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Sample records for doe filter test

  1. DOE HEPA filter test program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This standard establishes essential elements of a Department of Energy (DOE) program for testing HEPA filters to be installed in DOE nuclear facilities or used in DOE-contracted activities. A key element is the testing of HEPA filters for performance at a DOE Filter Test Facility (FTF) prior to installation. Other key elements are (1) providing for a DOE HEPA filter procurement program, and (2) verifying that HEPA filters to be installed in nuclear facilities appear on a Qualified Products List (QPL).

  2. A review of DOE HEPA filter component test activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slawski, J.W.; Bresson, J.F. [Informatics Corp., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Scripsick, R.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-08-01

    All HEPA filters purchased for installation in DOE nuclear facilities are required to be tested at a Filter Test Facility (FTF) prior to installation. The number of HEPA filters purchased by DOE has been reduced so much that the Hanford FTF was closed. From Fiscal Year (FY) 1992 to 1994, funding was not provided to the FTF Technical Support Group (TSG) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. As a consequence, Round Robin Tests (RRTs), performed twice each year by the FTFs to assess constituency of test results among the FTFs, were not performed in FY 1992 and FY 1993. The Annual Reports of FTF test activities were not prepared for FY 1992 - 1995. Technical support provided to the FTFs was minimal. There is talk of closing a second FTF, and ongoing discussions as to whether DOE will continue to fund operation of the FTFs. In FY 1994, DOE Defense Programs commenced funding the TSG. RRT data for FY 1994 and 1995 have been entered into the database; the FY 1994 RRT report has been issued; and the FY 1995 RRT report is in progress. Data from semiannual reports have been retrieved and entered into the database. Standards related to HEPA filter test and procurement activities are now scheduled for issuance by FY 1996. Continuation of these activities depends on whether DOE will continue to support the HEPA filter test program. The history and activities of the FTFs and the TSG at Los Alamos have been reported at previous Air Cleaning Conferences. Data from the FY 1991 Annual Report of FTF activities was presented at the 1992 Air Cleaning Conference. Preparation of the Annual Reports was temporarily suspended in 1992. However, all of the FTF Semiannual report data have been retrieved and entered into the data base. This paper focuses primarily on the results of HEPA filter tests conducted by FTFs during FY 1992 - FY 1995, and the possible effects of the DOE program uncertainties on the quality of HEPA filters for installation at the DOE sites. 15 refs., 13 tabs.

  3. CRYSTAL FILTER TEST SET

    Science.gov (United States)

    CRYSTAL FILTERS, *HIGH FREQUENCY, *RADIOFREQUENCY FILTERS, AMPLIFIERS, ELECTRIC POTENTIAL, FREQUENCY, IMPEDANCE MATCHING , INSTRUMENTATION, RADIOFREQUENCY, RADIOFREQUENCY AMPLIFIERS, TEST EQUIPMENT, TEST METHODS

  4. MST Filterability Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Duignan, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-12

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The low filter flux through the ARP has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Recent filter flux has averaged approximately 5 gallons per minute (gpm). Salt Batch 6 has had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. In addition, at the time the testing started, SRR was assessing the impact of replacing the 0.1 micron filter with a 0.5 micron filter. This report describes testing of MST filterability to investigate the impact of filter pore size and MST particle size on filter flux and testing of filter enhancers to attempt to increase filter flux. The authors constructed a laboratory-scale crossflow filter apparatus with two crossflow filters operating in parallel. One filter was a 0.1 micron Mott sintered SS filter and the other was a 0.5 micron Mott sintered SS filter. The authors also constructed a dead-end filtration apparatus to conduct screening tests with potential filter aids and body feeds, referred to as filter enhancers. The original baseline for ARP was 5.6 M sodium salt solution with a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 1.7 M.3 ARP has been operating with a sodium concentration of approximately 6.4 M and a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 2.5 M. SRNL conducted tests varying the concentration of sodium and free hydroxide to determine whether those changes had a significant effect on filter flux. The feed slurries for the MST filterability tests were composed of simple salts (NaOH, NaNO2, and NaNO3) and MST (0.2 – 4.8 g/L). The feed slurry for the filter enhancer tests contained simulated salt batch 6 supernate, MST, and filter enhancers.

  5. Charcoal filter testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-08-01

    In this very brief, informal presentation, a representative of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission outlines some problems with charcoal filter testing procedures and actions being taken to correct the problems. Two primary concerns are addressed: (1) the process to find the test method is confusing, and (2) the requirements of the reference test procedures result in condensation on the charcoal and causes the test to fail. To address these problems, emergency technical specifications were processed for three nuclear plants. A generic or an administrative letter is proposed as a more permanent solution. 1 fig.

  6. Specification for HEPA filters used by DOE contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This standard establishes specification and testing requirements for High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters procured to provide personnel and environmental protection when installed in DOE nuclear facilities. The standard specifies minimum requirements to be included in contractor specifications.

  7. Standardized methods for in-place filter testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, M.; Fretthold, J.K.; Slawski, J.

    1997-08-01

    The conference minutes of a US DOE meeting held on in-place filter testing are presented. The purpose of the conference was to transfer technical in-place testing knowledge throughout the DOE complex. Major items discussed included purchase requisitions, in-place testing, instrumentation, and in-place test personnel qualifications and training. Future actions identified by conference attendees centered on establishing complex-wide DOE policies on training, inspection and testing, and filter specifications.

  8. TESTING OF THE DUAL ROTARY FILTER SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D.; Fowley, M.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-08-29

    an issue in deployment where the desired flow rate will be within the normal operating range of the meter. Testing demonstrated that the use of a flexible line for the filtrate discharge is highly desired at the outlet of the rotary union to transition to the system piping. Isolating the vibration from the rotary union will significantly improve the lifetime of the seals. Methods to monitor and isolate individual filters should be considered during deployment. The ability to diagnose issues and isolate individual filters would allow isolation prior to failure. Thus, filters may be cleaned or repaired instead of requiring complete replacement if the condition were to continue unnoticed. Isolating the filtrate line of each filter during startup will minimize the premature buildup of solids on the filter disks. Several tests have shown that the method of filter startup can improve performance lifetime of the filters. The installation must factor in an air inlet for the draining of a filter that does not involve a reverse flow through the filter disks. The reverse flow may cause deformation of the disks or may damage other components of the filters themselves.

  9. Technical Evaluation of Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Kriskovich, J R

    2002-01-01

    Two evaluations of the Oak Ridge Department of Energy (DOE) Filter Test Facility (FTF) were performed on December 11 and 12, 2001, and consisted of a quality assurance and a technical evaluation. This report documents results of the technical evaluation.

  10. The cholesterol-raising factor from boiled coffee does not pass a paper filter.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusseldorp, van M.; Katan, M.B.; Vliet, van T.; Demacker, P.N.M.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that consumption of boiled coffee raises total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, whereas drip-filtered coffee does not. We have tested the effect on serum lipids of consumed coffee that was first boiled and then filtered through commercial paper coffee

  11. The cholesterol-raising factor from boiled coffee does not pass a paper filter.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusseldorp, van M.; Katan, M.B.; Vliet, van T.; Demacker, P.N.M.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that consumption of boiled coffee raises total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, whereas drip-filtered coffee does not. We have tested the effect on serum lipids of consumed coffee that was first boiled and then filtered through commercial paper coffee fi

  12. In-place HEPA filter penetration test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Elliott, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    We have demonstrated the feasibility of conducting penetration tests on high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters as installed in nuclear ventilation systems. The in-place penetration test, which is designed to yield equivalent penetration measurements as the standard DOP efficiency test, is based on measuring the aerosol penetration of the filter installation as a function of particle size using a portable laser particle counter. This in-place penetration test is compared to the current in-place leak test using light scattering photometers for single HEPA filter installations and for HEPA filter plenums using the shroud method. Test results show the in-place penetration test is more sensitive than the in-place leak test, has a similar operating procedure, but takes longer to conduct. Additional tests are required to confirm that the in-place penetration test yields identical results as the standard dioctyl phthalate (DOP) penetration test for HEPA filters with controlled leaks in the filter and gasket and duct by-pass leaks. Further development of the procedure is also required to reduce the test time before the in-place penetration test is practical. 14 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. TESTING OF THE SECOND GENERATION SPINTEK ROTARY FILTER -11357

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D.; Poirier, M.; Fowley, M.; Keefer, M.; Huff, T.

    2011-02-02

    The SpinTek rotary microfilter has been developed under the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) for the purpose of deployment in radioactive service in the DOE complex. The unit that was fabricated and tested is the second generation of the filter that incorporates recommended improvements from previous testing. The completion of this test satisfied a key milestone for the EM technology development program and technology readiness for deployment by Savannah River Remediation in the Small Column Ion Exchange and Sludge Washing processes at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) contracted SpinTek Filtration to fabricate a full scale 25 disk rotary filter and perform a 1000 hour endurance test with a simulated SRS sludge. Over 1500 hours of operation have been completed with the filter. SpinTek Filtration fabricated a prototypic 25 disk rotary filter including updates to manufacturing tolerances, an updated design to the rotary joint, improved cooling to the bottom journal, decreases in disk and filter shaft hydraulic resistances. The filter disks were fabricated with 0.5 {micro} pore size, sintered-metal filter media manufactured by Pall Corporation (M050). After fabrication was complete, the filter passed acceptance tests demonstrating rejection of solids and clean water flux with a 50% improvement over the previous filters. Once the acceptance test was complete, a 1000 hour endurance test was initiated simulating a sludge washing process. The test used a simulated SRS Sludge Batch 6 recipe. The insoluble solids started at 5 wt% and were raised to 10 and 15 wt% insoluble solids to simulate the concentration of a large volume tank. The filter system was automated and set up for 24 hour unattended operation. To facilitate this, process control logic was written to operate the filter. During the development it was demonstrated that the method of starting and stopping the filter can affect the build

  14. Laboratory-scale integrated ARP filter test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Recently, the low filter flux through the ARP of approximately 5 gallons per minute has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Salt Batch 6 had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. There is a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. This task attempted to simulate the entire ARP process, including multiple batches (5), washing, chemical cleaning, and blending the feed with heels and recycle streams. The objective of the tests was to determine whether one of these processes is causing excessive fouling of the crossflow or secondary filter. The authors conducted the tests with feed solutions containing 6.6 M sodium Salt Batch 6 simulant supernate with no MST.

  15. Validation testing of radioactive waste drum filter vents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, L.D. [Pall Corp., Port Washington, NY (United States); Rahimi, R.S. [Pall Corp., Cortland, NY (United States); Edling, D. [Edling & Associates, Inc., Russel Springs, KY (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The minimum requirements for Drum Filter Vents (DFVs) can be met by demonstrating conformance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Trupact II Safety Assessment Report (SAR), and conformance with U.S. Federal shipping regulations 49 CFR 178.350, DOT Spec 7A, for Type A packages. These together address a number of safety related performance parameters such as hydrogen diffusivity, flow related pressure drop, filtration efficiency and, separately, mechanical stability and the ability to prevent liquid water in-leakage. In order to make all metal DFV technology (including metallic filter medium) available to DOE sites, Pall launched a product development program to validate an all metal design to meet these requirements. Numerous problems experienced by DOE sites in the past came to light during this development program. They led us to explore enhancements to DFV design and performance testing addressing these difficulties and concerns. The result is a patented all metal DFV certified to all applicable regulatory requirements, which for the first time solves operational and health safety problems reported by DOE site personnel but not addressed by previous DFV`s. The new technology facilitates operations (such as manual, automated and semi-automated drum handling/redrumming), sampling, on-site storage, and shipping. At the same time, it upgrades filtration efficiency in configurations documented to maintain filter efficiency following mechanical stress. 2 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  16. Leak test of the charcoal filter in the nuclear facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Sang Yeol; Lee, Key Soon; Hong, Kwon Pyo; Oh, Yon Woo; Park, Dae Kyu; Ahn, Sang Bok; Choo, Yong Sun; Kim, Sung Jung

    1998-06-01

    In the heating, ventilation and air conditioning(HVAC) system, pre-filter, HEPA(high efficiency particle air) filter and charcoal filter are instrumented in order to filter off the radioactive substance in the nuclear facility. Equipment of the charcoal filter off the radioactive substance in the nuclear facility. Equipment of the charcoal filter at the hot cell where manipulates the nuclear fuel irradiated in the nuclear reactor is essential for shutting off the leakage of the radioiodine which is produced from the cutting procedures of nuclear fuel. Also, the leak test of installed filter should be performed perfectly. In addition, charcoal filter is instrumented to filter the radioactive gas such as radioiodine which is produced in the nuclear facility. In this technical report, the theoretical discussion, the experimental procedures and the precautions of the leak test of charcoal filter are described. (author). 8 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs.

  17. Tests of Event Filter Configuration Software

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F.J.

    TDAQ - Tests of Event Filter configuration software Within Trigger/DAQ a major consideration is how well the performance of the system components scale in going from the small set-ups used for development work to the final system with many hundreds of processors and links. In the case of the Event Filter, which makes the final stage of on-line event selection, plus on-line calibrations and monitoring, more than a thousand processors are envisaged. These processors will be divided into sub-farms, most will be remote from the detector and some could even be at institutes far from CERN. As part of the on-line system it is important that the software in the sub-farms can be reconfigured rapidly as runs start and stop, and that the system be fault tolerant. The flow of data inside a sub-farm involves many processes, for distribution and collection of results in addition to those for event processing itself. Supervision code written in Java has been developed to manage the processes within a cluster, with XML f...

  18. In vitro comparison of Günther Tulip and Celect filters: testing filtering efficiency and pressure drop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, M; Malvé, M; Peña, E; Martínez, M A; Leask, R

    2015-02-05

    In this study, the trapping ability of the Günther Tulip and Celect inferior vena cava filters was evaluated. Thrombus capture rates of the filters were tested in vitro in horizontal position with thrombus diameters of 3 and 6mm and tube diameter of 19mm. The filters were tested in centered and tilted positions. Sets of 30 clots were injected into the model and the same process was repeated 20 times for each different condition simulated. Pressure drop experienced along the system was also measured and the percentage of clots captured was recorded. The Günther Tulip filter showed superiority in all cases, trapping almost 100% of 6mm clots both in an eccentric and tilted position and trapping 81.7% of the 3mm clots in a centered position and 69.3% in a maximum tilted position. The efficiency of all filters tested decreased as the size of the embolus decreased and as the filter was tilted. The injection of 6 clots raised the pressure drop to 4.1mmHg, which is a reasonable value that does not cause the obstruction of blood flow through the system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Potential Worst-case System for Testing EMI Filters Tested on Simple Filter Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Raida

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the approximate worst-case test method for testing the insertion loss of the EMI filters. The systems with 0.1 Ω and 100 Ω impedances are usually used for this testing. These systems are required by the international CISPR 17 standard. The main disadvantage of this system is the use of two impedance transformers. Especially the impedance transformer with 0.1 Ω output impedance is not easy to be produced. These transformers have usually narrow bandwidth. This paper discusses the alternative system with 1 Ω and 100 Ω impedances. The performance of these systems was tested on several filters’ models and the obtained data are depicted, too. The performance comparison of several filters in several systems is also included. The performance of alternate worst-case system is discussed in the conclusion.

  20. Comparison of filter cleaning performance between VDI and JIS testing rigs for cleanable fabric filter

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Ning; Yao, Yuping; Hata, Mitsuhiko; Wada, Masashi; Kanaoka, Chikao

    2008-01-01

    VDI type-1 rig and JIS rig are the two major testing rigs for cleanable fabric filters. We measured the filter cleaning performance using these rigs and the results were compared in order to characterize the two testing methods. The filter performance tests showed that the filter cleaning efficiency measured with VDI type-1 rig is higher than that with JIS rig. During pulse jet cleaning, JIS rig gave a higher peak pressure and a shorter time period of pulse jet compared to VDI type-1 rig. A n...

  1. Qualification Lab Testing on M1 Abrams Engine Oil Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    UNCLASSIFIED QUALIFICATION LAB TESTING ON M1 ABRAMS ENGINE OIL FILTERS FINAL REPORT TFLRF No. 483 by Kristi K. Rutta U.S...the originator. UNCLASSIFIED QUALIFICATION LAB TESTING ON M1 ABRAMS ENGINE OIL FILTERS FINAL REPORT TFLRF No. 483 by Kristi K...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Qualification Lab Testing on M1 Abrams Engine Oil Filter 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W56HZV-15-C-0030 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  2. Uncertainty in in-place filter test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scripsick, R.C.; Beckman, R.J.; Mokler, B.V.

    1996-12-31

    Some benefits of accounting for uncertainty in in-place filter test results are explored. Information the test results provide relative to system performance acceptance limits is evaluated in terms of test result uncertainty. An expression for test result uncertainty is used to estimate uncertainty in in-place filter tests on an example air cleaning system. Modifications to the system test geometry are evaluated in terms of effects on test result uncertainty.

  3. Space qualification mechanical tests of HTS filters for satellite application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG JianDong; LI Hong; GU ChangZhi; LUO Qiang; SUN QinFen; WANG XiaoLin; SUN YiFan; WANG ZhiBing; WANG YunFei; LUO Sheng; HE YuSheng; SUN Liang; LI ShunZhou; MENG QingDuan; ZHANG Qiang; LI Fei; ZHANG XueQiang; LI ChunGuang; HE AiSheng

    2007-01-01

    High performance high-temperature superconducting (HTS) filters have been designed and constructed for satellite application. The filters are actually a superconducting integration of an 8-pole band-pass filter with an adjustable band-stop filter onto a single piece of LaAlO3 substrate (with dimension of 0.5×45×20 mm3). Typical results of the filters,i.e.,Filters A (made by YBCO) & B (made by TBCCO) will be reported. The measured responses of Filter A showed excellent specifications,e.g.,an insertion loss less than 0.1 dB,a return loss better than -22.5 dB in pass-band,band-edge steepness greater than 12 dB/MHz and out-of-band rejection at a certain band deeper than -110 dB. To satisfy the requirement of rocket launch and space operation,three filters of the above design have undergone mechanical environmental simulation tests for space qualification. Detailed analysis of the response curves of Filter B measured before and after the tests showed that no noticeable change in the performance can be found. All the filters passed the rigorous ground simulation tests,which is the first time in China for HTS devices and provided a solid foundation for satellite applications of high-temperature superconductors in the near future.

  4. Development of Test Protocols for International Space Station Particulate Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert D.; Vijayakumar, R.; Agui, Juan H.

    2014-01-01

    Air quality control on the International Space Station (ISS) is a vital requirement for maintaining a clean environment for the crew and the hardware. This becomes a serious challenge in pressurized space compartments since no outside air ventilation is possible, and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of gravitational settling. The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) uses a filtration system that has been in use for over 14 years and has proven to meet this challenge. The heart of this system is a traditional High- Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter configured to interface with the rest of the life support elements and provide effective cabin filtration. Over the years, the service life of these filters has been re-evaluated based on limited post-flight tests of returned filters and risk factors. On earth, a well designed and installed HEPA filter will last for several years, e.g. in industrial and research clean room applications. Test methods for evaluating these filters are being developed on the basis of established test protocols used by the industry and the military. This paper will discuss the test methods adopted and test results on prototypes of the ISS filters. The results will assist in establishing whether the service life can be extended for these filters. Results from unused filters that have been in storage will also be presented to ascertain the shelf life and performance deterioration, if any and determine if the shelf life may be extended.

  5. Field test of radioactive high efficiency filter and filter exchange techniques of fuel cycle examination facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong Hwa; Lee, Hyung Kwon; Chun, Young Bum; Park, Dae Gyu; Ahn, Sang Bok; Chu, Yong Sun; Kim, Eun Ka

    1997-12-01

    The development of high efficiency filter was started to protect human beings from the contamination of radioactive particles, toxic gases and bacillus, and its gradual performance increment led to the fabrication of Ultra Low Penetration Air Filter (ULPA) today. The application field of ULPA has been spread not only to the air conditioning of nuclear power facilities, semiconductor industries, life science, optics, medical care and general facilities but also to the core of ultra-precision facilities. Periodic performance test on the filters is essential to extend its life-time through effective maintenance. Especially, the bank test on HEPA filter of nuclear facilities handling radioactive materials is required for environmental safety. Nowadays, the bank test technology has been reached to the utilization of a minimized portable detecting instruments and the evaluation techniques can provide high confidence in the area of particle distribution and leakage test efficiency. (author). 16 refs., 13 tabs., 14 figs.

  6. Testing of Nonlinear Filters For Coloured Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macek, Wieslaw M.; Redaelli, Stefano; Plewczynski, Dariusz

    We focus on nonlinearity and deterministic behaviour of classical model systems cor- rupted by white or coloured noise. Therefore, we use nonlinear filters to give a faith- ful representation of nonlinear behaviour of the systems. We also analyse time series of a real system, namely, we study velocities of of the solar wind plasma including Alfvénic fluctuations measured in situ by the Helios spacecraft in the inner helio- sphere. We demonstrate that the influence of white and coloured noise in the data records can be efficiently reduced by a nonlinear filter. We show that due to this non- linear noise reduction we get with much reliability estimates of the largest Lyapunov exponent and the Kolmogorov entropy.

  7. Filtering Medline for a clinical discipline: diagnostic test assessment framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iansavichus, Arthur V; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Kastner, Monika; Baier, Leslie A; Shariff, Salimah Z; Rehman, Faisal; Weir, Matthew; McKibbon, K Ann; Haynes, R Brian

    2009-01-01

    Objective To develop and test a Medline filter that allows clinicians to search for articles within a clinical discipline, rather than searching the entire Medline database. Design Diagnostic test assessment framework with development and validation phases. Setting Sample of 4657 articles published in 2006 from 40 journals. Reviews Each article was manually reviewed, and 19.8% contained information relevant to the discipline of nephrology. The performance of 1 155 087 unique renal filters was compared with the manual review. Main outcome measures Sensitivity, specificity, precision, and accuracy of each filter. Results The best renal filters combined two to 14 terms or phrases and included the terms “kidney” with multiple endings (that is, truncation), “renal replacement therapy”, “renal dialysis”, “kidney function tests”, “renal”, “nephr” truncated, “glomerul” truncated, and “proteinuria”. These filters achieved peak sensitivities of 97.8% and specificities of 98.5%. Performance of filters remained excellent in the validation phase. Conclusions Medline can be filtered for the discipline of nephrology in a reliable manner. Storing these high performance renal filters in PubMed could help clinicians with their everyday searching. Filters can also be developed for other clinical disciplines by using similar methods. PMID:19767336

  8. Does a yellow filter improve visual object categorization in normal aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoble, Quentin; Boucart, Muriel; Rougier, Marie-Bénédicte; Bordaberry, Pierre; Delord, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a yellow filter (CPF450) can increase contrast, motion sensitivity, vergence, and accommodation. We investigated whether a yellow filter can reduce age-related visual deficits. We tested two groups of 60 observers (mean age 24 vs. 72) in an object categorization task. Grayscale photographs of natural objects and artifacts were displayed either centrally or peripherally (21°) at low (8%) or medium (30%) contrast. There were three filter conditions (no filter, placebo filter, and yellow filter). Both groups of observers performed similarly on central and medium-contrast pictures. The deleterious effects of reduced contrast and eccentricity were stronger in elderly individuals. Moreover, the yellow filter globally improved the speed of categorization for the elderly participants. The decrease in response time in the yellow filter condition was larger when the stimuli were displayed peripherally in both groups. A yellow filter should be considered as a potential means for visual improvement in normal aging.

  9. Filter Media Tests Under Simulated Martian Atmospheric Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration of Mars will require the optimal utilization of planetary resources. One of its abundant resources is the Martian atmosphere that can be harvested through filtration and chemical processes that purify and separate it into its gaseous and elemental constituents. Effective filtration needs to be part of the suite of resource utilization technologies. A unique testing platform is being used which provides the relevant operational and instrumental capabilities to test articles under the proper simulated Martian conditions. A series of tests were conducted to assess the performance of filter media. Light sheet imaging of the particle flow provided a means of detecting and quantifying particle concentrations to determine capturing efficiencies. The media's efficiency was also evaluated by gravimetric means through a by-layer filter media configuration. These tests will help to establish techniques and methods for measuring capturing efficiency and arrestance of conventional fibrous filter media. This paper will describe initial test results on different filter media.

  10. Does a Business Curriculum Develop or Filter Critical Thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, B. Jay; Mason, Paul; Steagall, Jeffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate whether a business curriculum develops critical thinking ability or at least serves as a filter for critical thinking (i.e., students who cannot think critically tend not to progress toward graduation). We measure critical thinking by performance on the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal Short Form which was administered to a…

  11. International Space Station (ISS) Bacterial Filter Elements (BFEs): Filter Efficiency and Pressure Testing of Returned Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert D.; Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.

    2017-01-01

    The air revitalization system aboard the International Space Station (ISS) provides the vital function of maintaining a clean cabin environment for the crew and the hardware. This becomes a serious challenge in pressurized space compartments since no outside air ventilation is possible, and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of sedimentation due to the microgravity environment in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system architecture in the U.S. Segment uses a distributed particulate filtration approach consisting of traditional High-Efficiency Particulate Adsorption (HEPA) media filters deployed at multiple locations in each U.S. Segment module; these filters are referred to as Bacterial Filter Elements, or BFEs. These filters see a replacement interval, as part of maintenance, of 2-5 years dependent on location in the ISS. In this work, we present particulate removal efficiency, pressure drop, and leak test results for a sample set of 8 BFEs returned from the ISS after filter replacement. The results can potentially be utilized by the ISS Program to ascertain whether the present replacement interval can be maintained or extended to balance the on-ground filter inventory with extension of the lifetime of ISS beyond 2024. These results can also provide meaningful guidance for particulate filter designs under consideration for future deep space exploration missions.

  12. Development of Test Protocols for International Space Station Particulate Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, R.; Green, Robert D.; Agui, Juan H.

    2015-01-01

    Air quality control on the International Space Station (ISS) is a vital requirement for maintaining a clean environment for the crew and the hardware. This becomes a serious challenge in pressurized space compartments since no outside air ventilation is possible, and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of gravitational settling. The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) uses a filtration system that has been in use for over 14 years and has proven to meet this challenge. The heart of this system is a traditional High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter configured to interface with the rest of the life support elements and provide effective cabin filtration. The filter element for this system has a non-standard cross-section with a length-to-width ratio (LW) of 6.6. A filter test setup was designed and built to meet industry testing standards. A CFD analysis was performed to initially determine the optimal duct geometry and flow configuration. Both a screen and flow straighter were added to the test duct design to improve flow uniformity and face velocity profiles were subsequently measured to confirm. Flow quality and aerosol mixing assessments show that the duct flow is satisfactory for the intended leak testing. Preliminary leak testing was performed on two different ISS filters, one with known perforations and one with limited use, and results confirmed that the testing methods and photometer instrument are sensitive enough to detect and locate compromised sections of an ISS BFE.Given the engineering constraints in designing spacecraft life support systems, it is anticipated that non-industry standard filters will be required in future designs. This work is focused on developing test protocols for testing the ISS BFE filters, but the methodology is general enough to be extended to other present and future spacecraft filters. These techniques for characterizing the test duct and perform leak testing

  13. Direct Assay of Filter Media following DEOX Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.P. Lind; J.J. Giglio; D.G. Cummings; M.W. Huntley; C.D. Morgan; K.J. Bateman; D.L. Wahlquist; D.A. Sell

    2007-09-01

    The direct assay of filter media by gamma spectrometry following DEOX testing has distinct advantages over analytical chemistry. Prior to using gamma spectrometry for the quantification of cesium (Cs-137), a calibration must be established with known sources since gamma spectrometry yields relative results. Quantitative analytical chemistry, in particular ICP-MS, has been performed on the filter media for comparison to the gamma spectrometry data. The correlation of gamma spectrometry to ICP-MS data is presented to justify the continued use of gamma spectrometry for filter media.

  14. LOW ACTIVITY WASTE FEED SOLIDS CARACTERIZATION AND FILTERABILITY TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, D.; Crawford, C.; Duignan, M.; Williams, M.; Burket, P.

    2014-04-03

    The primary treatment of the tank waste at the DOE Hanford site will be done in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) that is currently under construction. The baseline plan for the WTP Pretreatment facility is to treat the waste, splitting it into High Level Waste (HLW) feed and Low Activity Waste (LAW) feed. Both waste streams are then separately vitrified as glass and sealed in canisters. The LAW glass will be disposed onsite in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). There are currently no plans to treat the waste to remove technetium in the WTP Pretreatment facility, so its disposition path is the LAW glass. Options are being explored to immobilize the LAW portion of the tank waste, i.e., the LAW feed from the WTP Pretreatment facility. Removal of {sup 99}Tc from the LAW Feed, followed by off-site disposal of the {sup 99}Tc, would eliminate a key risk contributor for the IDF Performance Assessment (PA) for supplemental waste forms, and has potential to reduce treatment and disposal costs. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing some conceptual flow sheets for LAW treatment and disposal that could benefit from technetium removal. One of these flowsheets will specifically examine removing {sup 99}Tc from the LAW feed stream to supplemental immobilization. The conceptual flow sheet of the {sup 99}Tc removal process includes a filter to remove insoluble solids prior to processing the stream in an ion exchange column, but the characteristics and behavior of the liquid and solid phases has not previously been investigated. This report contains results of testing of a simulant that represents the projected composition of the feed to the Supplemental LAW process. This feed composition is not identical to the aqueous tank waste fed to the Waste Treatment Plant because it has been processed through WTP Pretreatment facility and therefore contains internal changes and recycle streams that will be generated within the WTP process. Although

  15. Filter Efficiency and Pressure Testing of Returned ISS Bacterial Filter Elements (BFEs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert D.; Agui, Juan H.; Berger, Gordon M.; Vijayakumar, R.; Perry, Jay L.

    2017-01-01

    The air quality control equipment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and future deep space exploration vehicles provide the vital function of maintaining a clean cabin environment for the crew and the hardware. This becomes a serious challenge in pressurized space compartments since no outside air ventilation is possible, and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of sedimentation. The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system architecture in the U.S. Segment uses a distributed particulate filtration approach consisting of traditional High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters deployed at multiple locations in each U.S. Seg-ment module; these filters are referred to as Bacterial Filter Elements, or BFEs. In our previous work, we presented results of efficiency and pressure drop measurements for a sample set of two returned BFEs with a service life of 2.5 years. In this follow-on work, we present similar efficiency, pressure drop, and leak tests results for a larger sample set of six returned BFEs. The results of this work can aid the ISS Program in managing BFE logistics inventory through the stations planned lifetime as well as provide insight for managing filter element logistics for future exploration missions. These results also can provide meaningful guidance for particulate filter designs under consideration for future deep space exploration missions.

  16. ROTARY FILTER FINES TESTING FOR SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D.

    2011-08-03

    SRNL was requested to quantify the amount of 'fines passage' through the 0.5 micron membranes currently used for the rotary microfilter (RMF). Testing was also completed to determine if there is any additional benefit to utilizing a 0.1 micron filter to reduce the amount of fines that could pass through the filter. Quantifying of the amount of fines that passed through the two sets of membranes that were tested was accomplished by analyzing the filtrate by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) for titanium. Even with preparations to isolate the titanium, all samples returned results of less than the instrument's detection limit of 0.184 mg/L. Test results show that the 0.5 micron filters produced a significantly higher flux while showing a negligible difference in filtrate clarity measured by turbidity. The first targeted deployment of the RMF is with the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). SCIX uses crystalline silicotitanate (CST) to sorb cesium to decontaminate a clarified salt solution. The passage of fine particles through the filter membranes in sufficient quantities has the potential to impact the downstream facilities. To determine the amount of fines passage, a contract was established with SpinTek Filtration to operate a 3-disk pilot scale unit with prototypic filter disk and various feeds and two different filter disk membranes. SpinTek evaluated a set of the baseline 0.5 micron filter disks as well as a set of 0.1 micron filter disks to determine the amount of fine particles that would pass the membrane and to determine the flux each set produced. The membrane on both disk sets is manufactured by the Pall Corporation (PMM 050). Each set of disks was run with three feed combinations: prototypically ground CST, CST plus monosodium titanate (MST), and CST, MST, plus Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) simulant. Throughout the testing, samples of the filtrate were collected, measured for turbidity

  17. Subjective test of class D amplifiers without output filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.; Fenger, Lars M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of subjective listening tests designed to determine whether the output filter on class D amplifiers used in active loudspeakers can be omitted without audible errors occurring. The frequency range of the amplifiers was limited to 0-3 kHz corresponding to a woofer...

  18. Final Report: Part 1. In-Place Filter Testing Instrument for Nuclear Material Containers. Part 2. Canister Filter Test Standards for Aerosol Capture Rates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Austin Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Runnels, Joel T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moore, Murray E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reeves, Kirk Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-11-02

    ) fouling of o-rings, (B) leakage through simulated cracks in o-rings, and (C) air leakage due to inadequately tightened canister lids. The Los Alamos POC instrument determined pertinent air flow and pressure quantities, and this knowledge was used to specify a customized Isaac® (Z axis, Salt Lake City, UT) leak test module. The final Los Alamos IPFT (incorporating the Isaac® leak test module) was used to repeat the tests in the Instrument Development Plan (with simulated filter clogging tests and canister leak pathway tests). The Los Alamos IPFT instrument is capable of determining filter clogging and leak rate conditions, without requiring removal of the container lid. The IPFT measures pressure decay rate from 1.7E-03 in WC/sec to 1.7E-01 in WC/sec. On the same unit scale, helium leak testing of canisters has a range from 5.7E-07 in WC/sec to 1.9E-03 in WC/sec. For a 5-quart storage canister, the IPFT measures equivalent leak flow rates from 0.03 to 3.0 cc/sec. The IPFT does not provide the same sensitivity as helium leak testing, but is able to gauge the assembled condition of as-found and in-situ canisters.

  19. Conceptual considerations of evaluate internal erosion phenomenon via no-erosion filter test and continuing erosion filter test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos-Rivera Johnatan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Some widely-graded soils may exhibit, under the influence of steady seepage flow, a behaviour in which grains of the finer fraction migrate through the interstices of the matrix formed by the coarser fraction. The migrating fines may accumulate at a downstream location within the soil. Alternatively, and where there is no capacity for retention at the downstream or exit boundary, the behaviour may lead to a washing out and consequent loss of the finer fraction. The phenomenon of erosion is termed internal instability, and the soils are considered internally unstable. Taking into consideration (i the specimen reconstitution by method of compaction, (ii the application of a vertical stress to the specimen, and (iii the use of multi-stage seepage flow with head-control, to measure the origin of a conduit through the coarser fraction, some test devices were conducted by different authors to evaluate this phenomenon, the purpose of this paper is to present some considerations and key aspects about internal erosion in dams and filter compatibility with core material (specimen reconstitution, test procedure, consolidation, seepage flow, test program and its relevance to the reality. The main reason to present this investigation is due to the absence of any specified regulatory or standard test method. Given the importance of filter compatibility of the zoned earth core dam and filter materials, as well the grading stability of each zone in the presence of seepage flow, additional consideration will be given to performing Continuing Erosion Filter (CEF tests on the core-filter interface, using the laboratory permeameter device.

  20. TESTING OF BASELINE AND LAMINATED FILTER DISKS USING MST AND MMST WITH A PILOT SCALE ROTARY FILTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D.

    2001-12-19

    Testing was completed to compare the filtration performance of modified monosodium titanate (mMST) with that of monosodium titanate (MST) with the rotary microfilter. In addition, the performance of the new laminated filter disk was compared to that of the original baseline welded filter disk. Results showed that flux rates for mMST exceeded that of MST with both the baseline and laminated filter disks in deployment concentrations of 0.2 g/L of mMST and 0.4 g/L of MST. The filtration rate of the mMST with the laminated filter disk exceeded that of the baseline filter disk. However, the baseline filter disk filtration rate for MST was greater than that of the laminated disk. The measured sample turbidity for all tests was 1.06 NTU or less. A contract was established with SpinTek Filtration{trademark} to operate a 3-disk pilot scale unit with prototypic filter disks and various feeds and two different filter disk membranes. SpinTek evaluated a set of the baseline 0.5 micron filter disks as well as a set of laminated filter disks using the same 0.5 micron filter disks. The membrane used for both disk sets was manufactured by the Pall Corporation (PMM 050). Each set of disks was run with monosodium titanate (MST) and modified monosodium titanate (mMST). Throughout the testing, samples of the filtrate were collected and measured for turbidity.

  1. Testing the BIO-SEA ballast water management system; Filter efficiency tests with high levels of zooplankton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaag, N.H.B.M.; Sneekes, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    The BIO-SEA® Ballast Water Treatment System (BWTS) was tested at the IMARES land-based test facility. General goal of the tests was to compare two different brands of filter and to test the filter efficiency of finer mesh sizes of each brand. The filters were tested in combination with a ‘one-shot U

  2. An experimental test of filter-aided dichromatic color discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richer, S; Adams, A J

    1984-04-01

    Using derived formulas for dichromat colorimetry and related computer graphic colorimetric tools, predictions of color discrimination performance are made for a deuteranope and protanope standard observer for each of three commercial color deficiency "treatment" filters. Five deuteranopes and five protanopes then participated in two experiments. They were asked to order the caps of the D-15 test, and in a second experiment arrange color pairs (from the D-15 test) in order of difference. Predictions and subject performance reveal that although X-Chrom aided dichromats gain both luminous and chromatic information, all dichromats used predominantly chromaticity information in discrimination tasks. The colorimetric tools correctly predicted that protanopes would derive less useful luminous information from the X-Chrom filter compared with deuteranopes , and correctly predicted an increase in discrimination of blues and purples for both classes of red-green color deficients .

  3. Commissioning of filtered containment venting test loop Java plus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiseigel, A.; El-Rharbaoui, F.; Wich, M.

    2013-07-01

    AREVA GmbH operates a unique Thermal-hydraulic platform in Germany, France and USA. It is recognized as a test body according to ISO 17025. The Deutsche Akkreditierungsstelle GmbH (DAkkS - German Society for Accreditation) has also certified the Thermal-hydraulic platform as an independent inspection body Type C according to ISO 17020. A part of this platform is the Component Laboratory located in Karlstein, Germany which is in operation for more than 50 years. The testing activities cover a wide range as: Critical Heat Flux Tests, Valve Testing and LOCA Qualification of safety related components. Since 2012 the component Qualification Karlstein reactivated their testing scope for Filtered Containment Venting System (FCVS) Tests which is to our knowledge the largest (mass flow and volume) dedicated FCVS test facility.

  4. Health hazards associated with the use of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (commonly referred to as DOP) in HEPA filter test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), commonly referred to as di-octyl phthalate, is an important production chemical in the US. In addition to its major use as an additive in plastics, DEHP is widely used to evaluate the effectiveness of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. Historically, DEHP was also used in quantitative fit testing for respirators. Evaluations of this compound a decade ago showed that it can induce hepatocellular carcinomas in laboratory animals. Although most Department of Energy (DOE) facilities have since discontinued using DEHP in respirator fit testing, DEHP continues to be used for evaluating HEPA filters. This report summarizes available information on the toxicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and other hazards and problems posed by DEHP, specifically with reference to HEPA filter testing. Information on work practice improvements as well as the availability and suitability of DEHP substitutes are also presented. This material should assist the DOE in the safe use of this material.

  5. Testing UV-filtered ("fat-link") clover fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Capitani, S; Hölbling, C; Capitani, Stefano; Durr, Stephan; Hoelbling, Christian

    2006-01-01

    We investigate filtered clover fermions, built from fat gauge links, both in one-loop perturbation theory and in numerical simulations. We use a variety of filtering recipes (APE, HYP, EXP, HEX), some of which are suitable for a HMC with dynamical fermions. A generic filtering together with a (fat-link) clover term yields fermions with much reduced chiral symmetry breaking.

  6. Laboratory Tests on Granular Filters for Embankment Dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    to filters and drains; for brevity, only the word filter is used. 7 D 15 Hazen’s law for the permeability of uniform clean sand ( Cedergren 1977) is...Figure I ( Cedergren 1977). Gap-graded filter material 10. A gap-graded filter material (see Figure 2) should never be used since it will consist of...filter material ( Cedergren 1977). As shown in Figure 3, the addition of 2.5 percent, by dry weight, silt fines to concrete sand results in an order of

  7. JWST tunable filter imager: etalon prototype test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touahri, D.; Cameron, P.; Evans, C.; Greenberg, E.; Rowlands, N.; Scott, A.; Doyon, R.; Beaulieu, M.; Djazovski, O.

    2008-07-01

    We present the prototyping results and laboratory characterization of a narrow band Fabry-Perot etalon flight model which is one of the wavelength selecting elements of the Tunable Filter Imager. The latter is a part of the Fine Guidance Sensor which represents the Canadian contribution to NASA's James Webb Space Telescope. The unique design of this etalon provides the JWST observatory with the ability to image at 30 Kelvin, a 2.2'x2.2' portion of its field of view in a narrow spectral bandwidth of R~100 at any wavelength ranging between 1.6 and 4.9 μm (with a gap in coverage between 2.5 and 3.2 μm). Extensive testing has resulted in better understanding of the thermal properties of the piezoelectric transducers used as an actuation system for the etalon gap tuning. Good throughput, spectral resolution and contrast have been demonstrated for the full wavelength range.

  8. B-Plant D-Filter detector system qualification test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, G.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-23

    This report summarizes the results of qualification testing of the B Plant D-Filter Detector System. The purpose of this test was to verify that the system meets the performance requirements and that the unit is ready for field deployment. Testing was performed in the test pit in the 306E Facility. This detector system will be deployed in the B Plant D-Filter to measure beta/gamma dose rates from the filter bank.

  9. Nuclear counting filter based on a centered Skellam test and a double exponential smoothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulon, Romain; Kondrasovs, Vladimir; Dumazert, Jonathan; Rohee, Emmanuel; Normand Stephane [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, (France)

    2015-07-01

    Online nuclear counting represents a challenge due to the stochastic nature of radioactivity. The count data have to be filtered in order to provide a precise and accurate estimation of the count rate, this with a response time compatible with the application in view. An innovative filter is presented in this paper addressing this issue. It is a nonlinear filter based on a Centered Skellam Test (CST) giving a local maximum likelihood estimation of the signal based on a Poisson distribution assumption. This nonlinear approach allows to smooth the counting signal while maintaining a fast response when brutal change activity occur. The filter has been improved by the implementation of a Brown's double Exponential Smoothing (BES). The filter has been validated and compared to other state of the art smoothing filters. The CST-BES filter shows a significant improvement compared to all tested smoothing filters. (authors)

  10. IDENTIFICATION OF APPROPRIATE QUALIFICATION TESTING AND END-OF-LIFE WASTE STORAGE CONSIDERATIONS FOR DEEP BED SAND FILTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, K.

    2010-06-02

    Deep bed sand (DBS) filters have filtered radioactive particulates at two United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites since 1948. Some early DBS filters experienced issues with chemical attack on support tiles, requiring significant repairs. Designs of DBS filters constructed since 1970 paid greater attention to chemical compatibility, resulting in decades of reliable performance since 1975.

  11. Testing of ceramic filter materials at the PCFB test facility; Keraamisten suodinmateriaalien testaus PCFB-koelaitoksessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuivalainen, R.; Eriksson, T.; Lehtonen, P.; Tiensuu, J. [Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Karhula (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed (PCFB) combustion technology has been developed in Karhula, Finland since 1986. In 1989, a 10 MW PCFB test facility was constructed. The test facility has been used for performance testing with different coal types through the years 1990-1994 for obtaining data for design and commercialization of the high-efficiency low-emission PCFB combustion technology. The main objective of the project Y53 was to evaluate advanced candle filter materials for the Hot Gas Clean-up Unit (HGCU) to be used in a commercial PCFB Demonstration Project. To achieve this goal, the selected candle materials were exposed to actual high temperature, high pressure coal combustion flue gases for a period of 1000-1500 h during the PCFB test runs. The test runs were carried out in three test segments in Foster Wheeler`s PCFB test facility at the Karhula R and D Center. An extensive inspection and sampling program was carried out after the second test segment. Selected sample candles were analyzed by the filter supplier and the preliminary results were encouraging. The material strength had decreased only within expected range. Slight elongation of the silicon carbide candles was observed, but at this phase the elongation can not be addressed to creep, unlike in the candles tested in 1993-94. The third and last test segment was completed successfully in October 1996. The filter system was inspected and several sample candles were selected for material characterization. The results will be available in February - March 1997. (orig.)

  12. Laboratory Testing of the Boundary Layer Momentum Transfer Rotational Filter Systems, NETL-Innovatech, Inc., CRADA 98-F026, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2000-08-22

    A patented dynamic mechanical filter developed by InnovaTech was previously shown to remove fine particulate matter from industrial process gas streams at ambient temperatures and pressures. An all-metal, high-temperature version of this novel media-less filter was fabricated under this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE/NETL-Morgantown for hot gas testing of the device. The technology is entirely different in both concept and design from conventional vortex separators, cyclones, or porous media filters. This new filtration concept is capable of separating heavy loading of fine particles without blinding, fouling or bridging, and would require minimal operational costs over its anticipated multi-year service life. The all-metal filter design eliminates thermal stress cracking and premature failure prevalent in conventional porous ceramic filters. In contrast, conventional porous media filters (i.e., ceramic cross-flow or candles) easily foul, require periodic cleaning (typically backpulsing), frequent replacement and subsequent disposal.

  13. 42 CFR 84.206 - Particulate tests; respirators with filters; minimum requirements; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Particulate tests; respirators with filters... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.206 Particulate tests; respirators with filters; minimum requirements; general. (a) Three respirators with cartridges containing, or...

  14. International Space Station (ISS) Bacterial Filter Elements (BFEs): Filter Efficiency and Pressure Drop Testing of Returned Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert D.; Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.; Berger, Gordon M.; Perry, Jay L.

    2017-01-01

    The air quality control equipment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and future deep space exploration vehicles provide the vital function of maintaining a clean cabin environment for the crew and the hardware. This becomes a serious challenge in pressurized space compartments since no outside air ventilation is possible, and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of sedimentation. The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system architecture in the U.S. Segment uses a distributed particulate filtration approach consisting of traditional High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters deployed at multiple locations in each U.S. Seg-ment module; these filters are referred to as Bacterial Filter Elements, or BFEs. In our previous work, we presented results of efficiency and pressure drop measurements for a sample set of two returned BFEs with a service life of 2.5 years. In this follow-on work, we present similar efficiency, pressure drop, and leak tests results for a larger sample set of six returned BFEs. The results of this work can aid the ISS Program in managing BFE logistics inventory through the stations planned lifetime as well as provide insight for managing filter element logistics for future exploration missions. These results also can provide meaningful guidance for particulate filter designs under consideration for future deep space exploration missions.

  15. Filter Efficiency and Leak Testing of Returned ISS Bacterial Filter Elements After 2.5 Years of Continuous Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert D.; Agui, Juan H.; Berger, Gordon M.; Vijayakumar, R.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    The atmosphere revitalization equipment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and future deep space exploration vehicles provides the vital functions of maintaining a habitable environment for the crew as well as protecting the hardware from fouling by suspended particulate matter. Providing these functions are challenging in pressurized spacecraft cabins because no outside air ventilation is possible and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of sedimentation in reduced gravity conditions. The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system architecture in the U.S. Segment uses a distributed particulate filtration approach consisting of traditional High-Efficiency Particulate Adsorption (HEPA) filters deployed at multiple locations in each module. These filters are referred to as Bacteria Filter Elements (BFEs). As more experience has been gained with ISS operations, the BFE service life, which was initially one year, has been extended to two to five years, dependent on the location in the U.S. Segment. In previous work we developed a test facility and test protocol for leak testing the ISS BFEs. For this work, we present results of leak testing a sample set of returned BFEs with a service life of 2.5 years, along with particulate removal efficiency and pressure drop measurements. The results can potentially be utilized by the ISS Program to ascertain whether the present replacement interval can be maintained or extended to balance the on-ground filter inventory with extension of the lifetime of ISS to 2024. These results can also provide meaningful guidance for particulate filter designs under consideration for future deep space exploration missions.

  16. What does the Wonderlic Personnel Test measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, T Darin; Lassiter, Kerry S

    2007-06-01

    The present investigation examined the concurrent validity of the Wonderlic Personnel Test and Woodcock-Johnson-Revised Tests of Cognitive Ability which were administered to 37 college students, 27 women and 10 men, who ranged in age from 18 to 54 years (M=27.1, SD=8.7). Analysis yielded significant correlation coefficients between the Wonderlic Total score and the score for the WJ-R Broad Cognitive Ability Standard Battery (r = .55) and the Comprehensive Knowledge score (r= .34). Performance on the Wonderlic was not significantly correlated with fluid reasoning skills (r=.26) but was most strongly associated with overall intellectual functioning, as measured by the Woodcock-Johnson Standard Battery IQ score. While scores on the Wonderlic were more strongly associated with crystallized than fluid reasoning abilities, the Wonderlic test scores did not clearly show convergent and divergent validity evidence across these two broad domains of cognitive ability.

  17. Does Test Anxiety Induce Measurement Bias in Cognitive Ability Tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Charlie L.; Bonaccio, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    Although test anxiety is typically negatively related to performance on cognitive ability tests, little research has systematically investigated whether differences in test anxiety result in measurement bias on cognitive ability tests. The current paper uses a structural equation modeling technique to explicitly test for measurement bias due to…

  18. Advanced testing method to evaluate the performance of respirator filter media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Golshahi, Laleh; Chen, Da-Ren

    2016-10-02

    Filter media for respirator applications are typically exposed to the cyclic flow condition, which is different from the constant flow condition adopted in filter testing standards. To understand the real performance of respirator filter media in the field it is required to investigate the penetration of particles through respirator filters under cyclic flow conditions representing breathing flow patterns of human beings. This article reports a new testing method for studying the individual effect of breathing frequency (BF) and peak inhalation flow rate (PIFR) on the particle penetration through respirator filter media. The new method includes the use of DMA (Differential Mobility Analyzer)-classified particles having the most penetrating particle size, MPPS (at the constant flowrate of equivalent mean inhalation flow rate, MIFR) as test aerosol. Two condensation particle counters (CPCs) are applied to measure the particle concentrations at the upstream and downstream of test filter media at the same time. Given the 10 Hz sampling time of CPCs, close-to-instantaneous particle penetration could be measured. A pilot study was performed to demonstrate the new testing method. It is found that the effect of BF on the particle penetration of test respirator filter media is of importance at all the tested peak inhalation flow rates (PIFRs), which is different from those reported in the previous work.

  19. DOE Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Test Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yimin [Advanced Vehicle Research Center, Danville, VA (United States)

    2012-03-31

    Based on the contract NT-42790 to the Department of Energy, “Plug-in Hybrid Ethanol Research Platform”, Advanced Vehicle Research Center (AVRC) Virginia has successfully developed the phase I electric drive train research platform which has been named as Laboratory Rapid Application Testbed (LabRAT). In phase II, LabRAT is to be upgraded into plug-in hybrid research platform, which will be capable of testing power systems for electric vehicles, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles running on conventional as well as alternative fuels. LabRAT is configured as a rolling testbed with plentiful space for installing various component configurations. Component connections are modularized for flexibility and are easily replaced for testing various mechanisms. LabRAT is designed and built as a full functional vehicle chassis with a steering system, brake system and four wheel suspension. The rear drive axle offers maximum flexibility with a quickly changeable gear ratio final drive to accommodate different motor speed requirements. The electric drive system includes an electric motor which is mechanically connected to the rear axle through an integrated speed/torque sensor. Initially, a 100 kW UQM motor and corresponding UQM motor controller is used which can be easily replaced with another motor/controller combination. A lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) battery pack is installed, which consists of 108 cells of 100 AH capacity, giving the total energy capacity of 32.5 kWh. Correspondingly, a fully functional battery management system (BMS) is installed to perform battery cell operation monitoring, cell voltage balancing, and reporting battery real time operating parameters to vehicle controller. An advanced vehicle controller ECU is installed for controlling the drive train. The vehicle controller ECU receives traction or braking torque command from driver through accelerator and brake pedal position sensors and battery operating signals from the BMS through CAN BUS

  20. Does it matter where we test?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greifeneder, Elke

    2012-01-01

    User studies in digital libraries face two fundamental challenges. The first is the necessity of running more user studies in an online environment. Users can access digital library collections and services worldwide and the services should be usable at any time. This need for more online studies......, often in the participants’ natural environment. Any chosen place, however, might be noisy. Distractions are ubiquitous in a user’s natural environment. An awareness of the potential influences of distractions on users’ behavior during test situations is of great importance, because the validity...... of a study depends on the quality of the data. If an instrument allows systematic mistakes in measurements because of distractions, the validity is at risk. This dissertation examined if distraction in the users’ natural environment produces a systematic mistake in digital library studies that take place...

  1. A method of using noise as a test pattern for determining image enhancement filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, A.E. (Rochester Inst. of Tech., NY (United States)); Ghandeharian, H. (Stentor Canadian Network Management, Ottawa, ON (Canada))

    1994-08-01

    Many digitally based medical imaging systems include both reconstruction algorithms and additional image filters designed to enhance certain image features. The purpose of this note is to describe a simple procedure for determining the spatial frequency response of these proprietary enhancement filters. The technique uses image noise as a test pattern. The procedure consists of acquiring a small number of noise-only data sets of a uniform phantom and reconstructing the images using the different filters with repeated us of the noise data sets. A straightforward analysis then yields the enhancement filter frequency responses. (author).

  2. Test Measurements On A Resonance Filter Spectrometer Using Electronvolt Neutrons

    OpenAIRE

    Newport, Robert J.; Seeger, P. A.; Williams, W. G.

    1985-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering measurements carried out on a prototype spectrometer at the WNR pulsed neutron facility are presented. Energy transfers are determined by differencing time-of-flight spectra taken with and without absorbing foils containing sharp nuclear resonances which define the scattered neutron energy. The quality of the spectra are enhanced by i) applying a double difference technique to improve line shape and ii) using fixed incident and scattered beam filters which discrim...

  3. The thalamus as a low pass filter: filtering at the cellular level does not equate with filtering at the network level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Martin Connelly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the mammalian central nervous system, most sensory information passes through primary sensory thalamic nuclei, however the consequence of this remains unclear. Various propositions exist, likening the thalamus to a gate, or a high pass filter. Here, using a simple leaky integrate and fire model based on physiological parameters, we show that the thalamus behaves akin to a low pass filter. Specifically, as individual cells in the thalamus rely on consistent drive to spike, stimuli that is rapidly and continuously changing over time such that it activates sensory cells with different receptive fields are unable to drive thalamic spiking. This means that thalamic encoding is robust to sensory noise, however it induces a lag in sensory representation. Thus the thalamus stabilises encoding of sensory information, at the cost of response rate.

  4. Use of pressure-hold test for sterilizing filter membrane integrity in radiopharmaceutical manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Anthony P; Byrne, John F; Paolino, Justin M; DeGrado, Timothy R

    2009-11-01

    The bubble point test is the de facto standard for postproduction filter membrane integrity test in the radiopharmaceutical community. However, the bubble point test depends on a subjective visual assessment of bubbling rate that can be obscured by significant diffusive gas flows below the manufacturer's prescribed bubble point. To provide a more objective means to assess filter membrane integrity, this study evaluates the pressure-hold test as an alternative to the bubble point test. In our application of the pressure-hold test, the nonsterile side of the sterilizing filter is pressurized to 85% of the predetermined bubble point with nitrogen, the filter system is closed off from the pressurizing gas and the pressure is monitored over a prescribed time interval. The drop in pressure, which has a known relationship with diffusive gas flow, is used as a quantitative measure of membrane integrity. Characterization of the gas flow vs. pressure relationship of each filter/solution combination provides an objective and quantitative means for defining a critical value of pressure drop over which the membrane is indicated to be nonintegral. The method is applied to sterilizing filter integrity testing associated with the commonly produced radiopharmaceuticals, [(18)F]FDG and [(11)C]PIB. The method is shown to be robust, practical and amenable to automation in radiopharmaceutical manufacturing environments (e.g., hot cells).

  5. Use of pressure-hold test for sterilizing filter membrane integrity in radiopharmaceutical manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belanger, Anthony P.; Byrne, John F.; Paolino, Justin M. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); DeGrado, Timothy R. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)], E-mail: tdegrado@partners.org

    2009-11-15

    The bubble point test is the de facto standard for postproduction filter membrane integrity test in the radiopharmaceutical community. However, the bubble point test depends on a subjective visual assessment of bubbling rate that can be obscured by significant diffusive gas flows below the manufacturer's prescribed bubble point. To provide a more objective means to assess filter membrane integrity, this study evaluates the pressure-hold test as an alternative to the bubble point test. In our application of the pressure-hold test, the nonsterile side of the sterilizing filter is pressurized to 85% of the predetermined bubble point with nitrogen, the filter system is closed off from the pressurizing gas and the pressure is monitored over a prescribed time interval. The drop in pressure, which has a known relationship with diffusive gas flow, is used as a quantitative measure of membrane integrity. Characterization of the gas flow vs. pressure relationship of each filter/solution combination provides an objective and quantitative means for defining a critical value of pressure drop over which the membrane is indicated to be nonintegral. The method is applied to sterilizing filter integrity testing associated with the commonly produced radiopharmaceuticals, [{sup 18}F]FDG and [{sup 11}C]PIB. The method is shown to be robust, practical and amenable to automation in radiopharmaceutical manufacturing environments (e.g., hot cells)

  6. Iron oxide-impregnated filter paper (Pi test): a review of its application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menon, R.G.; Chien, S.H.P.; Chardon, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    The iron oxide impregnated filter paper test (Pi test) is a recently developed soil test for phosphorus (P) in which the FeO paper acts as an infinite sink for P mobilized in a soil solution. Several papers have been published evaluating the effectiveness of the test for predicting plant

  7. Performance testing of HEPA filters: Progress towards a European standard procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyment, J.

