = 0.014) with lower postprandial glucose iAUC after breakfast (p low GI vs high GI diet (1.44 ± 0.63 vs 2.33 ± 0.82 mmol/L; p fat oxidation was less during the low vs high GI diet (-0.033 ± 0.021 vs -0.050 ± 0.017 g/min; p low GI local foods to construct a 24 h low GI diet, is able to reduce glycaemic response and variability as recorded by continuous glucose monitoring. Our observations also confirm that a low GI diet promotes fat oxidation over carbohydrate oxidation when compared to a high GI diet. These observations provide public health support for the encouragement of healthier nutrition choices by consuming low GI foods. NCT 02631083 (Clinicaltrials.gov).

  19. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of additional alpha contaminated and mixed low-level waste for treatment at the advanced mixed waste treatment project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, D.P.

    1995-07-01

    This document provides physical, chemical, and radiological descriptive information for a portion of mixed waste that is potentially available for private sector treatment. The format and contents are designed to provide treatment vendors with preliminary information on the characteristics and properties for additional candidate portions of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and offsite mixed wastes not covered in the two previous characterization reports for the INEL-stored low-level alpha-contaminated and transuranic wastes. This report defines the waste, provides background information, briefly reviews the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (P.L. 102-386), and relates the Site Treatment Plans developed under the Federal Facility Compliance Act to the waste streams described herein. Each waste is summarized in a Waste Profile Sheet with text, charts, and tables of waste descriptive information for a particular waste stream. A discussion of the availability and uncertainty of data for these waste streams precedes the characterization descriptions

  20. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of additional alpha contaminated and mixed low-level waste for treatment at the advanced mixed waste treatment project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, D.P.

    1995-07-01

    This document provides physical, chemical, and radiological descriptive information for a portion of mixed waste that is potentially available for private sector treatment. The format and contents are designed to provide treatment vendors with preliminary information on the characteristics and properties for additional candidate portions of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and offsite mixed wastes not covered in the two previous characterization reports for the INEL-stored low-level alpha-contaminated and transuranic wastes. This report defines the waste, provides background information, briefly reviews the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (P.L. 102-386), and relates the Site Treatment Plans developed under the Federal Facility Compliance Act to the waste streams described herein. Each waste is summarized in a Waste Profile Sheet with text, charts, and tables of waste descriptive information for a particular waste stream. A discussion of the availability and uncertainty of data for these waste streams precedes the characterization descriptions.

  1. Mixed Connective Tissue Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixed connective tissue disease Overview Mixed connective tissue disease has signs and symptoms of a combination of disorders — primarily lupus, scleroderma and polymyositis. For this reason, mixed connective tissue disease ...

  2. Fluid mixing III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnby, N.

    1988-01-01

    Covering all aspects of mixing, this work presents research and developments in industrial applications, flow patterns and mixture analysis, mixing of solids into liquids, and mixing of gases into liquids

  3. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  4. Waste Generation Forecast for DOE-ORO's Environmental Restoration OR-1 Project: FY 1994--FY 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This Waste Generation Forecast for DOE-ORO's Environmental Restoration OR-1 Project. FY 1994--FY 2001 is the third in a series of documents that report current estimates of the waste volumes expected to be generated as a result of Environmental Restoration activities at Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO), sites. Considered in the scope of this document are volumes of waste expected to be generated as a result of remedial action and decontamination and decommissioning activities taking place at these sites. Sites contributing to the total estimates make up the DOE-ORO Environmental Restoration OR-1 Project: the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Y-12 Plant, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and the off-site contaminated areas adjacent to the Oak Ridge facilities (collectively referred to as the Oak Ridge Reservation Off-Site area). Estimates are available for the entire fife of all waste generating activities. This document summarizes waste estimates forecasted for the 8-year period of FY 1994-FY 2001. Updates with varying degrees of change are expected throughout the refinement of restoration strategies currently in progress at each of the sites. Waste forecast data are relatively fluid, and this document represents remediation plans only as reported through September 1993

  5. Developing Off-site Emergency Preparedness and Response Model (OEPRM) for Severe Accident of NPP in a Densely Populated Country Using System Dynamics Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossena, Muhammed Mufazzal; Kang, Kyoung Ho; Song, Jin Ho [KAERI, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The main objectives of this study are to find the influencing factors of systems and sub-systems of OEPRM, to find the interdependency among the influencing factors, and to develop a conceptual qualitative OEPRM for densely populated NPP country in case of SA using system dynamics (SD). NPP accidents are classified as nuclear accidents and incidents depending on the severity. Severe accident (SA) is certain low probability accident that are beyond design basis accident which may arise due to multiple failures of safety systems leading to significant core degradation and jeopardize the integrity of many or all of the barriers to the release of radioactive material. The weakness to the off-site emergency response in the time of Fukushima accident was observed. So, it is crucial to develop an off-site emergency preparedness and responses model (OEPRM) for radiological emergency in densely populated country from the Fukushima emergency response lesson. In this study, an OEPRM is developed for densely populated NPP country to mitigate radiological effects in case of SA using SD approach. Besides, this study focuses the weakness of emergency response in Fukushima accident and proposed solution approach. The development of OEPRM in case of SA of NPP is very complex because of the involvement of various organization and it requires highly specialized agencies and technical experts. Moreover, if the country is agriculture based, it will make completely sophisticated.

  6. Off-site transport of fungicides with runoff: A comparison of flutolanil and pentachloronitrobeneze applied to creeping bentgrass managed as a golf course fairway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Pamela J; Horgan, Brian P; Hamlin, Jennifer L

    2018-08-15

    Flutolanil and pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) are fungicides used to control or suppress foliar and soil borne diseases in turf and ornamental crops. On golf courses, sports fields, sod farms and commercial lawns these fungicides are used as preventive treatments to combat snow mold, brown patch and fairy ring. Depending on the aquatic organism, flultolanil and PCNB are considered to be moderately to highly toxic. Therefore runoff or drift from treated areas may be hazardous to organisms in adjacent aquatic sites. This research compared the transport of flutolanil and PCNB with runoff from turfgrass managed as a golf course fairway. The quantity of fungicide transported with runoff and observations reported with the chemographs followed trends in agreement with the chemical properties of the compounds. Overall, we observed the rate of transport for flutolanil was greater than PCNB, which contributed to the more than 12 times larger load (µg/m 2 ) of flutolanil transported off-site at the conclusion of the simulated storm runoff. A better understanding of the off-site transport of pesticides with runoff is needed to make informed decisions on management practices to reduce potential adverse effects on non-target organisms, as well as maintain control of targeted pests in the area of application. In addition, data obtained with this research can be used in model simulations to predict nonpoint source pollution potentials beyond experimental conditions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Developing Off-site Emergency Preparedness and Response Model (OEPRM) for Severe Accident of NPP in a Densely Populated Country Using System Dynamics Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossena, Muhammed Mufazzal; Kang, Kyoung Ho; Song, Jin Ho

    2016-01-01

    The main objectives of this study are to find the influencing factors of systems and sub-systems of OEPRM, to find the interdependency among the influencing factors, and to develop a conceptual qualitative OEPRM for densely populated NPP country in case of SA using system dynamics (SD). NPP accidents are classified as nuclear accidents and incidents depending on the severity. Severe accident (SA) is certain low probability accident that are beyond design basis accident which may arise due to multiple failures of safety systems leading to significant core degradation and jeopardize the integrity of many or all of the barriers to the release of radioactive material. The weakness to the off-site emergency response in the time of Fukushima accident was observed. So, it is crucial to develop an off-site emergency preparedness and responses model (OEPRM) for radiological emergency in densely populated country from the Fukushima emergency response lesson. In this study, an OEPRM is developed for densely populated NPP country to mitigate radiological effects in case of SA using SD approach. Besides, this study focuses the weakness of emergency response in Fukushima accident and proposed solution approach. The development of OEPRM in case of SA of NPP is very complex because of the involvement of various organization and it requires highly specialized agencies and technical experts. Moreover, if the country is agriculture based, it will make completely sophisticated

  8. Risk-oriented analysis of the German prototype fast breeder reactor SNR-300: off-site accident consequence model and results of the study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, A.; Ehrhardt, J.