    1997-08-01

    Proposals for a future European testing procedure for {open_quotes}High Efficiency Particulate Air Filters (HEPA and ULPA){close_quotes} are being developed by CEN (Comite Europeen de Normalisation). The new standard will be given the status of national standard in participating countries, conflicting national standards being withdrawn. The standard will comprise 5 parts covering the grouping and classification of HEPA and ULPA filters according to their efficiency, fundamental principles of testing, marking etc (in part 1). Part 2 will cover aerosol production, measurement principles, counting equipment and statistics. Parts 3-5 will cover testing flat sheet media, leak testing of filter elements and the efficiency testing of filter elements respectively. The efficiency test methods allow the use of either homogeneous monodisperse or polydisperse aerosols for the determination of particulate filtration efficiencies as a function of particle size. The particle size at which maximum penetration occurs is first determined in flat sheet media tests; tests on filter elements (constructed using the same filter medium) may be carried out using either a homogeneous monodisperse aerosol of the size at which maximum penetration occurs (MPPS) or a polydisperse aerosol whose median size is close to the MPPS. Tests with monodisperse aerosols may be conducted using condensation nucleus counting equipment; tests using polydisperse test aerosols require the use of optical sizing particle counters. When determining the efficiency of filter elements the downstream aerosol concentrations may be determined from air samples obtained using either an overall method (single point sampling after mixing) or a scan method. The scan method also allows {open_quotes}local{close_quotes} efficiency values to be determined. 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. DEVELOPMENT AND UTILIZATION OF TEST FACILITY FOR THE STUDY OF CANDLE FILTER SURFACE REGENERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce S. Kang; Eric K. Johnson

    2003-07-14

    Hot gas particulate filtration is a basic component in advanced power generation systems such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC). These systems require effective particulate removal to protect the downstream gas turbine and also to meet environmental emission requirements. The ceramic barrier filter is one of the options for hot gas filtration. Hot gases flow through ceramic candle filters leaving ash deposited on the outer surface of the filter. A process known as surface regeneration removes the deposited ash periodically by using a high pressure pulse of gas to back flush the filter. After this cleaning process has been completed there may be some residual ash on the filter surface. This residual ash may grow and this may then lead to mechanical failure of the filter. A Room Temperature Test Facility (RTTF) and a High Temperature Test Facility (HTTF) were built to investigate the ash characteristics during surface regeneration at room and selected high temperatures. The RTTF system was used to gain experience with the selected instrumentation and develop an operating procedure to be used later at elevated temperatures. The HTTF system is capable of conducting surface regeneration tests of a single candle filter at temperatures up to 1500 F. In order to obtain sequential digital images of ash particle distribution during the surface regeneration process, a high resolution, high speed image acquisition system was integrated into the HTTF system. The regeneration pressure and the transient pressure difference between the inside of the candle filter and the chamber during regeneration were measured using a high speed PC data acquisition system. The control variables for the high temperature regeneration tests were (1) face velocity, (2) pressure of the back pulse, and (3) cyclic ash built-up time. Coal ash sample obtained from the Power System Development Facility (PSDF) at Wilsonville, AL was used at the

  9. Cervical spine imaging in trauma: Does the use of grid and filter combination improve visualisation of the cervicothoracic junction?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, Nimit, E-mail: nimitgoyal@doctors.org.u [University Hospital of Wales, Heath Park, Cardiff, CF14 4XW (United Kingdom); Rachapalli, Vamsidhar; Burns, Helen; Lloyd, David C.F. [University Hospital of Wales, Heath Park, Cardiff, CF14 4XW (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of filter and anti-scatter grid combination in demonstrating the cervicothoracic junction in lateral cervical spine radiographs performed for trauma patients. Methods: Following a change in departmental protocol in our hospital, anti-scatter grid and filter are routinely used for lateral cervical spine radiograph in all trauma patients with immobilised cervical spine. A retrospective study was done to compare the efficacy of lateral cervical spine radiographs in demonstrating the cervicothoracic junction for a period of three months before and after the implementation of the change. All images were independently evaluated by two observers. Results: 253 trauma patients had a lateral cervical spine radiograph done in January to March 2003 without using the anti-scatter grid and filter while 309 patients in January to March 2007, using filter and grid. Inter-observer variability between the two observers was calculated using Cohen's Kappa which showed good and very good agreement for 2003 and 2007 respectively. 126 (49.8%) images adequately demonstrated the cervicothoracic junction without using filter and grid while 189 (61.1%) were adequate following their use. This was statistically significant (Fischer exact test, p value = 0.0081). Conclusion: The use of filter and anti-scatter grids improves the visualisation of cervicothoracic junction in lateral cervical spine imaging and reduces the need to repeat exposure.

  10. Advanced spatio-temporal filtering techniques for photogrammetric image sequence analysis in civil engineering material testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebold, F.; Maas, H.-G.

    2016-01-01

    The paper shows advanced spatial, temporal and spatio-temporal filtering techniques which may be used to reduce noise effects in photogrammetric image sequence analysis tasks and tools. As a practical example, the techniques are validated in a photogrammetric spatio-temporal crack detection and analysis tool applied in load tests in civil engineering material testing. The load test technique is based on monocular image sequences of a test object under varying load conditions. The first image of a sequence is defined as a reference image under zero load, wherein interest points are determined and connected in a triangular irregular network structure. For each epoch, these triangles are compared to the reference image triangles to search for deformations. The result of the feature point tracking and triangle comparison process is a spatio-temporally resolved strain value field, wherein cracks can be detected, located and measured via local discrepancies. The strains can be visualized as a color-coded map. In order to improve the measuring system and to reduce noise, the strain values of each triangle must be treated in a filtering process. The paper shows the results of various filter techniques in the spatial and in the temporal domain as well as spatio-temporal filtering techniques applied to these data. The best results were obtained by a bilateral filter in the spatial domain and by a spatio-temporal EOF (empirical orthogonal function) filtering technique.

  11. A test setup for the characterization of far-infrared filters under cryogenic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkmann, Stephan M.; Grözinger, Ulrich; Stegmaier, Jutta; Krause, Oliver; Pitz, Eckhard; Lemke, Dietrich

    2006-06-01

    The characterization and calibration of far-infrared (FIR) detectors is a delicate task that requires good knowledge of the incident flux and its spectral composition. In many test setups the FIR flux to the detectors is provided by means of an external or internal black body and a set of cold attenuation, band pass, and blocking filters. For scientific instruments (e.g. PACS aboard ESA's Herschel satellite) band pass and blocking filters are used to achieve the desired spectral throughput either as order sorting filters in spectrometers or for selecting a wavelength range in imaging cameras. In all cases a detailed knowledge of the spectral transmittance of the used filters is mandatory for an accurate calibration of the system. We have build a test platform that allows to measure the transmission of cold (T ~ 4K) filters in the far-infrared. The setup uses a dual grating monochromator with excellent spectral purity and a resolution up to 800, which is operated under a dry nitrogen atmosphere to eliminate water vapor absorption bands. An Si-bolometer is used as detector and is read out by a cryogenic low noise trans-impedance amplifier circuit with common mode rejection and a warm electronics using a lock-in amplifier and a 22 bit analog-to-digital converter. A cryogenic filter slider in the setup allows for differential measurements between filters and the use of cold order sorting filters. We present initial results for FIR cut-on and attenuation filters, demonstrating that our setup is suited to measure transmissions as low as 10 -4 over the covered wavelength range.

  12. Does mechanistic modeling of filter strip pesticide mass balance and degradation processes affect environmental exposure assessments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Ritter, Amy; Fox, Garey A; Perez-Ovilla, Oscar

    2015-11-01

    Vegetative filter strips (VFS) are a widely adopted practice for limiting pesticide transport from adjacent fields to receiving waterbodies. The efficacy of VFS depends on site-specific input factors. To elucidate the complex and non-linear relationships among these factors requires a process-based modeling framework. Previous research proposed linking existing higher-tier environmental exposure models with a well-tested VFS model (VFSMOD). However, the framework assumed pesticide mass stored in the VFS was not available for transport in subsequent storm events. A new pesticide mass balance component was developed to estimate surface pesticide residue trapped in the VFS and its degradation between consecutive runoff events. The influence and necessity of the updated framework on acute and chronic estimated environmental concentrations (EECs) and percent reductions in EECs were investigated across three, 30-year U.S. EPA scenarios: Illinois corn, California tomato, and Oregon wheat. The updated framework with degradation predicted higher EECs than the existing framework without degradation for scenarios with greater sediment transport, longer VFS lengths, and highly sorbing and persistent pesticides. Global sensitivity analysis (GSA) assessed the relative importance of mass balance and degradation processes in the context of other input factors like VFS length (VL), organic-carbon sorption coefficient (Koc), and soil and water half-lives. Considering VFS pesticide residue and degradation was not important if single, large runoff events controlled transport, as is typical for higher percentiles considered in exposure assessments. Degradation processes become more important when considering percent reductions in acute or chronic EECs, especially under scenarios with lower pesticide losses.

  13. Short time bacterial endotoxins test for positron emission tomography by means of positively charged filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazawa, Nobuhiro; Wakita, Kazuo [Nishijin Hospital, Kyoto (Japan); Mineura, Katsuyoshi [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)] (and others)

    2002-11-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers have very short physical half-lives. It is hard to complete a bacterial endotoxins test prior to release from medical institutes. For endotoxin quantitative determination, limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) reagent and kinetic-turbidimetry system were previously developed. We investigated the possibility of a short time test by means of positively charged filters. As a result of this study, the effects of positively charged filters on endotoxin removal were over 99.5% for [{sup 18}F]FDG and [{sup 18}F]NaF, which were contaminated with the indicated concentration of endotoxin. Combining this filter and the kinetic-turbidimetric method, it was possible to complete a bacterial endotoxins test in 5 min prior to the patient's administration. This test should be required prior to release for PET radiopharmaceutical quality control. It has been suggested that this combination is a good method for this purpose. (author)

  14. DOE Field Operations Program EV and HEV Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, James Edward; Slezak, L. A.

    2001-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s (DOE) Field Operations Program tests advanced technology vehicles (ATVs) and disseminates the testing results to provide fleet managers and other potential ATV users with accurate and unbiased information on vehicle performance. The ATVs (including electric, hybrid, and other alternative fuel vehicles) are tested using one or more methods - Baseline Performance Testing (EVAmerica and Pomona Loop), Accelerated Reliability Testing, and Fleet Testing. The Program (http://ev.inel.gov/sop) and its nine industry testing partners have tested over 30 full-size electric vehicle (EV) models and they have accumulated over 4 million miles of EV testing experience since 1994. In conjunction with several original equipment manufacturers, the Program has developed testing procedures for the new classes of hybrid, urban, and neighborhood EVs. The testing of these vehicles started during 2001. The EVS 18 presentation will include (1) EV and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) test results, (2) operating experience with and performance trends of various EV and HEV models, and (3) experience with operating hydrogen-fueled vehicles. Data presented for EVs will include vehicle efficiency (km/kWh), average distance driven per charge, and range testing results. The HEV data will include operating considerations, fuel use rates, and range testing results.

  15. 42 CFR 84.1158 - Dust, fume, and mist tests; respirators with filters; minimum requirements; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dust, fume, and mist tests; respirators with...-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1158 Dust, fume, and mist tests; respirators with filters; minimum requirements; general. (a) Three respirators with cartridges containing,...

  16. Software Verification and Validation Test Report for the HEPA filter Differential Pressure Fan Interlock System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ERMI, A.M.

    2000-09-05

    The HEPA Filter Differential Pressure Fan Interlock System PLC ladder logic software was tested using a Software Verification and Validation (V&V) Test Plan as required by the ''Computer Software Quality Assurance Requirements''. The purpose of his document is to report on the results of the software qualification.

  17. Software Sub-system in Loading Automatic Test System for the Measurement of Power Line Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Bo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The loading automatic test system for measurement of power line filters are in urgent demand. So the software sub-system of the whole test system was proposed. Methods: structured the test system based on the virtual instrument framework, which consisted of lower and up computer and adopted the top down approach of design to perform the system and its modules, according to the measurement principle of the test system. Results: The software sub-system including human machine interface, data analysis and process software, expert system, communication software, control software in lower computer, etc. had been designed. Furthermore, it had been integrated into the entire test system. Conclusion: This sub-system provided a fiendly software platform for the whole test system, and had many advantages such as strong functions, high performances, low prices. It not only raises the test efficiency of EMI filters, but also renders some creativities.

  18. Long-term durability testing of ceramic cross-flow filter. Final report, September 29, 1987--December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippert, T.E.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Alvin, M.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1993-08-01

    Long term durability testing of the cross flow filter is described. Two high temperature, high pressure test facilities were built and operated. The facilities were designed to simulate dirty gas environments typical of Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) and coal gasification. Details of the design and operation of the test facilities and filter testing results are described.

  19. How does an fMRI voxel sample the neuronal activity pattern: compact-kernel or complex spatiotemporal filter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Cusack, Rhodri; Bandettini, Peter

    2010-02-01

    Recent studies suggested that fMRI voxel patterns can convey information represented in columnar-scale neuronal population codes, even when spatial resolution is insufficient to directly image the patterns of columnar selectivity (Kamitani and Tong, 2005; Haynes and Rees, 2005). Sensitivity to subvoxel-scale pattern information, or "fMRI hyperacuity," would greatly enhance the power of fMRI when combined with pattern information analysis techniques (Kriegeskorte and Bandettini, 2007). An individual voxel might weakly reflect columnar-level information if the columns within its boundaries constituted a slightly unbalanced sample of columnar selectivities (Kamitani and Tong, 2005), providing a possible mechanism for fMRI hyperacuity. However, Op de Beeck (2009) suggests that a coarse-scale neuronal organization rather than fMRI hyperacuity may explain the presence of the information in the fMRI patterns. Here we argue (a) that the present evidence does not rule out fMRI hyperacuity, (b) that the mechanism originally suggested for fMRI hyperacuity (biased sampling by averaging within each voxel's boundaries; Kamitani and Tong, 2005) will only produce very weak sensitivity to fine-grained pattern information, and (c) that an alternative mechanism (voxel as complex spatiotemporal filter) is physiologically more accurate and promises stronger sensitivity to fine-grained pattern information: We know that each voxel samples the neuronal activity pattern through a unique fine-grained structure of venous vessels that supply its blood oxygen level-dependent signal. At the simplest level, the drainage domain of a venous vessel may sample the neuronal pattern with a selectivity bias (Gardner, 2009; Shmuel et al., 2009). Beyond biased drainage domains, we illustrate with a simple simulation how temporal properties of the hemodynamics (e.g., the speed of the blood in the capillary bed) can shape spatial properties of a voxel's filter (e.g., how finely structured it is). This

  20. Report on system confirmation test of the used filter transporting vessel. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Kiyoto; Morita, Shin-ichi; Hanada, Keiji; Ouchi, Kazutoshi; Kawakami, Kazuyoshi; Uryu, Mitsuru; Karino, Motonobu

    1997-05-01

    As an exchanging method of vacuum filter element installed at vacuum system of the Recycle Equipment Test Facility (RETF), the cask method is determined to use at a viewpoint of pollution expansion protection and radiation exposure reduction of workers. A principle proof test was conducted after trial protection of main parts according to design conducted in 1995 fiscal year. As a result, it was found that filter element (after storing a container) could be exhausted without any problem, in falling test of exhausting chute, that a setting method of exchanger onto upper part of the filter unit was required to improve, that a set of filter exchanging medium could be conducted scarcely any problem, that a load required to push a filter element into the determined position was at least 37 kg, and that an allowable interval at jointing with a double-door flange was 0.8 mm and air tightness could be kept if its inclination is less tha 0.85 mm. (G.K.)

  1. Controlling Stormwater Quality with Filter Soil—Event and Dry Weather Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Cederkvist

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of filter soil is increasing for control of quality of stormwater runoff prior to infiltration or discharge. This study aimed to gain knowledge about treatment efficacy of filter soils at field scale. Percolate samples from swale-trench systems with filter soil based on agricultural till with/without limestone were monitored for 15 and 9 rain events respectively. Further, two curb extensions with filter soil based on landfill soil were monitored for 10 and 8 events. Pollutant concentrations in percolate were compared to influent samples from the catchment area. Additionally one of the curb extensions was tested twice by adding high-dose synthetic influent containing runoff pollutants of concern. Despite generally low influent pollutant levels, phosphorus, copper, zinc, lead and some polyaromatic hydrocarbons exceeded guiding criteria for protection of groundwater and freshwater. Concentrations in the percolate were in most cases reduced, but phosphorus increased and despite reduced concentrations copper, lead and benzo(apyrene still exceeded guiding criteria. Pollutants from the synthetic influent were efficiently retained, except the pesticide MCPA. Filter soil based on landfill soil tended to perform better than agricultural till. No impact of limestone was observed. Overall the filter soils performed well in retaining pollutants, despite simultaneous processes of mobilization and immobilization.

  2. Design, tests and results of a second harmonic filter for the ICRH generator of JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vervier, M. E-mail: michel.vervier@fusion.rma.ac.be; Durodie, F.; Messiaen, A.; Dumortier, P

    2003-09-01

    A resistive harmonic filter has been developed to damp the harmonic signals generated by the ICRH power amplifier for the JET ICRH system. This filter has to produce negligible reflection at the fundamental frequency (VSWR<1.1 on a matched load) and has to absorb more than 64% of the second harmonic signal with total reflection at any phase. The filter has been first tested at low power in the full operating frequency range (23-57 MHz) showing that its electrical characteristics correspond to the modelling and fulfil the requested specifications. Tests at high power have already been successfully done on TEXTOR at 2 MW level for pulses exceeding 10 s and will start on JET.

  3. Particles in swimming pool filtersDoes pH determine the DBP formation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Willach, Sarah; Mosbæk, Hans

    2012-01-01

    The formation was investigated for different groups of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during chlorination of filter particles from swimming pools at different pH-values and the toxicity was estimated. Specifically, the formation of the DBP group trihalomethanes (THMs), which is regulated in many...... or initial free chlorine concentrations the particles were chlorinated at different pH-values in the relevant range for swimming pools. THM and HAA formations were reduced by decreasing pH while HAN formation increased with decreasing pH. Based on the organic content the relative DBP formation from...

  4. Task 3.13 - hot-gas filter testing. Semi-annual report, July 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, M.L.

    1998-12-31

    The objectives of the hot-gas cleanup (HGC) work on the transport reactor demonstration unit (TRDU) located at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is to demonstrate acceptable performance of hot-gas filter elements in a pilot-scale system prior to long-term demonstration tests. The primary focus of the experimental effort in the 3-year project is the testing of hot-gas filter element performance (particulate collection efficiency, filter pressure differential, filter cleanability, and durability) as a function of temperature and filter face velocity during short term operation (100-200 hours). The filter vessel is used in combination with the TRDU to evaluate the performance of selected hot-gas filter elements under gasification operating conditions. This work directly supports the power systems development facility utilizing the M.W. Kellogg transport reactor located at Wilsonville, Alabama and, indirectly, the Foster Wheeler advanced pressurized fluid-bed combustor, also located at Wilsonville.

  5. Sparse gammatone signal model optimized for English speech does not match the human auditory filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahl, Stefan; Mertins, Alfred

    2008-07-18

    Evidence that neurosensory systems use sparse signal representations as well as improved performance of signal processing algorithms using sparse signal models raised interest in sparse signal coding in the last years. For natural audio signals like speech and environmental sounds, gammatone atoms have been derived as expansion functions that generate a nearly optimal sparse signal model (Smith, E., Lewicki, M., 2006. Efficient auditory coding. Nature 439, 978-982). Furthermore, gammatone functions are established models for the human auditory filters. Thus far, a practical application of a sparse gammatone signal model has been prevented by the fact that deriving the sparsest representation is, in general, computationally intractable. In this paper, we applied an accelerated version of the matching pursuit algorithm for gammatone dictionaries allowing real-time and large data set applications. We show that a sparse signal model in general has advantages in audio coding and that a sparse gammatone signal model encodes speech more efficiently in terms of sparseness than a sparse modified discrete cosine transform (MDCT) signal model. We also show that the optimal gammatone parameters derived for English speech do not match the human auditory filters, suggesting for signal processing applications to derive the parameters individually for each applied signal class instead of using psychometrically derived parameters. For brain research, it means that care should be taken with directly transferring findings of optimality for technical to biological systems.

  6. Accuracy, precision, usability, and cost of portable silver test methods for ceramic filter factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Rhiana D; Murray, Anna L; Mittelman, Anjuliee M; Rayner, Justine; Lantagne, Daniele S

    2017-02-01

    Locally manufactured ceramic water filters are one effective household drinking water treatment technology. During manufacturing, silver nanoparticles or silver nitrate are applied to prevent microbiological growth within the filter and increase bacterial removal efficacy. Currently, there is no recommendation for manufacturers to test silver concentrations of application solutions or filtered water. We identified six commercially available silver test strips, kits, and meters, and evaluated them by: (1) measuring in quintuplicate six samples from 100 to 1,000 mg/L (application range) and six samples from 0.0 to 1.0 mg/L (effluent range) of silver nanoparticles and silver nitrate to determine accuracy and precision; (2) conducting volunteer testing to assess ease-of-use; and (3) comparing costs. We found no method accurately detected silver nanoparticles, and accuracy ranged from 4 to 91% measurement error for silver nitrate samples. Most methods were precise, but only one method could test both application and effluent concentration ranges of silver nitrate. Volunteers considered test strip methods easiest. The cost for 100 tests ranged from 36 to 1,600 USD. We found no currently available method accurately and precisely measured both silver types at reasonable cost and ease-of-use, thus these methods are not recommended to manufacturers. We recommend development of field-appropriate methods that accurately and precisely measure silver nanoparticle and silver nitrate concentrations.

  7. Does Instruction Affect the Underlying Dimensionality of a Kinesiology Test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezruczko, Nikolaus; Frank, Eva; Perkins, Kyle

    Does effective instruction, which changes students' knowledge and possibly alters their cognitive functions, also affect the dimensionality of an achievement test? This question was examined by the parameterization of kinesiology test items (n = 42) with a Rasch dichotomous model, followed by an investigation of dimensionality in a pre- and post-test quasi-experimental study design. College students (n = 108) provided responses to kinesiology achievement test items. Then the stability of item difficulties, gender differences, and the interaction of item content categories with dimensionality were examined. In addition, a PCA/t-test protocol was implemented to examine dimensionality threats from the item residuals. Internal construct validity was investigated by regressing item content components on calibrated item difficulties. Measurement model item residuals were also investigated with statistical decomposition methods. In general, the results showed significant student achievement between pre and post testing, and dimensionality disturbances were relatively minor. The amount of unexpected item "shift" in an un-equated measurement dimension between pre and post testing was less than ten percent of the total items and largely concentrated among several unrelated items. An unexpected finding was a residual cluster consisting of several items testing related technical content. Complicating interpretation, these items tended to appear near the end of the test, which implicates test position as a threat to measurement equivalence. In general, the results across several methods did not tend to identify common threats and instead pointed to multiple sources of threats with varying degree of prominence. These results suggest conventional approaches to measurement equivalence that emphasize expedient overall procedures such as DIF, IRT, and factor analysis are probably capturing isolated sources of variability. Their implementation probably improves measurement

  8. Indirect Kalman Filter in Mobile Robot Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surachai Panich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The most successful applications of Kalman filtering are to linearize about some nominal trajectory in state space that does not depend on the measurement data. The resulting filter is usually referred to as simply a linearized Kalman filter. Approach: This study introduced mainly indirect Kalman filter to estimate robot’s position. A developed differential encoder system integrated accelerometer is experimental tested in square shape. Results: Experimental results confirmed that indirect Kalman filter improves the accuracy and confidence of position estimation. Conclusion: In summary, we concluded that indirect Kalman filter has good potential to reduce error of measurement data.

  9. Testing and verification of granular-bed filters for the removal of particulate and alkalis. Tenth quarterly project report, January 1-March 31, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippert, T.E.

    1983-01-01

    The Westinghouse Electric Corporation with Ducon, Inc. and Burns and Roe, Inc. are conducting a test and evaluation program of a Granular-Bed Filter (GBF) for gas-cleaning applications in pressurized-fluidized-bed combustion processes. This work is funded by DOE PRDA for Exploratory Research, Development, Testing and Evaluation of Systems or Devices for Hot Gas Clean-up. This report describes the status of the testing of the subpilot scale GBF unit under simulated Pressurized-Fluidized-Bed Combustion (PFBC) conditions through Phase IV. 9 references, 21 figures, 4 tables.

  10. 42 CFR 84.1151 - DOP filter test; respirators designed as respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOP filter test; respirators designed as...; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1151 DOP filter test; respirators designed as respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having an...

  11. Cytotoxicity of dental alloys, metals, and ceramics assessed by millipore filter, agar overlay, and MTT tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjögren, G; Sletten, G; Dahl, J E

    2000-08-01

    Biocompatibility of dental materials is dependent on the release of elements from the materials. In addition, the composition, pretreatment, and handling of the materials influence the element release. This study evaluated the cytotoxicity of dental alloys, metals, and ceramics, with specific emphasis on the effects of altering the composition and the pretreatment. By using cells from a mouse fibroblast cell line and the agar overlay test, Millipore filter test, and MTT test, cytotoxicity of various metals, metal alloys, and ceramics for dental restoration were studied. Effects of altering the composition of a high noble gold alloy and of pretreatment of a ceramic-bonding alloy were also studied. In addition, the release of elements into the cell culture medium by the materials studied was measured using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometer. The results of the MTT test were analyzed statistically using ANOVA and Scheffé test at a significance level of P dental restorations and handled in accordance with the manufacturers' instructions were ranked from "noncytotoxic" to "mildly cytotoxic" according to the agar overlay and Millipore filter tests. For the MTT test, no significant differences were observed between these materials and controls, with the exception of JS C-gold and unalloyed titanium. The modified materials were ranked from "mildly cytotoxic" to "moderately cytotoxic" in the agar overlay and Millipore filter tests and from "noncytotoxic" to "moderately cytotoxic" in the MTT test. Thus, cytotoxicity was related to the alloy composition and treatment. The release of Cu and Zn seemed to be important for the cytotoxic effect. Alterations in the composition and the pretreatment can greatly influence the cytotoxicity, and the results stress the importance of carefully following the manufacturers' instructions when handling dental materials.

  12. ASME N510 test results for Savannah River Site AACS filter compartments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, J.D.; Punch, T.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The K-Reactor at the Savannah River Site recently implemented design improvements for the Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS) by procuring, installing, and testing new Air Cleaning Units, or filter compartments, to ASME AG-11, N509, and N510 requirements. Specifically, these new units provide documentable seismic resistance to a Design Basis Accident earthquake, provide 2 inch adsorber beds with 0.25 second residence time, and meet all AG-1, N509, and N510 requirements for testability and maintainability. This paper presents the results of the Site acceptance testing and discusses an issue associated with sample manifold qualification testing.

  13. Does kisspeptin signalling have a role in the testes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei eHua

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Kisspeptins are a family of overlapping neuropeptides encoded by the Kiss1 gene that regulate the mammalian reproductive axis by a central action in the hypothalamus to stimulate GnRH release. Kisspeptins and their receptor (Gpr54 also called Kiss1r are also expressed in the testes but a functional role in this tissue has not been confirmed. We examined which cell types in the testes expressed kisspeptin and its receptor by staining for β-galactosidase activity using tissue from transgenic mice with LacZ targetted to either the Kiss1 or the Gpr54 genes. Expression of both genes appeared to be restricted to haploid spermatids and this was confirmed by a temporal expression analysis, which showed expression appearing with the first wave of haploid spermatid cells at puberty. We could not detect any kisspeptin protein in spermatids however, suggesting that the Kiss1 mRNA may be translationally repressed. We tested whether kisspeptin could act on Leydig cells by examining the effects of kisspeptin on the immortalized Leydig cell line MA-10. Although MA-10 cells were shown to express Gpr54 by RT-PCR, they did not respond to kisspeptin stimulation. We also tested whether kisspeptin could stimulate testosterone release by a direct action on the testes using explants of seminiferous tubules. The explants did not show any response to kisspeptin. The functional integrity of the MA-10 cells and the seminiferous tubule explants was confirmed by showing appropriate responses to the LH analogue, human chorionic gonadotrophin. These data suggest that kisspeptin signalling does not have a significant role in testes function in the mouse.

  14. Magnetisation distribution measurements from powders using a {sup 3}He spin filter: a test experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wills, A.S. [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom) and Davy Faraday Research Laboratory, Royal Institution of Great Britain, 21 Albemarle Street, London W1S 4BS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: a.s.wills@ucl.ac.uk; Lelievre-Berna, E. [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Tasset, F. [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Schweizer, J. [Departement de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee, SPSMS, CEA Grenoble, 38054 Grenoble (France); Ballou, R. [Laboratoire de Magnetisme Louis Neel - CNRS, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2005-02-15

    Magnetisation distribution maps deduced from the measurement of polarization dependent cross-sections have provided information that has been key to our understanding of the detailed electronic configurations and mechanisms of superconductors, colossal magnetoresistance and molecular magnets. Presently, the absence of any installation on a powder instrument limits its application largely to single crystals. This article details a test experiment carried out using polarized {sup 3}He spin filters on a powder diffractometer together with the technical background and data analysis considerations.

  15. Does proximity to urban centres affect the dietary regime of marine benthic filter feeders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccinelli, Eleonora; Noyon, Margaux; McQuaid, Christopher D.

    2016-02-01

    Threats to marine ecosystems include habitat destruction and degradation of water quality, resulting from land- and ocean-based human activities. Anthropogenic input causing modification of water quality, can affect primary productivity and thus food availability and quality for higher trophic levels. This is especially important for sedentary benthic intertidal communities, which rely on local food availability. We investigated the effect of urbanization on the dietary regime of four species of intertidal filter feeders (three barnacles and one mussel) at sites close to high-density cities and at sites far from heavily urbanized areas using fatty acid and stable isotope techniques. δ15N was significantly higher at urbanized sites compared to their corresponding control sites for all species with few exceptions, while no effect on δ13C was recorded. Barnacle fatty acid profiles were not affected by cities, while mussels from sites close to cities had fatty acid signatures with a higher proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). We suggest that the enrichment in δ15N at urbanised sites reflects the influence of anthropogenically derived nitrogen directly linked to wastewater input from domestic and industrial sewage. Linked to this, the high proportion of PUFA in mussels at urbanized sites may reflect the influence of increased nitrogen concentrations on primary production and enhanced growth of large phytoplankton cells. The results indicate that anthropogenic effects can strongly influence the diets of benthic organisms, but these effects differ among taxa. Changes in the diet of such habitat forming species can affect their fitness and survival with potential effects on the populations associated with them.

  16. Ceramic HEPA Filter Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, M A; Bergman, W; Haslam, J; Brown, E P; Sawyer, S; Beaulieu, R; Althouse, P; Meike, A

    2012-04-30

    Potential benefits of ceramic filters in nuclear facilities: (1) Short term benefit for DOE, NRC, and industry - (a) CalPoly HTTU provides unique testing capability to answer questions for DOE - High temperature testing of materials, components, filter, (b) Several DNFSB correspondences and presentations by DNFSB members have highlighted the need for HEPA filter R and D - DNFSB Recommendation 2009-2 highlighted a nuclear facility response to an evaluation basis earthquake followed by a fire (aka shake-n-bake) and CalPoly has capability for a shake-n-bake test; (2) Intermediate term benefit for DOE and industry - (a) Filtration for specialty applications, e.g., explosive applications at Nevada, (b) Spin-off technologies applicable to other commercial industries; and (3) Long term benefit for DOE, NRC, and industry - (a) Across industry, strong desire for better performance filter, (b) Engineering solution to safety problem will improve facility safety and decrease dependence on associated support systems, (c) Large potential life-cycle cost savings, and (d) Facilitates development and deployment of LLNL process innovations to allow continuous ventilation system operation during a fire.

  17. Vision function testing for a suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis: effects of image filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Nick; Scott, Adele F.; Lieby, Paulette; Petoe, Matthew A.; McCarthy, Chris; Stacey, Ashley; Ayton, Lauren N.; Sinclair, Nicholas C.; Shivdasani, Mohit N.; Lovell, Nigel H.; McDermott, Hugh J.; Walker, Janine G.; BVA Consortium,the

    2016-06-01

    Objective. One strategy to improve the effectiveness of prosthetic vision devices is to process incoming images to ensure that key information can be perceived by the user. This paper presents the first comprehensive results of vision function testing for a suprachoroidal retinal prosthetic device utilizing of 20 stimulating electrodes. Further, we investigate whether using image filtering can improve results on a light localization task for implanted participants compared to minimal vision processing. No controlled implanted participant studies have yet investigated whether vision processing methods that are not task-specific can lead to improved results. Approach. Three participants with profound vision loss from retinitis pigmentosa were implanted with a suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis. All three completed multiple trials of a light localization test, and one participant completed multiple trials of acuity tests. The visual representations used were: Lanczos2 (a high quality Nyquist bandlimited downsampling filter); minimal vision processing (MVP); wide view regional averaging filtering (WV); scrambled; and, system off. Main results. Using Lanczos2, all three participants successfully completed a light localization task and obtained a significantly higher percentage of correct responses than using MVP (p≤slant 0.025) or with system off (p\\lt 0.0001). Further, in a preliminary result using Lanczos2, one participant successfully completed grating acuity and Landolt C tasks, and showed significantly better performance (p=0.004) compared to WV, scrambled and system off on the grating acuity task. Significance. Participants successfully completed vision tasks using a 20 electrode suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis. Vision processing with a Nyquist bandlimited image filter has shown an advantage for a light localization task. This result suggests that this and targeted, more advanced vision processing schemes may become important components of retinal prostheses

  18. Study of the Effectiveness of Different Kalman Filtering Methods and Smoothers in Object Tracking Based on Simulation Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinowski Marcin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In navigation practice, there are various navigational architecture and integration strategies of measuring instruments that affect the choice of the Kalman filtering algorithm. The analysis of different methods of Kalman filtration and associated smoothers applied in object tracing was made on the grounds of simulation tests of algorithms designed and presented in this paper. EKF (Extended Kalman Filter filter based on approximation with (jacobians partial derivations and derivative-free filters like UKF (Unscented Kalman Filter and CDKF (Central Difference Kalman Filter were implemented in comparison. For each method of filtration, appropriate smoothers EKS (Extended Kalman Smoother, UKS (Unscented Kalman Smoother and CDKS (Central Difference Kalman Smoother were presented as well. Algorithms performance is discussed on the theoretical base and simulation results of two cases are presented.

  19. DOE ETV-1 electric test vehicle. Phase III: performance testing and system evaluation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, D. W.

    1981-12-01

    The DOE ETV-1 represents the most advanced electric vehicle in operation today. Engineering tests have been conducted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in order to characterize its overall system performance and component efficiencies within the system environment. A dynamometer was used in order to minimize the ambient effects and large uncertainties present in track testing. Extensive test requirements have been defined and procedures were carefully controlled in order to maintain a high degree of credibility. Limited track testing was performed in order to corroborate the dynamometer results. Test results include an energy flow analysis through the major subsystems and incorporate and aerodynamic and rolling losses under cyclic and various steady speed conditions. A complete summary of the major output from all relevant dynamometer and track tests is also included as an appendix.

  20. DOE ETV-1 electric test vehicle. Phase III: performance testing and system evaluation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, D. W.

    1981-12-01

    The DOE ETV-1 represents the most advanced electric vehicle in operation today. Engineering tests have been conducted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in order to characterize its overall system performance and component efficiencies within the system environment. A dynamometer was used in order to minimize the ambient effects and large uncertainties present in track testing. Extensive test requirements have been defined and procedures were carefully controlled in order to maintain a high degree of credibility. Limited track testing was performed in order to corroborate the dynamometer results. Test results include an energy flow analysis through the major subsystems and incorporate and aerodynamic and rolling losses under cyclic and various steady speed conditions. A complete summary of the major output from all relevant dynamometer and track tests is also included as an appendix.

  1. Ensemble Kalman filter versus ensemble smoother for assessing hydraulic conductivity via tracer test data assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Crestani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the spatial variability of hydraulic conductivity K in natural aquifers is important for predicting the transport of dissolved compounds. Especially in the nonreactive case, the plume evolution is mainly controlled by the heterogeneity of K. At the local scale, the spatial distribution of K can be inferred by combining the Lagrangian formulation of the transport with a Kalman-filter-based technique and assimilating a sequence of time-lapse concentration C measurements, which, for example, can be evaluated on site through the application of a geophysical method. The objective of this work is to compare the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF and the ensemble smoother (ES capabilities to retrieve the hydraulic conductivity spatial distribution in a groundwater flow and transport modeling framework. The application refers to a two-dimensional synthetic aquifer in which a tracer test is simulated. Moreover, since Kalman-filter-based methods are optimal only if each of the involved variables fit to a Gaussian probability density function (pdf and since this condition may not be met by some of the flow and transport state variables, issues related to the non-Gaussianity of the variables are analyzed and different transformation of the pdfs are considered in order to evaluate their influence on the performance of the methods. The results show that the EnKF reproduces with good accuracy the hydraulic conductivity field, outperforming the ES regardless of the pdf of the concentrations.

  2. Test plan for N2 HEPA filters assembly shop stock used on PFP E4 exhaust system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DICK, J.D.

    1999-09-01

    At Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) Self-contained HEPA filters, encased in wooden frames and boxes, are installed in the E4 Exhaust Ventilation System to provide confinement of radioactive releases to the environment and confinement of radioactive contamination within designated zones inside the facility. Recently during the routine testing in-leakage was discovered downstream of the Self-contained HEPA filters boxes. This Test Plan describes the approach to conduct investigation of the root causes for the in-leakage of HEPA filters.

  3. Safety evaluation of the ITP filter/stripper test runs and quiet time runs using simulant solution. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, M.K.

    1994-06-01

    The purpose is to provide the technical bases for the evaluation of Unreviewed Safety Question for the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) Filter/Stripper Test Runs (Ref. 7) and Quiet Time Runs Program (described in Section 3.6). The Filter/Stripper Test Runs and Quiet Time Runs program involves a 12,000 gallon feed tank containing an agitator, a 4,000 gallon flush tank, a variable speed pump, associated piping and controls, and equipment within both the Filter and the Stripper Building.

  4. Comparison of two quantitative fit-test methods using N95 filtering facepiece respirators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sietsema, Margaret; Brosseau, Lisa M

    2016-08-01

    Current regulations require annual fit testing before an employee can wear a respirator during work activities. The goal of this research is to determine whether respirator fit measured with two TSI Portacount instruments simultaneously sampling ambient particle concentrations inside and outside of the respirator facepiece is similar to fit measured during an ambient aerosol condensation nuclei counter quantitative fit test. Sixteen subjects (ten female; six male) were recruited for a range of facial sizes. Each subject donned an N95 filtering facepiece respirator, completed two fit tests in random order (ambient aerosol condensation nuclei counter quantitative fit test and two-instrument real-time fit test) without removing or adjusting the respirator between tests. Fit tests were compared using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. The real-time two-instrument method fit factors were similar to those measured with the single-instrument quantitative fit test. The first four exercises were highly correlated (r > 0.7) between the two protocols. Respirator fit was altered during the talking or grimace exercise, both of which involve facial movements that could dislodge the facepiece. Our analyses suggest that the new real-time two-instrument methodology can be used in future studies to evaluate fit before and during work activities.

  5. Preliminary studies to determine the shelf life of HEPA filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, H.; Fretthold, J.K.; Rainer, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    We have completed a preliminary study using filter media tests and filter qualification tests to investigate the effect of shelf-life on HEPA filter performance. Our media studies showed that the tensile strength decreased with age, but the data were not sufficient to establish a shelf-life. Thermogravimetric analyses demonstrated that one manufacturer had media with low tensile strength due to insufficient binder. The filter qualification tests (heated air and overpressure) conducted on different aged filters showed that filter age is not the primary factor affecting filter performance; materials and the construction design have a greater effect. An unexpected finding of our study was that sub-standard HEPA filters have been installed in DOE facilities despite existing regulations and filter qualification tests. We found that the filter with low tensile strength failed the overpressure test. The same filter had passed the heated air test, but left the filter so structurally weak, it was prone to blow-out. We recommend that DOE initiate a filter qualification program to prevent this occurrence.

  6. A New Method to Improve Performance of Resampling Process in Particles Filter by Genetic Algorithm and Gamma Test Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenwu; Hut, Rolf; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-04-01

    Particle filtering is a nonlinear and non-Gaussian dynamical filtering system. It has found widespread applications in hydrological data assimilation. In order to solve the loss of particle diversity exiting in resampling process of particle filter, this research proposes an improved particle filter algorithm using genetic algorithm optimization and Gamma test. This method combines the genetic algorithm and Gamma test into the resampling procedure of particle filter to improve the adaptability and performance of particle filter in data assimilation. First, the particles are classified to three different groups based on resampling method. The particles with high weight values remain unchanged. Then genetic algorithm is used to cross and variate the rest of the particles. In the process of the optimization, the Gamma test method is applied for monitoring the quality of the new generated particles. When the gamma statistic stays stable, the algorithm will end the optimization and continue to perturb next observations in particle algorithm. The algorithm is illustrated for the three-dimensional Lorenz model and the much more complex 40-dimensional Lorenz model. The results demonstrate this method can keep the diversity of the particles and enhance the performance of the particle filter, leading to the promising conjecture that the method is applicable to realistic hydrological problems.

  7. Cessation of In-line Filters in Central Venous Catheters Does Not Significantly Influence the Incidence of Bloodstream Infections and Mortality in a Hospital Hematological Ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroaki; Ambiru, Satoshi; Kawaguchi, Takeharu; Sugita, Yasumasa; Kawajiri, Chika; Nagao, Yuhei; Shimura, Takenori

    2016-01-01

    Objective The use of intravenous in-line filters is effective for the mechanical removal of large particles, precipitates, bacteria, fungi, large lipid globules, and air. However, the routine use of in-line filters remains controversial. Many patients with hematological diseases frequently suffer from bloodstream infections (BSIs) with fatal outcomes. Methods The year before cessation of an in-line filter was defined as the "filter period" and the year after its cessation was defined as the "non-filter period." The number of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), which are defined through surveillance, the catheter utilization rate, the number of patient deaths within 7 days after removal of the central venous catheters (CVCs), and the overall survival rate following CVC insertion were measured. Results During both periods, 84 patients had a total of 140 CVCs with a total number of catheter days of 3,407. There were 10 CVCs with CLABSIs, and the overall CLABSI rate was 2.9/1,000 catheter days, including 4 CVCs with CLABSIs (2.5/1,000 catheter days) during the filter period and 6 CVCs with CLABSIs (3.3/1,000 catheter days) during the non-filter period. The CLABSI rate, catheter utilization rate, and mortality did not differ significantly between the two periods. The only independent variable that was found to be significantly associated with the development of CLABSIs was a neutrophil count of line filters from CVCs does not significantly influence the incidence of BSIs and mortality in patients with hematological disease. To confirm our results, however, a large-scale randomized controlled study is warranted.

  8. Potential for HEPA filter damage from water spray systems in filter plenums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Fretthold, J.K. [Rocky Flats Safe Sites of Colorado, Golden, CO (United States); Slawski, J.W. [Department of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The water spray systems in high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter plenums that are used in nearly all Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for protection against fire was designed under the assumption that the HEPA filters would not be damaged by the water sprays. The most likely scenario for filter damage involves filter plugging by the water spray, followed by the fan blowing out the filter medium. A number of controlled laboratory tests that were previously conducted in the late 1980s are reviewed in this paper to provide a technical basis for the potential HEPA filter damage by the water spray system in HEPA filter plenums. In addition to the laboratory tests, the scenario for BEPA filter damage during fires has also occurred in the field. A fire in a four-stage, BEPA filter plenum at Rocky Flats in 1980 caused the first three stages of BEPA filters to blow out of their housing and the fourth stage to severely bow. Details of this recently declassified fire are presented in this paper. Although these previous findings suggest serious potential problems exist with the current water spray system in filter plenums, additional studies are required to confirm unequivocally that DOE`s critical facilities are at risk. 22 refs., 15 figs.

  9. 40 CFR 53.57 - Test for filter temperature control during sampling and post-sampling periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control during sampling and post-sampling periods. (a) Overview. This test is intended to measure the... is achieved. (5) Program the test sampler to conduct a single sampling run of 4 continuous hours... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test for filter temperature...

  10. Ensemble Kalman filter versus ensemble smoother for assessing hydraulic conductivity via tracer test data assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Crestani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The significance of estimating the spatial variability of the hydraulic conductivity K in natural aquifers is relevant to the possibility of defining the space and time evolution of a non-reactive plume, since the transport of a solute is mainly controlled by the heterogeneity of K. At the local scale, the spatial distribution of K can be inferred by combining the Lagrangian formulation of the transport with a Kalman filter-based technique and assimilating a sequence of time-lapse concentration C measurements, which, for example, can be evaluated on-site through the application of a geophysical method. The objective of this work is to compare the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF and the ensemble smoother (ES capabilities to retrieve the hydraulic conductivity spatial distribution in a groundwater flow and transport modeling framework. The application refers to a two-dimensional synthetic aquifer in which a tracer test is simulated. Moreover, since Kalman filter-based methods are optimal only if each of the involved variables fit to a Gaussian probability density function (pdf and since this condition may not be met by some of the flow and transport state variables, issues related to the non-Gaussianity of the variables are analyzed and different transformation of the pdfs are considered in order to evaluate their influence on the performance of the methods. The results show that the EnKF reproduces with good accuracy the hydraulic conductivity field, outperforming the ES regardless of the pdf of the concentrations.

  11. Standard Test Methods for Microscopical Sizing and Counting Particles from Aerospace Fluids on Membrane Filters

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the size distribution and quantity of particulate matter contamination from aerospace fluids isolated on a membrane filter. The microscopical techniques described may also be applied to other properly prepared samples of small particles. Two test methods are described for sizing particles as follows: 1.1.1 Test Method A—Particle sizes are measured as the diameter of a circle whose area is equal to the projected area of the particle. 1.1.2 Test Method B—Particle sizes are measured by their longest dimension. 1.2 The test methods are intended for application to particle contamination determination of aerospace fluids, gases, surfaces, and environments. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 These test methods do not provide for sizing particles smaller than 5 μm. Note 1—Results of these methods are subject to variables inherent in any statistical method. The...

  12. DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF A CERIA-ZIRCONIA TOUGHENED ALUMINA PROTOTYPE FILTER ELEMENT MADE OF RETICULATED CERAMIC FOAM COATED WITH A CERAMIC MEMBRANE ACTING AS BARRIER FILTER FOR FLY ASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilio A. Rossi; Kenneth R. Butcher; Stacia M. Wagner

    1999-02-19

    The objective of this work was to fabricate subscale candle filters using a Ce-ZTA reticulated foam material. Specifically Selee fabricated 60mm diameter cylinders with one closed end and one flanged end. Selee Corporation developed a small pore size (5-10 {micro}m) filtration membrane which was applied to the reticulated foam surface to provide a barrier filter surface. The specific tasks to be performed were as follows: (Task 1) Filter Element Development--To fabricate subscale filter elements from zirconia toughened alumina using the reticulated foam manufacturing process. The filter elements were required to meet dimensional tolerances specified by an appropriate filter system supplier. The subscale filter elements were fabricated with integral flanges and end caps, that is, with no glued joints. (Task 2) Membrane Development--To develop a small pore filtration membrane that is to be applied to the reticulated foam material. This membrane was to provide filtration characteristics that meet gas turbine requirements and pressure drop or permeability requirements specified by the filter system supplier. (Task 3) Subscale Filter Element Fabrication--To fabricate six subscale filter elements with integral flanges and closed ends, as well as fine pore size filtration membranes. Three filters were to have a central clean gas channel, while three would have no central channel. The filters were to be provided to FETC for testing in laboratory systems or pilot scale exposure systems as appropriate. The candles were to meet dimensional tolerances as provided by filter system suppliers.

  13. A Comparative Study of Stability Testing Approaches of Two-Dimensional Recursive Digital Filters

    OpenAIRE

    K. R. Santhi; M.Ponnavaikko; N. Gangatharan

    2008-01-01

    There are many problems in science and engineering whose solution is applied in the design of Multi-Dimensional (MD) digital filters. Digital filtering finds an important position in the field of digital signal and image processing. Recently there had been a great deal of interest in the design and stability analysis of Two-Dimensional (2-D) recursive digital filters. The design techniques for stable One Dimensional (1-D) digital filters are relatively well developed; but their extension to 2...

  14. Plasma grid design for optimized filter field configuration for the NBI test facility ELISE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nocentini, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85740 Garching (Germany)], E-mail: riccardo.nocentini@ipp.mpg.de; Gutser, R.; Heinemann, B.; Froeschle, M.; Riedl, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85740 Garching (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    Maintenance-free RF sources for negative hydrogen ions with moderate extraction areas (100-200 cm{sup 2}) have been successfully developed in the last years at IPP Garching in the test facilities BATMAN and MANITU. A facility with larger extraction area (1000 cm{sup 2}), ELISE, is being designed with a 'half-size' ITER-like extraction system, pulsed ion acceleration up to 60 kV for 10 s and plasma generation up to 1 h. Due to the large size of the source, the magnetic filter field (FF) cannot be produced solely by permanent magnets. Therefore, an additional magnetic field produced by current flowing through the plasma grid (PG current) is required. The filter field homogeneity and the interaction with the electron suppression magnetic field have been studied in detail by finite element method (FEM) during the ELISE design phase. Significant improvements regarding the field homogeneity have been introduced compared to the ITER reference design. Also, for the same PG current a 50% higher field in front of the grid has been achieved by optimizing the plasma grid geometry. Hollow spaces have been introduced in the plasma grid for a more homogeneous PG current distribution. The introduction of hollow spaces also allows the insertion of permanent magnets in the plasma grid.

  15. Modeling and Testing of a PV/T hybrid system with Water based Optical Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical model has been developed for the Non-imaging V-trough hybrid PV/T concentrator systems along with optical filter and validated with the designed and fabricated system to assess over all thermal efficiency of the PV/T system. A V-trough concentrator system has been developed for two axes tracking. Commercially available solar modules were evaluated for their usability under 2-sun concentration. V-trough concentrator with geometric concentration ratio of 2 (2-sun, we are getting an average overall efficiency of the PV/T system increased by 23.54 % extra overall thermal efficiency of the PV/T system as compared to the solar module efficiency at standard test conditions.

  16. Improving the Responses of Several Accelerometers Used in a Car Under Performance Tests by Using Kalman Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar Hernández

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a Kalman filter is used to cancel noise and interference contained in two accelerometers embedded in a car under performance tests. Here, the frequency bands of the signals of interest and their noise (deterministic as well as stochastic are not strongly mixed with each other but it is very difficult to diminish the noise by using the classical approach to filtering. This reason, among others, justifies the necessity of the application of optimal filtering; and the Kalman filtering application allowed us to obtain optimal results (in the minimum mean-square sense and signal-to-noise ratio improvements higher than 30 dB were achieved. The experimental results demonstrate the importance of using both analog signal conditioning and digital signal processing when dealing with signals corrupted by noise.

  17. Guideline to good practices for postmaintenance testing at DOE nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    Purpose of this guide is to provide contractor maintenance organizations with information that may be used for development and implementation of a postmaintenance testing process for structures, systems, and components at DOE nuclear facilities. It is intended to be an example guideline for the implementation of DOE Order 4330.4A, Maintenance Management Program, Chapter 2, Element 9, Postmaintenance Testing.

  18. 34 CFR 462.10 - How does the Secretary review tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does the Secretary review tests? 462.10 Section 462.10 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF... SYSTEM FOR ADULT EDUCATION What Process Does the Secretary Use To Review the Suitability of Tests for...

  19. Treatment of municipal wastewater in full-scale on-site sand filter reduces BOD efficiently but does not reach requirements for nitrogen and phosphorus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Petteri; Sinkkonen, Aki; Zaitsev, Gennadi; Mäkinen, Esa; Grönroos, Timo; Romantschuk, Martin

    2017-04-01

    A traditional sand filter for treatment of household wastewater was constructed in the fall of 2012 at Biolinja 12, Turku, Finland. Construction work was led and monitored by an authorized wastewater treatment consultant. The filter was placed on a field bordered by open ditches from all sides in order to collect excess rain and snowmelt waters. The filter was constructed and insulated from the environment so that all outflowing water was accounted for. Untreated, mainly municipal, wastewater from Varissuo suburb was pumped from a sewer separately via three septic tanks (volume = 1 m(3) each) into the filters. Normally, wastewater was distributed to ground filters automatically according to pre-programmed schedule. Initially, the daily flow was 1200 L day(-1) to reflect the average organic load of a household of five persons (load: ca 237 g day(-1) BOD; 73 g day(-1) total N; and 10.4 g day(-1) total P). Later in the test, the flow rate was decreased first to 900 and then to 600 L day(-1) to better reflect the average volume produced by five persons. Volumes of inlet wastewater as well as treated water were monitored by magnetic flow meters. Samples were withdrawn from the inlet water, from the water entering the filters after the third septic tank, and from the outflowing water. After an initial adaption time, the reductions in BOD and chemical oxygen demand were constantly between 92 and 98%, showing that the biological degradation process in the filters functioned optimally and clearly comply with the national and EU standards. The reduction in total nitrogen and total phosphorus, however, reached required levels only during the first months of testing, apparently when buildup of microbial biomass was still ongoing. After this initial period of 3 months showing satisfactory reduction levels, the reduction of total nitrogen varied between 5 and 25% and total phosphorus mostly between 50 and 65%. Nitrification was efficient in the filter, but as

  20. What Does the CBM-Maze Test Measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijselaar, Marloes M. L.; Kendeou, Panayiota; de Jong, Peter F.; van den Broek, Paul W.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we identified the code-related (decoding, fluency) and language comprehension (vocabulary, listening comprehension) demands of the CBM-Maze test, a formative assessment, and compared them to those of the Gates-MacGinitie test, a standardized summative assessment. The demands of these reading comprehension tests and their…

  1. Does the implementation of hardware need software? A longitudinal study on fluoride-removal filter use in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonego, Ina L; Huber, Alexandra C; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2013-11-19

    Evidence suggests that the effectiveness of technology designed to provide safe and healthy water is dependent on the degree of its use. In addition to providing safe water "hardware" (i.e., new infrastructure or equipment) to populations at risk, it might be necessary to also provide suitable "software" programs (behavior change strategies) to support use. A longitudinal survey was conducted in rural Ethiopia following the distribution of fluoride-removal household filters. Three intervention groups were evaluated. Group 1 only received the hardware, i.e., the fluoride-removal filter. Groups 2 and 3 also received software in the form of two evidence-based psychological interventions: a planning and social prompts intervention and an educational workshop with pledging. Group 2 received both software interventions, and Group 3 only received the educational workshop. The effects of the hardware and software on behavior and thus filter use were analyzed along with specific psychological factors. The results showed that the provision of the hardware alone (the fluoride-removal filter) was not enough to ensure sufficient use of the equipment. The addition of a software component in the form of psychological interventions increased filter use up to 80%. An increase in filter use was measured following each intervention resulting in the health-risk being minimized. We conclude that it is necessary that the implementation of hardware of this nature is accompanied by evidence-based intervention software.

  2. Multi-Sensor Fusion with Interaction Multiple Model and Chi-Square Test Tolerant Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun; Mohammadi, Arash; Chen, Qing-Wei

    2016-11-02

    Motivated by the key importance of multi-sensor information fusion algorithms in the state-of-the-art integrated navigation systems due to recent advancements in sensor technologies, telecommunication, and navigation systems, the paper proposes an improved and innovative fault-tolerant fusion framework. An integrated navigation system is considered consisting of four sensory sub-systems, i.e., Strap-down Inertial Navigation System (SINS), Global Navigation System (GPS), the Bei-Dou2 (BD2) and Celestial Navigation System (CNS) navigation sensors. In such multi-sensor applications, on the one hand, the design of an efficient fusion methodology is extremely constrained specially when no information regarding the system's error characteristics is available. On the other hand, the development of an accurate fault detection and integrity monitoring solution is both challenging and critical. The paper addresses the sensitivity issues of conventional fault detection solutions and the unavailability of a precisely known system model by jointly designing fault detection and information fusion algorithms. In particular, by using ideas from Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) filters, the uncertainty of the system will be adjusted adaptively by model probabilities and using the proposed fuzzy-based fusion framework. The paper also addresses the problem of using corrupted measurements for fault detection purposes by designing a two state propagator chi-square test jointly with the fusion algorithm. Two IMM predictors, running in parallel, are used and alternatively reactivated based on the received information form the fusion filter to increase the reliability and accuracy of the proposed detection solution. With the combination of the IMM and the proposed fusion method, we increase the failure sensitivity of the detection system and, thereby, significantly increase the overall reliability and accuracy of the integrated navigation system. Simulation results indicate that the

  3. Bond strength testing--what does it mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oilo, G

    1993-10-01

    In this paper, bond strength and various important factors in bond strength testing are discussed as well as the limitations in the interpretation and clinical relevance of such tests. Standardisation of bond strength testing is needed, and the solutions found in the new ISO document, ISO CD TR 11405 Dental Materials--Guidance on testing of adhesion to tooth structure, are referred to. Tensile and shear test methods are discussed and the bond strength values obtained with these methods compared. The influence of dentine substrate variations, such as remaining dentine thickness and surface treatment or removal of smear layer, are discussed as well as the storage conditions of specimens for in vitro tests, that is, short term, long term and thermocycling, and their relevance to the clinical situation. The information obtained from microscopical studies of fractured surfaces indicates that some adhesives may, under optimal conditions, obtain a bond strength sufficient to fracture the dentine.

  4. Gesell's Developmental Testing: What Purpose Does It Serve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, George G.; Modlin, Preston D.

    1987-01-01

    Examined usefulness of the Gesell Preschool Test (GPT), a developmental readiness test used by teachers and school psychologists to determine a child's readiness to begin formal instruction. Results revealed that, after accounting for effects of math and reading achievement, GPT failed to contribute to the discrimination of 30 retained and 58…

  5. Experimental Test Plan DOE Tidal and River Reference Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neary, Vincent S [ORNL; Hill, Craig [St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, 2 Third Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN 55414; Chamorro, Leonardo [St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, 2 Third Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN 55414; Gunawan, Budi [ORNL

    2012-09-01

    Our aim is to provide details of the experimental test plan for scaled model studies in St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL) Main Channel at the University of Minnesota, including a review of study objectives, descriptions of the turbine models, the experimental set-up, instrumentation details, instrument measurement uncertainty, anticipated experimental test cases, post-processing methods, and data archiving for model developers.

  6. What does the CBM-Maze test measure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijselaar, M.M.L.; Kendeou, P.; Jong, P.F. de; Broek, P.W. van den

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we identified the code-related (decoding, fluency) and language comprehension (vocabulary, listening comprehension) demands of the CBM-Maze test, a formative assessment, and compared them to those of the Gates-MacGinitie test, a standardized summative assessment. The demands of these

  7. Negative Exercise Stress Test: Does it Mean Anything? Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan A. Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its low sensitivity and specificity (67% and 72%, respectively, exercise testing has remained one of the most widely used noninvasive tests to determine the prognosis in patients with suspected or established coronary disease.As a screening test for coronary artery disease, the exercise stress test is useful in that it is relatively simple and inexpensive. It has been considered particularly helpful in patients with chest pain syndromes who have moderate probability for coronary artery disease, and in whom the resting electrocardiogram (ECG is normal. The following case presentation and discussion will question the predictive value of a negative stress testing in patients with moderate probability for coronary artery disease.