    1984-01-01

    Accident off-site consequence calculations and risk assessments performed for the ''risk oriented analysis'' of the German prototype fast breeder reactor SNR-300 were performed with a modified version of the off-site accident consequence model UFOMOD. The modifications mainly relate to the deposition and resuspension processes, the ingestion model, and the dose factors. Consequence calculations at the site of Kalkar on the Rhine River were performed for 115 weather sequences in 36 wind directions. They were based on seven release categories evaluated for the SNR-300 with two different fueling strategies: plutonium from Magnox reactors only and plutonium from light water reactors and Magnox reactors. In parallel, the corresponding frequencies of occurrence are determined. The following results are generated: 1. complementary cumulative frequency distribution functions for collective fatalities and collective doses 2. expected values of the collective fatalities and collective doses as well as distance-dependent expected values of individual fatality 3. contributions of the different exposure pathways to fatalities with respect to the various organs. For comparison with the risk of a PWR-1300, calculations for the PWR-1300 of the ''German Risk Study'' were repeated with the same modified consequence model. Comparison shows that smaller risks result for the SNR-300. However, the confidence interval bandwidths obtained for the frequencies of the release categories for the SNR-300 are larger than those of the PWR-1300

  9. Environmental assessment for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico offsite transportation of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) is managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company. SNL/NM is located on land owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) within the boundaries of the Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The major responsibilities of SNL/NM are the support of national security and energy projects. Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) is generated by some of the activities performed at SNL/NM in support of the DOE. This report describes potential environmental effects of the shipments of low-level radioactive wastes to other sites

  10. Mixed Waste Focus Area program management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1996-10-01

    This plan describes the program management principles and functions to be implemented in the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). The mission of the MWFA is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments and regulators. The MWFA will develop, demonstrate and deliver implementable technologies for treatment of mixed waste within the DOE Complex. Treatment refers to all post waste-generation activities including sampling and analysis, characterization, storage, processing, packaging, transportation and disposal

  11. Mixing ratio sensor of alcohol mixed fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Shigeru; Matsubara, Yoshihiro

    1987-08-07

    In order to improve combustion efficiency of an internal combustion engine using gasoline-alcohol mixed fuel and to reduce harmful substance in its exhaust gas, it is necessary to control strictly the air-fuel ratio to be supplied and the ignition timing and change the condition of control depending upon the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel. In order to detect the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel, the above mixing ratio has so far been detected by casting a ray of light to the mixed fuel and utilizing a change of critical angle associated with the change of the composition of the fluid of the mixed fuel. However, in case when a light emitting diode is used for the light source above, two kinds of sensors are further needed. Concerning the two kinds of sensors above, this invention offers a mixing ratio sensor for the alcohol mixed fuel which can abolish a temperature sensor to detect the environmental temperature by making a single compensatory light receiving element deal with the compensation of the amount of light emission of the light emitting element due to the temperature change and the compensation of the critical angle caused by the temperature change. (6 figs)

  12. Continuous mixing of solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raouf, M.S.

    1963-01-01

    The most important literature on theoretical aspects of mixing solids was reviewed.

    Only when the mixed materials showed no segregation it was possible to analyse the mixing process quantitatively. In this case the mixture could be described by the 'χ' Square test. Longitudinal mixing could be

  13. European mixed forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bravo-Oviedo, Andres; Pretzsch, Hans; Ammer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Aim of study: We aim at (i) developing a reference definition of mixed forests in order to harmonize comparative research in mixed forests and (ii) review the research perspectives in mixed forests. Area of study: The definition is developed in Europe but can be tested worldwide. Material...... and Methods: Review of existent definitions of mixed forests based and literature review encompassing dynamics, management and economic valuation of mixed forests. Main results: A mixed forest is defined as a forest unit, excluding linear formations, where at least two tree species coexist at any...... density in mixed forests, (iii) conversion of monocultures to mixed-species forest and (iv) economic valuation of ecosystem services provided by mixed forests. Research highlights: The definition is considered a high-level one which encompasses previous attempts to define mixed forests. Current fields...

  14. Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) is to demonstrate, in contaminated sites, new technologies for clean-up of chemical and mixed waste landfills that are representative of many sites throughout the DOE Complex and the nation. When implemented, these new technologies promise to characterize and remediate the contaminated landfill sites across the country that resulted from past waste disposal practices. Characterization and remediation technologies are aimed at making clean-up less expensive, safer, and more effective than current techniques. This will be done by emphasizing in-situ technologies. Most important, MWLID's success will be shared with other Federal, state, and local governments, and private companies that face the important task of waste site remediation. MWLID will demonstrate technologies at two existing landfills. Sandia National Laboratories' Chemical Waste Landfill received hazardous (chemical) waste from the Laboratory from 1962 to 1985, and the Mixed-Waste Landfill received hazardous and radioactive wastes (mixed wastes) over a twenty-nine year period (1959-1988) from various Sandia nuclear research programs. Both landfills are now closed. Originally, however, the sites were selected because of Albuquerque's and climate and the thick layer of alluvial deposits that overlay groundwater approximately 480 feet below the landfills. This thick layer of ''dry'' soils, gravel, and clays promised to be a natural barrier between the landfills and groundwater

  15. Stochastic mechanics of mixed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaekel, M.T.; Pignon, D.

    1984-01-01

    Nelson's stochastic interpretation of quantum mechanics is extended from the case of pure states to that of mixed states. It is shown that a pure probabilistic formalism, which applies the Newton-Nelson Law to the initial position and velocity distributions, does not reproduce the time evolution predicted by quantum mechanics. In order to recover the latter, a new notion must be introduced, that of pure quantum states, over which the mixture has to be decomposed, and which then satisfy the Newton-Nelson Law independently. (author)

  16. Mixing ratio sensor for alcohol mixed fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Shigeru; Matsubara, Yoshihiro

    1987-08-24

    In order to improve the combustion efficiency of an internal combustion engine using gasoline-alcohol mixed fuel and to reduce harmful substance in its exhaust gas, it is necessary to control strictly the air-fuel ratio to be supplied and the ignition timing. In order to detect the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel, a mixing ratio sensor has so far been proposed to detect the above mixing ratio by casting a ray of light to the mixed fuel and utilizing a change of critical angle associated with the change of the composition of the fluid of the mixed fuel. However, because of the arrangement of its transparent substance in the fuel passage with the sealing material in between, this sensor invited the leakage of the fluid due to deterioration of the sealing material, etc. and its cost became high because of too many parts to be assembled. In view of the above, in order to reduce the number of parts, to lower the cost of parts and the assembling cost and to secure no fluid leakage from the fuel passage, this invention formed the above fuel passage and the above transparent substance both concerning the above mixing ratio sensor in an integrated manner using light transmitting resin. (3 figs)

  17. Hazardous and mixed waste transportation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohnstreiter, G.F.; Glass, R.E.; McAllaster, M.E.; Nigrey, P.J.; Trennel, A.J.; Yoshimura, H.R.

    1993-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a program to address the packaging needs associated with the transport of hazardous and mixed waste during the United States' Department of Energy (DOE) remediation efforts. The program addresses the technology needs associated with the transport of materials which have components that are radioactive and chemically hazardous. The mixed waste transportation activities focus on on-site specific applications of technology to the transport of hazardous and mixed wastes. These activities were identified at a series of DOE-sponsored workshops. These activities will be composed of the following: (1) packaging concepts, (2) chemical compatibility studies, and (3) systems studies. This paper will address activities in each of these areas. (J.P.N.)

  18. Hazardous and Mixed Waste Transportation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohnstreiter, G.F.; Glass, R.E.; McAllaster, M.E.; Nigrey, P.J.; Trennel, A.J.; Yoshimura, H.R.

    1991-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a program to address the packaging needs associated with the transport of hazardous and mixed waste during the United States' Department of Energy (DOE) remediation efforts. The program addresses the technology needs associated with the transport of materials which have components that are radioactive and chemically hazardous. The mixed waste transportation activities focus on on-site specific applications of technology to the transport of hazardous and mixed wastes. These activities were identified at a series of DOE-sponsored workshops. These activities will be composed of the following: (1) packaging concepts, (2) chemical compatibility studies, and (3) systems studies. This paper will address activities in each of these areas

  19. Model for the probability of core uncovery in loss of offsite power induced accidents, as applied in the Probabilistic Safety Study for ENEL PWR standard power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestri, E.; Serra, S.; Paddleford, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses one particular aspect of the Probabilistic Safety Study conducted for the Italian reference PWR or Progetto Unificato Nucleare (PUN) design. The event scenario addressed involves the loss of offsite power (LOOSP) initiating event in conjunction with an independent loss of certain support systems (to the exclusion of the total independent loss of on-site power which is treated similarly in a separate event tree). An event tree is developed to address the potential for a consequential small LOCA due to reactor coolant pump (RCP) seal failure under conditions of inadequate seal cooling and the subsequent potential for core uncovery should emergency systems be unavailable and not recovered in adequate time. The event scenario and the quantification methodology used are described. Results and sensitivities are presented

  20. Losses of off-site power at U.S. nuclear power plants - all years through 1985. Final report, May 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    This report provides a database describing losses of all off-site power at U.S. nuclear plants. It includes all years through 1985. During 1985 there were 2 losses lasting longer than 30 minutes for 0.031 losses per site year and 4 shorter losses for 0.063 losses per site year, giving a total of 0.094 losses per site year. This is in line with the 1984 total of 0.089 losses per site year, and with the comparable numbers for all years through 1985 of 0.038 losses per site year of longer than 30 minutes, 0.045 for shorter losses and a total of 0.083. (author)

  1. Assessment of RELAP5/MOD2 code using loss of offsite power transient data of KNU [Korea Nuclear Unit] No. 1 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Bud-Dong; Kim, Hho-Jung