  8. Does familiarity with computers affect computerized neuropsychological test performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Grant L; Brooks, Brian L; Ashton, V Lynn; Johnson, Lynda G; Gualtieri, C Thomas

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether self-reported computer familiarity is related to performance on computerized neurocognitive testing. Participants were 130 healthy adults who self-reported whether their computer use was "some" (n = 65) or "frequent" (n = 65). The two groups were individually matched on age, education, sex, and race. All completed the CNS Vital Signs (Gualtieri & Johnson, 2006b) computerized neurocognitive battery. There were significant differences on 6 of the 23 scores, including scores derived from the Symbol-Digit Coding Test, Stroop Test, and the Shifting Attention Test. The two groups were also significantly different on the Psychomotor Speed (Cohen's d = 0.37), Reaction Time (d = 0.68), Complex Attention (d = 0.40), and Cognitive Flexibility (d = 0.64) domain scores. People with "frequent" computer use performed better than people with "some" computer use on some tests requiring rapid visual scanning and keyboard work.

  9. Intelligent Condition Diagnosis Method Based on Adaptive Statistic Test Filter and Diagnostic Bayesian Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Zhang, Qiuju; Wang, Kun; Chen, Peng; Wang, Huaqing

    2016-01-08

    A new fault diagnosis method for rotating machinery based on adaptive statistic test filter (ASTF) and Diagnostic Bayesian Network (DBN) is presented in this paper. ASTF is proposed to obtain weak fault features under background noise, ASTF is based on statistic hypothesis testing in the frequency domain to evaluate similarity between reference signal (noise signal) and original signal, and remove the component of high similarity. The optimal level of significance α is obtained using particle swarm optimization (PSO). To evaluate the performance of the ASTF, evaluation factor Ipq is also defined. In addition, a simulation experiment is designed to verify the effectiveness and robustness of ASTF. A sensitive evaluation method using principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed to evaluate the sensitiveness of symptom parameters (SPs) for condition diagnosis. By this way, the good SPs that have high sensitiveness for condition diagnosis can be selected. A three-layer DBN is developed to identify condition of rotation machinery based on the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) theory. Condition diagnosis experiment for rolling element bearings demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Does parental physical violence reduce children's standardized test score performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek-Asa, Corinne; Maxwell, Leah; Stromquist, Ann; Whitten, Paul; Limbos, Mary Ann; Merchant, James

    2007-11-01

    Many negative cognitive and behavioral outcomes have been identified among children living in households with parental violence, but few studies have examined academic performance. In a rural population-based cohort, we examine the role of parental violence on standardized test score performance. The cohort included 306 children ages 6 through 17. Parents responded to a health interview that included questions about physical violence. Children's standardized test scores were collected prospectively for 5 years after the parent interview. Hierarchical multivariate models clustering on school, household, and repeated individual test scores and controlling for children's and parent's characteristics were run to predict test score performance. One in five children lived in a household in which parents reported at least one act of physical violence. Children whose parents reported intimate partner violence (IPV) performed an average of 12.2 percentile points lower than children whose parents reported no IPV (95% CI, -19.2--5.2; p Parent-reported IPV led to larger test score reductions for girls than for boys and for children less than 12 years old than for older children. Parental physical violence was common, and children in homes with violence had significantly poorer performance on standardized test scores.

  11. Does the Fizeau Experiment Really Test Special Relativity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Gerard

    1980-01-01

    The motivation and interpretation of the Fizeau experiment are reviewed, and its status as a test of special relativity is discussed. It is shown, with the aid of a simplified, purely mechanical model of the propagation of light in matter, that the experiment actually cannot discriminate between Galilean and relativistic kinematics. (Author/SK)

  12. Wepman Test of Auditory Discrimination: What Does it Discriminate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Helen Warren

    1979-01-01

    This study investigated auditory discrimination as a function of ethnic group membership within the same socioeconimic status (SES). Subjects were 126 six-year-old students attending schools in a lower SES community. Contrary to previous findings, there were no differences between the groups on the Wepman Test of Auditory Discrimination. (Author)

  13. ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.S. Connolly; G.D. Forsythe

    2000-09-30

    DuPont Lanxide Composites, Inc. undertook a sixty-month program, under DOE Contract DEAC21-94MC31214, in order to develop hot gas candle filters from a patented material technology know as PRD-66. The goal of this program was to extend the development of this material as a filter element and fully assess the capability of this technology to meet the needs of Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation systems at commercial scale. The principal objective of Task 3 was to build on the initial PRD-66 filter development, optimize its structure, and evaluate basic material properties relevant to the hot gas filter application. Initially, this consisted of an evaluation of an advanced filament-wound core structure that had been designed to produce an effective bulk filter underneath the barrier filter formed by the outer membrane. The basic material properties to be evaluated (as established by the DOE/METC materials working group) would include mechanical, thermal, and fracture toughness parameters for both new and used material, for the purpose of building a material database consistent with what is being done for the alternative candle filter systems. Task 3 was later expanded to include analysis of PRD-66 candle filters, which had been exposed to actual PFBC conditions, development of an improved membrane, and installation of equipment necessary for the processing of a modified composition. Task 4 would address essential technical issues involving the scale-up of PRD-66 candle filter manufacturing from prototype production to commercial scale manufacturing. The focus would be on capacity (as it affects the ability to deliver commercial order quantities), process specification (as it affects yields, quality, and costs), and manufacturing systems (e.g. QA/QC, materials handling, parts flow, and cost data acquisition). Any filters fabricated during this task would be used for product qualification tests

  14. Research on the Random Shock Vibration Test Based on the Filter-X LMS Adaptive Inverse Control Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The related theory and algorithm of adaptive inverse control were presented through the research which pointed out the adaptive inverse control strategy could effectively eliminate the noise influence on the system control. Proposed using a frequency domain filter-X LMS adaptive inverse control algorithm, and the control algorithm was applied to the two-exciter hydraulic vibration test system of random shock vibration control process and summarized the process of the adaptive inverse control strategies in the realization of the random shock vibration test. The self-closed-loop and field test show that using the frequency-domain filter-X LMS adaptive inverse control algorithm can realize high precision control of random shock vibration test.

  15. Studies on visual detection and surface modification testing of glass microfiber filter paper based biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiguzel, Yekbun; Kulah, Haluk

    2014-04-15

    Glass microfibers are commonly used as biomolecule adsorption media, as structural or disposable components of the optical biosensors. While any improvement in these components are appreciated, utilizing basic tools of traditional approaches may lead to original sensor opportunities as simple, functional designs that can be easily disseminated. Following this pursuit, surface modification of glass microfiber paper surface was performed by 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and resulting improvement in the cell entrapment capacity could be observed visually, only after Gram staining. Gram staining offered rapid validation of enhanced binding on the glass surface. The same APTES-modified samples were also tested for binding of complementary DNA sequences and the results were less straightforward due to the necessity of DNA visualization by using a fluorescent stain, YOYO-1. Accordingly, when there were no surface modification, DNA and YOYO-1 adsorbed readily on the glass microfiber filter paper, and prolonged the interaction between DNA and YOYO-1. YOYO-1 adsorption on glass could be recognized from the color profile of YOYO-1 emission. This phenomenon can be used to examine suitability of APTES coverage on glass surfaces since YOYO-1 emission can be distinguished by its glass adsorbed versus DNA-bound forms. Aptness of surface coverage is vital to biosensor studies in the sense that it is preceding the forthcoming surface modifications and its precision is imperative for attaining the anticipated interaction kinetics of the surface-immobilized species. The proposed testing scheme offered in this study secures the work, which is aimed to be carried out utilizing such sensing systems and device components.

  16. An Actual Design of AC Filter for Static Var Compensator and Verification Results from the Field Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Yuji; Takasaki, Shinji; Irokawa, Shoichi; Takeda, Hideo; Takagi, Kikuo; Noro, Yasuhiro; Ametani, Akihiro

    AC filter design method for SVC and HVDC is commonly known in the relevant CIGRE technical brochure and IEC technical report. However the conventional method requires many iterative calculations of the harmonic voltages and currents until the calculation results become within the regulation levels by changing filter parameters based on the experience. In this respect, a new improved design method is proposed, which enables efficient evaluation on the complex impedance plane to confirm as to whether the proposed filter impedance is in the permissible range. In an actual project of Okuura SVC of Kyusyu Electric Power Co., Inc., the new method was applied to the AC filter design. This paper describes on the actual procedure of the AC filter design with the new method, the actual references of the harmonic performance calculation, and the field test measurement results on Okuura SVC. The calculation results and the filed measurement results are consistent with each other, thus the validity of the new design method is verified on its accuracy and effectiveness.

  17. Does quantity generate quality? Testing the fundamental principle of brainstorming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Adánez, Alfredo

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to test the chief principle of brainstorming, formulated as "quantity generates quality." The study is included within a broad program whose goal is to detect the strong and weak points of creative techniques. In a sample of 69 groups, containing between 3 and 8 members, the concurrence of two commonly accepted criteria was established as a quality rule: originality and utility or value. The results fully support the quantity-quality relation (r = .893): the more ideas produced to solve a problem, the better quality of the ideas. The importance of this finding, which supports Osborn's theory, is discussed, and the use of brainstorming is recommended to solve the many open problems faced by our society.

  18. US DOE Regional Test Centers Program - 2016 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The US Department of Energy’s Regional Test Center (RTC) program provides outdoor validation and bankability data for innovative solar technologies at five sites across the US representing a range of climate conditions. Data helps get new technologies to market faster and improves US industry competitiveness. Managed by Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the RTC program partners with US manufacturers of photovoltaic (PV) technologies, including modules, inverters, and balance-of-system equipment. The study is collaborative, with manufacturers (also known as RTC industry partners) and the national labs working together on a system design and validation strategy that meets a clearly defined set of performance and reliability objectives.

  19. HEAPA Filter Bank In-Place Leak Test for ACUs of Advanced Fuel Science Building in 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Chul Goo; Bae, Sang Oh [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Air cleaning units installed in the Advanced Fuel Science Building were performed visual inspection, airflow capacity test, and HEAPA filter bank in-place leak test in accordance with ASME N-510-1989. All the above inspections was acceptable. Visual inspection was satisfied to AUC-556 and AUC-557. Airflow capacity was 96%(30,240 m{sup 3}/h) of design airflow capacity(31,500 m{sup 3}/h) for AUC-556 and was 97%(22,800 m{sup 3}/h) of design airflow capacity(22,800 m{sup 3}/h) for AUC-557, and was maintained within {+-}10% of the specified value. Penetration of HEAPA filter bank in-place leak test was 0.009% for AUC-556 and was 0.013% for AUC-557 and these values were maintained less than the acceptance criteria(0.05%)

  20. Hydraulic Conductivity Estimate via Tracer Test and Ensemble Kalman Filter Data Assimilation: Theoretical and Numerical Fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crestani, E.; Camporese, M.; Salandin, P.

    2011-12-01

    Hydraulic properties of natural aquifers, such as porosity, hydraulic conductivity, and storativity, exhibit an erratic spatial variability at different scales that is difficult to recognize without expensive in situ sampling campaigns, laboratory analyses, and, when available, spatially distributed pumping tests. Nevertheless, the importance of the heterogeneous structure of natural formations on solute transport is well recognized, being the non-Fickian evolution of contaminant plumes and the relevant dispersive phenomena controlled by the variability of the hydraulic conductivity K at the local scale. Tracer test analyses have been widely adopted to identify the complex distribution of in situ hydraulic properties. In particular, the use of geophysical methods like the borehole Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) have been in rapid increase, due to their potential to accurately describe the spatio-temporal evolution of the injected solute. Under the assumptions that the solute spreads as a passive tracer and with high values of the Peclet number, the plume evolution is controlled by the porosity and the spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity. Combining the Lagrangian formulation of transport and the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) data assimilation technique, the purpose of this study is to infer the spatial distribution of K at the local scale from a sequence of time-lapse concentration imaging. The capabilities of the proposed approach are investigated simulating various assimilation experiments via synthetic tracer tests in a three-dimensional finite domain reproducing a heterogeneous aquifer. In a first scenario, all the available concentration measurements are assimilated and the entire hydraulic conductivity field is updated, while in the remaining scenarios the K values are updated only in a limited number of nodes by assimilating the concentrations in these same nodes, the hydraulic conductivity in the rest of the domain being the result of a

  1. Does intraspecific competition promote variation? A test via synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew W; Post, David M

    2016-03-01

    Competitive diversification, that is, when increasing intraspecific competition promotes population niche expansion, is commonly invoked in evolutionary studies and currently plays a central role in how we conceptualize the process of adaptive diversification. Despite the frequency with which this idea is cited, the empirical evidence for the process is somewhat limited, and the findings of these studies have yet to be weighed objectively through synthesis. Here, we sought to fill this gap by reviewing the existing literature and collecting the data necessary to assess the evidence for competition as a diversifying force. Additionally, we sought to test a more recent hypothesis, which suggests that competition can act to both promote and inhibit dietary diversification depending on the degree to which a consumer depletes its resources. The surprising result of this synthesis was that increasing competition did not have a mean positive effect on population-level diet breadth or the degree of individual specialization. Instead, we found that increasing intraspecific competition had a restricting effect on population-level diet breadth in as many cases as it had a diversifying effect. This wide disparity in the effect of competition on consumer diet variation was negatively related to a metric for consumer resource depletion. Altogether, these findings call into question a long-standing assumption of basic evolutionary models and lend some support to recent theoretical predictions. Specifically, these findings support the idea that competition is primarily diversifying for species with a small effect (per unit biomass) on their resources and that resource depletion limits the diversifying effect of competition for consumers with larger ecological effects.

  2. Development and Acceptance Testing of the Dual Wheel Mechanism for the Tunable Filter Imager Cryogenic Instrument on the JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckie, Martin; Ahmad, Zakir

    2010-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will carry four scientific instruments, one of which is the Tunable Filter Imager (TFI), which is an instrument within the Fine Guidance Sensor. The Dual Wheel (DW) mechanism is being designed, built and tested by COM DEV Ltd. under contract from the Canadian Space Agency. The DW mechanism includes a pupil wheel (PW) holding seven coronagraphic masks and two calibration elements and a filter wheel (FW) holding nine blocking filters. The DW mechanism must operate at both room temperature and at 35K. Successful operation at 35K comprises positioning each optical element with the required repeatability, for several thousand occasions over the five year mission. The paper discusses the results of testing geared motors and bearings at the cryogenic temperature. In particular bearing retainer design and PGM-HT material, the effects of temperature gradients across bearings and the problems associated with cooling mechanisms down to cryogenic temperatures. The results of additional bearing tests are described that were employed to investigate an abnormally high initial torque experienced at cryogenic temperatures. The findings of these tests, was that the bearing retainer and the ball/race system could be adversely affected by the large temperature change from room temperature to cryogenic temperature and also the temperature gradient across the bearing. The DW mechanism is now performing successfully at both room temperature and at cryogenic temperature. The life testing of the mechanism is expected to be completed in the first quarter of 2010.

  3. Digital tapped delay lines for HWIL testing of matched filter radar receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Richard F.; Braselton, William J.; Mohlere, Richard D.

    2009-05-01

    Matched filter processing for pulse compression of phase coded waveforms is a classic method for increasing radar range measurement resolution. A generic approach for simulating high resolution range extended radar scenes in a Hardware in the Loop (HWIL) test environment is to pass the phase coded radar transmit pulse through an RF tapped delay line comprised of individually amplitude- and phase-weighted output taps. In the generic approach, the taps are closely spaced relative to time intervals equivalent to the range resolution of the compressed radar pulse. For a range-extended high resolution clutter scene, the increased number of these taps can make an analog implementation of an RF tapped delay system impractical. Engineers at the U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) have addressed this problem by transferring RF tapped delay line signal operations to the digital domain. New digital tapped delay line (DTDL) systems have been designed and demonstrated which are physically compact compared to analog RF TDLs, leverage low cost FPGA and data converter technology, and may be readily expanded using open slots in a VME card cage. In initial HWIL applications, the new DTDLs have been shown to produce better dynamic range in pulse compressed range profiles than their analog TDL predecessors. This paper describes the signal requirements and system architecture for digital tapped delay lines. Implementation, performance, and HWIL simulation integration issues for AMRDEC's first generation DTDLs are addressed. The paper concludes with future requirements and plans for ongoing DTDL technology development at AMRDEC.

  4. Radiological results for samples collected on paired glass- and cellulose-fiber filters at the Sandia complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizell, Steve A. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Shadel, Craig A. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Airborne particulates are collected at U.S. Department of Energy sites that exhibit radiological contamination on the soil surface to help assess the potential for wind to transport radionuclides from the contamination sites. Collecting these samples was originally accomplished by drawing air through a cellulose-fiber filter. These filters were replaced with glass-fiber filters in March 2011. Airborne particulates were collected side by side on the two filter materials between May 2013 and May 2014. Comparisons of the sample mass and the radioactivity determinations for the side-by-side samples were undertaken to determine if the change in the filter medium produced significant results. The differences in the results obtained using the two filter types were assessed visually by evaluating the time series and correlation plots and statistically by conducting a nonparametric matched-pair sign test. Generally, the glass-fiber filters collect larger samples of particulates and produce higher radioactivity values for the gross alpha, gross beta, and gamma spectroscopy analyses. However, the correlation between the radioanalytical results for the glass-fiber filters and the cellulose-fiber filters was not strong enough to generate a linear regression function to estimate the glass-fiber filter sample results from the cellulose-fiber filter sample results.

  5. How does breathing frequency affect the performance of an N95 filtering facepiece respirator and a surgical mask against surrogates of viral particles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xinjian; Reponen, Tiina; McKay, Roy; Grinshpun, Sergey A

    2014-01-01

    Breathing frequency (breaths/min) differs among individuals and levels of physical activity. Particles enter respirators through two principle penetration pathways: faceseal leakage and filter penetration. However, it is unknown how breathing frequency affects the overall performance of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) and surgical masks (SMs) against viral particles, as well as other health-relevant submicrometer particles. A FFR and SM were tested on a breathing manikin at four mean inspiratory flows (MIFs) (15, 30, 55, and 85 L/min) and five breathing frequencies (10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 breaths/min). Filter penetration (Pfilter) and total inward leakage (TIL) were determined for the tested respiratory protection devices against sodium chloride (NaCl) aerosol particles in the size range of 20 to 500 nm. "Faceseal leakage-to-filter" (FLTF) penetration ratios were calculated. Both MIF and breathing frequency showed significant effects (p breathing frequency increased TIL for the N95 FFR whereas no clear trends were observed for the SM. Increasing MIF increased Pfilter and decreased TIL resulting in decreasing FLTF ratio. Most of FLTF ratios were >1, suggesting that the faceseal leakage was the primary particle penetration pathway at various breathing frequencies. Breathing frequency is another factor (besides MIF) that can significantly affect the performance of N95 FFRs, with higher breathing frequencies increasing TIL. No consistent trend of increase or decrease of TIL with either MIF or breathing frequency was observed for the tested SM. To potentially extend these findings beyond the manikin/breathing system used, future studies are needed to fully understand the mechanism causing the breathing frequency effect on the performance of respiratory protection devices on human subjects.

  6. For Men: A Positive Zika Virus Test, What Does It Mean for Me?

    Science.gov (United States)

    CDC’s Response to Zika FOR MEN: A POSITIVE ZIKA VIRUS TEST What does it mean for me? You’ve just learned from your ... or healthcare provider that you have a positive Zika test result, which means that you have Zika ...

  7. Generalised Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Friston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a Bayesian filtering scheme for nonlinear state-space models in continuous time. This scheme is called Generalised Filtering and furnishes posterior (conditional densities on hidden states and unknown parameters generating observed data. Crucially, the scheme operates online, assimilating data to optimize the conditional density on time-varying states and time-invariant parameters. In contrast to Kalman and Particle smoothing, Generalised Filtering does not require a backwards pass. In contrast to variational schemes, it does not assume conditional independence between the states and parameters. Generalised Filtering optimises the conditional density with respect to a free-energy bound on the model's log-evidence. This optimisation uses the generalised motion of hidden states and parameters, under the prior assumption that the motion of the parameters is small. We describe the scheme, present comparative evaluations with a fixed-form variational version, and conclude with an illustrative application to a nonlinear state-space model of brain imaging time-series.

  8. DC to DC Converter Testing for Space Applications: Use of EMI Filters and Thermal Range of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Rosa

    2008-01-01

    Several tests were performed on Interpoint and International Rectifier (IR) direct current (DC) to DC converters to evaluate potential performance and reliability issues in space use of DC to DC converters and to determine if the use of electromagnetic interference (EMI) filters mitigates concerns observed during previous tests. Test findings reported here include those done up until September - October 2008. Tests performed include efficiency, regulation, cross-regulation, power consumption with inhibit on, load transient response, synchronization, and turn-on tests. Some of the test results presented here span the thermal range -55 C to 125 C. Lower range was extended to -120 C in some tested converters. Determination of failure root cause in DC/DC converters that failed at thermal extremes is also included.

  9. Iron oxide impregnated filter paper (Pi test): a review of its development and methodological research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chardon, W.J.; Menon, R.G.; Chien, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    Iron oxide impregnated filter paper (FeO paper) has been used to study the availability of phosphorus (P) to plants and algae, P desorption kinetics and P dynamics in the field. Since its initial development a number of differences in the method of preparation of the paper and its application have

  10. Iron oxide impregnated filter paper (Pi test): a review of its development and methodological research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chardon, W.J.; Menon, R.G.; Chien, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    Iron oxide impregnated filter paper (FeO paper) has been used to study the availability of phosphorus (P) to plants and algae, P desorption kinetics and P dynamics in the field. Since its initial development a number of differences in the method of preparation of the paper and its application have b

  11. The PC—Based ATLAS Event Filter Prototype:Supervision Design,Implementation and Tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.P.Bee; F.Etienne; 等

    2001-01-01

    The studies undertaken to prepare the Technical Design Report of the ATLAS 3rd Level Trigger(Event Filter)are performed on different prototypes based on different technologies.we present here the most recent results obtained for the supervision of the prototype based on conventional,off-the-shelf PC machines and Java Moblie agent technology.

  12. Biased relevance filtering in the auditory system: A test of confidence-weighted first-impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullens, D; Winkler, I; Damaso, K; Heathcote, A; Whitson, L; Provost, A; Todd, J

    2016-03-01

    Although first-impressions are known to impact decision-making and to have prolonged effects on reasoning, it is less well known that the same type of rapidly formed assumptions can explain biases in automatic relevance filtering outside of deliberate behavior. This paper features two studies in which participants have been asked to ignore sequences of sound while focusing attention on a silent movie. The sequences consisted of blocks, each with a high-probability repetition interrupted by rare acoustic deviations (i.e., a sound of different pitch or duration). The probabilities of the two different sounds alternated across the concatenated blocks within the sequence (i.e., short-to-long and long-to-short). The sound probabilities are rapidly and automatically learned for each block and a perceptual inference is formed predicting the most likely characteristics of the upcoming sound. Deviations elicit a prediction-error signal known as mismatch negativity (MMN). Computational models of MMN generally assume that its elicitation is governed by transition statistics that define what sound attributes are most likely to follow the current sound. MMN amplitude reflects prediction confidence, which is derived from the stability of the current transition statistics. However, our prior research showed that MMN amplitude is modulated by a strong first-impression bias that outweighs transition statistics. Here we test the hypothesis that this bias can be attributed to assumptions about predictable vs. unpredictable nature of each tone within the first encountered context, which is weighted by the stability of that context. The results of Study 1 show that this bias is initially prevented if there is no 1:1 mapping between sound attributes and probability, but it returns once the auditory system determines which properties provide the highest predictive value. The results of Study 2 show that confidence in the first-impression bias drops if assumptions about the temporal

  13. Comparison of the effect of insecticides on three strains of Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acari: Astigmata) using an impregnated filter paper test and a growth test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stara, Jitka; Nesvorna, Marta; Hubert, Jan

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we compared the efficacy of insecticides against three strains of Tyrophagus putrescentiae using an impregnated filter paper test and a growth test. We tested the suppressive activity of commercial insecticides and their analytical standards (pirimiphos-methyl, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, chlorfenapyr, β-cyfluthrin). The strains of T. putrescentiae originated from a laboratory, a field and dog food. The mortality of the mites due to active ingredients and analytical standards was tested using an impregnated filter paper test after 24 h. Lethal doses, LD50 , LD95 and LD99 were determined. A growth test was used to observe the suppressive effect of the active ingredients on mites at 21 days after application of the active ingredients to wheat grain. The effective doses ED50 , ED95 and ED99 were determined, indicating the concentration at which the population was reduced by 50, 95 and 99% more than control. Cypermethrin, β-cyfluthrin and a formulation of deltamethrin with piperonylbutoxide in the pesticide K-Othrine showed low toxicity to mites. High toxicity was observed for chlorfenapyr (LD50 : 0.1-1 µg cm(-2) ; ED50 : 0.11-1.2 µg g(-1) ) and pirimiphos-methyl (LD50 : 0.01-0.06 µg cm(-2) ; ED50 : 0.2-12 µg g(-1) ). We did not find significant differences among the compared strains in terms of their sensitivity to highly toxic insecticides. The obtained results showed that a filter paper test is a more sensitive method of identifying differences in pesticide susceptibility among strains, but the efficacy of pesticides against one species should be tested using a growth test. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Flowrate testing of the bag filter LANCS-BOP 6CPVC-1.5-2SPVC (LANCS Industries) at 1 psig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Murray E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Currie, Karissa Lyn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Berg, Charlotte Katherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-13

    The air flowrate through a flexible HEPA grade filter (Part LANCS-BOP 6CPVC-1.5-2SPVC www.lancsindustries.com) was measured at 48 ALPM for a differential pressure drop of 1.0 psig (28 inWC, 7.0 kPa). These filters are rated by the manufacturer to have a flowrate of 3 ALPM at a differential pressure drop of 1 inWC (0.25 kPa). The Los Alamos National Laboratory Aerosol Engineering Facility used one of their test rigs (originally developed to measure the pressure drop in capsule HEPA filters) to measure the airflow through the LANCS bag filter.

  15. Comparison of DOE-2 with measurements in the Pala Test houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meldem, R.; Winkelmann, F.

    1995-07-01

    The predictions of the DOE-2 program for building energy analysis have been compared with measurements in the Pala test houses near San Diego. This work is part of the California Institute for Energy Efficiency {open_quotes}Alternatives to Compressor Cooling in California Transition Zones{close_quotes} project in which DOE-2 is being used for parametric analysis of cooling strategies that reduce peak electrical power in hot, dry climates. To establish the validity of DOE-2 for this kind of analysis the program was compared with room air temperature measurements in a {open_quotes}low-mass{close_quotes} house with conventional insulated study wall construction and a {open_quotes}high-mass{close_quotes} house with insulated concrete walls. To test different aspects of the DOE-2 calculation, four different unconditioned thermal configurations of these houses were considered: unshaded windows, shaded windows, white exterior surfaces, and forced night ventilation. In all cases DOE-2 agreed well with the air temperature measurements, with a mean deviation between simulation and measurement ranging from 0.2 to 1.0 K depending on configuration and type of house. Using a development version of DOE-2 comparisons with inside surface temperature measurements were also made. These comparisons also showed good agreement.

  16. 42 CFR 84.1144 - Silica dust test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; single-use or reusable filters; minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... respirators; single-use or reusable filters; minimum requirements. 84.1144 Section 84.1144 Public Health...; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1144 Silica dust test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; single-use or reusable filters;...

  17. Utility of Filter Paper for Preserving Insects, Bacteria, and Host Reservoir DNA for Molecular Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Karimian

    2011-12-01

    Methods: Total body or haemolymph of individual mosquitoes, sand flies or cockroaches squashed or placed on the paper respectively. Extracted DNA of five different bacteria species as well as blood specimens of human and great gerbil Rhombomys opimus was pipetted directly onto filter paper. The papers were stored in room temperature up to 12 months during 2009 until 2011. At monthly intervals, PCR was conducted using a 1-mm disk from the DNA impregnated filter paper as target DNA. PCR amplification was performed against different target genes of the organisms including the ITS2-rDNA of mosquitoes, mtDNA-COI of the sand flies and cockroaches, 16SrRNA gene of the bacteria, and the mtDNA-CytB of the vertebrates. Results: Successful PCR amplification was observed for all of the specimens regardless of the loci, taxon, or time of storage. The PCR amplification were ranged from 462 to 1500 bp and worked well for the specified target gene/s. Time of storage did not affect the amplification up to one year. Conclusion: The filter paper method is a simple and economical way to store, to preserve, and to distribute DNA samples for PCR analysis.

  18. Does Test Item Performance Increase with Test-to-Standards Alignment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynor, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Variation in test performance among examinees from different regions or national jurisdictions is often partially attributed to differences in the degree of content correspondence between local school or training program curricula, and the test of interest. This posited relationship between test-curriculum correspondence, or "alignment,"…

  19. DISCLOSURE POLICY AND PRICE VOLATILITY: A THEORETICAL DESCRIPTION AND EMPIRICAL TESTS OF THE 'FILTER EFFECT'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiangminChen; JianghuiLin

    2004-01-01

    In the context of a push towards full disclosure by the regulatory authorities of securities markets, we evaluate the effectiveness of corporate disclosure policy by examining the 'filter effect'. Controlling for firm size and earnings changes, we conduct an empirical test of various disclosure options. Our results shows that the recent increase in disclosure frequency in mainland China's securities markets has not yet achieved its anticipated objective. Disclosure quality remains low and small firms often manipulate their stock prices through selective release of information.

  20. A Test Circuit with Microstrip Filter for Microwave Power Device%微波功率器件的滤波器测试电路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗卫军; 陈晓娟; 刘果果; 刘新宇; 王晓燕; 方测宝; 郭伦春; 王晓亮

    2007-01-01

    With the principles of microwave circuits and semiconductor device physics, three kinds of microwave power device test circuits are designed and simulated, whose properties are evaluated by a parameter network analyzer within the frequency range from 3 to 8GHz. The simulated results verify that the test circuit with stepped-impedance filter bias network has a larger bandwidth than that with the radial stub. A microstrip interdigital capacitor is used in the third test circuit to replace the DC block,however,which does not show its advantage during the test frequency band. Based on the simulated results, the stepped-impedance filter test circuit can be used to evaluate microwave power devices in the whole C band,namely from 4 to 8GHz.%在微波电路原理和半导体器件物理的基础上,设计和模拟了三种用于微波功率器件的测试电路,并且设计了与之配套的测试夹具.采用矢量网络分析仪对该测试电路和夹具,在3~8GHz范围内进行了小信号测试.模拟和测试结果表明,采用阶梯阻抗滤波器偏置网络的测试电路性能较好,比采用扇形线偏置网络的测试电路具有更宽的带宽.该滤波器偏置电路能够用来在整个C波段,即在4~8GHz内对微波功率器件进行测试.但是,微带叉指耦合电容没有起到取代贴片隔直电容的目的,原因是该结构对参数精度要求高,而PCB制作工艺无法满足这个要求.

  1. Application of wavelet filtering and Barker-coded pulse compression hybrid method to air-coupled ultrasonic testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenggan; Ma, Baoquan; Jiang, Jingtao; Yu, Guang; Liu, Kui; Zhang, Dongmei; Liu, Weiping

    2014-10-01

    Air-coupled ultrasonic testing (ACUT) technique has been viewed as a viable solution in defect detection of advanced composites used in aerospace and aviation industries. However, the giant mismatch of acoustic impedance in air-solid interface makes the transmission efficiency of ultrasound low, and leads to poor signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio of received signal. The utilisation of signal-processing techniques in non-destructive testing is highly appreciated. This paper presents a wavelet filtering and phase-coded pulse compression hybrid method to improve the SNR and output power of received signal. The wavelet transform is utilised to filter insignificant components from noisy ultrasonic signal, and pulse compression process is used to improve the power of correlated signal based on cross-correction algorithm. For the purpose of reasonable parameter selection, different families of wavelets (Daubechies, Symlet and Coiflet) and decomposition level in discrete wavelet transform are analysed, different Barker codes (5-13 bits) are also analysed to acquire higher main-to-side lobe ratio. The performance of the hybrid method was verified in a honeycomb composite sample. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method is very efficient in improving the SNR and signal strength. The applicability of the proposed method seems to be a very promising tool to evaluate the integrity of high ultrasound attenuation composite materials using the ACUT.

  2. Tests of an ensemble Kalman filter for mesoscale and regional-scale data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhiyong

    This dissertation examines the performance of an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) implemented in a mesoscale model in increasingly realistic contexts from under a perfect model assumption and in the presence of significant model error with synthetic observations to real-world data assimilation in comparison to the three-dimensional variational (3DVar) method via both case study and month-long experiments. The EnKF is shown to be promising for future application in operational data assimilation practice. The EnKF with synthetic observations, which is implemented in the mesoscale model MM5, is very effective in keeping the analysis close to the truth under the perfect model assumption. The EnKF is most effective in reducing larger-scale errors but less effective in reducing errors at smaller, marginally resolvable scales. In the presence of significant model errors from physical parameterization schemes, the EnKF performs reasonably well though sometimes it can be significantly degraded compared to its performance under the perfect model assumption. Using a combination of different physical parameterization schemes in the ensemble (the so-called "multi-scheme" ensemble) can significantly improve filter performance due to the resulting better background error covariance and a smaller ensemble bias. The EnKF performs differently for different flow regimes possibly due to scale- and flow-dependent error growth dynamics and predictability. Real-data (including soundings, profilers and surface observations) are assimilated by directly comparing the EnKF and 3DVar and both are implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting model. A case study and month-long experiments show that the EnKF is efficient in tracking observations in terms of both prior forecast and posterior analysis. The EnKF performs consistently better than 3DVar for the time period of interest due to the benefit of the EnKF from both using ensemble mean for state estimation and using a flow

  3. FY2000 FRED Test Report - Final Report on the Crossflow Filter Optimization with 5.6M Sodium Salt Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.R.

    2001-04-04

    The Filtration Research Engineering Demonstration (FRED) at the University of South Carolina ran a test campaign to confirm the utility of crossflow filtration for use with the MST sorption as a strontium-actinide removal technology that is expected to be coupled with the ion exchange and solvent extraction process alternatives. FRED has a Mott Metallurgical 7 tube filter with individual tubes 10 ft long and 3/4 inch o.d. having a nominal pore size of 0.5 microns. The blend sludge consisted of a 50/50 wt percent mixture of sludge simulants of SRS Tank 40H and Tank 8F simulated sludges previously manufactured at FRED. Monosodium Titanate (MST) was blended with the 50/50 sludge mixture in a proportion of 0.9167 MST-to-Sludge ratio to provide the solids loadings analyzed in this test.

  4. International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and Cambridge Filter Test (CFT) Smoking Regimen Data Comparisons in Tobacco Product Marketing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Changyu; Walters, Matthew J; Holman, Matthew R

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the differences in TNCO (tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide) smoke yields generated under the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Cambridge Filter Test (CFT) smoking regimens. Twenty-nine commercial cigarette products from the US marketplace were acquired in 2015 and tested by measuring the TNCO smoke yields generated under these 2 nonintense smoking regimens. Data obtained demonstrated a linear relationship between the TNCO yields produced under the 2 smoking regimens (R(2) > 0.99). TNCO yields produced by each product were higher under the CFT smoking regimen than the ISO smoking regimen. We found that tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yields were consistently 10% to 13% higher under the CFT smoking regimen than under the ISO smoking regimen. This strong correlation indicates that the 2 smoking regimens can be used to apply a correlation correction to CFT TNCO data and allow its comparison to ISO TNCO data in tobacco product marketing applications.

  5. Energy use test facility: CAC-DOE solar air heater test report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    The solar air heater testing demonstrated an attractive application for residential space heating, especially appealing to the do-it-yourself market. Simple improvements in construction, such as caulking of the glazing, could increase collector performance at little cost. The operating cost of the fan was insignificant, being less than $0.05/week. Tested in its as-shipped configuration at 96.1 cfm (3 cfm/ft (2)), the useful energy delivered averaged 20,000 Btu/day for six days in December. The electrical consumption of the fan was approximately 1 kWh. Doubling the flowrate did not increase collector performance appreciably. A TRNSYS computer simulation model for this solar air heater design was validated by comparing the measured test data on Jaunary 4, 1981 with calculated values. TRNSYS predicted that measured collector outlet temperatures within +- 1.20F and the energy delivered within +- 3%. The excellent agreement was obtained by adjusting the collector loss coefficient to an unrealistically low value; therefore, a parametric study is recommended to determine the model sensitivity to varying different parameters. A first-order collector efficiency curve was derived from the TRNSYS simulations which compared well with the curve defined by the clear-day measured data.

  6. Qualification test results for DOE solar photovoltaic flat panel procurement - PRDA 38

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    Twelve types of prototypes modules for the DOE Photovoltaic Flat Panel Procurement (PRDA 38) were subjected to qualification tests at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory according to a new specification. Environmental exposures were carried out separately and included temperature cycling, humidity, wind simulation, and hail. The most serious problems discovered were reduced insulation resistance to ground and ground continuity of the metal frames, electrical degradation, erratic power readings, and delamination. The electrical and physical characteristics of the newly received modules are also given.

  7. Optical high-resolution analysis of rotational movement: testing circular spatial filter velocimetry (CSFV) with rotating biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeper, M.; Schmidt, R.; Kostbade, R.; Damaschke, N.; Gimsa, J.

    2016-07-01

    Circular spatial filtering velocimetry (CSFV) was tested during the microscopic registration of the individual rotations of baker’s yeast cells. Their frequency-dependent rotation (electrorotation; ER) was induced in rotating electric fields, which were generated in a glass chip chamber with four electrodes (600 μm tip-to-tip distance). The electrodes were driven with sinusoidal quadrature signals of 5 or 8 V PP with frequencies up to 3 MHz. The observed cell rotation was of the order of 1-100 s per revolution. At each measuring frequency, the independent rotations of up to 20 cells were simultaneously recorded with a high-speed camera. CSFV was software-implemented using circular spatial filters with harmonic gratings. ER was proportional to the phase shift between the values of the spatial filtering signal of consecutive frames. ER spectra obtained by CSFV from the rotation velocities at different ER-field frequencies agreed well with manual measurements and theoretical spectra. Oscillations in the rotation velocity of a single cell in the elliptically polarized field near an electrode, which were resolved by CSFV, could not be visually discerned. ER step responses after field-on were recorded at 2500 frames per second. Analysis proved the high temporal resolution of CSFV and revealed a largely linear torque-friction relation during the acceleration phase of ER. Future applications of CSFV will allow for the simple and cheap automated high-resolution analysis of rotational movements where mechanical detection has too low a resolution or is not possible, e.g. in polluted environments or for gas and fluid vortices, microscopic objects, etc.

  8. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory underground coal gasification data base. [US DOE-supported field tests; data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cena, R. J.; Thorsness, C. B.

    1981-08-21

    The Department of Energy has sponsored a number of field projects to determine the feasibility of converting the nation's vast coal reserves into a clean efficient energy source via underground coal gasification (UCG). Due to these tests, a significant data base of process information has developed covering a range of coal seams (flat subbituminous, deep flat bituminous and steeply dipping subbituminous) and processing techniques. A summary of all DOE-sponsored tests to data is shown. The development of UCG on a commercial scale requires involvement from both the public and private sectors. However, without detailed process information, accurate assessments of the commercial viability of UCG cannot be determined. To help overcome this problem the DOE has directed the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to develop a UCG data base containing raw and reduced process data from all DOE-sponsored field tests. It is our intent to make the data base available upon request to interested parties, to help them assess the true potential of UCG.

  9. Validation and Parameter Sensitivity Tests for Reconstructing Swell Field Based on an Ensemble Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Tandeo, Pierre; Fablet, Ronan; Husson, Romain; Guan, Lei; Chen, Ge

    2016-01-01

    The swell propagation model built on geometric optics is known to work well when simulating radiated swells from a far located storm. Based on this simple approximation, satellites have acquired plenty of large samples on basin-traversing swells induced by fierce storms situated in mid-latitudes. How to routinely reconstruct swell fields with these irregularly sampled observations from space via known swell propagation principle requires more examination. In this study, we apply 3-h interval pseudo SAR observations in the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) to reconstruct a swell field in ocean basin, and compare it with buoy swell partitions and polynomial regression results. As validated against in situ measurements, EnKF works well in terms of spatial–temporal consistency in far-field swell propagation scenarios. Using this framework, we further address the influence of EnKF parameters, and perform a sensitivity analysis to evaluate estimations made under different sets of parameters. Such analysis is of key interest with respect to future multiple-source routinely recorded swell field data. Satellite-derived swell data can serve as a valuable complementary dataset to in situ or wave re-analysis datasets. PMID:27898005

  10. Electron Energy Resolution of the ATLAS TILECAL Modules with Fit Filter Method (July 2002 test beam)

    CERN Document Server

    Kulchitskii, Yu A; Vinogradov, V B

    2006-01-01

    The constructed ATLAS detector at the LHC will have the great physics discovery potential, in particular in the detection of a heavy Higgs boson. Calorimeters will play a crucial role in it. It is necessary to have confidence that the calorimeters will perform as expected. With the aim of understanding of performance of the ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter to electrons 12\\% of modules have been exposed in electron beams with various energies by three possible ways: cell-scan at $\\theta =20^o$ at the centers of the front face cells, $\\eta$-scan and tilerow scan at $\\theta = 90^o$ for the module side cells. We have extracted the electron energy resolutions of the $EBM-$ (ANL-44), $EBM+$ (IFA-42) and $BM$ (JINR-55) Modules of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter at energies E = 10, 20, 50, 100 and 180 GeV and $\\theta = 20^o$ and $90^o $ and $\\eta$ scan from the July 2002 testbeam run data using the fit filter method of the PMT signal reconstruction. We have determined the statistical and constant terms for the electron ene...

  11. Electron Energy Resolution of the ATLAS TILECAL Modules with Flat Filter Method (July 2002 test beam)

    CERN Document Server

    Kulchitskii, Yu A; Vinogradov, V B

    2005-01-01

    The constructed ATLAS detector at the LHC will have the great physics discovery potential, in particular in the detection of a heavy Higgs boson. Calorimeters will play a crucial role in it. It is necessary to have confidence that the calorimeters will perform as expected. With the aim of understanding of performance of the ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter to electrons 12\\% of modules have been exposed in electron beams with various energies by three possible ways: cell-scan at $\\theta =20^o$ at the centers of the front face cells, $\\eta$-scan and tilerow scan at $\\theta = 90^o$ for the module side cells. We have extracted the electron energy resolutions of the $EBM-$ (ANL-44), $EBM+$ (IFA-42) and $BM$ (JINR-55) Modules of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter at energies E = 10, 20, 50, 100 and 180 GeV and $\\theta = 20^o$ and $90^o $ and $\\eta$ scan from the July 2002 testbeam run data using the flat filter method of the PMT signal reconstruction. We have determined the statistical and constant terms for the electron en...

  12. Energy Calibration of the TILECAL Modules with the Fit Filter Method (July 2002 Test Beam Data)

    CERN Document Server

    Kulchitskii, Yu A; Vinogradov, V B

    2005-01-01

    The constructed ATLAS detector at the LHC will have the great physics discovery potential, in particular in the detection of a heavy Higgs boson. Calorimeters will play a crucial role in it. The important question of calorimetry is the calibration in the electromagnetic energy scale. With the aim of establishing of this scale and understanding of performance of the ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter to electrons 12\\% of modules have been exposed in electron beams with various energies by three possible ways: cell-scan at $\\theta =20^o$ at the centers of the front face cells, $\\eta$-scan and tilerow scan at $\\theta = 90^o$ for the module side cells. Our work is devoted to the determination of the electromagnetic energy calibration constants of the EBM$-$ (ANL-44), EBM$+$ (IFA-42), BM (JINR-55) TILECAL modules at energies E = 10, 20, 50, 100 and 180 GeV and $\\theta = 20^o$ and $90^o$ and $\\eta$ scans on the basis of the July 2002 testbeam run data using the fit filter method of the PMT signal reconstruction. The o...

  13. Validation and Parameter Sensitivity Tests for Reconstructing Swell Field Based on an Ensemble Kalman Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Tandeo, Pierre; Fablet, Ronan; Husson, Romain; Guan, Lei; Chen, Ge

    2016-11-25

    The swell propagation model built on geometric optics is known to work well when simulating radiated swells from a far located storm. Based on this simple approximation, satellites have acquired plenty of large samples on basin-traversing swells induced by fierce storms situated in mid-latitudes. How to routinely reconstruct swell fields with these irregularly sampled observations from space via known swell propagation principle requires more examination. In this study, we apply 3-h interval pseudo SAR observations in the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) to reconstruct a swell field in ocean basin, and compare it with buoy swell partitions and polynomial regression results. As validated against in situ measurements, EnKF works well in terms of spatial-temporal consistency in far-field swell propagation scenarios. Using this framework, we further address the influence of EnKF parameters, and perform a sensitivity analysis to evaluate estimations made under different sets of parameters. Such analysis is of key interest with respect to future multiple-source routinely recorded swell field data. Satellite-derived swell data can serve as a valuable complementary dataset to in situ or wave re-analysis datasets.

  14. 49 CFR 40.247 - What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a... What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result? (a) If the test result is an alcohol concentration of less than 0.02, as the BAT or STT, you must do the following: (1) Sign and date...

  15. Does the Peres experiment using photons test for hyper-complex (quaternionic) quantum theories?

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, Stephen L

    2016-01-01

    Assuming the standard axioms for quaternionic quantum theory and a spatially localized scattering interaction, the $S$-matrix in quaternionic quantum theory is complex valued, not quaternionic. Using the standard connections between the $S$-matrix, the forward scattering amplitude for electromagnetic wave scattering, and the index of refraction, we show that the index of refraction is necessarily complex, not quaternionic. This implies that the recent optical experiment of Procopio et al. based on the Peres proposal does not test for hyper-complex or quaternionic quantum effects arising within the standard Hilbert space framework. Such a test requires looking at near zone fields, not radiation zone fields.

  16. Evaluation of the filter paper IP-10 tests in school children after exposure to tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuuminen, Tamara; Salo, Eeva; Kotilainen, Hannele

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of active tuberculosis (TB) is low in Finland, but outbreaks do occur. Following exposure national guidelines recommend either tuberculosis skin test or interferon-γ-release assay-testing of asymptomatic children. The aim of this study was to compare QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube tes...

  17. ETV TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS GLASFLOSS INDUSTRIES EXCEL FILTER, MODEL SBG24242898

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Excel Filter, Model SBG24242898 air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by Glasfloss Industries, Inc. The pressure drop across the filter was 82 Pa clean and 348 Pa...

  18. Creatinine normalization of workplace urine drug tests: does it make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James W

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effect of creatinine normalization on urine drug concentrations of 5 substances (amphetamines, cocaine, marijuana, opiates, and phencyclidine) and how this affects the proportion of reported positives. The Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test was used to compare the mean prenormalization urinary drug concentration with the mean postnormalization urinary drug concentration. Frequency analysis was performed on dichotomous drug test results and the information was used to complete McNemar testing for each drug to determine the difference of proportions for prenormalization positive drug tests to postnormalization positive drug test. Each drug tested (N = 4460) was found to have a statistically significant increase in mean urinary drug concentration after creatinine normalization with effect sizes ranging from small to medium with cocaine having the largest effect size (r = 0.229) and phencyclidine having the lowest effect size (r = 0.121). The differences in proportion of dichotomous results between study and control groups for drugs tested were compared with the McNemar test. Each drug had a statistically significant (P = 0.0010) increase of positive drug tests. This result indicates that specimen dilution does affect the number of laboratory-positive results confirmed.

  19. Science of Test Measurement Accuracy - Data Sampling and Filter Selection during Data Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    last time. To achieve quality measurements with accurate magnitude and frequency content , the test must start by using comprehensive signal processing ...magnitude and frequency content , the test must start by using comprehensive signal processing principles during initial data acquisition (e.g...Signal Processing – A Practical Guide for Engineers and Scientists”, 2003 2) Nyquist Sampling Theorem appeared as early as 1959 in a book from his

  20. Does a diagnosis of atrophic vaginitis on Papanicolaou test signify the presence of inflammation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Debra S; Weiss, Gerson; Bittman, Sara; Goldsmith, Laura

    2015-08-01

    Vaginal atrophy in menopause shows increased parabasal cells on cytology. This may be accompanied by abundant neutrophils. A shift in maturation index in the absence of significant inflammation is more accurately termed "atrophic pattern." This study aims to determine whether a diagnosis of "atrophic vaginitis" or atrophic pattern on Papanicolaou test is a reliable indicator of what is present on the slide. A retrospective review of Papanicolaou test slides from University Hospital Newark was performed. Cases that had been diagnosed as either atrophic vaginitis (n = 100) or atrophic pattern (n = 100) were selected. Exclusion criteria included any additional diagnosis of neoplasia. Slides were re-reviewed and scored based on abundance of neutrophils: 0 to 5, 6 to 10, or more than 10 neutrophils per high-power field (×40), with 10 fields per slide reviewed. Data were analyzed by χ analysis. Among 200 cases with atrophic vaginitis or atrophic pattern, the proportion of those diagnosed with atrophic vaginitis to those diagnosed with atrophic pattern increased across three neutrophil categories (P vaginitis on Papanicolaou test is reliably associated with increased numbers of neutrophils. A diagnosis of atrophic pattern is indicative of low numbers of neutrophils. As the Papanicolaou test diagnosis of atrophic vaginitis does not correlate with clinical symptoms, a single diagnostic term that does not suggest a disease process would more reliably communicate cytology findings to clinicians.

  1. Live algae as a vector candidate for hydrophobic polychlorinated biphenyls translocation to bivalve filter feeders for laboratory toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Qtae; Kim, Su-Kyoung; Lee, Chae Sung; Lee, Pil Yong

    2011-11-01

    Live algae carrying hydrophobic xenobiotics can be an effective vector candidate for the chemical translocation to filter feeders in the laboratory toxicity test, but information on their application is lacking. Time-course uptake and elimination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (0, 50, 100, and 500 ng g(-1) by two key algal foods, Isochrysis galbana and Tetraselmis suecica, were measured. Both of the algae achieved maximum concentration in an hourafter PCBs exposure regardless the chemical concentrations in our time-course measurements (0, 1, 5, 10, 24, 48 and 72 hrs). Once achieved the maximum concentration, the algae shortly exhibited elimination or eliminating tendency depending on the chemical concentrations. Algae exposed to the chemical for 1 and 24 hrs (hereafter 1 and 24 hr vectors, respectively) were then evaluated as a chemical translocation vector by feeding test to larval and spat Crassostrea gigas. In the feeding test the 24 hr vector, which contained lower chemicals than the 1-hr vector, appeared to be more damaging the early lives of the oyster. This was particularly significant for vectors of higher PCBs (p<0.05), probably due to algal reduction in food value by the prolonged chemical stress. These findings imply that 1 hr exposure is long enough for a generation of algal vector for laboratory toxicity test, minimizing data error resulted from reduction in food value by longer chemical stress.

  2. Fingerprint testing of contaminated ventilation extract filter systems at Sizewell B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meddings, P.; Patel, S. [Nuclear Electric plc, Barnwood (United Kingdom)

    1996-06-01

    Sizewell B is Nuclear Electric`s latest power station, and the Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR) design on which it is based represents a ``first`` for the UK. One of the integral components of the plant is the heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, which performs a contamination control and gaseous waste management function for the site. During the commissioning of Sizewell B Power Station the extract systems of the HVAC plant underwent a procedure known as ``fingerprinting``. This entailed the characterisation of the facilities provided to test the filtration plant during its lifetime. The assessment of their adequacy was then used to identify necessary modifications and/or to propose the manner in which future in situ performance testing would be carried out. The paper outlines the basic principles and procedure that was used to ``fingerprint`` test systems during the commissioning of Sizewell B. A specific example is presented to demonstrate the process. (UK).

  3. Evaluation of the ICET Test Stand to Assess the Performance of a Range of Ceramic Media Filter Elements in Support of ASME AG-1 Subsection FO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schemmel, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-04-26

    High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters are defined as extended-medium, dry-type filters with: (1) a minimum particle removal efficiency of no less than 99.97 percent for 0.3 micrometer particles, (2) a maximum, clean resistance of 1.0 inch water column (in. WC) when operated at 1,000 cubic feet per minute (CFM), and (3) a rigid casing that extends the full depth of the medium. Specifically, ceramic media HEPA filters provide better performance at elevated temperatures, are moisture resistant and nonflammable, can perform their function if wetted and exposed to greater pressures, and can be cleaned and reused. This paper describes the modification and design of a large scale test stand which properly evaluates the filtration characteristics of a range of ceramic media filters challenged with a nuclear aerosol agent in order to develop Section FO of ASME AG-1.

  4. Institute for Clean Energy Technology Mississippi State University NSR&D Aged HEPA Filter Study Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacks, Robert [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Stormo, Julie [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Rose, Coralie [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Rickert, Jaime [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Waggoner, Charles A. [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States)

    2017-03-22

    Data have demonstrated that filter media lose tensile strength and the ability to resist the effects of moisture as a function of age. Testing of new and aged filters needs to be conducted to correlate reduction of physical strength of HEPA media to the ability of filters to withstand upset conditions. Appendix C of the Nuclear Air Cleaning Handbook provides the basis for DOE’s HEPA filter service life guidance. However, this appendix also points out the variability of data, and it does not correlate performance of aged filters to degradation of media due to age. Funding awarded by NSR&D to initiate full-scale testing of aged HEPA filters addresses the issue of correlating media degradation due to age with testing of new and aged HEPA filters under a generic design basis event set of conditions. This funding has accelerated the process of describing this study via: (1) establishment of a Technical Working Group of all stakeholders, (2) development and approval of a test plan, (3) development of testing and autopsy procedures, (4) acquiring an initial set of aged filters, (5) testing the initial set of aged filters, and (6) developing the filter test report content for each filter tested. This funding was very timely and has moved the project forward by at least three years. Activities have been correlated with testing conducted under DOE-EM funding for evaluating performance envelopes for AG-1 Section FC Separator and Separatorless filters. This coordination allows correlation of results from the NSR&D Aged Filter Study with results from testing new filters of the Separator and Separatorless Filter Study. DOE-EM efforts have identified approximately 100 more filters of various ages that have been stored under Level B conditions. NSR&D funded work allows a time for rigorous review among subject matter experts before moving forward with development of the testing matrix that will be used for additional filters. The NSR&D data sets are extremely valuable in as much

  5. Air Filter Simulation by Geodict

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin-peng; Kitai Kim; Changhwan Lee; Jooyong Kim

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we discussed the relationship of filter efficiency and pressure drop with the porosity, fiber diameter and filter thickness by Geodict. We found that filter efficiency will increase when filter porosity and fiber diameter decreasing or filter thickness increasing. And the pressure drop has a linear relationship with filter thickness and non-linear relationship with filter porosity and fiber diameter. We also compared the simulation results with the real test results by TSI 3160. Although there are some differences, I think Geodict can be used to predict filter efficiency and pressure drop.

  6. Pilot-plant testing of magnetic filters for the N-Reactor primary cooling circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emory, B.B.

    1982-01-01

    Data obtained during the laboratory loop test program using the high power HGMF indicates that removal efficiency for /sup 60/Co and subsequently the bulk of the crud, will be greater than 90% at field strength above .1 Tesla for the expanded metal mesh matrix. However, since /sup 54/Mn seems to exhibit paramagnetic behavior and the possibility of quantities of alpha iron forming during reactor shut down from oxygen inleakage, a field strength of .5 to 1 Tesla may be more appropriate for a full scale on-reactor installation. Crud loading of 50 gm per kg of matrix weight are readily obtainable and up to twice that amount has been reached.

  7. Does the Modality Principle Hold for Different Media?: A Test of the Method-Affects-Learning Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, R.

    2006-01-01

    Does the modality of instructional messages affect learning? How does it affect different media? In this paper, I offer an answer to these questions by first proposing a theoretical framework from which effective instructional methods can be derived. Then, I report a set of studies where one method, the modality principle, was tested across…

  8. Testing of a Composite Wavelet Filter to Enhance Automated Target Recognition in SONAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Jeffrey N.

    2011-01-01

    Automated Target Recognition (ATR) systems aim to automate target detection, recognition, and tracking. The current project applies a JPL ATR system to low resolution SONAR and camera videos taken from Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUVs). These SONAR images are inherently noisy and difficult to interpret, and pictures taken underwater are unreliable due to murkiness and inconsistent lighting. The ATR system breaks target recognition into three stages: 1) Videos of both SONAR and camera footage are broken into frames and preprocessed to enhance images and detect Regions of Interest (ROIs). 2) Features are extracted from these ROIs in preparation for classification. 3) ROIs are classified as true or false positives using a standard Neural Network based on the extracted features. Several preprocessing, feature extraction, and training methods are tested and discussed in this report.

  9. Support-Vector-Machine-Based False Alarm Filter of Mechatronic Built-in Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Diagnosing intermittent fault is an important approach to reduce built-in test (BIT) false alarms. Aiming at solving the shortcoming of the present diagnostic method of intermittent fault, and according to the merit of support vector machines ( SVM) which can be trained with a small-sample, an SVM-based diagnostic model of 3 states that include OK state, intermittent state and faulty state is presented. With the features based on the reflection coefficients of an alarm rate(AR) model extracted from small vibration samples, these models are trained to diagnose intermittent faults. The experimental results show that this method can diagnose multiple intermittent faults accurately with small training samples and BIT false alarms are reduced.

  10. EPRI/DOE High Burnup Fuel Sister Pin Test Plan Simplification and Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saltzstein, Sylvia J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorenson, Ken B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hanson, Brady [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Billone, Mike [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Scaglione, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Montgomery, Rose [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bevard, Bruce [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-07-01

    The EPRI/DOE High Burnup Confirmatory Data Project (herein called the "Demo") is a multi-year, multi-entity confirmation demonstration test with the purpose of providing quantitative and qualitative data to show how high-burnup fuel ages in dry storage over a ten-year period. The Demo involves obtaining 32 assemblies of high-burnup PWR fuel of four common cladding alloys from the North Anna Nuclear Power Plant, drying them according to standard plant procedures, and then storing them in an NRC-licensed TN-3 2B cask on the North Anna dry storage pad for ten years. After the ten-year storage time, the cask will be opened and the rods will be examined for signs of aging. Twenty-five rods from assemblies of similar claddings, in-reactor placement, and burnup histories (herein called "sister rods") have been shipped from the North Anna Nuclear Power Plant and are currently being nondestructively tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. After the non-destructive testing has been completed for each of the twenty-five rods, destructive analysis will be performed at ORNL, PNNL, and ANL to obtain mechanical data. Opinions gathered from the expert interviews, ORNL and PNNL Sister Rod Test Plans, and numerous meetings has resulted in the Simplified Test Plan described in this document. Some of the opinions and discussions leading to the simplified test plan are included here. Detailed descriptions and background are in the ORNL and PNNL plans in the appendices . After the testing described in this simplified test plan h as been completed , the community will review all the collected data and determine if additional testing is needed.