    1990-04-01

    This report presents a code assessment study based on a real plant transient that occurred on June 9, 1981 at the KNU number-sign 1 (Korea Nuclear Unit Number 1). KNU number-sign 1 is a two-loop Westinghouse PWR plant of 587 Mwe. The loss of offsite power transient occurred at the 77.5% reactor power with 0.5%/hr power ramp. The real plant data were collected from available on-line plant records and computer diagnostics. The transient was simulated by RELAP5/MOD2/36.05 and the results were compared with the plant data to assess the code weaknesses and strengths. Some nodalization studies were performed to contribute to developing a guideline for PWR nodalization for the transient analysis. 5 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Transient evaluation using EMTP at single open phase with the offsite power transformer for the emergency power supply systems of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    The emergency power supply systems of nuclear power plants, as the objects of this research, are critical in supplying stable electric power to such systems as the emergency core cooling system (ECCS), and in maintaining safety of the nuclear power reactor; this was apparent in the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) issued regulatory documents (BL 2012-011, IN 2012-032), and has commenced evaluations on newly discovered vulnerability in the design of power supply systems which cannot be detected with under-voltage protection relays, with certain kinds of configuration of coils and iron core structures, such as when the offsite power supply side is a Y-connection and the load side is a ⊿-connection etc., when the detection of single open phase fault with the circuit of a transformer which is without a ground fault connected to the offsite power supply system. This report uses simulation by the electro magnetic transients program (EMTP) and clearly describe the response at the time of the power supply single open phase without ground fault for various configuration of coils and various iron core structures of the three-phase transformer, and identify the important issues in the response of emergency power supply systems and the safety related components of representative domestic PWR plants when the single open phase fault occurred without ground fault. This report describes the results of the simulations of operations of the protection relays of the emergency power supply systems and the safety related components of representative a domestic PWR plant with EMTP. This report explains the method to detect open-phase when the transformer is no-load which United States Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) developed. As the detailed analyses data from EPRI related to the detection method concerned have not been disclosed officially yet, in this paper, the quantitative and detailed verification results

  3. On-site and off-site atmospheric PBDEs in an electronic dismantling workshop in south China: Gas-particle partitioning and human exposure assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Taicheng; Zhang Delin; Li Guiying; Mai Bixian; Fu Jiamo

    2011-01-01

    Gas samples and total suspended particle during work and off work time were investigated on-site and off-site electronic waste dismantling workshop (I- and O-EWDW), then compared with plastic recycling workshop (PRW) and waste incineration plant (WIP). TSP concentrations and total PBDE were 0.36-2.21 mg/m 3 and 27-2975 ng/m 3 at different workshops, respectively. BDE-47, -99, and -209 were major ΣPBDE congeners at I-EWDW and WIP, while BDE-209 was only dominant congener in PRW and control sites during work time and all sites during off work time. The gas-particle partitioning result was well correlated with the subcooled liquid vapor pressure for all samples, except for WIP and I-EDWD, at park during work time, and residential area during off work time. The predicted urban curve fitted well with measured φ values at O-DEWD during work time, whereas it was slightly overestimated or underestimated for others. Exposure assessment revealed the highest exposure site was I-EDWD. - Highlights: → On- and off-site atmospheric PBDEs was monitored in e-waste dismantling workshops in south China. → The gas-particle partitioning result was well correlated with the subcooled liquid vapor pressure for some samples. → Exposure assessment revealed that workers in I-EDWD were the highest exposure population. - The findings of this study may serve as a valuable reference for future risk assessment and environmental management in Guiyu, South China.

  4. Off-site embankments to protect fields from the growth of peatlands in the Valli Grandi Veronesi Meridionali (Italy during Middle and Recent Bronze Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Balista

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the background of the late-Holocene landscape of the Southern Valli Grandi Veronesi (VGVM and nearby Bonifica Padana, an area that stretches between rivers Adige and Po and which is drained by the river Tartaro, was taken into consideration the position of a long embankment that ran through the territories of the two large moated sites of the middle and recent Bronze Age, Fondo Paviani (FP to east , and Castello del Tartaro (CdT to west. The location of this particular embankment called SAM (from italian southern embanked road, more than ten km long, and arranged parallel to the Tartaro old riparian belt, since long time attracted scholars as a witness of an old territorial organization, probably related to spatial distribution of cultivated or pasture by the communities who lived in the two large villages, bounded by massive ditch and bank systems. On the basis of recent acquisitions of new DEM and LIDAR sources and aimed field investigations, then merged into geo-chronological and chrono-typological analysis in the laboratory, was developed a research addressed the chrono-stratigraphic, cultural-evolutionary and functional scan of the SAM construct. For this purpose, the archaeological, stratigraphic and chronological record have been reviewed from a series of very significant off-sites, with stratigraphic columns documenting paleo-environmental and archaeological-functional reconstructions. They allowed to established the obvious links between the infrastructure of the ditches of the SAM embankment and the network of secondary rural ditches that seemed to drain and distribute waters in the parceled fields next to the large contemporary sites. In Ponte Moro off-site we captured the chrono-stratigraphic position of SAM embankment through the dating of two peat samples undertaken immediately before and after the stratigraphic position of the embankment. The datings have yielded an earliest date for the construction (MBA-RBA and a later date

  5. Soil-bentonite design mix for slurry cutoff walls used as containment barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rad, N.S.; Bachus, R.C.; Jacobson, B.D.

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, soil-bentonite slurry cutoff walls have been increasingly used as containment barriers around contaminated soils to impede or, in some cases, nearly eliminate the off-site migration of contaminated ground water or other potentially hazardous liquids. The paper presents the procedures used and the results obtained during an extensive laboratory testing program performed to select varying soil-bentonite slurry mix components for a soil-bentonite slurry cutoff wall constructed around an old landfill at a former oil refinery. The landfill is underlain to varying depths by a coarse granular soils that has been exposed to oil-products. Compatibility of three commercially available bentonite products with the free oil-products and the oil-contaminated ground water found at some locations in the landfill was initially investigated. Based on the test results, one of the bentonite products was selected for use in the soil-bentonite slurry testing program. A clayey soil from a borrow source, potable water from the site, and subsurface soils from the proposed soil-bentonite slurry wall alignment were used to form different soil-bentonite slurry mixes. Slump tests were performed to evaluate the workability of the mixes. Based on the test results, a single mix was selected for further study, including permeability/compatibility testing. The results of the compatibility testing program are presented and discussed in the paper. A specific design mix methodology for evaluating the chemical compatibility of soil-bentonite slurry mixes with permeants is proposed

  6. Verification of job mix formula for Alaskan HMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Some asphalt pavement does not last as long as it should. Every year, a significant amount of money is spent by the state on : repairing and maintaining pavement, which raises the question: Are we getting the mix design we need? Since hot mix asphalt...

  7. Arctic Mixed Layer Dynamics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morison, James

    2003-01-01

    .... Over the years we have sought to understand the heat and mass balance of the mixed layer, marginal ice zone processes, the Arctic internal wave and mixing environment, summer and winter leads, and convection...

  8. DOE Waste Treatability Group Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    This guidance presents a method and definitions for aggregating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste into streams and treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. Adaptable to all DOE waste types (i.e., radioactive waste, hazardous waste, mixed waste, sanitary waste), the guidance establishes categories and definitions that reflect variations within the radiological, matrix (e.g., bulk physical/chemical form), and regulated contaminant characteristics of DOE waste. Beginning at the waste container level, the guidance presents a logical approach to implementing the characteristic parameter categories as part of the basis for defining waste streams and as the sole basis for assigning streams to treatability groups. Implementation of this guidance at each DOE site will facilitate the development of technically defined, site-specific waste stream data sets to support waste management planning and reporting activities. Consistent implementation at all of the sites will enable aggregation of the site-specific waste stream data sets into comparable national data sets to support these activities at a DOE complex-wide level.

  9. DOE Waste Treatability Group Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    This guidance presents a method and definitions for aggregating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste into streams and treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. Adaptable to all DOE waste types (i.e., radioactive waste, hazardous waste, mixed waste, sanitary waste), the guidance establishes categories and definitions that reflect variations within the radiological, matrix (e.g., bulk physical/chemical form), and regulated contaminant characteristics of DOE waste. Beginning at the waste container level, the guidance presents a logical approach to implementing the characteristic parameter categories as part of the basis for defining waste streams and as the sole basis for assigning streams to treatability groups. Implementation of this guidance at each DOE site will facilitate the development of technically defined, site-specific waste stream data sets to support waste management planning and reporting activities. Consistent implementation at all of the sites will enable aggregation of the site-specific waste stream data sets into comparable national data sets to support these activities at a DOE complex-wide level

  10. SPORT MARKETING MIX STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of a significant element of the sport marketing management model called the marketing mix. The marketing mix is crucial because it defines the sport business, and much of the sport marketer’s time is spent on various functions within the marketing mix. The marketing mix is the strategic combination of the product, price, place and promotion elements. These elements are typically called the four Ps of marketing. Decisions and strategies for each are importa...

  11. THE MARKETING MIX OPTIMIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    SABOU FELICIA

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the marketing mix and the necessity of the marketing mix optimization. In the marketing mix a particularly important issue is to choose the best combination of its variables, this lead to the achievement objectives, in time. Choosing the right marketing mix is possible only by reporting information to some clear benchmarks, these criteria a related to the objective of the company at the time of analyze. The study shows that the companies must give a great importance to opti...

  12. Mixed methods research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halcomb, Elizabeth; Hickman, Louise

    2015-04-08

    Mixed methods research involves the use of qualitative and quantitative data in a single research project. It represents an alternative methodological approach, combining qualitative and quantitative research approaches, which enables nurse researchers to explore complex phenomena in detail. This article provides a practical overview of mixed methods research and its application in nursing, to guide the novice researcher considering a mixed methods research project.