  11. US Department of Energy DOE Nevada Operations Office, Nevada Test Site: Underground safety and health standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The Nevada Test Site Underground Safety and Health Standards Working Group was formed at the direction of John D. Stewart, Director, Nevada Test Site Office in April, 1990. The objective of the Working Group was to compile a safety and health standard from the California Tunnel Safety Orders and OSHA for the underground operations at the NTS, (excluding Yucca Mountain). These standards are called the NTS U/G Safety and Health Standards. The Working Group submits these standards as a RECOMMENDATION to the Director, NTSO. Although the Working Group considers these standards to be the most integrated and comprehensive standards that could be developed for NTS Underground Operations, the intent is not to supersede or replace any relevant DOE orders. Rather the intent is to collate the multiple safety and health references contained in DOE Order 5480.4 that have applicability to NTS Underground Operations into a single safety and heath standard to be used in the underground operations at the NTS. Each portion of the standard was included only after careful consideration by the Working Group and is judged to be both effective and appropriate. The specific methods and rationale used by the Working Group are outlined as follows: The letter from DOE/HQ, dated September 28, 1990 cited OSHA and the CTSO as the safety and health codes applicable to underground operations at the NTS. These mandated codes were each originally developed to be comprehensive, i.e., all underground operations of a particular type (e.g., tunnels in the case of the CTSO) were intended to be adequately regulated by the appropriate code. However, this is not true; the Working Group found extensive and confusing overlap in the codes in numerous areas. Other subjects and activities were addressed by the various codes in cursory fashion or not at all.

  12. Analysis of tractor particulate emissions in a modified NRSC test after implementing a particulate filter in the exhaust system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siedlecki Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Retrofitting, which means retrofitting old generation engine systems with modern exhaust after treatment systems, is becoming increasingly popular, which allow vehicles to adhere to the newer and more stringent emission norms. This can save the operators of such vehicles money using older engineered designs without the need to design a new unit or buy an expensive new machine or vehicle. At present, there is a growing interest in emissions from off-road vehicles and the introduction of minimum limits for older vehicles that must be met in order to be able to allow for their operation. For the purposes of this article, the Stage IIIA farm tractor has been fitted with a particulate filter in the exhaust system. The study investigated the impact of the use of exhaust after treatment systems on particle emissions in terms of mass, size distribution and number using PEMS analyzers in the modified NRSC stationary test by engine loading, using a mobile engine dynamometer and comparison of test results.

  13. Total protein concentration and diagnostic test results for gray wolf (Canis lupus) serum using Nobuto filter paper strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Rocio F.; Sepúlveda, Carolina; Ip, Hon S.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Nobuto filter paper strips are widely used for storing blood-serum samples, but the recovery of proteins from these strips following rehydration is unknown. Poor recovery of proteins could reduce the concentration of antibodies and antigens and reduce the sensitivity of diagnostic assays. We compared the protein concentration, and its association with test sensitivity, of eluted Nobuto strip samples with paired sera. We collected and froze serum from five gray wolves (Canis lupus) for 8 mo. When thawed, we used a spectrophotometer (absorbance 280 nm) to determine the serum protein concentration for paired sera and Nobuto eluates for each animal in 2-fold serial dilutions. Total protein concentration was similar for both sample storage methods (Nobuto eluates and control sera), except for the undiluted samples in which Nobuto eluates had higher total protein concentrations. Both sample storage methods appear to produce similar results using the SNAP® 4Dx® Test to detect antibodies against pathogens causing Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, and ehrlichiosis as well as antigen for canine heartworm disease.

  14. Evaluation of city buses installed diesel particulate filter systems on fleet test; Diesel particulate filter system wo tosaishita rosen bus no soko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudo, H. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    An environmental air quality of suspended particulate matter is insufficient in the big city area. To reduce the particulate matter, improvement of engine and development of the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) system are carrying. The purpose of this report is to investigate a possibility of practical use of the city buses installed DPF systems. From March 1995, investigation for practical use of these DPF systems on a route buses was carried in regular service operation of the Tokyo and Yokohama Transportation Bureau. The investigation items are service situation, smoke density and preparation inspection. From the result for 2 years service operation, each DPF systems needed some failure correspondence. but these were not fatal problem on using the DPF system. Then the subject of relative to durability and reliability became clear, and the performance of a low particulate emission DPF system obtained the high value evaluation for users. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. DOE/MSU composite material fatigue database: Test methods, materials, and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandell, J.F.; Samborsky, D.D. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-12-01

    This report presents a detailed analysis of the results from fatigue studies of wind turbine blade composite materials carried out at Montana State University (MSU) over the last seven years. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the DOE/MSU composite Materials Fatigue Database. The fatigue testing of composite materials requires the adaptation of standard test methods to the particular composite structure of concern. The stranded fabric E-glass reinforcement used by many blade manufacturers has required the development of several test modifications to obtain valid test data for materials with particular reinforcement details, over the required range of tensile and compressive loadings. Additionally, a novel testing approach to high frequency (100 Hz) testing for high cycle fatigue using minicoupons has been developed and validated. The database for standard coupon tests now includes over 4,100 data points for over 110 materials systems. The report analyzes the database for trends and transitions in static and fatigue behavior with various materials parameters. Parameters explored are reinforcement fabric architecture, fiber content, content of fibers oriented in the load direction, matrix material, and loading parameters (tension, compression, and reversed loading). Significant transitions from good fatigue resistance to poor fatigue resistance are evident in the range of materials currently used in many blades. A preliminary evaluation of knockdowns for selected structural details is also presented. The high frequency database provides a significant set of data for various loading conditions in the longitudinal and transverse directions of unidirectional composites out to 10{sup 8} cycles. The results are expressed in stress and strain based Goodman Diagrams suitable for design. A discussion is provided to guide the user of the database in its application to blade design.

  16. When Does Retrieval Induce Forgetting and when Does It Induce Facilitation? Implications for Retrieval Inhibition, Testing Effect, and Text Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jason C. K.

    2009-01-01

    Retrieval practice can enhance long-term retention of the tested material (the testing effect), but it can also impair later recall of the nontested material--a phenomenon known as retrieval-induced forgetting (Anderson, M. C., Bjork, R. A., & Bjork, E. L. (1994). "Remembering can cause forgetting: retrieval dynamics in long-term memory." "Journal…

  17. Doctor, what does my positive test mean? From Bayesian textbook tasks to personalized risk communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka eNavarrete

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the research on Bayesian reasoning aims to answer theoretical questions about the extent to which people are able to update their beliefs according to the Bayes Theorem (Baratgin & Politzer, 2006; Barbey & Sloman, 2007; Gigerenzer & Hoffrage, 1995 about the evolutionary nature of Bayesian inference (Brase, 2002, 2007; Gigerenzer & Hoffrage, 1995, or about the role of cognitive abilities in Bayesian inference (Johnson & Tubau, 2013; Lesage, Navarrete, & De Neys, 2013; Sirota, Juanchich, & Hagmayer, 2014. Few studies aim to answer practical, mainly health-related questions, such as, questions such as ‘What does it mean to have a positive test in a context of cancer screening?’ or ‘What is the best way to communicate a medical test result so a patient will understand it?. This type of research aims to translate the empirical finding into effective ways of providing risk information. In addition, the applied research often adopts the paradigms and methods of the theoretically-motivated research. But sometimes it works the other way around, and the theoretical research borrows the importance of the practical question in the medical context. The study of Bayesian reasoning is relevant to risk communication in that,, to be as useful as possible, applied research should employ specifically tailored methods and contexts specific to the recipients of the risk information. In this paper, we concentrate on the communication of the result of medical tests and outline the epidemiological and test parameters that affect the predictive power of a test – whether it is correct or not. Building on this, we draw up recommendations for better practice to convey the results of medical tests that could inform health policy makers (e.g. what are the drawbacks of mass screenings?, be used by health practitioners and, in turn, help patients to make better and more informed decisions.

  18. Doctor, what does my positive test mean? From Bayesian textbook tasks to personalized risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Gorka; Correia, Rut; Sirota, Miroslav; Juanchich, Marie; Huepe, David

    2015-01-01

    Most of the research on Bayesian reasoning aims to answer theoretical questions about the extent to which people are able to update their beliefs according to Bayes' Theorem, about the evolutionary nature of Bayesian inference, or about the role of cognitive abilities in Bayesian inference. Few studies aim to answer practical, mainly health-related questions, such as, "What does it mean to have a positive test in a context of cancer screening?" or "What is the best way to communicate a medical test result so a patient will understand it?". This type of research aims to translate empirical findings into effective ways of providing risk information. In addition, the applied research often adopts the paradigms and methods of the theoretically-motivated research. But sometimes it works the other way around, and the theoretical research borrows the importance of the practical question in the medical context. The study of Bayesian reasoning is relevant to risk communication in that, to be as useful as possible, applied research should employ specifically tailored methods and contexts specific to the recipients of the risk information. In this paper, we concentrate on the communication of the result of medical tests and outline the epidemiological and test parameters that affect the predictive power of a test-whether it is correct or not. Building on this, we draw up recommendations for better practice to convey the results of medical tests that could inform health policy makers (What are the drawbacks of mass screenings?), be used by health practitioners and, in turn, help patients to make better and more informed decisions.

  19. Characterization and Failure Analysis of Ceramic Filters Utilized for Emission Control Coal Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Mei; Jianren Zhou; Ziaul Huque

    1998-03-01

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) power system requires both hot gas desulfurization and particulate filtration to improve system thermal efficiency and overall performance. Therefore, effective high temperature ceramic filters are indispensable key component in both of the advanced IGCC and PFBC coal based power systems to perform hot gas cleanup work. To meet the environmental particulate emission requirements and improve thermal efficiency, ceramic filters are mainly utilized to cleanup the hot gas particulate to protect downstream heat exchanger and gas turbine components from fouling and corrosion. The mechanical integrity of ceramic filters and an efficient dust cake removal system are the key issues for hot gas cleanup systems. The filters must survive combined stresses due to mechanical, thermal, chemical and steam attack throughout normal operations (cold back pulse cleaning jets), unexpected excessive ash accumulation, and the start up and shut down conditions. To evaluate the design and performance of ceramic filters, different long term filter testing programs were conducted. To fulfill this purpose, two Advanced Particle Filter (APF) systems were complete at Tidd PFBC Demonstration Plant, in Brilliant, Ohio in late 1990 as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program. But the most undesirable thing ever happened was the sudden functional and physical failures of filters prior to its designed life time. In Tidd APF filter vessel, twenty eight (28) filters failed one time. Significant research effort has been carried out to find out the causes that led to the early failure of filters. In this work, the studies are emphasized on the possible failure causes analysis of rigid ceramic candle filters. The objectives of this program were to provide an systematic study on the characterization of filters, material laboratory analysis on filter micro-structure, the

  20. Filter arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Ralph H.; Doty, Patrick F.

    2017-08-01

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a tiled filter array that can be used in connection with performance of spatial sampling of optical signals. The filter array comprises filter tiles, wherein a first plurality of filter tiles are formed from a first material, the first material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a first wavelength band pass therethrough. A second plurality of filter tiles is formed from a second material, the second material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a second wavelength band pass therethrough. The first plurality of filter tiles and the second plurality of filter tiles can be interspersed to form the filter array comprising an alternating arrangement of first filter tiles and second filter tiles.

  1. Design, deployment and functional tests of the on-line Event Filter for the ATLAS experiment at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Negri, A; Dos Anjos, A; Baines, J T M; Bee, C P; Biglietti, M; Bogaerts, J A C; Boisvert, V; Bosman, M; Caron, B; Casado, M P; Cataldi, G; Cavalli, D; Cervetto, M; Comune, G; Conde-Muíño, P; De Santo, A; Díaz-Gómez, M; Dosil, M; Ellis, Nick; Emeliyanov, D; Epp, B; Etienne, F; Falciano, S; Farilla, A; George, S; Gheteo, V; González, S; Grothe, M; Kabana, S; Khomich, A; Kilvington, G; Konstantinidis, N P; Kootz, A; Lowe, A; Luminari, L; Maeno, T; Masik, J; Di Mattia, A; Meessen, C; Mello, A G; Merino, G; Moore, R; Morettini, P; Nikitin, N V; Nisatip, A; Padillaf, C; Panikashvili, N; Parodi, F; Pérez-Réale, V; Pinfold, J L; Pinto, P; Qian, Z; Resconi, S; Rosati, S; Sánchez, C; Santamarina-Rios, C; Scannicchio, D A; Schiavi, C; Segura, E; De Seixas, J M; Sivoklokov, S Yu; Soluk, R A; Stefanidis, E; Sushkov, S; Sutton, M; Tapprogge, Stefan; Thomas, E; Touchard, F; Venda-Pinto, B; Vercesi, V; Werner, P; Wheeler, S; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Zobernig, G; 2004 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium And Medical Imaging Conference

    2005-01-01

    The Event Filter selection stage is a fundamental component of the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition architecture. Its primary function is the reduction of data flow and rate to values acceptable by the mass storage operations and by the subsequent off-line data reconstruction and analysis steps. The computing instrument of the EF is generally organized as a set of independent sub-farms, each connected to one output of the Event Builder switch fabric. Each sub-farm comprises a number of processors analyzing several complete events in parallel. This paper describes the design of the ATLAS EF system, its deployment in the 2004 ATLAS combined test beam together with some examples of integrating selection and monitoring algorithms. Since the processing algorithms are not specially designed for EF but are inherited as much as possible from the off-line ones, special emphasis is reserved to system reliability and data security, in particular for the case of failures in the processing algorithms. Another key design...

  2. Zero Calcium Score as a Filter for Further Testing in Patients Admitted to the Coronary Care Unit with Chest Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Luis Cláudio Lemos; Esteves, Fábio P; Carvalhal, Manuela; Souza, Thiago Menezes Barbosa de; Sá, Nicole de; Correia, Vitor Calixto de Almeida; Alexandre, Felipe Kalil Beirão; Lopes, Fernanda; Ferreira, Felipe; Noya-Rabelo, Márcia

    2017-06-12

    The accuracy of zero coronary calcium score as a filter in patients with chest pain has been demonstrated at the emergency room and outpatient clinics, populations with low prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD). To test the gatekeeping role of zero calcium score in patients with chest pain admitted to the coronary care unit (CCU), where the pretest probability of CAD is higher than that of other populations. Patients underwent computed tomography for calcium scoring, and obstructive CAD was defined by a minimum 70% stenosis on invasive angiography. In 146 patients studied, the prevalence of CAD was 41%. A zero calcium score was present in 35% of the patients. The sensitivity and specificity of zero calcium score yielded a negative likelihood ratio of 0.16. After logistic regression adjustment for pretest probability, zero calcium score was independently associated with lower odds of CAD (OR = 0.12, 95%CI = 0.04-0.36), increasing the area under the ROC curve of the clinical model from 0.76 to 0.82 (p = 0.006). Zero calcium score provided a net reclassification improvement of 0.20 (p = 0.0018) over the clinical model when using a pretest probability threshold of 10% for discharging without further testing. In patients with pretest probability valores preditivos negativos do escore zero. Em 146 pacientes estudados, a prevalência de DAC foi 41% e o escore de cálcio zero foi demonstrado em 35% deles. A sensibilidade e a especificidade para escore de cálcio zero resultaram numa razão de verossimilhança negativa de 0,16. Após ajuste com um escore clínico com a regressão logística para a probabilidade pré-teste, o escore de cálcio zero foi preditor independente associado a baixa probabilidade de DAC (OR = 0,12, IC95% = 0,04-0,36), aumentando a área abaixo da curva ROC do modelo clínico de 0,76 para 0,82 (p = 0,006). Considerando a probabilidade de DAC valor preditivo negativo de 90%. Em pacientes com probabilidade pré-teste valor preditivo negativo foi

  3. DOE Coal Gasification Multi-Test Facility: fossil fuel processing technical/professional services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hefferan, J.K.; Lee, G.Y.; Boesch, L.P.; James, R.B.; Rode, R.R.; Walters, A.B.

    1979-07-13

    A conceptual design, including process descriptions, heat and material balances, process flow diagrams, utility requirements, schedule, capital and operating cost estimate, and alternative design considerations, is presented for the DOE Coal Gasification Multi-Test Facility (GMTF). The GMTF, an engineering scale facility, is to provide a complete plant into which different types of gasifiers and conversion/synthesis equipment can be readily integrated for testing in an operational environment at relatively low cost. The design allows for operation of several gasifiers simultaneously at a total coal throughput of 2500 tons/day; individual gasifiers operate at up to 1200 tons/day and 600 psig using air or oxygen. Ten different test gasifiers can be in place at the facility, but only three can be operated at one time. The GMTF can produce a spectrum of saleable products, including low Btu, synthesis and pipeline gases, hydrogen (for fuel cells or hydrogasification), methanol, gasoline, diesel and fuel oils, organic chemicals, and electrical power (potentially). In 1979 dollars, the base facility requires a $288 million capital investment for common-use units, $193 million for four gasification units and four synthesis units, and $305 million for six years of operation. Critical reviews of detailed vendor designs are appended for a methanol synthesis unit, three entrained flow gasifiers, a fluidized bed gasifier, and a hydrogasifier/slag-bath gasifier.

  4. Virologic testing in bronchiolitis: does it change management decisions and predict outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollar, Fabiola; Alcoba, Gabriel; Gervaix, Alain; Argiroffo, Constance Barazzone

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical, therapeutic, laboratory, and radiological differences between respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and non-RSV bronchiolitis in order to assess if the prior knowledge of viral etiology changed management decisions and would be able to predict outcomes. Medical charts of children <1 year admitted to the emergency department with bronchiolitis during two RSV seasons (2010-2012) were reviewed. We analyzed 221 episodes of bronchiolitis. The percentage of exams performed (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.74-2.52), abnormal laboratory and radiological findings (95 % CI 0.53-16.89) did not differ between groups. RSV bronchiolitis had a more severe clinical course. However, virologic testing for RSV had low specificity in identifying at-risk patients for hospitalization, longer hospital length of stay, and need of oxygen therapy and nasogastric tube (44, 40, 42, and 35 %, respectively), and while statistically significant, the positive likelihood ratios were only slightly greater than 1. Although RSV bronchiolitis has a more severe clinical course, virologic testing does not help in management decisions, and at an individual level, as a performance test, it seems insufficient to precisely predict outcomes.

  5. The In Situ Test of HEPA Filter in Cleanroom%洁净室高效过滤器的在位检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵厚猛

    2012-01-01

    对洁净室高效过滤器在位检测做了简单的介绍,对旧车间高效过滤器进行在位检测提供了指导意见。%The introduction to in situ test of HEPA filter in cleanroom was made, Providing guidance to such test in old workshop.

  6. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: COLLOID POLISHING FILTER METHOD - FILTER FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Filter Flow Technology, Inc. (FFT) Colloid Polishing Filter Method (CPFM) was tested as a transportable, trailer mounted, system that uses sorption and chemical complexing phenomena to remove heavy metals and nontritium radionuclides from water. Contaminated waters can be pro...

  7. Seismic shake table testing program for hollow clay tile wall evaluation at DOE facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walls, J.C.; Webb, D.S.; Stone, N.E. (Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)); Bennett, R.M. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    A seismic test facility located at the K-25 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, has been refurbished after shutdown since 1985. The facility shake table is being recertified in order to provide seismic testing capability to an extensive multi-year evaluation program of hollow clay tile walls in buildings at the DOE site in Oak Ridge. The program, directed by teh Center for Natural Phenomena Engineering at Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., the managing contractor for DOE in Oak Ridge, is reviewed. Emphasis is given to the recertification efforts for the seismic test facility, and results of facility and specimen testing to data are discussed and plans for future testing are reviewed. Features and capabilities of the shake table are presented. The dynamic testing of masonry structures is reviewed, and a hollow clay tile wall testing program is projected based on the shake table capability. 13 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Quantifying and Addressing the DOE Material Reactivity Requirements with Analysis and Testing of Hydrogen Storage Materials & Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, Y. (John) F [UTRC

    2015-01-05

    The objective of this project is to examine safety aspects of candidate hydrogen storage materials and systems being developed in the DOE Hydrogen Program. As a result of this effort, the general DOE safety target will be given useful meaning by establishing a link between the characteristics of new storage materials and the satisfaction of safety criteria. This will be accomplished through the development and application of formal risk analysis methods, standardized materials testing, chemical reactivity characterization, novel risk mitigation approaches and subscale system demonstration. The project also will collaborate with other DOE and international activities in materials based hydrogen storage safety to provide a larger, highly coordinated effort.

  9. Quantifying and Addressing the DOE Material Reactivity Requirements with Analysis and Testing of Hydrogen Storage Materials & Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, Y. F. [United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), East Hartford, CT (United States)

    2012-04-30

    The objective of this project is to examine safety aspects of candidate hydrogen storage materials and systems being developed in the DOE Hydrogen Program. As a result of this effort, the general DOE safety target will be given useful meaning by establishing a link between the characteristics of new storage materials and the satisfaction of safety criteria. This will be accomplished through the development and application of formal risk analysis methods, standardized materials testing, chemical reactivity characterization, novel risk mitigation approaches and subscale system demonstration. The project also will collaborate with other DOE and international activities in materials based hydrogen storage safety to provide a larger, highly coordinated effort.

  10. Testing the Feasibility of Using PERM to Apply Scattering-Angle Filtering in the Image-Domain for FWI Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Alzahrani, Hani Ataiq

    2014-09-01

    ABSTRACT Testing the Feasibility of Using PERM to Apply Scattering-Angle Filtering in the Image-Domain for FWI Applications Hani Ataiq Alzahrani Full Waveform Inversion (FWI) is a non-linear optimization problem aimed to estimating subsurface parameters by minimizing the mis t between modeled and recorded seismic data using gradient descent methods, which are the only practical choice because of the size of the problem. Due to the high non-linearity of the problem, gradient methods will converge to a local minimum if the starting model is not close to the true one. The accuracy of the long-wavelength components of the initial model controls the level of non-linearity of the inversion. In order for FWI to converge to the global minimum, we have to obtain the long wavelength components of the model before inverting for the short wavelengths. Ultra-low temporal frequencies are sensitive to the smooth (long wavelength) part of the model, and can be utilized by waveform inversion to resolve that part. Un- fortunately, frequencies in this range are normally missing in eld data due to data- acquisition limitations. The lack of low frequencies can be compensated for by uti- lizing wide-aperture data, as they include arrivals that are especially sensitive to the long wavelength components of the model. The higher the scattering angle of a 5 recorded event, the higher the model wavelength it can resolve. Based on this prop- erty, a scattering-angle ltering algorithm is proposed to start the inversion process with events corresponding to the highest scattering angle available in the data, and then include lower scattering angles progressively. The large scattering angles will resolve the smooth part of the model and reduce the non-linearity of the problem, then the lower ones will enhance the resolution of the model. Recorded data is rst migrated using Pre-stack Exploding Re ector Migration (PERM), then the resulting pre-stack image is transformed into angle gathers to which

  11. Collaborative Filtering for Expansion of Learner's Background Knowledge in Online Language Learning: Does "Top-Down" Processing Improve Vocabulary Proficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masanori; Kitamura, Satoshi; Matsukawa, Hideya; Misono, Tadashi; Kitani, Noriko; Yamauchi, Yuhei

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, collaborative filtering, a recommendation algorithm that incorporates a user's data such as interest, has received worldwide attention as an advanced learning support system. However, accurate recommendations along with a user's interest cannot be ideal as an effective learning environment. This study aims to develop and…

  12. Collaborative Filtering for Expansion of Learner's Background Knowledge in Online Language Learning: Does "Top-Down" Processing Improve Vocabulary Proficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masanori; Kitamura, Satoshi; Matsukawa, Hideya; Misono, Tadashi; Kitani, Noriko; Yamauchi, Yuhei

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, collaborative filtering, a recommendation algorithm that incorporates a user's data such as interest, has received worldwide attention as an advanced learning support system. However, accurate recommendations along with a user's interest cannot be ideal as an effective learning environment. This study aims to develop and…

  13. Does power indicate capacity? 30-s Wingate anaerobic test vs. maximal accumulated O2 deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minahan, C; Chia, M; Inbar, O

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between anaerobic power and capacity. Seven men and seven women performed a 30-s Wingate Anaerobic Test on a cycle ergometer to determine peak power, mean power, and the fatigue index. Subjects also cycled at a work rate predicted to elicit 120 % of peak oxygen uptake to exhaustion to determine the maximal accumulated O (2) deficit. Peak power and the maximal accumulated O (2) deficit were significantly correlated (r = 0.782, p = 0.001). However, when the absolute difference in exercise values between groups (men and women) was held constant using a partial correlation, the relationship diminished (r = 0.531, p = 0.062). In contrast, we observed a significant correlation between fatigue index and the maximal accumulated O (2) deficit when controlling for gender (r = - 0.597, p = 0.024) and the relationship remained significant when values were expressed relative to active muscle mass. A higher anaerobic power does not indicate a greater anaerobic capacity. Furthermore, we suggest that the ability to maintain power output during a 30-s cycle sprint is related to anaerobic capacity.

  14. Particle filter based entropy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, Y.; Driessen, Hans; Bagchi, Arunabha; Mandal, Pranab K.

    For many problems in the field of tracking or even the wider area of filtering the a posteriori description of the uncertainty can oftentimes not be described by a simple Gaussian density function. In such situations the characterization of the uncertainty by a mean and a covariance does not capture

  15. Optimal filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Brian D O

    2005-01-01

    This graduate-level text augments and extends beyond undergraduate studies of signal processing, particularly in regard to communication systems and digital filtering theory. Vital for students in the fields of control and communications, its contents are also relevant to students in such diverse areas as statistics, economics, bioengineering, and operations research.Topics include filtering, linear systems, and estimation; the discrete-time Kalman filter; time-invariant filters; properties of Kalman filters; computational aspects; and smoothing of discrete-time signals. Additional subjects e

  16. 基于LabVIEW的SAW滤波器测试系统%SAW Filter Testing System Based on LabVIEW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    以虚拟仪器的核心技术PXI总线为基础,利用LabVIEW作为软件开发平台,设计了一种SAW(声表面波)滤波器测试系统,并详细介绍了系统的硬件结构及软件设计.通过实验验证,系统可以有效地测试SAW滤波器的中心频率、插入损耗、带外抑制、通带纹波等主要性能指标,以及实现数据的自动存储,平均每支滤波器的测试时间为3.2~4 s.该系统测试方法简单,可靠性高,在SAW滤波器的工业化生产测试中具有良好的应用前景.%A testing system for SAW filter was introduced taking LabVIEW as the software development platform and the hard-ware based on PXI bus technology.The structure of the hardware and function characteristic of the software were described.Through experiment,the system can test the main performance of the SAW filter such as center frequency,insertion loss,band rejection,rip-ple and so on,realizing automatic storage of data.The time of testing one filter was 3.2~4 s.The system features convenient opera-tion,reliable testing and has a good prospect in SAW filter industrial production.

  17. Generic Kalman Filter Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisano, Michael E., II; Crues, Edwin Z.

    2005-01-01

    The Generic Kalman Filter (GKF) software provides a standard basis for the development of application-specific Kalman-filter programs. Historically, Kalman filters have been implemented by customized programs that must be written, coded, and debugged anew for each unique application, then tested and tuned with simulated or actual measurement data. Total development times for typical Kalman-filter application programs have ranged from months to weeks. The GKF software can simplify the development process and reduce the development time by eliminating the need to re-create the fundamental implementation of the Kalman filter for each new application. The GKF software is written in the ANSI C programming language. It contains a generic Kalman-filter-development directory that, in turn, contains a code for a generic Kalman filter function; more specifically, it contains a generically designed and generically coded implementation of linear, linearized, and extended Kalman filtering algorithms, including algorithms for state- and covariance-update and -propagation functions. The mathematical theory that underlies the algorithms is well known and has been reported extensively in the open technical literature. Also contained in the directory are a header file that defines generic Kalman-filter data structures and prototype functions and template versions of application-specific subfunction and calling navigation/estimation routine code and headers. Once the user has provided a calling routine and the required application-specific subfunctions, the application-specific Kalman-filter software can be compiled and executed immediately. During execution, the generic Kalman-filter function is called from a higher-level navigation or estimation routine that preprocesses measurement data and post-processes output data. The generic Kalman-filter function uses the aforementioned data structures and five implementation- specific subfunctions, which have been developed by the user on

  18. Basic data report for drilling and hydrologic testing of drillhole DOE-2 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIIP) site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercer, J.W.; Beauheim, R.L.; Snyder, R.P.; Fairer, G.M.

    1987-04-01

    Drillhole DOE-2 was drilled to investigate a structural depression marked by the downward displacement of stratigraphic markers in the Salado Formation. Contrary to several hypotheses, halite layers were thicker in the lower part of the Salado, not thinner as a result of any removal of halite. The upper Castile anhydrite in Drillhole DOE-2 is anomalously thick and is strongly deformed relative to the anhydrite in adjacent drillholes. In contrast, the halite was <8 ft thick and significantly thinner than usually encountered. The lower Castile anhydrite appears to be normal. The depression within the correlated marker beds in the Salado Formation in Drillhole DOE-2 is interpreted as a result of gravity-driven deformation of the underlying Castile Formation. Several stratigraphic units were hydrologically tested in Drillhole DOE-2. Testing of the unsaturated lower portion of the Dewey Lake Red Beds was unsuccessful because of exceptionally small rates of fluid intake. Drill-stem tests were conducted in five intervals in the Rustler Formation, over the Marker Bed 138-139 interval in the Salado formation, and over three sandstone members of the Bell Canyon Formation. A pumping test was conducted in the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation. Pressure-pulse tests were conducted over the entire Salado Formation. Fluid samples were collected from the Culebra Dolomite Member and from the Hays Member of the Bell Canyon Formation. 31 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. 49 CFR 40.139 - On what basis does the MRO verify test results for codeine and morphine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... codeine and morphine? 40.139 Section 40.139 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... Verification Process § 40.139 On what basis does the MRO verify test results for codeine and morphine? As the MRO, you must proceed as follows when you receive a laboratory confirmed positive morphine or...

  20. Safety Issues at the DOE Test and Research Reactors. A Report to the U.S. Department of Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources.

    This report provides an assessment of safety issues at the Department of Energy (DOE) test and research reactors. Part A identifies six safety issues of the reactors. These issues include the safety design philosophy, the conduct of safety reviews, the performance of probabilistic risk assessments, the reliance on reactor operators, the fragmented…

  1. Reply to the comment on: "Does an atom interferometer test the gravitational redshift at the Compton frequency?"

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Peter; Bordé, Christian J; Reynaud, Serge; Salomon, Christophe; Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude

    2012-01-01

    Hohensee, Chu, Peters and M\\"uller have submitted a comment (arXiv:1112.6039 [gr-qc]) on our paper "Does an atom interferometer test the gravitational redshift at the Compton frequency?", Classical and Quantum Gravity 28, 145017 (2011), arXiv:1009.2485 [gr-qc]. Here we reply to this comment and show that the main result of our paper, namely that atom interferometric gravimeters do not test the gravitational redshift at the Compton frequency, remains valid.

  2. Cryptosporidium: A Guide to Water Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for cyst reduction Filters labeled only with these words may NOT be designed to remove Crypto Nominal pore size of 1 micron or smaller One micron filter Effective against Giardia Effective against parasites Carbon filter Water purifier EPA approved ( Caution: EPA does not approve ...

  3. Long-Term Carbon Injection Field Test for 90% Mercury Removal for a PRB Unit a Spray Dryer and Fabric Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjostrom, Sharon; Amrhein, Jerry

    2009-04-30

    The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon (PAC) into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. The purpose of this test program was to evaluate the long-term mercury removal capability, long-term mercury emissions variability, and operating and maintenance (O&M) costs associated with sorbent injection on a configuration being considered for many new plants. Testing was conducted by ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA) at Rocky Mountain Power’s (RMP) Hardin Station through funding provided by DOE/NETL, RMP, and other industry partners. The Hardin Station is a new plant rated at 121 MW gross that was first brought online in April of 2006. Hardin fires a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and is configured with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOx control, a spray dryer absorber (SDA) for SO2 control, and a fabric filter (FF) for particulate control. Based upon previous testing at PRB sites with SCRs, very little additional mercury oxidation from the SCR was expected at Hardin. In addition, based upon results from DOE/NETL Phase II Round I testing at Holcomb Station and results from similarly configured sites, low native mercury removal was expected across the SDA and FF. The main goal of this project was met—sorbent injection was used to economically and effectively achieve 90% mercury control as measured from the air heater (AH) outlet to the stack for a period of ten months. This goal was achieved with DARCO® Hg-LH, Calgon FLUEPAC®-MC PLUS and ADA Power PAC PREMIUM brominated activated carbons at nominal loadings of 1.5–2.5 lb/MMacf. An economic analysis determined the twenty-year levelized cost to be 0.87 mills/kW-hr, or $15,000/lb Hg removed. No detrimental effects on other equipment or plant operations were observed. The

  4. Ultraviolet filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaath, Nadim A

    2010-04-01

    The chemistry, photostability and mechanism of action of ultraviolet filters are reviewed. The worldwide regulatory status of the 55 approved ultraviolet filters and their optical properties are documented. The photostabilty of butyl methoxydibenzoyl methane (avobenzone) is considered and methods to stabilize it in cosmetic formulations are presented.

  5. Presence of UV filters in surface water and the effects of phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following a chronic toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabicova, Katerina; Fedorova, Ganna; Burkina, Viktoriia; Steinbach, Christoph; Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike; Zlabek, Vladimir; Kocour Kroupova, Hana; Grabic, Roman; Randak, Tomas

    2013-10-01

    UV filters belong to a group of compounds that are used by humans and are present in municipal waste-waters, effluents from sewage treatment plants and surface waters. Current information regarding UV filters and their effects on fish is limited. In this study, the occurrence of three commonly used UV filters - 2-phenylbenzimidazole-5-sulfonic acid (PBSA), 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (benzophenone-3, BP-3) and 5-benzoyl-4-hydroxy-2-methoxy-benzenesulfonic acid (benzophenone-4, BP-4) - in South Bohemia (Czech Republic) surface waters is presented. PBSA concentrations (up to 13μgL(-1)) were significantly greater than BP-3 or BP-4 concentrations (up to 620 and 390ngL(-1), respectively). On the basis of these results, PBSA was selected for use in a toxicity test utilizing the common model organism rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were exposed to three concentrations of PBSA (1, 10 and 1000µgL(-1)) for 21 and 42 days. The PBSA concentrations in the fish plasma, liver and kidneys were elevated after 21 and 42 days of exposure. PBSA increased activity of certain P450 cytochromes. Exposure to PBSA also changed various biochemical parameters and enzyme activities in the fish plasma. However, no pathological changes were obvious in the liver or gonads.

  6. Shunt Active Filter in Damping Harmonics Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BERBAOUI, B.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a hybrid shunt active power filter applied on 500 kV HVDC, after a description of the causes and effects harmonic pollution which may damage equipments and interrupt electric power customers service; in this paper we present the deferent solutions of this problem among one has to study the two most recent types of filtering: passive and hybrid filter. The hybrid filter consists of active filter connected in shunt with passive filter. The hybrid shunt active filter proposed is based on three levels PWM inverter and characterized by detecting the harmonic current flowing into the passive filter and controlled by notch algorithm. This structure has been applied on a test HVDC power system, is presented as a technical solution makes it possible to eliminate the disadvantages from passive filtering, and also economic price of active filtering part. The simulation results justified the effectiveness of this type of filter face of the classic passive filter.

  7. Smart structures for application in ceramic barrier filter technology. Final report, August 1991--August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, S.J.; Lippert, T.E

    1994-12-01

    High temperature optical fiber sensors were developed to measure the in-service stressing that occurs in ceramic barrier filter systems. The optical fiber sensors were based on improvements to the sensor design developed under the DOE/METC Smart Structures for Fossil Energy Applications contract no. DE-AC21-89MC25159. In-house application testing of these sensors on both candle and cross-flow filters were performed in the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center High-Temperature, High-Pressure Filter Test Facility and the results analyzed. This report summarizes the sensor developments, methods to apply the sensors to the filters for in-situ testing, and the test results from the four in-house tests that were performed.

  8. Long-Term Carbon Injection Field Test for 90% Mercury Removal for a PRB Unit a Spray Dryer and Fabric Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjostrom, Sharon; Amrhein, Jerry

    2009-04-30

    The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon (PAC) into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. The purpose of this test program was to evaluate the long-term mercury removal capability, long-term mercury emissions variability, and operating and maintenance (O&M) costs associated with sorbent injection on a configuration being considered for many new plants. Testing was conducted by ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA) at Rocky Mountain Power’s (RMP) Hardin Station through funding provided by DOE/NETL, RMP, and other industry partners. The Hardin Station is a new plant rated at 121 MW gross that was first brought online in April of 2006. Hardin fires a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and is configured with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOx control, a spray dryer absorber (SDA) for SO2 control, and a fabric filter (FF) for particulate control. Based upon previous testing at PRB sites with SCRs, very little additional mercury oxidation from the SCR was expected at Hardin. In addition, based upon results from DOE/NETL Phase II Round I testing at Holcomb Station and results from similarly configured sites, low native mercury removal was expected across the SDA and FF. The main goal of this project was met—sorbent injection was used to economically and effectively achieve 90% mercury control as measured from the air heater (AH) outlet to the stack for a period of ten months. This goal was achieved with DARCO® Hg-LH, Calgon FLUEPAC®-MC PLUS and ADA Power PAC PREMIUM brominated activated carbons at nominal loadings of 1.5–2.5 lb/MMacf. An economic analysis determined the twenty-year levelized cost to be 0.87 mills/kW-hr, or $15,000/lb Hg removed. No detrimental effects on other equipment or plant operations were observed. The

  9. Status of DOE and AID stand-alone photovoltaic system field tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifano, W. J.; Delombard, R.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Scudder, L. R.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is managing stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system projects sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The DOE project includes village PV power demonstration projects in Gabon (four sites) and the Marshall Islands, and PV-powered vaccine refrigerator systems in six countries. The AID project includes a large village power system, a farmhouse system and two water pumping-irrigation systems in Tunisia, a water pumping/grain grinding system in Upper Volta, five medical clinic systems in four countries, PV-powered vaccine refrigerator systems in 18 countries and a PV-powered remote earth station in Indonesia. This paper reviews these PV projects and summarizes significant findings to date.

  10. The effect of operating conditions on resistance parameters of filter media and limestone dust cake for uniformly loaded needle felts in a pilot scale test facility at ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Mahmood; Krammer, Gernot; Tahir, M Suleman

    2012-09-01

    Resistance parameters are essential for the prediction of pressure drop in bag filters. The reported values for limestone dust differ in magnitude and also depend on operating parameters. In this work, experimental data is provided from a pilot scale pulse-jet regenerated bag filter test facility for three types of needle felts using air and limestone dust at ambient conditions. Results reveal that specific resistance of filter media is independent of velocity while the specific resistance of filter cake increases linearly with filtration velocity. Residual pressure drop is almost constant, independent of upper pressure drop limit. The cake resistance at constant velocity fits to a second degree polynomial whereas it increases linearly with the velocity. A linear relation is reported here for all the cases. The resistance of filter cake decreases at higher upper pressure drop limit.

  11. Use of predefined biochemical admission profiles does not reduce the number of tests or total cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Haidl, Felix; Folkestad, Lars

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate whether the use of predefined biochemical profiles as an alternative to individually ordered blood tests by the treating physicians resulted in fewer tests or a lower total cost.......The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate whether the use of predefined biochemical profiles as an alternative to individually ordered blood tests by the treating physicians resulted in fewer tests or a lower total cost....

  12. Reprocessing of dental instruments in washer-disinfectors: does a representative test soil exist in dentistry?

    OpenAIRE

    Franz, A.; Bristela, M.; Stauffer, F

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reprocessing of medical devices, being classified as semi-critical B is recommended to be performed in a washer-disinfector. In order to estimate, whether the expected contaminants of the various medical disciplines can be effectively removed by this washer-disinfector, different so called "test soils" have been proposed to be tested as a marker of cleaning efficacy of the disinfector. Todays described test soils are optimised for the testing of contaminations occurring in surgic...

  13. Large scale genomic testing within herd does not affect contribution margin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortø, Line; Ettema, Jehan; Sørensen, Anders Christian

    2013-01-01

    A Danish study from 2012 shows that genomic test of all or part of the females in a Holstein herd gives roughly the same economic result as not performing any genomic test at all......A Danish study from 2012 shows that genomic test of all or part of the females in a Holstein herd gives roughly the same economic result as not performing any genomic test at all...

  14. Food Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1995-01-01

    A typical food-processing plant produces about 500,000 gallons of waste water daily. Laden with organic compounds, this water usually is evaporated or discharged into sewers.A better solution is to filter the water through

  15. Testing After Worked Example Study Does Not Enhance Delayed Problem-Solving Performance Compared to Restudy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gog, Tamara; Kester, Liesbeth; Dirkx, Kim; Hoogerheide, Vincent; Boerboom, Joris; Verkoeijen, Peter P. J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Four experiments investigated whether the testing effect also applies to the acquisition of problem-solving skills from worked examples. Experiment 1 (n=120) showed no beneficial effects of testing consisting of isomorphic problem solving or example recall on final test performance, which consisted

  16. Testing after Worked Example Study Does Not Enhance Delayed Problem-Solving Performance Compared to Restudy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gog, Tamara; Kester, Liesbeth; Dirkx, Kim; Hoogerheide, Vincent; Boerboom, Joris; Verkoeijen, Peter P. J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Four experiments investigated whether the testing effect also applies to the acquisition of problem-solving skills from worked examples. Experiment 1 (n?=?120) showed no beneficial effects of testing consisting of "isomorphic" problem solving or "example recall" on final test performance, which consisted of isomorphic problem…

  17. Cryogenic coaxial microwave filters

    CERN Document Server

    Tancredi, G; Meeson, P J

    2014-01-01

    At millikelvin temperatures the careful filtering of electromagnetic radiation, especially in the microwave regime, is critical for controlling the electromagnetic environment for experiments in fields such as solid-state quantum information processing and quantum metrology. We present a design for a filter consisting of small diameter dissipative coaxial cables that is straightforward to construct and provides a quantitatively predictable attenuation spectrum. We describe the fabrication process and demonstrate that the performance of the filters is in good agreement with theoretical modelling. We further perform an indicative test of the performance of the filters by making current-voltage measurements of small, underdamped Josephson Junctions at 15 mK and we present the results.

  18. Computer versus paper--does it make any difference in test performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karay, Yassin; Schauber, Stefan K; Stosch, Christoph; Schüttpelz-Brauns, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    CONSTRUCT: In this study, we examine the differences in test performance between the paper-based and the computer-based version of the Berlin formative Progress Test. In this context it is the first study that allows controlling for students' prior performance. Computer-based tests make possible a more efficient examination procedure for test administration and review. Although university staff will benefit largely from computer-based tests, the question arises if computer-based tests influence students' test performance. A total of 266 German students from the 9th and 10th semester of medicine (comparable with the 4th-year North American medical school schedule) participated in the study (paper = 132, computer = 134). The allocation of the test format was conducted as a randomized matched-pair design in which students were first sorted according to their prior test results. The organizational procedure, the examination conditions, the room, and seating arrangements, as well as the order of questions and answers, were identical in both groups. The sociodemographic variables and pretest scores of both groups were comparable. The test results from the paper and computer versions did not differ. The groups remained within the allotted time, but students using the computer version (particularly the high performers) needed significantly less time to complete the test. In addition, we found significant differences in guessing behavior. Low performers using the computer version guess significantly more than low-performing students in the paper-pencil version. Participants in computer-based tests are not at a disadvantage in terms of their test results. The computer-based test required less processing time. The reason for the longer processing time when using the paper-pencil version might be due to the time needed to write the answer down, controlling for transferring the answer correctly. It is still not known why students using the computer version (particularly low

  19. Bronchial provocation testing does not detect exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsted, Emil Schwarz; Hull, James H; Sverrild, Asger;

    2016-01-01

    and possible asthma referred over 6 months. All subjects received comprehensive assessment including a detailed clinical evaluation; pulmonary function testing, indirect and direct bronchial provocation testing, and CLE testing. Results Out of 37 subjects, moderate or severe EILO was diagnosed in 8 subjects......Introduction Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO) is a key differential diagnosis for asthma in the presence of exertional respiratory symptoms. Continuous laryngoscopy during exercise (CLE), the current gold standard diagnostic test for EILO, has practical limitations. We aimed...... to establish if inspiratory flow data obtained during standard bronchoprovocation testing, to establish the presence of extra-thoracic hyper-responsiveness, may prove diagnostic for EILO and thus preclude requirement for CLE testing. Methods We consecutively evaluated 37 adult subjects with exertional dyspnoea...

  20. Does Math-Fact Retrieval Explain Sex Differences in Mathematical Test Performance? A Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigfield; Byrnes

    1999-07-01

    We focus on four issues in commenting on Royer et al.'s work testing their hypothesis that sex differences in test performance can be explained by differences in math-fact retrieval latency. The first issue is whether the studies conducted by Royer et al. directly test their hypothesis; we argue that they do not. The second issue involves questions about the strength of the gender differences in math-fact retrieval. The third is whether math-fact retrieval should be considered the major mechanism in explaining the differences in test performance. In considering this third issue we discuss other theories regarding the nature of math problem solving that are useful for understanding test performance differences between males and females. The fourth issue is what particular experiential differences boys and girls have in math classrooms could contribute to the sex differences in test performance. We also consider sex differences in math attitudes and motivation. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  1. Does the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB) Distinguish Between Cognitive Domains in Healthy Older Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenehan, Megan E; Summers, Mathew J; Saunders, Nichole L; Summers, Jeffery J; Vickers, James C

    2016-04-01

    The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) is a semiautomated computer interface for assessing cognitive function. We examined whether CANTAB tests measured specific cognitive functions, using established neuropsychological tests as a reference point. A sample of 500 healthy older (M = 60.28 years, SD = 6.75) participants in the Tasmanian Healthy Brain Project completed battery of CANTAB subtests and standard paper-based neuropsychological tests. Confirmatory factor analysis identified four factors: processing speed, verbal ability, episodic memory, and working memory. However, CANTAB tests did not consistently load onto the cognitive domain factors derived from traditional measures of the same function. These results indicate that five of the six CANTAB subtests examined did not load onto single cognitive functions. These CANTAB tests may lack the sensitivity to measure discrete cognitive functions in healthy populations or may measure other cognitive domains not included in the traditional neuropsychological battery.

  2. Does the Position of Response Options in Multiple-Choice Tests Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohensinn, Christine; Baghaei, Purya

    2017-01-01

    In large scale multiple-choice (MC) tests alternate forms of a test may be developed to prevent cheating by changing the order of items or by changing the position of the response options. The assumption is that since the content of the test forms are the same the order of items or the positions of the response options do not have any effect on…

  3. Does testing with feedback improve adult spelling skills relative to copying and reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Steven C; Rubin, Benjamin R; Rickard, Timothy C

    2015-12-01

    We examined testing's ability to enhance adult spelling acquisition, relative to copying and reading. Across 3 experiments in which testing with feedback was compared with copying, the spelling improvement after testing matched that following the same amount of time spent copying. A potent testing advantage, however, was observed for spelling words free-recalled. In the fourth experiment, a large testing advantage for both word free recall and spelling was observed, versus reading. Subjects also generally preferred testing and rated it as more effective than copying or reading. The equivalent performance of testing and copying for spelling contrasts with prior work involving children and suggests that retrieval practice may not be the only effective mechanism for spelling skill acquisition. Rather, we suggest that the critical learning event for spelling is focused study on phoneme-to-grapheme mappings for previously unlearned letter sequences. For adults with extensive spelling expertise, focused study is more automatic during both copying and testing with feedback than for individuals with beginning spelling skills. Reading, however, would not be expected to produce efficient focused study of phoneme-to-grapheme mappings, regardless of expertise level. Overall, adult spelling skill acquisition benefits both from testing and copying, and substantially less from reading. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Electromagnetic Energy Calibration of the TILECAL Modules with the Flat Filter Method (July 2002 Test Beam Data)

    CERN Document Server

    Kulchitskii, Yu A; Khubua, J I; Rusakovitch, N A; Tsiareshka, P V; Vinogradov, V B

    2005-01-01

    The constructed ATLAS detector at the LHC will have the great physics discovery potential, in particular in the detection of a heavy Higgs boson. Calorimeters will play a crucial role in it. The important question of calorimetry is the calibration in the electromagnetic energy scale. With the aim of establishing of this scale and understanding of performance of the ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter to electrons 12\\% of modules have been exposed in electron beams with various energies by three possible ways: cell-scan at $\\theta =20^o$ at the centers of the front face cells, $\\eta$-scan and tilerow scan at $\\theta = 90^o$ for the module side cells. Our work is devoted to the determination of the electromagnetic energy calibration constants of the EBM$-$ (ANL-44), EBM$+$ (IFA-42), BM (JINR-55) TILECAL modules at energies E = 10, 20, 50, 100 and 180 GeV and $\\theta = 20^o$ and $90^o$ and $\\eta$ scans on the basis of the July 2002 testbeam run data using the flat filter method of the PMT signal reconstruction. The ...

  5. The consistency test does not - and cannot - deliver what is advertised : A comment on Francis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morey, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    The statistical consistency test of Ioannidis and Trikalinos (2007) has been used recently by Francis (2012a,c,d,e,2013,in press), to argue that specific sets of experiments show evidence of publication bias. I argue that the test is unnecessary because publication bias exists almost everywhere as p

  6. When does anxiety help or hinder cognitive test performance? The role of working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Matthew; Stevenson, Jim; Hadwin, Julie A; Norgate, Roger

    2014-02-01

    Cognitive interference theories (e.g. attentional control theory, processing efficiency theory) suggest that high levels of trait anxiety predict adverse effects on the performance of cognitive tasks, particularly those that make high demands on cognitive resources. We tested an interaction hypothesis to determine whether a combination of high anxiety and low working memory capacity (WMC) would predict variance in demanding cognitive test scores. Ninety six adolescents (12- to 14-years-old) participated in the study, which measured self-report levels of trait anxiety, working memory, and cognitive test performance. As hypothesized, we found that the anxiety-WMC interaction explained a significant amount of variance in cognitive test performance (ΔR(2) .07, p anxiety was unrelated to cognitive test performance for those adolescents with average WMC scores (β = .13, p > .10). In contrast, trait anxiety was negatively related to test performance in adolescents with low WMC (β = -.35, p test performance in those with high WMC (β = .49, p anxiety and cognitive test performance and may be a determinant factor in explaining some discrepancies found in the literature. Further research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms involved.

  7. How much does language proficiency by non-native listeners influence speech audiometric tests in noise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warzybok, Anna; Brand, Thomas; Wagener, Kirsten C; Kollmeier, Birger

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigates the extent to which the linguistic complexity of three commonly employed speech recognition tests and second language proficiency influence speech recognition thresholds (SRTs) in noise in non-native listeners. SRTs were measured for non-natives and natives using three German speech recognition tests: the digit triplet test (DTT), the Oldenburg sentence test (OLSA), and the Göttingen sentence test (GÖSA). Sixty-four non-native and eight native listeners participated. Non-natives can show native-like SRTs in noise only for the linguistically easy speech material (DTT). Furthermore, the limitation of phonemic-acoustical cues in digit triplets affects speech recognition to the same extent in non-natives and natives. For more complex and less familiar speech materials, non-natives, ranging from basic to advanced proficiency in German, require on average 3-dB better signal-to-noise ratio for the OLSA and 6-dB for the GÖSA to obtain 50% speech recognition compared to native listeners. In clinical audiology, SRT measurements with a closed-set speech test (i.e. DTT for screening or OLSA test for clinical purposes) should be used with non-native listeners rather than open-set speech tests (such as the GÖSA or HINT), especially if a closed-set version in the patient's own native language is available.

  8. Rabies direct fluorescent antibody test does not inactivate rabies or eastern equine encephalitis viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Jodie A; Franke, Mary A; Davis, April D

    2016-08-01

    An examination using the routine rabies direct fluorescent antibody test was performed on rabies or Eastern equine encephalitis positive mammalian brain tissue to assess inactivation of the virus. Neither virus was inactivated with acetone fixation nor the routine test, thus laboratory employees should treat all samples as rabies and when appropriate Eastern equine encephalitis positive throughout the whole procedure.

  9. Does high-stakes testing increase cultural capital among low-income and racial minority students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Pyo Hong

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This article draws on research from Texas and Chicago to examine whether high-stakes testing enables low-income and racial minority students to acquire cultural capital. While students' performance on state or district tests rose after the implementation of high-stakes testing and accountability policies in Texas and Chicago in the 1990s, several studies indicate that these policies seemed to have had deleterious effects on curriculum, instruction, the percentage of students excluded from the tests, and student dropout rates. As a result, the policies seemed to have had mixed effects on students' opportunities to acquire embodied and institutionalized cultural capital. These findings are consistent with the work of Shepard (2000, Darling-Hammond (2004a, and others who have written of the likely negative repercussions of high-stakes testing and accountability policies.

  10. Does a dynamic test of phonological awareness predict early reading difficulties?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gellert, Anna Steenberg; Elbro, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    A few studies have indicated that dynamic measures of phonological awareness may contribute uniquely to the prediction of early reading development. However, standard control measures have been few and limited by floor effects, thus limiting their predictive value. The purpose of the present study...... was to examine the predictive value of a dynamic test of phonological awareness while controlling for both letter knowledge and standard phonological awareness using measures with no floor effect. We administered a dynamic test of phonological awareness along with traditional tests of phonological awareness...... and letter knowledge to 160 children in the fall of kindergarten. Reading outcomes were studied at three test points: at the end of kindergarten, in the first half of Grade 1, and at the end of Grade 1. The results indicated that the dynamic test of phonological awareness contributed significantly...

  11. Auditory presentation at test does not diminish the production effect in recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrin, Noah D; MacLeod, Colin M

    2016-06-01

    Three experiments investigated whether auditory information at test would undermine the relational distinctiveness of vocal production at study, diminishing the production effect. In Experiment 1, with visual presentation during study, the production effect was equivalently large regardless of whether participants read each test word out loud prior to making their recognition decision. In Experiment 2, incorporating auditory presentation during study, the production effect was unaltered by whether recognition test words were presented visually or auditorily. In Experiment 3, the authors manipulated whether presentation was visual or auditory both at study and at test. Once again, presentation modality at test did not affect the size of the production effect, although the effect was significantly smaller when words were presented auditorily at study. These experiments demonstrate that production at the time of study stands out as distinct above and beyond auditory information. Moreover, this distinct aloud information need not "stand out" against a background of silent unstudied words on a recognition test. Consistent with the distinctiveness account, encoding via production enhances later recognition consistently, regardless of study or test modality. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. ANKLE TAPING DOES NOT IMPAIR PERFORMANCE IN JUMP OR BALANCE TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Abián-Vicén

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the influence of prophylactic ankle taping on two balance tests (static and dynamic balance and one jump test, in the push off and the landing phase. Fifteen active young subjects (age: 21.0 ± 4.4 years without previous ankle injuries volunteered for the study. Each participant performed three tests in two different situations: with taping and without taping. The tests were a counter movement jump, static balance, and a dynamic posturography test. The tests and conditions were randomly performed. The path of the center of pressures was measured in the balance tests, and the vertical ground reaction forces were recorded during the push-off and landing phases of the counter movement jump. Ankle taping had no influence on balance performance or in the push off phase of the jump. However, the second peak vertical force value during the landing phase of the jump was 12% greater with ankle taping (0.66 BW, 95% CI -0.64 to 1.96. The use of prophylactic ankle taping had no influence on the balance or jump performance of healthy young subjects. In contrast, the taped ankle increased the second peak vertical force value, which could be related to a greater risk of injury produced by the accumulation of repeated impacts in sports where jumps are frequently performed

  13. Does a dynamic test of phonological awareness predict early reading difficulties?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gellert, Anna Steenberg; Elbro, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    and letter knowledge to 160 children in the fall of kindergarten. Reading outcomes were studied at three test points: at the end of kindergarten, in the first half of Grade 1, and at the end of Grade 1. The results indicated that the dynamic test of phonological awareness contributed significantly...... to the prediction of children’s reading development in kindergarten and the first half of Grade 1 after control for static phonological awareness and letter knowledge. However, the unique prediction value of the dynamic test of phonological awareness did not extend to the end of Grade 1....

  14. Design of compensation analog filter for transient pressure testing%瞬变压力检测中的补偿模拟滤波器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景亚来; 路立平

    2012-01-01

    为了在瞬变压力检测中提高响应速度,减少硬件的复杂性,节约成本,采用传统的网络分析与综合技术相结合方法,基于压力传感器动态特性,用激波管产生激波模拟压力瞬变情况,建立压力传感器的数学模型,进而设计出模拟滤波器.该滤波器改善了原测试系统的响应特性,缩短了响应时间,能够对瞬变压力做出瞬间判断.%In order to improve response speed and reduce hardware complexity and cost, using traditional network analysis combined with synthesis technique method, a mathematical model of pressure sensor was established based on pressure sensor dynamic characteristics appling for simulation pressure transient situation generated by shock tube. Therefore analog filters were designed. This filter can improve response characteristics of original test system, reduce response time and make transient judge for pressure changes.

  15. A Pragmatic Approach to Testing Issues in a Mobile Platform that Does Not Yet Exist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleury, Alexandre; Pedersen, Jakob Schou; Larsen, Lars Bo

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on user studies conducted in a project dealing with a converged mobile rich media platform. We address the questions of the selection of test methods and their application through an iterative process. We argue that a varying degree of simulation of test variables...... such as the environment, the service or the mobile device behavior optimizes the evaluation in terms of cost-efficiency and results quality, while providing flexibility and ease of use to the researchers conducting the evaluations....

  16. Does behavioral response to novelty influence paw withdrawal latencies in repeated Hargreaves test?

    OpenAIRE

    Tvrdeić, Ante; Kočevski, Dragana

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Only recently, we have reported that single retesting session significantly decreases rat paw withdrawal latencies (PWL) in Hargreaves tests.We wondered, whether decrease in PWL values obtained during reexposure toHargreaves testmight be associated with reaction to the new environment. Therefore, we investigated PWL together with the open field behavior in an enclosure of the Hargreaves test device during the period of 3 subsequent days. Materials and Methods: Ten...