  13. Commercial treatability study capabilities for application to the US Department of Energy's anticipated mixed waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA), which represents a national effort to develop and coordinate treatment solutions for mixed waste among all DOE facilities. The hazardous waste component of mixed waste is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), while the radioactive component is regulated under the Atomic Energy Act, as implemented by the DOE, making mixed waste one of the most complex types of waste for the DOE to manage. The MWFA has the mission to support technologies that meet the needs of the DOE's waste management efforts to characterize, treat, and dispose of mixed waste being generated and stored throughout the DOE complex. The technologies to be supported must meet all regulatory requirements, provide cost and risk improvements over available technologies, and be acceptable to the public. The most notable features of the DOE's mixed-waste streams are the wide diversity of waste matrices, volumes, radioactivity levels, and RCRA-regulated hazardous contaminants. Table 1-1 is constructed from data from the proposed site treatment plans developed by each DOE site and submitted to DOE Headquarters. The table shows the number of mixed-waste streams and their corresponding volumes. This table illustrates that the DOE has a relatively small number of large-volume mixed-waste streams and a large number of small-volume mixed-waste streams. There are 1,033 mixed-waste streams with volumes less than 1 cubic meter; 1,112 mixed-waste streams with volumes between 1 and 1,000 cubic meters; and only 61 mixed-waste streams with volumes exceeding 1,000 cubic meters

  14. The Vertical Profile of Ocean Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, R. M.; Nikurashin, M.; McDougall, T. J.; Mashayek, A.

    2014-12-01

    The upwelling of bottom waters through density surfaces in the deep ocean is not possible unless the sloping nature of the sea floor is taken into account. The bottom--intensified mixing arising from interaction of internal tides and geostrophic motions with bottom topography implies that mixing is a decreasing function of height in the deep ocean. This would further imply that the diapycnal motion in the deep ocean is downward, not upwards as is required by continuity. This conundrum regarding ocean mixing and upwelling in the deep ocean will be resolved by appealing to the fact that the ocean does not have vertical side walls. Implications of the conundrum for the representation of ocean mixing in climate models will be discussed.

  15. Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956)- An Assessment of Quantities released, Off-Site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer- APPENDICES Appendices-Volume 1A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostoaei, A.I.; Burns, R.E.; Hoffman, F.O.; Ijaz, T.; Lewis, C.J.; Nair, S.K.; Widner, T.E.

    1999-01-01

    This report consists of all the appendices for the report described below: In the early 1990s, concern about the Oak Ridge Reservation's past releases of contaminants to the environment prompted Tennessee's public health officials to pursue an in-depth study of potential off-site health effects at Oak Ridge. This study, the Oak Ridge dose reconstruction, was supported by an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Tennessee, and was overseen by a 12-member panel appointed by Tennessee's Commissioner of Health. One of the major contaminants studied in the dose reconstruction was radioactive iodine, which was released to the air by X-10 (now called Oak Ridge National Laboratory) as it processed spent nuclear reactor fuel from 1944 through 1956. The process recovered radioactive lanthanum for use in weapons development. Iodine concentrates in the thyroid gland so health concerns include various diseases of the thyroid, such as thyroid cancer. The large report, ''Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956) - An Assessment of Quantities Released, Off-site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer,'' is in two volumes. Volume 1 is the main body of the report, and Volume 1A, which has the same title, consists of 22 supporting appendices. Together, these reports serve the following purposes: (1) describe the methodologies used to estimate the amount of iodine-131 (I-131) released; (2) evaluate I-131's pathway from air to vegetation to food to humans; (3) estimate doses received by human thyroids; (4) estimate excess risk of acquiring a thyroid cancer during ones lifetime; and (5) provide equations, examples of historical documents used, and tables of calculated values as appendices. Results indicate that females born in 1952 who consumed milk from a goat pastured a few miles east of X-10 received the highest doses from I-131 and would have had the highest

  16. Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956)- An Assessment of Quantities released, Off-Site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer- APPENDICES Appendices-Volume 1A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostoaei, A.I.; Burns, R.E.; Hoffman, F.O.; Ijaz, T.; Lewis, C.J.; Nair, S.K.; Widner, T.E.

    1999-07-01

    This report consists of all the appendices for the report described below: In the early 1990s, concern about the Oak Ridge Reservation's past releases of contaminants to the environment prompted Tennessee's public health officials to pursue an in-depth study of potential off-site health effects at Oak Ridge. This study, the Oak Ridge dose reconstruction, was supported by an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Tennessee, and was overseen by a 12-member panel appointed by Tennessee's Commissioner of Health. One of the major contaminants studied in the dose reconstruction was radioactive iodine, which was released to the air by X-10 (now called Oak Ridge National Laboratory) as it processed spent nuclear reactor fuel from 1944 through 1956. The process recovered radioactive lanthanum for use in weapons development. Iodine concentrates in the thyroid gland so health concerns include various diseases of the thyroid, such as thyroid cancer. The large report, ''Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956) - An Assessment of Quantities Released, Off-site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer,'' is in two volumes. Volume 1 is the main body of the report, and Volume 1A, which has the same title, consists of 22 supporting appendices. Together, these reports serve the following purposes: (1) describe the methodologies used to estimate the amount of iodine-131 (I-131) released; (2) evaluate I-131's pathway from air to vegetation to food to humans; (3) estimate doses received by human thyroids; (4) estimate excess risk of acquiring a thyroid cancer during ones lifetime; and (5) provide equations, examples of historical documents used, and tables of calculated values as appendices. Results indicate that females born in 1952 who consumed milk from a goat pastured a few miles east of X-10 received the highest doses from

  17. Does activity mix and funding strategy vary across ownership?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saibal Gosh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Using data on Indian banks during 1996-2007, the paper examines the impact of bank activity and short-term funding for bank returns and risks. The findings indicate that larger, fast growing financial firms tend to have higher fee income shares. In addition, banks with greater reliance on fee income generating activities exhibit higher profitability. On the contrary, the impact of non-deposit funding share on bank profitability is weak. In terms of bank riskiness, the evidence is consistent with the conjecture that big, cost efficient and capitalized banks are less risky. As in case of bank profitability, there is limited evidence on any non-linear relationship between risk and fee incomes as also between risk and non-deposit funding share. Finally, the analysis supports the fact that foreign and de novo private banks exhibit lower risk as compared to old private banks.

  18. Mixing vane grid spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.F.; Galbraith, K.P.

    1978-01-01

    An improved mixing vane grid spacer having enhanced flow mixing capability by virtue of mixing vanes being positioned at welded intersecting joints of the spacer wherein each mixing vane has an opening or window formed therein substantially directly over the welded joint to provide improved flow mixing capability is described. Some of the vanes are slotted, depending on their particular location in the spacers. The intersecting joints are welded by initially providing consumable tabs at and within each window, which are consumed during the welding of the spacer joints

  19. Final environmental impact statement for the Nevada Test Site and off-site locations in the State of Nevada. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This sitewide EIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts of four possible land-use alternatives being considered for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the Tonopah Test Range, and the formerly operated DOE sites in the state of Nevada: the Project Shoal Area, the Central Nevada Test Area, and portions of the Nellis Air Force Range Complex. Three additional sites in Nevada-Eldorado Valley, Dry Lake Valley, and Coyote Spring Valley-are evaluated for collocation of solar energy production facilities. The four alternatives include Continue Current Operations (No Action, continue to operate at the level maintained for the past 3 to 5 years); Discontinue Operations 1 (discontinue operations and interagency programs); Expanded Use (increased use of NTS and its resources to support defense and nondefense programs); and Alternate Use of Withdrawn Lands (discontinue all defense-related activities at NTS; continue waste management operations in support of NTS environmental restoration efforts; expand nondefense research). Environmental impacts were assessed for each alternative by analyzing, to the extent possible, the discrete and cumulative environmental impacts associated with Defense Waste Management, Environmental Restoration, Nondefense Research and Development, and Work for Others Programs. A framework for a Resource Management Plan is included as Volume 2 of this EIS and represents the development of an ecosystem based planning process closely integrated with the National Environmental Policy Act process. This EIS, among other things, analyzed the impacts of transportation of low level waste, and site characterization activities related to the Yucca Mountain Project but did not analyze the suitability of the site as a repository. This EIS does not analyze the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site as a repository as this is an action beyond the scope of the EIS. Volume 3 of this EIS contains the public comments and the responses to the comments

  20. Mixed waste focus area alternative technologies workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Palmer, B.A.; Pendergrass, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    This report documents the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA)-sponsored Alternative Technology Workshop held in Salt Lake City, Utah, from January 24--27, 1995. The primary workshop goal was identifying potential applications for emerging technologies within the Options Analysis Team (OAT) ''wise'' configuration. Consistent with the scope of the OAT analysis, the review was limited to the Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW) fraction of DOE's mixed waste inventory. The Los Alamos team prepared workshop materials (databases and compilations) to be used as bases for participant review and recommendations. These materials derived from the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR) data base (May 1994), the Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP) data base, and the OAT treatment facility configuration of December 7, 1994. In reviewing workshop results, the reader should note several caveats regarding data limitations. Link-up of the MWIR and DSTP data bases, while representing the most comprehensive array of mixed waste information available at the time of the workshop, requires additional data to completely characterize all waste streams. A number of changes in waste identification (new and redefined streams) occurred during the interval from compilation of the data base to compilation of the DSTP data base with the end result that precise identification of radiological and contaminant characteristics was not possible for these streams. To a degree, these shortcomings compromise the workshop results; however, the preponderance of waste data was linked adequately, and therefore, these analyses should provide useful insight into potential applications of alternative technologies to DOE MLLW treatment facilities