  17. Validating a standardised test battery for synesthesia: Does the Synesthesia Battery reliably detect synesthesia?

    OpenAIRE

    Carmichael, D. A.; Down, M.P.; Shillcock, R. C.; Eagleman, D.M.; Simner, J.

    2015-01-01

    Synesthesia is a neurological condition that gives rise to unusual secondary sensations (e.g., reading letters might trigger the experience of colour). Testing the consistency of these sensations over long time intervals is the behavioural gold standard assessment for detecting synesthesia (e.g., Simner, Mulvenna et al., 2006). In 2007 however, Eagleman and colleagues presented an online 'Synesthesia Battery' of tests aimed at identifying synesthesia by assessing consistency but within a sing...

  18. Does chair type influence outcome in the timed "Up and Go" test in older persons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalula, S Z; Swingler, G H; Sayer, A A; Badri, M; Ferreira, M

    2010-04-01

    To test the effects of the use of a collapsible, portable chair (chair B), as opposed to a 'standard' chair (chair A), on the outcome of the timed "Up and Go" (TUG) test. Cross-sectional. Multipurpose senior centres. Mobile older persons (N=118, mean age 77 years (range 62-99 years)). Time to complete the timed "Up and Go" test using chair A and chair B, and inter-rater agreement in the time scores. Time taken to complete the TUG test did not differ by chair type [median (interquartile range, IQR) = 12.3 (9.53-15.9) and 12.6 (9.7-16.6)] seconds for Chair A and B respectively, p-value=0.87. In multiple regression analyses, factors that impacted on time difference in test performance for the two chairs were use of a walking aid during the test [Odds ratio (OR) = 3.7 95%CI 1.1-11.9, p=0.031], observed difficulty with mobility (OR= 27.7 95%CI 2.6-290, p=0.006), and a history of arthritis in the knees (OR= 2.9 95%CI 1.0-8.7, P=0.05). In an inter-rater agreement analysis, no significant difference was found between time scores recorded by the two raters; median (IQR) = 12.4 (10.9-15.9) and 12.3 (7.2-59.1) seconds for the occupation therapist and for the research assistant, respectively (Wilcoxon matched pairs test, p=0.124, Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.99, p test in field settings where field workers are reliant on public transport.

  19. Reprocessing of dental instruments in washer-disinfectors: does a representative test soil exist in dentistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Alexander; Bristela, Margit; Stauffer, Fritz

    2012-01-01

    Reprocessing of medical devices, being classified as semi-critical B is recommended to be performed in a washer-disinfector. In order to estimate, whether the expected contaminants of the various medical disciplines can be effectively removed by this washer-disinfector, different so called "test soils" have been proposed to be tested as a marker of cleaning efficacy of the disinfector. Todays described test soils are optimised for the testing of contaminations occurring in surgical procedures, but not for dental procedures. In this study the test soils being proposed in the EN 15883-5 (e.g. KMNE soil, recipe by Koller and coagulated sheep's blood) were compared with 8 reference substances used in the conservative-prosthetic dental practice. The success of the cleaning efficacy in the washer-disinfector was checked visually and by determining the residual protein concentration on the contaminated instruments after the cleaning procedure. It could be shown that in contrast to the proposed test soils of the EN 15883-5, the used reference substances of the dental practice could not be removed by the washer-disinfector. Removal of these reference substances was only possible after manual or ultrasonic cleaning. Since blood plays a subordinate role as a contaminant of instruments during conservative-prosthetic dental treatments, testing of the cleaning efficacy of the washer-disinfector with test soils according to the proposals of the EN 15883-5 is not representative in this discipline of dentistry. Most of the materials used in dental practice can only be removed manually or with the help of the ultrasound bath.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS: TRI-DIM FILTER CORP. PREDATOR II MODEL 8VADTP123C23

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Predator II, Model 8VADTP123C23CC000 air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by Tri-Dim Filter Corporation. The pressure drop across the filter was 138 Pa clean and...

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS, FILTRATION GROUP, AEROSTAR FP-98 MINIPLEAT V-BLANK FILTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the AeroStar FP-98 Minipleat V-Bank Filter air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by Filtration Group. The pressure drop across the filter was 137 Pa clean and 348 Pa ...

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS, FILTRATION GROUP, AEROSTAR "C-SERIES" POLYESTER PANEL FILTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the AeroStar "C-Series" Polyester Panel Filter air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by Filtration Group. The pressure drop across the filter was 126 Pa clean and 267...

  3. [Malaria serology test: what contribution does it make in an endemic country such as Ivory Coast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goran-Kouacou, Amah Patricia Victorine; Dou, Gonat Serge; Zika, Kalou Dibert; Adou, Adjoumanvoulé Honoré; Yéboah, Oppong Richard; Aka, Rita Ahou; Hien, Sansan; Siransy, Kouabla Liliane; N'Guessan, Koffi; Djibangar, Tariam Agnès; Dassé, Séry Romuald; Adoubryn, Koffi Daho

    2017-01-01

    Malaria serology test seems to have attracted very little interest in endemic countries such as Ivory Coast. However, this examination has been regularly performed in the parasitology laboratory at the Training and Research Unit of Medical Sciences in Abidjan. Our study aimed to highlight the contribution of malaria serology test in our endemic country context. We conducted a retrospective study of malaria serology test using Falciparum-Spot IF (bioMerieux) kit for the detection of IgG antiplasmodial antibodies. It included all malaria serology tests performed from January 2007 to February 2011 and whose results were available in the registry. In total, 136 patients were selected. The average age of patients was 36,3 years, ranging from 1 to 81 years, and sex ratio was 0,97. Indications for malaria serology test were varied and dominated by splenomegaly (49.3%), cytopenias (14.7%), indeterminate fever (13.2%). Almost all of the patients (98.5%) had antiplasmodial antibodies with high medium titer of 1057,35IU/ml. There was no link between age and Ab titer, which was higher in cytopenias, prolonged fevers and the splenomegaly. Malaria serology test seems to have attracted very little interest in routine clinical practice provided in our endemic area because, whatever the reason of the prescription, titers were high.

  4. Positive Skin Test or Specific IgE to Penicillin Does Not Reliably Predict Penicillin Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tannert, Line Kring; Mørtz, Charlotte G; Skov, Per Stahl

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: According to guidelines, patients are diagnosed with penicillin allergy if skin test (ST) result or specific IgE (s-IgE) to penicillin is positive. However, the true sensitivity and specificity of these tests are presently not known. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical relevance......, but deemed allergic on the basis of a recent anaphylactic reaction or delayed reactions to skin testing. Another sample of convenience of 18 patients, 17 overlapping with the 25 challenged, with initial skin testing and s-IgE (median, 25; range, 3-121), months earlier (T-1), was repeat skin tested and had s......-IgE measured (T0), and then skin tested and had s-IgE measured 4 weeks later (T1). RESULTS: Only 9 (36%) of 25 were challenge positive. There was an increased probability of being penicillin allergic if both ST result and s-IgE were positive at T0. Positive ST result or positive s-IgE alone did not predict...

  5. Does a Dynamic Test of Phonological Awareness Predict Early Reading Difficulties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellert, Anna S; Elbro, Carsten

    A few studies have indicated that dynamic measures of phonological awareness may contribute uniquely to the prediction of early reading development. However, standard control measures have been few and limited by floor effects, thus limiting their predictive value. The purpose of the present study was to examine the predictive value of a dynamic test of phonological awareness while controlling for both letter knowledge and standard phonological awareness using measures with no floor effect. We administered a dynamic test of phonological awareness along with traditional tests of phonological awareness and letter knowledge to 160 children in the fall of kindergarten. Reading outcomes were studied at three test points: at the end of kindergarten, in the first half of Grade 1, and at the end of Grade 1. The results indicated that the dynamic test of phonological awareness contributed significantly to the prediction of children's reading development in kindergarten and the first half of Grade 1 after control for static phonological awareness and letter knowledge. However, the unique prediction value of the dynamic test of phonological awareness did not extend to the end of Grade 1.

  6. Wet voice as a sign of penetration/aspiration in Parkinson's disease: does testing material matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Marília; Argolo, Natalie; Melo, Ailton; Nóbrega, Ana Caline

    2014-10-01

    Wet voice is a perceptual vocal quality that is commonly used as an indicator of penetration and/or aspiration in clinical swallowing assessments and bedside screening tests. Our aim was to describe the clinimetric characteristics of this clinical sign using various fluid materials and one solid food in the Parkinson's disease (PD) population. Consecutive PD individuals were submitted for simultaneous fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) and voice recording. Speech therapists rated the presence or absence of wetness and other voice abnormalities. Two binary endpoints of FEES were selected for comparison with an index test: low penetration (LP) and low penetration and/or aspiration (LP/ASP). The accuracy of wet voice changed according to the testing material in PD patients. Overall, the specificity of this indicator was better than its sensitivity, and the wafer cookie and yogurt drink yielded the best indices. Our data show that wet voice is clearly indicative of LP or LP/ASP in PD patients in case of positive test. However, in the case of a negative result, the wet voice test should be repeated or combined with other clinical tests to include or exclude the risk of LP or LP/ASP.

  7. Development and demonstration of a new filter system to control emissions during jet engine testing. Final report, February 1990-September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, B.W.; Van Stone, D.A.; Nelson, S.G.

    1992-10-15

    Measurable quantities of NOx, CO and small particulates are produced and are emitted into the atmosphere during the testing of aircraft engines in jet engine test cells (JETCs). These emissions have been and are a concern to the Air Force and to others who test aircraft engines. The large quantities of exhaust gases that are generated, the wide range of testing conditions that are normally employed, and the sensitivity of engines to back pressures make control difficult and the use of conventional control technologies impractical. A need exists for a simple, low-cost method to control the emissions. In a Phase I SBIR project, Sorbent Technologies Corporation (Sorbtech) explored the ability of vermiculite to reduce or capture contaminants in exhaust gas streams. During the Phase II SBIR project described in this report, Sorbtech investigated how vermiculite might be employed in a commercial system to control emissions from JETCs and how chemical additions to vermiculite might enhance its NOx-removal abilities. The objectives of the Phase II project were to develop and to demonstrate a suitable filter design involving vermiculite that will control NOx, CO, and small-particulate emissions during jet-engine testing.... Turbine engine, Particle emissions, Air pollution. NOx Emissions, Aircraft exhaust.

  8. Does sunspot numbers cause global temperatures? A reconsideration using non-parametric causality tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Hossein; Huang, Xu; Gupta, Rangan; Ghodsi, Mansi

    2016-10-01

    In a recent paper, Gupta et al., (2015), analyzed whether sunspot numbers cause global temperatures based on monthly data covering the period 1880:1-2013:9. The authors find that standard time domain Granger causality test fails to reject the null hypothesis that sunspot numbers do not cause global temperatures for both full and sub-samples, namely 1880:1-1936:2, ​1936:3-1986:11 and 1986:12-2013:9 (identified based on tests of structural breaks). However, frequency domain causality test detects predictability for the full-sample at short (2-2.6 months) cycle lengths, but not the sub-samples. But since, full-sample causality cannot be relied upon due to structural breaks, Gupta et al., (2015) conclude that the evidence of causality running from sunspot numbers to global temperatures is weak and inconclusive. Given the importance of the issue of global warming, our current paper aims to revisit this issue of whether sunspot numbers cause global temperatures, using the same data set and sub-samples used by Gupta et al., (2015), based on an nonparametric Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA)-based causality test. Based on this test, we however, show that sunspot numbers have predictive ability for global temperatures for the three sub-samples, over and above the full-sample. Thus, generally speaking, our non-parametric SSA-based causality test outperformed both time domain and frequency domain causality tests and highlighted that sunspot numbers have always been important in predicting global temperatures.

  9. Clavulanic acid does not affect convulsions in acute seizure tests in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasior, Maciej; Socała, Katarzyna; Nieoczym, Dorota; Wlaź, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Clavulanic acid (CLAV) inhibits bacterial β-lactamases and is commonly used to aid antibiotic therapy. Prompted by the initial evidence suggestive of the potential anticonvulsant and neuroprotective properties of CLAV, the present study was undertaken to systematically evaluate its acute effects on seizure thresholds in seizure tests typically used in primary screening of potential antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In the present study, 6-Hz seizure threshold, maximal electroshock seizure threshold (MEST) test, and intravenous pentylenetetrazole (i.v. PTZ) seizure tests were used to determine anticonvulsant effects of intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered CLAV in mice. Acute effects on motor coordination and muscle strength were assessed in the chimney and grip-strength tests, respectively. Doses of CLAV studied in the present study were either comparable or extended the doses reported in the literature to be effective against kainic acid-induced convulsions in mice or behaviorally active in rodents and monkeys. CLAV had no effect on seizure thresholds in the 6-Hz (64 ng/kg to 1 mg/kg) and MEST (64 ng/kg to 5 mg/kg) seizure tests. Similarly, CLAV had no effect on seizure thresholds for i.v. PTZ-induced myoclonic twitch, clonic convulsions, and tonic convulsions (64 ng/kg to 5 mg/kg). Finally, CLAV (64 ng/kg to 5 mg/kg) had no effect on the motor performance and muscle strength in the chimney and grip-strength tests, respectively. In summary, CLAV failed to affect seizure thresholds in three seizure tests in mice. Although the results of the present study do not support further development of CLAV as an AED, its beneficial effects in chronic epilepsy models warrant further evaluation owing to its, for example, potential neuroprotective properties.

  10. High-Stakes Testing and Student Achievement: Does Accountability Pressure Increase Student Learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L. Nichols

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between high-stakes testing pressure and student achievement across 25 states. Standardized portfolios were created for each study state. Each portfolio contained a range of documents that told the “story” of accountability implementation and impact in that state. Using the “law of comparative judgments,” over 300 graduate-level education students reviewed one pair of portfolios and made independent evaluations as to which of the two states’ portfolios reflected a greater degree of accountability pressure. Participants’ judgments yielded a matrix that was converted into a single rating system that arranged all 25 states on a continuum of accountability “pressure” from high to low. Using this accountability pressure rating we conducted a series of regression and correlation analyses. We found no relationship between earlier pressure and later cohort achievement for math at the fourth- and eighth-grade levels on the National Assessment of Educational Progress tests. Further, no relationship was found between testing pressure and reading achievement on the National Assessment of Education Progress tests at any grade level or for any ethnic student subgroup. Data do suggest, however, that a case could be made for a causal relationship between high-stakes testing pressure and subsequent achievement on the national assessment tests—but only for fourth grade, non-cohort achievement and for some ethnic subgroups. Implications and directions for future studies are discussed.

  11. Does the cognitive reflection test measure cognitive reflection? A mathematical modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campitelli, Guillermo; Gerrans, Paul

    2014-04-01

    We used a mathematical modeling approach, based on a sample of 2,019 participants, to better understand what the cognitive reflection test (CRT; Frederick In Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19, 25-42, 2005) measures. This test, which is typically completed in less than 10 min, contains three problems and aims to measure the ability or disposition to resist reporting the response that first comes to mind. However, since the test contains three mathematically based problems, it is possible that the test only measures mathematical abilities, and not cognitive reflection. We found that the models that included an inhibition parameter (i.e., the probability of inhibiting an intuitive response), as well as a mathematical parameter (i.e., the probability of using an adequate mathematical procedure), fitted the data better than a model that only included a mathematical parameter. We also found that the inhibition parameter in males is best explained by both rational thinking ability and the disposition toward actively open-minded thinking, whereas in females this parameter was better explained by rational thinking only. With these findings, this study contributes to the understanding of the processes involved in solving the CRT, and will be particularly useful for researchers who are considering using this test in their research.

  12. A critical examination of the USMLE II: does a study month improve test performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton; Henderson; Schwartz; Wyte

    2000-10-01

    Students often are encouraged to elect a study month prior to taking the USMLE II. OBJECTIVE: To determine if a study month prior to the September USMLE II improves student test performance. METHODS: Student clerkship sequence was prospectively recorded for each senior at a large midwestern medical school during the 1998-99 academic year, and USMLE I and II scores were obtained. USMLE II scores were compared between students who elected a study month prior to the September testing date versus those who elected clerkships, while controlling for USMLE I test scores using multiple linear regression. RESULTS: Complete data were obtained for 167 senior year medical students. 124 (74.3%) students took the September USMLE II after electing a study month, and 43 (25.7%) students took the September USMLE II after electing clerkships. The mean score for those who elected a study month before the USMLE II test was higher than those electing clerkships (210.56 +/- 17.12 vs 208.65 +/- 20.83). However, after controlling for USMLE I scores (r(2) = 0.53; p USMLE II was not associated with an increase in student performance (r(2) USMLE II test performance, and suggest that rotations may be equally beneficial.

  13. Pregnancy screening of adolescents and women before radiologic testing: does radiology need a national guideline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Kimberly

    2007-08-01

    Ionizing radiation has known teratogenic and cancer risks to fetuses. Policies for radiation exposure of pregnant patients during imaging tests in radiology departments vary widely and may or may not be in fully written form. No national guideline exists for how individual radiologists or radiology departments should protect fetuses from ionizing radiation exposure. With the rapid increase in the use of radiologic testing in general, particularly computed tomography, more adolescents and women undergo computed tomographic imaging and may unintentionally expose their fetuses. A national discussion within radiology organizations is needed to understand the advantages and disadvantages in the development of a national guideline for screening women of childbearing age for pregnancy before any procedures using ionizing radiation are performed. Given the increased public concern and increased use of radiologic testing, such a national guideline would improve consumer satisfaction and safety.

  14. AQUA-SHEAR Mixer test project: DOE Invention No. 522. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The AQUA-SHEAR Mixer is an instantaneous in-line continuous static mixer, with application for addition and mixing of solid powders, slurries, liquids, or gases to a flowing liquid. The liquid feed is divided into two equal streams directed through nozzles in end caps of the mixing chamber; the opposing liquid streams collide in the center of the mixing chamber, creating an intensely turbulent zone. Additives are introduced through a port above this zone, resulting in dispersion and mixing with the liquid feed. Mixing tests were conducted and results reported; proposed future tests and possible commercial applications are discussed. Figs, table.

  15. Immobility in the forced swim test is adaptive and does not reflect depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molendijk, Marc L; de Kloet, E Ronald

    2015-12-01

    The forced swim test is based on the progressive immobility a rodent displays when immersed in a beaker filled with water from where no escape is possible. While the test was originally designed to identify the antidepressant potential of drugs, over the past decade a rapidly growing number of publications (more than 2000) portray this immobility response anthropomorphically as a measure for depression and despair. This is incorrect. The response to the forced swim stressor should be considered for what it shows: a switch from active to passive behavior in the face of an acute stressor, aligned to cognitive functions underlying behavioral adaptation and survival.

  16. Auditory filters at low-frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orellana, Carlos Andrés Jurado; Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Møller, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    -ear transfer function), the asymmetry of the auditory filter changed from steeper high-frequency slopes at 1000 Hz to steeper low-frequency slopes below 100 Hz. Increasing steepness at low-frequencies of the middle-ear high-pass filter is thought to cause this effect. The dynamic range of the auditory filter...... was found to steadily decrease with decreasing center frequency. Although the observed decrease in filter bandwidth with decreasing center frequency was only approximately monotonic, the preliminary data indicates the filter bandwidth does not stabilize around 100 Hz, e.g. it still decreases below...

  17. Does Teacher Testing Raise Teacher Quality? Evidence from State Certification Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrist, Joshua D.; Guryan, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    The education reform movement includes efforts to raise teacher quality through stricter certification and licensing provisions. Most US states now require public school teachers to pass a standardized test such as the Praxis. Although any barrier to entry is likely to raise wages in the affected occupation, the theoretical effects of such…

  18. Does Drug Testing Deter Drug Court Participants from Using Drugs or Alcohol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinpeter, Christine B.; Brocato, Jo; Koob, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates 3 drug-testing strategies implemented in 5 different jurisdictions with drug courts in Orange County, California. The purpose of the study was to determine whether the sweat patch acts as a deterrent and under what conditions it can be used to improve outcomes. Results indicated that although the use of the sweat patch did not…

  19. Does functional trait diversity predict aboveground biomass and productivity of tropical forests? Testing three alternative hypotheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finegan, B.; Pena Claros, M.; Silva de Oliveira, A.; Ascarrunz, N.; Bret-Harte, M.S.; Carreño Rocabado, I.G.; Casanoves, F.; Diaz, S.; Eguiguren Velepucha, P.; Fernandez, F.; Licona, J.C.; Lorenzo, L.; Salgado Negret, B.; Vaz, M.; Poorter, L.

    2014-01-01

    1. Tropical forests are globally important, but it is not clear whether biodiversity enhances carbon storage and sequestration in them. We tested this relationship focusing on components of functional trait biodiversity as predictors. 2. Data are presented for three rain forests in Bolivia, Brazil a

  20. Does functional trait diversity predict aboveground biomass and productivity of tropical forests? Testing three alternative hypotheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finegan, B.; Peña Claros, M.; Oliviera, de A.; Alarcón, A.; Ascarrunz, N.; Bret-Harte, M.S.; Carreño-Rocabado, G.; Casanoves, F.; Díaz, S.; Eguiguren Velepucha, P.; Fernandez, F.; Licona, J.C.; Lorenzo, L.; Salgado Negret, B.; Vaz, M.; Poorter, L.

    2015-01-01

    Tropical forests are globally important, but it is not clear whether biodiversity enhances carbon storage and sequestration in them. We tested this relationship focusing on components of functional trait biodiversity as predictors. Data are presented for three rain forests in Bolivia, Brazil and Cos

  1. Validating a standardised test battery for synesthesia: Does the Synesthesia Battery reliably detect synesthesia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, D A; Down, M P; Shillcock, R C; Eagleman, D M; Simner, J

    2015-05-01

    Synesthesia is a neurological condition that gives rise to unusual secondary sensations (e.g., reading letters might trigger the experience of colour). Testing the consistency of these sensations over long time intervals is the behavioural gold standard assessment for detecting synesthesia (e.g., Simner, Mulvenna et al., 2006). In 2007 however, Eagleman and colleagues presented an online 'Synesthesia Battery' of tests aimed at identifying synesthesia by assessing consistency but within a single test session. This battery has been widely used but has never been previously validated against conventional long-term retesting, and with a randomly recruited sample from the general population. We recruited 2847 participants to complete The Synesthesia Battery and found the prevalence of grapheme-colour synesthesia in the general population to be 1.2%. This prevalence was in line with previous conventional prevalence estimates based on conventional long-term testing (e.g., Simner, Mulvenna et al., 2006). This reproduction of similar prevalence rates suggests that the Synesthesia Battery is indeed a valid methodology for assessing synesthesia. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessing the "Rothstein Falsification Test": Does It Really Show Teacher Value-Added Models Are Biased?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan; Chaplin, Duncan Dunbar

    2015-01-01

    In an influential paper, Jesse Rothstein (2010) shows that standard value-added models (VAMs) suggest implausible and large future teacher effects on past student achievement. This is the basis of a falsification test that "appears" to indicate bias in typical VAM estimates of teacher contributions to student learning on standardized…

  3. Does assessment of personal exposure matter during experimental neurocognitive testing in MRI-related magnetic fields?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nierop, Lotte E; Christopher-de Vries, Y.; Slottje, Pauline; Kromhout, Hans

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine whether the use of quantitative personal exposure measurements in experimental research would result in better estimates of the associations between static and time-varying magnetic field exposure and neurocognitive test performance than when exposure categories were based sole

  4. Aspects of tests and assessment of filtering materials used for respiratory protection against bioaerosols. Part II: sweat in the environment, microorganisms in the form of a bioaerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzycka, Katarzyna; Gutarowska, Beata; Brochocka, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    The second part of the article presents the results of a study of antimicrobial activity of filter nonwovens with an addition of biocides, as a function of the presence of sweat in the environment and the method of microbe deposition on a nonwoven in the form of a liquid and a bioaerosol. At the same time, the filtration efficiency of nonwovens against microorganisms in the form of a bioaerosol was tested with the dynamic method. The results showed that the addition of sweat on the surface of a nonwoven resulted in an insignificant decrease of biological activity that still remained high. Moreover, an active nonwoven showed biostatic and biocidal activity only when microbes were deposited on the surface in the form of a solution. The nonwoven did not show any biological activity after deposition of microorganisms with the dynamical method in the form of a bioaerosol.

  5. Disk Diffusion Testing for Detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococci: Does Moxalactam Improve upon Cefoxitin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonjean, Marie; Hodille, Elisabeth; Dumitrescu, Oana; Dupieux, Céline; Nkoud Mongo, Christina; Allam, Camille; Beghin, Mathilde; Paris, Mickael; Borrel, Ophelie; Chardon, Hubert; Laurent, Fréderic; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Lina, Gerard

    2016-12-01

    Disk diffusion testing is widely used to detect methicillin resistance in staphylococci, and cefoxitin is currently considered the best marker for mecA-mediated methicillin resistance. In low-inoculum diffusion testing (colony suspension at 10(6) CFU/ml), the addition of moxalactam in combination with cefoxitin has been reported to improve on cefoxitin alone for the detection of methicillin-heteroresistant staphylococci. However, moxalactam is absent from EUCAST and CLSI guidelines, which use high-inoculum diffusion testing (colony suspension at 10(8) CFU/ml), calling into question the potential interest of including moxalactam in their recommendations. The inhibition zone diameters of cefoxitin and moxalactam, alone and in combination, were evaluated for concordance with mecA and mecC positivity in a large collection of clinical Staphylococcus isolates (611 Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus isolates and 307 coagulase-negative staphylococci other than S. lugdunensis and S. saprophyticus isolates, of which 22% and 53% were mecA-positive, respectively) and in 25 mecC-positive S. aureus isolates using high-inoculum diffusion testing. Receiver operating characteristic, sensitivity, and specificity analyses indicated that the detection of mecA- and mecC-positive and negative isolates did not improve with moxalactam, either alone or in combination with cefoxitin, compared to cefoxitin alone. These findings were similar in both the S. aureus/S. lugdunensis/S. saprophyticus group and in the coagulase-negative staphylococci group. Our results do not support the use of moxalactam as an additional marker of methicillin resistance when testing with high-inoculum disk diffusion. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. 过滤器性能测试标准现状%The Current Status of the Filter Performance Testing Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金妹; 谈萍; 李程; 皮艳霞

    2015-01-01

    总结了国内外液体和气体过滤性能测试标准现状。在液体过滤方面对一些常用标准进行了比较,并描述了一些知名企业的测试动态。在气体过滤性能方面,包括阻力、容尘量、过滤效率及脉冲清灰等性能测试标准之间的测试条件和方法的差异进行了分析,并提出了今后标准制定的发展方向。%the current situation of liquid and gas filtration performance testing standards were summarized in this paper. Com⁃mon used standards in liquid filtration were compared and the test methods of well-known companies were described. The differ⁃ence of test conditions and methods in gas filtration test standards were analyzed, including resistance, dust containing capacity, filter efficiency and pulse deashing. The development direction of standard setting in the future was proposed.

  7. Notch filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, G. B. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A notch filter for the selective attenuation of a narrow band of frequencies out of a larger band was developed. A helical resonator is connected to an input circuit and an output circuit through discrete and equal capacitors, and a resistor is connected between the input and the output circuits.

  8. Does the Defining Issues Test measure ethical judgment ability or political position?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Charles D

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the construct validity of the Defining Issues Test of ethical judgment (DIT/DIT-2). Alleging a political bias in the test, Emler and colleagues (1983, 1998, 1999, 2007), show that conservatives score higher when asked to fake as liberals, implying that they understand the reasoning associated with "higher" moral development but avoid items they see as liberally biased. DIT proponents challenge the internal validity of faking studies, advocating an explained-variance validation. This study takes a new approach: Adult participants complete the DIT-2, then evaluate the raw responses of others to discern political orientation and ethical development. Results show that individuals scoring higher on the DIT-2 rank others' ethical judgment in a way consistent with DIT-2-based rankings. Accuracy at assessing political orientation, however, is low. Results support the DIT-2's validity as a measure of ethical development, not an expression of political position.

  9. Does functional trait diversity predict aboveground biomass and productivity of tropical forests? Testing three alternative hypotheses

    OpenAIRE

    Finegan, B.; Pena Claros, M.; Silva de Oliveira, A.; ASCARRUNZ, N.; Bret-Harte, M. S.; Carreño Rocabado, I.G.; Casanoves, F; Diaz, S; Eguiguren Velepucha, P.; Fernandez, F.; Licona, J.C.; Lorenzo, L; Salgado Negret, B.; Vaz, M; L. Poorter

    2014-01-01

    1. Tropical forests are globally important, but it is not clear whether biodiversity enhances carbon storage and sequestration in them. We tested this relationship focusing on components of functional trait biodiversity as predictors. 2. Data are presented for three rain forests in Bolivia, Brazil and Costa Rica. Initial above-ground biomass and biomass increments of survivors, recruits and survivors + recruits (total) were estimated for trees ≥10 cm d.b.h. in 62 and 21 1.0-ha plots, respecti...

  10. Does knowledge make a difference? The association between knowledge about genes and attitudes toward gene tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jallinoja, P; Aro, A R

    2000-01-01

    and understand information about genetics and specific diseases when faced with a need for it. Second, steps should be taken to provide citizens with tools to perceive and discuss potential ethical and social problems, which development of gene technology, genetic testing, and screening bring along. Sites...... for these enterprises could be the biology school curriculum, genetic counseling, media, as well as health education and health communication in general....

  11. Does knowledge make a difference? The association between knowledge about genes and attitudes toward gene tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jallinoja, P; Aro, A R

    2000-01-01

    and understand information about genetics and specific diseases when faced with a need for it. Second, steps should be taken to provide citizens with tools to perceive and discuss potential ethical and social problems, which development of gene technology, genetic testing, and screening bring along. Sites...... for these enterprises could be the biology school curriculum, genetic counseling, media, as well as health education and health communication in general....

  12. Parc Perdue test well: DOW/DOE L.R. Sweezy No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J.S.; Bebout, D.G.; Bachman, A.L. (eds.)

    1981-01-01

    The Parc Perdue Project is designed to test a small (Approx. 939 acres) geopressured reservoir by producing the associated fluids to the point of complete definition of the productivity curve. The production period is estimated to not exceed nine months. The data collected should fully define the properties and life of the reservoir and provide valuable information bearing on the potential value of the geopressured geothermal resource.

  13. The forced-response test does not discriminate ears with different otitis media expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casselbrant, Margaretha L; Mandel, Ellen M; Seroky, James T; Swarts, J Douglas; Doyle, William J

    2014-11-01

    Test the hypothesis that the eustachian tube (ET) function measured using standard manometric test methods is different between groups of ears with tympanostomy tubes inserted for recurrent acute otitis media (RAOM) and for chronic otitis media with effusion (COME). A cross-sectional study of ET function in populations of young children with different otitis media expressions. The results for forced-response testing of ET function were compared using a general linear model between 37 ears of 26 children and 34 ears of 26 children, aged 3 and 4 years, with ventilation tubes inserted for COME and RAOM, respectively. There were no significant between-group differences in either the active measure of ET opening function, dilatory efficiency, or in the passive measures reflecting the magnitude of the forces that tend to hold the ET lumen closed, the opening and closing pressures, and passive trans-ET conductance. The results do not support the hypothesis that ET closing forces are less in ears with RAOM when compared to ears with COME, and from the results of earlier studies, ears without disease. Both groups were characterized by a low ET opening efficiency (referenced to ears of adults with no disease history). Because both disease expressions present the same pattern of ET dysfunction, other factors are required to explain why a subset of ears with that type of dysfunction develop RAOM, as opposed to the default expression of COME. 2b © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Does the speaker's voice quality influence children's performance on a language comprehension test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyberg-Åhlander, Viveka; Haake, Magnus; Brännström, Jonas; Schötz, Susanne; Sahlén, Birgitta

    2015-02-01

    A small number of studies have explored children's perception of speakers' voice quality and its possible influence on language comprehension. The aim of this explorative study was to investigate the relationship between the examiner's voice quality, the child's performance on a digital version of a language comprehension test, the Test for Reception of Grammar (TROG-2), and two measures of cognitive functioning. The participants were (n = 86) mainstreamed 8-year old children with typical language development. Two groups of children (n = 41/45) were presented with the TROG-2 through recordings of one female speaker: one group was presented with a typical voice and the other with a simulated dysphonic voice. Significant associations were found between executive functioning and language comprehension. The results also showed that children listening to the dysphonic voice achieved significantly lower scores for more difficult sentences ("the man but not the horse jumps") and used more self-corrections on simpler sentences ("the girl is sitting"). Findings suggest that a dysphonic speaker's voice may force the child to allocate capacity to the processing of the voice signal at the expense of comprehension. The findings have implications for clinical and research settings where standardized language tests are used.

  15. Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Vehicle Fuel Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman, Kevin M [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

    2009-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) jointly maintain a fuel economy website (www.fueleconomy.gov), which helps fulfill their responsibility under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to provide accurate fuel economy information [in miles per gallon (mpg)] to consumers. The site provides information on EPA fuel economy ratings for passenger cars and light trucks from 1985 to the present and other relevant information related to energy use such as alternative fuels and driving and vehicle maintenance tips. In recent years, fluctuations in the price of crude oil and corresponding fluctuations in the price of gasoline and diesel fuels have renewed interest in vehicle fuel economy in the United States. (User sessions on the fuel economy website exceeded 20 million in 2008 compared to less than 5 million in 2004 and less than 1 million in 2001.) As a result of this renewed interest and the age of some of the references cited in the tips section of the website, DOE authorized the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center (FEERC) to initiate studies to validate and improve these tips. This report documents a study aimed specifically at the effect of engine air filter condition on fuel economy. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of a clogged air filter on the fuel economy of vehicles operating over prescribed test cycles. Three newer vehicles (a 2007 Buick Lucerne, a 2006 Dodge Charger, and a 2003 Toyota Camry) and an older carbureted vehicle were tested. Results show that clogging the air filter has no significant effect on the fuel economy of the newer vehicles (all fuel injected with closed-loop control and one equipped with MDS). The engine control systems were able to maintain the desired AFR regardless of intake restrictions, and therefore fuel consumption was not increased. The carbureted engine did show a decrease in

  16. Stabilizing the thermal lattice Boltzmann method by spatial filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillissen, J J J

    2016-10-01

    We propose to stabilize the thermal lattice Boltzmann method by filtering the second- and third-order moments of the collision operator. By means of the Chapman-Enskog expansion, we show that the additional numerical diffusivity diminishes in the low-wavnumber limit. To demonstrate the enhanced stability, we consider a three-dimensional thermal lattice Boltzmann system involving 33 discrete velocities. Filtering extends the linear stability of this thermal lattice Boltzmann method to 10-fold smaller transport coefficients. We further demonstrate that the filtering does not compromise the accuracy of the hydrodynamics by comparing simulation results to reference solutions for a number of standardized test cases, including natural convection in two dimensions.

  17. Why does Income Relate to Depressive Symptoms? Testing the Income Rank Hypothesis Longitudinally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osafo Hounkpatin, Hilda; Wood, Alex M; Brown, Gordon D A; Dunn, Graham

    This paper reports a test of the relative income rank hypothesis of depression, according to which it is the rank position of an individual's income amongst a comparison group, rather than the individual's absolute income, that will be associated with depressive symptoms. A new methodology is developed to test between psychosocial and material explanations of why income relates to well-being. This method was used to test the income rank hypothesis as applied to depressive symptoms. We used data from a cohort of 10,317 individuals living in Wisconsin who completed surveys in 1992 and 2003. The utility assumed to arise from income was represented with a constant relative risk aversion function to overcome limitations of previous work in which inadequate specification of the relationship between absolute income and well-being may have inappropriately favoured relative income specifications. We compared models in which current and future depressive symptoms were predicted from: (a) income utility alone, (b) income rank alone, (c) the transformed difference between the individual's income and the mean income of a comparison group and (d) income utility, income rank and distance from the mean jointly. Model comparison overcomes problems involving multi-collinearity amongst the predictors. A rank-only model was consistently supported. Similar results were obtained for the association between depressive symptoms and wealth and rank of wealth in a cohort of 32,900 British individuals who completed surveys in 2002 and 2008. We conclude that it is the rank of a person's income or wealth within a social comparison group, rather than income or wealth themselves or their deviations from the mean within a reference group, that is more strongly associated with depressive symptoms.

  18. [How does type of health insurance affect receipt of Pap testing in Peru?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrionuevo-Rosas, Leslie; Palència, Laia; Borrell, Carme

    2013-12-01

    Describe the association between receipt of cervical cytology and type of health insurance in Peruvian women, and determine the role of sociodemographic and sexual health variables in this relationship. A cross-sectional study using information on a sample of 12 272 women aged 30 to 49 years from the Demographic and Family Health Survey (ENDES), Peru, 2005-2008. The dependent variable was receipt of at least one Pap smear in the last five years. The primary independent variables were type of health insurance, educational level, household socioeconomic level, ethnicity, and place of residence. Prevalence ratio, obtained from Poisson regression with robust variance, was used to measure multivariate association. Among sexually active women, 62.7% had received at least one Pap test in the last five years. Percentage of women tested varied by type of health insurance. Women with public or private insurance had a greater probability of having received a Pap smear--1.27 (95% CI, 1.24-1.31) and 1.52 (95% CI, 1.46-1.58) times greater, respectively--than uninsured women. This association was primarily explained by socioeconomic status variables. In addition, women who participated the least in screening were characterized by illiteracy or only a primary education, low socioeconomic level, speaking an indigenous language, and living in a rural area. When they also lacked health insurance, the gap widened, rising to as much as one third compared to more advantaged social groups. Inequalities were found in receipt of Pap testing according to type of health insurance; women without insurance were least likely to be screened, implying existence of a barrier to cervical cancer screening in Peru.

  19. Does bird species diversity vary among forest types? A local-scale test in Southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontúrbel, Francisco E.; Jiménez, Jaime E.

    2014-10-01

    Birds are the most diverse vertebrate group in Chile, characterized by low species turnover at the country-size scale (high alpha but low beta diversities), resembling an island biota. We tested whether this low differentiation is valid at a local scale, among six forest habitat types. We detected 25 bird species; avifauna composition was significantly different among habitat types, with five species accounting for 60 % of the dissimilarity. We found a higher level of bird assemblage differentiation across habitats at the local scale than has been found at the country-size scale. Such differentiation might be attributed to structural differences among habitats.

  20. Does It Matter If Non-Powerful Significance Tests Are Used in Dissertation Research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heping Deng

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the statistical power levels presented in the dissertations completed in the field of educational leadership or educational administration. Eighty out of 221 reviewed dissertations were analyzed and overall statistical power levels were calculated for 2,629 significance tests. The statistical power levels demonstrated in the dissertations were satisfactory for detecting Cohen's large effect (d=0.80 and medium effect (d=0.50 but quite low for small effect (d=0.20. Therefore, the authors of analyzed dissertations had a very low probability of finding true significance when looking for Cohen's small effect.

  1. Edge detection of potential field data using improved local phase filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guoqing

    2013-01-01

    Edge detection is a requisite task in the interpretation of potential field data. There are many high-pass filters based on horizontal and vertical derivatives in use, such as total horizontal derivative, tilt angle, theta map, et al. In this paper, we present a new edge detection filter, which uses the combination of the different order horizontal derivatives to delineate the edges of the sources, called improved local phase (ILP) filter. The new filter is computationally stable, as it does not need the computation of the vertical derivatives of potential field data. The new filter is tested on synthetic and real potential field data. The resolving power of the ILP filter is tested by comparing the results with those obtained by the other filters. The advantage of the ILP filter in the edge detection of potential field data is due to the fact that it can display the edges of the causative sources more precisely and clearly, and can bring out more subtle details.

  2. Testing of money multiplier model for Pakistan: does monetary base carry any information?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arshad Khan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests the constancy and stationarity of mechanic version of the money multiplier model for Pakistan using monthly data over the period 1972M1-2009M2. We split the data into pre-liberalization (1972M1-1990M12 and post-liberalization (1991M1-2009M2 periods to examine the impact of financial sector reforms. We first examine the constancy and stationarity of the money multiplier and the results suggest the money multiplier remains non-stationary for the entire sample period and sub-periods. We then tested cointegration between money supply and monetary base and find the evidence of cointegration between two variables for the entire period and two sub-periods. The coefficient restrictions are satisfied only for the post-liberalization period. Two-way long-run causality between money supply and monetary base is found for the entire period and post-liberalization. For the post-liberalization period the evidence of short-run causality running from monetary base to money supply is also identified. On the whole, the results suggest that money multiplier model can serve as framework for conducting short-run monetary policy in Pakistan. However, the monetary authority may consider the co-movements between money supply and reserve money at the time of conducting monetary policy.

  3. Does an atom interferometer test the gravitational redshift at the Compton frequency ?

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Peter; Bordé, Christian J; Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude; Salomon, Christophe; Reynaud, Serge

    2010-01-01

    Atom interferometers allow the measurement of the acceleration of freely falling atoms with respect to an experimental platform at rest on Earth's surface. Such experiments have been used to test the universality of free fall by comparing the acceleration of the atoms to that of a classical freely falling object. In a recent paper, M\\"uller, Peters and Chu [Nature {\\bf 463}, 926-929 (2010)] argued that atom interferometers also provide a very accurate test of the gravitational redshift when considering the atom as a clock operating at the Compton frequency associated with the rest mass. We analyze this claim in the frame of general relativity and of different alternative theories. We show that the difference of "Compton phases" between the two paths of the interferometer is actually zero in a large class of theories, including general relativity, all metric theories of gravity, most non-metric theories and most theoretical frameworks used to interpret the violations of the equivalence principle. Therefore, in...

  4. Does extreme environmental severity promote plant facilitation? An experimental field test in a subtropical coastal dune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanho, Camila T; Oliveira, Alexandre A; Prado, Paulo Inácio K L

    2015-07-01

    The stress gradient hypothesis (SGH) postulates how the balance between plant competition and facilitation shifts along environmental gradients. Early formulations of the SGH predicted that facilitation should increase monotonically with stress. However, a recent theoretical refinement of the SGH postulates stronger facilitation under moderate stress, followed by a decreasing role of facilitation in the most severe environments. We conducted field experiments along the most severe part of a coastal dune gradient in southeast Brazil to test the effect of stress on the intensity and importance of the net interactions between two tree species. First, we compared the performance of distinct life stages of Ternstroemia brasiliensis in the presence and absence of Guapira opposita adults along a beach-to-inland gradient, a gradient of environmental severity. To test the effect of one stress factor in particular, we also manipulated water availability, a limiting resource due to the sandy soils. At the most severe part of the coastal gradient (i.e. closest to the seashore), both intensity and importance of the interaction between G. opposita and T. brasiliensis were negatively related to stress, with a pattern consistent across distinct life stages of the target species. However, the sign of the net interaction depended on the life stage of the target species. Our results provide empirical evidence that the role of facilitation tends to wane, leading to neutral or even negative net interactions between species as stress reaches its maximum, as predicted by the recent refinements of the SGH.

  5. Recent on-beam tests of wide angle neutron polarization analysis with a 3He spin filter: Magic PASTIS on V20 at HZB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, E.; Salhi, Z.; Gainov, R.; Woracek, R.; Soltner, H.; Pistel, P.; Beule, F.; Bussmann, K.; Heynen, A.; Kämmerling, H.; Suxdorf, F.; Strobl, M.; Russina, M.; Voigt, J.; Ioffe, A.

    2017-06-01

    A complete XYZ polarization analysis solution is under development for the new thermal time of flight spectrometer TOPAS [1], to be operated in the coming east neutron guide hall at the MLZ. Polarization Analysis Studies on a Thermal Inelastic Spectrometer, commonly called PASTIS [2], is based on polarized 3He neutron spin filters and an XYZ field configuration for the sample environment and a polarization-preserving neutron guide field. The complete system was designed to provide adiabatic transport of the neutron polarization to the sample position while maintaining the homogeneity of the XYZ field. This system has now been tested on the polarized time-of-flight ESS test beam line V20 at HZB [3]. Down to the minimum wavelength of 1.6 Å on the instrument, the magnetic configuration worked ideally for neutron spin transport while giving full experimental freedom to change between the X, Y or Z field configuration. The 3He cell used was polarized at the 3He lab of the JCNS at the MLZ in Garching and transported to HZB in Berlin via car showing that such a transport is indeed feasible for such experiments. We present results of this test and the next steps forward.

  6. Does fitness erode in the absence of selection? An experimental test with Tribolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnicki, A; Jasieński, M

    2000-01-01

    In the absence of natural selection, average fitness in the population is expected to decline due to the accumulation of deleterious mutations. Replicate populations of flour beetles (Tribolium confusum) were maintained for 22 generations in the virtual absence of selection (random mating, favorable environment, excess of food, and mortality of only 3%). Larva-to-adult survivorship rates were similar in the stock population and selection-free populations. In contrast, starvation resistance of adult beetles from selection-free populations was significantly reduced (by more than 2% per generation). When tested in the favorable environment, beetles in one selection-free population had significantly slower development and smaller sizes of females than beetles from the stock population. Since such changes in these fitness components are usually maladaptive, they indicate possible erosion of fitness under relaxed selection at the rate of 0.1-0.2% per generation. No fitness erosion was detectable in the second selection-free population.

  7. DOES MIGRATION DISRUPT FERTILITY? A TEST USING THE MALAYSIAN FAMILY LIFE SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher King Manner,

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The disruption hypothesis suggests that migration interrupts fertility during the period of the move. This may be due to the psychological and physiological consequences of the stressful situation associated with the movement itself or the fairly common separate living arrangements of spouses during the early stages of the migration process. In this study, we examine the disruption hypothesis using the Malaysian Family Life Survey life history data. We used ordinary least squares and censored regression models to test the effect of marital separation on fertility surrounding the time of migration. While migrants do appear to experience more temporary separations than non-migrants, our analysis failed to indicate any disruptive effect associated with migration.

  8. Does interaction matter? Testing whether a confidence heuristic can replace interaction in collective decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Dan; Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian; Olsen, Karsten; Latham, Peter E; Lau, Jennifer Y F; Roepstorff, Andreas; Rees, Geraint; Frith, Chris D; Bahrami, Bahador

    2014-05-01

    In a range of contexts, individuals arrive at collective decisions by sharing confidence in their judgements. This tendency to evaluate the reliability of information by the confidence with which it is expressed has been termed the 'confidence heuristic'. We tested two ways of implementing the confidence heuristic in the context of a collective perceptual decision-making task: either directly, by opting for the judgement made with higher confidence, or indirectly, by opting for the faster judgement, exploiting an inverse correlation between confidence and reaction time. We found that the success of these heuristics depends on how similar individuals are in terms of the reliability of their judgements and, more importantly, that for dissimilar individuals such heuristics are dramatically inferior to interaction. Interaction allows individuals to alleviate, but not fully resolve, differences in the reliability of their judgements. We discuss the implications of these findings for models of confidence and collective decision-making.

  9. Does logic feel good? Testing for intuitive detection of logicality in syllogistic reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauer, Karl Christoph; Singmann, Henrik

    2013-07-01

    Recent research on syllogistic reasoning suggests that the logical status (valid vs. invalid) of even difficult syllogisms can be intuitively detected via small changes in affective state (Morsanyi & Handley, 2012). In a series of 6 experiments, we replicated effects of logical status on liking ratings of difficult syllogisms (although their shape differs from that reported by Morsanyi and Handley), and we tested 2 alternative accounts of our and Morsanyi and Handley's findings in terms of surface features accidentally confounded with logical status: the partial-repetition hypothesis and the content-effects hypothesis. The results support the content-effects hypothesis, according to which the effects of logical status reflect differences in mean liking for the presented conclusions rather than effects of logical status itself.

  10. How well does the 30-second Chair Stand Test predict rehabilitation needs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen Bruun, Inge; Nørgaard, Birgitte; Backer Mogensen, Christian;

    prospective cohort study will include 156 elderly patients (65+) with medical complaints. Assessments will be undertaken at the time of hospitalization and 7-9 days later. The risk factors studied are: a) symptoms for hospitalization, b) number of prescribed drugs, c) number of falls, d) habitual functional......Background The assessment of acutely admitted elderly medical patients’ need for rehabilitation is statutory and important for their independence. However, in an emergency department the assessment can be difficult as it has to be performed within 48 hours, when functional performance may...... of functional decline. The 30-Second Chair Stand Test (30s-CST) is recommended by the Danish Health and Medicines Authority for screening of functional decline in elderly citizens living in their own home. However, its validity with hospitalized patients is undocumented, and it is unclear whether loss...

  11. How does habitat complexity affect ant foraging success? A test using functional measures on three continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, H; Parr, C L

    2010-12-01

    Habitat complexity can mediate key processes that structure local assemblages through effects on factors such as competition, predation and foraging behaviour. While most studies address assemblage responses to habitat complexity within one locality, a more global approach allows conclusions with greater independence from the phylogenetic constraints of the target assemblages, thus allowing greater generality. We tested the effects of natural and manipulated habitat complexities on ant assemblages from South Africa, Australia and Sweden, in order to determine if there were globally consistent responses in how functional measures of foraging success are regulated by habitat complexity. Specifically, we considered how habitat complexity affected ant foraging rates including the speed of discovery and rate of monopolisation. We also tested if habitat complexity affected the body size index, a size-related morphological trait, of ants discovering resources and occupying and monopolising the resources after 180 min. Ants were significantly slower to discover baits in the more complex treatments, consistent with predictions that they would move more slowly through more complex environments. The monopolisation index was also lower in the more complex treatments, suggesting that resources were more difficult to defend. Our index of ant body size showed trends in the predicted direction for complexity treatments. In addition, ants discovering, occupying and monopolising resources were smaller in simple than in complex natural habitats. Responses of discovering ants to resources in natural habitats were clear in only one of three regions. Consistent with our predictions, habitat complexity thus affected functional measures of the foraging success of ants in terms of measures of discovery and monopolisation rates and body size traits of successful ants. However, patterns were not always equally clear in manipulative and mensurative components of the study.

  12. Does the Finger-to-Nose Test measure upper limb coordination in chronic stroke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Marcos R M; Slimovitch, Matthew; Chilingaryan, Gevorg; Levin, Mindy F

    2017-01-23

    We aimed to kinematically validate that the time to perform the Finger-to-Nose Test (FNT) assesses coordination by determining its construct, convergent and discriminant validity. Experimental, criterion standard study. Both clinical and experimental evaluations were done at a research facility in a rehabilitation hospital. Forty individuals (20 individuals with chronic stroke and 20 healthy, age- and gender-matched individuals) participated.. Both groups performed two blocks of 10 to-and-fro pointing movements (non-dominant/affected arm) between a sagittal target and the nose (ReachIn, ReachOut) at a self-paced speed. Time to perform the test was the main outcome. Kinematics (Optotrak, 100Hz) and clinical impairment/activity levels were evaluated. Spatiotemporal coordination was assessed with slope (IJC) and cross-correlation (LAG) between elbow and shoulder movements. Compared to controls, individuals with stroke (Fugl-Meyer Assessment, FMA-UE: 51.9 ± 13.2; Box & Blocks, BBT: 72.1 ± 26.9%) made more curved endpoint trajectories using less shoulder horizontal-abduction. For construct validity, shoulder range (β = 0.127), LAG (β = 0.855) and IJC (β = -0.191) explained 82% of FNT-time variance for ReachIn and LAG (β = 0.971) explained 94% for ReachOut in patients with stroke. In contrast, only LAG explained 62% (β = 0.790) and 79% (β = 0.889) of variance for ReachIn and ReachOut respectively in controls. For convergent validity, FNT-time correlated with FMA-UE (r = -0.67, p stroke.

  13. Does the incremental shuttle walk test require maximal effort in young obese women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Jürgensen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic disease with a multifaceted treatment approach that includes nutritional counseling, structured exercise training, and increased daily physical activity. Increased body mass elicits higher cardiovascular, ventilatory and metabolic demands to varying degrees during exercise. With functional capacity assessment, this variability can be evaluated so individualized guidance for exercise training and daily physical activity can be provided. The aim of the present study was to compare cardiovascular, ventilatory and metabolic responses obtained during a symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX on a treadmill to responses obtained by the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT in obese women and to propose a peak oxygen consumption (VO2 prediction equation through variables obtained during the ISWT. Forty obese women (BMI ≥30 kg/m2 performed one treadmill CPX and two ISWTs. Heart rate (HR, arterial blood pressure (ABP and perceived exertion by the Borg scale were measured at rest, during each stage of the exercise protocol, and throughout the recovery period. The predicted maximal heart rate (HRmax was calculated (210 – age in years (16 and compared to the HR response during the CPX. Peak VO2 obtained during CPX correlated significantly (P<0.05 with ISWT peak VO2 (r=0.79 as well as ISWT distance (r=0.65. The predictive model for CPX peak VO2, using age and ISWT distance explained 67% of the variability. The current study indicates the ISWT may be used to predict aerobic capacity in obese women when CPX is not a viable option.

  14. Does low dose13C-urea breath test maintain a satisfactory accuracy in diagnosing Helicobacter pylori infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Vaz Coelho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The standard doses of 13C-urea in 13C-urea breath test is 75 mg. OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of 13C-urea breath test containing 25 mg of 13C-urea comparing with the standard doses of 75 mg in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. METHODS: Two hundred seventy adult patients (96 males, 174 females, median age 41 years performed the standard 13C-urea breath test (75 mg 13C-urea and repeated the 13C-urea breath test using only 25 mg of 13C-urea within a 2 week interval. The test was performed using an infrared isotope analyzer. Patients were considered positive if delta over baseline was >4.0‰ at the gold standard test. RESULTS: One hundred sixty-one (59.6% patients were H. pylori negative and 109 (40.4% were positive by the gold standard test. Using receiver operating characteristic analysis we established a cut-off value of 3.4% as the best value of 25 mg 13C-urea breath test to discriminate positive and negative patients, considering the H. pylori prevalence (95% CI: 23.9-37.3 at our setting. Therefore, we obtained to 25 mg 13C-urea breath test a diagnostic accuracy of 92.9% (95% CI: 88.1-97.9, sensitivity 83.5% (95% CI: 75.4-89.3, specificity 99.4% (95% CI: 96.6-99.9, positive predictive value 98.3% (95% CI: 92.4-99.4, and negative predictive value 93.0% (95% CI: 88.6-96.1. CONCLUSIONS: Low-dose 13C-urea breath test (25 mg 13C-urea does not reach accuracy sufficient to be recommended in clinical setting where a 30% prevalence of H. pylori infection is observed. Further studies should be done to determine the diagnostic accuracy of low doses of 13C-urea in the urea breath test.

  15. Geology Report: Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site DOE/Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2006-07-01

    Surficial geologic studies near the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) were conducted as part of a site characterization program. Studies included evaluation of the potential for future volcanism and Area 3 fault activity that could impact waste disposal operations at the Area 3 RWMS. Future volcanic activity could lead to disruption of the Area 3 RWMS. Local and regional studies of volcanic risk indicate that major changes in regional volcanic activity within the next 1,000 years are not likely. Mapped basalts of Paiute Ridge, Nye Canyon, and nearby Scarp Canyon are Miocene in age. There is a lack of evidence for post-Miocene volcanism in the subsurface of Yucca Flat, and the hazard of basaltic volcanism at the Area 3 RWMS, within the 1,000-year regulatory period, is very low and not a forseeable future event. Studies included a literature review and data analysis to evaluate unclassified published and unpublished information regarding the Area 3 and East Branch Area 3 faults mapped in Area 3 and southern Area 7. Two trenches were excavated along the Area 3 fault to search for evidence of near-surface movement prior to nuclear testing. Allostratigraphic units and fractures were mapped in Trenches ST02 and ST03. The Area 3 fault is a plane of weakness that has undergone strain resulting from stress imposed by natural events and underground nuclear testing. No major vertical displacement on the Area 3 fault since the Early Holocene, and probably since the Middle Pleistocene, can be demonstrated. The lack of major displacement within this time frame and minimal vertical extent of minor fractures suggest that waste disposal operations at the Area 3 RWMS will not be impacted substantially by the Area 3 fault, within the regulatory compliance period. A geomorphic surface map of Yucca Flat utilizes the recent geomorphology and soil characterization work done in adjacent northern Frenchman Flat. The approach taken was to adopt the map unit boundaries (line

  16. 燃煤电厂用新型高分子复合滤料性能的测试%Test on performance of new macromolecule compound filter media used in coal-fired power plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振华; 沈恒根; 薛婷婷

    2013-01-01

    耐高温滤料的使用寿命和稳定性是影响袋式除尘器运行寿命的因素之一。对新型高分子复合滤料进行了基本性能的测试,并与目前燃煤电厂常用的玻纤滤料性能进行了对比试验。结果表明,新型复合滤料在耐高温、耐酸腐蚀和抗氧化性能方面均优于常用的玻纤滤料,适合在电厂烟气处理系统中应用。%Lifetime and stability of the high temperature resistance filter media is one of the factors that affect the operation lifetime of bag house duster .The basic performance test and analysis of the newly developed compound filter media were carried out , and the comparing test of the performances between the material and general glass fiber filter media used in coal-fired power plants was discussed.The test result demon-strates that high temperature resistance and acid corrosion resistance as well as oxidation resistance of new compound filter media were better than that of glass fiber filter media .The fiter media is feasible on used in flue gas treatment system in power plant .

  17. Does a Negative Triple Test Reduce the Rate of Negative Appendectomy in Adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud F. Sakr

    2012-08-01

    Results: Sixty-seven patients (65.9% were female and 35 (34.1% were male. Their ages ranged between 16 and 49 years (mean 27.5 years. Most patients (87.3% had their symptoms for 12-36 hours before hospital admission. The mean values for TLC, NP, and CRP were 7,573/ and micro;L, 54.53%, and 0.61 mg/L, respectively. Of the 102 patients with NTT, 101 (99% proved not to have appendiceal inflammation (NPV=99%. Only 39 patients were operated upon, of whom 38 (97.4% had a normal appendix, and the remaining 63 patients were either discharged (n=47 or referred to other specialties (n=16. There were significantly more women (76.3%, 29/38 with negative appendectomy than men (24.7%, 9/38 (X2= 21.1, p=0.0001. Gynecological causes were the most common (60.5%, 23/38 and in 11 cases, the exact etiology could not be identified. Conclusions: From the data presented, it may be concluded that TLC, NP and CRP blood levels (triple test should be measured upon hospital admission of adult patients with clinically suspected acute appendicitis. If used judiciously, they may spare the group of patients with an NTT an unnecessary surgical operation, hence markedly reducing the NAR with its potential risks. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2012; 1(4.000: 229-236

  18. An experimental test of "the mozart effect": does listening to his music improve spatial ability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J; Rosenbach, J H; Burns, K L; Latimer, B C; Matocha, H R; Vogt, E R

    1995-12-01

    This experiment was designed as a test of the 1993 findings of Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky who reported a positive effect of listening to classical music on spatial reasoning. Present results do not demonstrate the "Mozart effect." In our study, 114 students were pretested on items from the Raven's Progressive Matrices--Advanced Form, then instructed to listen to either 8 min. of Mozart's music, relaxation instructions, or silence. Then subjects were posttested on an equivalent set of Raven's items. The subjects were also asked to provide information about their musical background and preferences. All instructions and treatments were audiotaped and played to individual subjects through earphones in the university language laboratory, ensuring standardization of procedures. Subjects in all 3 treatment groups showed a practice effect, but this improvement in Raven's scores was not dependent on the type of treatment received. There were no differences in Raven's scores among groups before or after treatment so our results do not confirm the prior ones. There was no evidence that the brief music had a different effect on subsequent problem solving according to listeners' musical background and training.

  19. Does structural complexity determine the morphology of assemblages? An experimental test on three continents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloise Gibb

    Full Text Available Understanding how species will respond to global change depends on our ability to distinguish generalities from idiosyncrasies. For diverse, but poorly known taxa, such as insects, species traits may provide a short-cut to predicting species turnover. We tested whether ant traits respond consistently to habitat complexity across geographically independent ant assemblages, using an experimental approach and baits. We repeated our study in six paired simple and complex habitats on three continents with distinct ant faunas. We also compared traits amongst ants with different foraging strategies. We hypothesised that ants would be larger, broader, have longer legs and more dorsally positioned eyes in simpler habitats. In agreement with predictions, ants had longer femurs and dorsally positioned eyes in simple habitats. This pattern was most pronounced for ants that discovered resources. Body size and pronotum width responded as predicted for experimental treatments, but were inconsistent across continents. Monopolising ants were smaller, with shorter femurs than those that occupied or discovered resources. Consistent responses for several traits suggest that many, but not all, aspects of morphology respond predictably to habitat complexity, and that foraging strategy is linked with morphology. Some traits thus have the potential to be used to predict the direction of species turnover, changes in foraging strategy and, potentially, evolution in response to changes in habitat structure.

  20. Sympathetic activation by the cold pressor test does not increase the muscle force generation capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roatta, Silvestro; Farina, Dario

    2011-06-01

    A positive inotropic action by the sympathetic nervous system on skeletal muscles has been observed and investigated in animal and in vitro studies. This action provided a theoretical basis for the putative ergogenic action of catecholamines and adrenergic agonists, although there is no clear evidence of this effect in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of inotropic effects associated to physiological sympathetic activation in healthy subjects. The muscle force capacity was investigated in the tibialis anterior (n = 9 subjects) and in the soleus (n = 9) muscles electrically stimulated with single pulses and double pulses with variable interspike interval (4-1,000 ms) and short pulse trains (frequency: 5-14 Hz) before, during, and after sympathetic activation by the cold pressor test (CPT). CPT significantly decreased by 10.4 ± 7.2 and 10.6 ± 4.4% the force produced by single and double pulse stimulation, respectively, and produced smaller decreases in the force obtained by train stimulation in the tibialis anterior, while no significant changes were observed in either type of contraction in the soleus muscle. CPT failed to induce any increase in the force capacity of the investigated muscles. The prevalent decrease in force evidenced in this study supports the concept that the weakening sympathetic action on type I fiber, already shown to occur in humans, prevails over the putative potentiating action.

  1. Testing the Glucose Hypothesis among Capuchin Monkeys: Does Glucose Boost Self-Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Audrey E.; Emerson, Ishara D.; Rossettie, Mattea S.; Beran, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The ego-depletion hypothesis states that self-control diminishes over time and with exertion. Accordingly, the glucose hypothesis attributes this depletion of self-control resources to decreases in blood glucose levels. Research has led to mixed findings among humans and nonhuman animals, with limited evidence for such a link between glucose and self-control among closely-related nonhuman primate species, but some evidence from more distantly related species (e.g., honeybees and dogs). We tested this hypothesis in capuchin monkeys by manipulating the sugar content of a calorie-matched breakfast meal following a nocturnal fast, and then presenting each monkey with the accumulation self-control task. Monkeys were presented with food items one-by-one until the subject retrieved and ate the accumulating items, which required continual inhibition of food retrieval in the face of an increasingly desirable reward. Results indicated no relationship between self-control performance on the accumulation task and glucose ingestion levels following a fast. These results do not provide support for the glucose hypothesis of self-control among capuchin monkeys within the presented paradigm. Further research assessing self-control and its physiological correlates among closely- and distantly-related species is warranted to shed light on the mechanisms underlying self-control behavior. PMID:27527225

  2. Swim training does not protect mice from skeletal muscle oxidative damage following a maximum exercise test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Tatiane Oliveira; Cleto, Lorena Sabino; Gioda, Carolina Rosa; Silva, Renata Sabino; Campi-Azevedo, Ana Carolina; de Sousa-Franco, Junia; de Magalhães, José Carlos; Penaforte, Claudia Lopes; Pinto, Kelerson Mauro de Castro; Cruz, Jader dos Santos; Rocha-Vieira, Etel

    2012-07-01

    We investigated whether swim training protects skeletal muscle from oxidative damage in response to a maximum progressive exercise. First, we investigated the effect of swim training on the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), in the gastrocnemius muscle of C57Bl/6 mice, 48 h after the last training session. Mice swam for 90 min, twice a day, for 5 weeks at 31°C (± 1°C). The activities of SOD and CAT were increased in trained mice (P swim test. Compared to control mice (untrained, not acutely exercised), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were increased in the skeletal muscle of both trained and untrained mice after maximum swim. The activity of GPx was increased in the skeletal muscle of both trained and untrained mice, while SOD activity was increased only in trained mice after maximum swimming. CAT activity was increased only in the untrained compared to the control group. Although the trained mice showed increased activity of citrate synthase in skeletal muscle, swim performance was not different compared to untrained mice. Our results show an imbalance in the activities of SOD, CAT and GPx in response to swim training, which could account for the oxidative damage observed in the skeletal muscle of trained mice in response to maximum swim, resulting in the absence of improved exercise performance.

  3. Does morphological convergence imply functional similarity? A test using the evolution of quadrupedalism in ornithischian dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidment, Susannah C R; Barrett, Paul M

    2012-09-22

    Convergent morphologies are thought to indicate functional similarity, arising because of a limited number of evolutionary or developmental pathways. Extant taxa displaying convergent morphologies are used as analogues to assess function in extinct taxa with similar characteristics. However, functional studies of extant taxa have shown that functional similarity can arise from differing morphologies, calling into question the paradigm that form and function are closely related. We test the hypothesis that convergent skeletal morphology indicates functional similarity in the fossil record using ornithischian dinosaurs. The rare transition from bipedality to quadrupedality occurred at least three times independently in this clade, resulting in a suite of convergent osteological characteristics. We use homology rather than analogy to provide an independent line of evidence about function, reconstructing soft tissues using the extant phylogenetic bracket and applying biomechanical concepts to produce qualitative assessments of muscle leverage. We also optimize character changes to investigate the sequence of character acquisition. Different lineages of quadrupedal ornithischian dinosaur stood and walked differently from each other, falsifying the hypothesis that osteological convergence indicates functional similarity. The acquisition of features correlated with quadrupedalism generally occurs in the same order in each clade, suggesting underlying developmental mechanisms that act as evolutionary constraints.

  4. Evaluation of Maxim Module-Integrated Electronics at the DOE Regional Test Centers (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deline, C.; Sekulic, B.; Barkaszi, S.; Yang, J.; Kahn, S.

    2014-06-01

    Module-embedded power electronics developed by Maxim Integrated are under evaluation through a partnership with the Department of Energy's Regional Test Center (RTC) program. Field deployments of both conventional modules and electronics-enhanced modules are designed to quantify the performance advantage of Maxim's products under different amounts of interrow shading, and their ability to be deployed at a greater ground-coverage ratio than conventional modules. Simulations in PVSYST have quantified the predicted performance difference between conventional modules and Maxim's modules from interrow shading. Initial performance results have identified diffuse irradiance losses at tighter row spacing for both the Maxim and conventional modules. Comparisons with published models show good agreement with models predicting the greatest diffuse irradiance losses. At tighter row spacing, all of the strings equipped with embedded power electronics outperformed their conventional peers. An even greater performance advantage is predicted to occur in the winter months when the amount of interrow shading mismatch is at a maximum.

  5. Evaluation of Maxim Module-Integrated Electronics at the DOE Regional Test Centers: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deline, C.; Sekulic, B.; Stein, J.; Barkaszi, S.; Yang, J.; Kahn, S.

    2014-07-01

    Module-embedded power electronics developed by Maxim Integrated are under evaluation through a partnership with the Department of Energy's Regional Test Center (RTC) program. Field deployments of both conventional modules and electronics-enhanced modules are designed to quantify the performance advantage of Maxim's products under different amounts of inter-row shading, and their ability to be deployed at a greater ground-coverage-ratio than conventional modules. Simulations in PVSYST have quantified the predicted performance difference between conventional modules and Maxim's modules from inter-row shading. Initial performance results have identified diffuse irradiance losses at tighter row spacing for both the Maxim and conventional modules. Comparisons with published models show good agreement with models predicting the greatest diffuse irradiance losses. At tighter row spacing, all of the strings equipped with embedded power electronics outperformed their conventional peers. An even greater performance advantage is predicted to occur in the winter months when the amount of inter-row shading mismatch is at a maximum.

  6. Results of hydraulic tests in wells DOE-1, 2, 3, Salt Valley, Grand County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, F. Eugene; Hart, I.M.; Whitfield, M.S.; Giles, T.F.; D'Epagnier, T. E.

    1980-01-01

    Three exploratory wells were drilled for geological, geophysical, and hydrological purposes in Salt Valley, Grand County, Utah. Cap rock, salt, and interbeds of the Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation of Middle Pennsylvanian age were penetrated. The observed depth below land surface of the cap rock-salt interface ranges from 163 meters (m) to 191 meters. Approximately the upper 100 meters of cap rock were unsaturated by ground water. Within the saturated part of the cap rock, hydraulic heads generally decrease with depth and southwestward. Ion concentrations generally increase with depth in the saturated cap rock.Hydraulic conductivity of cap rock, as determined from pumping tests, may be on the order of 5 x 10-3 meters per day; as a result, ground-water flow rates in the cap rock are probably very low. A carbon 14 specific activity for cap rock water yielded an uncorrected "age" of greater than 36,000 years. Salt and interbeds have hydraulic conductivities probably less than 1 x 10-4 meters per day.

  7. Does the Newton's gravitational constant vary sinusoidally with time? An independent test with planetary orbital motions

    CERN Document Server

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    A sinusoidally time-varying pattern for the values of the Newton's constant of gravitation $G$ measured in Earth-based laboratories over the latest decades has been recently reported in the literature. Its amplitude and period amount to $A_G=1.619\\times 10^{-14} \\textrm{kg}^{-1} \\textrm{m}^3 \\textrm{s}^{-2}, P_G=5.899 \\textrm{yr}$, respectively. Given the fundamental role played by $G$ in the currently accepted theory of gravitation and the attempts to merge it with quantum mechanics, it is important to put to the test the hypothesis that the aforementioned harmonic variation may pertain $G$ itself in a direct and independent way. The bounds on $\\dot G/G$ existing in the literature may not be extended straightforwardly to the present case since they were inferred by considering just secular variations. Thus, we numerically integrated the ad-hoc modified equations of motion of the major bodies of the Solar System by finding that the orbits of the planets would be altered by an unacceptably larger amount in vie...

  8. Seasonal performance of air conditioners - an analysis of the DOE test procedures: the thermostat and measurement errors. Report No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamb, G.D.; Tree, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Two aspects of the DOE test procedures are analyzed. First, the role of the thermostat in controlling the cycling of conditioning equipment is investigated. The test procedures call for a cycling scheme of 6 minutes on, 24 minutes off for Test D. To justify this cycling scheme as being representative of cycling in the field, it is assumed that the thermostat is the major factor in controlling the cycle rate. This assumption is examined by studying a closed-loop feedback model consisting of a thermostat, a heating/cooling plant and a conditioned space. Important parameters of this model are individually studied to determine their influence on the system. It is found that the switch differential and the anticipator gain are the major parameters in controlling the cycle rate. This confirms the thermostat's dominant role in the cycling of a system. The second aspect of the test procedures concerns transient errors or differences in the measurement of cyclic capacity. In particular, errors due to thermocouple response, thermocouple grid placement, dampers and nonuniform velocity and temperature distributions are considered. Problems in these four areas are mathematically modeled and the basic assumptions are stated. Results from these models help to clarify the problem areas and give an indication of the magnitude of the errors involved. It is found that major disagreement in measured capacity can arise in these four areas and can be mainly attributed to test set-up differences even though such differences are allowable in the test procedures. An understanding of such differences will aid in minimizing many problems in the measurement of cyclic capacity.

  9. Inter modulation noise in trans linear filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, G.; Svelto, V. [Pavia Univ., Pavia (Italy). Dipt. di Elettronica

    1999-06-01

    The noise properties of trans linear filters operated in class A and class AB is examined, discussing how the output noise power depends on the circuit topology. It is shown that for in band useful signal the output noise does not depend on the relative position of the transistors in the filter.

  10. Ring-resonator-based wavelength filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuzebroek, D.H.; Driessen, A.; Venghaus, H.

    2006-01-01

    Microring resonators (MR) represent a class of filters with characteristics very similar to those of Fabry–Perot filters. However, they offer the advantage that the injected and reflected signals are separated in individual waveguides, and in addition, their design does not require any facets or

  11. Does the medical college admission test predict global academic performance in osteopathic medical school?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Paul; Wen, Frances K

    2007-04-01

    To investigate the extent to which Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) subscores predict the overall academic performance of osteopathic medical students. We examined the value of MCAT subscores in predicting students' global academic performance in osteopathic medical school, as defined by grade point average in basic science (basic GPA), clinical instruction (clinical GPA), cumulative grade point average (total GPA), and national licensing examination scores on the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination-USA (COMLEX-USA) Level 1 and Level 2. Subjects were 434 osteopathic medical students of the Oklahoma State University College of Osteopathic Medicine in Tulsa who either graduated or were expected to graduate between the years 1999 and 2003. Standard, multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted for each of the five performance variables to assess the relative importance of MCAT subtest scores and cumulative undergraduate GPA (total UGPA) in predicting academic performance. Total UGPA was the most important, significant predictor (beta=.13-.33) in overall student academic performance for all five analyzed variables. Less predictive of overall academic performance (beta=-.01-.21) were MCAT subcores. However, the MCAT biological sciences subscore was a significant predictor of basic GPA (beta=.14), the MCAT physical sciences subscore significantly predicted COMLEX-USA Level 1 scores (beta=.15), and the MCAT verbal reasoning subscore significantly predicted COMLEX-USA Level 2 scores (beta=.21). The subscore for the MCAT writing sample was not a significant predictor of overall academic performance. Total undergraduate GPA had the highest predictive value for academic performance as measured by basic GPA, clinical GPA, total GPA, and COMLEX-USA Level 1 and Level 2 scores. The present study found MCAT subscores to be of limited predictive value in determining global academic performance.

  12. Does population screening for Chlamydia trachomatis raise anxiety among those tested? Findings from a population based chlamydia screening study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Low Nicola

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of urine testing for Chlamydia trachomatis has raised the possibility of large-scale screening for this sexually transmitted infection, which is now the most common in the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an invitation to be screened for chlamydia and of receiving a negative result on levels of anxiety, depression and self-esteem. Methods 19,773 men and women aged 16 to 39 years, selected at random from 27 general practices in two large city areas (Bristol and Birmingham were invited by post to send home-collected urine samples or vulvo-vaginal swabs for chlamydia testing. Questionnaires enquiring about anxiety, depression and self-esteem were sent to random samples of those offered screening: one month before the dispatch of invitations; when participants returned samples; and after receiving a negative result. Results Home screening was associated with an overall reduction in anxiety scores. An invitation to participate did not increase anxiety levels. Anxiety scores in men were lower after receiving the invitation than at baseline. Amongst women anxiety was reduced after receipt of negative test results. Neither depression nor self-esteem scores were affected by screening. Conclusion Postal screening for chlamydia does not appear to have a negative impact on overall psychological well-being and can lead to a decrease in anxiety levels among respondents. There is, however, a clear difference between men and women in when this reduction occurs.

  13. Automated Integrated Analog Filter Design Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolis Kiela

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of modern automated integrated analog circuits design methods and their use in integrated filter design is done. Current modern analog circuits automated tools are based on optimization algorithms and/or new circuit generation methods. Most automated integrated filter design methods are only suited to gmC and switched current filter topologies. Here, an algorithm for an active RC integrated filter design is proposed, that can be used in automated filter designs. The algorithm is tested by designing an integrated active RC filter in a 65 nm CMOS technology.

  14. Simultaneous dioxin and mercury collection in a filter bed reactor; Process concepts and test results. Simultane Dioxin- und Quecksilberabscheidung im Filterschichtreaktor; Verfahrenskonzepte und Versuchsergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weirich, W. (Deutsche Babcock Anlagen GmbH, Oberhausen (Germany)); Glinka, U. (Deutsche Babcock Anlagen GmbH, Oberhausen (Germany)); Ruther, G. (Deutsche Babcock Anlagen GmbH, Oberhausen (Germany))

    1993-03-01

    In the process chain dealt with in this paper, which uses a combined SCR reactor and filter bed reactor where the most far-reaching catalytic destruction of NO[sub x] and dioxins is obtained, the filter bed reactor was operated as a pilot plant using an inexpensive additive with multiple recycling. (orig.)

  15. Evaluation of HEPA filter service life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fretthold, J.K.; Stithem, A.R.

    1997-07-14

    Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), has approximately 10,000 High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters installed in a variety of filter plenums. These ventilation/filtration plenum systems are used to control the release of airborne particulate contaminates to the environment during normal operations and potential accidents. This report summarizes the results of destructive and non-destructive tests on HEPA filters obtained from a wide variety of ages and service conditions. These tests were performed to determine an acceptable service life criteria for HEPA filters used at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). A total of 140 filters of various ages (1972 to 1996) and service history (new, aged unused, used) were tested. For the purpose of this report, filter age from manufacture date/initial test date to the current sample date was used, as opposed to the actual time a filter was installed in an operating system.

  16. Digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hamming, Richard W

    1997-01-01

    Digital signals occur in an increasing number of applications: in telephone communications; in radio, television, and stereo sound systems; and in spacecraft transmissions, to name just a few. This introductory text examines digital filtering, the processes of smoothing, predicting, differentiating, integrating, and separating signals, as well as the removal of noise from a signal. The processes bear particular relevance to computer applications, one of the focuses of this book.Readers will find Hamming's analysis accessible and engaging, in recognition of the fact that many people with the s

  17. Modulations of eye movement patterns by spatial filtering during the learning and testing phases of an old/new face recognition task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Chantal L; Collin, Charles A; Nelson, Elizabeth A

    2015-02-01

    In two experiments, we examined the effects of varying the spatial frequency (SF) content of face images on eye movements during the learning and testing phases of an old/new recognition task. At both learning and testing, participants were presented with face stimuli band-pass filtered to 11 different SF bands, as well as an unfiltered baseline condition. We found that eye movements varied significantly as a function of SF. Specifically, the frequency of transitions between facial features showed a band-pass pattern, with more transitions for middle-band faces (≈5-20 cycles/face) than for low-band (≈20 cpf) ones. These findings were similar for the learning and testing phases. The distributions of transitions across facial features were similar for the middle-band, high-band, and unfiltered faces, showing a concentration on the eyes and mouth; conversely, low-band faces elicited mostly transitions involving the nose and nasion. The eye movement patterns elicited by low, middle, and high bands are similar to those previous researchers have suggested reflect holistic, configural, and featural processing, respectively. More generally, our results are compatible with the hypotheses that eye movements are functional, and that the visual system makes flexible use of visuospatial information in face processing. Finally, our finding that only middle spatial frequencies yielded the same number and distribution of fixations as unfiltered faces adds more evidence to the idea that these frequencies are especially important for face recognition, and reveals a possible mediator for the superior performance that they elicit.

  18. Define and Quantify the Physics of Air Flow, Pressure Drop and Aerosol Collection in Nuclear Grade HEPA Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Murray E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-23

    Objective: Develop a set of peer-review and verified analytical methods to adjust HEPA filter performance to different flow rates, temperatures and altitudes. Experimental testing will measure HEPA filter flow rate, pressure drop and efficiency to verify the analytical approach. Nuclear facilities utilize HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) filters to purify air flow for workspace ventilation. However, the ASME AG-1 technical standard (Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment) does not adequately describe air flow measurement units for HEPA filter systems. Specifically, the AG-1 standard does not differentiate between volumetric air flow in ACFM (actual cubic feet per minute)compared to mass flow measured in SCFM (standard cubic feet per minute). More importantly, the AG-1 standard has an overall deficiency for using HEPA filter devices at different air flow rates, temperatures, and altitudes. Technical Approach: The collection efficiency and pressure drops of 18 different HEPA filters will be measured over a range of flow rates, temperatures and altitudes. The experimental results will be compared to analytical scoping calculations. Three manufacturers have allocated six HEPA filters each for this effort. The 18 filters will be tested at two different flow rates, two different temperatures and two different altitudes. The 36 total tests will be conducted at two different facilities: the ATI Test facilities (Baltimore MD) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos NM). The Radiation Protection RP-SVS group at Los Alamos has an aerosol wind tunnel that was originally designed to evaluate small air samplers. In 2010, modifications were started to convert the wind tunnel for HEPA filter testing. (Extensive changes were necessary for the required aerosol generators, HEPA test fixtures, temperature control devices and measurement capabilities.) To this date, none of these modification activities have been funded through a specific DOE or NNSA program. This is

  19. Adaptive Filter in SAR Interferometry Derived DEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Caijun; WANG Hua; WANG Jianglin; GE Linlin

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of median filter, elevation dependent adaptive sigma median filter, and directionally dependent adaptive sigma median filter are tested on both InSAR Tandem DEM and simulated high-level noisy DEM. Through the comparison, the directionally dependent adaptive sigma median filter is proved to be the most effective one not only in the noise removing but also in the boundary preserve.

  20. 覆膜滤简侧壁压力正峰值的测试与分析%Pressure Peak Test and Analysis of Membrane Cartridge Filter Side Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑娟; 张明星; 周奇杰; 张一帜; 蔡广贝

    2011-01-01

    In order to research the effects of peak size of side wall at the time of pulse jet on cleaning performance of normal polyester cartridge. The polytetrafluoroethene (PTFE) microporous membrane filter tube and self-made pulse injection experiment platform was used to tested the pressure peak size of cartridge filter side wall. Two kinds filter tubes with 47 mm in diameter and 1 000, 1 500 mm in length were tested and analyzed, and compared to the pressure peak size of ordinary polyester fiber filter tube. The results showed that the upper, middle and lower pressure peak sizes of PTFE microporous membrane filter tube were 5~10 times as that of ordinary polyester fiber filter tube. The main filtering mechanism was cartridge cleaning effect of PTFE microporous membrane filter tube whose filtration and ventilation were small was better than ordinary polyester fiber tube. Comparing two kinds of membrane filter tube with 1 000, 1 500 mm in length in the same condition, it was found that the trends of pressure values changes were different in the cartridge length direction.%为研究脉冲喷吹时滤筒侧壁压力正峰值大小对普通聚酯滤筒的清灰性能的影响,针对材质为聚四氟乙烯的覆膜滤筒,采用自制脉冲喷吹实验台,通过测试滤筒侧壁压力正峰值大小,对直径为147 mm、长度为1 000、1 500 mm的两种滤筒进行测试与分析,并与普通聚酯纤维滤筒的侧壁压力正峰值大小相比较.结果表明:聚四氟乙烯覆膜滤筒各测点的压力正峰值约是普通聚酯纤维滤筒的5~10倍,过滤机理主要为表现过滤,且透气性小的聚四氟乙烯覆膜滤筒清灰效果比普通聚酯纤维滤筒要好;在相同务件下,不同长度的滤筒在滤筒长度方向上,其压力值变化趋势不同.

  1. Adaptive filtering for ECG rejection from surface EMG recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marque, C; Bisch, C; Dantas, R; Elayoubi, S; Brosse, V; Pérot, C

    2005-06-01

    Surface electromyograms (EMG) of back muscles are often corrupted by electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. This noise in the EMG signals does not allow to appreciate correctly the spectral content of the EMG signals and to follow its evolution during, for example, a fatigue process. Several methods have been proposed to reject the ECG noise from EMG recordings, but seldom taking into account the eventual changes in ECG characteristics during the experiment. In this paper we propose an adaptive filtering algorithm specifically developed for the rejection of the electrocardiogram corrupting surface electromyograms (SEMG). The first step of the study was to choose the ECG electrode position in order to record the ECG with a shape similar to that found in the noised SEMGs. Then, the efficiency of different algorithms were tested on 28 erector spinae SEMG recordings. The best algorithm belongs to the fast recursive least square family (FRLS). More precisely, the best results were obtained with the simplified formulation of a FRLS algorithm. As an application of the adaptive filtering, the paper compares the evolutions of spectral parameters of noised or denoised (after adaptive filtering) surface EMGs recorded on erector spinae muscles during a trunk extension. The fatigue test was analyzed on 16 EMG recordings. After adaptive filtering, mean initial values of energy and of mean power frequency (MPF) were significantly lower and higher respectively. The differences corresponded to the removal of the ECG components. Furthermore, classical fatigue criteria (increase in energy and decrease in MPF values over time during the fatigue test) were better observed on the denoised EMGs. The mean values of the slopes of the energy-time and MPF-time linear relationships differed significantly when established before and after adaptive filtering. These results account for the efficacy of the adaptive filtering method proposed here to denoise electrophysiological signals.

  2. Spot- Zombie Filtering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathy Rajagopal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A major security challenge on the Internet is the existence of the large number of compromised machines. Such machines have been increasingly used to launch various security attacks including spamming and spreading malware, DDoS, and identity theft. These compromised machines are called “Zombies”. In general E-mail applications and providers uses spam filters to filter the spam messages. Spam filtering is a technique for discriminating the genuine message from the spam messages. The attackers send the spam messages to the targeted machine by exalting the filters, which causes the increase in false positives and false negatives. We develop an effective spam zombie detection system named SPOT by monitoring outgoing messages of a network. SPOT focuses on the number of outgoing messages that are originated or forwarded by each computer on a network to identify the presence of Zombies. SPOT is designed based on a powerful statistical tool called Sequential Probability Ratio Test, which has bounded false positive and false negative error rates.

  3. Spot- Zombie Filtering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathy Rajagopal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A major security challenge on the Internet is the existence of the large number of compromised machines. Such machines have been increasingly used to launch various security attacks including spamming and spreading malware, DDoS, and identity theft. These compromised machines are called "Zombies". In general E-mail applications and providers uses spam filters to filter the spam messages. Spam filtering is a technique for discriminating the genuine message from the spam messages. The attackers send the spam messages to the targeted machine by exalting the filters, which causes the increase in false positives and false negatives. We develop an effective spam zombie detection system named SPOT by monitoring outgoing messages of a network. SPOT focuses on the number of outgoing messages that are originated or forwarded by each computer on a network to identify the presence of Zombies. SPOT is designed based on a powerful statistical tool called Sequential Probability Ratio Test, which has bounded false positive and false negative error rates.

  4. Further development of the cleanable steel HEPA filter, cost/benefit analysis, and comparison with competing technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Lopez, R.; Wilson, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    We have made further progress in developing a cleanable steel fiber HEPA filter. We fabricated a pleated cylindrical cartridge using commercially available steel fiber media that is made with 1 {mu}m stainless steel fibers and sintered into a sheet form. Test results at the Department of Energy (DOE) Filter Test Station at Oak Ridge show the prototype filter cartridge has 99.99% efficiency for 0.3 {mu}m dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosols and a pressure drop of 1.5 inches. Filter loading and cleaning tests using AC Fine dust showed the filter could be repeatedly cleaned using reverse air pulses. Our analysis of commercially optimized filters suggest that cleanable steel HEPA filters need to be made from steel fibers less than 1{mu}m, and preferably 0.5 {mu}m, to meet the standard HEPA filter requirements in production units. We have demonstrated that 0.5 {mu}m steel fibers can be produced using the fiber bundling and drawing process. The 0.5 {mu}m steel fibers are then sintered into small filter samples and tested for efficiency and pressure drop. Test results on the sample showed a penetration of 0.0015 % at 0.3 {mu}m and a pressure drop of 1.15 inches at 6.9 ft/min (3.5 cm/s) velocity. Based on these results, steel fiber media can easily meet the requirements of 0.03 % penetration and 1.0 inch of pressure drop by using less fibers in the media. A cost analysis of the cleanable steel HEPA filter shows that, although the steel HEPA filter costs much more than the standard glass fiber HEPA filter, it has the potential to be very cost effective because of the high disposal costs of contaminated HEPA filters. We estimate that the steel HEPA filter will save an average of $16,000 over its 30 year life. The additional savings from the clean-up costs resulting from ruptured glass HEPA filters during accidents was not included but makes the steel HEPA filter even more cost effective. 33 refs., 28 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Particle and Kalman filtering for state estimation and control of DC motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigatos, Gerasimos G

    2009-01-01

    State estimation is a major problem in industrial systems. To this end, Gaussian and nonparametric filters have been developed. In this paper the Kalman Filter, which assumes Gaussian measurement noise, is compared to the Particle Filter, which does not make any assumption on the measurement noise distribution. As a case study the estimation of the state vector of a DC motor is used. The reconstructed state vector is used in a feedback control loop to generate the control input of the DC motor. In simulation tests it was observed that for a large number of particles the Particle Filter could succeed in accurately estimating the motor's state vector, but at the same time it required higher computational effort.

  6. PLUTONIUM-URANIUM EXTRACTION (PUREX) FACILITY ALARACT DEMONSTRATION FOR FILTER HOUSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LEBARON GJ

    2008-11-25

    This document presents an As Low As Reasonably Achievable Control Technology (ALARACT) demonstration for evaluating corrosion on the I-beam supporting filter housing No.9 for the 291-A-l emission unit of the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Facility, located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. The PUREX facility is currently in surveillance and maintenance mode. During a State of Washington, Department of Health (WDOH) 291-A-l emission unit inspection, a small amount of corrosion was observed at the base of a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter housing. A series of internal and external inspections identified the source of the corrosion material as oxidation of a small section of one of the carbon steel I-beams that provides support to the stainless steel filter housing. The inspections confirmed the corrosion is isolated to one I-beam support location and does not represent any compromise of the structural support or filter housing integrity. Further testing and inspections of the support beam corrosion and its cause were conducted but did not determine the cause. No definitive evidence was found to support any degradation of the housing. Although no degradation of the housing was found, a conservative approach will be implemented. The following actions will be taken: (1) The current operating filter housing No.9 will be removed from service. (2) The only remaining available filter housings (No.1, No.2, and No.3) will be placed in service. These filter housings have new HEPA filters fitted with stainless steel frames and faceguards which were installed in the spring of 2007. (3) Filter housings No.5 and No.10 will be put on standby as backups. To document the assessment of the unit, a draft ALARACT filter housing demonstration for the PUREX filter housing was prepared, and informally provided to WDOH on August 7, 2008. A follow up WDOH response to the draft ALARACT filter housing demonstration for the PUREX filter housing questioned whether

  7. Characterization and Implementation of a Real-World Target Tracking Algorithm on Field Programmable Gate Arrays with Kalman Filter Test Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    21]. Table 2.1: Discrete Kalman filter time update equations x−k = Axk−1 + Buk (2.8) P−k = APk −1A T + Q (2.9) a posteriori error covariance [21...K*residual(:,k); Table 2.3: Comparison: Matlabr code and Kalman filter equations x−k = Axk−1 + Buk ⇐⇒ x(:, k) = phi ∗ x(:, k − 1) P−k = APk −1A T

  8. Fuel Property, Emission Test, and Operability Results from a Fleet of Class 6 Vehicles Operating on Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alleman, T. L.; Eudy, L.; Miyasato, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Allison, S.; Corcoran, T.; Chatterjee, S.; Jacobs, T.; Cherrillo, R. A.; Clark, R.; Virrels, I.; Nine, R.; Wayne, S.; Lansing, R.

    2005-11-01

    A fleet of six 2001 International Class 6 trucks operating in southern California was selected for an operability and emissions study using gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and catalyzed diesel particle filters (CDPF). Three vehicles were fueled with CARB specification diesel fuel and no emission control devices (current technology), and three vehicles were fueled with GTL fuel and retrofit with Johnson Matthey's CCRT diesel particulate filter. No engine modifications were made.

  9. Digital notch filter based active damping for LCL filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Wenli; Yang, Yongheng; Zhang, Xiaobin

    2015-01-01

    . In contrast, the active damping does not require any dissipation elements, and thus has become of increasing interest. As a result, a vast of active damping solutions have been reported, among which multi-loop control systems and additional sensors are necessary, leading to increased cost and complexity....... In this paper, a notch filter based active damping without the requirement of additional sensors is proposed, where the inverter current is employed as the feedback variable. Firstly, a design method of the notch filter for active damping is presented. The entire system stability has then been investigated...... in the z-domain. Simulations and experiments are carried out to verify the proposed active damping method. Both results have confirmed that the notch filter based active damping can ensure the entire system stability in the case of resonances with a good system performance....

  10. Does market integration buffer risk, erode traditional sharing practices and increase inequality? A test among Bolivian forager-farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurven, Michael; Jaeggi, Adrian V.; von Rueden, Chris; Hooper, Paul L.; Kaplan, Hillard

    2015-01-01

    Sharing and exchange are common practices for minimizing food insecurity in rural populations. The advent of markets and monetization in egalitarian indigenous populations presents an alternative means of managing risk, with the potential impact of eroding traditional networks. We test whether market involvement buffers several types of risk and reduces traditional sharing behavior among Tsimane Amerindians of the Bolivian Amazon. Results vary based on type of market integration and scale of analysis (household vs. village), consistent with the notion that local culture and ecology shape risk management strategies. Greater wealth and income were unassociated with the reliance on others for food, or on reciprocity, but wealth was associated with a greater proportion of food given to others (i.e., giving intensity) and a greater number of sharing partners (i.e., sharing breadth). Across villages, greater mean income was negatively associated with reciprocity, but economic inequality was positively associated with giving intensity and sharing breadth. Incipient market integration does not necessarily replace traditional buffering strategies but instead can often enhance social capital. PMID:26526638

  11. Low dose prenatal alcohol exposure does not impair spatial learning and memory in two tests in adult and aged rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlie L Cullen

    Full Text Available Consumption of alcohol during pregnancy can have detrimental impacts on the developing hippocampus, which can lead to deficits in learning and memory function. Although high levels of alcohol exposure can lead to severe deficits, there is a lack of research examining the effects of low levels of exposure. This study used a rat model to determine if prenatal exposure to chronic low dose ethanol would result in deficits in learning and memory performance and if this was associated with morphological changes within the hippocampus. Sprague Dawley rats were fed a liquid diet containing 6% (vol/vol ethanol (EtOH or an isocaloric control diet throughout gestation. Male and Female offspring underwent behavioural testing at 8 (Adult or 15 months (Aged of age. Brains from these animals were collected for stereological analysis of pyramidal neuron number and dendritic morphology within the CA1 and CA3 regions of the dorsal hippocampus. Prenatal ethanol exposed animals did not differ in spatial learning or memory performance in the Morris water maze or Y maze tasks compared to Control offspring. There was no effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on pyramidal cell number or density within the dorsal hippocampus. Overall, this study indicates that chronic low dose prenatal ethanol exposure in this model does not have long term detrimental effects on pyramidal cells within the dorsal hippocampus or impair spatial learning and memory performance.

  12. A randomised controlled pilot study to compare filtration factor of a novel non-fit-tested high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtering facemask with a fit-tested N95 mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, S S W; Gomersall, C D; Leung, P; Li, P T Y

    2010-09-01

    Use of a fit-tested N95 or FFP2 mask is recommended to protect against transmission of airborne pathogens. This poses considerable logistic problems when preparing for, or dealing with, an epidemic. Some of these problems might be overcome by use of a compact reusable high-efficiency particulate air filtering mask that can be cut to size. We carried out a randomised controlled cross-over study to compare the efficacy of such a mask (Totobobo, Dream Lab One Pte Ltd, Singapore) with fit-tested N95 masks (1860 or 1860s or 1862; 3M, St Paul, MN, USA) in 22 healthy volunteers. The median (interquartile range) reduction in airborne particle counts was significantly higher [193-fold (145-200)] for N95 masks than for Totobobo masks [135-fold (83-184)] (P or =100-fold between N95 (19/22) and Totobobo (16/22) masks. We conclude that use of the Totobobo mask without fit testing cannot be recommended, but its performance is sufficiently promising to warrant further investigation.

  13. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: FILTER FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC. - COLLOID POLISHING FILTER METHOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Filter Flow Technology, Inc. (FFT) Coloid Polishing Filter Method (CPFM) was demonstrated at the U.S Department of Energy's (DOE) Rock Flats Plant (RFP) as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Superfund and Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. ...

  14. Convergent Filter Bases

    OpenAIRE

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-01-01

    We are inspired by the work of Henri Cartan [16], Bourbaki [10] (TG. I Filtres) and Claude Wagschal [34]. We define the base of filter, image filter, convergent filter bases, limit filter and the filter base of tails (fr: filtre des sections).

  15. Convergent Filter Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We are inspired by the work of Henri Cartan [16], Bourbaki [10] (TG. I Filtres and Claude Wagschal [34]. We define the base of filter, image filter, convergent filter bases, limit filter and the filter base of tails (fr: filtre des sections.

  16. Sinogram Affirmed Iterative Reconstruction (SAFIRE) versus weighted filtered back projection (WFBP) effects on quantitative measure in the COPDGene 2 test object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieren, J P; Hoffman, E A; Fuld, M K; Chan, K S; Guo, J; Newell, J D

    2014-09-01

    Assessing pulmonary emphysema using Quantitative CT of the lung depends on accurate measures of CT density. Sinogram-Affirmed-Iterative-Reconstruction (SAFIRE) is a new approach for reconstructing CT data acquired at significantly lower doses. However, quantitative effects of this method remain unexplored. The authors investigated the effects on the median values of materials in the COPDGene2 test-object as a function of the reconstruction method [weighted filtered back projection (WFBP) versus SAFIRE], test-object size, dose, and material composition using a Siemens SOMATOM Definition FLASH CT scanner. The COPDGene2 test-object contains eight materials; acrylic, water, four foams (20 lb, 12 lb, lung-equivalent, and 4 lb emphysema-equivalent), internal and external-air. The test-object was scanned with three different outer ring sizes, simulating three different body habitus. There is an average size (36 cm) Ring A, large size (40 cm) Ring B, and small size Ring C (30 cm). The CT protocol used 120 kVp, 0.5 s rotation, 1.0 pitch, and a 0.6 slice collimation with progressively decreasing x-ray exposure values, 11.94-0.74 mGy. With a thorax length of 30 cm, the corresponding effective doses would be 5.01-0.31 mSv. The effects of using SAFIRE versus WFBP were assessed using a two tailed t-test for each ring size, material, and dose. Multivariable linear regression was used to evaluate the relative effects of ring size, material composition, dose, and reconstruction method on the measured median value in HU. SAFIRE versus WFBP, at the largest ring size and two lowest doses there was a significant difference in median values of 4 lb-foam, p<0.01. Using the smallest ring size at the lowest dose level there was a significant difference in the median value of 4 lb-foam, but the effect size was small, 1 HU. There is a significant difference in median values of both internal and external air using both the small and medium size rings at the three lowest dose levels, p<0

  17. Semiclassical modelling of finite-pulse effects on non-adiabatic photodynamics via initial condition filtering: The predissociation of NaI as a test case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Mesa, Aliezer [Departmento de Física Teórica, Universidad de la Habana, San Lázaro y L, La Habana 10400 (Cuba); Institut für Chemie, Universität Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Saalfrank, Peter [Institut für Chemie, Universität Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany)

    2015-05-21

    Femtosecond-laser pulse driven non-adiabatic spectroscopy and dynamics in molecular and condensed phase systems continue to be a challenge for theoretical modelling. One of the main obstacles is the “curse of dimensionality” encountered in non-adiabatic, exact wavepacket propagation. A possible route towards treating complex molecular systems is via semiclassical surface-hopping schemes, in particular if they account not only for non-adiabatic post-excitation dynamics but also for the initial optical excitation. One such approach, based on initial condition filtering, will be put forward in what follows. As a simple test case which can be compared with exact wavepacket dynamics, we investigate the influence of the different parameters determining the shape of a laser pulse (e.g., its finite width and a possible chirp) on the predissociation dynamics of a NaI molecule, upon photoexcitation of the A(0{sup +}) state. The finite-pulse effects are mapped into the initial conditions for semiclassical surface-hopping simulations. The simulated surface-hopping diabatic populations are in qualitative agreement with the quantum mechanical results, especially concerning the subpicosend photoinduced dynamics, the main deviations being the relative delay of the non-adiabatic transitions in the semiclassical picture. Likewise, these differences in the time-dependent electronic populations calculated via the semiclassical and the quantum methods are found to have a mild influence on the overall probability density distribution. As a result, the branching ratios between the bound and the dissociative reaction channels and the time-evolution of the molecular wavepacket predicted by the semiclassical method agree with those computed using quantum wavepacket propagation. Implications for more challenging molecular systems are given.

  18. Robust Kriged Kalman Filtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baingana, Brian; Dall' Anese, Emiliano; Mateos, Gonzalo; Giannakis, Georgios B.

    2015-11-11

    Although the kriged Kalman filter (KKF) has well-documented merits for prediction of spatial-temporal processes, its performance degrades in the presence of outliers due to anomalous events, or measurement equipment failures. This paper proposes a robust KKF model that explicitly accounts for presence of measurement outliers. Exploiting outlier sparsity, a novel l1-regularized estimator that jointly predicts the spatial-temporal process at unmonitored locations, while identifying measurement outliers is put forth. Numerical tests are conducted on a synthetic Internet protocol (IP) network, and real transformer load data. Test results corroborate the effectiveness of the novel estimator in joint spatial prediction and outlier identification.

  19. NOVEL MICROWAVE FILTER DESIGN TECHNIQUES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE FILTERS, MICROWAVE FREQUENCY, PHASE SHIFT CIRCUITS, BANDPASS FILTERS, TUNED CIRCUITS, NETWORKS, IMPEDANCE MATCHING , LOW PASS FILTERS, MULTIPLEXING, MICROWAVE EQUIPMENT, WAVEGUIDE FILTERS, WAVEGUIDE COUPLERS.

  20. Miniaturized dielectric waveguide filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Muhammad Y.; Hunter, Ian C.

    2016-10-01

    Design techniques for a new class of integrated monolithic high-permittivity ceramic waveguide filters are presented. These filters enable a size reduction of 50% compared to air-filled transverse electromagnetic filters with the same unloaded Q-factor. Designs for Chebyshev and asymmetric generalised Chebyshev filter and a diplexer are presented with experimental results for an 1800 MHz Chebyshev filter and a 1700 MHz generalised Chebyshev filter showing excellent agreement with theory.

  1. Ensemble Kalman filtering without the intrinsic need for inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bocquet

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The main intrinsic source of error in the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF is sampling error. External sources of error, such as model error or deviations from Gaussianity, depend on the dynamical properties of the model. Sampling errors can lead to instability of the filter which, as a consequence, often requires inflation and localization. The goal of this article is to derive an ensemble Kalman filter which is less sensitive to sampling errors. A prior probability density function conditional on the forecast ensemble is derived using Bayesian principles. Even though this prior is built upon the assumption that the ensemble is Gaussian-distributed, it is different from the Gaussian probability density function defined by the empirical mean and the empirical error covariance matrix of the ensemble, which is implicitly used in traditional EnKFs. This new prior generates a new class of ensemble Kalman filters, called finite-size ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF-N. One deterministic variant, the finite-size ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF-N, is derived. It is tested on the Lorenz '63 and Lorenz '95 models. In this context, ETKF-N is shown to be stable without inflation for ensemble size greater than the model unstable subspace dimension, at the same numerical cost as the ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF. One variant of ETKF-N seems to systematically outperform the ETKF with optimally tuned inflation. However it is shown that ETKF-N does not account for all sampling errors, and necessitates localization like any EnKF, whenever the ensemble size is too small. In order to explore the need for inflation in this small ensemble size regime, a local version of the new class of filters is defined (LETKF-N and tested on the Lorenz '95 toy model. Whatever the size of the ensemble, the filter is stable. Its performance without inflation is slightly inferior to that of LETKF with optimally tuned inflation for small interval between updates, and

  2. The Research of Test Station in Filter Pressure Drop Testing%综合测试台在滤棒吸阻检测中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊恒伟

    2013-01-01

    In order to find the reason of the deviation between DT and OM-Ⅰ test station in filter pressure drop, we compare the difference of the bias and stability of DT and OM-Ⅰ test station. There is an obvious drift phenomenon in OM-Ⅰ test station. In order to solve that problem, we change the A/D conversion module and modify the formula of the pressure drop. The results showed that: the bias of pressure drop test result can control within 50 Pa by using OM-Ⅰ test station; the frequency of calibration can be extended to once a day. Therefore, the accuracy and stability of the OM-Ⅰ test station is improved after upgrade, the test results are more reliable. And it' s suitable for the pressure drop test in difference environment conditions between the workshop and QC room.%为寻找公司配置的德国Blogwaldt KC公司DT和北京欧美利华公司OM-Ⅰ综合测试台在滤棒吸阻项目检测车间和实验室的检测结果存在偏差的原因,在考察了综合测试台的偏倚和稳定性后,发现OM-Ⅰ综合测试台存在漂移现象明显的问题,并通过更换A/D转换模块、修改吸阻计算公式进行改造.结果显示,OM-Ⅰ综合测试台在改造后可以将车间和实验室的检测结果的偏差控制在50Pa范围内;校准频次可以由每班1次延长至每天1次.因此,改造后的OM-Ⅰ综合测试台检测的准确性和稳定性得到了提升,检测结果更加可靠,适合车间和质检室环境温湿度条件不一致情况下的滤棒吸阻检测.

  3. CHANGE DETECTION VIA SELECTIVE GUIDED CONTRASTING FILTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Vizilter

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Change detection scheme based on guided contrasting was previously proposed. Guided contrasting filter takes two images (test and sample as input and forms the output as filtered version of test image. Such filter preserves the similar details and smooths the non-similar details of test image with respect to sample image. Due to this the difference between test image and its filtered version (difference map could be a basis for robust change detection. Guided contrasting is performed in two steps: at the first step some smoothing operator (SO is applied for elimination of test image details; at the second step all matched details are restored with local contrast proportional to the value of some local similarity coefficient (LSC. The guided contrasting filter was proposed based on local average smoothing as SO and local linear correlation as LSC. In this paper we propose and implement new set of selective guided contrasting filters based on different combinations of various SO and thresholded LSC. Linear average and Gaussian smoothing, nonlinear median filtering, morphological opening and closing are considered as SO. Local linear correlation coefficient, morphological correlation coefficient (MCC, mutual information, mean square MCC and geometrical correlation coefficients are applied as LSC. Thresholding of LSC allows operating with non-normalized LSC and enhancing the selective properties of guided contrasting filters: details are either totally recovered or not recovered at all after the smoothing. These different guided contrasting filters are tested as a part of previously proposed change detection pipeline, which contains following stages: guided contrasting filtering on image pyramid, calculation of difference map, binarization, extraction of change proposals and testing change proposals using local MCC. Experiments on real and simulated image bases demonstrate the applicability of all proposed selective guided contrasting filters. All

  4. Change Detection via Selective Guided Contrasting Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizilter, Y. V.; Rubis, A. Y.; Zheltov, S. Y.

    2017-05-01

    Change detection scheme based on guided contrasting was previously proposed. Guided contrasting filter takes two images (test and sample) as input and forms the output as filtered version of test image. Such filter preserves the similar details and smooths the non-similar details of test image with respect to sample image. Due to this the difference between test image and its filtered version (difference map) could be a basis for robust change detection. Guided contrasting is performed in two steps: at the first step some smoothing operator (SO) is applied for elimination of test image details; at the second step all matched details are restored with local contrast proportional to the value of some local similarity coefficient (LSC). The guided contrasting filter was proposed based on local average smoothing as SO and local linear correlation as LSC. In this paper we propose and implement new set of selective guided contrasting filters based on different combinations of various SO and thresholded LSC. Linear average and Gaussian smoothing, nonlinear median filtering, morphological opening and closing are considered as SO. Local linear correlation coefficient, morphological correlation coefficient (MCC), mutual information, mean square MCC and geometrical correlation coefficients are applied as LSC. Thresholding of LSC allows operating with non-normalized LSC and enhancing the selective properties of guided contrasting filters: details are either totally recovered or not recovered at all after the smoothing. These different guided contrasting filters are tested as a part of previously proposed change detection pipeline, which contains following stages: guided contrasting filtering on image pyramid, calculation of difference map, binarization, extraction of change proposals and testing change proposals using local MCC. Experiments on real and simulated image bases demonstrate the applicability of all proposed selective guided contrasting filters. All implemented

  5. Hardware Approach of a Multipurpose Finite Impulse Response Filter for Real-Time Filtering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. S. Amin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Finite Impulse Response (FIR filters are widely used in various DSP applications. The design of digital FIR filters is a very basic problem in digital signal processing. A FIR filter with multiple operation capability is certainly very useful for any real-time filtering applications. This article presents a multipurpose FIR filter design modeled by the hardware description language VHDL for real-time filtering application. Approach: The VHDL has its concept of concurrency to cope with the parallelism of digital hardware. The novel feature is the capability of the design to accomplish up to 127variable filter order and an arbitrary filter frequency response. The coefficients are calculated by Hamming windowing technique. Basing on selection embedded in the design, the model is able to execute highpass, lowpass, bandstop and bandpass filtering operations. It is set at 8-bit signed data processing. To filter the input data in time domain, Linear Constant Coefficient Difference Equation (LCCDE is used by the filter. Results: The design outputs are validated through simulation and compilation. The output results are also compared with the MATLAB implemented calculated output results to test the correctness that proves the effectiveness of the design. Conclusion: With the capability of filtering signal in real time mode utilizing arbitrary filter shape, the multipurpose filter proves to be versatile.

  6. A Novel Framework for Shock Filter Using Partial Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunmei Duan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In dilation or erosion processes, a shock filter is widely used in signal enhancing or image deburring. Traditionally, sign function is employed in shock filtering for reweighting of edge-detection in images and decides whether a pixel should dilate to the local maximum or evolve to the local minimum. Some researchers replace sign function with tanh function or arctan function, trying to change the evolution tracks of the pixels when filtering is in progress. However, analysis here reveals that only function replacement does usually not work. This paper revisits first shock filters and their modifications. Then, a fuzzy shock filter is proposed after a membership function in a shock filter model is adopted to adjust the evolve rate of image pixels. The proposed filter is a parameter tuning system, which unites several formulations of shock filters into one fuzzy framework. Experimental results show that the new filter is flexible and robust and can converge fast.

  7. Archimedes Mass Filter Vaporizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putvinski, S.; Agnew, A. F.; Cluggish, B. P.; Ohkawa, T.; Sevier, L.; Umstadter, K. R.; Dresvin, S. V.; Kuteev, B. V.; Feygenson, O. N.; Ivanov, D. V.; Zverev, S. G.; Miroshnikov, I. V.; Egorov, S. M.; Kiesewetter, D. V.; Maliugin, V. I.

    2001-10-01

    Archimedes Technology Group, Inc., is developing a plasma mass separator called the Archimedes Filter that separates waste oxide mixtures ion by ion into two mass groups: light and heavy. Since high-level waste at Hanford has 99.9its radioactivity associated with heavy elements, the Archimedes Filter can effectively decontaminate over three-quarters of that waste. The Filter process involves some preprocessing followed by volatilization and separation by the magnetic and electric fields of the main plasma. This presentation describes the approach to volatilization of the waste oxy-hydroxide mixture by means of a very high heat flux (q > 10 MW/m2). Such a high heat flux is required to ensure congruent evaporation of the complex oxy-hydroxide mixture and is achieved by injection of small droplets of molten waste into an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) torch. This presentation further addresses different issues related to evaporation of the waste including modeling of droplet evaporation, estimates of parameters of plasma torch, and 2D modeling of the plasma. The experimental test bed for oxide vaporization and results of the initial experiments on oxide evaporation in 60 kW ICP torch will also be described.

  8. Filter quality of pleated filter cartridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Wan; Huang, Sheng-Hsiu; Chiang, Che-Ming; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Chen, Chih-Chieh

    2008-04-01

    The performance of dust cartridge filters commonly used in dust masks and in room ventilation depends both on the collection efficiency of the filter material and the pressure drop across the filter. Currently, the optimization of filter design is based only on minimizing the pressure drop at a set velocity chosen by the manufacturer. The collection efficiency, an equally important factor, is rarely considered in the optimization process. In this work, a filter quality factor, which combines the collection efficiency and the pressure drop, is used as the optimization criterion for filter evaluation. Most respirator manufacturers pleat the filter to various extents to increase the filtration area in the limit space within the dust cartridge. Six sizes of filter holders were fabricated to hold just one pleat of filter, simulating six different pleat counts, ranging from 0.5 to 3.33 pleats cm(-1). The possible electrostatic charges on the filter were removed by dipping in isopropyl alcohol, and the air velocity is fixed at 100 cm s(-1). Liquid dicotylphthalate particles generated by a constant output atomizer were used as challenge aerosols to minimize particle loading effects. A scanning mobility particle sizer was used to measure the challenge aerosol number concentrations and size distributions upstream and downstream of the pleated filter. The pressure drop across the filter was monitored by using a calibrated pressure transducer. The results showed that the performance of pleated filters depend not only on the size of the particle but also on the pleat count of the pleated filter. Based on filter quality factor, the optimal pleat count (OPC) is always higher than that based on pressure drop by about 0.3-0.5 pleats cm(-1). For example, the OPC is 2.15 pleats cm(-1) from the standpoint of pressure drop, but for the highest filter quality factor, the pleated filter needed to have a pleat count of 2.65 pleats cm(-1) at particle diameter of 122 nm. From the aspect of

  9. Antigen-induced cytokine and chemokine release test for tuberculosis infection using adsorption of stimulated whole blood on filter paper and multiplex analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogstrand, Kristin; Thysen, Anna H; Jørgensen, Charlotte S

    2012-01-01

    of inflammatory markers in samples from suspected MTI patients confirmed the IFN-γ findings in the QFT. IL-2, GM-CSF, IL-5, and IL-1β were also found as useful markers for MTI. We were not able to distinguish between active tuberculosis and latent MTI. Conclusion: Applying blood on filter paper after incubation...

  10. Investigation of filter sets for supervised pixel classification of cephalometric landmarks by spatial spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, D J; Coggins, J M; Moon, H

    1997-12-01

    The diagnostic process of orthodontics requires the analysis of a cephalometric radiograph. Image landmarks on this two-dimensional lateral projection image of the patient's head are manually identified and spatial relationships are evaluated. This method is very time consuming. A reliable method for automatic computer landmark identification does not exist. Spatial Spectroscopy is a proposed method of automatic landmark identification on cephalometric radiographs, that decomposes an image by convolving it with a set of filters followed by a statistical decision process. The purpose of this paper is to discuss and test appropriate filter sets for the application of Spatial Spectroscopy for automatic identification of cephalometric radiographic landmarks. This study evaluated two different filter sets with 15 landmarks on fourteen images. Spatial Spectroscopy was able to consistently locate landmarks on all 14 cephalometric radiographs tested. The mean landmark identification error of 0.841 +/- 1.253 pixels for a Multiscale Derivative filter set and 0.912 +/- 1.364 pixels for an Offset Gaussian filter set was not significantly different. Furthermore, there were no significant differences between identification of individual landmarks for the Multiscale Derivative and the Offset Gaussian filter set (P > 0.05). These results suggest that Spatial Spectroscopy may be useful in landmark identification tasks.

  11. Seismic Monitoring Prior to and During DFDP-2 Drilling, Alpine Fault, New Zealand: Matched-Filter Detection Testing and the Real-Time Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boese, C. M.; Chamberlain, C. J.; Townend, J.