  1. Risk assessments of innovative technologies for treatment of mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragaini, R.C.; Aycock, M.T.; Russell, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy's (DOE'S) Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is to develop complete and appropriate technologies for the treatment of DOE mixed low-level waste and transuranic wastes in order to ensure that all affected DOE installations and projects can come into compliance with environmental law and meet DOE's 30-yr cleanup and operational goals. The MWIP will achieve its goal by developing technologies that are in compliance with regulatory requirements, are socially and politically viable, and are cost beneficial and effective in disposed waste source term and volume reduction. The project management plan for MWIP requires that technologies be evaluated in accordance with criteria that rank technologies with regard to performance, risk, and cost-effectiveness. This paper addresses the methodology used to rank alternative mixed-water treatment technologies with regard to relative risk

  2. Permitting mixed waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities: A mixed bag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranek, N.L.; Coalgate, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992 (FFCAct) requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to make a comprehensive national inventory of its mixed wastes (i.e., wastes that contain both a hazardous component that meets the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) definition of hazardous waste and a radioactive component consisting of source, special nuclear, or byproduct material regulated under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA)), and of its mixed waste treatment technologies and facilities. It also requires each DOE facility that stores or generates mixed waste to develop a treatment plan that includes, in part, a schedule for constructing units to treat those wastes that can be treated using existing technologies. Inherent in constructing treatment units for mixed wastes is, of course, permitting. This paper identifies Federal regulatory program requirements that are likely to apply to new DOE mixed waste treatment units. The paper concentrates on showing how RCRA permitting requirements interrelate with the permitting or licensing requirements of such other laws as the Atomic Energy Act, the Clean Water Act, and the Clean Air Act. Documentation needed to support permit applications under these laws are compared with RCRA permit application documentation. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation requirements are also addressed, and throughout the paper, suggestions are made for managing the permitting process

  3. MIXED AND MIXING SYSTEMS WORLDWIDE: A PREFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seán Patrick Donlan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This issue of the Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal (South Africa sees thepublication of a selection of articles derived from the Third International Congress ofthe World Society of Mixed Jurisdiction Jurists (WSMJJ. That Congress was held atthe Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel in the summer of 2011. It reflected athriving Society consolidating its core scholarship on classical mixed jurisdictions(Israel, Louisiana, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, Quebec, Scotland, and South Africawhile reaching to new horizons (including Cyprus, Hong Kong and Macau, Malta,Nepal, etc. This publication reflects in microcosm the complexity of contemporaryscholarship on mixed and plural legal systems. This complexity is, of course, wellunderstoodby South African jurists whose system is derived both from the dominantEuropean traditions as well as from African customary systems, including both thosethat make up part of the official law of the state as well as those non-state norms thatcontinue to be important in the daily lives of many South Africans.

  4. Offsite radiation doses from Hanford Operations for the years 1983 through 1987: A comparison of results calculated by two methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldat, J.K.

    1989-10-01

    This report compares the results of the calculation of potential radiation doses to the public by two different environmental dosimetric systems for the years 1983 through 1987. Both systems project the environmental movement of radionuclides released with effluents from Hanford operations; their concentrations in air, water, and foods; the intake of radionuclides by ingestion and inhalation; and, finally, the potential radiation doses from radionuclides deposited in the body and from external sources. The first system, in use for the past decade at Hanford, calculates radiation doses in terms of 50-year cumulative dose equivalents to body organs and to the whole body, based on the methodology defined in ICRP Publication 2. This system uses a suite of three computer codes: PABLM, DACRIN, and KRONIC. In the new system, 50-year committed doses are calculated in accordance with the recommendations of the ICRP Publications 26 and 30, which were adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in 1985. This new system calculates dose equivalent (DE) to individual organs and effective dose equivalent (EDE). The EDE is a risk-weighted DE that is designed to be an indicator of the potential health effects arising from the radiation dose. 16 refs., 1 fig., 38 tabs

  5. Tracking mixed waste from environmental restoration through waste management for the Federal Facility Compliance Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isbell, D.; Tolbert-Smith, M.; MacDonell, M.; Peterson, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Federal Facility Compliance Act required the US Department of Energy (DOE) to prepare an inventory report that presents comprehensive information on mixed wastes. Additional documents, such as site treatment plans, were also required of facilities with mixed waste. For a number of reasons, not all DOE mixed waste sites are able to provide detailed characterization and planning data at this time. Thus, an effort is currently under way to develop a reporting format that will permit mixed waste information across the DOE complex to be tracked as it becomes available

  6. Analysis of the main steam line break accident with loss of offsite power using the fully coupled RELAP5/PANTHER/COBRA code package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruben Van Parys; Sandrine Bosso; Christophe Schneidesch; Jinzhao Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: A coupled thermal hydraulics-neutronics code package (RELAP5/PANTHER/COBRA) has been qualified for accident analysis at Tractebel Engineering. In the TE coupled code package, the best estimate thermal-hydraulic system code, RELAP5/MOD2.5, is coupled with the full three-dimensional reactor core kinetics code, PANTHER, via a dynamic data exchange control and processing tool, TALINK. An interface between PANTHER code and the sub-channel thermal-hydraulic analysis code COBRA-IIIC is developed in order to perform online calculation of Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio (DNBR). The TE coupled code package has been applied to develop a MSLB accident analysis methodology using the TE deterministic bounding approach. The methodology has been applied for MSLB accident analysis in support of licensing of the power up-rate and steam generator replacement of the Doel 2 plant. The results of coupled thermal-hydraulic and neutronic analysis of SLB show that there exists an important margin in the traditional FSAR MSLB accident analysis. As a specific licensing requirement, the main steam line break accident with loss of offsite power has to be analyzed. In the standard methodology with the coupled RELAP5/PANTHER code, and some corrective methods has to be taken in order to overcome the limitations due to the close-channel T/H model in PANTHER at low flow conditions. The results show that the steam line break accident with loss of offsite power is far less limiting. In order to verify the effect of the cross-flow at low flow conditions, the fully dynamic coupling of RELAP5/PANTHER/COBRA code package is used for reanalysis of this case, in which the PANTHER close-channel T/H model is replaced by the COBRA sub-channel T/H model with crossflow option. It has been demonstrated that, although the consideration of cross-flow in this challenging situation may lead to higher core return to power and slightly lower DNBR than in the standard methodology

  7. Analysis of the main steam line break accident with loss of offsite power using the fully coupled RELAP5/PANTHER/COBRA code package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruben Van Parys; Sandrine Bosso; Christophe Schneidesch; Jinzhao Zhang [Nuclear Department, Suez-Tractebel Engineering, avenue Ariane 5, B-1200 Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: A coupled thermal hydraulics-neutronics code package (RELAP5/PANTHER/COBRA) has been qualified for accident analysis at Tractebel Engineering. In the TE coupled code package, the best estimate thermal-hydraulic system code, RELAP5/MOD2.5, is coupled with the full three-dimensional reactor core kinetics code, PANTHER, via a dynamic data exchange control and processing tool, TALINK. An interface between PANTHER code and the sub-channel thermal-hydraulic analysis code COBRA-IIIC is developed in order to perform online calculation of Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio (DNBR). The TE coupled code package has been applied to develop a MSLB accident analysis methodology using the TE deterministic bounding approach. The methodology has been applied for MSLB accident analysis in support of licensing of the power up-rate and steam generator replacement of the Doel 2 plant. The results of coupled thermal-hydraulic and neutronic analysis of SLB show that there exists an important margin in the traditional FSAR MSLB accident analysis. As a specific licensing requirement, the main steam line break accident with loss of offsite power has to be analyzed. In the standard methodology with the coupled RELAP5/PANTHER code, and some corrective methods has to be taken in order to overcome the limitations due to the close-channel T/H model in PANTHER at low flow conditions. The results show that the steam line break accident with loss of offsite power is far less limiting. In order to verify the effect of the cross-flow at low flow conditions, the fully dynamic coupling of RELAP5/PANTHER/COBRA code package is used for reanalysis of this case, in which the PANTHER close-channel T/H model is replaced by the COBRA sub-channel T/H model with crossflow option. It has been demonstrated that, although the consideration of cross-flow in this challenging situation may lead to higher core return to power and slightly lower DNBR than in the standard methodology

  8. MARKETING MIX THEORETICAL ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita Išoraitė

    2016-01-01

    Aim of article is to analyze marketing mix theoretical aspects. The article discusses that marketing mix is one of the main objectives of the marketing mix elements for setting objectives and marketing budget measures. The importance of each element depends not only on the company and its activities, but also on the competition and time. All marketing elements are interrelated and should be seen in the whole of their actions. Some items may have greater importance than others; it depends main...