    2015-12-01

    In preparation for the second stage of the Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP) and as part of related research projects, borehole and surface seismic stations were installed near the intended DFDP-2 drill-site in the Whataroa Valley from late 2008. The final four borehole stations were installed within 1.2 km of the drill-site in early 2013 to provide near-field observations of any seismicity that occurred during drilling and thus provide input into operational decision-making processes if required. The basis for making operational decisions in response to any detected seismicity had been established as part of a safety review conducted in early 2014 and was implemented using a "traffic light" system, a communications plan, and other operational documents. Continuous real-time earthquake monitoring took place throughout the drilling period, between September and late December 2014, and involved a team of up to 15 seismologists working in shifts near the drill-site and overseas. Prior to drilling, records from 55 local earthquakes and 14 quarry blasts were used as master templates in a matched-filter detection algorithm to test the capabilities of the seismic network for detecting seismicity near the drill site. The newly detected microseismicity was clustered near the DFDP-1 drill site at Gaunt Creek, 7.4 km southwest of DFDP-2. Relocations of these detected events provide more information about the fault geometry in this area. Although no detectable seismicity occurred within 5 km of the drill site during the drilling period, the region is capable of generating earthquakes that would have required an operational response had they occurred while drilling was underway (including a M2.9 event northwest of Gaunt Creek on 15 August 2014). The largest event to occur while drilling was underway was of M4.5 and occurred approximately 40 km east of the DFDP-2 drill site. In this presentation, we summarize the setup and operations of the seismic network and discuss key

  12. Composing morphological filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.A.M. Heijmans (Henk)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractA morphological filter is an operator on a complete lattice which is increasing and idempotent. Two well-known classes of morphological filters are openings and closings. Furthermore, an interesting class of filters, the alternating sequential filters, is obtained if one composes openin

  13. Composing morphological filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, H.J.A.M.

    1995-01-01

    A morphological filter is an operator on a complete lattice which is increasing and idempotent. Two well-known classes of morphological filters are openings and closings. Furthermore, an interesting class of filters, the alternating sequential filters, is obtained if one composes openings and closi

  14. Discriminating colors through a red filter by protanopes and colour normals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconu, Vasile; Sullivan, David; Bouchard, Jean F; Vucea, Valentina

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with color vision deficiency have difficulties in differentiating colour in their daily activities. Through certain coloured filters, dichromats may report an improvement of their capacity to differentiate colors, but it is not known if this is achieved by means of a chromatic mechanism. The present study attempts to explain the mechanism by which a coloured filter can produce a beneficial effect in dichromatic visual perception and what is the nature of this improvement. Four male protanopes and four normal trichromats (two males and two females) participated in the present study. We evaluated the effect of the red filter (with a spectral transmittance similar to that of the X-Chrom filter) on the detection thresholds for monochromatic light stimuli from 420 to 660 nm in 20 nm steps. The increment spectral sensitivity functions were measured for 1.2 degrees diameter test flashes presented for 300 ms on a 60-cd m(-2) illuminant C background using an optical bench with a monochromator, for both filter and no filter conditions. The capacity to correctly name green, yellow and red for the monochromatic lights of 550, 575 and 625 nm presented for 300 ms on a 60 cd m(-2) illuminant C background screen was also evaluated with and without the red filter. The spectral sensitivity data suggest that, the use of a red filter improves the protanope's capacity to detect long wavelength light stimuli. The results on the colors naming procedure demonstrate that the red filter modifies colour perception in normal and protanope subjects. In normals, only the red color perception is preserved, and typical colour perception for the green and the yellow is lost. Without the filter, all the protanopes demonstrated a residual colour perception for red and green colours. Through the red filter only red colour perception remains. A red filter does not improve the protanopic red-green perception, but it does improve the ability of the protanope to detect long-wavelength light

  15. A Passive EMI Filter Requiring Access to the Ungrounded Motor-Neutral Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oe, Takehiko; Akagi, Hirofumi

    The authors have already proposed a passive EMI filter that does require access to the motor-neutral point. The EMI filter has been applied to an induction motor driven by a voltage-source PWM inverter with a three-phase diode rectifier used as the front end. Experimental results have shown that the EMI filter can mitigate leakage currents flowing out of the motor and the heat sink, as well as bearing currents circulating inside the motor. This paper deals with a passive EMI filter for preventing high-frequency leakage currents from flowing through the heat sink of a voltage-source PWM inverter together with a voltage-source PWM rectifier used as the front end. Both rectifier and inverter have the same carrier frequency as 14kHz. The tested motor equipped with the motor-neutral line is an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPM-SM) rated at 190V, 5.5kW, 6 poles and 1,800rpm. This paper designs, constructs and tests two types of EMI filters. These filters consist mainly of two 10-mH identical common-mode inductors that are installed on the ac sides of the rectifier and the inverter, respectively. However, the two filters are slightly different in that one accesses to the dc-link mid-point, and the other does not access to it. Experimental waveforms verify that the former is superior to the latter in eliminating the high-frequency leakage currents from both the heat sink and the motor.

  16. Passive Power Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Künzi, R

    2015-01-01

    Power converters require passive low-pass filters which are capable of reducing voltage ripples effectively. In contrast to signal filters, the components of power filters must carry large currents or withstand large voltages, respectively. In this paper, three different suitable filter struc tures for d.c./d.c. power converters with inductive load are introduced. The formulas needed to calculate the filter components are derived step by step and practical examples are given. The behaviour of the three discussed filters is compared by means of the examples. P ractical aspects for the realization of power filters are also discussed.

  17. Actively Pumped Optical Filters at 532 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billmers, Richard I.; Gayen, S. K.; Contarino, Vincent M.; Scharpf, William J.; Squicciarini, Martin F.; Allocca, David A.

    1995-01-01

    The operation of two narrow-band optical filters at 532.33 nm is presented. Both of these filters operate on the 4P(sub 1/2) to 8S(sub 1/2) excited-state transition in potassium vapor. One of the filters is based on excited-state Faraday effect, and requires the application of an external axial magnetic field. The peak transmission of this filter is approximately 3.5% with a linewidth of less than 10 GHz. The second filter does not require a magnetic field for its operation, but readily attains peak transmissions of 25-30%. The 4P(sub 1/2) state is excited by a 769.9 nm light pulse which is linearly polarized for the first scheme and circularly polarized for the second.

  18. Estimation of Upper Bound for Order of Filters used in Perfect Reconstruction Filter Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Nagendra

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Filter banks are widely used in variety of applications such as signal compression, multi-channel transmission, conditioning of power supply, coding and decoding of signals, etc. Perfect reconstruction filter banks are used in the applications where it is essential to reconstruct the original signal with minimum errors. Compression of satellite vibration test data is one such application where perfect reconstruction filter banks can be used to design wavelets. These wavelets are used in transform coding stage of compression algorithm. It is required to have higher order for filters used in perfect reconstruction filter banks, to ensure better filter characteristics. The study carried out in this work, estimates the upper bound for order that can be assigned to filters used in perfect reconstruction filter banks

  19. Evaluation and compilation of DOE [Department of Energy] waste package test data; Biannual report, February 1988--July 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Interrante, C.; Escalante, E.; Fraker, A.; Plante, E.

    1989-10-01

    This report summarizes evaluations by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) of Department of Energy (DOE) activities on waste packages designed for containment of radioactive high-level nuclear waste (HLW) for the six month period February 1988 through July 1988. Activities for the DOE Materials Characterization Center are reviewed for the period January 1988 through June 1988. A summary is given of the Yucca Mountain, Nevada disposal site activities. Short discussions relating to the reviewed publications are given and complete reviews and evaluations are included. 20 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Self-commissioning notch filter for active damping in three phase LCL-filter based grid converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alzola, Rafael Pena; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede;

    2013-01-01

    challenge the LCL-filter stability. Active damping by using a notch filter on the reference voltage for the modulator is simple to implement and does not require additional sensors. With the notch frequency tuned for the resonant frequency the voltage reference does not contain any component susceptible...... of exciting the LCL-filter. However, the notch filter tuning requires considerable design effort and the variations in the resonance frequency limit the LCL-filter robustness. This paper proposes a simple tuning procedure for the notch filter that results in proper robustness. In order to cope with the grid...... inductance variations it is proposed to estimate the resonance frequency by means of Fourier analysis. The Goertzel algorithm, instead of the FFT, is used to reduce the calculation and memory requirements. Thus, the proposed self-commissioning notch filter results robust and consumes little computational...

  1. End of FY2014 Report - Filter Measurement System for Nuclear Material Storage Canisters (Including Altitude Correction for Filter Pressure Drop)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Murray E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reeves, Kirk Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-24

    Two LANL FTS (Filter Test System ) devices for nuclear material storage canisters are fully operational. One is located in PF-4 ( i.e. the TA-55 FTS) while the other is located at the Radiation Protection Division’s Aerosol Engineering Facility ( i.e. the TA-3 FTS). The systems are functionally equivalent , with the TA-3 FTS being the test-bed for new additions and for resolving any issues found in the TA-55 FTS. There is currently one unresolved issue regarding the TA-55 FTS device. The canister lid clamp does not give a leak tight seal when testing the 1 QT (quart) or 2 QT SAVY lids. An adapter plate is being developed that will ensure a correct test configuration when the 1 or 2 QT SAVY lid s are being tested .

  2. FILTER COMPONENT ASSESSMENT--CERAMIC CANDLES--

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Alvin

    2004-04-23

    Efforts at Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) have been focused on development of hot gas filter systems as an enabling technology for advanced coal and biomass-based gas turbine power generation applications. SWPC has been actively involved in the development of advanced filter materials and component configuration, has participated in numerous surveillance programs characterizing the material properties and microstructure of field tested filter elements, and has undertaken extended, accelerated filter life testing programs. This report summarizes the results of SWPC's filter component assessment efforts, identifying the performance and stability of porous monolithic, fiber reinforced, and filament wound ceramic hot gas candle filters, potentially for {ge}3 years of viable pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) service operating life.

  3. Aspects of tests and assessment of filtering materials used for respiratory protection against bioaerosols. Part I: type of active substance, contact time, microorganism species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzycka, Katarzyna; Gutarowska, Beata; Brochocka, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on antimicrobial activity of polymer filter nonwovens produced by needle-punching or melt-blowing with an addition of disinfecting agents. The first part of the paper discusses how the biocidal activity of nonwovens is a function of the active agent added to the nonwovens, the duration of the contact of microorganisms with nonwovens and the type of microorganisms. The types of fibres and disinfecting agents had a considerable effect on the biocidal activity of nonwovens. The biocidal effect of nonwovens increased with the duration of their contact with microorganisms. Fibre activity differed considerably depending on the species of the microorganism. The microorganisms most sensitive to biocidal activity of the active filter nonwoven were S. aureus, M. flavus and E. coli. There were no biocidal effects on spore-forming bacterium B. subtilis.

  4. Varactor-tuned Substrate Integrated Evanescent Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Acar, Öncel; Dong, Yunfeng

    is considered. In contrast to other methods described in the literature, it avoids etching split ring resonators in the metal layer of the SIW. The filters presented here use varactors as tuning elements. The varactors (as well as DC decoupling circuits) are mounted on the surface of PCB bringing the lower......, fabricated and tested in order to validate the developed filter models as well as the implemented realization method. The filter structure as well as its tuning are shown in Figure 1....

  5. 34 CFR 462.12 - What procedures does the Secretary use to review the suitability of tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a test publisher, the Secretary selects experts in the field of educational testing and assessment who possess appropriate advanced degrees and experience in test development or psychometric research... item selection must ensure negligible overlap in items across pre- and post-testing; (iv) Includes...

  6. Does rapid HIV testing result in an early diagnosis and reduce the waiting time for patients to receive medical care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Magaly Carvalho Vieira de; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar; Falcão, Ilka Veras; Miranda-Filho, Demócrito de Barros

    2017-08-01

    The implementation of rapid HIV testing in Brazil began in 2006 for specific groups, and from 2009 was extended to the Counseling and Testing Centers (CTC) in certain Brazilian capitals. The aim of this study was to compare two groups of individuals: those diagnosed with HIV infection by conventional testing and those diagnosed with rapid testing, with respect to: the waiting time before receiving medical care, the time of the first laboratory tests and the virological, immune and clinical status. This is a cross-sectional study to compare a group with individuals diagnosed by conventional testing (2006-2008) and another with those diagnosed by rapid testing (2010-2011).The median time between blood collection and diagnosis of HIV in the conventional test group was 76 days, while in the rapid test group 94.2% of the subjects received their results on the same day of blood collection (p rapid test group the time was 14 days (p rapid test group (p rapid test group (472) was higher than in the conventional test group (397) (p = 0.01). The introduction of rapid HIV testing as a diagnostic strategy has reduced the waiting times for medical care and laboratory tests and also allowed earlier diagnosis of HIV infection than with the conventional test.

  7. A New FIR Filter for State Estimation and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pyung-Soo Kim; Myung-Eui Lee

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a new FIR (finite impulse response) filter under a least squares criterion using a forgetting factor. The proposed FIR filter does not require information of the noise covariances as well as the initial state, and has some inherent properties such as time-invariance, unbiasedness and deadbeat. The proposed FIR filter is represented in a batch form and then a recursive form as an alternative form. From discussions about the choice of a forgetting factor and a window length, it is shown that they can be considered as useful parameters to make the estimation performance of the proposed FIR filter as good as possible. It is shown that the proposed FIR filter can outperform the existing FIR filter with incorrect noise covariances via computer simulations. Finally, as a useful application, an image sequence stabilization problem is considered. Through this application, the FIR filtering based approach is shown to be superior to the Kalman filtering based approach.

  8. Method of securing filter elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Erik P.; Haslam, Jeffery L.; Mitchell, Mark A.

    2016-10-04

    A filter securing system including a filter unit body housing; at least one tubular filter element positioned in the filter unit body housing, the tubular filter element having a closed top and an open bottom; a dimple in either the filter unit body housing or the top of the tubular filter element; and a socket in either the filter unit body housing or the top of the tubular filter element that receives the dimple in either the filter unit body housing or the top of the tubular filter element to secure the tubular filter element to the filter unit body housing.

  9. Online digital filter and QRS detector applicable in low resource ECG monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabakov, Serafim; Iliev, Ivo; Krasteva, Vessela

    2008-11-01

    The present work describes fast computation methods for real-time digital filtration and QRS detection, both applicable in autonomous personal ECG systems for long-term monitoring. Since such devices work under considerable artifacts of intensive body and electrode movements, the input filtering should provide high-quality ECG signals supporting the accurate ECG interpretation. In this respect, we propose a combined high-pass and power-line interference rejection filter, introducing the simple principle of averaging of samples with a predefined distance between them. In our implementation (sampling frequency of 250 Hz), we applied averaging over 17 samples distanced by 10 samples (Filter10x17), thus realizing a comb filter with a zero at 50 Hz and high-pass cut-off at 1.1 Hz. Filter10x17 affords very fast filtering procedure at the price of minimal computing resources. Another benefit concerns the small ECG distortions introduced by the filter, providing its powerful application in the preprocessing module of diagnostic systems analyzing the ECG morphology. Filter10x17 does not attenuate the QRS amplitude, or introduce significant ST-segment elevation/depression. The filter output produces a constant error, leading to uniform shifting of the entire P-QRS-T segment toward about 5% of the R-peak amplitude. Tests with standardized ECG signals proved that Filter10x17 is capable to remove very strong baseline wanderings, and to fully suppress 50 Hz interferences. By changing the number of the averaged samples and the distance between them, a filter design with different cut-off and zero frequency could be easily achieved. The real-time QRS detector is designed with simplified computations over single channel, low-resolution ECGs. It relies on simple evaluations of amplitudes and slopes, including history of their mean values estimated over the preceding beats, smart adjustable thresholds, as well as linear logical rules for identification of the R-peaks in real

  10. SRC burn test in 700-hp oil-designed boiler. Annex Volume B. DOE-Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center report. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-09-01

    Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) combustion tests were conducted at the U.S. Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. Combustion and flue-gas treatment of three different physical forms of SRC, as well as a No. 6 fuel oil, were evaluated. The three SRC fuels were (1) pulverized SRC Fuel; (2) SRC Residual Fuel Oil; and (3) SRC/Water Slurry. The SRC Residual Fuel Oil was a solution of SRC Fuel dissolved in heated process solvent. Approximately 500 tons of pulverized SRC Fuel and 30,000 gallons of SRC Residual Fuel Oil were combusted in a 700 hp (30 x 130 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr fuel input) oil-designed watertube package boiler. Sixty four-hour ASME combustion tests with three different SRC fuels were successfully concluded. The principal parameters evaluated were excess air levels and combustion air preheat temperature levels. Extensive data were collected on flue-gas levels of O/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/, CO, unburned hydrocarbons, SO/sub x/, NO/sub x/, uncontrolled particulates, uncontrolled opacity and carbon content of the flue-gas particulates. Boiler and combustion efficiencies were measured. The particulates were characterized via mass loadings, impactors, in-situ resistivity measurements, ultra-fine sampling, optical large particle sampling, five-stage cyclone sampling and chemical analysis of various cut sizes. A three-field pilot electrostatic precipitator (ESP) containing over 1000 square feet of plate collection area, a reverse air fabric filter pilot dust collector and a commercial pulse-jet fabric filter dust collector were operated at high collection efficiency. The results will be valuable in making recommendations for future tests and will provide a basis for conversion of industrial oil-fired boilers to SRC fuels. 11 references, 20 figures, 29 tables.

  11. Suction Filter in Endoscopic Endonasal Surgery: A Technical Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoli, Matteo; Marucci, Gianluca; Milanese, Laura; Bonfatti, Rocco; Sturiale, Carmelo; Ernesto, Pasquini; Frank, Giorgio; Mazzatenta, Diego

    2016-11-01

    The collection of the greatest possible amount of pathologic tissue is of paramount importance in neurosurgery to achieve the most accurate histopathologic diagnosis, to perform all of the necessary biomolecular tests on the pathologic specimen, and to collect biological material for basic or translational science studies. This problem is particularly relevant in pituitary surgery because of the possible small size and soft consistency of tumors, which make them suitable for removal through suction, reducing the amount of available pathologic tissue. To solve this issue, we adopted a filter connected to the suction tube, which allows the surgeon to collect all of the tissue aspirated during surgery. Our experience of 1734 endoscopic endonasal procedures, performed adopting this device since 1998 to December 2015, has been revised to assess its advantages and limitations. This system is easy-to-use, does not impair the surgical maneuvers, and does not add any relevant cost to the surgery. The tissue collected through the filter proved useful for diagnostic histologic and biomolecular analyses and for research purposes, without any relevant artifacts as a result of this method of collection. The use of a filter has allowed us to obtain the greatest amount possible of pathologic tissue at each surgery. This surgical material has revealed to be helpful both for diagnostic and basic science purposes. The use of the filter has proven to be of particular importance for microadenomas, soft tumors, and supradiaphragmatic or skull base lesions with heterogeneous features, improving the accuracy of histopathologic diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. CHANGE DETECTION VIA MORPHOLOGICAL COMPARATIVE FILTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Vizilter

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose the new change detection technique based on morphological comparative filtering. This technique generalizes the morphological image analysis scheme proposed by Pytiev. A new class of comparative filters based on guided contrasting is developed. Comparative filtering based on diffusion morphology is implemented too. The change detection pipeline contains: comparative filtering on image pyramid, calculation of morphological difference map, binarization, extraction of change proposals and testing change proposals using local morphological correlation coefficient. Experimental results demonstrate the applicability of proposed approach.

  13. Change Detection via Morphological Comparative Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizilter, Y. V.; Rubis, A. Y.; Zheltov, S. Y.; Vygolov, O. V.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we propose the new change detection technique based on morphological comparative filtering. This technique generalizes the morphological image analysis scheme proposed by Pytiev. A new class of comparative filters based on guided contrasting is developed. Comparative filtering based on diffusion morphology is implemented too. The change detection pipeline contains: comparative filtering on image pyramid, calculation of morphological difference map, binarization, extraction of change proposals and testing change proposals using local morphological correlation coefficient. Experimental results demonstrate the applicability of proposed approach.

  14. Generalized Hampel Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Ronald K.; Neuvo, Yrjö; Astola, Jaakko; Gabbouj, Moncef

    2016-12-01

    The standard median filter based on a symmetric moving window has only one tuning parameter: the window width. Despite this limitation, this filter has proven extremely useful and has motivated a number of extensions: weighted median filters, recursive median filters, and various cascade structures. The Hampel filter is a member of the class of decsion filters that replaces the central value in the data window with the median if it lies far enough from the median to be deemed an outlier. This filter depends on both the window width and an additional tuning parameter t, reducing to the median filter when t=0, so it may be regarded as another median filter extension. This paper adopts this view, defining and exploring the class of generalized Hampel filters obtained by applying the median filter extensions listed above: weighted Hampel filters, recursive Hampel filters, and their cascades. An important concept introduced here is that of an implosion sequence, a signal for which generalized Hampel filter performance is independent of the threshold parameter t. These sequences are important because the added flexibility of the generalized Hampel filters offers no practical advantage for implosion sequences. Partial characterization results are presented for these sequences, as are useful relationships between root sequences for generalized Hampel filters and their median-based counterparts. To illustrate the performance of this filter class, two examples are considered: one is simulation-based, providing a basis for quantitative evaluation of signal recovery performance as a function of t, while the other is a sequence of monthly Italian industrial production index values that exhibits glaring outliers.

  15. Advanced Filters and Components for Power Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-31

    not in itself new. In fact, use of coupled magnetic windings in filters dates at least as far back as the 1920’s [4], and has continued up to the...IL CBig Network NetworkAnalyzer output- Figure 8.2: A test circuit for evaluating the filtering performance of magnetic components. The device under

  16. Neural method of spatiotemporal filter design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostakowski, Jaroslaw

    1997-10-01

    There is a lot of applications in medical imaging, computer vision, and the communications, where the video processing is critical. Although many techniques have been successfully developed for the filtering of the still-images, significantly fewer techniques have been proposed for the filtering of noisy image sequences. In this paper the novel approach to spatio- temporal filtering design is proposed. The multilayer perceptrons and functional-link nets are used for the 3D filtering. The spatio-temporal patterns are creating from real motion video images. The neural networks learn these patterns. The perceptrons with different number of layers and neurons in each layer are tested. Also, the different input functions in functional- link net are searched. The practical examples of the filtering are shown and compared with traditional (non-neural) spatio-temporal methods. The results are very interesting and the neural spatio-temporal filters seems to be very efficient tool for video noise reduction.

  17. Hot-Gas Filter Ash Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, M.L.; Hurley, J.P.; Dockter, B.A.; O`Keefe, C.A.

    1997-07-01

    Large-scale hot-gas filter testing over the past 10 years has revealed numerous cases of cake buildup on filter elements that has been difficult, if not impossible, to remove. At times, the cake can blind or bridge between candle filters, leading to filter failure. Physical factors, including particle-size distribution, particle shape, the aerodynamics of deposition, and system temperature, contribute to the difficulty in removing the cake, but chemical factors such as surface composition and gas-solid reactions also play roles in helping to bond the ash to the filters or to itself. This project is designed to perform the research necessary to determine the fuel-, sorbent-, and operations-related conditions that lead to blinding or bridging of hot-gas particle filters. The objectives of the project are threefold: (1) Determine the mechanisms by which a difficult-to-clean ash is formed and how it bridges hot-gas filters (2) Develop a method to determine the rate of bridging based on analyses of the feed coal and sorbent, filter properties, and system operating conditions and (3) Suggest and test ways to prevent filter bridging.

  18. THE INDUSTRIAL TEST OF PULSE BAG FILTER IN PETROLEUM COKE SUPERFINE GRINDING PROCESS%石油焦超细粉碎工艺中的脉冲袋式除尘器试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周奇杰; 陈海焱; 张明星; 郑娟; 王焱

    2011-01-01

    Using superfine crushing grading equipment,the dust resistance after injecting,filtration speed and the dust resistance fluctuation when blowing in grinding process were tested.The test conditions were respectively different filtration area,different filtration speed,different filter inlet dust concentration and different pulse width.The results showed that for petroleum coke is light and has adhesion,the filtration speed should not exceed 2.17 m/min.And considering the dust removal efficiency and economic benefit,the filtration speed should better be controlled in 1.3 m/min.Both the filter inlet dust concentration and the pulse width had certain influence on the dust resistance after injecting and the dust resistance fluctuation when blowing.The dust resistance and the dust resistance fluctuation were small,when the filter inlet dust concentration was low.And pulse jet filter exists a best pulse width,0.08 s is the best one for this experimental filter.%利用超细粉碎分级设备,分别测试粉碎工艺中除尘器在不同过滤面积、过滤风速、入口粉尘浓度时,喷吹后的除尘器阻力、过滤风速、喷吹时的除尘器阻力波动情况;测试脉冲宽度对喷吹后除尘器阻力和喷吹时除尘器阻力波动的影响。结果表明:由于石油焦的轻质和黏附性特性,过滤风速不应超过2.17 m/min,考虑到除尘效率和经济效益,最好控制在1.3 m/min以内;除尘器入口粉尘浓度的高低对喷吹后除尘器阻力和喷吹时除尘器阻力波动均存在较大影响,入口粉尘浓度低时,阻力和阻力波动都较小;脉冲宽度对喷吹后除尘器阻力和喷吹时除尘器阻力波

  19. A GENERIC SYNTHESIS THEORY AND REALIZATION CONDITIONS FOR ELIN FILTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remzi ARSLANALP

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a generic synthesis method of Externally Linear Internally Nonlinear (ELIN filters is considered. Previously developed theories are summarized and the weak sides of these theories are discussed. Based on the state space synthesis method, an nth order filter synthesis method is developed for ELIN filters. This new theory does not only cover the previously proposed theories but also overcomes their problems. In this paper, static and dynamic constraints associated with these filters are discussed. Prerequisites, necessary conditions and satisfactory conditions are defined. The developed theory gives one to modify system equations of a filter that does not satisfy these conditions. For this process, differential type Class AB filters are preferred. The theory is applied to two examples to verify the validity of the proposed approach.

  20. Evaluation and compilation of DOE waste package test data; Volume 8: Biannual report, August 1989--January 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Interrante, C.G. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of High-Level Waste Management; Fraker, A.C.; Escalante, E. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (MSEL), Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Metallurgy Div.

    1993-06-01

    This report summarizes evaluations by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) of some of the Department of Energy (DOE) activities on waste packages designed for containment of radioactive high-level nuclear waste (HLW) for the six-month period, August 1989--January 1990. This includes reviews of related materials research and plans, information on the Yucca Mountain, Nevada disposal site activities, and other information regarding supporting research and special assistance. Short discussions are given relating to the publications reviewed and complete reviews and evaluations are included. Reports of other work are included in the Appendices.

  1. Guided image filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kaiming; Sun, Jian; Tang, Xiaoou

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel explicit image filter called guided filter. Derived from a local linear model, the guided filter computes the filtering output by considering the content of a guidance image, which can be the input image itself or another different image. The guided filter can be used as an edge-preserving smoothing operator like the popular bilateral filter [1], but it has better behaviors near edges. The guided filter is also a more generic concept beyond smoothing: It can transfer the structures of the guidance image to the filtering output, enabling new filtering applications like dehazing and guided feathering. Moreover, the guided filter naturally has a fast and nonapproximate linear time algorithm, regardless of the kernel size and the intensity range. Currently, it is one of the fastest edge-preserving filters. Experiments show that the guided filter is both effective and efficient in a great variety of computer vision and computer graphics applications, including edge-aware smoothing, detail enhancement, HDR compression, image matting/feathering, dehazing, joint upsampling, etc.

  2. How does heart rate recovery after sub-maximal exercise correlate with maximal exercise testing in children with CF?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Sarah P; Orenstein, David M

    2014-12-01

    Disease progression in cystic fibrosis (CF) is marked by worsening exercise tolerance. Further, maximal exercise capacity (VO2 peak) correlates with survival in CF, but maximal tests are uncomfortable and resource-intensive. A three-minute step test (STEP) has been validated in CF. Heart rate (HR) recovery after exercise correlates with all-cause mortality in adult non-CF populations. We compared HR recovery after the three-minute step test with VO2 peak in children with CF. Twenty-four children with CF performed STEP and a maximal exercise test. Correlation between the tests was assessed. Maximum HR on STEP was lower than on the maximal test (140 vs. 190, p<0.01). Peak HR during STEP correlated inversely with VO2 peak. In subjects with mild lung disease, faster HR recovery after STEP correlated with higher VO2 peak. The three-minute step test is a feasible submaximal test in this patient population. HR during and after a three-minute step test may reflect VO2 peak in children with CF. Copyright © 2014 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 液固分离过滤元件综合测试系统的研发与试验方法%Experimental Method Research on Integrated Test System of Liquid-solid Seperation Filter Component

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤丽霞

    2015-01-01

    An integrated test system of the liquid-solid seperation filter component is introduced, with the pure water as the carrier, each test module automatically controlled by PLC system. Based on the testing parameters of the flow-pressure drop curve, filtration efficiency, dirt capacity, extreme pressure drop etc, the quantitative data support is provided for the research and customer selection of the filter element.%介绍了一套液固分离过滤元件综合测试系统. 该测试系统以纯净水为载体, 采用PLC系统实现对各测试模块的全自动控制. 通过测试过滤元件的流量压差特性、 过滤效率、容尘量、 极限压差等性能参数, 可为过滤元件的自主研发和选型提供定量的数据支持.

  4. z-transform DFT filters and FFT's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, G.

    1978-01-01

    of DFT filter banks which utilize a minimum of complex coefficients. These implementations lead to new forms of FFT's, among which is acos/sinFFT for a real signal which only employs real coefficients. The new FFT algorithms use only half as many real multiplications as does the classical FFT....

  5. 34 CFR 462.13 - What criteria and requirements does the Secretary use for determining the suitability of tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and Psychological Testing, prepared by the Joint Committee on Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing of the American Educational Research Association, the American Psychological Association...) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain a copy from the American Psychological Association, Inc., 750 First...

  6. Assessing the Rothstein Test: Does It Really Show Teacher Value-Added Models Are Biased? Working Paper 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan; Chaplin, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    In a provocative and influential paper, Jesse Rothstein (2010) finds that standard value-added models (VAMs) suggest implausible future teacher effects on past student achievement, a finding that obviously cannot be viewed as causal. This is the basis of a falsification test (the Rothstein falsification test) that appears to indicate bias in VAM…

  7. Assessing the "Rothstein Test": Does It Really Show Teacher Value-Added Models Are Biased? Working Paper 71

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan; Chaplin, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    In a provocative and influential paper, Jesse Rothstein (2010) finds that standard value-added models (VAMs) suggest implausible future teacher effects on past student achievement, a finding that obviously cannot be viewed as causal. This is the basis of a falsification test (the Rothstein falsification test) that appears to indicate bias in VAM…

  8. Timed versus At-Home Assessment Tests: Does Time Affect the Quality of Second Language Learners' Written Compositions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenworthy, Roger

    2006-01-01

    This preliminary study examines what the effects of additional time and different media have upon the overall quality of English language learner's written assessment tests. Sixteen intermediate-level students (L1 Cantonese), enrolled at a satellite campus of an American university within Asia, manually wrote a 45-minute timed placement test in…

  9. Testing oral proficiency: what does pronunciation tell us?DOI:10.5007/2175-8026.2011n60p247

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Borges-Almeida

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study we discuss the role of pronunciation in languagetesting and investigate two features of pronunciation of eightcandidates of the Test of Oral Proficiency in English (TEPOLIalong four bands of the test scale. Deviations in vowel segmentsand in syllable structure are analyzed. The results point to theneed for a global assessment of the candidates’ phonologicalsystems.

  10. Optimal filter bandwidth for pulse oximetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuban, Norbert; Niwayama, Masatsugu

    2012-10-01

    Pulse oximeters contain one or more signal filtering stages between the photodiode and microcontroller. These filters are responsible for removing the noise while retaining the useful frequency components of the signal, thus improving the signal-to-noise ratio. The corner frequencies of these filters affect not only the noise level, but also the shape of the pulse signal. Narrow filter bandwidth effectively suppresses the noise; however, at the same time, it distorts the useful signal components by decreasing the harmonic content. In this paper, we investigated the influence of the filter bandwidth on the accuracy of pulse oximeters. We used a pulse oximeter tester device to produce stable, repetitive pulse waves with digitally adjustable R ratio and heart rate. We built a pulse oximeter and attached it to the tester device. The pulse oximeter digitized the current of its photodiode directly, without any analog signal conditioning. We varied the corner frequency of the low-pass filter in the pulse oximeter in the range of 0.66-15 Hz by software. For the tester device, the R ratio was set to R = 1.00, and the R ratio deviation measured by the pulse oximeter was monitored as a function of the corner frequency of the low-pass filter. The results revealed that lowering the corner frequency of the low-pass filter did not decrease the accuracy of the oxygen level measurements. The lowest possible value of the corner frequency of the low-pass filter is the fundamental frequency of the pulse signal. We concluded that the harmonics of the pulse signal do not contribute to the accuracy of pulse oximetry. The results achieved by the pulse oximeter tester were verified by human experiments, performed on five healthy subjects. The results of the human measurements confirmed that filtering out the harmonics of the pulse signal does not degrade the accuracy of pulse oximetry.

  11. Explicit filtering of building blocks for genetic algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemenade, C.H.M. van

    1996-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are often applied to building block problems. We have developed a simple filtering algorithm that can locate building blocks within a bit-string, and does not make assumptions regarding the linkage of the bits. A comparison between the filtering algorithm and genetic algorithms re

  12. Explicit filtering of building blocks for genetic algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.H.M. van Kemenade

    1996-01-01

    textabstractGenetic algorithms are often applied to building block problems. We have developed a simple filtering algorithm that can locate building blocks within a bit-string, and does not make assumptions regarding the linkage of the bits. A comparison between the filtering algorithm and genetic

  13. Leaks in nuclear grade high efficiency aerosol filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scripsick, Ronald Clyde [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Nuclear grade high efficiency aerosol filters, also known as high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, are commonly used in air cleaning systems for removal of hazardous aerosols. Performance of the filter units is important in assuring health and environmental protection. The filter units are constructed from pleated packs of fiberglass filter media sealed into rigid frames. Results of previous studies on such filter units indicate that their performance may not be completely predicted by ideal performance of the fibrous filter media. In this study, departure from ideal performance is linked to leaks existing in filter units and overall filter unit performance is derived from independent performance of the individual filter unit components. The performance of 14 nuclear grade HEPA filter units (size 1, 25 cfm) with plywood frames was evaluated with a test system that permitted independent determination of penetration as a function of particle size for the whole filter unit, the filter unit frame, and the filter media pack. Tests were performed using a polydisperse aerosol of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate with a count median diameter of 0.2 {mu}m and geometric standard deviation of 1.6. Flow rate and differential pressure were controlled from 1% to 100% of design values. Particle counts were made upstream and downstream of the filter unit with an optical particle counter (OPC). The OPC provided count information in 28 size channels over the particle diameter range from 0.1 to 0.7 μm. Results provide evidence for a two component leak model of filler unit performance with: (1) external leaks through filter unit frames, and (2) internal leaks through defects in the media and through the seal between the media pack and frame. For the filter units evaluated, these leaks dominate overall filter unit performance over much of the flow rate and particle size ranges tested.

  14. Efficient particle filtering through residual nudging

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Xiaodong

    2013-05-15

    We introduce an auxiliary technique, called residual nudging, to the particle filter to enhance its performance in cases where it performs poorly. The main idea of residual nudging is to monitor and, if necessary, adjust the residual norm of a state estimate in the observation space so that it does not exceed a pre-specified threshold. We suggest a rule to choose the pre-specified threshold, and construct a state estimate accordingly to achieve this objective. Numerical experiments suggest that introducing residual nudging to a particle filter may (substantially) improve its performance, in terms of filter accuracy and/or stability against divergence, especially when the particle filter is implemented with a relatively small number of particles. © 2013 Royal Meteorological Society.

  15. Viability of bacteria in unused air filter media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maus, R.; Goppelsröder, A.; Umhauer, H.

    Different experimental techniques were applied to determine the effects of different air filter media on the viability of bacteria. Rinse suspensions of unused filter media were employed in standard inhibition tests to determine the effects of filter ingredients on bacterial growth under ideal nutritional conditions. Furthermore, a new test procedure was proposed and validated to determine the survival of viable microorganisms in fibrous air filters as a function of different parameters. Samples of filter media were challenged with microbial aerosols in an experimental set-up designed for measuring the collection efficiencies of fibrous filters. The loaded filter samples were then challenged with clean air under controlled conditions for a definite time span and numbers of viable microorganisms in the filter media were determined as colony forming units. The filter samples were retrieved from unused filter media usually employed in common air conditioning and ventilation systems. Under ideal nutritional and moisture conditions, growth of investigated microorganisms in nutrient broth and on nutrient agar was not inhibited by the inclusion of filter samples or rinse solutions of different filters in the growth medium with one exception. M. luteus and E. coli collected in air filter media and exposed to low air humidity (RH = 30-60%) showed a decline in their viability as a function of time (within 1 h). The decline rate was dependent on the type of bacteria employed and also the filter material itself.

  16. Computer Aided Filter Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    FIR filter can be described in the following. [Ref. 2] 1. FIR filters with exact linear phase can be easily designed. Linear phase filters are important...response for the four cases of linear phase filter , i.e., even or odd symmetry with an even or odd number of terms, can be written in the form: H (eJ ) = e...Ansari, The Design and Application of Optimal FIR Fractional Phase Filters , IEEE on Acoutics, Speech and Signal Processing, Vol. 2, 1987, pp.896-899. 77 14

  17. A unified Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubberud, Allen R.

    2017-01-01

    When considering problems of linear sequential estimation, two versions of the Kalman filter, the continuous-time version and the discrete-time version, are often used. (A hybrid filter also exists.) In many applications in which the Kalman filter is used, the system to which the filter is applied is a linear continuous-time system, but the Kalman filter is implemented on a digital computer, a discrete-time device. The two general approaches for developing a discrete-time filter for implementation on a digital computer are: (1) approximate the continuous-time system by a discrete-time system (called discretization of the continuous-time system) and develop a filter for the discrete-time approximation; and (2) develop a continuous-time filter for the system and then discretize the continuous-time filter. Generally, the two discrete-time filters will be different, that is, it can be said that discretization and filter generation are not, in general, commutative operations. As a result, any relationship between the discrete-time and continuous-time versions of the filter for the same continuous-time system is often obfuscated. This is particularly true when an attempt is made to generate the continuous-time version of the Kalman filter through a simple limiting process (the sample period going to zero) applied to the discrete-time version. The correct result is, generally, not obtained. In a 1961 research report, Kalman showed that the continuous-time Kalman filter can be obtained from the discrete-time Kalman filter by taking limits as the sample period goes to zero if the white noise process for the continuous-time version is appropriately defined. Using this basic concept, a discrete-time Kalman filter can be developed for a continuous-time system as follows: (1) discretize the continuous-time system using Kalman's technique; and (2) develop a discrete-time Kalman filter for that discrete-time system. Kalman's results show that the discrete-time filter generated in

  18. Bias aware Kalman filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drecourt, J.-P.; Madsen, H.; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2006-01-01

    . The colored noise filter formulation is extended to correct both time correlated and uncorrelated model error components. A more stable version of the separate filter without feedback is presented. The filters are implemented in an ensemble framework using Latin hypercube sampling. The techniques...... are illustrated on a simple one-dimensional groundwater problem. The results show that the presented filters outperform the standard Kalman filter and that the implementations with bias feedback work in more general conditions than the implementations without feedback. 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  19. Evaluation and compilation of DOE waste package test data; Biannual report, February 1989--July 1989: Volume 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Interrante, C.G. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of High-Level Waste Management; Fraker, A.C.; Escalante, E. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (IMSE), Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Metallurgy Div.

    1991-12-01

    This report summarizes evaluations by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) of Department of Energy (DOE) activities on waste packages designed for containment of radioactive high-level nuclear waste (HLW) for the six-month period, February through July 1989. This includes reviews of related materials research and plans, information on the Yucca Mountain, Nevada disposal site activities, and other information regarding supporting research and special assistance. Outlines for planned interpretative reports on the topics of aqueous corrosion of copper, mechanisms of stress corrosion cracking and internal failure modes of Zircaloy cladding are included. For the publications reviewed during this reporting period, short discussions are given to supplement the completed reviews and evaluations. Included in this report is an overall review of a 1984 report on glass leaching mechanisms, as well as reviews for each of the seven chapters of this report.

  20. Does pre-ordering tests enhance the value of the periodic examination? Study Design - Process implementation with retrospective chart review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stroebel Robert J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the value of a pre-ordering process for the pro-active scheduling and completion of appropriate preventive and chronic disease monitoring tests prior to a periodic health examination (PHE. Methods A standardized template was developed and used by our nursing staff to identify and schedule appropriate tests prior to the patients PHE. Chart reviews were completed on all 602 PHE visits for a 3-month interval in a primary care setting. A patient satisfaction survey was administered to a convenience sample of the PHE patients. Results Of all the patients with tests pre-ordered, 87.8% completed the tests. All providers in the division used the process, but some evolved from one template to another over time. Most patients (61% preferred to get their tests done prior to their PHE appointment. Many of our patients had abnormal test results. With this process, patients were able to benefit from face-to-face discussion of these results directly with their provider. Conclusions A pre-order process was successfully implemented to improve the value of the PHE visit in an internal medicine primary care practice using a standardized approach that allowed for provider autonomy. The process was accepted by patients and providers and resulted in improved office efficiency through reduced message handling. Completion of routine tests before the PHE office visit can help facilitate face-to-face discussions about abnormal results and subsequent management that otherwise may only occur by telephone.

  1. Efficiency of Respirator Filter Media against Diesel Particulate Matter: A Comparison Study Using Two Diesel Particulate Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Kerrie A; Whitelaw, Jane L; Jones, Alison L; Davies, Brian

    2016-07-01

    Diesel engines have been a mainstay within many industries since the early 1900s. Exposure to diesel particulate matter (DPM) is a major issue in many industrial workplaces given the potential for serious health impacts to exposed workers; including the potential for lung cancer and adverse irritant and cardiovascular effects. Personal respiratory protective devices are an accepted safety measure to mitigate worker exposure against the potentially damaging health impacts of DPM. To be protective, they need to act as effective filters against carbon and other particulates. In Australia, the filtering efficiency of respiratory protective devices is determined by challenging test filter media with aerosolised sodium chloride to determine penetration at designated flow rates. The methodology outlined in AS/NZS1716 (Standards Australia International Ltd and Standards New Zealand 2012. Respiratory protective devices. Sydney/Wellington: SAI Global Limited/Standards New Zealand) does not account for the differences between characteristics of workplace contaminants like DPM and sodium chloride such as structure, composition, and particle size. This study examined filtering efficiency for three commonly used AS/NZS certified respirator filter models, challenging them with two types of diesel emissions; those from a diesel generator and a diesel engine. Penetration through the filter media of elemental carbon (EC), total carbon (TC), and total suspended particulate (TSP) was calculated. Results indicate that filtering efficiency assumed by P2 certification in Australia was achieved for two of the three respirator models for DPM generated using the small diesel generator, whilst when the larger diesel engine was used, filtering efficiency requirements were met for all three filter models. These results suggest that the testing methodology specified for certification of personal respiratory protective devices by Standards Australia may not ensure adequate protection for

  2. Multi-modal MRI analysis with disease-specific spatial filtering: initial testing to predict mild cognitive impairment patients who convert to Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi eOishi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alterations of the gray and white matter have been identified in Alzheimer’s disease (AD by structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. However, whether the combination of these modalities could increase the diagnostic performance is unknown.Methods: Participants included 19 AD patients, 22 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI patients, and 22 cognitively normal elderly (NC. The aMCI group was further divided into an aMCI-converter group (converted to AD dementia within three years, and an aMCI-stable group who did not convert in this time period. A T1-weighted image, a T2 map, and a DTI of each participant were normalized, and voxel-based comparisons between AD and NC groups were performed. Regions-of-interest, which defined the areas with significant differences between AD and NC, were created for each modality and named disease-specific spatial filters (DSF. Linear discriminant analysis was used to optimize the combination of multiple MRI measurements extracted by DSF to effectively differentiate AD from NC. The resultant DSF and the discriminant function were applied to the aMCI group to investigate the power to differentiate the aMCI-converters from the aMCI-stable patients. Results: The multi-modal approach with AD-specific filters led to a predictive model with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC of 0.93, in differentiating aMCI-converters from aMCI-stable patients. This AUC was better than that of a single-contrast-based approach, such as T1-based morphometry or diffusion anisotropy analysis. Conclusion: The multi-modal approach has the potential to increase the value of MRI in predicting conversion from aMCI to AD.

  3. Ceramic fiber filter technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, B.L.; Janney, M.A.

    1996-06-01

    Fibrous filters have been used for centuries to protect individuals from dust, disease, smoke, and other gases or particulates. In the 1970s and 1980s ceramic filters were developed for filtration of hot exhaust gases from diesel engines. Tubular, or candle, filters have been made to remove particles from gases in pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification-combined-cycle power plants. Very efficient filtration is necessary in power plants to protect the turbine blades. The limited lifespan of ceramic candle filters has been a major obstacle in their development. The present work is focused on forming fibrous ceramic filters using a papermaking technique. These filters are highly porous and therefore very lightweight. The papermaking process consists of filtering a slurry of ceramic fibers through a steel screen to form paper. Papermaking and the selection of materials will be discussed, as well as preliminary results describing the geometry of papers and relative strengths.

  4. Development and testing of a dedusting filter system for exhaust gases of domestic small firing systems for the combustion of biomass and waste materials; Entwicklung und Erprobung eines Abreinigungsfilters fuer das Abgas haeuslicher Kleinfeuerungsanlagen fuer die Verbrennung von Biomasse und Abfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleysa, Mohammadshayesh

    2012-07-01

    The author describes the development of a dedusting filter system which should be suitable for the dedusting of exhaust gases in domestic small firing installations with a power output of 40 kW. This filter system should undoubtedly enable the necessary capture efficiency. It should be implemented with little technical complexity as well as low maintenance and cost-effectivity. The dedusting filter system is tested in connection with a wood gasification boiler as well as a pellet incinerator. The quantities and parameters of smoke gas, the pressure losses, the precipitation capacity, the economic efficiency and the practical suitability of the dedusting filter system are investigated. Furthermore, the author determines the necessary factors for the design and dimensioning of dedusting filter systems.

  5. Degradation of HEPA filters exposed to DMSO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Larsen, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) sprays are being used to remove the high explosive (HE) from nuclear weapons in the process of their dismantlement. A boxed 50 cmf HEPA filter with an integral prefilter was exposed to DMSO vapor and aerosols that were generated by a spray nozzle to simulate conditions expected in the HE dissolution operation. After 198 hours of operation, the pressure drop of the filter had increased form 1.15 inches to 2,85 inches, and the efficiency for 0.3 {mu}m dioctyl sebacate (DOS) aerosols decreased form 99.992% to 98.6%. Most of the DMSO aerosols had collected as a liquid pool inside the boxed HEPA. The liquid was blown out of the filter exit with 100 cmf air flow at the end of the test. Since the filter still met the minimum allowed efficiency of 99.97% after 166 hours of exposure, we recommend replacing the filter every 160 hours of operation or sooner if the pressure drop increases by 50%. Examination of the filter showed that visible cracks appeared at the joints of the wooden frame and a portion of the sealant had pulled away from the frame. Since all of the DMSO will be trapped in the first HEPA filter, the second HEPA filter should not suffer from DMSO degradation. Thus the combined efficiency for the first filter (98.6%) and the second filter (99.97%) is 99.99996% for 0.3 {mu}m particles. If the first filter is replaced prior to its degradation, each of the filters will have 99.97% efficiency, and the combined efficiency will be 99.999991%. The collection efficiency for DMSO/HE aerosols will be much higher because the particle size is much greater.

  6. Performance of Certification and Recertification Examinees on Multiple Choice Test Items: Does Physician Age Have an Impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Linjun; Juul, Dorthea; Faulkner, Larry R

    2016-01-01

    The development of recertification programs (now referred to as Maintenance of Certification or MOC) by the members of the American Board of Medical Specialties provides the opportunity to study knowledge base across the professional lifespan of physicians. Research results to date are mixed with some studies finding negative associations between age and various measures of competency and others finding no or minimal relationships. Four groups of multiple choice test items that were independently developed for certification and MOC examinations in psychiatry and neurology were administered to certification and MOC examinees within each specialty. Percent correct scores were calculated for each examinee. Differences between certification and MOC examinees were compared using unpaired t tests, and logistic regression was used to compare MOC and certification examinee performance on the common test items. Except for the neurology certification test items that addressed basic neurology concepts, the performance of the certification and MOC examinees was similar. The differences in performance on individual test items did not consistently favor one group or the other and could not be attributed to any distinguishable content or format characteristics of those items. The findings of this study are encouraging in that physicians who had recently completed residency training possessed clinical knowledge that was comparable to that of experienced physicians, and the experienced physicians' clinical knowledge was equivalent to that of recent residency graduates. The role testing can play in enhancing expertise is described.

  7. Porous filtering media comparison through wet and dry sampling of fixed bed gasification products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allesina, G.; Pedrazzi, S.; Montermini, L.; Giorgini, L.; Bortolani, G.; Tartarini, P.

    2014-11-01

    The syngas produced by fixed bed gasifiers contains high quantities of particulate and tars. This issue, together with its high temperature, avoids its direct exploitation without a proper cleaning and cooling process. In fact, when the syngas produced by gasification is used in an Internal Combustion engine (IC), the higher the content of tars and particulate, the higher the risk to damage the engine is. If these compounds are not properly removed, the engine may fail to run. A way to avoid engine fails is to intensify the maintenance schedule, but these stops will reduce the system profitability. From a clean syngas does not only follow higher performance of the generator, but also less pollutants in the atmosphere. When is not possible to work on the gasification reactions, the filter plays the most important role in the engine safeguard process. This work is aimed at developing and comparing different porous filters for biomass gasifiers power plants. A drum filter was developed and tested filling it with different filtering media available on the market. As a starting point, the filter was implemented in a Power Pallet 10 kW gasifier produced by the California-based company "ALL Power Labs". The original filter was replaced with different porous biomasses, such as woodchips and corn cobs. Finally, a synthetic zeolites medium was tested and compared with the biological media previously used. The Tar Sampling Protocol (TSP) and a modified "dry" method using the Silica Gel material were applied to evaluate the tars, particulate and water amount in the syngas after the filtration process. Advantages and disadvantages of every filtering media chosen were reported and discussed.

  8. Three-zone pupil filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Colin J. R.; Campos, Juan; Escalera, Juan C.; Ledesma, Silvia

    2008-07-01

    The performance of pupil filters consisting of three zones each of constant complex amplitude transmittance is investigated. For filters where the transmittance is real, different classes of potentially useful filter are identified. These include leaky filters with an inner zone of low amplitude transmittance, pure phase filters with phase change of π, and equal area filters.

  9. Testing cold protection according to EN ISO 20344: is there any professional footwear that does not pass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklane, Kalev; Ueno, Satoru; Sawada, Shin-Ichi; Holmér, Ingvar

    2009-01-01

    The present Comité Européen de Normalisation (CEN) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards for safety, protective and occupational footwear EN ISO 20344-20347 classify footwear as cold protective by a pass/fail test where the limits are set for an allowed 10 degrees C temperature drop inside the footwear during 30 min at a temperature gradient of approximately 40 degrees C. It is questionable if a simple pass/fail test of this kind provides approved footwear that really protects the feet from cooling in exposures ranging from temperatures at +18 degrees C to as low as or even lower than -50 degrees C. This study selected for testing some professional footwear that could certainly not be considered as cold protective. Some footwear that could be used in cold was selected with as low insulation as the not cold-intended footwear. Also, a boot intended for cold was selected to be tested according to a modified standard at a temperature gradient of 70 degrees C. The footwear selection was based on insulation measurements with a thermal foot model. All footwear did pass the test. Although it is clear for the user that a sandal, a mesh shoe or a thin textile shoe is not cold protective, it is not as clear that an item of safety footwear, that has as low insulation as those mentioned above, could be classified as cold protective according to the present standards. Because of this, the user might have a deceptive feeling of safety and may be exposed to higher risks. As practically all professional footwear may pass this cold test, then the method/requirements should be radically changed or such a test should be removed from the standards.

  10. Active Comb Filter Using Operational Transconductance Amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeev Kumar Ranjan; Surya Prasanna Yalla; Shubham Sorya; Paul, Sajal K.

    2014-01-01

    A new approach for the design of an active comb filter is proposed to remove the selected frequencies of various signals. The proposed filter is based on only OTAs and capacitors, hence suitable for monolithic integrated circuit implementation. The workability of the circuit is tested using PSPICE for test signals of 60, 180, 300, and 420 Hz as in ECG signal. The results are given in the paper and found to agree well with theory.

  11. Active Comb Filter Using Operational Transconductance Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach for the design of an active comb filter is proposed to remove the selected frequencies of various signals. The proposed filter is based on only OTAs and capacitors, hence suitable for monolithic integrated circuit implementation. The workability of the circuit is tested using PSPICE for test signals of 60, 180, 300, and 420 Hz as in ECG signal. The results are given in the paper and found to agree well with theory.

  12. PMD Monitoring using Optical Sideband Filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Martin Nordal; Sambo, N; Andriolli, N

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a simple PMD monitoring technique based on optical sideband filtering, which requires no change to the transmitter. The method is numerically and experimentally verified and tested in a real-time PMD monitoring experiment.......This paper presents a simple PMD monitoring technique based on optical sideband filtering, which requires no change to the transmitter. The method is numerically and experimentally verified and tested in a real-time PMD monitoring experiment....

  13. Magnetic Bearing Amplifier Output Power Filters for Flywheel Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebron-Velilla, Ramon C.; Jansen, Ralph H.; Palazzolo, Alan; Thomas, Erwin; Kascak, Peter E.; Birchenough, Arthur G.; Dever, Timothy P.

    2003-01-01

    Five power filters and two types of power amplifiers were tested for use with active magnetic bearings for flywheel applications. Filter topologies included low pass filters and low pass filters combined with trap filters at the PWM switching frequency. Two state and three state PWM amplifiers were compared. Each system was evaluated based on current magnitude at the switching frequency, voltage magnitude at 500 kHz, and power consumption. The base line system was a two state amplifier without a power filter. The recommended system is a three state power amplifier with a 50 kHz low pass filter and a 27 kHz trap filter. This system uses 5.57 W. It reduces the switching current by an order of magnitude and the 500 kHz voltage by two orders of magnitude. The relative power consumption varied depending on the test condition between 60 to 130 percent of the baseline.

  14. The "In-Training Examination" of the American Board of Pediatrics: does it test for "new" or "old" information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, F A; Oski, F A

    1979-07-01

    The American Board of Pediatrics In-Training Examination or "Pre-Test" is not in widespread use as a means of evaluating the cognitive knowledge and problem-solving skills of hourse officers. The examination is modeled after the certifying examination of the American Board of Pediatrics. The 1977 Pre-Test was analyzed in an attempt to determine whether awareness of recent medical knowledge was required to pass this examination. The 7th through 10th editions of the Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics were used as a reference source. These editions represent information that is from 5 to at least 20 years of age. Analysis of the 190 items revealed that the correct answer was known for 148 or 78% of the questions at least 20 years ago. These results suggest that the Pre-Test, and presumably the American Board of Pediatrics certifying exam, measures the candidates' knowledge of long-standing core information.

  15. Geopressured-Geothermal Drilling and Testing Plan, Volume II, Testing Plan; Dow Chemical Co. - Dept. of Energy Dow-DOE Sweezy No. 1 Well, Vermilion Parish, Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-02-01

    The Dow/D.O.E. L. R. Sweezy No. 1 geopressured geothermal production well was completed in August of 1981. The well was perforated and gravel packed in approximately 50 feet of sand from 13,344 feet to 13,395 feet. Permeabilities of 6 to 914 millidarcies were measured with porosity of 25 to 36%. Static surface pressure after well clean-up was 5000 psi. At 1000 B/D flow rate the drawdown was 50 psi. The water produced in clean-up contained 100,000 ppm TDS. This report details the plan for testing this well with the goal of obtaining sufficient data to define the total production curve of the small, 939 acre, reservoir. A production time of six to nine months is anticipated. The salt water disposal well is expected to be completed and surface equipment installed such that production testing will begin by April 1, 1982. The program should be finished and reports written by February 28, 1983. The brine will be produced from the No.1 well, passed through a separator where the gas is removed, then reinjected into the No.2 (SWD) well under separator pressure. Flow rates of up to 25,000 B/D are expected. The tests are divided into a two-week short-term test and six to nine-month long-term tests with periodic downhole measurement of drawdown and buildup rates. Data obtained in the testing will be relayed by phoneline computer hookup to Otis Engineering in Dallas, Texas, where the reservoir calculations and modeling will be done. At the point where sufficient data has been obtained to reach the objectives of the program, production will be ended, the wells plugged and abandoned, and a final report will be issued.

  16. Simulated heat-exchanger tubes: DOE Geothermal Test Facility, East Mesa, California. Corrosion test report. [Allegheny-Ludlum Alloy 29-4 and Alloy 29-4C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, P.F. II; Anliker, D.M.

    1982-11-01

    A 1032-hr corrosion test was made of two geothermal heat exchanger materials, Allegheny-Ludlum Alloy 29-4 and Alloy 29-4C. Coupons of the two metals were exposed under conditions simulating flow in a geothermal heat exchanger tube. Continuous flow and cyclic exposure tests were made. No signs of localized corrosion were observed in either the base metal, tube weld seam, or heat affected zone. Most coupons showed statistically insignificant weight change. A corrosion rate of less than 0.5 mil/yr is indicated. No significant difference in the performance of the two alloys is reported. (LEW)

  17. 49 CFR 40.137 - On what basis does the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? 40.137 Section 40.137 Transportation Office of the... results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? (a) As the MRO, you must verify a confirmed positive test result for marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, and/or PCP unless the employee presents...

  18. Does Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Youth Anxiety Outperform Usual Care in Community Clinics? An Initial Effectiveness Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southam-Gerow, Michael A.; Weisz, John R.; Chu, Brian C.; McLeod, Bryce D.; Gordis, Elana B.; Connor-Smith, Jennifer K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Most tests of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for youth anxiety disorders have shown beneficial effects, but these have been efficacy trials with recruited youths treated by researcher-employed therapists. One previous (nonrandomized) trial in community clinics found that CBT did not outperform usual care (UC). The present study used…

  19. Does corporate social responsibility put reputation at risk by inviting activist targeting? An empirical test among European SMEs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is believed to improve a company’s reputation. However,CSR may also put reputation at risk by making the company a more attractive target for activists’campaigns. We test this effect on a sample of 1355 European small and medium-sized enterprises(SMEs). We find

  20. Does Gender Influence Emotions Resulting from Positive Applause Feedback in Self-Assessment Testing? Evidence from Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Ju; Huang, Chin-Fei; Liu, Ming-Chi; Chien, Yu-Cheng; Lai, Chia-Hung; Huang, Yueh-Min

    2015-01-01

    Computerized self-assessment testing can help learners reflect on learning content and can also promote their motivation toward learning. However, a positive affective state is the key to achieving these learning goals. This study aims to examine learning gains and emotional reactions resulting from receiving emotional feedback in the form of…

  1. Does Math Self-Efficacy Mediate the Effect of the Perceived Classroom Environment on Standardized Math Test Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Lisa A.; Lewis, James L.; Bryant, Michael J.; Bocian, Kathleen A.; Cardullo, Richard A.; Rettig, Michael; Hammond, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the effect of the perceived classroom environment on math self-efficacy and the effect of math self-efficacy on standardized math test performance. Upper elementary school students (N = 1,163) provided self-reports of their perceived math self-efficacy and the degree to which their math classroom environment was mastery oriented,…

  2. Does Merit-Based Aid Improve College Affordability? Testing the Bennett Hypothesis in the Era of Merit-Based Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungmin

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the Bennett hypothesis by examining whether four-year colleges changed listed tuition and fees, the amount of institutional grants per student, and room and board charges after their states implemented statewide merit-based aid programs. According to the Bennett hypothesis, increases in government financial aid make it easier for…

  3. L2 Learners' Engagement with High Stakes Listening Tests: Does Technology Have a Beneficial Role to Play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Martin; King, Chris

    2012-01-01

    In the listening component of the IELTS examination candidates hear the input once, delivered at "normal" speed. This format for listening can be problematic for test takers who often perceive normal speed input to be too fast for effective comprehension. The study reported here investigated whether using computer software to slow down…

  4. L2 Learners' Engagement with High Stakes Listening Tests: Does Technology Have a Beneficial Role to Play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Martin; King, Chris

    2012-01-01

    In the listening component of the IELTS examination candidates hear the input once, delivered at "normal" speed. This format for listening can be problematic for test takers who often perceive normal speed input to be too fast for effective comprehension. The study reported here investigated whether using computer software to slow down the tempo…

  5. Preliminary field evaluation of high efficiency steel filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    We have conducted an evaluation of two high efficiency steel filters in the exhaust of an uranium oxide grit blaster at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge Tennessee. The filters were installed in a specially designed filter housing with a reverse air-pulse cleaning system for automatically cleaning the filters in-place. Previous tests conducted on the same filters and housing at LLNL under controlled conditions using Arizona road dust showed good cleanability with reverse air pulses. Two high efficiency steel filters, containing 64 pleated cartridge elements housed in the standard 2` x 2` x 1` HEPA frame, were evaluated in the filter test housing using a 1,000 cfm slip stream containing a high concentration of depleted uranium oxide dust. One filter had the pleated cartridges manufactured to our specifications by the Pall Corporation and the other by Memtec Corporation. Test results showed both filters had a rapid increase in pressure drop with time, and reverse air pulses could not decrease the pressure drop. We suspected moisture accumulation in the filters was the problem since there were heavy rains during the evaluations, and the pressure drop of the Memtec filter decreased dramatically after passing clean, dry air through the filter and after the filter sat idle for one week. Subsequent laboratory tests on a single filter cartridge confirmed that water accumulation in the filter was responsible for the increase in filter pressure drop and the inability to lower the pressure drop by reverse air pulses. No effort was made to identify the source of the water accumulation and correct the problem because the available funds were exhausted.

  6. Strong tracking adaptive Kalman filters for underwater vehicle dead reckoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Kun; FANG Shao-ji; PANG Yong-jie

    2007-01-01

    To improve underwater vehicle dead reckoning, a developed strong tracking adaptive kalman filter is proposed. The filter is improved with an additional adaptive factor and an estimator of measurement noise covariance. Since the magnitude of fading factor is changed adaptively, the tracking ability of the filter is still enhanced in low velocity condition of underwater vehicles. The results of simulation tests prove the presented filter effective.

  7. Edge Preserved Speckle Noise Reduction Using Integrated Fuzzy Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biradar, Nagashettappa; Dewal, M L; Rohit, Manoj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Echocardiographic images are inherent with speckle noise which makes visual reading and analysis quite difficult. The multiplicative speckle noise masks finer details, necessary for diagnosis of abnormalities. A novel speckle reduction technique based on integration of geometric, wiener, and fuzzy filters is proposed and analyzed in this paper. The denoising applications of fuzzy filters are studied and analyzed along with 26 denoising techniques. It is observed that geometric filter retains noise and, to address this issue, wiener filter is embedded into the geometric filter during iteration process. The performance of geometric-wiener filter is further enhanced using fuzzy filters and the proposed despeckling techniques are called integrated fuzzy filters. Fuzzy filters based on moving average and median value are employed in the integrated fuzzy filters. The performances of integrated fuzzy filters are tested on echocardiographic images and synthetic images in terms of image quality metrics. It is observed that the performance parameters are highest in case of integrated fuzzy filters in comparison to fuzzy and geometric-fuzzy filters. The clinical validation reveals that the output images obtained using geometric-wiener, integrated fuzzy, nonlocal means, and details preserving anisotropic diffusion filters are acceptable. The necessary finer details are retained in the denoised echocardiographic images.

  8. Summary of Martian Dust Filtering Challenges and Current Filter Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, William J., IV

    2017-01-01

    Traditional air particulate filtering in manned spaceflight (Apollo, Shuttle, ISS, etc.) has used cleanable or replaceable catch filters such as screens and High-Efficiency Particulate Arrestance (HEPA) filters. However, the human mission to Mars architecture will require a new approach. It is Martian dust that is the particulate of concern but the need also applies to particulates generated by crew. The Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) high-lighted this concern in its Mars Science, Goals, Objectives, Investigations and Priorities document [7], by saying specifically that one high priority investigation will be to "Test ISRU atmospheric processing systems to measure resilience with respect to dust and other environmental challenge performance parameters that are critical to the design of a full-scale system." By stating this as high priority the MEPAG is acknowledging that developing and adequately verifying this capability is critical to success of a human mission to Mars. This architecture will require filtering capabilities that are highly reliable, will not restrict the flow path with clogging, and require little to no maintenance. This paper will summarize why this is the case, the general requirements for developing the technology, and the status of the progress made in this area.

  9. Concentric Split Flow Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A concentric split flow filter may be configured to remove odor and/or bacteria from pumped air used to collect urine and fecal waste products. For instance, filter may be designed to effectively fill the volume that was previously considered wasted surrounding the transport tube of a waste management system. The concentric split flow filter may be configured to split the air flow, with substantially half of the air flow to be treated traveling through a first bed of filter media and substantially the other half of the air flow to be treated traveling through the second bed of filter media. This split flow design reduces the air velocity by 50%. In this way, the pressure drop of filter may be reduced by as much as a factor of 4 as compare to the conventional design.

  10. Crux vena cava filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Erin H; Johnson, Eric D; Kopchok, George E; Fogarty, Thomas J; Arko, Frank R

    2009-09-01

    Inferior vena cava filters are widely accepted for pulmonary embolic prophylaxis in high-risk patients with contraindications to anticoagulation. While long-term complications have been associated with permanent filters, retrievable filters are now available and have resulted in the rapid expansion of this technology. Nonetheless, complications are still reported with optional filters. Furthermore, device tilting and thrombus load may prevent retrieval in up to 30% of patients, thereby eliminating the benefits of this technology. The Crux vena cava filter is a novel, self-centering, low-profile filter that is designed for ease of delivery, retrievability and improved efficacy while limiting fatigue-related device complications. This device has been proven safe and user-friendly in an ovine model and has recently been implanted in human subjects.

  11. CrowdFilter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Michael Lind; Wallace, Byron C.; Kraska, Tim

    for complex multi-criteria search problems through crowdsourcing. The CrowdFilter system is capable of supporting both criteria-level labels and n-gram rationales, capturing the human decision making process behind each filtering choice. Using the data provided through CrowdFilter we also introduce a novel......Multi-criteria filtering of mixed open/closed-world data is a time-consuming task, requiring significant manual effort when latent open-world attributes are present. In this work we introduce a novel open-world filtering framework CrowdFilter, enabling automatic UI generation and label elicitation...... multi-criteria active learning method; capable of incorporating labels and n-gram rationales per inclusion criteria, and thus capable of determining both clear includes/excludes, as well as complex borderline cases. By incorporating the active learning approach into the elicitation process of Crowd...

  12. Conservative Noise Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona M.Jamjoom

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Noisy training data have a huge negative impact on machine learning algorithms. Noise-filtering algorithms have been proposed to eliminate such noisy instances. In this work, we empirically show that the most popular noise-filtering algorithms have a large False Positive (FP error rate. In other words, these noise filters mistakenly identify genuine instances as outliers and eliminate them. Therefore, we propose more conservative outlier identification criteria that improve the FP error rate and, thus, the performance of the noise filters. With the new filter, an instance is eliminated if and only if it is misclassified by a mutual decision of Naïve Bayesian (NB classifier and the original filtering criteria being used. The number of genuine instances that are incorrectly eliminated is reduced as a result, thereby improving the classification accuracy.

  13. 基于改进卡尔曼滤波的汽车路试制动性能检测方法%Test method of vehicle braking performance based on improved Kalman filtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭; 宋翔; 张国胜; 于家河; 张为公

    2011-01-01

    In view the shortcomings of traditional test methods, a novel test method of vehicle braking performance based on improved Kalman filtering is proposed. The speed and azimuth outputted by single-frequency carrier phase single-point GPS receiver is selected as the observed information of Kalman filter. By improving Kalman filter recursion algorithm, the speed and plane coordinates of vehicle braking process are calculated with high frequency and high precision. Then, the vehicle braking distance and mean fully developed deceleration (MFDD) can be easily determined to judge vehicle braking performance. The real vehicle tests demonstrate that the measurement precision of braking distance of the proposed method can reach 0.2 m to 0.3 m, the speed precision is lower than 0.1 m/s, and the output frequency is up to 100 Hz. The proposed test method has such advantages as low cost, high output frequency, high precision and environmental adaptability, which overcomes the shortcomings of traditional methods.%针对传统汽车路试制动性能检测方法的不足,提出了一种基于改进卡尔曼滤波的汽车路试制动性能检测方法.根据卡尔曼滤波理论,以单频载波相位单点GPS接收机输出的速度和方位角作为观测量,通过改进的卡尔曼滤波递推算法高频率、高精度地推算出汽车制动过程的平面运动坐标和速度,进而确定汽车制动距离和平均减速度MFDD,以检测汽车的制动性能.实车试验表明,该方法的制动距离测量精度可达0.2~0.3 m,速度精度小于0.1 m/s,输出频率可达100 Hz,具有成本低、输出频率高、精度高、环境适应力强的优点,克服了传统方法的不足.

  14. 汽车空调过滤器全性能测试台设计制造与验证%Design Manufacture & Validation of Performance Testing Device for Automotive Air-conditioning Filters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴淼

    2012-01-01

    近年来我国汽车产销量世界第一,汽车车厢内的空气品质须引起重视,探讨汽车空调过滤器的性能特点、性能检测要求,介绍依据国际标准ISO/TS11155-1∶2001《道路车辆乘驾室用空气滤清器第一部分:粉尘过滤测试》要求而自行研制建立的国内首台汽车空调过滤器全性能测试装置,可以测试汽车空调过滤器在使用中各阶段的过滤效率、阻力、容尘量,通过分析和验证该全性能测试装置的准确度和测试误差达到了国际标准的要求,从而为汽车空调过滤器的性能和质量检验提供了十分必要的保证。%In recent years, the volume of automobiles'production and sales in China is the N0.1 around the world. Air quality in automobiles'cabin comes more important. The article discussed the performance chareteristic and test standard of automotive air-conditioning filters, and introduced the first testing device in China, which is own developed and set according to ISO/ TSl1155-1:2001 (Road vehicles-Air filters for passenger compartments-Part 1:Test for particulate filtration). The device can test the filtration efficiency, air resistance and dust capacity on each phase in running. Precision of the device reaches to the require of international standard by analysis and validation, which greatly ensures the performance and quality inspection of automotive air-conditioning filters.

  15. Tunable-Bandwidth Filter System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Tin; Yu, Kevin; Dimov, Fedor; Savant, Gajendra

    2006-01-01

    A tunable-bandwidth filter system (TBFS), now undergoing development, is intended to be part of a remote-sensing multispectral imaging system that will operate in the visible and near infrared spectral region (wavelengths from 400 to 900 nm). Attributes of the TBFS include rapid tunability of the pass band over a wide wavelength range and high transmission efficiency. The TBFS is based on a unique integration of two pairs of broadband Raman reflection holographic filters with two rotating spherical lenses. In experiments, a prototype of the TBFS was shown to be capable of spectral sampling of images in the visible range over a 200-nm spectral range with a spectral resolution of .30 nm. The figure depicts the optical layout of a prototype of the TBFS as part of a laboratory multispectral imaging system for the spectral sampling of color test images in two orthogonal polarizations. Each pair of broadband Raman reflection holographic filters is mounted at an equatorial plane between two halves of a spherical lens. The two filters in each pair are characterized by steep spectral slopes (equivalently, narrow spectral edges), no ripple or side lobes in their pass bands, and a few nanometers of non-overlapping wavelength range between their pass bands. Each spherical lens and thus the filter pair within it is rotated in order to rapidly tune its pass band. The rotations of the lenses are effected by electronically controlled, programmable, high-precision rotation stages. The rotations are coordinated by electronic circuits operating under overall supervision of a personal computer in order to obtain the desired variation of the overall pass bands with time. Embedding the filters inside the spherical lenses increases the range of the hologram incidence angles, making it possible to continuously tune the pass and stop bands of the filters over a wider wavelength range. In addition, each spherical lens also serves as part of the imaging optics: The telephoto lens focuses

  16. Nanoparticles filtration by leaked fibrous filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouret, Guillaume; Calle-Chazelet, Sandrine; Thomas, Dominique; Appert-Collin, Jean-Christophe [Nancy-Universite/LSGC/CNRS - 1 rue Grandville - BP 20451 - F-54001 Nancy Cedex (France)], E-mail: sandrine.calle@ensic.inpl-nancy.fr; Bemer, Denis [INRS - Avenue de Bourgogne - F-54501 Vandoeuvre les Nancy Cedex (France)

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this work is first to measured nanoparticles penetration through three different fiberglass filters intentionally-pierced with calibrated needles at different filtration velocity. Then a semi-empirical model based on the air flow resistances of the new and perforated filter media and on the mechanism of Brownian diffusion for the collection of ultrafine particles by the media enables to well predict the efficiency observed for all tested operating conditions. Results show that the increase of particles penetration is all the more important that the pinhole is large and that the particle diameter is low. Another result is that the filtration efficiency of the new filter media controlled the penetration. A high efficiency filter with a high resistance to air flow will be more damaged than a low efficiency filter when being perforated.

  17. Passive target tracking using marginalized particle filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A marginalized particle filtering(MPF)approach is proposed for target tracking under the background of passive measurement.Essentially,the MPF is a combination of particle filtering technique and Kalman filter.By making full use of marginalization,the distributions of the tractable linear part of the total state variables are updated analytically using Kalman filter,and only the lower-dimensional nonlinear state variable needs to be dealt with using particle filter.Simulation studies are performed on an illustrative example,and the results show that the MPF method leads to a significant reduction of the tracking errors when compared with the direct particle implementation.Real data test results also validate the effectiveness of the presented method.

  18. Pregnancy does not affect HIV incidence test results obtained using the BED capture enzyme immunoassay or an antibody avidity assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Laeyendecker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accurate incidence estimates are needed for surveillance of the HIV epidemic. HIV surveillance occurs at maternal-child health clinics, but it is not known if pregnancy affects HIV incidence testing. METHODS: We used the BED capture immunoassay (BED and an antibody avidity assay to test longitudinal samples from 51 HIV-infected Ugandan women infected with subtype A, C, D and intersubtype recombinant HIV who were enrolled in the HIVNET 012 trial (37 baseline samples collected near the time of delivery and 135 follow-up samples collected 3, 4 or 5 years later. Nineteen of 51 women were also pregnant at the time of one or more of the follow-up visits. The BED assay was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions. The avidity assay was performed using a Genetic Systems HIV-1/HIV-2 + O EIA using 0.1M diethylamine as the chaotropic agent. RESULTS: During the HIVNET 012 follow-up study, there was no difference in normalized optical density values (OD-n obtained with the BED assay or in the avidity test results (% when women were pregnant (n = 20 results compared to those obtained when women were not pregnant (n = 115; for BED: p = 0.9, generalized estimating equations model; for avidity: p = 0.7, Wilcoxon rank sum. In addition, BED and avidity results were almost exactly the same in longitudinal samples from the 18 women who were pregnant at only one study visit during the follow-up study (p = 0.6, paired t-test. CONCLUSIONS: These results from 51 Ugandan women suggest that any changes in the antibody response to HIV infection that occur during pregnancy are not sufficient to alter results obtained with the BED and avidity assays. Confirmation with larger studies and with other HIV subtypes is needed.

  19. Hybrid Filter Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  20. Does Gibrat’s law hold in the insurance industry of china? A test with sequential panel selection method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Guochen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study applies the Sequential Panel Selection Method to investigate whether the growth rate of total insurance premium is independent of their size, as postulated by Robert Gibrat’s (1931 Law of Proportionate Effects. Time-series data for the total insurance premium of 35 insurance companies in China during the December 2005 to May 2011 period are used. Since other panel-based unit root tests are joint tests of a unit root for all members of a panel and are incapable of determining the mix of I(0 and I(1 series in a panel setting, the SPSM, proposed by Georgios Chortareas and George Kapetanios (2009, classifies a whole panel into a group of stationary series and a group of non-stationary series. In doing so, we can clearly identify how many and which series in the panel are stationary processes. The empirical results from the SPSM tests unequivocally indicate that Gibrat’s Law is only valid for one of these 35 companies studied here. Our study has important policy implications for insurance regulation, insurance market construction, and policyholder protection.

  1. Tribology of improved transformation-toughened ceramics-heat engine test. Final report: DOE/ORNL Ceramic Technology Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilley, E.; Rossi, G.A.; Pelletier, P.J. [Norton Co., Northboro, MA (United States). Advanced Ceramics Div.

    1992-04-01

    A short term study has been carried out to evaluate the suitability as cam roller followers of three ceria zirconia toughened aluminas and two yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconias (YTZPs) previously enhanced in programs supported by ORNL. Norton Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} (NBD-100) was also included in this study as a reference material, because it was known from work at Northwestern University that Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} to experienced little or no wear in this application, and NBD-100 is currently a successful commercial bearing material. The tribological studies were subcontracted to the Torrington Company. They found that in cam roller follower simulated tests that there was essentially no wear after 1 hour and 5 hours of testing detectable by weighing and concluded that all of these ceramics are, therefore, candidate materials. Because of the minute amounts of wear it was not possible to identify the wear mechanism or to make any correlations with the other physical properties which were evaluated such as MOR, K{sub IC} hardness, density and grain size. Phase transformation during rolling has been of interest in the tribology of zirconia contain materials. The least stable of the ceria zirconia toughened aluminas resulted in as much as 33% monoclinic phase after testing whereas the yttria stabilized (TTZ) contained very little of this transformed phase. The results of this study show that oxide materials can now be considered as candidates for cam roller followers in heat engines.

  2. New cardiac MRI gating method using event-synchronous adaptive digital filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hodong; Park, Youngcheol; Cho, Sungpil; Jang, Bongryoel; Lee, Kyoungjoung

    2009-11-01

    When imaging the heart using MRI, an artefact-free electrocardiograph (ECG) signal is not only important for monitoring the patient's heart activity but also essential for cardiac gating to reduce noise in MR images induced by moving organs. The fundamental problem in conventional ECG is the distortion induced by electromagnetic interference. Here, we propose an adaptive algorithm for the suppression of MR gradient artefacts (MRGAs) in ECG leads of a cardiac MRI gating system. We have modeled MRGAs by assuming a source of strong pulses used for dephasing the MR signal. The modeled MRGAs are rectangular pulse-like signals. We used an event-synchronous adaptive digital filter whose reference signal is synchronous to the gradient peaks of MRI. The event detection processor for the event-synchronous adaptive digital filter was implemented using the phase space method-a sort of topology mapping method-and least-squares acceleration filter. For evaluating the efficiency of the proposed method, the filter was tested using simulation and actual data. The proposed method requires a simple experimental setup that does not require extra hardware connections to obtain the reference signals of adaptive digital filter. The proposed algorithm was more effective than the multichannel approach.

  3. Fracture behavior of advanced ceramic hot gas filters: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, J.P.; Majumdar, S.; Sutaria, M.; Bielke, W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents the results of mechanical/microstructural evaluation, thermal shock/fatigue testing, and stress analyses of advanced hot-gas filters obtained from different manufacturers. These filters were fabricated from both monolithic ceramics and composites. The composite filters, made of both oxide and nonoxide materials, were in both as-fabricated and exposed conditions, whereas the monolithic filters were made only of nonoxide materials. Mechanical property measurement of composite filters included diametral compression testing with O-ring specimens and burst-testing of short filter segments with rubber plugs. In-situ strength of fibers in the composite filters was evaluated by microscopic technique. Thermal shock/fatigue resistance was estimated by measuring the strengths of filter specimens before and after thermal cycling from an air environment at elevated temperatures to a room temperature oil bath. Filter performance during mechanical and thermal shock/fatigue loadings was correlated with microstructural observations. Micromechanical models were developed to derive properties of composite filter constituents on the basis of measured mechanical properties of the filters. Subsequently, these properties were used to analytically predict the performance of composite filters during thermal shock loading.

  4. Oriented Fiber Filter Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bharadwaj

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Coalescing filters are widely used throughout industry and improved performance will reduce droplet emissions and operating costs. Experimental observations show orientation of micro fibers in filter media effect the permeability and the separation efficiency of the filter media. In this work two methods are used to align the fibers to alter the filter structure. The results show that axially aligned fiber media improve quality factor on the order of 20% and cutting media on an angle from a thick layered media can improve performance by about 40%. The results also show the improved performance is not monotonically correlated to the average fiber angle of the medium.

  5. Fundamentals of Stochastic Filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Crisan, Dan

    2008-01-01

    The objective of stochastic filtering is to determine the best estimate for the state of a stochastic dynamical system from partial observations. The solution of this problem in the linear case is the well known Kalman-Bucy filter which has found widespread practical application. The purpose of this book is to provide a rigorous mathematical treatment of the non-linear stochastic filtering problem using modern methods. Particular emphasis is placed on the theoretical analysis of numerical methods for the solution of the filtering problem via particle methods. The book should provide sufficient

  6. Performance and Metabolic Demand of a New Repeated-Sprint Ability Test in Basketball Players: Does the Number of Changes of Direction Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagatto, Alessandro M; Ardigò, Luca P; Barbieri, Fabio A; Milioni, Fabio; Dello Iacono, Antonio; Camargo, Bruno H F; Padulo, Johnny

    2017-09-01

    Zagatto, AM, Ardigò, LP, Barbieri, FA, Milioni, F, Dello Iacono, A, Camargo, BHF, and Padulo, J. Performance and metabolic demand of a new repeated-sprint ability test in basketball players: does the number of changes of direction matter? J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2438-2446, 2017-This study compared 2 repeated-sprint ability (RSA) tests in basketball players. Both tests included 10 × 30-m sprints, with the difference that the previously validated test (RSA2COD) featured 2 changes of direction (COD) per sprint, whereas the experimental test (RSA5COD) featured 5 CODs per sprint. Test performances and metabolic demands were specifically assessed in 20 basketball players. First, RSA5COD test-retest reliability was investigated. Then, RSA2COD, RSA5COD sprint times, peak speeds, oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2) and posttest blood lactate concentration [La] were measured. The RSA5COD results showed to be reliable. RSA2COD performance resulted better than the RSA5COD version (p sprint times and higher peak speeds. Over sprints, the tests did not differ from each other in terms of V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (p > 0.05). Over whole bout, the RSA2COD was more demanding than the RSA5COD, considering overall metabolic power requirement (i.e., VO2-driven + [La]-driven components). Given that RSA5COD (a) mimics real game-play as sprint distance and action change frequency/direction and (b) has the same metabolic expenditure per task completion as metabolic cost, RSA5COD is a valuable option for players and coaches for training basketball-specific agility and assessing bioenergetic demands.

  7. Sweet Lake Geopressured-geothermal Project, Magma Gulf-Technadril/DOE Amoco Fee. Volume II. Surface installations reservoir testing. Annual report, February 28, 1981-February 10, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, K.S. (ed.)

    1984-01-01

    The Magma Gulf-Technadril/Department of Energy Amoco Fee No. 1 (production) and salt water disposal wells were drilled in the period from August, 1980 to February 1981. Surface facilities were designed and constructed during March-June 1981. Flow testing began in June 1981 and continued until February, 1982. The Miogypsinoides interval contains seven discrete sands in the test well. These sands have been numbered 1 to 7, beginning at the top of the sequence. Data from wireline logs and core samples suggested that the first zone to be perforated should be Sand 5. Because of its high porosity and permeability, Sand 5 was thought to contain almost 50% of the total hydraulic capacity of the well. Flow testing of Sand 5 was performed in three stages, each of which is fully described in this report. Phase I was designed as an initial clean-up flow and a reservoir confirmation test. Phase II consisted of the reservoir limit determination test and lasted 17 days. Boundaries were confirmed which suggest that the Sweet Lake reservoir is fairly narrow, with boundaries on three sides, but is open in one direction with no closure for at least 4-1/4 miles. These boundaries approximate the shape of the graben in which the test well was drilled, but may or may not be directly related to the major faults forming the graben. Phase III testing was planned to be a long-term test at commercial design rates. Although Sand 5 alone would not support such rates, long-term production was demonstrated. Additional research not supported by DOE funding was also performed during the period covered by this report. This research, consisting of mud logging, micropaleontology, organic geochemistry, core analysis, and rock mechanics, is summarized in this report.

  8. TESTING OF A FULL-SCALE ROTARY MICROFILTER FOR THE ENHANCED PROCESS FOR RADIONUCLIDES REMOVAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D; David Stefanko, D; Michael Poirier, M; Samuel Fink, S

    2009-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) researchers are investigating and developing a rotary microfilter for solid-liquid separation applications in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. One application involves use in the Enhanced Processes for Radionuclide Removal (EPRR) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). To assess this application, the authors performed rotary filter testing with a full-scale, 25-disk unit manufactured by SpinTek Filtration with 0.5 micron filter media manufactured by Pall Corporation. The filter includes proprietary enhancements by SRNL. The most recent enhancement is replacement of the filter's main shaft seal with a John Crane Type 28LD gas-cooled seal. The feed material was SRS Tank 8F simulated sludge blended with monosodium titanate (MST). Testing examined total insoluble solids concentrations of 0.06 wt % (126 hours of testing) and 5 wt % (82 hours of testing). The following are conclusions from this testing.

  9. Optimized multichannel decomposition for texture segmentation using Gabor filter bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezamoddini-Kachouie, Nezamoddin; Alirezaie, Javad

    2004-05-01

    Texture segmentation and analysis is an important aspect of pattern recognition and digital image processing. Previous approaches to texture analysis and segmentation perform multi-channel filtering by applying a set of filters to the image. In this paper we describe a texture segmentation algorithm based on multi-channel filtering that is optimized using diagonal high frequency residual. Gabor band pass filters with different radial spatial frequencies and different orientations have optimum resolution in time and frequency domain. The image is decomposed by a set of Gabor filters into a number of filtered images; each one contains variation of intensity on a sub-band frequency and orientation. The features extracted by Gabor filters have been applied for image segmentation and analysis. There are some important considerations about filter parameters and filter bank coverage in frequency domain. This filter bank does not completely cover the corners of the frequency domain along the diagonals. In our method we optimize the spatial implementation for the Gabor filter bank considering the diagonal high frequency residual. Segmentation is accomplished by a feedforward backpropagation multi-layer perceptron that is trained by optimized extracted features. After MLP is trained the input image is segmented and each pixel is assigned to the proper class.

  10. Novel spatially distributed porous Si optical bandpass filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokranova, N.; Levitsky, I.; Gracias, A.; Xu, B.; Castracane, J.

    2006-02-01

    To assist the growth of the telecommunication sector, new types of optical components such as those based on optical interference filter technology are critical. Existing technologies based on thin-film processing for production of optical communications filters have rapidly advanced. Although the Fabry-Perot bandpass filters made by deposition of alternate layers with high- and low- refractive index have a broad rejection band and a narrow passband, this technique does not allow for the control of filter parameters such as specification and adjustment of the transmitted wavelength at any place across the surface of the filter. The new approach discussed in the paper is directed toward the anodization of silicon to fabricate not only multilayer optical filters with a uniform passband across the field of view but also specially designed passbands at any single point in the field of view of the optical system. In particular, the realization and characterization of spatially distributed filters made of porous silicon are presented. These filters are able to select various passbands in the visible and IR regions. The filters were fabricated on p + and p - type doped substrates. By varying the electrode configuration on the backside of wafer and the applied potential during electrochemical etching, the desired spatially distributed filter can be formed. The impact of wafer resistivity on filter parameters is discussed.

  11. Wideband Lithium Niobate FBAR Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Baron

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Filters based on film bulk acoustic resonators (FBARs are widely used for mobile phone applications, but they can also address wideband aerospace requirements. These devices need high electromechanical coupling coefficients to achieve large band pass filters. The piezoelectric material LiNbO3 complies with such specifications and is compatible with standard fabrication processes. In this work, simple metal—LiNbO3—metal structures have been developed to fabricate single FBAR elements directly connected to each other on a single chip. A fabrication process based on LiNbO3/silicon Au-Au bonding and LiNbO3 lapping/polishing has been developed and is proposed in this paper. Electrical measurements of these FBAR filters are proposed and commented exhibiting filters with 8% of fractional bandwidth and 3.3 dB of insertion losses. Electrical measurements show possibilities to obtain 14% of fractional bandwidth. These devices have been packaged, allowing for power handling, thermal, and ferroelectric tests, corresponding to spatial conditions.

  12. Static Filtered Sky Color Constancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alkhalifah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In Computer Vision, the sky color is used for lighting correction, image color enhancement, horizon alignment, image indexing, and outdoor image classification and in many other applications. In this article, for robust color based sky segmentation and detection, usage of lighting correction for sky color detection is investigated. As such, the impact of color constancy on sky color detection algorithms is evaluated and investigated. The color correction (constancy algorithms used includes Gray-Edge (GE, Gray-World (GW, Max-RGB (MRGB and Shades-of-Gray (SG. The algorithms GE, GW, MRGB, and SG, are tested on the static filtered sky modeling. The static filter is developed in the LAB color space. This evaluation and analysis is essential for detection scenarios, especially, color based object detection in outdoor scenes. From the results, it is concluded that the color constancy before sky color detection using LAB static filters has the potential of improving sky color detection performance. However, the application of the color constancy can impart adverse effects on the detection results. For images, the color constancy algorithms depict a compact and stable representative of the sky chroma loci, however, the sky color locus might have a shifting and deviation in a particular color representation. Since the sky static filters are using the static chromatic values, different results can be obtained by applying color constancy algorithms on various datasets.

  13. The Application of DOP (PAO) Leak Test for Heat Filter in Clean Room%高效过滤器DOP(PAO)检漏法在洁净室中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁勇杰; 张勇

    2012-01-01

    This paper baseds on No.5.6.1-No.5.6.13 rules of The Code for Consturction and Acceptance of Cleanroom and the appendix D. And it introduces the leak thory ,leak test, judgments of the rusltes of the heat filter DOP( PAO )of clean room.Meanwhile,it also dissuces the differences of filter and standard of DOP(PAO).%根据GB50591—2010洁净室施工及验收规范中5.6.1-5.6.13及附录D的要求,介绍洁净室中的高效过滤器DOP(PAO)检漏的原理、检测方法、结果判断及处理、检漏周期等内容,并对DOP(PAO)检漏及其标准间的差别的有关问题进行了探讨。

  14. Orthostatic symptoms does not always manifest during tilt-table test in pediatric postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Eon Huh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available &lt;b&gt;Purpose:&lt;/b&gt; Chronic day-to-day symptoms of orthostatic intolerance are the most notable features of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS. However, we have encountered patients with such symptoms and excessive tachycardia but with no symptoms during the tilt-table test (TTT. We aimed to investigate whether POTS patients with chronic orthostatic intolerance always present orthostatic symptoms during the TTT and analyze the factors underlying symptom manifestation during this test. &lt;b&gt;Methods:&lt;/b&gt; We retrospectively examined patients who presented with POTS at the Gyeongsang Na tional University Hospital between 2008 and 2011. Diagnosis of POTS was based on chronic day-to-day orthostatic intolerance symptoms as well as excessive tachycardia during the TTT. The patients were divided two groups depending on the presentation of orthostatic symptoms during the TTT. Clinical data and the results of the TTT were compared between these groups. &lt;b&gt;Results:&lt;/b&gt; In 22 patients, 7 patients (31.8% did not present orthostatic symptoms during the test. Diastolic blood pressure (BP was significantly lower in the symptom-positive group. The head-up tilt resulted in a significant increase in diastolic BP in the symptom-negative group (&lt;i&gt;P&lt;/i&gt; =0.04, while systolic BP had a tendency to decrease in the symptom-positive group (&lt;i&gt;P&lt;/i&gt; =0.06. &lt;b&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/b&gt; Significant patients with POTS did not present orthostatic symptoms during the TTT despite having chronic daily symptoms. This finding may be important for establishing definitive diagnostic criteria for pediatric POTS. Development of symptoms during TTT might be related to low diastolic BP and abnormal compensatory responses to orthostasis.

  15. 天然气净化用过滤元件性能测定与分析%Performance Test of Filter Cartridge for Natural Gas Purification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖连; 古自强; 常程; 邵春明; 姬忠礼

    2015-01-01

    In the long-distance transmission process of natural gas, the reliable operation of the compressor u-nits and pipelines is seriously affected by dusts and droplets entrained in natural gas. The performance of dry seal gas filter cartridges used in centrifugal compressors is investigated. The results show that gas-liquid filtration per-formance, gas-solid filtration performance, impact resistance performance and collapse performance can be effec-tively evaluated by the established measurement methods. Significant difference in the evolution of pressure drop can be observed in different filtration process. Pressure drop increases until it remains constant at the steady stage in the gas-liquid filtration process. However, pressure drop remains increasing through the gas-solid filtration process. There is no corresponding relation between gas-liquid filtration efficiency and gas-solid filtration efficien-cy. When droplets are entrained in natural gas at practical condition, gas-liquid filtration efficiency is preferable for being the evaluation index of filtration performance. When the fluctuation of pressure is less than 0. 5 MPa, the per-formance of the filter cartridges will not be affected by short period airflow impact.%在天然气长距离管道输送过程中, 天然气夹带的固态及液态杂质严重影响压缩机组及管道的可靠运行. 为此, 利用天然气净化用过滤元件性能检测装置对离心压缩机干气密封过滤器滤芯的性能进行了检测. 检测结果表明, 所建立的检测方法可有效评价过滤元件的气液过滤性能、气固过滤性能、 耐冲击性能和压溃特性; 滤芯压降变化情况在不同过滤过程中存在明显差别, 气液过滤中滤芯压降逐渐升高, 最终在稳态阶段保持稳定, 而在气固过滤中, 滤芯压降始终呈增长趋势; 滤芯气液过滤效率与气固过滤效率之间无对应关系, 现场工况下, 天然气内含有液态杂质时, 宜选用气液过

  16. A test of cognitive mediation in a 12-month physical activity workplace intervention: does it explain behaviour change in women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickering Michael A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attempts to demonstrate the efficacy of interventions aimed at increasing physical activity (PA have been mixed. Further, studies are seldom designed in a manner that facilitates the understanding of how or why a treatment is effective or ineffective and PA intervention designs should be guided by a heavier reliance upon behavioral theory. The use of a mediating variable framework offers a systematic methodological approach to testing the role of theory, and could also identify the effectiveness of specific intervention components. The primary purpose of this paper was to test the mediating role that cognitive constructs may have played in regards to the positive effect that a workplace behavioral intervention had on leisure-time PA for women. A subsidiary purpose was to examine the cross-sectional relationships of these cognitive constructs with PA behavior. Methods The Physical Activity Workplace Study was a randomized controlled trial which compared the effects of stage-matched and standard print materials upon self-reported leisure-time PA, within a workplace sample at 6 and 12-months. In this secondary analysis we examined the mediation effects of 14 psychosocial constructs across 3 major social-cognitive theories which were operationalized for the intervention materials and measured at baseline, 6 and 12-months. We examined change in PA and change in the psychological constructs employing a mediation strategy proposed by Baron and Kenny for: (1 the first 6-months (i.e., initial change, (2 the second 6-months (i.e., delayed change, and (3 the entire 12-months (overall change of the study on 323 women (n = 213 control/standard materials group; n = 110 stage-matched materials group. Results Of the 14 constructs and 42 tests (including initial, delayed and overall change two positive results were identified (i.e., overall change in pros, initial change in experiential powerful intervention approaches processes, with very

  17. Adaptively robust filtering with classified adaptive factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Xianqiang; YANG Yuanxi

    2006-01-01

    The key problems in applying the adaptively robust filtering to navigation are to establish an equivalent weight matrix for the measurements and a suitable adaptive factor for balancing the contributions of the measurements and the predicted state information to the state parameter estimates. In this paper, an adaptively robust filtering with classified adaptive factors was proposed, based on the principles of the adaptively robust filtering and bi-factor robust estimation for correlated observations. According to the constant velocity model of Kalman filtering, the state parameter vector was divided into two groups, namely position and velocity. The estimator of the adaptively robust filtering with classified adaptive factors was derived, and the calculation expressions of the classified adaptive factors were presented. Test results show that the adaptively robust filtering with classified adaptive factors is not only robust in controlling the measurement outliers and the kinematic state disturbing but also reasonable in balancing the contributions of the predicted position and velocity, respectively, and its filtering accuracy is superior to the adaptively robust filter with single adaptive factor based on the discrepancy of the predicted position or the predicted velocity.

  18. Ultrasound speckle reduction using modified Gabor filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Ricardo G; Costa, Eduardo T

    2007-03-01

    B-mode ultrasound images are characterized by speckle artifact, which may make the interpretation of images difficult. One widely used method for ultrasound speckle reduction is the split spectrum processing (SSP), but the use of one-dimensional (1-D), narrow-band filters makes the resultant image experience a significant resolution loss. In order to overcome this critical drawback, we propose a novel method for speckle reduction in ultrasound medical imaging, which uses a bank of wideband 2-D directive filters, based on modified Gabor functions. Each filter is applied to the 2-D radio-frequency (RF) data, resulting in a B-mode image filtered in a given direction. The compounding of the filters outputs give rise to a final image in which speckle is reduced and the structure is enhanced. We have denoted this method as directive filtering (DF). Because the proposed filters have effectively the same bandwidth as the original image, it is possible to avoid the resolution loss caused by the use of narrow-band filters, as with SSP. The tests were carried out with both simulated and real clinical data. Using the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to quantify the amount of speckle of the ultrasound images, we have achieved an average SNR enhancement of 2.26 times with simulated data and 1.18 times with real clinical data.

  19. UV Fluorescence Photography of Works of Art : Replacing the Traditional UV Cut Filters with Interference Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís BRAVO PEREIRA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available For many years filters like the Kodak Wratten E series, or the equivalent Schneider B+W 415, were used as standard UV cut filters, necessary to obtain good quality on UV Fluorescence photography. The only problem with the use of these filters is that, when they receive the UV radiation that they should remove, they present themselves an internal fluorescence as side effect, that usually reduce contrast and quality on the final image. This article presents the results of our experiences on using some innovative filters, that appeared available on the market in recent years, projected to adsorb UV radiation even more efficiently than with the mentioned above pigment based standard filters: the interference filters for UV rejection (and, usually, for IR rejection too manufactured using interference layers, that present better results than the pigment based filters. The only problem with interference filters type is that they are sensitive to the rays direction and, because of that, they are not adequate to wide-angle lenses. The internal fluorescence for three filters: the B+W 415 UV cut (equivalent to the Kodak Wratten 2E, pigment based, the B+W 486 UV IR cut (an interference type filter, used frequently on digital cameras to remove IR or UV and the Baader UVIR rejection filter (two versions of this interference filter were used had been tested and compared. The final quality of the UV fluorescence images seems to be of a superior quality when compared to the images obtained with classic filters.

  20. Does a Video Improve Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and HIV Testing among a Global Internet Audience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Winnie; Guan, Wentao; Clark, Melissa A; Liu, Tao; Santelices, Claudia; Cortes, Dharma E; Merchant, Roland C

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if a video improved HIV/AIDS and HIV testing knowledge among a global sample of Internet users, to discern if this improvement was the same for English and Spanish speakers, and to ascertain if the video was efficacious for those with lower health literacy. A worldwide sample of English- or Spanish-speaking Internet users was solicited. Participants completed a 25-item questionnaire to assess their HIV/AIDS and HIV testing knowledge before and after watching the video. Mean scores on the questionnaire improved after watching the video for both English speakers (after: 19.6 versus before: 16.4; Δ = 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.8-3.5) and Spanish speakers (20.7 versus 17.3; Δ = 3.4; 95% CI: 3.0-3.8). There was no difference in improvement of scores between English and Spanish speakers (Δ = -0.24; 95% CI: -0.79 to 0.31), and this video was equally efficacious for those with lower and higher health literacy skills. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Filter holder and gasket assembly for candle or tube filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, Thomas Edwin; Alvin, Mary Anne; Bruck, Gerald Joseph; Smeltzer, Eugene E.

    1999-03-02

    A filter holder and gasket assembly for holding a candle filter element within a hot gas cleanup system pressure vessel. The filter holder and gasket assembly includes a filter housing, an annular spacer ring securely attached within the filter housing, a gasket sock, a top gasket, a middle gasket and a cast nut.

  2. Creation of the permanent inferior vena cava filter for prevention of pulmonary artery embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yа.O. Povar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to create a new permanent cava filter to improve functional capacities of the construction and achieve high clinical parameters. A new geometry of the permanent inferior vena cava filter was presented which has high blood clot-capturing ability, does not cause thrombus fragmentation, makes migration impossible. The inferior vena cava filter does not injure the vessel wall and preserves integrity under long-term use. The inferior vena cava filter installation is safe and controllable, the filter self-positioning and reposition are possible, the delivery system size is 6F, the blood flow changing is minimal.

  3. Does bisphenol A induce superfeminization in Marisa cornuarietis? Part II: toxicity test results and requirements for statistical power analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Valery E; Aufderheide, John; Warbritton, Ryan; van der Hoeven, Nelly; Caspers, Norbert

    2007-03-01

    This study presents results of the effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on adult egg production, egg hatchability, egg development rates and juvenile growth rates in the freshwater gastropod, Marisa cornuarietis. We observed no adult mortality, substantial inter-snail variability in reproductive output, and no effects of BPA on reproduction during 12 weeks of exposure to 0, 0.1, 1.0, 16, 160 or 640 microg/L BPA. We observed no effects of BPA on egg hatchability or timing of egg hatching. Juveniles showed good growth in the control and all treatments, and there were no significant effects of BPA on this endpoint. Our results do not support previous claims of enhanced reproduction in Marisa cornuarietis in response to exposure to BPA. Statistical power analysis indicated high levels of inter-snail variability in the measured endpoints and highlighted the need for sufficient replication when testing treatment effects on reproduction in M. cornuarietis with adequate power.

  4. Depth filters containing diatomite achieve more efficient particle retention than filters solely containing cellulose fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Felix Buyel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The clarification of biological feed stocks during the production of biopharmaceutical proteins is challenging when large quantities of particles must be removed, e.g. when processing crude plant extracts. Single-use depth filters are often preferred for clarification because they are simple to integrate and have a good safety profile. However, the combination of filter layers must be optimized in terms of nominal retention ratings to account for the unique particle size distribution in each feed stock. We have recently shown that predictive models can facilitate filter screening and the selection of appropriate filter layers. Here we expand our previous study by testing several filters with different retention ratings. The filters typically contain diatomite to facilitate the removal of fine particles. However, diatomite can interfere with the recovery of large biopharmaceutical molecules such as virus-like particles and aggregated proteins. Therefore, we also tested filtration devices composed solely of cellulose fibers and cohesive resin. The capacities of both filter types varied from 10 to 50 L m-2 when challenged with tobacco leaf extracts, but the filtrate turbidity was ~500-fold lower (~3.5 NTU when diatomite filters were used. We also tested pre coat filtration with dispersed diatomite, which achieved capacities of up to 120 L m-2 with turbidities of ~100 NTU using bulk plant extracts, and in contrast to the other depth filters did not require an upstream bag filter. Single pre-coat filtration devices can thus replace combinations of bag and depth filters to simplify the processing of plant extracts, potentially saving on time, labor and consumables. The protein concentrations of TSP, DsRed and antibody 2G12 were not affected by pre-coat filtration, indicating its general applicability during the manufacture of plant-derived biopharmaceutical proteins.

  5. Depth Filters Containing Diatomite Achieve More Efficient Particle Retention than Filters Solely Containing Cellulose Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyel, Johannes F; Gruchow, Hannah M; Fischer, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    The clarification of biological feed stocks during the production of biopharmaceutical proteins is challenging when large quantities of particles must be removed, e.g., when processing crude plant extracts. Single-use depth filters are often preferred for clarification because they are simple to integrate and have a good safety profile. However, the combination of filter layers must be optimized in terms of nominal retention ratings to account for the unique particle size distribution in each feed stock. We have recently shown that predictive models can facilitate filter screening and the selection of appropriate filter layers. Here we expand our previous study by testing several filters with different retention ratings. The filters typically contain diatomite to facilitate the removal of fine particles. However, diatomite can interfere with the recovery of large biopharmaceutical molecules such as virus-like particles and aggregated proteins. Therefore, we also tested filtration devices composed solely of cellulose fibers and cohesive resin. The capacities of both filter types varied from 10 to 50 L m(-2) when challenged with tobacco leaf extracts, but the filtrate turbidity was ~500-fold lower (~3.5 NTU) when diatomite filters were used. We also tested pre-coat filtration with dispersed diatomite, which achieved capacities of up to 120 L m(-2) with turbidities of ~100 NTU using bulk plant extracts, and in contrast to the other depth filters did not require an upstream bag filter. Single pre-coat filtration devices can thus replace combinations of bag and depth filters to simplify the processing of plant extracts, potentially saving on time, labor and consumables. The protein concentrations of TSP, DsRed and antibody 2G12 were not affected by pre-coat filtration, indicating its general applicability during the manufacture of plant-derived biopharmaceutical proteins.

  6. Dedusting and filtering technology; Entstaubungs- und Filtertechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selck, S.; Stockmann, H.W.; Both, R. [Deutsche Montan Technologie GmbH, Essen (Germany). Gas and Fire Div.

    2004-07-01

    For the further development of the filtration and dedusting technology within the last research period the new regulations in occupational hygiene concerning dust as well as ISO and EN standards have been considered. Also the new requirements concerning fire and explosion protection filter materials based in the test regulations for synthetic materials have been taken into account. The adoption of these new regulations inhibits the further use of the available high effective filter materials in underground coal mines. The development of new filter materials has been forced by the test regulations for synthetic materials, as the specific aspects of electrostatic behaviour, soot and toxic gases formed by burning of filter materials impacting the CO self rescue filters, have been taken into account. Even these requirements are partially inhibiting high filter efficiencies and air flows, all the requirements have been fulfilled on a high level on filter efficiencies matching the present state of art in occupational hygiene as reported in the Silicosis Reports Vol. 20 and 21. (orig.)

  7. Fast Anisotropic Gauss Filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geusebroek, J.M.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; van de Weijer, J.; Heyden, A.; Sparr, G.; Nielsen, M.; Johansen, P.

    2002-01-01

    We derive the decomposition of the anisotropic Gaussian in a one dimensional Gauss filter in the x-direction followed by a one dimensional filter in a non-orthogonal direction phi. So also the anisotropic Gaussian can be decomposed by dimension. This appears to be extremely efficient from a computin

  8. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filter

    KAUST Repository

    Chernov, Alexey

    2016-01-06

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). In terms of computational cost vs. approximation error the asymptotic performance of the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) is superior to the EnKF s.

  9. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wells, George; Beaton, Dorcas E; Tugwell, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    The "Discrimination" part of the OMERACT Filter asks whether a measure discriminates between situations that are of interest. "Feasibility" in the OMERACT Filter encompasses the practical considerations of using an instrument, including its ease of use, time to complete, monetary costs, and inter...

  10. Evaluation of properties for lubricant filter in diesel engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵新泽; 程天; 张彩香

    2004-01-01

    The properties of lubricant filters in diesel engines directly affect operation of the lubricant system,and lubricant filters are apt to be impacted by many factors. Therefore, scientific and sensible methods evaluating the properties for lubricant filter diesel engines are necessary to monitor filter properties on line and dynamically. This paper applies ferrographic techniques and adopts sampling methods that oil specimens are synchronously obtained in front of and behind filter elements to monitor the filters of ISUZU DA - 220 diesel engine in two FDS0 forklifts. Results show that the combination of ferrographic techniques and above sampling methods is effective in analyzing the whole operating process of filters used in diesel engines. The service life and ruined type of filter can be estimated through the relationship between ferrographic readings in front and behind of filter and operation time. Furthermore, through a great deal of tests, a series of experimental curves of readings and time and characteristic parameters for filters used in different machines can be gained, which has guiding significance to the selection and maintenance of the filters. But because of the limitation of the ferrographic technique, the debris on the substrate prevents determination of sizes. It is difficult to judge accurately the size of debris that a filter can filter.

  11. Vena cava filter; Vena-cava-Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmberger, T. [Klinikum Bogenhausen, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Muenchen (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    Fulminant pulmonary embolism is one of the major causes of death in the Western World. In most cases, deep leg and pelvic venous thrombosis are the cause. If an anticoagulant/thrombotic therapy is no longer possible or ineffective, a vena cava filter implant may be indicated if an embolism is threatening. Implantation of the filter is a simple and safe intervention. Nevertheless, it is necessary to take into consideration that the data base for determining the indications for this treatment are very limited. Currently, a reduction in the risk of thromboembolism with the use of filters of about 30%, of recurrences of almost 5% and fatal pulmonary embolism of 1% has been reported, with a risk of up to 20% of filter induced vena cava thrombosis. (orig.) [German] Die fulminante Lungenembolie zaehlt zu den Haupttodesursachen in der westlichen Welt. In der Mehrzahl der Faelle sind tiefe Bein- und Beckenvenenthrombosen ursaechlich verantwortlich. Ist eine antikoagulative/-thrombotische Therapie nicht (mehr) moeglich oder unwirksam, kann bei drohender Emboliegefahr die Vena-cava-Filterimplantation indiziert sein. Die Filterimplantation ist eine einfache und sehr sichere Intervention. Dennoch muss bei der Indikationsstellung beruecksichtigt werden, dass die Datenlage zur Wirksamkeit sehr limitiert ist. So wird aktuell ueber eine Reduktion des Thrombembolierisikos um 30% bei Embolierezidiven von knapp 5% und fatalen Lungenembolien von 1% unter Filterprophylaxe berichtet, bei einem Risiko von bis zu 20% fuer die filterinduzierte Vena-cava-Thrombose. (orig.)

  12. Noncausal spatial prediction filtering based on an ARMA model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhipeng; Chen Xiaohong; Li Jingye

    2009-01-01

    Conventional f-x prediction filtering methods are based on an autoregressive model. The error section is first computed as a source noise but is removed as additive noise to obtain the signal, which results in an assumption inconsistency before and after filtering. In this paper, an autoregressive, moving-average model is employed to avoid the model inconsistency. Based on the ARMA model, a noncasual prediction filter is computed and a self-deconvolved projection filter is used for estimating additive noise in order to suppress random noise. The 1-D ARMA model is also extended to the 2-D spatial domain, which is the basis for noncasual spatial prediction filtering for random noise attenuation on 3-D seismic data. Synthetic and field data processing indicate this method can suppress random noise more effectively and preserve the signal simultaneously and does much better than other conventional prediction filtering methods.

  13. Characterization of a Regenerable Impactor Filter for Spacecraft Cabin Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.

    2015-01-01

    Regenerable filters will play an important role in human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit. Life Support Systems aboard crewed spacecrafts will have to operate reliably and with little maintenance over periods of more than a year, even multiple years. Air filters are a key component of spacecraft life support systems, but they often require frequent routine maintenance. Bacterial filters aboard the International Space Station require almost weekly cleaning of the pre-filter screen to remove large lint debris captured in the microgravity environment. The source of the airborne matter which is collected on the filter screen is typically from clothing fibers, biological matter (hair, skin, nails, etc.) and material wear. Clearly a need for low maintenance filters requiring little to no crew intervention will be vital to the success of the mission. An impactor filter is being developed and tested to address this need. This filter captures large particle matter through inertial separation and impaction methods on collection surfaces, which can be automatically cleaned after they become heavily loaded. The impactor filter can serve as a pre-filter to augment the life of higher efficiency filters that capture fine and ultrafine particles. A prototype of the filter is being tested at the Particulate Filtration Laboratory at NASA Glenn Research Center to determine performance characteristics, including particle cut size and overall efficiency. Model results are presented for the flow characteristics near the orifice plate through which the particle-laden flow is accelerated as well as around the collection bands.

  14. Weighted guided image filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengguo; Zheng, Jinghong; Zhu, Zijian; Yao, Wei; Wu, Shiqian

    2015-01-01

    It is known that local filtering-based edge preserving smoothing techniques suffer from halo artifacts. In this paper, a weighted guided image filter (WGIF) is introduced by incorporating an edge-aware weighting into an existing guided image filter (GIF) to address the problem. The WGIF inherits advantages of both global and local smoothing filters in the sense that: 1) the complexity of the WGIF is O(N) for an image with N pixels, which is same as the GIF and 2) the WGIF can avoid halo artifacts like the existing global smoothing filters. The WGIF is applied for single image detail enhancement, single image haze removal, and fusion of differently exposed images. Experimental results show that the resultant algorithms produce images with better visual quality and at the same time halo artifacts can be reduced/avoided from appearing in the final images with negligible increment on running times.

  15. Robustifying Vector Median Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentín Gregori

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes two methods for impulse noise reduction in colour images that outperform the vector median filter from the noise reduction capability point of view. Both methods work by determining first the vector median in a given filtering window. Then, the use of complimentary information from componentwise analysis allows to build robust outputs from more reliable components. The correlation among the colour channels is taken into account in the processing and, as a result, a more robust filter able to process colour images without introducing colour artifacts is obtained. Experimental results show that the images filtered with the proposed method contain less noisy pixels than those obtained through the vector median filter. Objective measures demonstrate the goodness of the achieved improvement.

  16. Filter cake breaker systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcelo H.F. [Poland Quimica Ltda., Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Drilling fluids filter cakes are based on a combination of properly graded dispersed particles and polysaccharide polymers. High efficiency filter cakes are formed by these combination , and their formation on wellbore walls during the drilling process has, among other roles, the task of protecting the formation from instantaneous or accumulative invasion of drilling fluid filtrate, granting stability to well and production zones. Filter cake minimizes contact between drilling fluid filtrate and water, hydrocarbons and clay existent in formations. The uniform removal of the filter cake from the entire interval is a critical factor of the completion process. The main methods used to breaking filter cake are classified into two groups, external or internal, according to their removal mechanism. The aim of this work is the presentation of these mechanisms as well their efficiency. (author)

  17. Adaptive Filtering Using Recurrent Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlos, Alexander G.; Menon, Sunil K.; Atiya, Amir F.

    2005-01-01

    A method for adaptive (or, optionally, nonadaptive) filtering has been developed for estimating the states of complex process systems (e.g., chemical plants, factories, or manufacturing processes at some level of abstraction) from time series of measurements of system inputs and outputs. The method is based partly on the fundamental principles of the Kalman filter and partly on the use of recurrent neural networks. The standard Kalman filter involves an assumption of linearity of the mathematical model used to describe a process system. The extended Kalman filter accommodates a nonlinear process model but still requires linearization about the state estimate. Both the standard and extended Kalman filters involve the often unrealistic assumption that process and measurement noise are zero-mean, Gaussian, and white. In contrast, the present method does not involve any assumptions of linearity of process models or of the nature of process noise; on the contrary, few (if any) assumptions are made about process models, noise models, or the parameters of such models. In this regard, the method can be characterized as one of nonlinear, nonparametric filtering. The method exploits the unique ability of neural networks to approximate nonlinear functions. In a given case, the process model is limited mainly by limitations of the approximation ability of the neural networks chosen for that case. Moreover, despite the lack of assumptions regarding process noise, the method yields minimum- variance filters. In that they do not require statistical models of noise, the neural- network-based state filters of this method are comparable to conventional nonlinear least-squares estimators.

  18. Does Standing on a Cycle-ergometer, Towards the Conclusion of a Graded Exercise Test, Yield Cardiorespiratory Values Equivalent to Treadmill Testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Joshua; Kist, William B; Mears, Kendall; Nalls, Jesse; Ritter, Kyle

    Graded exercise testing (GXT), per a cycle-ergometer (CE), offers safety and monitoring advantages over treadmill (TM) GXT. Unfortunately, CE-VO2max and some other cardiorespiratory (CR) variables are frequently lower than TM-GXT values. It has been difficult to compare TM and CE-GXT values. However, it was hypothesized that standing towards the conclusion of the CE-GXT (Stand-CE) might increase CE values to those equal to TM-GXT. If Stand-CE and TM-GXT CR values were equal, Stand-CE-GXT could become the method of choice for GXT for the general population. The purpose of this investigation was to investigate the effect of Stand-CE on CR variables. An intentionally diverse sample (N = 34, 24 males and 10 females, aged 18-54 y, with VO2max values 25-76 ml/kg/min) representing the "apparently healthy" general population participated. Volunteers completed two GXT trials, one per TM (Bruce protocol) and the other per a MET-TM-matched CE-GXT where initially seated participants stood and pedaled after their respiratory exchange ratio (RER) reached 1.0. Eighteen participants underwent a third MET-TM-matched trial where they remained seated throughout GXT (Sit-CE). Trials were counter-balanced with at least 48 h between GXT. There were significant statistical differences (p test (N = 34) on the following variables: VEmax (TM = 115 ± 24.4 l/min, Stand-CE = 99.4 ± 28.1), VCO2max (TM = 4.26 ± 0.9 l/min, Stand-CE = 3.56 ± 0.84), VO2max (TM = 44.9 ± 9.1 ml/kg/min, Stand-CE = 39.3 ± 9.0), METSmax (TM = 12.8 ± 2.6 METS, Stand-CE = 11.2 ± 2.5), and HRmax (TM = 175 ± 13 bpm, Stand-CE = 166 ± 12). One-way repeated measures ANOVA (N = 18) demonstrated no statistical differences among all trials: VEmax (TM = 112.8 ± 25.3 l/min, Stand-CE = 102.3 ± 25.2, Sit-CE = 107.3 ± 33.1), VCO2max (TM = 4.17 ± 0.99 l/min, Stand-CE = 3.62 ± 0.80, Sit-CE = 3.55 ± 0.83), VO2max (TM = 47.1 ± 9.8 ml/kg/min, Stand-CE = 42.0 ± 9.0, Sit-CE = 43.3 ± 8.9), METSmax (TM = 13.5 ± 2.8 METS

  19. Naive Bayesian for Email Filtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a method of email filter based on Naive Bayesian theory that can effectively filter junk mail and illegal mail. Furthermore, the keys of implementation are discussed in detail. The filtering model is obtained from training set of email. The filtering can be done without the users specification of filtering rules.

  20. Does active ageing contribute to life satisfaction for older people? Testing a new model of active ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsillas, Sara; De Donder, Liesbeth; Kardol, Tinie; van Regenmortel, Sofie; Dury, Sarah; Brosens, Dorien; Smetcoren, An-Sofie; Braña, Teresa; Varela, Jesús

    2017-09-01

    Several debates have emerged across the literature about the conceptualisation of active ageing. The aim of this study is to develop a model of the construct that is focused on the individual, including different elements of people's lives that have the potential to be modified by intervention programs. Moreover, the paper examines the contributions of active ageing to life satisfaction, as well as the possible predictive role of coping styles on active ageing. For this purpose, a representative sample of 404 Galician (Spain) community-dwelling older adults (aged ≥60 years) were interviewed using a structured survey. The results demonstrate that the proposed model composed of two broad categories is valid. The model comprises status variables (related to physical, psychological, and social health) as well as different types of activities, called processual variables. This model is tested using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The findings show that active ageing is a fourth-order, formative construct. In addition, PLS analyses indicate that active ageing has a moderate and positive path on life satisfaction and that coping styles may predict active ageing. The discussion highlights the potential of active ageing as a relevant concept for people's lives, drawing out policy implications and suggestions for further research.