  9. Protocol Fuel Mix reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    The protocol in this document describes a method for an Electricity Distribution Company (EDC) to account for the fuel mix of electricity that it delivers to its customers, based on the best available information. Own production, purchase and sale of electricity, and certificates trading are taken into account. In chapter 2 the actual protocol is outlined. In the appendixes additional (supporting) information is given: (A) Dutch Standard Fuel Mix, 2000; (B) Calculation of the Dutch Standard fuel mix; (C) Procedures to estimate and benchmark the fuel mix; (D) Quality management; (E) External verification; (F) Recommendation for further development of the protocol; (G) Reporting examples

  10. Commercial treatability study capabilities for application to the US Department of Energy`s anticipated mixed waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA), which represents a national effort to develop and coordinate treatment solutions for mixed waste among all DOE facilities. The hazardous waste component of mixed waste is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), while the radioactive component is regulated under the Atomic Energy Act, as implemented by the DOE, making mixed waste one of the most complex types of waste for the DOE to manage. The MWFA has the mission to support technologies that meet the needs of the DOE`s waste management efforts to characterize, treat, and dispose of mixed waste being generated and stored throughout the DOE complex. The technologies to be supported must meet all regulatory requirements, provide cost and risk improvements over available technologies, and be acceptable to the public. The most notable features of the DOE`s mixed-waste streams are the wide diversity of waste matrices, volumes, radioactivity levels, and RCRA-regulated hazardous contaminants. Table 1-1 is constructed from data from the proposed site treatment plans developed by each DOE site and submitted to DOE Headquarters. The table shows the number of mixed-waste streams and their corresponding volumes. This table illustrates that the DOE has a relatively small number of large-volume mixed-waste streams and a large number of small-volume mixed-waste streams. There are 1,033 mixed-waste streams with volumes less than 1 cubic meter; 1,112 mixed-waste streams with volumes between 1 and 1,000 cubic meters; and only 61 mixed-waste streams with volumes exceeding 1,000 cubic meters.

  11. Sulfur polymer cement for macroencapsulation of mixed waste debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattus, C.H.

    1998-01-01

    In FY 1997, the US DOE Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) sponsored a demonstration of the macroencapsulation of mixed waste debris using sulfur polymer cement (SPC). Two mixed wastes were tested--a D006 waste comprised of sheets of cadmium and a D008/D009 waste comprised of lead pipes and joints contaminated with mercury. The demonstration was successful in rendering these wastes compliant with Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR), thereby eliminating one Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR) waste stream from the national inventory

  12. Transverse mixing of ellipsoidal particles in a rotating drum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Siyuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotating drums are widely used in industry for mixing, milling, coating and drying processes. In the past decades, mixing of granular materials in rotating drums has been extensively investigated, but most of the studies are based on spherical particles. Particle shape has an influence on the flow behaviour and thus mixing behaviour, though the shape effect has as-yet received limited study. In this work, discrete element method (DEM is employed to study the transverse mixing of ellipsoidal particles in a rotating drum. The effects of aspect ratio and rotating speed on mixing quality and mixing rate are investigated. The results show that mixing index increases exponentially with time for both spheres and ellipsoids. Particles with various aspect ratios are able to reach well-mixed states after sufficient revolutions in the rolling or cascading regime. Ellipsoids show higher mixing rate when rotational speed is set between 25 and 40 rpm. The relationship between mixing rate and aspect ratio of ellipsoids is established, demonstrating that, particles with aspect ratios of 0.5 and 2.0 achieve the highest mixing rates. Increasing rotating speed from 15 rpm to 40 rpm does not necessarily increase the mixing speed of spheres, while monotonous increase is observed for ellipsoids.

  13. Mixing of solids in different mixing devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    INGRID BAUMAN, DUŠKA ´CURI ´C and MATIJA BOBAN ... whose main cause is the difference in particle size, density shape and resilience. ..... Gyebis J, Katai F 1990 Determination and randomness in mixing of particulate solids, Chem.

  14. Evaluation on Cooling Performance of Containment Fan Cooler during Design Basis Accident with Loss of Offsite Power for Kori 3 and 4 Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Bok; Lee, Sang Won [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Chan [Atomic Creative Technology Co., LTD., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate cooling performance of containment fan cooler units and to review a technical background related to Generic Letter 96-06. In case that design basis accident (DBA) and loss of offsite power (LOOP) occurs, component cooling water (CCW) pumps cannot provide the cooling water source to fan cooler units while fan coolers coast down. Fan cooler units and CCW pumps are restarted by emergency diesel generator (EDG) operation and it takes about 30 seconds. In this scenario, before the EDG restarts and CCW flowrate is restored, heated air in the containment passes through coil of fan cooler units without cooling water source. In this situation, the boiling of water in the fan cooler units may occur. Restarting of CCW pumps may bring about condensation by injected cooling water and water hammer may occur. This thermal-hydraulic effect is sensitive to system configuration, i.e system pressure, containment pressure/temperature, EDG restarting time, etc. In this study, the evaluation of containment fan cooler units was performed for Kori 3 and 4 nuclear power plant.

  15. Status of the Real-time On-line Decision Support (RODOS) system for off-site emergency management after nuclear and radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskov, W.; Ehrhardt, J.; Landman, C.; Pasler-Sauer, J.

    2006-01-01

    Under the auspices of its EURATOM Research Framework Programmes, the European Commission (EC) has supported the development of the comprehensive decision support system RODOS (Real-time On-line Decision Support) for off-site emergency management after nuclear accidents for more than a decade. Many national research programmes, research institutes and industrial collaborators contributed to the project, in particular the German Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety (B MU). The RODOS system can be applied to accidental releases into the atmosphere and various aquatic environments within and across Europe. It provides coherent support before, during and after such a release to assist analysis of the situation and decision making about short and long-term countermeasures for mitigating the consequences with respect to health, the environment, and the economy. Appropriate interfaces exist with local and national radiological monitoring data systems, meteorological measurements and forecasts, and for the adaptation to local, regional and national conditions in Europe. Within the European Integrated Project EURANOS of the sixth Framework Programme, the RODOS system is being enhanced, among others, for radiological emergencies such as dirty bombs attacks, transport accidents and satellite crashes by extensions of the nuclide list, the source term characteristics and the atmospheric dispersion model

  16. Music Mixing Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelineck, Steven; Büchert, Morten; Andersen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-touch based interface for mixing music. The goal of the interface is to provide users with a more intuitive control of the music mix by implementing the so-called stage metaphor control scheme, which is especially suitable for multi-touch surfaces. Specifically, we...

  17. Warm Mix Asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-17

    State of Alaska State of Alaska - Warm Mix Project Warm Mix Project: Location - Petersburg, Alaska which is Petersburg, Alaska which is located in the heart of Southeast Alaska located in the heart of Southeast Alaska's Inside Passage at the tip of M...

  18. The Mixed language Debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A range of views on mixed languages and their connections to phenomena such as secret languages, massive borrowing, codeswitching and codemixing, and thier origin.......A range of views on mixed languages and their connections to phenomena such as secret languages, massive borrowing, codeswitching and codemixing, and thier origin....

  19. Convective mixing in helium white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vauclair, G.; Fontaine, G.

    1979-01-01

    The conditions under which convective mixing episodes take place between the helium envelopes and the underlying carbon layers in helium-rich white dwarfs are investigated. It is found that, for essentially any value of the initial helium content less than the maximum mass a helium convection zone can have, mixing does occur, and leads, in the vast majority of cases, to an almost pure carbon superficial composition. Mixing products that show only traces of carbon while retaining helium-dominated envelopes are possible only if the initial helium content is quite close to the maximum possible mass of the helium convection zone. In the presence of turbulence, this restriction could be relaxed, however, and the helium-rich lambda4670 stars may possibly be explained in this fashion

  20. Mixed Waste Focus Area - Waste form initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaoka, R.; Waters, R.; Pohl, P.; Roach, J.

    1998-01-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems which are developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. To accomplish this mission, a technical baseline was established in 1996 and revised in 1997. The technical baseline forms the basis for determining which technology development activities will be supported by the MWFA. The primary attribute of the technical baseline is a set of prioritized technical deficiencies or roadblocks related to implementation of mixed waste treatment systems. The Waste Form Initiative (WFI) was established to address an identified technical deficiency related to waste form performance. The primary goal of the WFI was to ensure that the mixed low-level waste (MLLW) treatment technologies being developed, currently used, or planned for use by DOE would produce final waste forms that meet the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) of the existing and/or planned MLLW disposal facilities. The WFI was limited to an evaluation of the disposal requirements for the radioactive component of MLLW. Disposal requirements for the hazardous component are dictated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and were not addressed. This paper summarizes the technical basis, strategy, and results of the activities performed as part of the WFI

  1. The proposed combustion standards and DOE thermal treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFee, J.; Hinman, M.B.; Eaton, D.; NcNeel, K.

    1997-01-01

    Under the provisions of the Clean Air Act (CAA) concerning emission of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the proposed Revised Standards for Hazardous Waste Combustors on April 19, 1996 (EPA, 1996). These standards would apply to the existing Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive and mixed waste incinerators, and may be applied to several developing alternatives to incineration. The DOE has reviewed the basis for these regulations and prepared extensive comments to present concerns about the bases and implications of the standards. DOE is now discussing compliance options with the EPA for regulation of radioactive and mixed waste thermal treatment systems

  2. ADVANCED MIXING MODELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R; David Tamburello, D

    2008-01-01

    The process of recovering the waste in storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) typically requires mixing the contents of the tank with one to four dual-nozzle jet mixers located within the tank. The typical criteria to establish a mixed condition in a tank are based on the number of pumps in operation and the time duration of operation. To ensure that a mixed condition is achieved, operating times are set conservatively long. This approach results in high operational costs because of the long mixing times and high maintenance and repair costs for the same reason. A significant reduction in both of these costs might be realized by reducing the required mixing time based on calculating a reliable indicator of mixing with a suitably validated computer code. The work described in this report establishes the basis for further development of the theory leading to the identified mixing indicators, the benchmark analyses demonstrating their consistency with widely accepted correlations, and the application of those indicators to SRS waste tanks to provide a better, physically based estimate of the required mixing time. Waste storage tanks at SRS contain settled sludge which varies in height from zero to 10 ft. The sludge has been characterized and modeled as micron-sized solids, typically 1 to 5 microns, at weight fractions as high as 20 to 30 wt%, specific gravities to 1.4, and viscosities up to 64 cp during motion. The sludge is suspended and mixed through the use of submersible slurry jet pumps. To suspend settled sludge, water is added to the tank as a slurry medium and stirred with the jet pump. Although there is considerable technical literature on mixing and solid suspension in agitated tanks, very little literature has been published on jet mixing in a large-scale tank. If shorter mixing times can be shown to support Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) or other feed requirements, longer pump lifetimes can be achieved with associated operational cost and

  3. ADVANCED MIXING MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R; David Tamburello, D

    2008-11-13

    The process of recovering the waste in storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) typically requires mixing the contents of the tank with one to four dual-nozzle jet mixers located within the tank. The typical criteria to establish a mixed condition in a tank are based on the number of pumps in operation and the time duration of operation. To ensure that a mixed condition is achieved, operating times are set conservatively long. This approach results in high operational costs because of the long mixing times and high maintenance and repair costs for the same reason. A significant reduction in both of these costs might be realized by reducing the required mixing time based on calculating a reliable indicator of mixing with a suitably validated computer code. The work described in this report establishes the basis for further development of the theory leading to the identified mixing indicators, the benchmark analyses demonstrating their consistency with widely accepted correlations, and the application of those indicators to SRS waste tanks to provide a better, physically based estimate of the required mixing time. Waste storage tanks at SRS contain settled sludge which varies in height from zero to 10 ft. The sludge has been characterized and modeled as micron-sized solids, typically 1 to 5 microns, at weight fractions as high as 20 to 30 wt%, specific gravities to 1.4, and viscosities up to 64 cp during motion. The sludge is suspended and mixed through the use of submersible slurry jet pumps. To suspend settled sludge, water is added to the tank as a slurry medium and stirred with the jet pump. Although there is considerable technical literature on mixing and solid suspension in agitated tanks, very little literature has been published on jet mixing in a large-scale tank. If shorter mixing times can be shown to support Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) or other feed requirements, longer pump lifetimes can be achieved with associated operational cost and

  4. ADVANCED MIXING MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S; Dimenna, R; Tamburello, D

    2011-02-14

    The process of recovering and processing High Level Waste (HLW) the waste in storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) typically requires mixing the contents of the tank with one to four mixers (pumps) located within the tank. The typical criteria to establish a mixed condition in a tank are based on the number of pumps in operation and the time duration of operation. To ensure that a mixed condition is achieved, operating times are typically set conservatively long. This approach results in high operational costs because of the long mixing times and high maintenance and repair costs for the same reason. A significant reduction in both of these costs might be realized by reducing the required mixing time based on calculating a reliable indicator of mixing with a suitably validated computer code. The focus of the present work is to establish mixing criteria applicable to miscible fluids, with an ultimate goal of addressing waste processing in HLW tanks at SRS and quantifying the mixing time required to suspend sludge particles with the submersible jet pump. A single-phase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach was taken for the analysis of jet flow patterns with an emphasis on the velocity decay and the turbulent flow evolution for the farfield region from the pump. Literature results for a turbulent jet flow are reviewed, since the decay of the axial jet velocity and the evolution of the jet flow patterns are important phenomena affecting sludge suspension and mixing operations. The work described in this report suggests a basis for further development of the theory leading to the identified mixing indicators, with benchmark analyses demonstrating their consistency with widely accepted correlations. Although the indicators are somewhat generic in nature, they are applied to Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks to provide a better, physically based estimate of the required mixing time. Waste storage tanks at SRS contain settled sludge which varies in

  5. THE MARKETING MIX OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SABOU FELICIA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available ing mix a particularly important issue is to choose the best combination of its variables, this lead to the achievement objectives, in time. Choosing the right marketing mix is possible only by reporting information to some clear benchmarks, these criteria a related to the objective of the company at the time of analyze. The study shows that the companies must give a great importance to optimize the marketing mix, because of how its combines and integrates company policies relating to the product, price, distribution and promotion, depends the success or the failure on its market. The practice has shown that if an element of the marketing mix is wrong implemented, marketing strategies and programs do not achieve their objectives, and the company can not generate the expected profit. To optimize the marketing mix, companies should consider the following issues: the resources (materials, financial and human, which will be properly allocated to all the elements of the marketing mix, the specific marketing tools and the relationship of interdependence of all the methods and tools used to optimize the marketing mix.

  6. The mixing of fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottino, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    What do the eruption of Krakatau, the manufacture of puff pastry and the brightness of stars have in common? Each involves some aspect of mixing. Mixing also plays a critical role in modern technology. Chemical engineers rely on mixing to ensure that substances react properly, to produce polymer blends that exhibit unique properties and to disperse drag-reducing agents in pipelines. Yet in spite of its of its ubiquity in nature and industry, mixing is only imperfectly under-stood. Indeed, investigators cannot even settle on a common terminology: mixing is often referred to as stirring by oceanographers and geophysicists, as blending by polymer engineers and as agitation by process engineers. Regardless of what the process is called, there is little doubt that it is exceedingly complex and is found in a great variety of systems. In constructing a theory of fluid mixing, for example, one has to take into account fluids that can be miscible or partially miscible and reactive or inert, and flows that are slow and orderly or very fast and turbulent. It is therefore not surprising that no single theory can explain all aspect of mixing in fluids and that straightforward computations usually fail to capture all the important details. Still, both physical experiments and computer simulations can provide insight into the mixing process. Over the past several years the authors and his colleague have taken both approaches in an effort to increase understanding of various aspect of the process-particularly of mixing involving slow flows and viscous fluids such as oils

  7. DOE/EIS-0355 Remediation of the Moab Uranium Mill Tailings, Grand and San Juan Counties, Utah, Final Environmental Impact Statement (July 2005)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE or the Department) is proposing to clean up surface contamination and implement a ground water compliance strategy to address contamination that resulted from historical uranium-ore processing at the Moab Uranium Mill Tailings Site (Moab site), Grand County, Utah. Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), 42 United States Code (U.S.C.) (section) 4321 et seq., DOE prepared this environmental impact statement (EIS) to assess the potential environmental impacts of remediating the Moab site and vicinity properties (properties where uranium mill tailings were used as construction or fill material before the potential hazards associated with the tailings were known). DOE analyzed the potential environmental impacts of both on-site and off-site remediation and disposal alternatives involving both surface and ground water contamination. DOE also analyzed the No Action alternative as required by NEPA implementing regulations promulgated by the Council on Environmental Quality. DOE has determined that its preferred alternatives are the off-site disposal of the Moab uranium mill tailings pile, combined with active ground water remediation at the Moab site. The preferred off-site disposal location is the Crescent Junction site, and the preferred method of transportation is rail. The basis for this determination is discussed later in this Summary. DOE has entered into agreements with 12 federal, tribal, state, and local agencies to be cooperating agencies in the development and preparation of this EIS. Several of the cooperating agencies have jurisdiction by law and intend to use the EIS to support their own decisionmaking. The others have expertise relevant to potential environmental, social, or economic impacts within their geographic regions. During the preparation of the EIS, DOE met with the cooperating agencies, provided them with opportunities to review preliminary versions of the document, and addressed their comments

  8. Guidelines for mixed waste minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, C.

    1992-02-01

    Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization

  9. Idealized mixing impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The dispersion of tetraphenylborate in continuous stirred tank reactors plays a significant role in the utility achieved from the tetraphenylborate. Investigating idealized mixing of the materials can illuminate how this dispersion occurs

  10. SPORT MARKETING MIX STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief overview of a significant element of the sport marketing management model called the marketing mix. The marketing mix is crucial because it defines the sport business, and much of the sport marketer’s time is spent on various functions within the marketing mix. The marketing mix is the strategic combination of the product, price, place and promotion elements. These elements are typically called the four Ps of marketing. Decisions and strategies for each are important for the marketer. Information for making educated decisions involving the four Ps comes from the marketing research involving primarily the four Cs - consumer, competitor, company and climate. A critical decision and one of the greatest challenges for the sport business is how to strategically combine the four Ps to best satisfy the consumer, meet company objectives, enhance market position, and enhance competitive advantages.

  11. HIA 2016 DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Mandalay Homes, Cathedral Point at The Dells, Prescott, AZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2016-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2016 Housing Innovation Award winning production home in the mixed-dry climate that met the DOE Zero Energy Ready Home criteria and achieved a HERS 47 without PV or HERS -2 with PV.

  12. Modeling of technical soil-erosion control measures and its impact on soil erosion off-site effects within urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostal, Tomas; Devaty, Jan

    2013-04-01

    The paper presents results of surface runoff, soil erosion and sediment transport modeling using Erosion 3D software - physically based mathematical simulation model, event oriented, fully distributed. Various methods to simulate technical soil-erosion conservation measures were tested, using alternative digital elevation models of different precision and resolution. Ditches and baulks were simulated by three different approaches, (i) by change of the land-cover parameters to increase infiltration and decrease flow velocity, (ii) by change of the land-cover parameters to completely infiltrate the surface runoff and (iii) by adjusting the height of the digital elevation model by "burning in" the channels of the ditches. Results show advantages and disadvantages of each approach and conclude suitable methods for combinations of particular digital elevation model and purpose of the simulations. Further on a set of simulations was carried out to model situations before and after technical soil-erosion conservation measures application within a small catchment of 4 km2. These simulations were focused on quantitative and qualitative assessment of technical soil-erosion control measures impact on soil erosion off-site effects within urban areas located downstream of intensively used agricultural fields. The scenarios were built upon a raster digital elevation model with spatial resolution of 3 meters derived from LiDAR 5G vector point elevation data. Use of this high-resolution elevation model allowed simulating the technical soil-erosion control measures by direct terrain elevation adjustment. Also the structures within the settlements were emulated by direct change in the elevation of the terrain model. The buildings were lifted up to simulate complicated flow behavior of the surface runoff within urban areas, using approach of Arévalo (Arévalo, 2011) but focusing on the use of commonly available data without extensive detailed editing. Application of the technical

  13. MARKETING MIX IN SPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Srećko Novaković; Slobodan Živkucin

    2011-01-01

    Marketing mix'' along the term of life cycle has robbed the trademark for the conception of marketing and the market direction of company, corporations and institutions. Essence marketing-mixa is in the simultaneous determining of the target market group of consumer (the buyer) or stays the public and specially prepared and the coordinated impact of elements mixa, and this is the product, price, distributions and graduation ceremonies. Given that is mix combinations of verified variables, com...

  14. Mixed Reality Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dieter Müller

    2009-01-01

    Currently one of the most challenging aspects of human computer interaction design is the integration of physical and digital worlds in a single environment. This fusion involves the development of "Mixed Reality Systems”, including various technologies from the domains of augmented and virtual reality. In this paper I will present related concepts and discuss lessons learned from our own research and prototype development. Our recent work involves the use of mixed reality (as opposed to ‘pur...

  15. Features of neutrino mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, S. H.; Kuo, T. K.

    2018-03-01

    The elements (squared) of the neutrino mixing matrix are found to satisfy, as functions of the induced mass, a set of differential equations. They show clearly the dominance of pole terms when the neutrino masses "cross." Using the known vacuum mixing parameters as initial conditions, it is found that these equations have very good approximate solutions, for all values of the induced mass. The results are applicable to long baseline experiments.

  16. The Mixed Waste Focus Area: Status and accomplishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area began operations in February of 1995. Its mission is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. The MWFA will develop, demonstrate, and deliver implementable technologies for treatment of mixed waste within the DOE complex. Treatment refers to all post waste-generation activities including sampling and analysis, characterization, storage, processing, packaging, transportation, and disposal. The MWFA's mission arises from the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as amended by the Federal Facility Compliance Act. Each DOE site facility that generates or stores mixed waste prepared a plan, the Site Treatment Plan, for developing treatment capacities and treating that waste. Agreements for each site were concluded with state regulators, resulting in Consent Orders providing enforceable milestones for achieving treatment of the waste. The paper discusses the implementation of the program, its status, accomplishments and goals for FY1996, and plans for 1997

  17. Simulation-based multiprofessional obstetric anaesthesia training conducted in situ versus off-site leads to similar individual and team outcomes: a randomised educational trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Jette Led; van der Vleuten, Cees; Rosthøj, Susanne; Østergaard, Doris; LeBlanc, Vicki; Johansen, Marianne; Ekelund, Kim; Starkopf, Liis; Lindschou, Jane; Gluud, Christian; Weikop, Pia; Ottesen, Bent

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of in situ simulation (ISS) versus off-site simulation (OSS) on knowledge, patient safety attitude, stress, motivation, perceptions of simulation, team performance and organisational impact. Design Investigator-initiated single-centre randomised superiority educational trial. Setting Obstetrics and anaesthesiology departments, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Participants 100 participants in teams of 10, comprising midwives, specialised midwives, auxiliary nurses, nurse anaesthetists, operating theatre nurses, and consultant doctors and trainees in obstetrics and anaesthesiology. Interventions Two multiprofessional simulations (clinical management of an emergency caesarean section and a postpartum haemorrhage scenario) were conducted in teams of 10 in the ISS versus the OSS setting. Primary outcome Knowledge assessed by a multiple choice question test. Exploratory outcomes Individual outcomes: scores on the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire, stress measurements (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, cognitive appraisal and salivary cortisol), Intrinsic Motivation Inventory and perceptions of simulations. Team outcome: video assessment of team performance. Organisational impact: suggestions for organisational changes. Results The trial was conducted from April to June 2013. No differences between the two groups were found for the multiple choice question test, patient safety attitude, stress measurements, motivation or the evaluation of the simulations. The participants in the ISS group scored the authenticity of the simulation significantly higher than did the participants in the OSS group. Expert video assessment of team performance showed no differences between the ISS versus the OSS group. The ISS group provided more ideas and suggestions for changes at the organisational level. Conclusions In this randomised trial, no significant differences were found regarding knowledge, patient safety attitude, motivation or stress

  18. Clarifying the learning experiences of healthcare professionals with in situ and off-site simulation-based medical education: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Jette Led; Navne, Laura Emdal; Martin, Helle Max; Ottesen, Bent; Albrecthsen, Charlotte Krebs; Pedersen, Berit Woetmann; Kjærgaard, Hanne; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2015-10-06

    To examine how the setting in in situ simulation (ISS) and off-site simulation (OSS) in simulation-based medical education affects the perceptions and learning experience of healthcare professionals. Qualitative study using focus groups and content analysis. Twenty-five healthcare professionals (obstetricians, midwives, auxiliary nurses, anaesthesiologists, a nurse anaesthetist and operating theatre nurse) participated in four focus groups and were recruited due to their exposure to either ISS or OSS in multidisciplinary obstetric emergencies in a randomised trial. Departments of obstetrics and anaesthesia, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. Initially participants preferred ISS, but this changed after the training when the simulation site became of less importance. There was a strong preference for simulation in authentic roles. These perceptions were independent of the ISS or OSS setting. Several positive and negative factors in simulation were identified, but these had no relation to the simulation setting. Participants from ISS and OSS generated a better understanding of and collaboration with the various health professionals. They also provided individual and team reflections on learning. ISS participants described more experiences that would involve organisational changes than the OSS participants did. Many psychological and sociological aspects related to the authenticity of the learning experience are important in simulation, but the physical setting of the simulation as an ISS and OSS is the least important. Based on these focus groups OSS can be used provided that all other authenticity elements are taken into consideration and respected. The only difference was that ISS had an organisational impact and ISS participants talked more about issues that would involve practical organisational changes. ISS and OSS participants did, however, go through similar individual and team learning experiences. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  19. Evaluation of Secondary Streams in Mixed Waste Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, Fred F.; Goldsmith, William A.; Allen, Douglas F.; Mezga, Lance J.

    1995-12-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have generated waste containing radioactive and hazardous chemical components (mixed wastes) for over 50 years. Facilities and processes generating these wastes as well as the regulations governing their management have changed. Now, DOE has 49 sites where mixed waste streams exist. The Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992 (1) required DOE to prepare and obtain regulatory approval of plans for treating these mixed waste streams. Each of the involved DOE sites submitted its respective plan to regulators in April 1995 (2). Most of the individual plans were approved by the respective regulatory agencies in October 1995. The implementation of these plans has begun accordance with compliance instruments (orders) issued by the cognizant regulatory authority. Most of these orders include milestones that are fixed, firm and enforceable as defined in each compliance order. In many cases, mixed waste treatment that was already being carried out and survived the alternative selection process is being used now to treat selected mixed waste streams. For other waste streams at sites throughout the DOE complex treatment methods and schedules are subject to negotiation as the realties of ever decreasing budgets begin to drive the available options. Secondary wastes generated by individual waste treatment systems are also mixed wastes that require treatment in the appropriate treatment system. These secondary wastes may be solid or liquid waste (or both). For example debris washing will generate wastewater requiring treatment; wastewater treatment, in turn, will generate sludge or other residuals requiring treatment; liquid effluents must meet applicable limits of discharge permits. At large DOE sites, secondary waste streams will be a major influence in optimizing design for primary treatment. Understanding these impacts is important not only foe system design, but also for assurances that radiation releases and

  20. TRENDS IN ESTIMATED MIXING DEPTH DAILY MAXIMUMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R; Amy DuPont, A; Robert Kurzeja, R; Matt Parker, M

    2007-11-12

    Mixing depth is an important quantity in the determination of air pollution concentrations. Fireweather forecasts depend strongly on estimates of the mixing depth as a means of determining the altitude and dilution (ventilation rates) of smoke plumes. The Savannah River United States Forest Service (USFS) routinely conducts prescribed fires at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a heavily wooded Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwest South Carolina. For many years, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided forecasts of weather conditions in support of the fire program, including an estimated mixing depth using potential temperature and turbulence change with height at a given location. This paper examines trends in the average estimated mixing depth daily maximum at the SRS over an extended period of time (4.75 years) derived from numerical atmospheric simulations using two versions of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This allows for differences to be seen between the model versions, as well as trends on a multi-year time frame. In addition, comparisons of predicted mixing depth for individual days in which special balloon soundings were released are also discussed.